Persistent homology and string vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirafici, Michele
2016-03-01
We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze {N}=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.
Classification of flipped SU(5) heterotic-string vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraggi, Alon E.; Rizos, John; Sonmez, Hasan
2014-09-01
We extend the classification of free fermionic heterotic-string vacua to models in which the SO(10) GUT symmetry is reduced at the string level to the flipped SU(5) subgroup. In our classification method the set of boundary condition basis vectors is fixed and the enumeration of string vacua is obtained in terms of the Generalised GSO (GGSO) projection coefficients entering the one-loop partition function. We derive algebraic expressions for the GGSO projections for all the physical states appearing in the sectors generated by the set of basis vectors. This enables the programming of the entire spectrum analysis in a computer code. For that purpose we developed two independent codes, based on FORTRAN95 and JAVA, and all results presented are confirmed by the two independent routines. We perform a statistical sampling in the space of 244∼1013 flipped SU(5) vacua, and scan up to 1012 GGSO configurations. Contrary to the corresponding Pati-Salam classification results, we do not find exophobic flipped SU(5) vacua with an odd number of generations. We study the structure of exotic states appearing in the three generation models, that additionally contain a viable Higgs spectrum, and demonstrate the existence of models in which all the exotic states are confined by a hidden sector non-Abelian gauge symmetry, as well as models that may admit the racetrack mechanism.
Numerical Polynomial Homotopy Continuation Method and String Vacua
Mehta, Dhagash
2011-01-01
Finding vmore » acua for the four-dimensional effective theories for supergravity which descend from flux compactifications and analyzing them according to their stability is one of the central problems in string phenomenology. Except for some simple toy models, it is, however, difficult to find all the vacua analytically. Recently developed algorithmic methods based on symbolic computer algebra can be of great help in the more realistic models. However, they suffer from serious algorithmic complexities and are limited to small system sizes. In this paper, we review a numerical method called the numerical polynomial homotopy continuation (NPHC) method, first used in the areas of lattice field theories, which by construction finds all of the vacua of a given potential that is known to have only isolated solutions. The NPHC method is known to suffer from no major algorithmic complexities and is embarrassingly parallelizable , and hence its applicability goes way beyond the existing symbolic methods. We first solve a simple toy model as a warm-up example to demonstrate the NPHC method at work. We then show that all the vacua of a more complicated model of a compactified M theory model, which has an S U ( 3 ) structure, can be obtained by using a desktop machine in just about an hour, a feat which was reported to be prohibitively difficult by the existing symbolic methods. Finally, we compare the various technicalities between the two methods.« less
3-cocycles, non-associative star-products and the magnetic paradigm of R-flux string vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakas, Ioannis; Lüst, Dieter
2014-01-01
We consider the geometric and non-geometric faces of closed string vacua arising by T-duality from principal torus bundles with constant H-flux and pay attention to their double phase space description encompassing all toroidal coordinates, momenta and their dual on equal footing. We construct a star-product algebra on functions in phase space that is manifestly duality invariant and substitutes for canonical quantization. The 3-cocycles of the Abelian group of translations in double phase space are seen to account for non-associativity of the star-product. We also provide alternative cohomological descriptions of non-associativity and draw analogies with the quantization of point-particles in the field of a Dirac monopole or other distributions of magnetic charge. The magnetic field analogue of the R-flux string model is provided by a constant uniform distribution of magnetic charge in space and non-associativity manifests as breaking of angular symmetry. The Poincaré vector comes to rescue angular symmetry as well as associativity and also allow for quantization in terms of operators and Hilbert space only in the case of charged particles moving in the field of a single magnetic monopole.
Non-tachyonic semi-realistic non-supersymmetric heterotic-string vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashfaque, Johar M.; Athanasopoulos, Panos; Faraggi, Alon E.; Sonmez, Hasan
2016-04-01
The heterotic-string models in the free fermionic formulation gave rise to some of the most realistic-string models to date, which possess N=1 spacetime supersymmetry. Lack of evidence for supersymmetry at the LHC instigated recent interest in non-supersymmetric heterotic-string vacua. We explore what may be learned in this context from the quasi-realistic free fermionic models. We show that constructions with a low number of families give rise to proliferation of a priori tachyon producing sectors, compared to the non-realistic examples, which typically may contain only one such sector. The reason being that in the realistic cases the internal six dimensional space is fragmented into smaller units. We present one example of a quasi-realistic, non-supersymmetric, non-tachyonic, heterotic-string vacuum and compare the structure of its massless spectrum to the corresponding supersymmetric vacuum. While in some sectors supersymmetry is broken explicitly, i.e. the bosonic and fermionic sectors produce massless and massive states, other sectors, and in particular those leading to the chiral families, continue to exhibit Fermi-Bose degeneracy. In these sectors the massless spectrum, as compared to the supersymmetric cases, will only differ in some local or global U(1) charges. We discuss the conditions for obtaining n_b=n_f at the massless level in these models. Our example model contains an anomalous U(1) symmetry, which generates a tadpole diagram at one-loop order in string perturbation theory. We speculate that this tadpole diagram may cancel the corresponding diagram generated by the one-loop non-vanishing vacuum energy and that in this respect the supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric vacua should be regarded on an equal footing. Finally we discuss vacua that contain two supersymmetry generating sectors.
Remarks on Positive Energy Vacua via Effective Potentials in String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabholkar, Sujan P.; Disconzi, Marcelo M.; Pingali, Vamsi P.
2014-07-01
We study warped compactifications of string/M theory with the help of effective potentials, continuing previous work of the last two authors and Michael R. Douglas presented in (On the boundedness of effective potentials arising from string compactifications. Communications in Mathematical Physics 325(3):847-878,
A barren landscape? - Metastable de Sitter vacua are nongeneric in string theory
Robbins, Daniel; Sethi, Savdeep
2005-02-15
We consider the generation of a nonperturbative superpotential in F-theory compactifications with flux. We derive a necessary condition for the generation of such a superpotential in F theory. For models with a single volume modulus, we show that the volume modulus is never stabilized by either Abelian instantons or gaugino condensation. We then comment on how our analysis extends to a larger class of compactifications. From our results, it appears that among large volume string compactifications, metastable de Sitter vacua (should any exist) are nongeneric.
Constructing de Sitter vacua in no-scale string models without uplifting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Covi, Laura; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Gross, Christian; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Scrucca, Claudio A.
2009-03-01
We develop a method for constructing metastable de Sitter vacua in Script N = 1 supergravity models describing the no-scale volume moduli sector of Calabi-Yau string compactifications. We consider both heterotic and orientifold models. Our main guideline is the necessary condition for the existence of metastable vacua coming from the Goldstino multiplet, which constrains the allowed scalar geometries and supersymmetry-breaking directions. In the simplest non-trivial case where the volume is controlled by two moduli, this condition simplifies and turns out to be fully characterised by the intersection numbers of the Calabi-Yau manifold. We analyse this case in detail and show that once the metastability condition is satisfied it is possible to reconstruct in a systematic way the local form of the superpotential that is needed to stabilise all the fields. We apply then this procedure to construct some examples of models where the superpotential takes a realistic form allowed by flux backgrounds and gaugino condensation effects, for which a viable vacuum arises without the need of invoking corrections to the Kähler potential breaking the no-scale property or uplifting terms. We finally discuss the prospects of constructing potentially realistic models along these lines.
Flipped S U (5 ) string vacua classification: A variation of the S O (10 ) breaking basis vector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonmez, Hasan
2016-06-01
In this paper, an extension of the classification of flipped S U (5 ) heterotic-string vacua from Faraggi, Rizos and Sonmez [Nucl. Phys. B886, 202 (2014)] with a variation of the S O (10 ) breaking α basis vector is presented. A statistical sampling in the space of 245 flipped S U (5 ) vacua is explored, where 1011 distinct GGSO projection configurations are scanned in comparison to the 1012 GGSO distinct coefficients scanned in the space of 244 vacua in Faraggi, Rizos and Sonmez. A JAVA code, akin to the one used for the classification in Faraggi, Rizos and Sonmez, was implemented to explore these. Results presented here indicate that no three-generation exophobic vacua exist, which was also found to be the case in Faraggi, Rizos and Sonmez as all odd generations were projected out. This paper will also study the details on the comparison between the two classifications achieved and reflect on the future directions in the quest for finding three-generation exophobic flipped S U (5 ) heterotic-string models.
Remark on Calabi-Yau vacua of the string theory and the cosmological constant problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Pyung Seong
2013-08-01
In the first part of the paper we study solitonic properties of the Calabi-Yau vacua of the string theory. We observe that the Calabi-Yau threefolds of the string theory may be thought of as Neveu-Schwarz-Neveu-Schwarz (NS-NS) objects whose masses are proportional to 1/gs2. In the second part, which is the main part of this paper, we propose, based on the viewpoint that our three-dimensional space is a stack of Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) D3-branes located at the conifold singularity of the Calabi-Yau threefold, a new mechanism to address the cosmological constant problem in the framework of the conventional compactifications, where the n-form fluxes including NS-NS three-form are all turned off. In this mechanism the four-dimensional cosmological constant λ appears as two types, NS-NS type and R-R type, of vacuum energies on the brane plus supersymmetry breaking term, which constitute a brane action density I^brane, and sum of these three terms of I^brane are forced to vanish by field equations so that λ adjusts itself to zero as a result. Also in this mechanism the d=4 supersymmetry is broken in the brane region, while still maintaining λ=0. The supersymmetry breaking occurs as a result of the gauge symmetry breaking of the R-R four-form arising at the quantum level. The substance of the supersymmetry breaking term is a vacuum energy density (of the brane region) arising from the quantum excitations with components along the transverse directions to the D3-brane. We generalize the above mechanism to the case of the flux compactifications where the fluxes are all turned on to stabilize the moduli. In the generalized theory λ appears as I^brane plus the scalar potential Vscalar for the moduli, in contrast to the case of the ordinary flux compactifications where λ is simply given by Vscalar. Also in this theory any nonzero Vscalar arising from perturbative or nonperturbative corrections is gauged away by the gauge arbitrariness of I^brane and the
Testing string vacua in the lab: from a hidden CMB to dark forces in flux compactifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicoli, Michele; Goodsell, Mark; Jaeckel, Joerg; Ringwald, Andreas
2011-07-01
We perform a detailed analysis of the phenomenological properties of hidden Abelian gauge bosons with a kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon within type IIB flux compactifications. We study the interplay between moduli stabilisation and the Green-Schwarz mechanism that gives mass to the hidden photon paying particular attention to the rôle of D-terms. We present two generic classes of explicit Calabi-Yau examples with an isotropic and an anisotropic shape of the extra dimensions showing how the last case turns out to be very promising to make contact with current experiments. In fact, anisotropic compactifications lead naturally to a GeV-scale hidden photon ("dark forces" that can be searched for in beam dump experiments) for an intermediate string scale; or, allowing for some fine-tuning, even to an meV-scale hidden photon (which could lead to a "hidden CMB" and can be tested by light-shining-through-a-wall experiments) in the case of TeV-scale strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumitomo, Yoske; Tye, S.-H. Henry
2013-06-01
We study the probability distribution P (Λ) of the cosmological constant Λ in a specific set of KKLT type models of supersymmetric IIB vacua. We show that, as we sweep through the quantized flux values in this flux compactification, P (Λ) behaves divergent at Λ =0- and the median magnitude of Λ drops exponentially as the number of complex structure moduli h 2, 1 increases. Also, owing to the hierarchical and approximate no-scale structure, the probability of having a positive Hessian (mass-squared matrix) approaches unity as h 2, 1 increases.
Spin(7) compactifications and 1/4-BPS vacua in heterotic supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angus, Stephen; Matti, Cyril; Svanes, Eirik E.
2016-03-01
We continue the investigation into non-maximally symmetric compactifications of the heterotic string. In particular, we consider compactifications where the internal space is allowed to depend on two or more external directions. For preservation of supersymmetry, this implies that the internal space must in general be that of a Spin(7) manifold, which leads to a 1/4-BPS four-dimensional supersymmetric perturbative vacuum breaking all but one supercharge. We find that these solutions allow for internal geometries previously excluded by the domain-wall-type solutions, and hence the resulting four-dimensional superpotential is more generic. In particular, we find an interesting resemblance to the superpotentials that appear in non-geometric flux compactifications of type II string theory. If the vacua are to be used for phenomenological applications, they must be lifted to maximal symmetry by some non-perturbative or higher-order effect.
Exotic orientifolds in non-geometric flux cosmology
Damian, Cesar; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar
2013-07-23
We report on the existence of a stable de Sitter vacum in Type IIB non-geometric string compactification on an isotropic tours with orientifold 3-planes in the presence of odd integer 3-form fluxes. These fluxes yields the presence of exotic orientifold 3-planes increasing the size of the flux configuration space. We also find that there exist suitable conditions for multi-field inflation driven by the Kähler and axio-dilaton moduli.
Exotic orientifolds in non-geometric flux cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damian, Cesar; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar
2013-07-01
We report on the existence of a stable de Sitter vacum in Type IIB non-geometric string compactification on an isotropic tours with orientifold 3-planes in the presence of odd integer 3-form fluxes. These fluxes yields the presence of exotic orientifold 3-planes increasing the size of the flux configuration space. We also find that there exist suitable conditions for multi-field inflation driven by the Kähler and axio-dilaton moduli.
Sigma models for genuinely non-geometric backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Jonke, Larisa; Lechtenfeld, Olaf
2015-11-01
The existence of genuinely non-geometric backgrounds, i.e. ones without geometric dual, is an important question in string theory. In this paper we examine this question from a sigma model perspective. First we construct a particular class of Courant algebroids as protobialgebroids with all types of geometric and non-geometric fluxes. For such structures we apply the mathematical result that any Courant algebroid gives rise to a 3D topological sigma model of the AKSZ type and we discuss the corresponding 2D field theories. It is found that these models are always geometric, even when both 2-form and 2-vector fields are neither vanishing nor inverse of one another. Taking a further step, we suggest an extended class of 3D sigma models, whose world volume is embedded in phase space, which allow for genuinely non-geometric backgrounds. Adopting the doubled formalism such models can be related to double field theory, albeit from a world sheet perspective.
Constraints on Meta-stable de Sitter Flux Vacua
Soroush, Masoud
2007-03-05
We consider flux compactification of type IIB string theory as the orientifold limit of an F-theory on a Calabi-Yau fourfold. We show that when supersymmetry is dominantly broken by the axion-dilaton and the contributions of the F-terms associated with complex structure moduli are small, the Hessian of the flux potential always has tachyonic modes for de Sitter vacua. This implies that there exist no meta-stable de Sitter vacua in this limit. Moreover, we find that the stability requirement imposes a relation between the values of cosmological constant and the scale of supersymmetry breaking for non-supersymmetric anti de Sitter vacua in this limit. The proof is general and does rely on the details of the geometry of the compact Calabi-Yau internal space. We finally analyze the consequences of these constraints on the statistics of meta-stable de Sitter vacua and address some other related issues.
Tachyons in classical de Sitter vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junghans, Daniel
2016-06-01
We revisit the possibility of de Sitter vacua and slow-roll inflation in type II string theory at the level of the classical two-derivative supergravity approximation. Previous attempts at explicit constructions were plagued by ubiquitous tachyons with a large η parameter whose origin has not been fully understood so far. In this paper, we determine and explain the tachyons in two setups that are known to admit unstable dS critical points: an SU(3) structure compactification of massive type IIA with O6-planes and an SU(2) structure compactification of type IIB with O5/O7-planes. We explicitly show that the tachyons are always close to, but never fully aligned with the sgoldstino direction in the considered examples and argue that this behavior is explained by a generalized version of a no-go theorem by Covi et al, which holds in the presence of large mixing in the mass matrix between the sgoldstino and the orthogonal moduli. This observation may also provide a useful stability criterion for general dS vacua in supergravity and string theory.
de Sitter Vacua from an Anomalous Gauge Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus; Ruehle, Fabian; Schweizer, Julian
2016-06-01
We find a new class of metastable de Sitter solutions in compactifications of six-dimensional supergravity motivated by type IIB or heterotic string vacua. Two Fayet-Iliopoulos terms of a local U(1) symmetry are generated by magnetic flux and by the Green-Schwarz term canceling the gauge anomalies, respectively. The interplay between the induced D term, the moduli dependence of the effective gauge coupling, and a nonperturbative superpotential stabilizes the moduli and determines the size of the extra dimensions.
Vacua of the gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compère, Geoffrey; Long, Jiang
2016-07-01
The Poincaré invariant vacuum is not unique in quantum gravity. The BMS supertranslation symmetry originally defined at null infinity is spontaneously broken and results in inequivalent Poincaré vacua. In this paper we construct the unique vacua which interpolate between past and future null infinity in BMS gauge and which are entirely characterized by an arbitrary Goldstone boson defined on the sphere which breaks BMS invariance. We show that these vacua contain a defect which carries no Poincaré charges but which generically carries superrotation charges. We argue that there is a huge degeneracy of vacua with multiple defects. We also present the single defect vacua with its canonically conjugated source which can be constructed from a Liouville boson on the stereographic plane. We show that positivity of the energy forces the stress-tensor of the boson to vanish as a boundary condition. Finite superrotations, which turn on the sources, are therefore physically ruled out as canonical transformations around the vacua. Yet, infinitesimal superrotations are external symplectic symmetries which are associated with conserved charges which characterize the Goldstone boson.
The arithmetic of supersymmetric vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan
2016-07-01
We provide explicit formulas for the number of vacua of four-dimensional pure N = 1 super Yang-Mills theories on a circle, with any simple gauge algebra and any choice of center and spectrum of line operators. The formula for the {(SU(N)/{Z}_m)}_n theory is a key ingredient in the semi-classical calculation of the number of massive vacua of N = 1∗ gauge theories with gauge algebra su(n) , compactified on a circle. Using arithmetic, we express that number in an SL(2,Z) duality invariant manner. We confirm our tally of massive vacua of the N = 1∗ theories by a count of inequivalent extrema of the exact superpotential.
Metastable vacua and complex deformations
Tatar, Radu; Wetenhall, Ben
2007-12-15
We use the non-normalizable complex deformations to describe the stringy realizations of the metastable vacua in N=1, SU(N{sub c}) SUSY theories with N{sub f}>N{sub c} massive fundamental flavors. The consideration of the non-normalizable deformations requires a modified toric duality. The new approach considers the tachyon condensation between pairs of wrapped D5 branes and anti-D5 branes and the resulting mixing between some cycles in the geometry. We enlarge the class of metastable vacua to the case of branes-antibranes wrapped on cycles of deformed A{sub n} singularities.
SQCD Vacua and Geometrical Engineering
Tatar, Radu; Wetenhall, Ben
2008-11-23
We consider the geometrical engineering constructions for the N = 1 SQCD vacua. After one T-duality, these geometries with wrapped D5 branes become N = 1 brane configurations with NS-branes and D4-branes. After performing a flop, the geometries contain branes, antibranes and branes wrapped on non-holomorphic cycles. The various tachyon condensations between pairs of wrapped D5 branes and anti-D5 branes together with deformations of the cycles give rise to a variety of supersymmetric and metastable non-supersymmetric vacua.
Asymptotic vacua with higher derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Kolionis, Georgios; Tsokaros, Antonios
2016-04-01
We study limits of vacuum, isotropic universes in the full, effective, four-dimensional theory with higher derivatives. We show that all flat vacua as well as general curved ones are globally attracted by the standard, square root scaling solution at early times. Open vacua asymptote to horizon-free, Milne states in both directions while closed universes exhibit more complex logarithmic singularities, starting from initial data sets of a possibly smaller dimension. We also discuss the relation of our results to the asymptotic stability of the passage through the singularity in ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies.
