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Sample records for non-invasive cardiac stress

  1. Non-invasive Mapping of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Since more than 100 years, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard-of-care tool, which involves measuring electrical potentials from limited sites on the body surface to diagnose cardiac disorder, its possible mechanism, and the likely site of origin. Several decades of research has led to the development of a 252-lead ECG and computed tomography (CT) scan-based three-dimensional electro-imaging modality to non-invasively map abnormal cardiac rhythms including fibrillation. These maps provide guidance towards ablative therapy and thereby help advance the management of complex heart rhythm disorders. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using non-invasive technique in mapping the electrical disorder and guide the catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats), and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). PMID:26072438

  2. Stress detection in bivalve mollusk using non-invasive bioelectric monitoring of myoneural behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.L.; Hardison, B.S.; Dawson, V.K.; Waller, D.; Waller, W.T.; Dickson, K.L.; Allen, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Few studies have demonstrated cause-and-effect linkages between extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic bioelectric action potentials of bivalve mollusk using non-invasive, non-destructive approaches. A non-invasive, external probe configuration and detection system, similar to one used previously with native unionids, was developed for continuously monitoring bioelectric activities of clams and mussels. Using remote probes and differential amplifiers, bioelectric activities were recorded for cardiac, adductor, siphon and foot responses using a computer equipped with integrating software. To test if remote, non-invasive probes would detect similar information to that recorded by invasive needle electrodes, two individuals of zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha), and Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) were each configured with two sets of probes. One set was inserted between the valves and along the inside surface of the shelf; the other set was positioned remotely about the outside margins of the valves. Signal validation was made by simultaneously recording bioelectric responses for the same animal from both sets of probes. In preliminary stress tests monitored bivalves were subjected to changes in temperatures over 2 to 3 hr intervals from ambient to potentially lethal levels (20 to 30 C for zebra, 25 C to 40 C for corbicula). Dramatic increases resulted in both number and amplitude of cardiac events as temperature increased. Planned studies will use this approach to evaluate bivalve myoneural behavior patterns in response to chemical and non-chemical stimuli.

  3. Non-invasive cardiac investigations in patients awaiting renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Langford, E J; de Belder, A J; Cairns, H; Hendry, B M; Wainwright, R J

    1997-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal transplantation have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Invasive investigation may identify those at risk of cardiac death during or after renal transplantation, but which patients should undergo cardiac catheterization is currently not clear. In 95 patients awaiting renal transplantation we assessed the ability of echocardiography and exercise electrocardiography to identify patients at risk of cardiac death. Echocardiography identified impaired left ventricular (LV) systolic function in 20%, severe in 8%. Of the patients with severe LV dysfunction, 25% died before transplantation. Of those undergoing exercise electrocardiography, 44% did not achieve 85% of maximum predicted heart rate. No coronary artery disease requiring intervention was identified by exercise testing. These findings indicate that echocardiography, but not exercise electrocardiography, should be part of the assessment for renal transplantation. PMID:9135610

  4. Non-invasive determination of cardiac output by Doppler echocardiography and electrical bioimpedance.

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, D B; Findlay, I N; Wilson, J; Henderson, E; Dargie, H J

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac output measured by thermodilution in 25 patients within 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction was compared with cardiac output measured by Doppler echocardiography (24 patients) and electrical bioimpedance (25 patients). The mean (range) cardiac outputs measured by Doppler (4.03 (2.2-6.0) 1/min) and electrical bioimpedance (3.79 (1.1-6.2) 1/min) were similar to the mean thermodilution value (3.95 (2.1-6.2) 1/min). Both non-invasive techniques agreed closely with thermodilution in most patients. None the less, three results with each method disagreed with thermodilution by more than 1 1/min. Both non-invasive techniques were reproducible and accurate in most patients with acute myocardial infarction. Doppler echocardiography was time consuming and technically demanding. Electrical bioimpedance was simple to use and had the additional advantage of allowing continuous monitoring of the cardiac output. PMID:2317415

  5. Therapeutic Ultrasound to Non-Invasively Create Intra-Cardiac Communications in an Intact Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gabe E.; Miller, Ryan M.; Ensing, Greg; Ives, Kimberly; Gordon, David; Ludomirsky, Achi; Xu, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy (histotripsy) can accurately and safely generate ventricular septal defects (VSDs) through the intact chest of a neonatal animal, with the eventual goal of developing a non-invasive technique of creating intra-cardiac communications in patients with congenital heart disease. Background Histotripsy is an innovative ultrasonic technique that generates demarcated, mechanical tissue fractionation utilizing high intensity ultrasound pulses. Previous work has shown that histotripsy can create atrial septal defects in a beating heart in an open-chest canine model. Methods Nine neonatal pigs were treated with transcutaneous histotripsy targeting the ventricular septum. Ultrasound pulses of 5μs duration at a peak negative pressure of 13 MPa and a pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz were generated by a 1 MHz focused transducer. The procedure was guided by real-time ultrasound imaging. Results VSDs were created in all pigs with diameters ranging from 2–6.5mm. Six pigs were euthanized within 2 hrs of treatment, while 3 were recovered and maintained for 2–3 days to evaluate lesion maturation and clinical side effects. There were only transient clinical effects and pathology revealed mild collateral damage around the VSD with no significant damage to other cardiac or extra-cardiac structures. Conclusions Histotripsy can accurately and safely generate VSDs through the intact chest in a neonatal animal model. These results suggest that with further advances, histotripsy can be a useful, non-invasive technique to create intra-cardiac communications, which currently require invasive catheter-based or surgical procedures, to clinically stabilize newborn infants with complex congenital heart disease. PMID:20853366

  6. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology.

    PubMed

    Narayan, E J

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology for

  7. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology

  8. Non-invasive cardiac mapping in clinical practice: Application to the ablation of cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Rémi; Shah, Ashok J; Hocini, Mélèze; Denis, Arnaud; Derval, Nicolas; Cochet, Hubert; Sacher, Frédéric; Bear, Laura; Duchateau, Josselin; Jais, Pierre; Haissaguerre, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) started to demonstrate its efficiency in clinical settings. The initial application to localize focal ventricular arrhythmias such as ventricular premature beats was probably the easiest to challenge and validates the concept. Our clinical experience in using this non-invasive mapping technique to identify the sources of electrical disorders and guide catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats) and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) is described here. PMID:26403066

  9. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: postpartum decompensation and use of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lorello, G; Cubillos, J; McDonald, M; Balki, M

    2014-02-01

    The utility of a non-invasive cardiac output monitor (NICOM™) in guiding the peripartum management and identification of postpartum complications in a patient with severe peripartum cardiomyopathy is reported. A 31-year-old nulliparous woman at 35 weeks of gestation presented with a three-week history of worsening dyspnea and progressive functional deterioration. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction <20%. Cardiac status was monitored using NICOM™ during labor and delivery. The baseline values were: cardiac output 5.3 L/min, total peripheral resistance 1549 dynes.sec/cm(5), stroke volume 42.1 mL and stroke volume variation 18%. She received early epidural analgesia during labor, titrated slowly with a loading dose of 0.0625% bupivacaine 10 mL and fentanyl 25 μg, followed by patient-controlled epidural analgesia (0.0625% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2 μg/mL, infusion at 10 mL/h, bolus dose 5 mL and lockout interval 10 min). After epidural drug administration, total peripheral resistance decreased, cardiac output increased, and satisfactory analgesia was obtained. She had an uneventful vaginal delivery with a forceps-assisted second stage after prophylactic administration of furosemide 20 mg. NICOM™ was discontinued after delivery. Fifteen hours post-delivery, the patient developed cardiogenic shock, which resolved after aggressive therapy with inotropes and furosemide. NICOM™ can be used to guide treatment during labor and delivery in patients with critical peripartum cardiomyopathy. We suggest that use of NICOM™ be extended into the postpartum period to detect signs of cardiac decompensation in such patients. PMID:24360329

  10. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals’ natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating

  11. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Matthias; Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals' natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating levels

  12. Non-invasive cardiac assessment in high risk patients (The GROUND study): rationale, objectives and design of a multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Alexander M; Rutten, Annemarieke; van de Zaag-Loonen, Hester J; Bots, Michiel L; Dikkers, Riksta; Buiskool, Robert A; Mali, Willem P; Lubbers, Daniel D; Mosterd, Arend; Prokop, Mathias; Rensing, Benno J; Cramer, Maarten J; van Es, H Wouter; Moll, Frans L; van de Pavoordt, Eric D; Doevendans, Pieter A; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Mackaay, Albert J; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disease associated with a considerably increased risk of future cardiovascular events and most of these patients will die from coronary artery disease (CAD). Screening for silent CAD has become an option with recent non-invasive developments in CT (computed tomography)-angiography and MR (magnetic resonance) stress testing. Screening in combination with more aggressive treatment may improve prognosis. Therefore we propose to study whether a cardiac imaging algorithm, using non-invasive imaging techniques followed by treatment will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in PAD patients free from cardiac symptoms. Design The GROUND study is designed as a prospective, multi-center, randomized clinical trial. Patients with peripheral arterial disease, but without symptomatic cardiac disease will be asked to participate. All patients receive a proper risk factor management before randomization. Half of the recruited patients will enter the 'control group' and only undergo CT calcium scoring. The other half of the recruited patients (index group) will undergo the non invasive cardiac imaging algorithm followed by evidence-based treatment. First, patients are submitted to CT calcium scoring and CT angiography. Patients with a left main (or equivalent) coronary artery stenosis of > 50% on CT will be referred to a cardiologist without further imaging. All other patients in this group will undergo dobutamine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) testing. Patients with a DSMR positive for ischemia will also be referred to a cardiologist. These patients are candidates for conventional coronary angiography and cardiac interventions (coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous cardiac interventions (PCI)), if indicated. All participants of the trial will enter a 5 year follow up period for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Sequential interim analysis will take place. Based on sample size calculations about

  13. Quantification of the Impaired Cardiac Output Response to Exercise in Heart Failure: Application of a Non-Invasive Device

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonathan; Gujja, Pradeep; Neelagaru, Suresh; Hsu, Leon; Burkhoff, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An impaired cardiac output (CO) response to exercise is a hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF), and the degree to which CO is impaired is related to the severity of CHF and prognosis. However, practical methods for obtaining cardiac output during exercise are lacking, and what constitutes and impaired response is unclear. Forty six CHF patients and 13 normal subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) while CO and other hemodynamic measurements at rest and during exercise were obtained using a novel, non-invasive, bioreactance device based on assessment of relative phase shifts of electric currents injected across the thorax, heart rate and ventricular ejection time. An abnormal cardiac output response to exercise was defined as achieving ≤ 95% of the confidence limits of the slope of the relationship between CO and oxygen uptake (VO2). An impaired CO slope identified patients with more severe CHF as evidenced by a lower peak VO2, lower peak CO, heightened VE/VCO2 slope, and lower oxygen uptake efficiency slope. CO can be estimated during exercise using a novel bioreactance technique; patients with an impaired response to exercise exhibit reduced exercise capacity and inefficient ventilation typical of more severe CHF. Non- invasive measurement of cardiac performance in response to exercise provides a simple method of identifying patients with more severe CHF and may complement the CPX in identifying CHF patients at high risk. Key points Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output during exercise is feasible in patients with heart failure. Impairment in the CO response to exercise identifies heart failure patients with more severe disease, lower exercise capacity and inefficient ventilation. Non-invasive measurement of cardiac performance during exercise has potentially important applications for the functional and prognostic assessment of patients with heart failure. PMID:24149996

  14. Systolic time intervals: a review of the method in the non-invasive investigation of cardiac function in health, disease and clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, S.; Turner, P.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of systolic time intervals is a valuable, non-invasive procedure to assess left ventricular performance, particularly when influenced by drugs. In this review, we discuss various factors affecting systolic time intervals, the therapeutic implications of the technique and its place among other non-invasive tests of cardiac function. PMID:6353394

  15. Comparison of electrical velocimetry and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for the non-invasive determination of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Trinkmann, Frederik; Berger, Manuel; Doesch, Christina; Papavassiliu, Theano; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Borggrefe, Martin; Kaden, Jens J; Saur, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    A novel algorithm of impedance cardiography referred to as electrical velocimetry (EV) has been introduced for non-invasive determination of cardiac output (CO). Previous validation studies yielded diverging results and no comparison with the non-invasive gold standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has been performed. We therefore aimed to prospectively assess the accuracy and reproducibility of EV compared to CMR. 152 consecutive stable patients undergoing CMR were enrolled. EV measurements were taken twice before or after CMR in supine position and averaged over 20 s (AESCULON(®), Osypka Medical, Berlin, Germany). Bland-Altman analysis showed insufficient agreement of EV and CMR with a mean bias of 1.2 ± 1.4 l/min (bias 23 ± 26 %, percentage error 51 %). Reproducibility was high with 0.0 ± 0.3 l/min (bias 0 ± 8 %, percentage error 15 %). Outlier analysis revealed gender, height, CO and stroke volume (SV) by CMR as independent predictors for larger variation. Stratification of COCMR in quintiles demonstrated a good agreement for low values (<4.4 l/min) with bias increasing significantly with quintile as high as 3.1 ± 1.1 l/min (p < 0.001). Reproducibility was not affected (p = 0.71). Subgroup analysis in patients with arrhythmias (p = 0.19), changes in thoracic fluid content (p = 0.51) or left heart failure (p = 0.47) could not detect significant differences in accuracy. EV showed insufficient agreement with CMR and good reproducibility. Gender, height and increasing CO and SV were associated with increased bias while not affecting reproducibility. Therefore, absolute values should not be used interchangeably in clinical routine. EV yet may find its place for clinical application with further investigation on its trending ability pending. PMID:26115774

  16. Thermal Imaging to Study Stress Non-invasively in Unrestrained Birds.

    PubMed

    Jerem, Paul; Herborn, Katherine; McCafferty, Dominic; McKeegan, Dorothy; Nager, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Stress, a central concept in biology, describes a suite of emergency responses to challenges. Among other responses, stress leads to a change in blood flow that results in a net influx of blood to key organs and an increase in core temperature. This stress-induced hyperthermia is used to assess stress. However, measuring core temperature is invasive. As blood flow is redirected to the core, the periphery of the body can cool. This paper describes a protocol where peripheral body temperature is measured non-invasively in wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) using infrared thermography. In the field we created a set-up bringing the birds to an ideal position in front of the camera by using a baited box. The camera takes a short thermal video recording of the undisturbed bird before applying a mild stressor (closing the box and therefore capturing the bird), and the bird's response to being trapped is recorded. The bare skin of the eye-region is the warmest area in the image. This allows an automated extraction of the maximum eye-region temperature from each image frame, followed by further steps of manual data filtering removing the most common sources of errors (motion blur, blinking). This protocol provides a time series of eye-region temperature with a fine temporal resolution that allows us to study the dynamics of the stress response non-invasively. Further work needs to demonstrate the usefulness of the method to assess stress, for instance to investigate whether eye-region temperature response is proportional to the strength of the stressor. If this can be confirmed, it will provide a valuable alternative method of stress assessment in animals and will be useful to a wide range of researchers from ecologists, conservation biologists, physiologists to animal welfare researchers. PMID:26575985

  17. Thermal Imaging to Study Stress Non-invasively in Unrestrained Birds

    PubMed Central

    Jerem, Paul; Herborn, Katherine; McCafferty, Dominic; McKeegan, Dorothy; Nager, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Stress, a central concept in biology, describes a suite of emergency responses to challenges. Among other responses, stress leads to a change in blood flow that results in a net influx of blood to key organs and an increase in core temperature. This stress-induced hyperthermia is used to assess stress. However, measuring core temperature is invasive. As blood flow is redirected to the core, the periphery of the body can cool. This paper describes a protocol where peripheral body temperature is measured non-invasively in wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) using infrared thermography. In the field we created a set-up bringing the birds to an ideal position in front of the camera by using a baited box. The camera takes a short thermal video recording of the undisturbed bird before applying a mild stressor (closing the box and therefore capturing the bird), and the bird’s response to being trapped is recorded. The bare skin of the eye-region is the warmest area in the image. This allows an automated extraction of the maximum eye-region temperature from each image frame, followed by further steps of manual data filtering removing the most common sources of errors (motion blur, blinking). This protocol provides a time series of eye-region temperature with a fine temporal resolution that allows us to study the dynamics of the stress response non-invasively. Further work needs to demonstrate the usefulness of the method to assess stress, for instance to investigate whether eye-region temperature response is proportional to the strength of the stressor. If this can be confirmed, it will provide a valuable alternative method of stress assessment in animals and will be useful to a wide range of researchers from ecologists, conservation biologists, physiologists to animal welfare researchers. PMID:26575985

  18. Automated non-invasive measurement of cardiac output: comparison of electrical bioimpedance and carbon dioxide rebreathing techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S A; Russell, A E; West, M J; Chalmers, J

    1988-01-01

    Two commercial automated, non-invasive systems for estimation of cardiac output were evaluated. Values of cardiac output obtained by electrical bioimpedance cardiography (BoMed NCCOM3 machine) were compared with values derived from an indirect Fick technique that uses carbon dioxide rebreathing (Gould 9000 IV system) during 103 simultaneous measurements made at rest in 19 randomly selected subjects and on exercise in 11 subjects. Cardiac output values obtained with impedance cardiography were significantly correlated with those measured by the indirect Fick method, although there was a wide scatter with over 73% of the readings lying outside the limits defined by the line of identity +/- 20%. This correlation was greatly reduced when stroke volume index was used instead of cardiac output. Indirect Fick results were linearly related to oxygen uptake both at rest and on exercise, while impedance cardiography results did not correlate with oxygen uptake. Impedance cardiography gave consistently lower results for cardiac output than indirect Fick at all levels of exercise. Both machines were easy to use and produced acceptable mean (SE) coefficients of variation (BoMed NCCOM3 7.7 (1.0)%, Gould 9000 IV 10.6 (1.4)%). Further validation is required before either of these machines can be recommended as an alternative to invasive monitoring in clinical practice. PMID:3128316

  19. Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Rats for Prediction of the Fate of Grafted Kidneys from Cardiac Death Donors

    PubMed Central

    Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Iwai, Satomi; Hatanaka, Masaki; Teratani, Takumi; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yokawa, Takashi; Kuroda, Kagayaki; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Okumi, Masayoshi; Yazawa, Koji; Rakugi, Hiromi; Nonomura, Norio; Takahara, Shiro; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess cardiac death (CD) kidney grafts before transplantation to determine whether blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and diffusion MRI techniques can predict damage to these grafts after transplantation. We assessed CD kidney tissue by BOLD and diffusion MRI. We also examined pathological and gene expression changes in CD kidney grafts before and after transplantation. Although there was significantly more red cell congestion (RCC) in the inner stripe of the outer medulla (IS) in both 1 h after cardiac death (CD1h) and CD2h kidneys destined for grafts before transplantation compared with CD0h (p<0.05), CD2h, but not CD1h, kidney grafts had significantly different RCC in the IS 2 days after transplantation (p<0.05). Consistent with these pathological findings, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) gene expression was increased only in the cortex and medulla of CD2h kidney grafts after transplantation. BOLD MRI successfully and non-invasively imaged and quantified RCC in the IS in both CD1h and CD2h kidney grafts (p<0.05). Diffusion MRI also non-invasively assessed increased the apparent diffusion coefficient in the IS and decreased it in the outer stripe (OS) of CD2h grafts, in concordance with interstitial edema in the IS and tubule cellular edema in the OS. These two types of edema in the outer medulla could explain the prolonged RCC in the IS only of CD2h kidney grafts, creating part of a vicious cycle inhibiting red cells coming out of capillary vessels in the IS. Perfusion with University of Wisconsin solution before MRI measurements did not diminish the difference in tissue damage between CD1h and CD2h kidney grafts. BOLD and diffusion MRI, which are readily available non-invasive tools for evaluating CD kidney grafts tissue damage, can predict prolonged organ damage, and therefore the outcome, of transplanted CD kidney grafts. PMID:23667641

  20. Mechanography: a non-invasive technique for the evaluation of cardiac function in children

    PubMed Central

    Spitaels, Silja; Fouron, Jean-Claude; Davignon, André

    1972-01-01

    Experience in the pediatric age group with mechanography, an indirect method of cardiovascular investigation, is described with emphasis on the recording technique and on the analysis of the tracings. A few examples are presented with comments on the morphological aspects and the time characteristics of the pulse curves, showing how much information about cardiac disease and especially myocardial function in children may be obtained. PMID:4640813

  1. (Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  2. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  3. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  4. First in vivo application and evaluation of a novel method for non-invasive estimation of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Theodore G; Soulis, Dimitrios; Vardoulis, Orestis; Protogerou, Athanase; Sfikakis, Petros P; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-10-01

    Surgical or critically ill patients often require continuous assessment of cardiac output (CO) for diagnostic purposes or for guiding therapeutic interventions. A new method of non-invasive CO estimation has been recently developed, which is based on pressure wave analysis. However, its validity has been examined only in silico. Aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the reproducibility and accuracy of the "systolic volume balance" method (SVB). Twenty two subjects underwent 2-D transthoracic echocardiography for CO measurement (reference value of CO). The application of SVB method required aortic pressure wave analysis and estimation of total arterial compliance. Aortic pulses were derived by mathematical transformation of radial pressure waves recorded by applanation tonometry. Total compliance was estimated by the "pulse pressure" method. The agreement, association, variability, bias and precision between Doppler and SVB measures of CO were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean difference, SD of differences, percentage error (PR) and Bland-Altman analysis. SVB yielded very reproducible CO estimates (ICC=0.84, mean difference 0.27 ± 0.73 L/min, PR = 16.7%). SVB-derived CO was comparable with Doppler measurements, indicating a good agreement and accuracy (ICC = 0.74, mean difference = -0.22 ± 0.364 L/min, PR ≈ 15). The basic mathematical and physical principles of the SVB method provide highly reproducible and accurate estimates of CO compared with echocardiography. PMID:25108554

  5. Design and testing of an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for non-invasive cardiac assessments during exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for cardiac research, and it is frequently used for resting cardiac assessments. However, research into non-pharmacological stress cardiac evaluation is limited. Methods We aimed to design a portable and relatively inexpensive MRI cycle ergometer capable of continuously measuring pedalling workload while patients exercise to maintain target heart rates. Results We constructed and tested an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Resting and sub-maximal exercise images (at 110 beats per minute) were successfully obtained in 8 healthy adults. Conclusions The MRI-compatible cycle ergometer constructed by our research group enabled cardiac assessments at fixed heart rates, while continuously recording power output by directly measuring pedal force and crank rotation. PMID:22423637

  6. Enabling non-invasive assessment of an engineered endothelium on ePTFE vascular grafts without increasing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Perrin, Louisiane; Kats, Dina; Meade, Thomas; Ameer, Guillermo