Unravelling strings at the CERN LHC
Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Shao Jing
2008-06-01
We construct LHC signature footprints for four semirealistic string/M theory vacua with a minimal supersymmetric standard model visible sector. We find that they all give rise to limited regions in LHC signature space and are qualitatively different from each other for understandable reasons. We also propose a technique in which correlations of LHC signatures can be effectively used to distinguish among these string theory vacua. We expect the technique to be useful for more general string vacua. We argue that further systematic analysis with this approach will allow LHC data to disfavor or exclude major 'corners' of string/M theory and favor others. The technique can be used with limited integrated luminosity and improved.
The F-theory geometry with most flux vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi-Nan
2015-12-01
Applying the Ashok-Denef-Douglas estimation method to elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds suggests that a single elliptic fourfold {M}_{max } gives rise to O({10}^{272,000}) F-theory flux vacua, and that the sum total of the numbers of flux vacua from all other F-theory geometries is suppressed by a relative factor of O({10}^{-3000}) . The fourfold {M}_{max } arises from a generic elliptic fibration over a specific toric threefold base B max, and gives a geometrically non-Higgsable gauge group of E 8 9 × F 4 8 × ( G 2 × SU(2))16, of which we expect some factors to be broken by G-flux to smaller groups. It is not possible to tune an SU(5) GUT group on any further divisors in {M}_{max } , or even an SU(2) or SU(3), so the standard model gauge group appears to arise in this context only from a broken E 8 factor. The results of this paper can either be interpreted as providing a framework for predicting how the standard model arises most naturally in F-theory and the types of dark matter to be found in a typical F-theory compactification, or as a challenge to string theorists to explain why other choices of vacua are not exponentially unlikely compared to F-theory compactifications on {M}_{max }.
The F-theory geometry with most flux vacua
Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi -Nan
2015-12-28
Applying the Ashok-Denef-Douglas estimation method to elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds suggests that a single elliptic fourfold Mmax gives rise to O(10272,000) F-theory flux vacua, and that the sum total of the numbers of flux vacua from all other F-theory geometries is suppressed by a relative factor of O(10–3000). The fourfold Mmax arises from a generic elliptic fibration over a specific toric threefold base Bmax, and gives a geometrically non-Higgsable gauge group of E89 × F48 × (G 2 × SU(2))16, of which we expect some factors to be broken by G-flux to smaller groups. It is not possible to tune anmore » SU(5) GUT group on any further divisors in Mmax, or even an SU(2) or SU(3), so the standard model gauge group appears to arise in this context only from a broken E8 factor. Furthermore, the results of this paper can either be interpreted as providing a framework for predicting how the standard model arises most naturally in F-theory and the types of dark matter to be found in a typical F-theory compactification, or as a challenge to string theorists to explain why other choices of vacua are not exponentially unlikely compared to F-theory compactifications on Mmax.« less
On the explicit construction and statistics of Calabi-Yau flux vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conlon, Joseph P.; Quevedo, Fernando
2004-10-01
We explicitly construct and study the statistics of flux vacua for type-IIB string theory on an orientifold of the Calabi-Yau hypersurface Bbb P4[1,1,2,2,6], parametrised by two relevant complex structure moduli. We solve for these moduli and the dilaton field in terms of the set of integers defining the 3-form fluxes and examine the distribution of vacua. We compare our numerical results with the predictions of the Ashok-Douglas density det(-Script R-ω), finding good overall agreement in different regions of moduli space. The number of vacua are found to scale with the distance in flux space. Vacua cluster in the region close to the conifold singularity. Large supersymmetry breaking is more generic but supersymmetric and hierarchical supersymmetry breaking vacua can also be obtained. In particular, the small superpotentials and large dilaton VEVs needed to obtain de Sitter space in a controllable approximation are possible but not generic. We argue that in a general flux compactification, the rank of the gauge group coming from D3 branes could be statistically preferred to be very small.
Non-geometric fluxes, quasi-Hopf twist deformations, and nonassociative quantum mechanics
Mylonas, Dionysios Szabo, Richard J.; Schupp, Peter
2014-12-15
We analyse the symmetries underlying nonassociative deformations of geometry in non-geometric R-flux compactifications which arise via T-duality from closed strings with constant geometric fluxes. Starting from the non-abelian Lie algebra of translations and Bopp shifts in phase space, together with a suitable cochain twist, we construct the quasi-Hopf algebra of symmetries that deforms the algebra of functions and the exterior differential calculus in the phase space description of nonassociative R-space. In this setting, nonassociativity is characterised by the associator 3-cocycle which controls non-coassociativity of the quasi-Hopf algebra. We use abelian 2-cocycle twists to construct maps between the dynamical nonassociative star product and a family of associative star products parametrized by constant momentum surfaces in phase space. We define a suitable integration on these nonassociative spaces and find that the usual cyclicity of associative noncommutative deformations is replaced by weaker notions of 2-cyclicity and 3-cyclicity. Using this star product quantization on phase space together with 3-cyclicity, we formulate a consistent version of nonassociative quantum mechanics, in which we calculate the expectation values of area and volume operators, and find coarse-graining of the string background due to the R-flux.
Giryavets, Alexander
2004-04-25
We investigate several predictions about the properties of IIB flux vacua on Calabi-Yau orientifolds, by constructing and characterizing a very large set of vacua in a specific example, an orientifold of the Calabi-Yau hypersurface in WP{sub 1,1,1,1,4}{sup 4}. We find support for the prediction of Ashok and Douglas that the density of vacua on moduli space is governed by det(-R-{omega}) where R and {omega} are curvature and Kaehler forms on the moduli space. The conifold point {psi} = 1 on moduli space therefore serves as an attractor, with a significant fraction of the flux vacua contained in a small neighborhood surrounding {psi} = 1. We also study the functional dependence of the number of flux vacua on the D3 charge in the fluxes, finding simple power law growth.
Constraining de Sitter Space in String Theory.
Kutasov, David; Maxfield, Travis; Melnikov, Ilarion; Sethi, Savdeep
2015-08-14
We argue that the heterotic string does not have classical vacua corresponding to de Sitter space-times of dimension four or higher. The same conclusion applies to type II vacua in the absence of Ramond-Ramond fluxes. Our argument extends prior supergravity no-go results to regimes of high curvature. We discuss the interpretation of the heterotic result from the perspective of dual type II orientifold constructions. Our result suggests that the genericity arguments used in string landscape discussions should be viewed with caution. PMID:26317710
The F-theory geometry with most flux vacua
Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi -Nan
2015-12-28
Applying the Ashok-Denef-Douglas estimation method to elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds suggests that a single elliptic fourfold M_{max} gives rise to O(10^{272,000}) F-theory flux vacua, and that the sum total of the numbers of flux vacua from all other F-theory geometries is suppressed by a relative factor of O(10^{–3000}). The fourfold M_{max} arises from a generic elliptic fibration over a specific toric threefold base B_{max}, and gives a geometrically non-Higgsable gauge group of E_{8}^{9} × F_{4}^{8} × (G _{2} × SU(2))^{16}, of which we expect some factors to be broken by G-flux to smaller groups. It is not possible to tune an SU(5) GUT group on any further divisors in M_{max}, or even an SU(2) or SU(3), so the standard model gauge group appears to arise in this context only from a broken E_{8} factor. Furthermore, the results of this paper can either be interpreted as providing a framework for predicting how the standard model arises most naturally in F-theory and the types of dark matter to be found in a typical F-theory compactification, or as a challenge to string theorists to explain why other choices of vacua are not exponentially unlikely compared to F-theory compactifications on M_{max}.
Remarks on scale separation in flux vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gautason, F. F.; Schillo, M.; Van Riet, T.; Williams, M.
2016-03-01
We argue that the Maldacena-Nuñez no-go theorem excluding Minkowski and de Sitter vacua in flux compactifications can be extended to anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua for which the Kaluza-Klein scale is parametrically smaller than the AdS length scale. In the absence of negative tension sources, scale-separated AdS vacua are ruled out in 11-dimensional supergravity; in 10-dimensional supergravity, we show that such vacua can only arise in conjunction with large dilaton gradients. As a practical application of this observation we demonstrate that the mechanism to resolve O6 singularities in massive type IIA at the classical level is likely not to occur in AdS compactifications with scale separation. We furthermore remark that a compactification to four observable dimensions implies a large cosmological hierarchy.
Universality and string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachlechner, Thomas Christian
The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.
Stability of false vacuum in supersymmetric theories with cosmic strings
Kumar, Brijesh; Yajnik, Urjit A.
2009-03-15
We study the stability of supersymmetry breaking vacuum in the presence of cosmic strings arising in the messenger sector. For certain ranges of the couplings, the desired supersymmetry breaking vacua become unstable against decay into phenomenologically unacceptable vacua. This sets constraints on the range of allowed values of the coupling constants appearing in the models and more generally on the chosen dynamics of gauge symmetry breaking.
Bethe Ansatz and supersymmetric vacua
Nekrasov, Nikita; Shatashvili, Samson
2009-05-14
Supersymmetric vacua of two dimensional N = 4 gauge theories with matter, softly broken by the twisted masses down to N = 2, are shown to be in one-to-one correspondence with the eigenstates of integrable spin chain Hamiltonians. Examples include: the Heisenberg SU(2)XXX spin chain which is mapped to the two dimensional U(N) theory with fundamental hypermultiplets, the XXZ spin chain which is mapped to the analogous three dimensional super-Yang-Mills theory compactified on a circle, the XYZ spin chain and eight-vertex model which are related to the four dimensional theory compactified on T{sup 2}. A consequence of our correspondence is the isomorphism of the quantum cohomology ring of various quiver varieties, such as cotangent bundles to (partial) flag varieties and the ring of quantum integrals of motion of various spin chains. The correspondence extends to any spin group, representations, boundary conditions, and inhomogeneity, it includes Sinh-Gordon and non-linear Schroedinger models as well as the dynamical spin chains like Hubbard model. Compactifications of four dimensional N = 2 theories on a two-sphere lead to the instanton-corrected Bethe equations.
Supersymmetric QCD vacua and geometrical engineering
Tatar, Radu; Wetenhall, Ben
2008-02-15
We consider the geometrical engineering constructions for the N=1 supersymmetric QCD vacua recently proposed by Giveon and Kutasov. After 1 T-duality, the geometries with wrapped D5 branes become N=1 brane configurations with NS branes and D4 branes. The field theories encoded by the geometries contain extra massive adjoint fields for the flavor group. After performing a flop, the geometries contain branes, antibranes and branes wrapped on nonholomorphic cycles. The various tachyon condensations between pairs of wrapped D5 branes and anti-D5 branes together with deformations of the cycles give rise to a variety of supersymmetric and metastable nonsupersymmetric vacua.
On the perturbative corrections around D-string instantons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gava, Edi; Hammou, Amine; Morales, Jose F.; Narain, Kumar S.
1999-03-01
We study Script F4-threshold corrections in an eight dimensional S-dual pair of string theories, as a prototype of dual string vacua with sixteen supercharges. We show that the orbifold CFT description of D-string instantons gives rise to a perturbative expansion similar to the one appearing on the fundamental string side. By an explicit calculation, using the Nambu-Goto action in the static gauge, we show that the first subleading term agrees precisely on the two sides. We then give a general argument to show that the agreement extends to all orders.
Vacuum selection on the string landscape
Tetteh-Lartey, Edward
2007-05-15
I examine some nonanthropic approaches to the string landscape. These approaches are based on finding the initial conditions of the universe using the wave function of the multiverse to select the most probable vacuum out of this landscape. All approaches tackled so far seem to have their own problems and there is no clear-cut alternative to anthropic reasoning. I suggest that finding the initial conditions may be irrelevant since all possible vacua on the landscape are possible initial state conditions and eternal inflation could generate all the other vacua. We are now left to reason out why we are observing the small value of the cosmological constant. I address this issue in the context of noncritical string theory in which all values of the cosmological constant on the landscape are departures from the critical equilibrium state.
Quantum Kerr(Newman) degenerate stringy vacua in 4D on a non-BPS brane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Sunita; Pandey, K. Priyabrat; Singh, Abhishek K.; Kar, Supriya
2014-11-01
We investigate some of the quantum gravity effects on a vacuum created pair of (D{\\bar D})3-brane by a nonlinear U(1) gauge theory on a D4-brane. In particular, we obtain a four-dimensional quantum Kerr-(Newman) black hole in an effective torsion curvature formalism sourced by a two form dynamics in the worldvolume of a D4-brane on S1. Interestingly, the event horizon is found to be independent of a nonlinear electric charge and the 4D quantum black hole is shown to describe degenerate vacua in string theory. We show that the quantum Kerr brane universe possesses its origin in a de Sitter vacuum. In a nearly S2-symmetric limit, the Kerr geometries may seen to describe a Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom quantum black holes. It is argued that a quantum Reissner-Nordstrom tunnels to a large class of degenerate Schwarzschild vacua. In a low energy limit, the nonlinear electric charge becomes significant at the expense of the degeneracies. In the limit, the quantum geometries may identify with the semiclassical black holes established in Einstein gravity. Analysis reveals that a quantum geometry on a vacuum created D3-brane universe may be described by a low energy perturbative string vacuum in presence of a nonperturbative quantum correction.
De Sitter vacua and N = 2 supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogetbil, Orcan Bahri
After reviewing the existing results we give an extensive analysis of the critical points of the potentials of the gauged N = 2 Yang-Mills/Einstein Supergravity theories coupled to tensor- and hyper multiplets in five dimensions. Our analysis includes all the possible gaugings of all N = 2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories whose scalar manifolds are symmetric spaces. In general, the scalar potential gets contributions from R-symmetry gauging, tensor couplings and hyper-couplings. We show that the coupling of a hypermultiplet into a theory whose potential has a non-zero value at its critical point, and gauging a compact subgroup of the hyperscalar isometry group will only rescale the value of the potential at the critical point by a positive factor, and therefore will not change the nature of an existing critical point. However this is not the case for non-compact SO(1, 1) gaugings. An SO(1, 1) gauging of the hyper isometry will generally lead to de Sitter vacua, which is analogous to the ground states found by simultaneously gauging SO(1, 1) symmetry of the real scalar manifold of the five dimensional vector multiplets with U(1)R in earlier literature. SO(m, 1) gaugings with m > 1, which give contributions to the scalar potential only in the Magical Jordan family theories, on the other hand, do not lead to de Sitter vacua. Anti-de Sitter vacua are generically obtained when the U(1)R symmetry is gauged. We also show that it is possible to embed certain generic Jordan family theories into the Magical Jordan family while preserving the nature of the ground states. However the Magical Jordan family theories admit additional vacua which are not found in the generic Jordan family theories. The five dimensional stable de Sitter ground states obtained by gauging SO(1, 1) symmetry of the real symmetric scalar manifold (in particular a generic Jordan family manifold of the vector multiplets) simultaneously with a subgroup Rs of the R-symmetry group descend to four
Obstacle to populating the string theory landscape
Johnson, Matthew C; Larfors, Magdalena
2008-12-15
We construct domain walls and instantons in a class of models with coupled scalar fields, determining, in agreement with previous studies, that many such solutions contain naked timelike singularities. Vacuum bubble solutions of this type do not contain a region of true vacuum, obstructing the ability of eternal inflation to populate other vacua. We determine a criterion that potentials must satisfy to avoid the existence of such singularities and show that many domain wall solutions in type IIB string theory are singular.
de Sitter Vacua via Consistent D Terms
Villadoro, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio
2005-12-02
We introduce a new mechanism for producing locally stable de Sitter or Minkowski vacua, with spontaneously broken N=1 supersymmetry and no massless scalars, applicable to superstring and M-theory compactifications with fluxes. We illustrate the mechanism with a simple N=1 supergravity model that provides parametric control on the sign and the size of the vacuum energy. The crucial ingredient is a gauged U(1) that involves both an axionic shift and an R symmetry, and severely constrains the F- and D-term contributions to the potential.
de Sitter vacua via consistent terms.
Villadoro, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio
2005-12-01
We introduce a new mechanism for producing locally stable de Sitter or Minkowski vacua, with spontaneously broken N = 1 supersymmetry and no massless scalars, applicable to superstring and M-theory compactifications with fluxes. We illustrate the mechanism with a simple N = 1 supergravity model that provides parametric control on the sign and the size of the vacuum energy. The crucial ingredient is a gauged U(1) that involves both an axionic shift and an R symmetry, and severely constrains the F- and D-term contributions to the potential. PMID:16384294
Metastable supersymmetry breaking vacua from conformal dynamics
Omura, Yuji
2008-11-23
We study the scenario that conformal dynamics leads to metastable supersymmetry breaking vacua. At a high energy scale, the superpotential is not R-symmetric, and has a supersymmetric minimum. However, conformal dynamics suppresses several operators along renormalization group flow toward the infrared fixed point. Then we can find an approximately R-symmetric superpotential, which has a metastable supersymmetry breaking vacuum, and the supersymmetric vacuum moves far away from the metastable supersymmetry breaking vacuum. We show a 4D simple model. Furthermore, we can construct 5D models with the same behavior, because of the AdS/CFT dual.
Cosmic R-string, R-tube and vacuum instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eto, Minoru; Hamada, Yuta; Kamada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ohashi, Keisuke; Ookouchi, Yutaka
2013-03-01
We show that a cosmic string associated with spontaneous U(1) R symmetry breaking gives a constraint for supersymmetric model building. In some models, the string can be viewed as a tube-like domain wall with a winding number interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. Such string causes inhomogeneous decay of the false vacuum to the true vacuum via rapid expansion of the radius of the tube and hence its formation would be inconsistent with the present Universe. However, we demonstrate that there exist metastable solutions which do not expand rapidly. Furthermore, when the true vacua are degenerate, the structure inside the tube becomes involved. As an example, we show a "bamboo"-like solution, which suggests a possibility observing an information of true vacua from outside of the tube through the shape and the tension of the tube.
Dimensional oxidation and modular completion of non-geometric type IIB action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Xin; Shukla, Pramod
2015-05-01
Utilizing a setup of type IIB superstring theory compactified on an orientifold of , we propose a modular invariant dimensional oxidation of the four- dimensional scalar potential. In the oxidized ten-dimensional supergravity action, the standard NS-NS and RR three form fluxes ( H-, F -) as well as the non-geometric fluxes ( Q-, P -) are found to nicely rearrange themselves to form generalized flux-combinations. As an application towards moduli stabilization, using the same S-duality invariant scalar potential, we examine the recently proposed No-Go theorem [1] about creating a mass-hierarchy between universal-axion and the dilaton relevant for axionic-inflation. Considering a two-field dynamics of universal axion and dilator while assuming the other moduli/axions being stabilized, we find a part of the No-Go arguments to be quite robust even with the inclusion of non-geometric ( Q-, P -) fluxes.
A non-geometrically similar model for predicting the wake field of full-scale ships
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Chunyu; Zhang, Qi; Shen, Yu
2015-07-01
The scale effect leads to large discrepancies between the wake fields of model-scale and actual ships, and causes differences in cavitation performance and exciting forces tests in predicting the performance of actual ships. Therefore, when test data from ship models are directly applied to predict the performance of actual ships, test results must be subjected to empirical corrections. This study proposes a method for the reverse design of the hull model. Compared to a geometrically similar hull model, the wake field generated by the modified model is closer to that of an actual ship. A non- geometrically similar model of a Korean Research Institute of Ship and Ocean Engineering (KRISO)'s container ship (KCS) was designed. Numerical simulations were performed using this model, and its results were compared with full-scale calculation results. The deformation method of getting the wake field of full-scale ships by the non-geometrically similar model is applied to the KCS successfully.