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with contrast enhancement is a potentially powerful tool to non-invasively monitor cell distribution in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The most commonly used contrast agent for cell labeling is super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). However, uptake of SPIONs triggers the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells often leading to a pro-inflammatory phenotype. The objective of this study was to develop a labeling system to non-invasively visualize an engineered endothelium in vascular grafts without creating excessive oxidative stress. Specifically, we investigated: (1) chitosan-coated SPIONs (CSPIONs) as an antioxidant contrast agent for contrast enhancement, and (2) poly(1,8-octamethylene citrate) (POC) as an antioxidant interface to support cell adhesion and function of labeled cells on the vascular graft. While SPION-labeled endothelial cells (ECs) experienced elevated ROS formation and altered cell morphology, CSPION-labeled ECs cultured on POC-coated surfaces mitigated SPION-induced ROS formation and maintained EC morphology, phenotype, viability and functions. A monolayer of labeled ECs exhibited sufficient contrast with T2-weighed MR imaging. CSPION labeling of endothelial cells in combination with coating the graft wall with POC allows non-invasive monitoring of an engineered endothelium on ePTFE grafts without increasing oxidative stress. PMID:26283158

  7. An open-source framework for stress-testing non-invasive foetal ECG extraction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Fernando; Behar, Joachim; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, many studies have been published on the extraction of non-invasive foetal electrocardiogram (NI-FECG) from abdominal recordings. Most of these contributions claim to obtain excellent results in detecting foetal QRS (FQRS) complexes in terms of location. A small subset of authors have investigated the extraction of morphological features from the NI-FECG. However, due to the shortage of available public databases, the large variety of performance measures employed and the lack of open-source reference algorithms, most contributions cannot be meaningfully assessed. This article attempts to address these issues by presenting a standardised methodology for stress testing NI-FECG algorithms, including absolute data, as well as extraction and evaluation routines. To that end, a large database of realistic artificial signals was created, totaling 145.8 h of multichannel data and over one million FQRS complexes. An important characteristic of this dataset is the inclusion of several non-stationary events (e.g. foetal movements, uterine contractions and heart rate fluctuations) that are critical for evaluating extraction routines. To demonstrate our testing methodology, three classes of NI-FECG extraction algorithms were evaluated: blind source separation (BSS), template subtraction (TS) and adaptive methods (AM). Experiments were conducted to benchmark the performance of eight NI-FECG extraction algorithms on the artificial database focusing on: FQRS detection and morphological analysis (foetal QT and T/QRS ratio). The overall median FQRS detection accuracies (i.e. considering all non-stationary events) for the best performing methods in each group were 99.9% for BSS, 97.9% for AM and 96.0% for TS. Both FQRS detections and morphological parameters were shown to heavily depend on the extraction techniques and signal-to-noise ratio. Particularly, it is shown that their evaluation in the source domain, obtained after using a BSS technique, should be

  8. Addressing Assumptions for the Use of Non-invasive Cardiac Output Measurement Techniques During Exercise in COPD.

    PubMed

    Perrault, Hélène; Richard, Ruddy; Kapchinsky, Sophia; Baril, Jacinthe; Bourbeau, Jean; Taivassalo, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial functional limitation of COPD increasingly demonstrates the need for an integrated circulatory assessment. In this study cardiac output (Qc) derived from non-inert (CO2-RB), inert (N2O-RB) gas rebreathing approaches and bioimpedance were compared to examine the limitations of currently available non-invasive techniques for exercise Qc determination in patients with chronic lung disease. Thirteen COPD patients (GOLD II-III) completed three constant cycling bouts at 20, 35, and 50% of peak work on two occasions to assess Qc with bioimpedance as well as using CO2-RB and N2O-RB for all exercise tests. Results showed significantly lower Qc using the N2O-RB or end-tidal CO2-derived Qc compared to the PaCO2-derived CO2-RB or the bioimpedance at rest and for all exercise intensities. End-tidal CO2-derived values are however not statistically different from those obtained using inert-gas rebreathing. This study show that in COPD patients, CO2-rebreathing Qc values obtained using PaCO2 contents which account for any gas exchange impairment or inadequate gas mixing are similar to those obtained using thoracic bioimpedance. Alternately, the lower values for N2O rebreathing derived Qc indicates the inability of this technique to account for gas exchange impairment in the computation of Qc. These findings indicate that the choice of a gas rebreathing technique to measure Qc in patients must be dictated by the ability to include in the derived computations a correction for either gas exchange inadequacies and/or a vascular shunt. PMID:26408087

  9. Non-invasive technology that improves cardiac function after experimental myocardial infarction: Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz).

    PubMed

    Uryash, Arkady; Bassuk, Jorge; Kurlansky, Paul; Altamirano, Francisco; Lopez, Jose R; Adams, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) may produce significant inflammatory changes and adverse ventricular remodeling leading to heart failure and premature death. Pharmacologic, stem cell transplantation, and exercise have not halted the inexorable rise in the prevalence and great economic costs of heart failure despite extensive investigations of such treatments. New therapeutic modalities are needed. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz) is a non-invasive technology that increases pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium thereby producing several beneficial cardiovascular effects as demonstrated in animal models, normal humans and patients with heart disease. pGz upregulates endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its phosphorylation (p-eNOS) to improve myocardial function in models of myocardial stunning and preconditioning. Here we test whether pGz applied chronically after focal myocardial infarction in rats improves functional outcomes from MI. Focal MI was produced by left coronary artery ligation. One day after ligation animals were randomized to receive daily treatments of pGz for four weeks (MI-pGz) or serve as controls (MI-CONT), with an additional group as non-infarction controls (Sham). Echocardiograms and invasive pressure volume loop analysis were carried out. Infarct transmurality, myocardial fibrosis, and markers of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined along with protein analysis of eNOS, p-eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).At four weeks, survival was 80% in MI-pGz vs 50% in MI-CONT (p< 0.01). Ejection fraction and fractional shortening and invasive pressure volume relation indices of afterload and contractility were significantly better in MI-pGz. The latter where associated with decreased infarct transmurality and decreased fibrosis along with increased eNOS, p-eNOS. Additionally, MI-pGz had significantly lower levels of iNOS, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), and higher level of anti

  10. Non-Invasive Technology That Improves Cardiac Function after Experimental Myocardial Infarction: Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz)

    PubMed Central

    Kurlansky, Paul; Altamirano, Francisco; Lopez, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) may produce significant inflammatory changes and adverse ventricular remodeling leading to heart failure and premature death. Pharmacologic, stem cell transplantation, and exercise have not halted the inexorable rise in the prevalence and great economic costs of heart failure despite extensive investigations of such treatments. New therapeutic modalities are needed. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz) is a non-invasive technology that increases pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium thereby producing several beneficial cardiovascular effects as demonstrated in animal models, normal humans and patients with heart disease. pGz upregulates endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its phosphorylation (p-eNOS) to improve myocardial function in models of myocardial stunning and preconditioning. Here we test whether pGz applied chronically after focal myocardial infarction in rats improves functional outcomes from MI. Focal MI was produced by left coronary artery ligation. One day after ligation animals were randomized to receive daily treatments of pGz for four weeks (MI-pGz) or serve as controls (MI-CONT), with an additional group as non-infarction controls (Sham). Echocardiograms and invasive pressure volume loop analysis were carried out. Infarct transmurality, myocardial fibrosis, and markers of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined along with protein analysis of eNOS, p-eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).At four weeks, survival was 80% in MI-pGz vs 50% in MI-CONT (p< 0.01). Ejection fraction and fractional shortening and invasive pressure volume relation indices of afterload and contractility were significantly better in MI-pGz. The latter where associated with decreased infarct transmurality and decreased fibrosis along with increased eNOS, p-eNOS. Additionally, MI-pGz had significantly lower levels of iNOS, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), and higher level of anti

  11. A pilot study of prognostic value of non-invasive cardiac parameters for major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Min-Jie; Pan, Ye-Sheng; Hu, Wei-Guo; Lu, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Qing-Yong; Huang, Dong; Huang, Xiao-Li; Wei, Meng; Li, Jing-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the combination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and individual electrocardiographic parameters related to abnormal depolarization/repolarization or baroreceptor sensitivity that had the best predictive value for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with ACS who underwent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included in this prospective study. Ventricular late potential (VLP), heart rate turbulence (HRT), heart rate variability (HRV), and T wave alternans (TWA) parameters were measured using 24 h Holter monitoring 2-4 weeks after onset of ACS. Initial and follow-up LVEF was measured by ultrasound. Patients were followed for at least 6 months to record the occurrence of MACE. Models using combinations of the individual independent prognostic factors found by multivariate analysis were then constructed to use for estimation of risk of MACE. In multivariate analysis, VLP measured as QRS duration, HRV measured as standard deviation of normal RR intervals, and followup LVEF, but none of the other parameters studied, were independent risk factors for MACE. Areas under ROC curve (AUCs) for combinations of 2 or all 3 factors ranged from 0.73 to 0.76. Combinations of any of the three independent risk factors for MACE in ACS patients with PCI improved prediction and, because these risk factors were obtained non-invasively, may have future clinical usefulness. PMID:26885226

  12. Non-invasive monitoring of stress hormones in the bat Eptesicus isabellinus - Do fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations correlate with survival?

    PubMed

    Kelm, Detlev H; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Dehnhard, Martin; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2016-01-15

    Chronic stress may negatively impact fitness and survival in wildlife. Stress hormone analysis from feces is a non-invasive tool for identifying stressors and deducing about individual and population level fitness. Although many bat populations are endangered, fecal stress hormone analysis has not been established in bats as a method for focusing conservation efforts. The isabelline serotine bat, Eptesicus isabellinus, is exposed to human disturbance as its roosts are mostly found in anthropogenic structures. Moreover, this bat is host to various diseases and survival rates between colonies may vary significantly. To validate the analysis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, we applied an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge and tested four different enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for measuring glucocorticoid concentrations. Cortisol and its metabolites showed the highest increase in blood and feces after the ACTH challenge, but corticosterone and its metabolites also increased significantly. Baseline fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) concentrations did not increase until 1.5h after the animals were captured, which is a convenient time lag for sample collection from captured animals. We furthermore compared baseline FCM concentrations between five colonies of E. isabellinus in Andalusia, Spain, and tested for their correlation with survival rates. FCM concentrations did not vary between colonies, but FCM levels increased with the animals' age. FCM analysis may prove a useful tool for identifying bat colonies that experience uncommon environmental stress. However, inter-individual variation in hormone secretion, due to factors such as age, may require additional information to properly interpret differences in hormone concentrations. PMID:26673871

  13. Non-invasive assessment of reproductive status and stress in captive Asian elephants in three south Indian zoos.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Palugulla Reddy, Vivekananda; Kokkiligadda, Adiseshu; Shivaji, Sisinthy; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2014-05-15

    Asian elephants in captivity need immediate attention to be bred so as to meet the increasing demand for captive elephants and to overcome the dependence on supplementing the captive stock with wild animals. Unfortunately, captive breeding programs across the globe have met with limited success and therefore more effort is needed to improve breeding in captivity. Endocrine profiling of reproductive hormones (progestagens and androgens) and the stress hormone (glucocorticoids) could facilitate better management and breeding strategies. In the present study, we investigated reproductive and stress physiology of 12 captive Asian elephants for 10-27 months using a non-invasive method based on steroid analysis of 1700 elephant dung samples. Most of the elephants were cycling regularly. Males during musth showed increased fecal androgen metabolite concentrations and exhibited a slight increase in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Elephants used in public festivals and processions showed significantly increased in faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. The results indicate that captive elephants require periodic health care, better husbandry practices and scientific management for sustainable captive population. PMID:24698789

  14. Non-Invasive Drosophila ECG Recording by Using Eutectic Gallium-Indium Alloy Electrode: A Feasible Tool for Future Research on the Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Po-Hung; Tzeng, Te-Hsuen; Huang, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yu-Hao; Chang, Yi-Chung; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Wu, June-Tai; Lee, Hsiu-Hsian; Lai, Po-Jung; Liu, Kwei-Yan; Cheng, Ya-Chen; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Background Drosophila heart tube is a feasible model for cardiac physiological research. However, obtaining Drosophila electrocardiograms (ECGs) is difficult, due to the weak signals and limited contact area to apply electrodes. This paper presents a non-invasive Gallium-Indium (GaIn) based recording system for Drosophila ECG measurement, providing the heart rate and heartbeat features to be observed. This novel, high-signal-quality system prolongs the recording time of insect ECGs, and provides a feasible platform for research on the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases. Methods In this study, two types of electrode, tungsten needle probes and GaIn electrodes, were used respectively to noiselessly conduct invasive and noninvasive ECG recordings of Drosophila. To further analyze electrode properties, circuit models were established and simulated. By using electromagnetic shielded heart signal acquiring system, consisted of analog amplification and digital filtering, the ECG signals of three phenotypes that have different heart functions were recorded without dissection. Results and Discussion The ECG waveforms of different phenotypes of Drosophila recorded invasively and repeatedly with n value (n>5) performed obvious difference in heart rate. In long period ECG recordings, non-invasive method implemented by GaIn electrodes acts relatively stable in both amplitude and period. To analyze GaIn electrode, the correctness of GaIn electrode model established by this paper was validated, presenting accuracy, stability, and reliability. Conclusions Noninvasive ECG recording by GaIn electrodes was presented for recording Drosophila pupae ECG signals within a limited contact area and signal strength. Thus, the observation of ECG changes in normal and SERCA-depleted Drosophila over an extended period is feasible. This method prolongs insect survival time while conserving major ECG features, and provides a platform for electrophysiological signal research

  15. Peak Cardiac Power Measured Non-Invasively with a Bioreactance Technique is a Predictor of Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Hannah; Helmke, Stephen; Williams, Paula; Teruya, Sergio; Jones, Margaret; Burkhoff, Daniel; Mancini, Donna; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Peak oxygen consumption (VO2) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a powerful predictor of survival, providing an indirect assessment of cardiac output (CO). Hypothesis Non-invasive indices of CO derived from bioreactance methodology would add significantly to peak VO2 as a means of risk stratifying patients with heart failure. Methods 127 patients (53±14 years of age, 66% male) with heart failure and an average EF = 31±15 underwent a symptom-limited CPET using a bicycle ergometer while measuring CO noninvasively by a bioreactance technique. Peak cardiac power was derived from the product of the peak mean arterial blood pressure and CO divided by 451. Results Follow-up averaged 404±179 days (median, 366 days) to assess end points including death (n=3), heart transplant (n=10), or left ventricular assisted device (LVAD) implantation (n=2). Peak VO2 and peak power had similar area under the curves (0.77 and 0.76), which increased to 0.83 when combined. Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curves demonstrated different outcomes in the subgroup with a VO2 <14 ml*kg-1*min-1 when stratified by a cardiac power above or below 1.5 Watts (92.2% vs. 82.1% at 1 year and 81.6% vs. 58.3% at last follow-up, p=0.02 by log-rank test). Conclusions Among patients with heart failure, peak cardiac power measured with bioreactance methodology and peak VO2 had similar associations with adverse outcomes and peak power added independent prognostic information to peak VO2 in subjects with advanced disease (e.g. VO2 < 14 ml*kg-1*min-1). PMID:21091609

  16. Is it possible to identify infrahissian cardiac conduction abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy by non-invasive methods?

    PubMed Central

    Babuty, D; Fauchier, L; Tena-Carbi, D; Poret, P; Leche, J; Raynaud, M; Fauchier, J; Cosnay, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify intracardiac conduction abnormalities in patients with myotonic dystrophy from their clinical, ECG, and genetic features.
METHODS—39 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age 42.9 (12.1) years; 16 female, 23 male) underwent clinical examination, genetic studies, resting and 24 hour ambulatory ECG, signal averaged ECG, and electrophysiological studies.
RESULTS—23 patients suffered from cardiac symptoms, 23 had one or more cardiac conduction abnormality on resting ECG, one had sinus deficiency, and 21 (53.8%) had prolonged HV intervals. No correlation was found between the severity of the neurological symptoms, onset of disease, cardiac conduction abnormalities on ECG, and the intracardiac conduction abnormalities on electrophysiological study. The size of the DNA mutation was longer in the abnormal HV interval group than in the normal HV interval group (3.5 (1.8) v 2.2 (1.0) kb, p < 0.02). Signal averaged ECG parameters (total QRS duration (QRSD) and duration of low amplitude signals ⩽ 40 µV (LAS 40)) were greater in patients with an abnormal HV interval than in those with a normal HV interval (123.4 (24.6) v 102.8 (12.3) ms and 47.5 (12.8) v 35.3 (8.8) ms, respectively; p < 0.005). Only the association of QRSD ⩾ 100 ms with LAS 40 ⩾ 36 ms identified patients with an abnormal HV interval with good sensitivity (80%) and specificity (83.3%).
CONCLUSIONS—Infrahissian conduction abnormalities are common in myotonic dystrophy and can be identified using signal averaged electrocardiography.


Keywords: myotonic dystrophy; atrioventricular block; genetic factors; signal averaged ECG PMID:10525524

  17. The impact of oxidative stress on islet transplantation and monitoring the graft survival by non-invasive imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, K M; Sekar, T V; Bhakkiyalakshmi, E; Foygel, Kira; Rajaguru, P; Berger, F; Paulmurugan, R

    2013-01-01

    and C-peptide levels. These biochemical measurements provide markers at only the late stages of islet rejection. Use of molecular imaging techniques has the potential for real-time non-invasive monitoring of the functional status and viability of transplanted islet grafts in living animals. This review mainly focuses on the current status of islet transplantations, potential preventive strategies used to reduce oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in islet grafts, and use of molecular imaging as a tool to quantitatively evaluate the functional status of the transplanted islets in living animals. PMID:23317098

  18. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report, September 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  19. Non-invasive cardiac index monitoring during cardiopulmonary functional testing provides additional prognostic value in patients after acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Feng; Chen, Wei-Siang; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Liu, Min-Hui; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Huang, Yu-Yen; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic value of parameters derived from a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is well established in patients stabilized after acute heart failure (HF). Under multidisciplinary disease management, this study sought to test whether noninvasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring (NICOM) during the CPET provides additional prognostic value. In total, 131 patients stabilized after acute HF agreed to undergo the CPET with NICOM. Outcome follow-up focused on composite events of death and HF-related rehospitalization. Patients with a peak cardiac index (CI) of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (n = 32), compared to those with a peak CI of > 4.5 L/minute/m(2) (n = 99), had higher incidences of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, but had lower hemoglobin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)). During the 1.2 ± 0.7 years of follow-up, there were 8 (6.1%) deaths, and 16 (12.2%) HF-related rehospitalizations. In a Cox univariable analysis, a lower event-free survival was associated with a history of DM, a higher Ve/VCO(2) slope, lower peak VCO(2) and eGFR, and a peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (P < 0.05). The Cox multivariable analysis showed that the Ve/VCO(2) slope (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01~1.16, P = 0.02) and peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/m(2 )(HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.18~9.01, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors. In conclusion, NICOM during the CPET was demonstrated to provide prognostic information in addition to traditional risk factors, biomarkers, and other well-established CPET parameters. PMID:23258137

  20. SU-C-303-06: Treatment Planning Study for Non-Invasive Cardiac Arrhythmia Ablation with Scanned Carbon Ions in An Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Eichhorn, A; Constantinescu, A; Prall, M; Kaderka, R; Durante, M; Graeff, C; Lehmann, H I; Takami, M; Packer, D L; Lugenbiel, P; Thomas, D; Richter, D; Bert, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Scanned carbon ion beams might offer a non-invasive alternative treatment for cardiac arrhythmia, which are a major health-burden. We studied the feasibility of this procedure in an animal model. The underlying treatment planning and motion mitigation strategies will be presented. Methods: The study was carried out in 15 pigs, randomly distributed to 3 target groups: atrioventricular node (AVN, 8 animals with 25, 40, and 55 Gy target dose), left ventricular free-wall (LV, 4 animals with 40 Gy) and superior pulmonary vein (SPV, 3 animals with 40 Gy). Breathing motion was suppressed by repeated enforced breathholds at end exhale. Cardiac motion was mitigated by an inhomogeneous rescanning scheme with up to 15 rescans. The treatment planning was performed using the GSI in-house software TRiP4D on cardiac-gated 4DCTs, applying a range-considering ITV based on an extended CTV. For AVN and SPV isotropic 5 mm margins were applied to the CTV, while for the LV 2mm+2% range margins were used. The opposing fields for AVN and LV targets were optimized independently (SFUD), while SPV treatments were optimized as IMPT deliveries, including dose restrictions to the radiosensitive AVN. Results: Median value of D{sub 95} over all rescanning simulations was 99.1% (AVN), 98.0% (SPV) and 98.3% (LV) for the CTV and 94.7% (AVN) and 92.7% (SPV) for the PTV, respectively. The median D{sub 5}-D{sub 95} was improved with rescanning compared to unmitigated delivery from 13.3 to 6.5% (CTV) and from 23.4 to 11.6% (PTV). ICRP dose limits for aorta, trachea, esophagus and skin were respected. The maximal dose in the coronary arteries was limited to 30 Gy. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of a homogeneous dose delivery to different cardiac structures in a porcine model using a time-optimized inhomogeneous rescanning scheme. The presented treatment planning strategies were applied in a pig study with the analysis ongoing. Funding: This work was supported in part by the

  1. Eco-photonics: application of optical diagnostic modalities for non-invasive monitoring and evaluation of stress conditions of aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkov, A. N.; Axenov-Gribanov, D. V.; Pavlichenko, V. V.; Shakhtanova, N. S.; Bedulina, D. S.; Timofeyev, M. A.; Kalchenko, V.; Meglinski, I.

    2012-03-01

    The growing interest in monitoring ecological change has been stimulated by a global climate change, combined with the day-to-day human anthropogenic activities, that heavily influence the environment. A global warming accompanied by a anthropogenic activities falling within the freshwater ecosystem result a dramatic enhance of the overall stress for most of aquatic organisms. We explore the applicability of optical spectroscopy and advanced non-invasive imaging techniques, that have been used earlier in various biomedical applications, to study an influence of climatic changes on the physiological and biochemical processes that take place in living aquatic organisms. In current report we demonstrate that optical spectroscopy and modern imaging techniques can be successfully used to observe and evaluate thermal and/or hypoxic stress, experienced by freshwater organisms, such as Baikal amphipods.