Tensor modes on the string theory landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westphal, Alexander
2013-04-01
We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction r over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donoghue, John F.
2004-05-01
At very early times, the Universe was not in a vacuum state. Under the assumption that the deviation from equilibrium was large, in particular, that it is higher than the scale of inflation, we analyze the conditions for local transitions between states that are related to different vacua. All pathways lead to an attractor solution of a description of the Universe by eternal inflation with domains that have different low energy parameters. The generic case favors transitions between states that have significantly different parameters rather than jumps between nearby states in parameter space. I argue that the strong CP problem presents a potential difficulty for this picture, more difficult than the hierarchy problem or the cosmological constant problem. Finally, I describe how the spectrum of quark masses may be a probe of the early dynamics of vacuum states. As an example, by specializing to the case of intersecting braneworld models, I show that the observed mass spectrum, which is approximately scale invariant, corresponds to a flat distribution in the intersection area of the branes, with a maximum area Amax˜100α'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susskind, Leonard
2013-01-01
After reviewing the original motivation for the formulation of string theory and what we learned from it, I discuss some of the implications of the holographic principle and of string dualities for the question of the building blocks of nature.
UV completions for non-critical strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apruzzi, Fabio; Hassler, Falk; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Melnikov, Ilarion V.
2016-07-01
Compactifications of the physical superstring to two dimensions provide a general template for realizing 2D conformal field theories coupled to worldsheet gravity, i.e. non-critical string theories. Motivated by this observation, in this paper we determine the quasi-topological 8D theory which governs the vacua of 2D N = (0, 2) gauged linear sigma models (GLSMs) obtained from compactifications of type I and heterotic strings on a Calabi-Yau fourfold. We also determine the quasi-topological 6D theory governing the 2D vacua of intersecting 7-branes in compactifications of F-theory on an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fivefold, where matter fields and interaction terms localize on lower-dimensional subspaces, i.e. defect operators. To cancel anomalies / cancel tadpoles, these GLSMs must couple to additional chiral sectors, which in some cases do not admit a known description in terms of a UV GLSM. Additionally, we find that constructing an anomaly free spectrum can sometimes break supersymmetry due to spacetime filling anti-branes. We also study various canonical examples such as the standard embedding of heterotic strings on a Calabi-Yau fourfold and F-theoretic "rigid clusters" with no local deformation moduli of the elliptic fibration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mesa Public Schools, AZ.
Designed for music educators instructing grades 4 through 8 in string instruments, this Mesa (Arizona) public schools guide presents information on the string curriculum, orchestras, and practicing. The goals and objectives for string instruments delineate grade levels and how student skills will be verified. Following 17 curriculum goal tests,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossing, Thomas D.
In the next three chapters we consider the science of hammered string instruments. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of vibrating strings excited by a hard or soft hammer. Chapter 20 discusses the most important hammered string instrument, the piano - probably the most versatile and popular of all musical instruments. Chapter 21 discusses hammered dulcimers, especially the American folk dulcimer.
Supersymmetric Standard Model from the Heterotic String
Buchmueller, Wilfried; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Lebedev, Oleg; Ratz, Michael
2006-03-31
We present a Z{sub 6} orbifold compactification of the E{sub 8}xE{sub 8} heterotic string which leads to the (supersymmetric) standard model gauge group and matter content. The quarks and leptons appear as three 16-plets of SO(10), whereas the Higgs fields do not form complete SO(10) multiplets. The model has large vacuum degeneracy. For generic vacua, no exotic states appear at low energies and the model is consistent with gauge coupling unification. The top quark Yukawa coupling arises from gauge interactions and is of the order of the gauge couplings, whereas the other Yukawa couplings are suppressed.
Supersymmetric standard model from the heterotic string.
Buchmüller, Wilfried; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Lebedev, Oleg; Ratz, Michael
2006-03-31
We present a [FORMULA: SEE TEXT] orbifold compactification of the E8xE8 heterotic string which leads to the (supersymmetric) standard model gauge group and matter content. The quarks and leptons appear as three 16-plets of SO(10), whereas the Higgs fields do not form complete SO(10) multiplets. The model has large vacuum degeneracy. For generic vacua, no exotic states appear at low energies and the model is consistent with gauge coupling unification. The top quark Yukawa coupling arises from gauge interactions and is of the order of the gauge couplings, whereas the other Yukawa couplings are suppressed. PMID:16605895
Entanglement entropy of α-vacua in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanno, Sugumi; Murugan, Jeff; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro
2014-07-01
We consider the entanglement entropy of a free massive scalar field in the one parameter family of α-vacua in de Sitter space by using a method developed by Maldacena and Pimentel. An α-vacuum can be thought of as a state filled with particles from the point of view of the Bunch-Davies vacuum. Of all the α-vacua we find that the entanglement entropy takes the minimal value in the Bunch-Davies solution. We also calculate the asymptotic value of the Rényi entropy and find that it increases as α increases. We argue these features stem from pair condensation within the non-trivial α-vacua where the pairs have an intrinsic quantum correlation.
Exploring the String Landscape: The Dynamics, Statistics, and Cosmology of Parallel Worlds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahlqvist, Stein Pontus
This dissertation explores various facets of the low-energy solutions in string theory known as the string landscape. Three separate questions are addressed - the tunneling dynamics between these vacua, the statistics of their location in moduli space, and the potential realization of slow-roll inflation in the flux potentials generated in string theory. We find that the tunneling transitions that occur between a certain class of supersymmetric vacua related to each other via monodromies around the conifold point are sensitive to the details of warping in the near-conifold regime. We also study the impact of warping on the distribution of vacua near the conifold and determine that while previous work has concluded that the conifold point acts as an accumulation point for vacua, warping highly dilutes the distribution in precisely this regime. Finally we investigate a novel form of inflation dubbed spiral inflation to see if it can be realized near the conifold point. We conclude that for our particular models, spiral inflation seems to rely on a de Sitter-like vacuum energy. As a result, whenever spiral inflation is realized, the inflation is actually driven by a vacuum energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.
In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.
Topics in Cosmic String Physics and Vacuum Stability of Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Indranil
1998-01-01
In this thesis I examine aspects of the vacuum state of quantum field theories. Namely, I study topological defects in the vacuum which appear as localized regions of non-zero energy density if the model system is unable to relax to a homogeneous and isotropic ground state because of topological constraints. I also examine the stability of the so called false vacua in theories that have multiple vacuum states with different energy densities. I first consider topological defects in the form of strings and independently the decay of false vacua in models of particle physics where the presence of either defects or of false vacua leads to interesting phenomenology. Then I describe a situation in which the defects arising from topological properties of the vacuum in turn affect the stability of the vacuum itself. In the first part of this work (chapters 2 and 3), I explore the phenomenology of cosmic strings. I introduce new string-like topological defects that resemble pairs of strings bound together. I give an existence proof of these 'binary strings' and then develop their cosmological properties in detail. I then propose a simple extension of the Standard Model in which cosmic strings may form and then decay through baryon number violating interactions leading to baryogenesis. I show that the model has distinct and testable signatures. In the second part of this work (chapters 4 and 5), I examine the vacua of several proposed models of gauge mediated dynamical supersymmetry breaking and show that the viable vacua are often unstable. I develop a rigorous theory for approximating vacuum tunneling rates in multi-scalar field theories and by computing bounds on the decay rate of the vacua in these models obtain useful constraints on the parameter space. In the final part of this work (chapter 6), I develop a theory of vacuum tunneling induced by topological defects. I show that defects can speed up vacuum tunneling rates by seeding new kinds of bubbles during a first
Planckian axions in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachlechner, Thomas C.; Long, Cody; McAllister, Liam
2015-12-01
We argue that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains can arise in Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory. In a theory with N axions θ i , the fundamental domain is a polytope defined by the periodicities of the axions, via constraints of the form - π < Q i j θ j < π. We compute the diameter of the fundamental domain in terms of the eigenvalues f 1 2 ≤ … ≤ f N 2 of the metric on field space, and also, crucially, the largest eigenvalue of ( QQ ⊤)-1. At large N, QQ ⊤ approaches a Wishart matrix, due to universality, and we show that the diameter is at least Nf N , exceeding the naive Pythagorean range by a factor > √{N} . This result is robust in the presence of P > N constraints, while for P = N the diameter is further enhanced by eigenvector delocalization to N 3/2 f N . We directly verify our results in explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications of type IIB string theory. In the classic example with h 1,1 = 51 where parametrically controlled moduli stabilization was demonstrated by Denef et al. in [1], the largest metric eigenvalue obeys f N ≈ 0.013 M pl. The random matrix analysis then predicts, and we exhibit, axion diameters ≈ M pl for the precise vacuum parameters found in [1]. Our results provide a framework for pursuing large-field axion inflation in well-understood flux vacua.
Searching for inflation in simple string theory models: An astrophysical perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertzberg, Mark P.; Tegmark, Max; Kachru, Shamit; Shelton, Jessie; Özcan, Onur
2007-11-01
Attempts to connect string theory with astrophysical observation are hampered by a jargon barrier, where an intimidating profusion of orientifolds, Kähler potentials, etc. dissuades cosmologists from attempting to work out the astrophysical observables of specific string theory solutions from the recent literature. We attempt to help bridge this gap by giving a pedagogical exposition with detailed examples, aimed at astrophysicists and high energy theorists alike, of how to compute predictions for familiar cosmological parameters when starting with a 10-dimensional string theory action. This is done by investigating inflation in string theory, since inflation is the dominant paradigm for how early universe physics determines cosmological parameters. We analyze three explicit string models from the recent literature, each containing an infinite number of vacuum solutions. Our numerical investigation of some natural candidate inflatons, the so-called “moduli fields,” fails to find inflation. We also find in the simplest models that, after suitable field redefinitions, vast numbers of these vacua differ only in an overall constant multiplying the effective inflaton potential, a difference which affects neither the potential’s shape nor its ability to support slow-roll inflation. This illustrates that even having an infinite number of vacua does not guarantee having inflating ones. This may be an artifact of the simplicity of the models that we study. Instead, more complicated string theory models appear to be required, suggesting that identifying the inflating subset of the string landscape will be challenging.
Evaluation of overlaps between arbitrary fermionic quasiparticle vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avez, B.; Bender, M.
2012-03-01
We derive an expression that allows for the unambiguous evaluation of the overlap between two arbitrary quasiparticle vacua, including its sign. Our expression is based on the Pfaffian of a skew-symmetric matrix, extending the overlap formula recently proposed by Robledo [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.79.021302 79, 021302(R) (2009)] to the most general case of quasiparticle vacua, including the one of the overlap between two different blocked n-quasiparticle states for either even or odd systems. The powerfulness of the method is illustrated for a few typical matrix elements that appear in realistic angular-momentum-restored generator coordinate method calculations when breaking time-reversal invariance and using the full model space of occupied single-particle states.
Universal dS vacua in STU-models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blåbäck, J.; Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.
2015-10-01
Stable de Sitter solutions in minimal F-term supergravity are known to lie close to Minkowski critical points. We consider a class of STU-models arising from type IIB compactifications with generalised fluxes. There, we apply an analytical method for solving the equations of motion for the moduli fields based on the idea of treating derivatives of the superpotential of different orders up to third as independent objects. In particular, supersymmetric and no-scale Minkowski solutions are singled out by physical reasons. Focusing on the study of dS vacua close to supersymmetric Minkowski points, we are able to elaborate a complete analytical treatment of the mass matrix based on the sGoldstino bound. This leads to a class of interesting universal dS vacua. We finally explore a similar possibility around no-scale Minkowski points and discuss some examples.
Metastable Vacua and D-branes at the Conifold
Argurio, Riccardo; Bertolini, Matteo; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2007-04-04
We consider quiver gauge theories arising on D-branes at simple Calabi-Yau singularities (quotients of the conifold). These theories have metastable supersymmetry breaking vacua. The field theoretic mechanism is basically the one exhibited by the examples of Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih in SUSY QCD. In a dual description, the SUSY breaking is captured by the presence of anti-branes. In comparison to our earlier related work, the main improvements of the present construction are that we can reach the free magnetic range of the SUSY QCD theory where the existence of the metastable vacua is on firm footing, and we can see explicitly how the small masses for the quark flavors (necessary to the existence of the SUSY breaking vacua) are dynamically stabilized. One crucial mass term is generated by a stringy instanton. Finally, our models naturally incorporate R-symmetry breaking in the non-supersymmetric vacuum, in a way similar to the examples of Kitano, Ooguri and Ookouchi.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, David P.
1988-01-01
Cosmic strings are linear topological defects which are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characterisitc microwave background anisotropy. It was recently discovered that details of cosmic string evolution are very differnt from the so-called standard model that was assumed in most of the string-induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain.
Bennett, D.P.
1988-07-01
Cosmic strings are linear topological defects that are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation that are based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characteristic microwave background anistropy. It has recently been discovered by F. Bouchet and myself that details of cosmic string evolution are very different from the so-called ''standard model'' that has been assumed in most of the string induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain. 29 refs., 9 figs.
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2009-09-15
Recent astrophysical observations have motivated novel theoretical models of the dark matter sector. A class of such models predicts the existence of GeV scale cosmic strings that communicate with the standard model sector by Aharonov-Bohm interactions with electrically charged particles. We discuss the cosmology of these 'dark strings' and investigate possible observational signatures. More elaborate dark sector models are argued to contain hybrid topological defects that may also have observational signatures.
Cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, Edmund
1988-01-01
The possible consequences of forming cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings in the early universe are discussed. Lecture 1 describes the group theoretic reasons for and the field theoretic reasons why cosmic strings can form in spontaneously broken gauge theories. Lecture 2 discusses the accretion of matter onto string loops, emphasizing the scenario with a cold dark matter dominated universe. In lecture 3 superconducting cosmic strings are discussed, as is a mechanism which leads to the formation of structure from such strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumitomo, Yoske; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wong, Sam S. C.
2013-07-01
We study a racetrack model in the presence of the leading α'-correction in flux compactification in Type IIB string theory, for the purpose of getting conceivable de-Sitter vacua in the large compactified volume approximation. Unlike the Kähler Uplift model studied previously, the α'-correction is more controllable for the meta-stable de-Sitter vacua in the racetrack case since the constraint on the compactified volume size is very much relaxed. We find that the vacuum energy density Λ for de-Sitter vacua approaches zero exponentially as the volume grows. We also analyze properties of the probability distribution of Λ in this class of models. As in other cases studied earlier, the probability distribution again peaks sharply at Λ = 0. We also study the Racetrack Kähler Uplift model in the Swiss-Cheese type model.
Complex linear effective theory and supersymmetry breaking vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farakos, Fotis; von Unge, Rikard
2015-02-01
We calculate the low-energy effective action of massless and massive complex linear superfields coupled to a massive U(1) vector multiplet. Our calculations include superspace higher-derivative corrections and therefore go beyond previous results. Among the superspace higher derivatives, we find that terms that lead to a deformation of the auxiliary field potential and may break supersymmetry are also generated. We show that the supersymmetry breaking vacua can only be trusted if there exists a hierarchy between the higher-order terms. A renormalization group analysis shows that generically a hierarchy is not generated by the quantum corrections.
On elliptic fibrations and F-theory compactifications of string vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullwood, James
We investigate some algebro-geometric aspects of several families of elliptic fibrations relevant for F-theory model building along with some physical applications. In particular, we compute topological invariants of elliptic fibrations via 'Sethi-Vafa-Witten formulas', which relate the given invariant of the total space of the fibration to invariants of the base. We find that these invariants can often be computed in a base-independent manner, and moreover, can be computed for all possible dimensions of a base at once. As such, we construct generating series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, Enrique; Meessen, Patrick
1999-02-01
This is the written version of a set of introductory lectures to string theory. The lectures were given at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in the semester 1997/98 and at the VI Escuela de Otoño de Física Teórica, held in Santiago de Compostela (10-23 september 1998).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…
Volterra distortions, spinning strings, and cosmic defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puntigam, Roland A.; Soleng, Harald H.
1997-05-01
Cosmic strings, as topological spacetime defects, show striking resemblance to defects in solid continua: distortions, which can be classified into disclinations and dislocations, are line-like defects characterized by a delta-function-valued curvature and torsion distribution giving rise to rotational and translational holonomy. We exploit this analogy and investigate how distortions can be adapted in a systematic manner from solid-state systems to Einstein - Cartan gravity. As distortions are efficiently described within the framework of an 0264-9381/14/5/017/img5 gauge theory of solid continua with line defects, we are led in a straightforward way to a Poincaré gauge approach to gravity which is a natural framework for introducing the notion of distorted spacetimes. Constructing all ten possible distorted spacetimes, we recover, inter alia, the well known exterior spacetime of a spin-polarized cosmic string as a special case of such a geometry. In a second step, we search for matter distributions which, in Einstein - Cartan gravity, act as sources of distorted spacetimes. The resulting solutions, appropriately matched to the distorted vacua, are cylindrically symmetric and are interpreted as spin-polarized cosmic strings and cosmic dislocations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraniotis, G. V.
In this work, we review recent work on string cosmology. The need for an inflationary era is well known. Problems of Standard Cosmology such as horizon, flatness, monopole and entropy find an elegant solution in the inflationary scenario. On the other hand no adequate inflationary model has been constructed so far. In this review we discuss the attempts that have been made in the field of string theory for obtaining an adequate Cosmological Inflationary Epoch. In particular, orbifold compactifications of string theory which are constrained by target-space duality symmetry offer as natural candidates for the role of inflatons the orbifold moduli. Orbifold moduli dynamics is very constrained by duality symmetry and offers a concrete framework for discussing Cosmological Inflation. We discuss the resulting cosmology assuming that nonperturbative dynamics generates a moduli potential which respects target-space modular invariance. Various modular forms for the nonperturbative superpotential and Kähler potential which include the absolute modular invariant j(T) besides the Dedekind eta function η(T) are discussed. We also review scale-factor duality and pre-Big-Bang scenarios in which inflation is driven by the kinetic terms of the dilaton modulus. In this context we discuss the problem of graceful exit and review recent attempts for solving the problem of exiting from inflation. The possibility of obtaining inflation through the D-terms in string models with anomalous UA(1) and other Abelian factors is reviewed. In this context we discuss how the slow-roll problem in supergravity models with F-term inflation can be solved by D-term inflation. We also briefly review the consequences of duality for a generalized Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the structure of space-time at short scales. The problem of the Cosmological Constant is also briefly discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoover, Todd F.
2010-01-01
The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…
String mediated phase transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.
1988-01-01
It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.
Three-charge black holes and quarter BPS states in Little String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giveon, Amit; Harvey, Jeffrey; Kutasov, David; Lee, Sungjay
2015-12-01
We show that the system of k NS5-branes wrapping {T}^4× {S}^1 has non-trivial vacuum structure. Different vacua have different spectra of 1 /4 BPS states that carry momentum and winding around the S 1. In one vacuum, such states are described by black holes; in another, they can be thought of as perturbative BPS states in Double Scaled Little String Theory. In general, both kinds of states are present. We compute the degeneracy of perturbative BPS states exactly, and show that it differs from that of the corresponding black holes. We comment on the implication of our results to the black hole microstate program, UV/IR mixing in Little String Theory, string thermodynamics, the string/black hole transition, and other issues.
Non-perturbative N = 1 strings from geometric singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayr, P.