  2. Prediction of rectal temperature using non-invasive physiologic variable measurements in hair pregnant ewes subjected to natural conditions of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Pérez, Ricardo; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Mejía-Vázquez, Ángel; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F Daniel; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Mellado, Miguel; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Guerra-Liera, Juan E; Robinson, P H; Macías-Cruz, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Rectal temperature (RT) is the foremost physiological variable indicating if an animal is suffering hyperthermia. However, this variable is traditionally measured by invasive methods, which may compromise animal welfare. Models to predict RT have been developed for growing pigs and lactating dairy cows, but not for pregnant heat-stressed ewes. Our aim was to develop a prediction equation for RT using non-invasive physiological variables in pregnant ewes under heat stress. A total of 192 records of respiratory frequency (RF) and hair coat temperature in various body regions (i.e., head, rump, flank, shoulder, and belly) obtained from 24 Katahdin × Pelibuey pregnant multiparous ewes were collected during the last third of gestation (i.e., d 100 to lambing) with a 15 d sampling interval. Hair coat temperatures were taken using infrared thermal imaging technology. Initially, a Pearson correlation analysis examined the relationship among variables, and then multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop the prediction equations. All predictor variables were positively correlated (P<0.01; r=0.59-0.67) with RT. The adjusted equation which best predicted RT (P<0.01; Radj(2)=56.15%; CV=0.65%) included as predictors RF and head and belly temperatures. Comparison of predicted and observed values for RT indicates a suitable agreement (P<0.01) between them with moderate accuracy (Radj(2)=56.15%) when RT was calculated with the adjusted equation. In general, the final equation does not violate any assumption of multiple regression analysis. The RT in heat-stressed pregnant ewes can be predicted with an adequate accuracy using non-invasive physiologic variables, and the final equation was: RT=35.57+0.004 (RF)+0.067 (heat temperature)+0.028 (belly temperature). PMID:26724191

  3. A computer controlled non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring system.

    PubMed

    McMenemin, I M; Kenny, G N

    1988-10-01

    A system for the non-invasive monitoring, recording and storing haemodynamic indices has been developed using an Apple II microcomputer, a Dinamap automatic arterial pressure monitor and a non-invasive cardiac output monitor based on bio-electrical impedance. This system was used during the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Numerical and graphical displays of heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance are available. A print-out of data can be produced for later analysis. PMID:3190976

  4. Aerial Imagery and Other Non-invasive Approaches to Detect Nitrogen and Water Stress in a Potato Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigon, Tyler John

    Post-emergence nitrogen (N) fertilizer is typically split applied to irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Minnesota in order to minimize the likelihood of nitrate leaching and to best match N availability to crop demands. Petiole nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration is often used as a diagnostic test to determine the rate and timing of split applications, but using this approach for variable rate applications is difficult. Canopy-level spectral measurements, such as hyperspectral and multispectral imagery, have the potential to be a reliable tool for making in-season N management decisions for precision agriculture applications. The objectives of this two year field study were to evaluate the effects of variety, N treatment, and water stress on growth characteristics and the ability of and canopy-level reflectance to predict N stress in potato. Treatments included two irrigation regimes (unstressed and stressed), five N regimes categorized by three N rates (34 kg N ha-1, 180 kg N ha-1, and 270 kg N ha-1) in which the 270 kg N ha-1 rate had post-emergence N either split applied or applied early in the season, and two potato varieties (Russet Burbank and Alpine Russet). Higher N rates and split applications generally resulted in higher tuber yield for both varieties. Insufficient supplemental water was found to reduce tuber yield and plant N uptake. Of the broadband indices, narrowband indices, and partial least squares regression (PLS) models evaluated, the best predictor of N stress as measured by leaf N concentration was the PLS model using derivative reflectance (r2 of 0.79 for RB and 0.77 for AR). However, the best technique for determining N stress level for variable rate application of N fertilizer was MTCI (MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index) due to its good relationship with leaf N concentration and high accuracy. As a final aspect of the study, results from the experimental plots were used to predict N stress in a

  5. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K.; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 – 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  6. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    PubMed

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  7. A non-invasive method for detecting the metabolic stress response in rodents: characterization and disruption of the circadian corticosterone rhythm.

    PubMed

    Thanos, P K; Cavigelli, S A; Michaelides, M; Olvet, D M; Patel, U; Diep, M N; Volkow, N D

    2009-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone (CORT) measures are a common procedure to detect stress responses in rodents. However, the procedure is invasive and can influence CORT levels, making it less than ideal for monitoring CORT circadian rhythms. In the current paper, we examined the applicability of a non-invasive fecal CORT metabolite measure to assess the circadian rhythm. We compared fecal CORT metabolite levels to circulating CORT levels, and analyzed change in the fecal circadian rhythm following an acute stressor (i.e. blood sampling by tail veil catheter). Fecal and blood samples were collected from male adolescent rats and analyzed for CORT metabolites and circulating CORT respectively. Fecal samples were collected hourly for 24 h before and after blood draw. On average, peak fecal CORT metabolite values occurred 7-9 h after the plasma CORT peak and time-matched fecal CORT values were well correlated with plasma CORT. As a result of the rapid blood draw, fecal production and CORT levels were altered the next day. These results indicate fecal CORT metabolite measures can be used to assess conditions that disrupt the circadian CORT rhythm, and provide a method to measure long-term changes in CORT production. This can benefit research that requires long-term glucocorticoid assessment (e.g. stress mechanisms underlying health). PMID:18380537

  8. A Non-Invasive Method for Detecting the Metabolic Stress Response in Rodents: Characterization and Disruption of the Circadian Corticosterone Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Michaelides, Michael; Olvet, Doreen M.; Patel, Ujval; Diep, Mai N.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2009-01-01

    1. Summary Plasma corticosterone (CORT) measures are a common procedure to detect stress responses in rodents. However, the procedure is invasive and can influence CORT levels, making it less than ideal for monitoring CORT circadian rhythms. In the current paper, we examined the applicability of a non-invasive fecal CORT metabolite measure to assess the circadian rhythm. We compared fecal CORT metabolite levels to circulating CORT levels, and analyzed change in the fecal circadian rhythm following an acute stressor (i.e. blood sampling by tail veil catheter). Fecal and blood samples were collected from male adolescent rats and analyzed for CORT metabolites and circulating CORT respectively. Fecal samples were collected hourly for 24 hours pre- and post-blood draw. On average, peak fecal CORT metabolite values occurred 7–9 hours after the plasma CORT peak and time-matched fecal CORT values were well correlated with plasma CORT. As a result of the rapid blood draw, fecal production and CORT levels were altered the next day. These results indicate fecal CORT metabolite measures can be used to assess conditions that disrupt the circadian CORT rhythm, and provide a method to measure long-term changes in CORT production. This can benefit research that requires long-term glucocorticoid assessment (e.g. stress mechanisms underlying health). PMID:18380537

  9. Portable oxidative stress sensor: dynamic and non-invasive measurements of extracellular H₂O₂ released by algae.

    PubMed

    Koman, Volodymyr B; Santschi, Christian; von Moos, Nadia R; Slaveykova, Vera I; Martin, Olivier J F

    2015-06-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by aerobic organisms are essential for physiological processes such as cell signaling, apoptosis, immune defense and oxidative stress mechanisms. Unbalanced oxidant/antioxidant budgets are involved in many diseases and, therefore, the sensitive measurement of ROS is of great interest. Here, we present a new device for the real-time monitoring of oxidative stress by measuring one of the most stable ROS, namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This portable oxidative stress sensor contains the heme protein cytochrome c (cyt c) as sensing element whose spectral response enables the detection of H2O2 down to a detection limit of 40 nM. This low detection limit is achieved by introducing cyt c in a random medium, enabling multiscattering that enhances the optical trajectory through the cyt c spot. A contact microspotting technique is used to produce reproducible and reusable cyt c spots which are stable for several days. Experiments in static and microfluidic regimes, as well as numerical simulations demonstrate the suitability of the cyt c/H2O2 reaction system for the real-time sensing of the kinetics of biological processes without H2O2 depletion in the measurement chamber. As an example, we detect the release of H2O2 from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to either 180 nM functionalized CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots, or to 10 mg/l TiO2 nanoparticles. The continuous measurement of extracellular H2O2 by this optical sensor with high sensitivity is a promising new means for real-time cytotoxicity tests, the investigation of oxidative stress and other physiological cell processes. PMID:25588702

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones in the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Beaulah Budithi, Neema Raja; Kumar, Vinod; Yalla, Suneel Kumar; Rai, Upashna; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-09-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is classified as endangered due to its declining population, habitat fragmentation and poaching. Efforts are being made to breed them in captivity as part of nationwide conservation breeding program. This study aimed to standardize Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to monitor reproductive (Progesterone metabolite, Testosterone) and stress hormone (Cortisol) in red panda. For this purpose, we collected 1471 faecal samples from four females and one male over a period of one year from Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, India. HPLC confirmed the presence of immunoreactive 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one, testosterone and cortisol metabolites in faecal samples. Using 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one EIA, we were able to monitor reproduction and detect pregnancy in one of the females, which successfully conceived and delivered during the study period. We were also able to monitor testosterone and cortisol in faecal samples of the red panda. Faecal testosterone levels were found in higher concentration in breeding season than in non-breeding season. Faecal cortisol concentrations showed a negative relationship with ambient temperature and peaked during winter months in all animals. Standardization of EIAs and faecal hormone monitoring would facilitate red panda conservation breeding programs in India and elsewhere. PMID:27481551

  11. Non-invasive assessment of the presence and severity of cardiac amyloidosis. A study in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy by cross sectional echocardiography and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, P; Backman, C; Bjerle, P; Eriksson, A; Holm, S; Olofsson, B O

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients with familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy were examined both by cross sectional echocardiography and by technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy to assess involvement of the heart non-invasively. All 12 patients had echocardiographic abnormalities. The most prominent findings were highly refractile myocardial echoes, thickened heart valves, and increased thickness of the heart walls. Four patients had abnormal myocardial uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate. The remaining eight had equivocal or no myocardial uptake and were considered to have normal scintigrams. A certain amount of amyloid is probably required to produce an abnormal scintigram, although lesions with less amyloid can evidently be identified by echocardiography. Neither the duration of polyneuropathy nor its severity showed any relation to the echocardiographic or scintigraphic findings. It is concluded that cross sectional echocardiography is superior to technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy in detecting cardiac involvement in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy and that these results may also be applicable to other forms of amyloidosis. Images PMID:6087862

  12. Lactate is an ideal non-invasive marker for evaluating temporal alterations in cell stress and toxicity in repeat dose testing regimes.

    PubMed

    Limonciel, Alice; Aschauer, Lydia; Wilmes, Anja; Prajczer, Sinikka; Leonard, Martin O; Pfaller, Walter; Jennings, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Technological developments are driving in vitro methods towards integrated "omic" strategies. However, there is still an over reliance on classical viability assays for dose range finding. Such assays are not readily suited to the investigation of subtle alterations in cell function and most require termination of the experiment, which makes it difficult to monitor temporal alterations in repeat-dose long term exposure experiments. To this end, we investigated the use of lactate production as a marker of cell stress in long term repeat dose experiments. We conducted daily exposures to eight compounds at five concentrations for 14 days on human renal proximal tubular cells (RPTEC/TERT1), human hepatoma cells (HepaRG) and mouse fibroblasts (BALB-3T3) cells. Compounds were chosen from a training set used in the 7th EU Framework project Predict-IV and consisted of amiodarone, diclofenac, troglitazone, cadmium chloride, cephaloridine, cidofovir, cyclosporine A and buflomedil. At days 1, 3, 7 and 14, lactate was measured in the supernatant medium. At day 14, cells were assayed for resazurin reduction capability and subsequently lysed in methanol for ATP determination. Compound-induced loss of viability was comparable across all cell lines. For all cell types, when cell viability was compromised at day 14, lactate production was induced during the treatment period. In some situations, lactate also fell below control values, indicating cell death. Thus, temporal alterations in supernatant lactate provides information on the time and concentration of stress induction and the time and concentration where cell death becomes the dominant factor. Supernatant lactate production is a simple, cheap and non-invasive parameter. Since many molecular pathways converge on the glycolytic pathway, enhanced lactate production may be considered as a global marker of sub-lethal injury and thus an ideal marker for investigating temporal alterations in long term repeat dose testing in vitro

  13. Lipid partitioning during cardiac stress.

    PubMed

    Kolwicz, Stephen C

    2016-10-01

    It is well documented that fatty acids serve as the primary fuel substrate for the contracting myocardium. However, extensive research has identified significant changes in the myocardial oxidation of fatty acids during acute or chronic cardiac stress. As a result, the redistribution or partitioning of fatty acids due to metabolic derangements could have biological implications. Fatty acids can be stored as triacylglycerols, serve as critical components for biosynthesis of phospholipid membranes, and form the potent signaling molecules, diacylglycerol and ceramides. Therefore, the contribution of lipid metabolism to health and disease is more intricate than a balance of uptake and oxidation. In this review, the available data regarding alterations that occur in endogenous cardiac lipid pathways during the pathological stressors of ischemia-reperfusion and pathological hypertrophy/heart failure are highlighted. In addition, changes in endogenous lipids observed in exercise training models are presented for comparison. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:27040509

  14. Non invasive monitoring in mechanically ventilated pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Subu, Awni M; Rehder, Kyle J; Cheifetz, Ira M; Turner, David A

    2014-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary monitoring is a key component in the evaluation and management of critically ill patients. Clinicians typically rely on a combination of invasive and non-invasive monitoring to assess cardiac output and adequacy of ventilation. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction: of continuous non-invasive monitors that allow for data to be obtained at the bedside of critically ill patients. These advances help to identify hemodynamic changes and allow for interventions before complications occur. In this manuscript, we highlight several important methods of non-invasive cardiopulmonary monitoring, including capnography, transcutaneous monitoring, pulse oximetry, and near infrared spectroscopy. PMID:25119483

  15. The feasibility and applications of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring, thromboelastography and transit-time flow measurement in living-related renal transplantation surgery: results of a prospective pilot observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Delayed graft function (DGF) remains a significant and detrimental postoperative phenomenon following living-related renal allograft transplantation, with a published incidence of up to 15%. Early therapeutic vasodilatory interventions have been shown to improve DGF, and modifications to immunosuppressive regimens may subsequently lessen its impact. This pilot study assesses the potential applicability of perioperative non-invasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM), transit-time flow monitoring (TTFM) of the transplant renal artery and pre-/perioperative thromboelastography (TEG) in the early prediction of DGF and perioperative complications. Methods Ten consecutive living-related renal allograft recipients were studied. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring commenced immediately following induction of anaesthesia and was maintained throughout the perioperative period. Doppler-based TTFM was performed during natural haemostatic pauses in the transplant surgery: immediately following graft reperfusion and following ureteric implantation. Central venous blood sampling for TEG was performed following induction of anaesthesia and during abdominal closure. Results A single incidence of DGF was seen within the studied cohort and one intra-operative (thrombotic) complication noted. NICOM confirmed a predictable trend of increased cardiac index (CI) following allograft reperfusion (mean CI - clamped: 3.17 ± 0.29 L/min/m2, post-reperfusion: 3.50 ± 0.35 L/min/m2; P < 0.05) mediated by a significant reduction in total peripheral resistance. Reduced TTFM at the point of allograft reperfusion (227 ml/min c.f. mean; 411 ml/min (95% CI: 358 to 465)) was identified in a subject who experienced intra-operative transplant renal artery thrombosis. TEG data exhibited significant reductions in clot lysis (LY30 (%): pre-op: 1.0 (0.29 to 1.71), post reperfusion 0.33 (0.15 to 0.80); P = 0.02) and a trend towards increased clot initiation following

  16. Autocalibrating pulse contour analysis based on radial artery applanation tonometry for continuous non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in intensive care unit patients after major gastrointestinal surgery--a prospective method comparison study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Y; Langemann, M; Schön, G; Kluge, S; Reuter, D A; Saugel, B

    2016-05-01

    The T-Line(®) system (Tensys(®) Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) non-invasively estimates cardiac output (CO) using autocalibrating pulse contour analysis of the radial artery applanation tonometry-derived arterial waveform. We compared T-Line CO measurements (TL-CO) with invasively obtained CO measurements using transpulmonary thermodilution (TDCO) and calibrated pulse contour analysis (PC-CO) in patients after major gastrointestinal surgery. We compared 1) TL-CO versus TD-CO and 2) TL-CO versus PC-CO in 27 patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) after major gastrointestinal surgery. For the assessment of TD-CO and PC-CO we used the PiCCO(®) system (Pulsion Medical Systems SE, Feldkirchen, Germany). Per patient, we compared two sets of TD-CO and 30 minutes of PC-CO measurements with the simultaneously recorded TL-CO values using Bland-Altman analysis. The mean of differences (± standard deviation; 95% limits of agreement) between TL-CO and TD-CO was -0.8 (±1.6; -4.0 to +2.3) l/minute with a percentage error of 45%. For TL-CO versus PC-CO, we observed a mean of differences of -0.4 (±1.5; -3.4 to +2.5) l/minute with a percentage error of 43%. In ICU patients after major gastrointestinal surgery, continuous non-invasive CO measurement based on autocalibrating pulse contour analysis of the radial artery applanation tonometry-derived arterial waveform (TL-CO) is feasible in a clinical study setting. However, the agreement of TL-CO with TD-CO and PC-CO observed in our study indicates that further improvements are needed before the technology can be recommended for clinical use in these patients. PMID:27246932

  17. Thallium cardiac stressing by esophageal pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.L.; Vacek, J.L.; Preston, D.F.; Robinson, R.G.; Feldkamp, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Forty-three patients were examined with the transesophageal pacing method of cardiac stressing and thallium imaging. Transesophageal cardiac pacing, using a pill electrode or a permanent pacemaker lead, is a safe alternative for patients who are physically unable to exercise. Prior studies suggest that transvenous right atrial pacing with thallium injection is equivalent to physical exercise thallium studies in the detection of coronary artery disease. The esophageal pacing bipolar electrode similarly increases heart rate without the necessity of transvenous pacing or fluoroscopy and without the adverse side effects often seen when using pharmacologic stressing agents (i.e., dipyridamole). The results compare well with cardiac catheterization, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic results. Cardiac paced stress testing requires no sedation, is performed on an out-patient basis, and causes little if any discomfort for the patient.

  18. Speckle tracking echocardiography in the critically ill: enticing research with minimal clinical practicality or the answer to non-invasive cardiac assessment?

    PubMed

    S, Orde; Sj, Huang; As, Mclean

    2016-09-01

    Echocardiography is developing rapidly. Speckle tracking echocardiography is the latest semi-automatic tool that has potential to quantitatively describe cardiac dysfunction that may be unrecognised by conventional echocardiography. It is a non-Doppler, angle-independent, feasible and reproducible method to evaluate myocardial function in both non-critically ill and critically ill populations. Increasingly it has become a standard measure of both left and right ventricle function in specific patient groups, e.g. chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy or pulmonary hypertension. To date there are few studies in the critically ill, predominantly in sepsis, yet all describe dysfunction beyond standard measures. Other areas of interest include heart-lung interactions, right ventricle function and twist and torsion of the heart. A word of caution is required, however, in that speckle tracking echocardiography is far from perfect and is more challenging, particularly in the critically ill, than implied by many published studies. It takes time to learn and perform and most values are not validated, particularly in the critically ill. We should be cautious in accepting that the latest software used in cardiology cohorts will automatically be the answer in the critically ill. Even with these limitations the technology is enticing and results fascinating. We are uncovering previously undescribed dysfunction and although it currently is essentially a research-based activity, there is great promise as a clinical tool as echocardiography analysis becomes more automated, and potentially speckle tracking echocardiography could help describe cardiac function in critical illness more accurately than is possible with current techniques. PMID:27608336

  19. Non-invasive physiological measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rolfe, P.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nondestructive type for monitoring the physiology of various organ systems. The topics covered are: non-invasive assessment of gastric activity; uterine activity, intestinal activity; monitoring of fetal cardiovascular system and bilirubin physiology of infants. Respiratory system of infants is monitored and ultrasonography of heart is discussed.

  20. Stress Management Training May Help Cardiac Rehab Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157876.html Stress Management Training May Help Cardiac Rehab Patients When added ... March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of stress management training can make cardiac rehabilitation programs more effective, ...

  1. Congenital coronary artery anomalies silent until geriatric age: non-invasive assessment, angiography tips, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Dell'Avvocata, Fabio; Van Tan, Nguyen; Daggubati, Rames; Nanijundappa, Aravinda

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) may be discovered more often as incidental findings during the normal diagnostic process for other cardiac diseases or less frequently on the basis of manifestations of myocardial ischemia. The cardiovascular professional may be involved in their angiographic diagnosis, functional assessment and eventual endovascular treatment. A complete angiographic definition is mandatory in order to understand the functional effects and plan any intervention in CAAs: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful non-invasive tools to detect three-dimensional morphology of the anomalies and its relationships with contiguous cardiac structures, whereas coronary arteriography remains the gold standard for a definitive anatomic picture. A practical idea of the possible functional significance is mandatory for deciding how to manage CAAs: non-invasive stress tests and in particular the invasive pharmacological stress tests with or without intravascular ultrasound monitoring can assess correctly the functional significance of the most CAAs. Finally, the knowledge of the particular endovascular techniques and material is of paramount importance for achieving technical and clinical success. CAAs represent a complex issue, which rarely involve the cardiovascular professional at different levels. A timely practical knowledge of the main issues regarding CAAs is important in the management of such entities. PMID:25678906

  2. Phospholemman: A Novel Cardiac Stress Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph Y.; Wang, JuFang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter J.; Rabinowitz, Joseph E.; Chan, Tung O.; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport, is a major sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na+-K+-ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and L-type Ca2+ channel. Functionally, when phosphorylated at serine68, PLM stimulates Na+-K+-ATPase but inhibits Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in cardiac myocytes. In heterologous expression systems, PLM modulates the gating of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel. Therefore, PLM occupies a key modulatory role in intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis and is intimately involved in regulation of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Genetic ablation of PLM results in a slight increase in baseline cardiac contractility and prolongation of action potential duration. When hearts are subjected to catecholamine stress, PLM minimizes the risks of arrhythmogenesis by reducing Na+ overload and simultaneously preserves inotropy by inhibiting Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. In heart failure, both expression and phosphorylation state of PLM are altered and may partly account for abnormalities in EC coupling. The unique role of PLM in regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and potentially L-type Ca2+ channel in the heart, together with the changes in its expression and phosphorylation in heart failure, make PLM a rational and novel target for development of drugs in our armamentarium against heart failure. PMID:20718822

  3. Non-invasive glucose monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

  4. Non-invasive assessment of animal exercise stress: real-time PCR of GLUT4, COX2, SOD1 and HSP70 in avalanche military dog saliva.

    PubMed

    Diverio, S; Guelfi, G; Barbato, O; Di Mari, W; Egidi, M G; Santoro, M M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase mRNA expression of a growing number of genes. The aim of this study was to assess if mRNA expression of the metabolism- and oxidative stress-related genes GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4), COX2 (cyclooxygenase 2), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1) and HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) in saliva changes following acute exercise stress in dogs. For this purpose, 12 avalanche dogs of the Italian Military Force Guardia di Finanza were monitored during simulation of a search for a buried person in an artificial avalanche area. Rectal temperature (RT) and saliva samples were collected the day before the trial (T0), immediately after the descent from a helicopter at the onset of a simulated avalanche search and rescue operation (T1), after the discovery of the buried person (T2) and 2 h later (T3). Expressions of GLUT4, SOD1, COX2 and HSP70 were measured by real-time PCR. The simulated avalanche search and rescue operation was shown to exert a significant effect on RT, as well as on the expression of all metabolism- and oxidative stress-related genes investigated, which peaked at T2. The observed expression patterns indicate an acute exercise stress-induced upregulation, as confirmed by the reductions in expression at T3. Moreover, our findings indicate that saliva is useful for assessing metabolism- and oxidative stress-related genes without the need for restraint, which could affect working dog performance. PMID:25245143

  5. The fear-factor stress test: an ethical, non-invasive laboratory method that produces consistent and sustained cortisol responding in men and women.