2000-03-01
The study of curved D-brane geometries in type II strings implies a general relation between local singularities icons/Journals/Common/calW" ALT="calW" ALIGN="TOP"/> of Calabi-Yau manifolds and gravity-free supersymmetric quantum field theories. The minimal supersymmetric case is described by F-theory compactifications on icons/Journals/Common/calW" ALT="calW" ALIGN="TOP"/> and can be used as a starting point to define minimal supersymmetric heterotic string compactifications on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds with holomorphic, stable gauge backgrounds. The geometric construction generalizes to non-perturbative vacua with 5-branes and provides a framework to study non-perturbative dynamics of the heterotic theory.
Effect of dark strings on semilocal strings
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2009-12-15
Dark strings have recently been suggested to exist in new models of dark matter that explain the excessive electronic production in the Galaxy. We study the interaction of these dark strings with semilocal strings which are solutions of the bosonic sector of the standard model in the limitsin{sup 2}{theta}{sub w}=1, where {theta}{sub w} is the Weinberg angle. While embedded Abelian-Higgs strings exist for generic values of the coupling constants, we show that semilocal solutions with nonvanishing condensate inside the string core exist only above a critical value of the Higgs to gauge boson mass ratio when interacting with dark strings. Above this critical value, which is greater than unity, the energy per unit length of the semilocal-dark string solutions is always smaller than that of the embedded Abelian-Higgs-dark string solutions and we show that Abelian-Higgs-dark strings become unstable above this critical value. Different from the noninteracting case, we would thus expect semilocal strings to be stable for values of the Higgs to gauge boson mass ratio larger than unity. Moreover, the one-parameter family of solutions present in the noninteracting case ceases to exist when semilocal strings interact with dark strings.
AdS and dS Entropy from String Junctions or The Function of Junction Conjunctions
Silverstein, Eva M
2003-09-09
Flux compactifications of string theory exhibiting the possibility of discretely tuning the cosmological constant to small values have been constructed. The highly tuned vacua in this discretuum have curvature radii which scale as large powers of the flux quantum numbers, exponential in the number of cycles in the compactification. By the arguments of Susskind/Witten (in the AdS case) and Gibbons/Hawking (in the dS case), we expect correspondingly large entropies associated with these vacua. If they are to provide a dual description of these vacua on their Coulomb branch, branes traded for the flux need to account for this entropy at the appropriate energy scale. In this note, we argue that simple string junctions and webs ending on the branes can account for this large entropy, obtaining a rough estimate for junction entropy that agrees with the existing rough estimates for the spacing of the discretuum. In particular, the brane entropy can account for the (A)dS entropy far away from string scale correspondence limits.
String vertex operators and cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skliros, Dimitri; Hindmarsh, Mark
2011-12-01
We construct complete sets of (open and closed string) covariant coherent state and mass eigenstate vertex operators in bosonic string theory. This construction can be used to study the evolution of fundamental cosmic strings as predicted by string theory, and is expected to serve as a self-contained prototype toy model on which realistic cosmic superstring vertex operators can be based. It is also expected to be useful for other applications where massive string vertex operators are of interest. We pay particular attention to all the normalization constants, so that these vertices lead directly to unitary S-matrix elements.
Pre-inflationary clues from String Theory?
Kitazawa, N.; Sagnotti, A. E-mail: sagnotti@sns.it
2014-04-01
''Brane supersymmetry breaking'' occurs in String Theory when the only available combinations of D-branes and orientifolds are not mutually BPS and yet do not introduce tree-level tachyon instabilities. It is characterized by the emergence of a steep exponential potential, and thus by the absence of maximally symmetric vacua. The corresponding low-energy supergravity admits intriguing spatially-flat cosmological solutions where a scalar field is forced to climb up toward the steep potential after an initial singularity, and additional milder terms can inject an inflationary phase during the ensuing descent. We show that, in the resulting power spectra of scalar perturbations, an infrared suppression is typically followed by a pre-inflationary peak that reflects the end of the climbing phase and can lie well apart from the approximately scale invariant profile. A first look at WMAP9 raw data shows that, while the χ{sup 2} fits for the low-ℓ CMB angular power spectrum are clearly compatible with an almost scale invariant behavior, they display nonetheless an eye-catching preference for this type of setting within a perturbative string regime.
Evidence for string substructure
Bergman, O.
1996-06-01
The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes.
Constraint Reasoning Over Strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin
2003-01-01
This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.
STRINGVACUA. A Mathematica package for studying vacuum configurations in string phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, James; He, Yang-Hui; Ilderton, Anton; Lukas, André
2009-01-01
We give a simple tutorial introduction to the Mathematica package STRINGVACUA, which is designed to find vacua of string-derived or inspired four-dimensional N=1 supergravities. The package uses powerful algebro-geometric methods, as implemented in the free computer algebra system Singular, but requires no knowledge of the mathematics upon which it is based. A series of easy-to-use Mathematica modules are provided which can be used both in string theory and in more general applications requiring fast polynomial computations. The use of these modules is illustrated throughout with simple examples. Program summaryProgram title: STRINGVACUA Catalogue identifier: AEBZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31 050 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 163 832 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: "Mathematica" syntax Computer: Home and office spec desktop and laptop machines, networked or stand alone Operating system: Windows XP (with Cygwin), Linux, Mac OS, running Mathematica V5 or above RAM: Varies greatly depending on calculation to be performed Classification: 11.1 External routines: Linux: The program "Singular" is called from Mathematica. Windows: "Singular" is called within the Cygwin environment from Mathematica. Nature of problem: A central problem of string-phenomenology is to find stable vacua in the four-dimensional effective theories which result from compactification. Solution method: We present an algorithmic method, which uses techniques of algebraic geometry, to find all of the vacua of any given string-phenomenological system in a huge class. Running time: Varies greatly depending on calculation requested.
Emergence of spontaneously broken supersymmetry on an anti-D3-brane in KKLT dS vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallosh, Renata; Wrase, Timm
2014-12-01
The KKLT construction of de Sitter vacua includes an uplifting term coming from an anti-D3-brane. Here we show how this term can arise via spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry, based on the emergence of a nilpotent chiral supermultiplet on the world-volume of the anti-D3-brane. We establish and use the fact that both the DBI as well as the WZ term, with account of orientifolding, acquire a form of the Volkov-Akulov action. For an O3 orientifold involution of ℝ9,1 we demonstrate the cancellation between the fermionic parts of the DBI and WZ term for the D3-brane action. For the anti-D3-brane we show that the DBI action and the WZ action combine and lead to the emergence of the goldstino multiplet which is responsible for spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. This provides a string theoretic explanation for the supersymmetric uplifting term in the KKLT effective supergravity model supplemented by a nilpotent chiral multiplet.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turok, Neil
1988-01-01
It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation.
Stabilizing all geometric moduli in heterotic Calabi-Yau vacua
Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Lukas, Andre; Ovrut, Burt
2011-05-27
We propose a scenario to stabilize all geometric moduli - that is, the complex structure, Kähler moduli and the dilaton - in smooth heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications without Neveu-Schwarz three-form flux. This is accomplished using the gauge bundle required in any heterotic compactification, whose perturbative effects on the moduli are combined with non-perturbative corrections. We argue that, for appropriate gauge bundles, all complex structure and a large number of other moduli can be perturbatively stabilized - in the most restrictive case, leaving only one combination of Kähler moduli and the dilaton as a flat direction. At this stage, the remaining modulimore » space consists of Minkowski vacua. That is, the perturbative superpotential vanishes in the vacuum without the necessity to fine-tune flux. Finally, we incorporate non-perturbative effects such as gaugino condensation and/or instantons. These are strongly constrained by the anomalous U(1) symmetries which arise from the required bundle constructions. We present a specific example, with a consistent choice of non-perturbative effects, where all remaining flat directions are stabilized in an AdS vacuum.« less
Stabilizing all geometric moduli in heterotic Calabi-Yau vacua
Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Lukas, Andre; Ovrut, Burt
2011-05-27
We propose a scenario to stabilize all geometric moduli - that is, the complex structure, Kähler moduli and the dilaton - in smooth heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications without Neveu-Schwarz three-form flux. This is accomplished using the gauge bundle required in any heterotic compactification, whose perturbative effects on the moduli are combined with non-perturbative corrections. We argue that, for appropriate gauge bundles, all complex structure and a large number of other moduli can be perturbatively stabilized - in the most restrictive case, leaving only one combination of Kähler moduli and the dilaton as a flat direction. At this stage, the remaining moduli space consists of Minkowski vacua. That is, the perturbative superpotential vanishes in the vacuum without the necessity to fine-tune flux. Finally, we incorporate non-perturbative effects such as gaugino condensation and/or instantons. These are strongly constrained by the anomalous U(1) symmetries which arise from the required bundle constructions. We present a specific example, with a consistent choice of non-perturbative effects, where all remaining flat directions are stabilized in an AdS vacuum.
Vacua and correlators in hyperbolic de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitrakopoulos, Fotios V.; Kabir, Laurens; Mosk, Benjamin; Parikh, Maulik; van der Schaar, Jan Pieter
2015-06-01
We study the power- and bi-spectrum of vacuum fluctuations in a hyperbolic section of de Sitter space, comparing two states of physical interest: the Bunch-Davies and hyperbolic vacuum. We introduce a one-parameter family of de Sitter hyperbolic sections and their natural vacua, and identify a limit in which it reduces to the planar section and the corresponding Bunch-Davies vacuum state. Selecting the Bunch-Davies vacuum for a massless scalar field implies a mixed reduced density matrix in a hyperbolic section of de Sitter space. We stress that in the Bunch-Davies state the hyperbolic de Sitter n-point correlation functions have to match the planar de Sitter n-point correlation functions. The expressions for the planar and hyperbolic Bunch-Davies correlation functions only appear different because of the transformation from planar to hyperbolic coordinates. Initial state induced deviations from the standard inflationary predictions are instead obtained by considering the pure hyperbolic vacuum, as we verify explicitly by computing the power- and bi-spectrum. For the bi-spectrum in the hyperbolic vacuum we find that the corrections as compared to the standard Bunch-Davies result are not enhanced in specific momentum configurations and strongly suppressed for momenta large compared to the hyperbolic curvature scale. We close with some final remarks, in particular regarding the implications of these results for more realistic inflationary bubble scenarios.
Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pati, Jogesh C.
In the first part of this paper, we explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity — be it string/M-theory or a reincarnation — this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)L × SU(2)R × SU(4)c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M-theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.
Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology
Pati, Jogesh C.
2006-06-09
In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x SU(4){sup c} or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.
Pfaffian quantum Hall state made simple: Multiple vacua and domain walls on a thin torus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergholtz, E. J.; Kailasvuori, J.; Wikberg, E.; Hansson, T. H.; Karlhede, A.
2006-08-01
We analyze the Moore-Read Pfaffian state on a thin torus. The known sixfold degeneracy is realized by two inequivalent crystalline states with a four- and twofold degeneracy, respectively. The fundamental quasihole and quasiparticle excitations are domain walls between these vacua, and simple counting arguments give a Hilbert space of dimension 2n-1 for 2n-k holes and k particles at fixed positions and assign each a charge ±e/4 . This generalizes the known properties of the hole excitations in the Pfaffian state as deduced using conformal field theory techniques. Numerical calculations using a model Hamiltonian and a small number of particles support the presence of a stable phase with degenerate vacua and quarter-charged domain walls also away from the thin-torus limit. A spin-chain Hamiltonian encodes the degenerate vacua and the various domain walls.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, A. Daniel (Inventor); Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
Method and system are disclosed for determining individual string resistance in a network of strings when the current through a parallel connected string is unknown and when the voltage across a series connected string is unknown. The method/system of the invention involves connecting one or more frequency-varying impedance components with known electrical characteristics to each string and applying a frequency-varying input signal to the network of strings. The frequency-varying impedance components may be one or more capacitors, inductors, or both, and are selected so that each string is uniquely identifiable in the output signal resulting from the frequency-varying input signal. Numerical methods, such as non-linear regression, may then be used to resolve the resistance associated with each string.
Steer, Daniele A.; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2011-02-15
The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons--the ''gravitational Aharonov-Bohm'' effect--and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string scale. Further, cusps emit a beam of photons, kinks emit along a curve, and the emission at a kink-kink collision is in all directions. The emission of light from cosmic strings could provide an important new observational signature of cosmic strings that is within reach of current experiments for a range of string tensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardona, Biel; Gomis, Joaquim; Pons, Josep M.
2016-07-01
We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.
Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.
1993-03-02
The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.
Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.
1993-01-01
The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.
Donaire, M.; Rajantie, A.
2006-03-15
We argue that cosmic strings with high winding numbers generally form in first-order gauge symmetry breaking phase transitions, and we demonstrate this using computer simulations. These strings are heavier than single-winding strings and therefore more easily observable. Their cosmological evolution may also be very different.
[The string of Einthoven's string galvanometer].
Wyers, P J
1996-01-01
The Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) published in 1901 his construction of a string galvanometer. With this apparatus he opened the era for electrocardiography. As the quality of his instrument largely depended on the string of the string galvanometer it is surprising to note that in his publications Einthoven never mentioned the exact way of producing the string. However, Einthoven's hand written laboratory notes are preserved at the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. From these notes it comes clear what problems Einthoven had with the string. To get a very thin thread of quarts he first used the method of shooting the thread as was described by Boys (1887), later the blowing method of Nichols (1894). The silvering of the thread was done first chemically, later by cathode spray. In all cases premature breaking of the thread was a nuisance. Because of these failures Einthoven might have decided not to publish any details. PMID:11624925
Phenomenological analysis of heterotic strings: Non-abelian constructions and landscape studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasnik, Vaibhav Hemant
String theory offers the unique promise of unifying all the known forces in nature. However, the internal consistency of the theory requires that spacetime have more than four dimensions. As a result, the extra dimensions must be compactified in some manner and how this compactification takes place is critical for determining the low-energy physical predictions of the theory. In this thesis we examine two distinct consequences of this fact. First, almost all of the prior research in string model-building has examined the consequences of compactifying on so-called "abelian" orbifolds. However, the most general class of compactifications, namely those on non-abelian orbifolds, remains almost completely unexplored. This thesis focuses on the low-energy phenomenological consequences of compactifying strings on non-abelian orbifolds. One of the main interests in pursuing these theories is that they can, in principle, naturally give rise to low-energy models which simultaneously have N=1 supersymmetry along with scalar particles transforming in the adjoint of the gauge group. These features, which are exceedingly difficult to achieve through abelian orbifolds, are exciting because they are the key ingredients in understanding how grand unification can emerge from string theory. Second, the need to compactify gives rise to a huge "landscape" of possible resulting low-energy phenomenologies. One of the goals of the landscape program in string theory is then to extract information about the space of string vacua in the form of statistical correlations between phenomenological features that are otherwise uncorrelated in field theory. Such correlations would thus represent features of string theory that hold independently of a vacuum-selection principle. In this thesis, we study statistical correlations between two features which are likely to be central to any potential description of nature at high-energy scales: gauge symmetries and spacetime supersymmetry. We analyze
Semilocal cosmic string networks
Achucarro, Ana; Salmi, Petja; Urrestilla, Jon
2007-06-15
We report on a large-scale numerical study of networks of semilocal cosmic strings in flat space in the parameter regime in which they are perturbatively stable. We find a population of segments with an exponential length distribution and indications of a scaling network without significant loop formation. Very deep in the stability regime strings of superhorizon size grow rapidly and ''percolate'' through the box. We believe these should lead at late times to a population of infinite strings similar to topologically stable strings. However, the strings are very light; scalar gradients dominate the energy density, and the network has thus a global texturelike signature. As a result, the observational constraints, at least from the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, on models predicting semilocal strings should be closer to those on global textures or monopoles, rather than on topologically stable gauged cosmic strings.
String theory effective action; String loop corrections
Tseytlin, A.A. )
1988-01-01
The authors discuss the general ideology of the computation of string loop corrections to the effective action for the massless modes of the string. Both the S-matrix and the sigma-model approaches are presented. It is emphasized that the effective action is more general and better defined object than the S-matrix. In particular, it is finite in spite of modular infinities that may be present in loop amplitudes computed near a wrong vacuum. The case of the disc topology in the open-closed string theory is treated in some detail. Some issues concerning the soft dilation vertex operators related to the infinities of the string amplitudes are discussed.
Which String Breaks? Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frye, Christopher
2011-03-01
Many have seen the common introductory physics demonstration in which a heavy ball hangs from a string, with another identical string hanging freely from the ball. When the instructor pulls the bottom string slowly, the top string breaks. However, when the instructor pulls the bottom string very rapidly, the bottom string breaks. This simple experiment is used to demonstrate inertia and Newton's laws. In The Physics Teacher of November 1996, there is an article in which the authors create a model of this problem in an attempt to explain the outcomes quantitatively. However, their analysis gave strange results. Using an improved model, I will show that the results of this demonstration can be obtained using only simple calculations. This work was funded by a RAMP grant from the University of Central Florida.
Hagmann, C., LLNL
1998-07-09
We have studied numerically the evolution and decay of axion strings. These global defects decay mainly by axion emission and thus contribute to the cosmological axion energy density. The relative importance of this source relative to misalignment production of axions depends on the spectrum. Radiation spectra for various string loop configurations are presented. They support the contention that the string decay contribution is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution from misalignment.
Radionic nonuniform black strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro
2004-01-01
Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel
2006-08-15
We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza
1999-04-01
Global symmetries of the string effective action are employed to generate tilted, homogeneous Bianchi type VIh string cosmologies from a previously known stiff perfect fluid solution to Einstein gravity. The dilaton field is not constant on the surfaces of homogeneity. The future asymptotic state of the models is interpreted as a plane wave and is itself an exact solution to the string equations of motion to all orders in the inverse string tension. An inhomogeneous generalization of the Bianchi type III model is also found.
Introduction to string field theory
Lykken, J.; Raby, S.
1986-01-01
An action is proposed for an interacting closed bosonic string. Our formalism relies heavily on ideas discussed by Witten for the open bosonic string. The gauge fixed quantum action for the fully interacting open bosonic string is obtained.
Covariant Closed String Coherent States
Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri
2011-02-25
We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.
Covariant closed string coherent states.
Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri
2011-02-25
We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops. PMID:21405564
Extra Z^' }s and W^' }s in heterotic-string derived models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraggi, Alon E.; Guzzi, Marco
2015-11-01
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations recently recorded possible excess in the di-boson production at the di-boson invariant mass at around 2 TeV. Such an excess may be produced if there exist additional Z^' } and/or W^' } at that scale. We survey the extra Z^' }s and W^' }s that may arise from semi-realistic heterotic-string vacua in the free fermionic formulation in the seven distinct cases: U(1)_{Z^' }}in SO(10); family universal U(1)_{Z^' }}notin SO(10); non-universal U(1)_{Z^' }}; hidden sector U(1) symmetries and kinetic mixing; left-right symmetric models; Pati-Salam models; leptophobic and custodial symmetries. Each case has a distinct signature associated with the extra symmetry breaking scale. In one of the cases we explore the discovery potential at the LHC using resonant leptoproduction. The existence of an extra vector boson with the reported properties will significantly constrain the space of allowed string vacua.
Cosmic strings with curvature corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boisseau, Bruno; Letelier, Patricio S.
1992-08-01
A generic model of string described by a Lagrangian density that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the string worldsheet is studied. Using a system of coordinates adapted to the string world sheet the equation of motion and the energy-momentum tensor are derived for strings evolving in curved spacetime. We find that the curvature corrections may change the relation between the string energy density and the tension. It can also introduce heat propagation along the string. We also find for the Polyakov as well as Nambu strings with a topological term that the open string end points can travel with a speed less than the velocity of light.
k-strings as fundamental strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giataganas, Dimitrios
2015-05-01
It has been noticed that the k-string observables can be expressed in terms of the fundamental string ones. We identify a sufficient condition for a generic gravity dual background which when satisfied the mapping can be done. The condition is naturally related to a preserved quantity under the T-dualities acting on the Dp-brane describing the high representation Wilson loops. We also find the explicit relation between the observables of the heavy k-quark and the single quark states. As an application to our generic study and motivated by the fact that the anisotropic theories satisfy our condition, we compute the width of the k-string in these theories to find that the logarithmic broadening is still present, but the total result is affected by the anisotropy of the space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, T.
2003-10-01
We briefly review two aspects of string cosmology: 1) the presence of chaos in the generic cosmological solutions of the tree-level low-energy effective actions coming out of string theory, and 2) the remarkable link between the latter chaos and the Weyl groups of some hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault
We briefly review two aspects of string cosmology: (1) the presence of chaos in the generic cosmological solutions of the tree-level low-energy effective actions coming out of string theory, and (2) the remarkable link between the latter chaos and the Weyl groups of some hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras.
Geometric Transitions, Topological Strings, and Generalized Complex Geometry
Chuang, Wu-yen; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2007-06-29
Mirror symmetry is one of the most beautiful symmetries in string theory. It helps us very effectively gain insights into non-perturbative worldsheet instanton effects. It was also shown that the study of mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau flux compactification leads us to the territory of ''Non-Kaehlerity''. In this thesis we demonstrate how to construct a new class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua via generalized geometric transitions. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. From a variety of sources, including super-gravity analysis and KK reduction on SU(3) structure manifolds, we conclude that string theory connects Calabi-Yau spaces to both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds and the resulting manifolds lie in generalized complex geometry. We go on to study the topological twisted models on a class of generalized complex geometry, bi-Hermitian geometry, which is the most general target space for (2, 2) world-sheet theory with non-trivial H flux turned on. We show that the usual Kaehler A and B models are generalized in a natural way. Since the gauged supergravity is the low energy effective theory for the compactifications on generalized geometries, we study the fate of flux-induced isometry gauging in N = 2 IIA and heterotic strings under non-perturbative instanton effects. Interestingly, we find we have protection mechanisms preventing the corrections to the hyper moduli spaces. Besides generalized geometries, we also discuss the possibility of new NS-NS fluxes in a new doubled formalism.
Weigel, H.; Quandt, M.; Graham, N.
2011-03-11
We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius {approx_equal}10{sup -18} m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.
Stable charged cosmic strings.
Weigel, H; Quandt, M; Graham, N
2011-03-11
We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≈10(-18) m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored. PMID:21469786
Regular non-Abelian vacua in N=4, SO(4) gauged supergravity
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Volkov, Mikhail S.
2004-10-15
We present a family of globally regular N=1 vacua in the D=4, N=4 gauged supergravity of Gates and Zwiebach. These solutions are labeled by the ratio {xi} of the two gauge couplings, and for {xi}=0 they reduce to the supergravity monopole previously used for constructing the gravity dual of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory. For {xi}>0 the solutions are asymptotically anti- de Sitter, but with an excess of the solid angle, and they reduce exactly to anti-de Sitter for {xi}=1. Solutions with {xi}<0 are topologically R{sup 1}xS{sup 3}, and for {xi}=-2 they become R{sup 1}xS{sup 3} geometrically. All solutions with {xi}{ne}0 can be promoted to D=11 to become vacua of M-theory.
Ancillary qubit spectroscopy of vacua in cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Lolli, Jared; Baksic, Alexandre; Nagy, David; Manucharyan, Vladimir E; Ciuti, Cristiano
2015-05-01
We investigate theoretically how the spectroscopy of an ancillary qubit can probe cavity (circuit) QED ground states containing photons. We consider three classes of systems (Dicke, Tavis-Cummings, and Hopfield-like models), where nontrivial vacua are the result of ultrastrong coupling between N two-level systems and a single-mode bosonic field. An ancillary qubit detuned with respect to the boson frequency is shown to reveal distinct spectral signatures depending on the type of vacua. In particular, the Lamb shift of the ancilla is sensitive to both ground state photon population and correlations. Backaction of the ancilla on the cavity ground state is investigated, taking into account the dissipation via a consistent master equation for the ultrastrong coupling regime. The conditions for high-fidelity measurements are determined. PMID:26001000
Closed string cohomology in open string field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moeller, Nicolas; Sachs, Ivo
2011-07-01
We show that closed string states in bosonic string field theory are encoded in the cyclic cohomology of cubic open string field theory (OSFT) which, in turn, classifies the deformations of OSFT. This cohomology is then shown to be independent of the open string background. Exact elements correspond to closed string gauge transformations, generic boundary deformations of Witten's 3-vertex and infinitesimal shifts of the open string background. Finally it is argued that the closed string cohomology and the cyclic cohomology of OSFT are isomorphic to each other.
Supersymmetry and String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dine, Michael
2016-01-01
Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; A note on choice of metric; Text website; Part I. Effective Field Theory: The Standard Model, Supersymmetry, Unification: 1. Before the Standard Model; 2. The Standard Model; 3. Phenomenology of the Standard Model; 4. The Standard Model as an effective field theory; 5. Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem; 6. Grand unification; 7. Magnetic monopoles and solitons; 8. Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies; Part II. Supersymmetry: 9. Supersymmetry; 10. A first look at supersymmetry breaking; 11. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model; 12. Supersymmetric grand unification; 13. Supersymmetric dynamics; 14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking; 15. Theories with more than four conserved supercharges; 16. More supersymmetric dynamics; 17. An introduction to general relativity; 18. Cosmology; 19. Astroparticle physics and inflation; Part III. String Theory: 20. Introduction; 21. The bosonic string; 22. The superstring; 23. The heterotic string; 24. Effective actions in ten dimensions; 25. Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds; 26. Compactification of string theory II. Calabi–Yau compactifications; 27. Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling; 28. Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory; 29. Large and warped extra dimensions; 30. The landscape: a challenge to the naturalness principle; 31. Coda: where are we headed?; Part IV. The Appendices: Appendix A. Two-component spinors; Appendix B. Goldstone's theorem and the pi mesons; Appendix C. Some practice with the path integral in field theory; Appendix D. The beta function in supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory; References; Index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guettler, Knut
It is to the credit of François Tourte (Paris, ca. 1747-1835) that modern bows give a more direct impact on the string than their predecessors. This feature is of utmost importance when applying off-string, bouncing techniques such as spiccato and ricochet, but even for a stroke such as martelé, where quick reduction of bow force is required during the attack. With Tourte's concave-cambered bow, the bow force increases rapidly when the bow stick is falling or pressed against the string. With the old concave or straight bows, more movement, and thus time, was required for establishing comparable bow force.
Witten, Edward
2015-10-21
The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University June 23-27, 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the meeting was to provide a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. This brief report lists committee members and speakers but contains no scientific information. Note that the talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml.
Supermassive cosmic string compactifications
Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Reina, Borja; Sousa, Kepa; Urrestilla, Jon E-mail: borja.reina@ehu.es E-mail: jon.urrestilla@ehu.es
2014-06-01
The space-time dimensions transverse to a static straight cosmic string with a sufficiently large tension (supermassive cosmic strings) are compact and typically have a singularity at a finite distance form the core. In this paper, we discuss how the presence of multiple supermassive cosmic strings in the 4d Abelian-Higgs model can induce the spontaneous compactification of the transverse space and explicitly construct solutions where the gravitational background becomes regular everywhere. We discuss the embedding of this model in N = 1 supergravity and show that some of these solutions are half-BPS, in the sense that they leave unbroken half of the supersymmetries of the model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, Ruth
1988-01-01
The effect of an infinite cosmic string on a cosmological background is investigated. It is found that the metric is approximately a scaled version of the empty space string metric, i.e., conical in nature. Results are used to place bounds on the amount of cylindrical gravitational radiation currently emitted by such a string. The gravitational radiation equations are then analyzed explicitly and it is shown that even initially large disturbances are rapidly damped as the expansion proceeds. The implications of the gravitational radiation background and the limitations of the quadrupole formula are discussed.
Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.
2008-10-07
A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.
Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.
1985-12-15
We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.
Quantum Strings and Superstrings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigore, D. R.
In the first sections of this paper we give an elementary but rigorous approach to the construction of the quantum Bosonic and supersymmetric string system continuing the analysis of Dimock. This includes the construction of the DDF operators without using the vertex algebras. Next we give a rigorous proof of the equivalence between the light-cone and the covariant quantization methods. Finally, we provide a new and simple proof of the BRST quantization for these string models.
Ahlén, Olof
2015-12-17
These proceedings from the second Caesar Lattes meeting in Rio de Janeiro 2015 are a brief introduction to how automorphic forms appear in the low energy effective action of maximally supersymmetric string theory. The explicit example of the R{sup 4}-interaction of type IIB string theory in ten dimensions is discussed. Its Fourier expansion is interpreted in terms of perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the four graviton amplitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahlén, Olof
2015-12-01
These proceedings from the second Caesar Lattes meeting in Rio de Janeiro 2015 are a brief introduction to how automorphic forms appear in the low energy effective action of maximally supersymmetric string theory. The explicit example of the R4-interaction of type IIB string theory in ten dimensions is discussed. Its Fourier expansion is interpreted in terms of perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the four graviton amplitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frampton, Paul H.
2016-04-01
In this note, I recollect a two-week period in September 1968 when I factorized the Veneziano model using string variables in Chicago. Professor Yoichiro Nambu went on to calculate the N-particle dual resonance model and then to factorize it on an exponential degeneracy of states. That was in 1968 and the following year 1969 he discovered the string action. I also include some other reminiscences of Nambu who passed away on July 5, 2015.
Hydroball string sensing system
Hurwitz, Michael J.; Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Squarer, David
1991-01-01
A hydroball string sensing system for a nuclear reactor that includes stainless tubes positioned to guide hydroball strings into and out of the nuclear reactor core. A sensor such as an ultrasonic transducer transmitter and receiver is positioned outside of the nuclear reactor core and adjacent to the tube. The presence of an object such a bullet member positioned at an end a hydroball string, or any one of the hydroballs interrupts the transmission of ultrasound from the transmitter to the receiver. Alternatively, if the bullet member and hydroballs include a ferritic material, either a Hall effect sensor or other magnetic field sensors such as a magnetic field rate of change sensor can be used to detect the location and position of a hydroball string. Placing two sensors along the tube with a known distance between the sensors enables the velocity of a hydroball string to be determined. This determined velocity can be used to control the flow rate of a fluid within the tube so as to control the velocity of the hydroball string.
Open String on Symmetric Product
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuji, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Yutaka
We discuss some basic properties of the open string on the symmetric product which is supposed to describe the open string field theory in discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ). We first derive the consistent twisted boundary conditions for Annulus/Möbius/Klein Bottle diagrams and give the explicit form of the corresponding amplitude. They have the interpretation as the long open (or closed) string amplitude but the world sheet topology viewed from the short string and from the long string is in general different. Boundary (cross-cap) states of the short string are classified into three categories, the boundary (cross-cap) states of the long string and the "joint" state which connects two strings. The partition function has the typical structure of the string field theory in DLCQ. Tadpole condition is also analyzed and gives a reasonable gauge group SO(213).
Heterotic non-Abelian string of a finite length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monin, S.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2016-06-01
We consider non-Abelian strings in N =2 supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with the U (N ) gauge group and Nf=N quark flavors deformed by a mass term for the adjoint matter. This deformation breaks N =2 supersymmetry down to N =1 . Dynamics of orientational zero modes on the string world sheet are described then by C P (N -1 ) model with N =(0 ,2 ) supersymmetry. We study the string of a finite length L assuming compactification on a cylinder (periodic boundary conditions). The world-sheet theory is solved in the large-N approximation. At N =∞ we find a rich phase structure in the (L ,u ) plane where u is a deformation parameter. At large L and intermediate u we find a phase with broken Z2 N symmetry, N vacua and a mass gap. At large values of L and u still larger we have the Z2 N-symmetric phase with a single vacuum and massless fermions. In both phases N =(0 ,2 ) supersymmetry is spontaneously broken. We also observe a phase with would-be broken SU (N ) symmetry at small L (it is broken only for N =∞ ). In the latter phase the mass gap vanishes and the vacuum energy is zero in the leading 1 /N approximation. We expect that at large but finite N corrections O (1 /N ) will break N =(0 ,2 ) supersymmetry. Simultaneously, the phase transitions will become rapid crossovers. Finally we discuss how the observed rich phase structure matches the N =(2 ,2 ) limit in which the world-sheet theory has a single phase with the mass gap independent of L .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappelli, Andrea; Castellani, Elena; Colomo, Filippo; Di Vecchia, Paolo
2012-04-01
Part I. Overview: 1. Introduction and synopsis; 2. Rise and fall of the hadronic string G. Veneziano; 3. Gravity, unification, and the superstring J. H. Schwarz; 4. Early string theory as a challenging case study for philosophers E. Castellani; Part II. The Prehistory: The Analytic S-Matrix: 5. Introduction to Part II; 6. Particle theory in the sixties: from current algebra to the Veneziano amplitude M. Ademollo; 7. The path to the Veneziano model H. R. Rubinstein; 8. Two-component duality and strings P. G. O. Freund; 9. Note on the prehistory of string theory M. Gell-Mann; Part III. The Dual Resonance Model: 10. Introduction to Part III; 11. From the S-matrix to string theory P. Di Vecchia; 12. Reminiscence on the birth of string theory J. A. Shapiro; 13. Personal recollections D. Amati; 14. Early string theory at Fermilab and Rutgers L. Clavelli; 15. Dual amplitudes in higher dimensions: a personal view C. Lovelace; 16. Personal recollections on dual models R. Musto; 17. Remembering the 'supergroup' collaboration F. Nicodemi; 18. The '3-Reggeon vertex' S. Sciuto; Part IV. The String: 19. Introduction to Part IV; 20. From dual models to relativistic strings P. Goddard; 21. The first string theory: personal recollections L. Susskind; 22. The string picture of the Veneziano model H. B. Nielsen; 23. From the S-matrix to string theory Y. Nambu; 24. The analogue model for string amplitudes D. B. Fairlie; 25. Factorization in dual models and functional integration in string theory S. Mandelstam; 26. The hadronic origins of string theory R. C. Brower; Part V. Beyond the Bosonic String: 27. Introduction to Part V; 28. From dual fermion to superstring D. I. Olive; 29. Dual models with fermions: memoirs of an early string theorist P. Ramond; 30. Personal recollections A. Neveu; 31. Aspects of fermionic dual models E. Corrigan; 32. The dual quark models K. Bardakci and M. B. Halpern; 33. Remembering the dawn of relativistic strings J.-L. Gervais; 34. Early string theory in
Thickening the string. I. The string perfect dust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stachel, John
1980-04-01
The classical theory of the geometrical string is developed as the theory of a simple, surface-forming timelike bivector field in an arbitrary background space-time. The stress-energy tensor for a perfect dust of such strings is written down, and the conservation laws for such a dust, as well as the equations of motion of the string, are derived from the vanishing of the divergence of the stress-energy tensor. (The boundary conditions for the open string are also derived from the junction conditions for the stress-energy tensor in Appendix A.) The generalization of this model to null strings, and to a perfect fluid of strings, are discussed, and will form the subject of the second and third papers in this series. The problem of a fully general-relativistic string theory, and an alternate approach to the string, based upon defining an acceleration tensor for two- (and higher) dimensional subspaces, are also discussed.
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German
2014-04-15
We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑{sub n=1}{sup ∞}1/E{sub n}{sup p}, with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.
We study the action of picture-changing and spectral flow operators on a ground ring of ghost number zero operators in the chiral BRST cohomology of the closed N=2 string and describe an infinite set of symmetry charges acting on physical states. The transformations of physical string states are compared with symmetries of self-dual gravity which is the effective field theory of the closed N=2 string. We derive all infinitesimal symmetries of the self-dual gravity equations in (2+2)-dimensional space-time and introduce an infinite hierarchy of commuting flows on the moduli space of self-dual metrics. The dependence on moduli parameters can be recovered by solving the equations of the SDG hierarchy associated with an infinite set of Abelian symmetries generated recursively from translations. These nonlocal Abelian symmetries are shown to coincide with the hidden Abelian string symmetries responsible for the vanishing of most scattering amplitudes. Therefore, N=2 string theory ``predicts'' not only self-dual gravity but also the SDG hierarchy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haghighat, Babak; Iqbal, Amer; Kozçaz, Can; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun
2015-03-01
M2 branes suspended between adjacent parallel M5 branes lead to light strings, the `M-strings'. In this paper we compute the elliptic genus of M-strings, twisted by maximally allowed symmetries that preserve 2 d (2, 0) supersymmetry. In a codimension one subspace of parameters this reduces to the elliptic genus of the (4, 4) supersymmetric A n-1 quiver theory in 2 d. We contrast the elliptic genus of N M-strings with the (4, 4) sigma model on the N-fold symmetric product of . For N = 1 they are the same, but for N > 1 they are close, but not identical. Instead the elliptic genus of (4, 4) N M-strings is the same as the elliptic genus of (4, 0) sigma models on the N-fold symmetric product of , but where the right-moving fermions couple to a modification of the tangent bundle. This construction arises from a dual A n-1 quiver 6 d gauge theory with U(1) gauge groups. Moreover, we compute the elliptic genus of domain walls which separate different numbers of M2 branes on the two sides of the wall.
On Fayet-Iliopoulos Terms and de Sitter Vacua in Supergravity: Some Easy Pieces
Catino, Francesca; Villadoro, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua
2012-03-27
We clarify a number of issues on Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) terms in supergravity, keeping the formalism at a minimum and making use of explicit examples. We explain why, if the U(1) vector is massive everywhere in field space, FI terms are not genuine and can always be redefined away or introduced when they are not present. We formulate a simple anomaly-free model with a genuine FI term, a classically stable de Sitter (dS) vacuum and no global symmetries. We explore the relation between N = 2 and N = 1 FI terms by discussing N = 1 truncations of N = 2 models with classically stable dS vacua.
Rainbow vacua of colored higher-spin (A)dS3 gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwak, Seungho; Joung, Euihun; Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rey, Soo-Jong
2016-05-01
We study the color-decoration of higher-spin (anti)-de Sitter gravity in three dimensions. We show that the rainbow vacua, which we found recently for the colored gravity theory, also pertain in the colored higher-spin theory. The color singlet spin-two plays the role of first fundamental form (metric). The difference is that when spontaneous breaking of color symmetry takes place, the Goldstone modes of massless spin-two combine with all other spins and become the maximal-depth partially massless fields of the highest spin in the theory, forming a Regge trajectory.
The Cosmological Constant in Four-Dimensional String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dienes, Keith Roger
1991-02-01
, we surprisingly discover many pairs of models whose partition functions algebraically differ precisely by our expressions. These models thus represent new and unexpectedly degenerate points in the space of string field theory vacua.