    PubMed

    du Plooy, Christopher; Thomas, Kevin G F; Henry, Michelle; Human, Robyn; Jacobs, W Jake

    2014-06-01

    We describe a method to administer a controlled, effective stressor to humans in the laboratory. The method combines the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the Cold Pressor Test into a single, believable procedure called the Fear-Factor Stress Test (FFST). In the procedure, participants imagine auditioning for the reality television show Fear Factor. They stand before a video recorder and a panel of judges while (a) delivering a motivational speech, (b) performing a verbal arithmetic task, and (c) placing one hand into a bucket of ice water for up to 2 min. We measured subjective anxiety, heart rate, and salivary cortisol in three groups of young adults (n = 30 each, equal numbers of men and women): FFST, TSST, and Control (a placebo version of the FFST). Although the FFST and TSST groups were not distinguishable at the cortisol measure taken 5 min post-manipulation, at 35 min postmanipulation average cortisol levels in the TSST group had returned to baseline, whereas those in the FFST group continued to rise. The proportion of individual cortisol responders (≥ 2 nmol/l increase over baseline) in the TSST and FFST groups did not differ at the 5-min measure, but at the 35-min measure the FFST group contained significantly more responders. The findings indicate that the FFST induces a more robust and sustained cortisol response (which we assume is a marker of an HPA-axis response) than the TSST, and that it does so without increasing participant discomfort or incurring appreciably greater resource and time costs. PMID:24435939

  6. Brain oxidative stress: detection and mapping of anti-oxidant marker 'Glutathione' in different brain regions of healthy male/female, MCI and Alzheimer patients using non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pravat K; Tripathi, Manjari; Sugunan, Sreedevi

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) serves as an important anti-oxidant in the brain by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species that are generated during different molecular processes. The GSH level in the brain provides indirect information on oxidative stress of the brain. We report in vivo detection of GSH non-invasively from various brain regions (frontal cortex, parietal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) in bilateral hemispheres of healthy male and female subjects and from bi-lateral frontal cortices in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AD patients who participated in this study were on medication with cholinesterase inhibitors. Healthy young male (age 26.4±3.0) and healthy young female (age 23.6±2.1) subjects have higher amount of GSH in the parietal cortical region and a specific GSH distribution pattern (parietal cortex>frontal cortex>hippocampus ~ cerebellum) has been found. Overall mean GSH content is higher in healthy young female compared to healthy young male subjects and GSH is distributed differently in two hemispheres among male and female subjects. In both young female and male subjects, statistically significant (p=0.02 for young female and p=0.001 for young male) difference in mean GSH content is found when compared between left frontal cortex (LFC) and right frontal cortex (RFC). In healthy young female subjects, we report statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content between RFC and LFC (r=0.641, p=0.004) as well as right parietal cortex (RPC) and left parietal cortex (LPC) (r=0.797, p=0.000) regions. In healthy young male subjects, statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content was observed between LFC and LPC (r=0.481, p=0.032) regions. This statistical analysis implicates that in case of a high GSH content in LPC of a young male, his LFC region would also contain high GSH and vice versa. The difference in mean of GSH content between healthy young female control and female AD

  7. Non-invasive and invasive imaging of vulnerable coronary plaque.

    PubMed

    Celeng, Csilla; Takx, Richard A P; Ferencik, Maros; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2016-08-01

    Vulnerable plaque is characterized by a large necrotic core and an overlying thin fibrous cap. Non-invasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for the assessment of morphological plaque characteristics, while positron emission tomography (PET) enables the detection of metabolic activity within the atherosclerotic lesions. Invasive imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical-coherence tomography (OCT), and intravascular MRI (IV-MRI) display plaques at a high spatial resolution. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for the detection of chemical components of atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we describe state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities and stress the combination of their advantages to identify vulnerable plaque features. PMID:27079893

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is induced upon cardiac stress and alters cardiac lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Manoja K.; Adam, Rene C.; Pollak, Nina M.; Jaeger, Doris; Zierler, Kathrin A.; Pöcher, Nadja; Schreiber, Renate; Romauch, Matthias; Moustafa, Tarek; Eder, Sandra; Ruelicke, Thomas; Preiss-Landl, Karina; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a PPARα-regulated gene elucidated in the liver of PPARα-deficient mice or PPARα agonist-treated mice. Mice globally lacking adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) exhibit a marked defect in TG catabolism associated with impaired PPARα-activated gene expression in the heart and liver, including a drastic reduction in hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression. Here we show that FGF21 mRNA expression is markedly increased in the heart of ATGL-deficient mice accompanied by elevated expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, which can be reversed by reconstitution of ATGL expression in cardiac muscle. In line with this assumption, the induction of ER stress increases FGF21 mRNA expression in H9C2 cardiomyotubes. Cardiac FGF21 expression was also induced upon fasting of healthy mice, implicating a role of FGF21 in cardiac energy metabolism. To address this question, we generated and characterized mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of FGF21 (CM-Fgf21). FGF21 was efficiently secreted from cardiomyocytes of CM-Fgf21 mice, which moderately affected cardiac TG homeostasis, indicating a role for FGF21 in cardiac energy metabolism. Together, our results show that FGF21 expression is activated upon cardiac ER stress linked to defective lipolysis and that a persistent increase in circulating FGF21 levels interferes with cardiac and whole body energy homeostasis. PMID:25176985

  9. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance. PMID:26835653

  10. Non-Invasive Neuromodulation for Headache Disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuhan; Marmura, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Migraine and other chronic headache disorders are common and if inadequately treated, can lead to significant disability. The effectiveness of medications can be limited by side effects, drug interactions, and comorbid diseases necessitating alternative methods. Technological developments in the past 5 years have made it possible to use non-invasive methods of neuromodulation to treat primary headache disorders. This field includes technologies such as supraorbital transcutaneous stimulation (STS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS). Existing trials show these modalities are safe and well tolerated and can be combined with standard pharmacotherapy. We review the technologies, biological rationales, and trials involving non-invasive neuromodulation for the treatment of primary headache disorders. PMID:26750126

  11. Non-invasive monitoring of physiological stress in the Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): validation of a fecal glucocorticoid assay and methods for practical application in the field.

    PubMed

    Shutt, Kathryn; Setchell, Joanna M; Heistermann, Michael

    2012-11-01

    variation in FGCMs in samples from wild gorillas. Our study highlights the importance of thorough biological and immunological validation of FGCM assays, and presents validated, practical methods for the application of non-invasive adrenocortical monitoring techniques to field conservation contexts where it is crucially needed. PMID:22926327

  12. Modelflow underestimates cardiac output in heat-stressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H; Crandall, Craig G

    2011-02-01

    An estimation of cardiac output can be obtained from arterial pressure waveforms using the Modelflow method. However, whether the assumptions associated with Modelflow calculations are accurate during whole body heating is unknown. This project tested the hypothesis that cardiac output obtained via Modelflow accurately tracks thermodilution-derived cardiac outputs during whole body heat stress. Acute changes of cardiac output were accomplished via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermic and heat-stressed conditions. In nine healthy normotensive subjects, arterial pressure was measured via brachial artery cannulation and the volume-clamp method of the Finometer. Cardiac output was estimated from both pressure waveforms using the Modeflow method. In normothermic conditions, cardiac outputs estimated via Modelflow (arterial cannulation: 6.1 ± 1.0 l/min; Finometer 6.3 ± 1.3 l/min) were similar with cardiac outputs measured by thermodilution (6.4 ± 0.8 l/min). The subsequent reduction in cardiac output during LBNP was also similar among these methods. Whole body heat stress elevated internal temperature from 36.6 ± 0.3 to 37.8 ± 0.4°C and increased cardiac output from 6.4 ± 0.8 to 10.9 ± 2.0 l/min when evaluated with thermodilution (P < 0.001). However, the increase in cardiac output estimated from the Modelflow method for both arterial cannulation (2.3 ± 1.1 l/min) and Finometer (1.5 ± 1.2 l/min) was attenuated compared with thermodilution (4.5 ± 1.4 l/min, both P < 0.01). Finally, the reduction in cardiac output during LBNP while heat stressed was significantly attenuated for both Modelflow methods (cannulation: -1.8 ± 1.2 l/min, Finometer: -1.5 ± 0.9 l/min) compared with thermodilution (-3.8 ± 1.19 l/min). These results demonstrate that the Modelflow method, regardless of Finometer or direct arterial waveforms, underestimates cardiac output during heat stress and during subsequent reductions in cardiac output via LBNP. PMID:21084673

  13. Non-invasive Intratracheal Instillation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Muñoz, Guadalupe; Looney, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The intratracheal instillation technique is used to deliver a variety of agents to the lungs ranging from pathogens (bacteria, viruses), toxins, to therapeutic agents. To model lung inflammation and injury, LPS can be administrated via intranasal, intratracheal, or aerosol approaches. Each technique has its limitations. The intratracheal technique can involve the non-invasive instillation method (via the oro-tracheal route) or a direct injection into the trachea. Here, we describe an optimized method for direct visual instillation of LPS via the non-invasive oro-tracheal route.

  14. Non invasive assessment of the human tear film dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ring, M H; Rabensteiner, D F; Horwath-Winter, J; Boldin, I; Schrödl, F; Reitsamer, H; Haslwanter, T

    2015-11-01

    Dry eye disease, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is a multifactorial syndrome with altered tear film homeostasis leading to ocular irritations. These alterations cause discomfort and stress for the patient, but only a few objective parameters allow for proper differential diagnosis into different subtypes of this condition. The mostly invasively performed standard assessment procedures for tear film diagnosis are manifold, but often correlate quite poorly with the subjectively reported symptoms. Due to the inherent limitations, e.g. the subjectivity of the commonly performed invasive tests, a number of devices have been developed to assess the human tear film non-invasively. Since the production, delivery, distribution and drainage of the tear film is a dynamic process, we have focused our review on non-invasive methods which are capable of continuous or repetitive observations of the tear film during an inter-blink interval. These dynamic methods include (1) Interferometry, (2) Pattern Projection, (3) Aberrometry, (4) Thermography; and (5) Evaporimetry. These techniques are discussed with respect to their diagnostic value, both for screening and differential diagnostic of Dry Eye Disease. Many of the parameters obtained from these tests have been shown to have the potential to reliably discriminate patients from healthy subjects, especially when the tests are performed automatically and objectively. The differentiation into subtypes based solely on a single, dynamic parameter may not be feasible, but the combination of non-invasively performed procedures may provide good discrimination results. PMID:26406882

  15. Enhancing Cardiac Triacylglycerol Metabolism Improves Recovery From Ischemic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated cardiac triacylglycerol (TAG) content is traditionally equated with cardiolipotoxicity and suggested to be a culprit in cardiac dysfunction. However, previous work demonstrated that myosin heavy-chain–mediated cardiac-specific overexpression of diacylglycerol transferase 1 (MHC-DGAT1), the primary enzyme for TAG synthesis, preserved cardiac function in two lipotoxic mouse models despite maintaining high TAG content. Therefore, we examined whether increased cardiomyocyte TAG levels due to DGAT1 overexpression led to changes in cardiac TAG turnover rates under normoxia and ischemia-reperfusion conditions. MHC-DGAT1 mice had elevated TAG content and synthesis rates, which did not alter cardiac function, substrate oxidation, or myocardial energetics. MHC-DGAT1 hearts had ischemia-induced lipolysis; however, when a physiologic mixture of long-chain fatty acids was provided, enhanced TAG turnover rates were associated with improved functional recovery from low-flow ischemia. Conversely, exogenous supply of palmitate during reperfusion suppressed elevated TAG turnover rates and impaired recovery from ischemia in MHC-DGAT1 hearts. Collectively, this study shows that elevated TAG content, accompanied by enhanced turnover, does not adversely affect cardiac function and, in fact, provides cardioprotection from ischemic stress. In addition, the results highlight the importance of exogenous supply of fatty acids when assessing cardiac lipid metabolism and its relationship with cardiac function. PMID:25858561