Battye, R.A.; Shellard, E.P. |
1995-12-01
We discuss radiative backreaction for global strings described by the Kalb-Ramond action with an analogous derivation to that for the point electron in classical electrodynamics. We show how local corrections to the equations of motion allow one to separate the self-field of the string from that of the radiation field. Modifications to this {open_quote}{open_quote}local backreaction approximation{close_quote}{close_quote} circumvent the runaway solutions, allowing these corrections to be used to evolve string trajectories numerically. Comparisons are made with analytic and numerical radiation calculations from previous work and the merits and limitations of this approach are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}
Tensionless strings from worldsheet symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagchi, Arjun; Chakrabortty, Shankhadeep; Parekh, Pulastya
2016-01-01
We revisit the construction of the tensionless limit of closed bosonic string theory in the covariant formulation in the light of Galilean conformal symmetry that rises as the residual gauge symmetry on the tensionless worldsheet. We relate the analysis of the fundamentally tensionless theory to the tensionless limit that is viewed as a contraction of worldsheet coordinates. Analysis of the quantum regime uncovers interesting physics. The degrees of freedom that appear in the tensionless string are fundamentally different from the usual string states. Through a Bogoliubov transformation on the worldsheet, we link the tensionless vacuum to the usual tensile vacuum. As an application, we show that our analysis can be used to understand physics of strings at very high temperatures and propose that these new degrees of freedom are naturally connected with the long-string picture of the Hagedorn phase of free string theory. We also show that tensionless closed strings behave like open strings.
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertschinger, Edmund
1989-01-01
The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.
Keith Dienes
2009-12-01
We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jejjala, Vishnu; Minic, Djordje; Ng, Y. Jack; Tze, Chia-Hsiung
We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.
Keith Dienes
2010-01-08
We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.
String Theory and Gauge Theories
Maldacena, Juan
2009-02-20
We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.
Conformal Collineations in String Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baysal, Hüsnü; Camci, U.ğur; Tarhan, İsmail; Yilmaz, İhsan; Yavuz, İlhami; Dolgov, A.
In this paper, we study the consequences of the existence of conformal collineations (CC) for string cloud in the context of general relativity. Especially, we interest in special conformal collineation (SCC), generated by a special affine conformal collineation (SACC) in the string cloud. Some results on the restrictions imposed by a conformal collineation symmetry in the string cloud are obtained.
Cosmic D-strings as axionic D-term strings
Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele
2005-11-15
In this work we derive nonsingular BPS string solutions from an action that captures the essential features of a D-brane-anti-D-brane system compactified to four dimensions. The model we consider is a supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model with a D-term potential coupled to an axion-dilaton multiplet. The strings in question are axionic D-term strings which we identify with the D-strings of type II string theory. In this picture the Higgs field represents the open string tachyon of the D-D pair and the axion is dual to a Ramond-Ramond form. The crucial term allowing the existence of nonsingular BPS strings is the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, which is related to the tensions of the D-string and of the parent branes. Despite the presence of the axion, the strings are BPS and carry finite energy, due to the fact that the space gets very slowly decompactified away from the core, screening the long range axion field (or equivalently the theory approaches an infinitely weak 4D coupling). Within our 4D effective action we also identify another class of BPS string solutions (s-strings) which have no ten-dimensional analog, and can only exist after compactification.
Experimenting with Guitar Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LoPresto, Michael C.
2006-11-01
What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a nonmathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.
Bachas, C.P.
1988-01-01
We review the construction and properties of four dimensional string models, using free fermions on the world-sheet. We prove that as opposed to gauge symmetries, broken space-time supersymmetry can only be restored continuously by decompactification. 40 refs.
Music: Instrumental Techniques, Strings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryan, Philip
A course in music which emphasizes harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory one in which pupils will develop skill in playing orchestral string instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault
We briefly review recent work which established the existence of chaos in the generic cosmological solutions of the tree-level low-energy effective actions coming out of string theory, and linked this chaos to the Weyl groups of some hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras.
Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim; Longhi, Giorgio
2007-12-15
We construct a classical nonrelativistic string model in 3+1 dimensions. The model contains a spurion tensor field that is responsible for the noncommutative structure of the model. Under double-dimensional reduction the model reduces to the exotic nonrelativistic particle in 2+1 dimensions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Russev, Stoyan
2013-01-01
A simple experiment demonstrating the excitation of a standing wave in a metal string is presented here. Several tasks using the set-up are considered, which help the students to better understand the standing waves, the interaction between electric current and magnetic field and the resonance phenomena. This can serve also as a good lecture…
McAllister, Liam P.; Silverstein, Eva
2007-10-22
We give an overview of the status of string cosmology. We explain the motivation for the subject, outline the main problems, and assess some of the proposed solutions. Our focus is on those aspects of cosmology that benefit from the structure of an ultraviolet-complete theory.
Experimenting with Guitar Strings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LoPresto, Michael C.
2006-01-01
What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a non-mathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.
Current balancing for battery strings
Galloway, James H.
1985-01-01
A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.
Evolution of cosmic string networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas; Turok, Neil
1989-01-01
A discussion of the evolution and observable consequences of a network of cosmic strings is given. A simple model for the evolution of the string network is presented, and related to the statistical mechanics of string networks. The model predicts the long string density throughout the history of the universe from a single parameter, which researchers calculate in radiation era simulations. The statistical mechanics arguments indicate a particular thermal form for the spectrum of loops chopped off the network. Detailed numerical simulations of string networks in expanding backgrounds are performed to test the model. Consequences for large scale structure, the microwave and gravity wave backgrounds, nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing are calculated.
String theories and millisecond pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.
1988-11-01
We discuss the two ways of connecting string theories (cosmic, fundamental and the connection between them) to the observational reality: (i) radioastronomy observations (millisecond pulsar timing), and (ii) elementary particle phenomenology (compactification schemes). We study the limits imposed on the string parameter Gμ by recent millisecond pulsar timings. Cosmic strings derived from GUTs agree with (i). For cosmic strings derived from fundamental strings themselves there is contradiction between (i) and (ii). One of these scenarios connecting string theory to reality must be revised (or the transition from fundamental into cosmic strings rejected). Meanwhile, millisecond pulsar can select one scenario, or reject both of them. UA 336 Laboratoire Associé au CNRS, Observatoire de Meudon et Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.
Device for balancing parallel strings
Mashikian, Matthew S.
1985-01-01
A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.
String Theory and its Applications - TASI 2010 From meV to the Planck Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dine, Michael; Banks, Thomas; Sachdev, Subir
Overview. 1. Introduction to gauge/gravity duality / J. Polchinski. 2. TASI lectures on holographic space-time, SUSY, and gravitational effective field theory / T. Banks -- LHC physics. 3. Fundamentals of LHC experiments / J. Nielsen. 4. Theoretical particle physics at hadron colliders: an introduction / M. J. Strassler -- String model building, landscape and phenomenology. 5. TASI lectures: particle physics from perturbative and non-perturbative effects in D-Braneworlds / M. Cvetic and J. Halverson. 6. Supergravity and string vacua in various dimensions / W. Taylor. 7. TASI lectures on complex structures / F. Denef. 8. Supersymmetry from the top down / M. Dine -- AdS/CFT applications. 9. The landscape of the Hubbard model / S. Sachdev. 10. Holography for strongly coupled media / D. T. Son. 11. Collisions in anti-de Sitter space, conformal symmetry, and holographic superconductors / S. S. Gubser. 12. Emergence of supersymmetry, gauge theory and string theory in condensed matter systems / S.-S. Lee. 13. Lectures on holographic non-Fermi liquids and quantum phase transitions / N. Iqbal, H. Liu and M. Mezei. 14. The fluid/gravity correspondence / S. Minwalla, V. E. Hubeny and M. Rangamani.
Reheating-volume measure in the string theory landscape
Winitzki, Sergei
2008-12-15
I recently proposed the ''reheating-volume'' (RV) prescription as a possible solution to the measure problem in ''multiverse'' cosmology. The goal of this work is to extend the RV measure to scenarios involving bubble nucleation, such as the string theory landscape. In the spirit of the RV prescription, I propose to calculate the distribution of observable quantities in a landscape that is conditioned in probability to nucleate a finite total number of bubbles to the future of an initial bubble. A general formula for the relative number of bubbles of different types can be derived. I show that the RV measure is well defined and independent of the choice of the initial bubble type, as long as that type supports further bubble nucleation. Applying the RV measure to a generic landscape, I find that the abundance of Boltzmann brains is always negligibly small compared with the abundance of ordinary observers in the bubbles of the same type. As an illustration, I present explicit results for a toy landscape containing four vacuum states, and for landscapes with a single high-energy vacuum and a large number of low-energy vacua.
Superconducting Cosmic Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangui, Alejandro
2000-06-01
In the eventful early moments of the Big Bang, the emerging universe expanded and cooled rapidly. Was this great phase transition perfectly smooth? There are indications that it cannot have been--that topological defects must have formed, just as ice on a freezing pond forms plates with zig-zag boundaries between them. The leading theory holds that these defects would have been cosmic strings, curiously microscopic and massive at the same time. The theory has the rare advantage that its processes can be simulated in the laboratory; also, as astronomical measurements are refined, its predictions can be tested by observation. Alejandro Gangui describes the huge hypothetical strings and recent work that indicates that they may conduct great amounts of electrical current.
Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2006-06-09
In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa is close to the GUT scale or above in many models that have GUT-like phenomenology, as well as some that do not. On the other hand, in some models with Standard Model gauge fields supported on vanishing cycles, it is possible for Fa to be well below the GUT scale.
Mezincescu, Luca; Townsend, Paul K.
2010-11-05
The Nambu-Goto string in a three-dimensional (3D) Minkowski spacetime is quantized preserving Lorentz invariance and parity. The spectrum of massive states contains anyons. An ambiguity in the ground state energy is resolved by the 3D N=1 Green-Schwarz superstring, which has massless ground states describing a dilaton and dilatino, and first-excited states of spin 1/4.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance
2004-01-01
In this article, the authors present an activity that shows students how flight occurs. The "wing on a string" is a simple teacher-made frame that consists of PVC pipe, fishing line, and rubber bands--all readily available hardware store items. The only other materials/tools involved are a sheet of paper, some pieces of a soda straw, a stapler,…
Slagter, R. J.
2010-06-23
We present a cosmic string solution in Einstein-Yang-Mills Gauss-Bonnet theory on a warped 5 dimensional space-time conform the Randall-Sundrum-2 theory. In a simplipied model, we find an exact solutions with exponential decreasing or periodic warp function. In a more general setting, where the metric- and Yang-Mills components depend on both scales and one of the YM components resides in the bulk, we find a time dependent numerical solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallosh, R.
The scale-invariant superspace formulation of a d = 10 Einstein-Yang-Mills system is considered which gives a most economical and clear presentation of the full on-shell content of the theory. A geometrical formulation of the heterotic string theory in superspace with 10+496 bosonic and 16 fermionic coordinates is presented. The relation between this superspace and the anomaly-free d = 10 Einstein-Yang-Mills supergravity is discussed.
QCD with two flavors of Wilson fermions: The QCD vacuum, the Aoki vacuum, and other vacua
Azcoiti, V.; Vaquero, A.; Di Carlo, G.
2009-01-01
We discuss the vacuum structure of QCD with two flavors of Wilson fermions. We derive two possible scenarios: (i) If the spectral density {rho}{sub U}({lambda},{kappa}) of the overlap Hamiltonian in a fixed background gauge field is not symmetric in {lambda}, Hermiticity is violated and Hermiticity violation effects could influence numerical determinations of the {eta} meson mass if we are not near enough to the continuum limit, where Hermiticity should be recovered; (ii) otherwise we argue that, under certain assumptions, new phases appear beside the Aoki phase, which can be characterized by a nonvanishing vacuum expectation value of i{psi}{sub u}{gamma}{sub 5}{psi}{sub u}+i{psi}{sub d}{gamma}{sub 5}{psi}{sub d}, and with vacuum states that cannot be connected with the Aoki vacua by parity-flavor symmetry transformations. Quenched numerical simulations suggest that the second scenario is more likely realized.
A note on smeared branes in flux vacua and gauged supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Fazzi, M.; Van Riet, T.
2014-04-01
In the known examples of flux vacua with calibrated spacetime-filling sources (branes or orientifold planes), one can smear the source in order to perform a standard KK reduction and obtain a lower-dimensional supergravity description. Furthermore, it is expected that the smeared and localized solution preserve equal amounts of supersymmetry. In this note we point out that the AdS7 solution discussed in arXiv:1111.2605 and arXiv:1309.2949 is a counterexample to this common lore. The solution is supersymmetric when the spacetime-filling D6-branes are localized but breaks supersymmetry in the smeared limit. By using the embedding tensor formalism we demonstrate that there is no gauged supergravity description for the solution, regardless of the source being smeared or not. We conjecture that for flux solutions with separation between the KK scale and AdS radius this cannot occur.
de Sitter vacua and supersymmetry breaking in six-dimensional flux compactifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus; Ruehle, Fabian; Schweizer, Julian
2016-07-01
We consider six-dimensional supergravity with Abelian bulk flux compactified on an orbifold. The effective low-energy action can be expressed in terms of N =1 chiral moduli superfields with a gauged shift symmetry. The D -term potential contains two Fayet-Iliopoulos terms which are induced by the flux and by the Green-Schwarz term canceling the gauge anomalies, respectively. The Green-Schwarz term also leads to a correction of the gauge kinetic function which turns out to be crucial for the existence of Minkowski and de Sitter vacua. Moduli stabilization is achieved by the interplay of the D -term and a nonperturbative superpotential. Varying the gauge coupling and the superpotential parameters, the scale of the extra dimensions can range from the GUT scale down to the TeV scale. Supersymmetry is broken by F - and D -terms, and the scale of gravitino, moduli, and modulini masses is determined by the size of the compact dimensions.
Spectral sequences and vacua in {N}=2 gauged linear quantum mechanics with potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Kenny
2016-03-01
We study the behaviour of supersymmetric ground states in a class of one-dimensional {N}=2 abelian gauged linear sigma models, including theories for which the target space is a complete intersection in projective space, and more generally, models with an interaction term introduced by Herbst, Hori and Page in which the vacua correspond to elements of hypercohomology groups of complexes of sheaves. Combining physical insights from recent work by Hori, Kim and Yi with the use of spectral sequences, we propose a way to reconcile the non-linear sigma model description, valid deep within a geometric phase, with the effective Coulomb branch description, valid near a phase boundary. This leads to a physical interpretation of the hypercohomology groups from the perspective of the Coulomb branch, as well as an interpretation for the spectral sequences used to compute them.
Cosmic Evolution of Scalar Fields with Multiple Vacua: Generalized DBI and Quintessence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Changjun; Shen, You-Gen
2016-06-01
We find a method to rewrite the equations of motion of scalar fields, generalized DBI field and quintessence, in the autonomous form for arbitrary scalar potentials. With the aid of this method, we explore the cosmic evolution of generalized DBI field and quintessence with the potential of multiple vacua. Then we find that the scalars are always frozen in the false or true vacuum in the end. Compared to the evolution of quintessence, the generalized DBI field has more times of oscillations around the vacuum of the potential. The reason for this point is that, with the increasing of speed dot {φ }, the friction term of generalized DBI field is greatly decreased. Thus the generalized DBI field acquires more times of oscillations.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2006-07-01
A team of collaborators within the Southwest Regional Partnership (SRP) on Carbon Sequestration developed an interactive software tool to help facilitate discussions involving the science, engineering, economic and policy considerations for a carbon sequestration pilot project. This model illustrates the "String of Pearls" algorithm used to develop a hypothetical carbon dioxide (CO2) transportation network in sequence with existing infrastructure. The "String of Pearls" model can assess geological sink combinations according to their distance from themore » point source (e.g., power plant), relative size (to maintain a useful fill lifetime for a project), relative distance from existing CO2 transportation infrastructure, and other salient project attributes. The results indicate that the cost to capture CO2 at point sources (e.g. power plants) is the largest component of the overall CO2 capture, transportation and storage system's initial cost estimate. The "String of Pearls" Integrated Assessment model can help planners assess these issues using an integrated, systems view when deciding where to develop future carbon sequestration pilot projects. Likely users of this model include partners within the SRP, other regional partnerships and interested individuals, and private industry interested in carbon sequestration systems. The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability and emission trade-offs associated with all stages of carbone sequestration systems analysis.« less
Borns, David J.; Kobos, Peter H.; Malczynski, Leonard A.
2006-07-01
A team of collaborators within the Southwest Regional Partnership (SRP) on Carbon Sequestration developed an interactive software tool to help facilitate discussions involving the science, engineering, economic and policy considerations for a carbon sequestration pilot project. This model illustrates the "String of Pearls" algorithm used to develop a hypothetical carbon dioxide (CO2) transportation network in sequence with existing infrastructure. The "String of Pearls" model can assess geological sink combinations according to their distance from the point source (e.g., power plant), relative size (to maintain a useful fill lifetime for a project), relative distance from existing CO2 transportation infrastructure, and other salient project attributes. The results indicate that the cost to capture CO2 at point sources (e.g. power plants) is the largest component of the overall CO2 capture, transportation and storage system's initial cost estimate. The "String of Pearls" Integrated Assessment model can help planners assess these issues using an integrated, systems view when deciding where to develop future carbon sequestration pilot projects. Likely users of this model include partners within the SRP, other regional partnerships and interested individuals, and private industry interested in carbon sequestration systems. The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability and emission trade-offs associated with all stages of carbone sequestration systems analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johanning, Michael
2016-04-01
We describe the statical and dynamical properties of strings of ions stored in segmented electrodynamical Paul traps with a uniform ion separation. In this work, this specific ion arrangement is achieved by a smooth anharmonic effective potential generated by suitable voltages applied to segmented dc electrodes or by appropriate electrode shaping. We find analytic expressions for the required field, potential and normal mode matrix and find that even finite systems closely reproduce the critical radial binding strength of an infinite size system at the transition from linear to zigzag configuration. From the normal mode matrix, we find that such strings exhibit a solid-state-like band of normal modes and determine the effective spin-spin coupling when the ion string is exposed to a magnetic gradient. We show how the potential, modes and couplings can be altered while still maintaining a homogeneous spacing and present numerical examples, for how this potential can be achieved in either segmented Paul traps or by using an optimized electrode geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, M. A.; Pajares, C.; Vechernin, V. V.
2015-04-01
In the colour string picture with fusion and percolation it is shown that long-range azimuthal-rapidity correlations (ridge) can arise from the superposition of many events with exchange of clusters of different number of strings and not from a single event. Relation of the ridge with the flow harmonics coefficients is derived. By direct Monte Carlo simulations, in the technique previously used to calculate these coefficients, ridge correlations are calculated for AA, pA and pp collisions. The azimuthal anisotropy follows from the assumed quenching of the emitted particles in the strong colour fields inside string clusters. It is confirmed that in pp collisions the ridge structure only appears in rare events with abnormally high multiplicity. Comparison with the experimental data shows a good agreement. Good agreement is also found for pPb collisions. For AA collisions a reasonable agreement is found for both near-side and away-side angular correlations although it worsens at intermediate angles.
Stationary rotating strings as relativistic particle mechanics
Ogawa, Kouji; Ishihara, Hideki; Saito, Shinya; Kozaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyuki
2008-07-15
Stationary rotating strings can be viewed as geodesic motions in appropriate metrics in two-dimensional space. We obtain all solutions describing stationary rotating strings in flat spacetime as an application. These rotating strings have infinite length with various wiggly shapes. Averaged value of the string energy, the angular momentum, and the linear momentum along the string are discussed.
Effects of anisotropic dynamics on cosmic strings
Kunze, Kerstin E.
2011-08-01
The dynamics of cosmic strings is considered in anisotropic backgrounds. In particular, the behaviour of infinitely long straight cosmic strings and of cosmic string loops is determined. Small perturbations of a straight cosmic string are calculated. The relevance of these results is discussed with respect to the possible observational imprints of an anisotropic phase on the behaviour of a cosmic string network.
Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain
Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-02-01
We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential and position-space ghost propagator in pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.
Thermodynamics of theories with sixteen supercharges in non-trivial vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grignani, Gianluca; Griguolo, Luca; Mori, Nicola; Seminara, Domenico
2007-10-01
We study the thermodynamics of maximally supersymmetric U(N) Yang-Mills theory on Bbb R × S2 at large N. The model arises as a consistent truncation of Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills on Bbb R × S3 and as the continuum limit of the plane-wave matrix model expanded around the N spherical membrane vacuum. The theory has an infinite number of classical BPS vacua, labeled by a set of monopole numbers, described by dual supergravity solutions. We first derive the Lagrangian and its supersymmetry transformations as a deformation of the usual dimensional reduction of Script N = 1 gauge theory in ten dimensions. Then we compute the partition function in the zero 't Hooft coupling limit in different monopole backgrounds and with chemical potentials for the R-charges. In the trivial vacuum we observe a first-order Hagedorn transition separating a phase in which the Polyakov loop has vanishing expectation value from a regime in which this order parameter is non-zero, in analogy with the four-dimensional case. The picture changes in the monopole vacua due to the structure of the fermionic effective action. Depending on the regularization procedure used in the path integral, we obtain two completely different behaviors, triggered by the absence or the appearance of a Chern-Simons term. In the first case we still observe a first-order phase transition, with Hagedorn temperature depending on the monopole charges. In the latter the large N behavior is obtained by solving a unitary multi-matrix model with a peculiar logarithmic potential, the system does not present a phase transition and it always appears in a ``deconfined'' phase.
String fluid in local equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly
2014-10-01
We study the solutions of string fluid equations under the assumption of a local equilibrium which was previously obtained in the context of the kinetic theory. We show that the fluid can be foliated into noninteracting submanifolds whose equations of motion are exactly that of the wiggly strings considered previously by Vilenkin and Carter. In a special case of negligible statistical variance in either the left- or the right-moving directions of microscopic strings, the submanifolds are described by the action of a null-current-carrying chiral string. When both variances vanish the submanifolds are described by the Nambu-Goto action and the string fluid reduces to the string dust introduced by Stachel.
Comparing double string theory actions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Angelis, L.; Gionti S. J, G.; Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F.
2014-04-01
Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so "doubling" the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like "non-commuting" phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed.
Domain Walls with Strings Attached
Shmakova, Marina
2001-08-20
We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.
String percolation and the Glasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Deus, J. Dias; Pajares, C.
2011-01-01
We compare string percolation phenomenology to Glasma results on particle rapidity densities, effective string or flux tube intrinsic correlations, the ridge phenomena and long range forward-backward correlations. Effective strings may be a tool to extend the Glasma to the low density QCD regime. A good example is given by the minimum of the negative binomial distribution parameter k expected to occur at low energy/centrality.
Experimenting with string musical instruments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LoPresto, Michael C.
2012-03-01
What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.
Classical theory of radiating strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
1990-01-01
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
Cosmic string induced CMB maps
Landriau, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2011-02-15
We compute maps of CMB temperature fluctuations seeded by cosmic strings using high resolution simulations of cosmic strings in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We create full-sky, 18 deg. and 3 deg. CMB maps, including the relevant string contribution at each resolution from before recombination to today. We extract the angular power spectrum from these maps, demonstrating the importance of recombination effects. We briefly discuss the probability density function of the pixel temperatures, their skewness, and kurtosis.
Non-supersymmetric string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinec, Emil J.; Robbins, Daniel; Sethi, Savdeep
2011-10-01
A class of non-supersymmetric string backgrounds can be constructed using twists that involve space-time fermion parity. We propose a non-perturbative definition of string theory in these backgrounds via gauge theories with supersymmetry softly broken by twisted boundary conditions. The perturbative string spectrum is reproduced, and qualitative effects of the interactions are discussed. Along the way, we find an interesting mechanism for inflation. The end state of closed string tachyon condensation is a highly excited state in the gauge theory which, in all likelihood, does not have a geometric interpretation.
Strings in compact cosmological spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Konechny, Anatoly
2013-10-01
We confront the problem of giving a fundamental definition to perturbative string theory in spacetimes with totally compact space (taken to be a torus for simplicity, though the nature of the problem is very general) and non-compact time. Due to backreaction induced by the presence of even a single string quantum, the usual formulation of perturbative string theory in a fixed classical background is infrared-divergent at all subleading orders in the string coupling, and needs to be amended. The problem can be seen as a closed string analogue of D0-brane recoil under an impact by closed strings (a situation displaying extremely similar infrared divergences). Inspired by the collective coordinate treatment of the D0-brane recoil, whereby the translational modes of the D0-brane are introduced as explicit dynamical variables in the path integral, we construct a similar formalism for the case of string-induced gravitational backreaction, in which the spatially uniform modes of the background fields on the compact space are quantized explicitly. The formalism can equally well be seen as an ultraviolet completion of a minisuperspace quantum cosmology with string degrees of freedom. We consider the amplitudes for the universe to have two cross-sections with specified spatial properties and string contents, and show (at the first non-trivial order) that they are finite within our formalism.
Cosmic sparks from superconducting strings.
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2008-10-01
We investigate cosmic sparks from cusps on superconducting cosmic strings in light of the recently discovered millisecond radio burst by Lorimer et al.. We find that the observed duration, fluence, spectrum, and event rate can be reasonably explained by grand unification scale superconducting cosmic strings that carry currents approximately 10{5} GeV. The superconducting string model predicts an event rate that falls off only as S{-1/2}, where S is the energy flux, and hence predicts a population of very bright bursts. Other surveys, with different observational parameters, are shown to impose tight constraints on the superconducting string model. PMID:18851517
Cosmic Sparks from Superconducting Strings
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2008-10-03
We investigate cosmic sparks from cusps on superconducting cosmic strings in light of the recently discovered millisecond radio burst by Lorimer et al.. We find that the observed duration, fluence, spectrum, and event rate can be reasonably explained by grand unification scale superconducting cosmic strings that carry currents {approx}10{sup 5} GeV. The superconducting string model predicts an event rate that falls off only as S{sup -1/2}, where S is the energy flux, and hence predicts a population of very bright bursts. Other surveys, with different observational parameters, are shown to impose tight constraints on the superconducting string model.
Evolution of cosmic string networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas; Turok, Neil
1989-01-01
Results on cosmic strings are summarized including: (1) the application of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to cosmic string evolution; (2) a simple one scale model for the long strings which has a great deal of predictive power; (3) results from large scale numerical simulations; and (4) a discussion of the observational consequences of our results. An upper bound on G mu of approximately 10(-7) emerges from the millisecond pulsar gravity wave bound. How numerical uncertainties affect this are discussed. Any changes which weaken the bound would probably also give the long strings the dominant role in producing observational consequences.
M-strings, monopole strings, and modular forms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenegger, Stefan; Iqbal, Amer; Rey, Soo-Jong
2015-09-01
We study relations between M-strings (one-dimensional intersections of M2-branes and M5-branes) in six dimensions and m-strings (magnetically charged monopole strings) in five dimensions. For specific configurations, we propose that the counting functions of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) bound states of M-strings capture the elliptic genus of the moduli space of m-strings. We check this proposal for the known cases, the Taub-NUT and Atiyah-Hitchin spaces, for which we find complete agreement. We further analyze the modular properties of the M-string free energies and find that they do not transform covariantly under S L (2 ,Z ). However, for a given number of M-strings, we show that there exists a unique combination of unrefined genus-zero free energies that transforms as a Jacobi form under a congruence subgroup of S L (2 ,Z ). These combinations correspond to summing over different numbers of M5-branes and make sense only if the distances between them are all equal. We explain that this is a necessary condition for the m-string moduli space to be factorizable into relative and center-of-mass parts.
Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman
2007-04-04
We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji; Morita, Takeshi
2011-08-01
In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass-number (A) dependence r∝A1/3 for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multibaryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1)×A1/3[fm], which is consistent with experiments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaffer, Karl
2012-01-01
The use of traditional string figures by the Dr. Schaffer and Mr. Stern Dance Ensemble led to experimentation with polyhedral string constructions. This article presents a series of polyhedra made with six loops of three colors which sequence through all the Platonic Solids.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Chiu-king
2010-01-01
When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…
Experimenting with String Musical Instruments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LoPresto, Michael C.
2012-01-01
What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…
Mandelstam, S.
1986-06-01
Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture. (LEW)
Flat wormholes from cosmic strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clement, G.
1997-11-01
The author describes the analytical extension of certain cylindrical multi-cosmic string metrics to wormhole spacetimes with only one region at spatial infinity, and investigates in detail the geometry of asymptotically Minkowskian wormhole spacetimes generated by one or two cosmic strings. It is found that such wormholes tend to lengthen rather than shorten space travel. Possible signatures of these wormholes are briefly discussed.
Fibre inflation: observable gravity waves from IIB string compactifications
Cicoli, M.; Quevedo, F.; Burgess, C.P. E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca
2009-03-15
We introduce a simple string model of inflation, in which the inflaton field can take trans-Planckian values while driving a period of slow-roll inflation. This leads naturally to a realisation of large field inflation, inasmuch as the inflationary epoch is well described by the single-field scalar potential V = V{sub 0}(3-4e{sup -{phi}/(3){sup 1{sup /{sup 2}}}}). Remarkably, for a broad class of vacua all adjustable parameters enter only through the overall coefficient V{sub 0}, and in particular do not enter into the slow-roll parameters. Consequently these are determined purely by the number of e -foldings, N{sub e}, and so are not independent: {epsilon} {approx_equal} 3/2{eta}{sup 2}. This implies similar relations among observables like the primordial scalar-to-tensor amplitude, r, and the scalar spectral tilt, n{sub s}: r {approx_equal} 6(n{sub s}-1){sup 2}. N{sub e} is itself more model-dependent since it depends partly on the post-inflationary reheat history. In a simple reheating scenario a reheating temperature of T{sub rh} {approx_equal} 10{sup 9} GeV gives N{sub e} {approx_equal} 58, corresponding to n{sub s} {approx_equal} 0.970 and r {approx_equal} 0.005, within reach of future observations. The model is an example of a class that arises naturally in the context of type IIB string compactifications with large-volume moduli stabilisation, and takes advantage of the generic existence there of Kaehler moduli whose dominant appearance in the scalar potential arises from string loop corrections to the Kaehler potential. The inflaton field is a combination of Kaehler moduli of a K3-fibered Calabi-Yau manifold. We believe there are likely to be a great number of models in this class-''high-fibre models''-in which the inflaton starts off far enough up the fibre to produce observably large primordial gravity waves.
Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings
Bardakci, Korkut
2006-02-16
In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.
Field theory for string fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly
2015-08-01
We develop a field theory description of nondissipative string fluids and construct an explicit mapping between field theory degrees of freedom and hydrodynamic variables. The theory generalizes both a perfect particle fluid and pressureless string fluid to what we call a perfect string fluid. Ideal magnetohydrodynamics is shown to be an example of the perfect string fluid whose equations of motion can be obtained from a particular choice of the Lagrangian. The Lagrangian framework suggests a straightforward extension of the perfect string fluid to more general anisotropic fluids describing higher dimensional branes such as domain walls. Other modifications of the Lagrangian are discussed which may be useful in describing relativistic superfluids and fluids containing additional currents.
Cosmic necklaces from string theory
Leblond, Louis; Wyman, Mark
2007-06-15
We present the properties of a cosmic superstring network in the scenario of flux compactification. An infinite family of strings, the (p,q) strings, are allowed to exist. The flux compactification leads to a string tension that is periodic in p. Monopoles, appearing here as beads on a string, are formed in certain interactions in such networks. This allows bare strings to become cosmic necklaces. We study network evolution in this scenario, outlining what conditions are necessary to reach a cosmologically viable scaling solution. We also analyze the physics of the beads on a cosmic necklace, and present general conditions for which they will be cosmologically safe, leaving the network's scaling undisturbed. In particular, we find that a large average loop size is sufficient for the beads to be cosmologically safe. Finally, we argue that loop formation will promote a scaling solution for the interbead distance in some situations.
String Mining in Bioinformatics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa
Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word “data-mining” is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].
String Mining in Bioinformatics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa
Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word "data-mining" is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Silk, Joseph; Brandenberger, Robert; Turok, Neil
1987-01-01
Accretion of matter onto wakes left behind by horizon-sized pieces of cosmic string is investigated, and the effects of wakes on the large-scale structure of the universe are determined. Accretion of cold matter onto wakes, the effects of a long string on fluids with finite velocity dispersion or sound speeds, the interactions between loops and wakes, and the conditions for wakes to survive disruption by loops are discussed. It is concluded that the most important wakes are those which were formed at the time of equal matter and radiation density. This leads to sheetlike overdense regions of galaxies with a mean separation in agreement with the scale of the bubbles of de Lapparent, Geller, and Huchra (1986). However, for the value of G(mu) favored from galaxy formation considerations in a universe with cold dark matter, a wake accretes matter from a distance of only about 1.5 Mpc, which is much less than the distance between the wakes.
Subcritical string and large N QCD
Thorn, Charles B.
2008-10-15
We pursue the possibility of using subcritical string theory in 4 spacetime dimensions to establish a string dual for large N QCD. In particular we study the even G-parity sector of the 4 dimensional Neveu-Schwarz dual resonance model as the natural candidate for this string theory. Our point of view is that the open string dynamics given by this model will determine the appropriate subcritical closed string theory, a tree level background of which should describe the sum of planar multiloop open string diagrams. We examine the one-loop open string diagram, which contains information about the closed string spectrum at weak coupling. Higher loop open string diagrams will be needed to determine closed string interactions. We also analyze the field theory limit of the one-loop open string diagram and recover the correct running coupling behavior of the limiting gauge theory.
String bit models for superstring
Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.
1995-12-31
The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.
String bit models for superstring
Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.
1995-11-15
We extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. We mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string we work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei-invariant theory in [({ital D}{minus}2)+1]-dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in {ital D}{minus}2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in {ital D}-dimensional space-time enjoying the full {ital N}=2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.
String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.
2010-01-01
In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the…
Dynamical evolution of cosmic strings
Bouchet, F.R.
1988-05-11
The author have studied by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a network of cosmic strings, both in the radiation and matter era. Our basic conclusion is that a scaling solution exists, i.e., the string energy density evolves as t/sup -2/. This means that the process by which long strings dump their energy into closed loops (which can gravitationally radiate away) is efficient enough to prevent the string domination over other forms of energy. This conclusion does not depend on the initial string energy density, nor on the various numerical parameters. On the other hand, the generated spectrum of loop sizes does depend on the value of our numerical lower cutoff (i.e., the minimum length of loop we allow to be chopped off the network). Furthermore, the network evolution is very different from what was assumed before), namely the creation of a few horizon sized loops per horizon volume and per hubble time, which subsequently fragment into about 10 smaller daughter loops. Rather, many tiny loops are directly cut from the network of infinite strings, and it appears that the only fundamental scale (the horizon) has been lost. This is probably because a fundamental ingredient had been overlooked, namely the kinks. These kinks are created in pairs at each intercommutation, and very rapidly, the long strings appear to be very kinky. Thus the number of long strings per horizon is still of the order of a few, but their total length is fairly large. Furthermore, a large number of kinks favors the formation of small loops, and their sizes might well be governed by the kink density along the long strings. Finally, we computed the two-point correlation function of the loops and found significant differences from the work of Turok.
Unruh effect in vacua with anisotropic scaling: Applications to multilayer graphene
Katsnelson, M.I.; Volovik, G.E.; L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygina 2, 119334 Moscow ; Zubkov, M.A.
2013-09-15
We extend the calculation of the Unruh effect to the universality classes of quantum vacua obeying topologically protected invariance under anisotropic scaling r→br, t→b{sup z}t. Two situations are considered. The first one is related to the accelerated detector which detects the electron–hole pairs. The second one is related to the system in external electric field, when the electron–hole pairs are created due to the Schwinger process. As distinct from the Unruh effect in relativistic systems (where z=1) the calculated radiation is not thermal, but has properties of systems in the vicinity of quantum criticality. The vacuum obeying anisotropic scaling can be realized, in particular, in multilayer graphene with the rhombohedral stacking. Opportunities of the experimental realization of the Unruh effect in this situation are discussed. -- Highlights: •Unruh effect in the system with anisotropic scaling (multilayer graphene) is investigated. •The accelerated detector is considered which detects the electron–hole pairs. •The system in external electric field is considered as the “accelerated vacuum”. •Unruh effect in the nonrelativistic case differs from that of the relativistic case.
Lyons, A. ); Hawking, S.W. )
1991-12-15
We discuss the wormhole effective interactions in string theory, thought of as a sum over two-dimensional field theories on different world sheets. The effective interactions are calculated in the dilute wormhole approximation,'' initially by considering the Green's functions on higher-genus Riemann surfaces, and then by calculating the effect of a complete basis of wave functions on scattering amplitudes for a surface with a boundary. The sum over wormholes is equivalent to having a world sheet of trivial topology and summing over different space-time and matter-field backgrounds. To leading order these consist of the massless fluctuations, since the tachyon cancels out when a sum is done over different spin structures going through the wormhole. In this way we recover quantized general relativity as an effective theory, from a sum over field theories on higher-genus Riemann surfaces.
Bergshoeff, E.A. ); Kallosh, R.; Ortin, T. )
1993-06-15
We present plane-wave-type solutions of the lowest-order superstring effective action which have unbroken space-time supersymmetries. They are given by a stringy generalization of the Brinkmann metric, dialton, axion, and gauge fields. Some conspiracy between the metric and the axion field is required. The [alpha][prime] stringy corrections to the effective on-shell action, to the equations of motion (and therefore to the solutions themselves), and to the supersymmetry transformations are shown to vanish for a special class of these solutions that we call supersymmetric string waves (SSW's). In the SSW solutions, there exists a conspiracy not only between the metric and the axion field, but also between the gauge fields and the metric, since the embedding of the spin connection in the gauge group is required.
Deforming baryons into confining strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnoll, Sean A.; Portugues, Rubén
2004-09-01
We find explicit probe D3-brane solutions in the infrared of the Maldacena-Nuñez background. The solutions describe deformed baryon vertices: q external quarks are separated in spacetime from the remaining N-q. As the separation is taken to infinity we recover known solutions describing infinite confining strings in N=1 gauge theory. We present results for the mass of finite confining strings as a function of length. We also find probe D2-brane solutions in a confining type IIA geometry, the reduction of a G2 holonomy M theory background. The relation between these deformed baryons and confining strings is not as straightforward.
Worldsheet geometries of ambitwistor string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohmori, Kantaro
2015-06-01
Mason and Skinner proposed the ambitwistor string theory which directly reproduces the formulas for the amplitudes of massless particles proposed by Cachazo, He and Yuan. In this paper we discuss geometries of the moduli space of worldsheets associated to the bosonic or the RNS ambitwistor string. Further, we investigate the factorization properties of the amplitudes when an internal momentum is near on-shell in the abstract CFT language. Along the way, we propose the existence of the ambitwistor strings with three or four fermionic worldsheet currents.
Geometry, topology, and string theory
Varadarajan, Uday
2003-07-10
A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.
Homotopy Classification of Bosonic String Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Münster, Korbinian; Sachs, Ivo
2014-09-01
We prove the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy Lie algebra of quantum closed string field theory and use it to show that closed string field theory is unique up to gauge transformations on a given string background and given S-matrix. For the theory of open and closed strings we use results in open-closed homotopy algebra to show that the space of inequivalent open string field theories is isomorphic to the space of classical closed string backgrounds. As a further application of the open-closed homotopy algebra, we show that string field theory is background independent and locally unique in a very precise sense. Finally, we discuss topological string theory in the framework of homotopy algebras and find a generalized correspondence between closed strings and open string field theories.
String cosmology — Large-field inflation in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westphal, Alexander
2015-03-01
This is a short review of string cosmology. We wish to connect string-scale physics as closely as possible to observables accessible to current or near-future experiments. Our possible best hope to do so is a description of inflation in string theory. The energy scale of inflation can be as high as that of Grand Unification (GUT). If this is the case, this is the closest we can possibly get in energy scales to string-scale physics. Hence, GUT-scale inflation may be our best candidate phenomenon to preserve traces of string-scale dynamics. Our chance to look for such traces is the primordial gravitational wave, or tensor mode signal produced during inflation. For GUT-scale inflation this is strong enough to be potentially visible as a B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Moreover, a GUT-scale inflation model has a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton scalar field during the observable amount of inflation. Such large-field models of inflation have a clear need for symmetry protection against quantum corrections. This makes them ideal candidates for a description in a candidate fundamental theory like string theory. At the same time the need of large-field inflation models for UV completion makes them particularly susceptible to preserve imprints of their string-scale dynamics in the inflationary observables, the spectral index ns and the fractional tensor mode power r. Hence, we will focus this review on axion monodromy inflation as a mechanism of large-field inflation in string theory.
Perturbations from strings don't look like strings!
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert
1991-01-01
A systematic analysis is challenging popular ideas about perturbation from cosmic strings. One way in which the picture has changed is reviewed. It is concluded that, while the scaling properties of cosmic strings figure significantly in the analysis, care must be taken when thinking in terms of single time snapshots. The process of seeding density perturbations is not fundamentally localized in time, and this fact can wash out many of the details which appear in a single snapshot.
Cosmic string catalysis of skyrmion decay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, Ruth; Davis, Anne-Christine; Brandenberger, Robert
1988-01-01
The Callan-Witten picture is developed for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay in order to analyze the corresponding cosmic string scenario. It is discovered that cosmic strings (both ordinary and superconducting) can catalyze proton decay, but that this catalysis only occurs on the scale of the core of the string. In order to do this we have to develop a vortex model for the superconducting string. An argument is also given for the difference in the enhancement factors for monopoles and strings.
Classification of cohomogeneity-one strings
Ishihara, Hideki; Kozaki, Hiroshi
2005-09-15
We define the cohomogeneity one string, string with continuous symmetries, as its world surface is tangent to a Killing vector field of a target space. We classify the Killing vector fields by an equivalence relation using isometries of the target space. We find that the equivalence classes of Killing vectors in Minkowski spacetime are partitioned into seven families. It is clarified that there exist seven types of strings with spacelike symmetries and four types of strings with timelike symmetries, stationary strings.
Nuclear Force from String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji
2010-04-01
Recent "technology" called holography, or gauge/string duality (AdS/CFT correspondence) found in string theory, makes it possible to compute various quantities of strongly coupled gauge theories. This technology was applied to QCD, and it was found that it describes surprisingly well important properties of low energy QCD, the hadron physics. We apply it further to nuclear physics. In this talk, I review a part of the developments of the holographic QCD, and show a computation of nuclear force at short distance, derived using the holographic QCD, which was done in collaboration with T. Sakai and S. Sugimoto [K. Hashimoto, T. Sakai, and S. Sugimoto, "Holographic Baryons: Static Properties and Form Factors from Gauge/String Duality," Prog. Theor. Phys. 120 (2008) 1093-1137, arXiv:0806.3122 [hep-th]; K. Hashimoto, T. Sakai, and S. Sugimoto, "Nuclear Force from String Theory," arXiv:0901.4449 [hep-th
String and Sticky Tape Experiments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edge, R. D., Ed.
1979-01-01
Explains how to demonstrate the fundamentals of one dimensional kinematics such as Newton's third law of motion, and collision between bodies, using simple materials of marbles, strings, sticky tape, drinking straws, and rubber bands. (GA)
String resonances at hadron colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Dai, De-Chang; Feng, Wan-Zhe; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lüst, Dieter; Stojkovic, Dejan; Taylor, Tomasz R.
2014-09-01
We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale Ms is in the TeV range and that the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the upcoming HL-LHC run (integrated luminosity =3000 fb-1) with a center-of-mass energy of √s =14 TeV and at potential future pp colliders, HE-LHC and VLHC, operating at √s =33 and 100 TeV, respectively (with the same integrated luminosity). In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets and γ +jet are completely independent of the details of compactification and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. We make use of these amplitudes evaluated near the first (n=1) and second (n=2) resonant poles to determine the discovery potential for Regge excitations of the quark, the gluon, and the color singlet living on the QCD stack. We show that for string scales as large as 7.1 TeV (6.1 TeV) lowest massive Regge excitations are open to discovery at the ≥5σ in dijet (γ +jet) HL-LHC data. We also show that for n=1 the dijet discovery potential at HE-LHC and VLHC exceedingly improves: up to 15 TeV and 41 TeV, respectively. To compute the signal-to-noise ratio for n=2 resonances, we first carry out a complete calculation of all relevant decay widths of the second massive level string states (including decays into massless particles and a massive n=1 and a massless particle), where we rely on factorization and conformal field theory techniques. Helicity wave functions of arbitrary higher spin massive bosons are also constructed. We demonstrate that for string scales Ms≲10.5 TeV (Ms≲28 TeV) detection of n =2 Regge recurrences at HE-LHC (VLHC) would become the smoking gun for D
Towards a nonsupersymmetric string phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abel, Steven; Dienes, Keith R.; Mavroudi, Eirini
2015-06-01
Over the past three decades, considerable effort has been devoted to studying the rich and diverse phenomenologies of heterotic strings exhibiting spacetime supersymmetry. Unfortunately, during this same period, there has been relatively little work studying the phenomenologies associated with their nonsupersymmetric counterparts. The primary reason for this relative lack of attention is the fact that strings without spacetime supersymmetry are generally unstable, exhibiting large one-loop dilaton tadpoles. In this paper, we demonstrate that this hurdle can be overcome in a class of tachyon-free four-dimensional string models realized through coordinate-dependent compactifications. Moreover, as we shall see, it is possible to construct models in this class whose low-lying states resemble the Standard Model (or even potential unified extensions thereof)—all without any light superpartners, and indeed without supersymmetry at any energy scale. The existence of such models thus opens the door to general studies of nonsupersymmetric string phenomenology, and in this paper we proceed to discuss a variety of theoretical and phenomenological issues associated with such nonsupersymmetric strings. On the theoretical side, we discuss the finiteness properties of such strings, the general characteristics of their mass spectra, the magnitude and behavior of their one-loop cosmological constants, and their interpolation properties. By contrast, on the phenomenological side, the properties we discuss are more model-specific and include their construction techniques, their natural energy scales, their particle and charge assignments, and the magnitudes of their associated Yukawa couplings and scalar masses.
Vscape V1.1.0. An interactive tool for metastable vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Broek, Korneel
2008-01-01
Vscape is an interactive tool for studying the one-loop effective potential of an ungauged supersymmetric model of chiral multiplets. The program allows the user to define a supersymmetric model by specifying the superpotential. The F-terms and the scalar and fermionic mass matrices are calculated symbolically. The program then allows you to search numerically for (meta)stable minima of the one-loop effective potential. Additional commands enable you to further study specific minima, by, e.g., computing the mass spectrum for those vacua. Vscape combines the flexibility of symbolic software, with the speed of a numerical package. Program summaryProgram title:Vscape 1.1.1 Catalogue identifier: ADZW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 80 507 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 708 938 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Pentium 4 PC Computers: need (GNU) C++ compiler, Linux standard GNU installation (./configure; make; make install). A precompiled Windows XP version is included in the distribution package Operating system: Linux, Windows XP using cygwin RAM: 10 MB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 11.6 External routines: GSL ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/), CLN ( http://www.ginac.de/CLN/), GiNaC ( http://directory.fsf.org/GiNaC.html) Nature of problem:Vscape is an interactive tool for studying the one-loop effective potential of an ungauged supersymmetric model of chiral multiplets. The program allows the user to define a supersymmetric model by specifying the superpotential. The F-terms and the scalar and fermionic mass matrices are calculated symbolically. The program then allows you to search numerically for (meta)stable minima of
Ricci solitons, Ricci flow and strongly coupled CFT in the Schwarzschild Unruh or Boulware vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueras, Pau; Lucietti, James; Wiseman, Toby
2011-11-01
The elliptic Einstein-DeTurck equation may be used to numerically find Einstein metrics on Riemannian manifolds. Static Lorentzian Einstein metrics are considered by analytically continuing to Euclidean time. The Ricci-DeTurck flow is a constructive algorithm to solve this equation, and is simple to implement when the solution is a stable fixed point, the only complication being that Ricci solitons may exist which are not Einstein. Here we extend previous work to consider the Einstein-DeTurck equation for Riemannian manifolds with boundaries, and those that continue to static Lorentzian spacetimes which are asymptotically flat, Kaluza-Klein, locally AdS or have extremal horizons. Using a maximum principle, we prove that Ricci solitons do not exist in these cases and so any solution is Einstein. We also argue that the Ricci-DeTurck flow preserves these classes of manifolds. As an example, we simulate the Ricci-DeTurck flow for a manifold with asymptotics relevant for AdS5/CFT4. Our maximum principle dictates that there are no soliton solutions, and we give strong numerical evidence that there exists a stable fixed point of the flow which continues to a smooth static Lorentzian Einstein metric. Our asymptotics are such that this describes the classical gravity dual relevant for the CFT on a Schwarzschild background in either the Unruh or Boulware vacua. It determines the leading O(N2c) part of the CFT stress tensor, which interestingly is regular on both the future and past Schwarzschild horizons.
Intercommutation of semilocal strings and Skyrmions.
Laguna, Pablo; Natchu, Vishnu; Matzner, Richard A; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2007-01-26
We study the intercommuting of semilocal strings and Skyrmions for a wide range of internal parameters, velocities, and intersection angles by numerically evolving the equations of motion. We find that the collisions of strings and strings, strings and Skyrmions, and Skyrmions and Skyrmions all lead to intercommuting for a wide range of parameters. Even the collisions of unstable Skyrmions and strings lead to intercommuting, demonstrating that the phenomenon of intercommuting is very robust, extending to dissimilar field configurations that are not stationary solutions. Even more remarkably, at least for the semilocal U(2) formulation considered here, all intercommutations trigger a reversion to Nielsen-Olesen strings. PMID:17358754
Collisions of strings with Y junctions.
Copeland, E J; Kibble, T W B; Steer, D A
2006-07-14
We study the dynamics of Nambu-Goto strings with junctions at which three strings meet. In particular, we exhibit one simple exact solution and examine the process of intercommuting of two straight strings in which they exchange partners but become joined by a third string. We show that there are important kinematical constraints on this process. The exchange cannot occur if the strings meet with very large relative velocity. This may have important implications for the evolution of cosmic superstring networks and non-Abelian string networks. PMID:16907431
Quantum vortex strings: A review
Tong, David
2009-01-15
The quantum worldsheet dynamics of vortex strings contains information about the 4d non-Abelian gauge theory in which the string lives. Here I tell this story. The string worldsheet theory is typically some variant of the CP{sup N-1} sigma-model, describing the orientation of the string in a U(N) gauge group. Qualitative parallels between 2d sigma-models and 4d non-Abelian gauge theories have been known since the 1970s. The vortex string provides a quantitative link between the two. In 4d theories with N=2 supersymmetry, the exact BPS spectrum of the worldsheet coincides with the bulk spectrum in 4d. Moreover, by tuning parameters, the CP{sup N-1} sigma-model can be coaxed to flow to an interacting conformal fixed point which is related to the 4d Argyres-Douglas fixed point. For theories with N=1 supersymmetry, the worldsheet theory suffers dynamical supersymmetry breaking and, more interestingly, supersymmetry restoration, in a way which captures the physics of Seiberg's quantum deformed moduli space.
Quantum stabilization of cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigel, H.; Quandt, M.; Graham, N.
2015-07-01
In the standard model, stabilization of a classically unstable cosmic string may occur through the quantum fluctuations of a heavy fermion doublet. We review numerical results from a semiclassical expansion in a reduced version of the standard model. In this expansion, the leading quantum corrections emerge at one loop level for many internal degrees of freedom. The resulting vacuum polarization energy and the binding energies of occupied fermion energy levels are of the same order, and must therefore be treated on equal footing. Populating these bound states lowers the total energy compared to the same number of free fermions and assigns a charge to the string. Charged strings are already stabilized for a fermion mass only somewhat larger than the top quark mass. Though obtained in a reduced version, these results suggest that neither extraordinarily large fermion masses nor unrealistic couplings are required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Furthermore, we also review results for a quantum stabilization mechanism that prevents closed Nielsen-Olesen-type strings from collapsing.
Constraints on string networks with junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.
2007-03-01
We consider the constraints on string networks with junctions in which the strings may all be different, as may be found, for example, in a network of (p,q) cosmic superstrings. We concentrate on three aspects of junction dynamics. First we consider the propagation of small-amplitude waves across a static three-string junction. Then, generalizing our earlier work, we determine the kinematic constraints on two colliding strings with different tensions. As before, the important conclusion is that strings do not always reconnect with a third string; they can pass straight through one another (or in the case of non-Abelian strings become stuck in an X configuration), the constraint depending on the angle at which the strings meet, on their relative velocity, and on the ratios of the string tensions. For example, if the two colliding strings have equal tensions, then for ultrarelativistic initial velocities they pass through one another. However, if their tensions are sufficiently different they can reconnect. Finally, we consider the global properties of junctions and strings in a network. Assuming that, in a network, the incoming waves at a junction are independently randomly distributed, we determine the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities of strings and calculate the average speed at which a junction moves along each of the three strings from which it is formed. Our findings suggest that junction dynamics may be such as to preferentially remove the heavy strings from the network leaving a network of predominantly light strings. Furthermore the r.m.s. velocity of strings in a network with junctions is smaller than 1/2, the result for conventional Nambu-Goto strings without junctions in Minkowski space-time.
Constraints on string networks with junctions
Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.
2007-03-15
We consider the constraints on string networks with junctions in which the strings may all be different, as may be found, for example, in a network of (p,q) cosmic superstrings. We concentrate on three aspects of junction dynamics. First we consider the propagation of small-amplitude waves across a static three-string junction. Then, generalizing our earlier work, we determine the kinematic constraints on two colliding strings with different tensions. As before, the important conclusion is that strings do not always reconnect with a third string; they can pass straight through one another (or in the case of non-Abelian strings become stuck in an X configuration), the constraint depending on the angle at which the strings meet, on their relative velocity, and on the ratios of the string tensions. For example, if the two colliding strings have equal tensions, then for ultrarelativistic initial velocities they pass through one another. However, if their tensions are sufficiently different they can reconnect. Finally, we consider the global properties of junctions and strings in a network. Assuming that, in a network, the incoming waves at a junction are independently randomly distributed, we determine the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities of strings and calculate the average speed at which a junction moves along each of the three strings from which it is formed. Our findings suggest that junction dynamics may be such as to preferentially remove the heavy strings from the network leaving a network of predominantly light strings. Furthermore the r.m.s. velocity of strings in a network with junctions is smaller than 1/{radical}(2), the result for conventional Nambu-Goto strings without junctions in Minkowski space-time.
Cosmic strings from supersymmetric flat directions
Cui Yanou; Morrissey, David E.; Martin, Stephen P.; Wells, James D.
2008-02-15
Flat directions are a generic feature of the scalar potential in supersymmetric gauge field theories. They can arise, for example, from D-terms associated with an extra Abelian gauge symmetry. Even when supersymmetry is broken softly, there often remain directions in the scalar field space along which the potential is almost flat. Upon breaking a gauge symmetry along one of these almost-flat directions, cosmic strings may form. Relative to the standard cosmic string picture based on the Abelian Higgs model, these flat-direction cosmic strings have the extreme type-I properties of a thin gauge core surrounded by a much wider scalar field profile. We perform a comprehensive study of the microscopic, macroscopic, and observational characteristics of this class of strings. We find many differences from the standard string scenario, including stable higher winding-mode strings, the dynamical formation of higher mode strings from lower ones, and a resultant multitension scaling string network in the early universe. These strings are only moderately constrained by current observations, and their gravitational wave signatures may be detectable at future gravity wave detectors. Furthermore, there is the interesting but speculative prospect that the decays of cosmic string loops in the early universe could be a source of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays or nonthermal dark matter. We also compare the observational signatures of flat-direction cosmic strings with those of ordinary cosmic strings as well as (p,q) cosmic strings motivated by superstring theory.
Fundamental string solutions in open string field theories
Michishita, Yoji
2006-02-15
In Witten's open cubic bosonic string field theory and Berkovits' superstring field theory we investigate solutions of the equations of motion with appropriate source terms, which correspond to Callan-Maldacena solution in Born-Infeld theory representing fundamental strings ending on the D-branes. The solutions are given in order by order manner, and we show some full order properties in the sense of {alpha}{sup '} expansion. In superstring case we show that the solution is 1/2 BPS in full order.
Towards Inflation in String Theory
Kachru, Shamit
2003-08-25
We investigate the embedding of brane inflation into stable compactifications of string theory. At first sight a warped compactification geometry seems to produce a naturally flat inflation potential, evading one well-known difficulty of brane-antibrane scenarios. Careful consideration of the closed string moduli reveals a further obstacle: superpotential stabilization of the compactification volume typically modifies the inflation potential and renders it too steep for inflation. We discuss the non-generic conditions under which this problem does not arise. We conclude that brane inflation models can only work if restrictive assumptions about the method of volume stabilization, the warping of the internal space, and the source of inflationary energy are satisfied. We argue that this may not be a real problem, given the large range of available fluxes and background geometries in string theory.
Ambitwistor Strings in Four Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geyer, Yvonne; Lipstein, Arthur E.; Mason, Lionel
2014-08-01
We develop ambitwistor string theories for four dimensions to obtain new formulas for tree-level gauge and gravity amplitudes with arbitrary amounts of supersymmetry. Ambitwistor space is the space of complex null geodesics in complexified Minkowski space, and in contrast to earlier ambitwistor strings, we use twistors rather than vectors to represent this space. Although superficially similar to the original twistor string theories of Witten, Berkovits, and Skinner, these theories differ in the assignment of world sheet spins of the fields, rely on both twistor and dual twistor representatives for the vertex operators, and use the ambitwistor procedure for calculating correlation functions. Our models are much more flexible, no longer requiring maximal supersymmetry, and the resulting formulas for amplitudes are simpler, having substantially reduced moduli. These are supported on the solutions to the scattering equations refined according to helicity and can be checked by comparison with corresponding formulas of Witten and of Cachazo and Skinner.
Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.
Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A
2015-07-01
We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908
Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces
Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A.
2015-01-01
We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam–Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908
String spectra near some null cosmological singularities
Madhu, Kallingalthodi; Narayan, K.
2009-06-15
We construct cosmological spacetimes with null Kasner-like singularities as purely gravitational solutions with no other background fields turned on. These can be recast as anisotropic plane-wave spacetimes by coordinate transformations. We analyze string quantization to find the spectrum of string modes in these backgrounds. The classical string modes can be solved for exactly in these time-dependent backgrounds, which enables a detailed study of the near-singularity string spectrum, (time-dependent) oscillator masses, and wave functions. We find that for low-lying string modes (finite oscillation number), the classical near-singularity string mode functions are nondivergent for various families of singularities. Furthermore, for any infinitesimal regularization of the vicinity of the singularity, we find a tower of string modes of ultrahigh oscillation number which propagate essentially freely in the background. The resulting picture suggests that string interactions are non-negligible near the singularity.