  16. Enhancing Cardiac Triacylglycerol Metabolism Improves Recovery From Ischemic Stress.

    PubMed

    Kolwicz, Stephen C; Liu, Li; Goldberg, Ira J; Tian, Rong

    2015-08-01

    Elevated cardiac triacylglycerol (TAG) content is traditionally equated with cardiolipotoxicity and suggested to be a culprit in cardiac dysfunction. However, previous work demonstrated that myosin heavy-chain-mediated cardiac-specific overexpression of diacylglycerol transferase 1 (MHC-DGAT1), the primary enzyme for TAG synthesis, preserved cardiac function in two lipotoxic mouse models despite maintaining high TAG content. Therefore, we examined whether increased cardiomyocyte TAG levels due to DGAT1 overexpression led to changes in cardiac TAG turnover rates under normoxia and ischemia-reperfusion conditions. MHC-DGAT1 mice had elevated TAG content and synthesis rates, which did not alter cardiac function, substrate oxidation, or myocardial energetics. MHC-DGAT1 hearts had ischemia-induced lipolysis; however, when a physiologic mixture of long-chain fatty acids was provided, enhanced TAG turnover rates were associated with improved functional recovery from low-flow ischemia. Conversely, exogenous supply of palmitate during reperfusion suppressed elevated TAG turnover rates and impaired recovery from ischemia in MHC-DGAT1 hearts. Collectively, this study shows that elevated TAG content, accompanied by enhanced turnover, does not adversely affect cardiac function and, in fact, provides cardioprotection from ischemic stress. In addition, the results highlight the importance of exogenous supply of fatty acids when assessing cardiac lipid metabolism and its relationship with cardiac function. PMID:25858561

  17. Non-invasive monitoring of spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Bastany, Zoya J R; Askari, Shahbaz; Dumont, Guy A; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Spreading depression (SD), a slow propagating depolarization wave, plays an important role in pathophysiology of different neurological disorders. Yet, research into SD-related disorders has been hampered by the lack of non-invasive recording techniques of SD. Here we compared the manifestations of SD in continuous non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings to invasive electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in order to obtain further insights into generator structures and electrogenic mechanisms of surface recording of SD. SD was induced by KCl application and simultaneous SD recordings were performed by scalp EEG as well as ECoG electrodes of somatosensory neocortex of rats using a novel homemade EEG amplifier, AgCl recording electrodes, and high chloride conductive gel. Different methods were used to analyze the data; including the spectrogram, bi-spectrogram, pattern distribution, relative spectrum power, and multivariable Gaussian fit analysis. The negative direct current (DC) shifts recorded by scalp electrodes exhibited a high homogeneity to those recorded by ECoG electrodes. Furthermore, this novel method of recording and analysis was able to separate SD recorded by scalp electrodes from non-neuronal DC shifts induced by other potential generators, such as the skin, muscles, arteries, dura, etc. These data suggest a novel application for continuous non-invasive monitoring of DC potential changes, such as SD. Non-invasive monitoring of SD would allow early intervention and improve outcome in SD-related neurological disorders. PMID:27397413

  18. Non-invasive assessment of intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Robba, C; Bacigaluppi, S; Cardim, D; Donnelly, J; Bertuccio, A; Czosnyka, M

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is invaluable in the management of neurosurgical and neurological critically ill patients. Invasive measurement of ventricular or parenchymal pressure is considered the gold standard for accurate measurement of ICP but is not always possible due to certain risks. Therefore, the availability of accurate methods to non-invasively estimate ICP has the potential to improve the management of these vulnerable patients. This review provides a comparative description of different methods for non-invasive ICP measurement. Current methods are based on changes associated with increased ICP, both morphological (assessed with magnetic resonance, computed tomography, ultrasound, and fundoscopy) and physiological (assessed with transcranial and ophthalmic Doppler, tympanometry, near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography, visual-evoked potentials, and otoacoustic emissions assessment). At present, none of the non-invasive techniques alone seem suitable as a substitute for invasive monitoring. However, following the present analysis and considerations upon each technique, we propose a possible flowchart based on the combination of non-invasive techniques including those characterizing morphologic changes (e.g., repetitive US measurements of ONSD) and those characterizing physiological changes (e.g., continuous TCD). Such an integrated approach, which still needs to be validated in clinical practice, could aid in deciding whether to place an invasive monitor, or how to titrate therapy when invasive ICP measurement is contraindicated or unavailable. PMID:26515159

  19. [Pulmonary non invasive infection by Scedosporium apiospermum].

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rodrigo; Barros, Manuel; Reyes, Mirtha

    2015-08-01

    We reported a case of non-invasive pulmonary infection by Scedosporium apiospermum in 67 years old female with bronchiectasis and caverns secondary to tuberculosis. Diagnosis was made with lung CT and bronchial lavage cultures. The patient was initially treated with itraconazole for six weeks without success and then voriconazole for 16 weeks, with good clinical response. PMID:26436797

  20. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  1. [Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2015-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases represent a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the amount of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy has long remained the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure with associated morbidity, it is rarely the cause for mortality, and has a few limitations. During the past two decades, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis have been developed, mainly in the field of viral hepatitis. This review will focus on different methods available for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis including a biological approach which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis and physical techniques which measure liver stiffness by transient elastography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance based elastography, their accuracy, advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25962254

  2. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    PubMed

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-01

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response. PMID:25819147

  3. Physiology of non-invasive respiratory support.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, Stamatia; Panitch, Howard B

    2016-06-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in neonates to treat extrathoracic and intrathoracic airway obstruction, parenchymal lung disease and disorders of control of breathing. Avoidance of airway intubation is associated with a reduction in the incidence of chronic lung disease among preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) may help establish and maintain functional residual capacity (FRC), decrease respiratory work, and improve gas exchange. Other modes of non-invasive ventilation, which include heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HHHFNC), nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (NIMV), non-invasive pressure support ventilation (NI-PSV), and bi-level CPAP (SiPAP™), have also been shown to provide additional benefit in improving breathing patterns, reducing work of breathing, and increasing gas exchange when compared with nCPAP. Newer modes, such as neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), hold the promise of improving patient-ventilator synchrony and so might ultimately improve outcomes for preterm infants with respiratory distress. PMID:26923501

  4. Monitoring of oxidative and metabolic stress during cardiac surgery by means of breath biomarkers: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, Florian; Miekisch, Wolfram; Fuchs, Patricia; Kischkel, Sabine; Schubert, Jochen K

    2007-01-01

    Background Volatile breath biomarkers provide a non-invasive window to observe physiological and pathological processes in the body. This study was intended to assess the impact of heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC) onto breath biomarker profiles. Special attention was attributed to oxidative or metabolic stress during surgery and extracorporeal circulation, which can cause organ damage and poor outcome. Methods 24 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation were enrolled into this observational study. Alveolar breath samples (10 mL) were taken after induction of anesthesia, after sternotomy, 5 min after end of ECC, and 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after end of surgery. Alveolar gas samples were withdrawn from the circuit under visual control of expired CO2. Inspiratory samples were taken near the ventilator inlet. Volatile substances in breath were preconcentrated by means of solid phase micro extraction, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. Results Mean exhaled concentrations of acetone, pentane and isoprene determined in this study were in accordance with results from the literature. Exhaled substance concentrations showed considerable inter-individual variation, and inspired pentane concentrations sometimes had the same order of magnitude than expired values. This is the reason why, concentrations were normalized by the values measured 120 min after surgery. Exhaled acetone concentrations increased slightly after sternotomy and markedly after end of ECC. Exhaled acetone concentrations exhibited positive correlation to serum C-reactive protein concentrations and to serum troponine-T concentrations. Exhaled pentane concentrations increased markedly after sternotomy and dropped below initial values after ECC. Breath pentane concentrations showed correlations with serum creatinine (CK) levels. Patients with an elevated CK-MB (myocardial&brain)/CK ratio had also high concentrations of

  5. Instrumentation for Non-Invasive Assessment of Cardiovascular Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    It is critically important to be able to assess alterations in cardiovascular regulation during and after space flight. We propose to develop an instrument for the non-invasive assessment of such alterations that can be used on the ground and potentially during space flight. This instrumentation would be used by the Cardiovascular Alterations Team at multiple sites for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system and the evaluation of countermeasures. In particular, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team will use this instrumentation in conjunction with ground-based human bed-rest studies and during application of acute stresses e.g., tilt, lower body negative pressure, and exercise. In future studies, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team anticipates using this instrumentation to study astronauts before and after space flight and ultimately, during space flight. The instrumentation may also be used by the Bone Demineralization/Calcium Metabolism Team, the Neurovestibular Team and the Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team to measure changes in autonomic nervous function. The instrumentation will be based on a powerful new technology - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - which has been developed in our laboratory. CSI provides a non-invasive approach for the study of alterations in cardiovascular regulation. This approach involves the analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in physiologic signals such as heart rate and non-invasively measured arterial blood pressure in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of multiple physiologic mechanisms, CSI provides a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject.

  6. Cardiac factors in orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löllgen, H.; Dirschedl, P.; Koppenhagen, K.; Klein, K. E.

    Cardiac function is determined by preload, afterload, heart rate and contractility. During orthostatic stress, the footward blood shift is compensated for by an increase of afterload. LBNP is widely used to analyze effects of volume displacement during orthostatic stress. Comparisons of invasive ( right heart catheterization) and non-invasive approach (echocardiography) yielded similar changes. Preload and afterload change with graded LBNP, heart rate increases, and stroke volume and cardiac output decrease. Thus, the working point on the left ventricular function curve is shifted to the left and downward, similar to hypovolemia. However, position on the Frank-Starling curve, the unchanged ejection fraction, and the constant Vcf indicate a normal contractile state during LBNP. A decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure during LBNP shwos impaired ventilation/perfusion ratio. Finally, LBNP induced cardiac and hemodynamic changes can be effectively countermeasured by dihydroergotamine, a potent venoconstrictor. Comparison of floating catheter data with that of echocardiography resulted in close correlation for cardiac output and stroke volume. In addition, cardiac dimensions changed in a similar way during LBNP. From our findings, echocardiography as a non-invasive procedure can reliably used in LBNP and orthostatic stress tests. Some informations can be obtained on borderline values indicating collaps or orthostatic syncope. Early fainters can be differentiated from late fainters by stroke volume changes.

  7. [Non invasive ventilation in the emergency setting].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Laetitia; Della Santa, Vincent; Hanhart, Walter-Alexandre

    2015-08-12

    Before the development of non invasive ventilation (NIV), endotracheal intubation was the only ventilatory therapy available in case of severe respiratory distress and acute respiratory failure. NIV used to be employed in intensive care settings only. Nowadays, the use of NIV has been democratized to include the emergency room, and the pre-hospital care setting for treatment of acute respiratory failure. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema and acute exacerbation of COPD are indications of choice, since NIV improves mortality. The efficiency of the therapy depends on early treatment; however, endotracheal intubation should not be delayed when it becomes necessary. PMID:26449102

  8. Non-Invasive Assessment of Susceptibility to Ventricular Arrhythmias During Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    cardiac susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in subjects exposed to simulated space flight in the Human Studies Core protocol being conducted by the Cardiovascular Alterations Team, which involves sixteen days .of bed rest. In particular, we are applying a powerful new non-invasive technology, developed in Professor Cohen's laboratory at MIT for the quantitative assessment of the risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This technology involves the measurement of microvolt levels of T wave alternans (TWA) during exercise stress, and was recently granted approval by the Food and Drug Administration to be used for the clinical evaluation of patients suspected to be at risk of ventricular arrhythmias. In addition, we are obtaining 24 hour Holter monitoring (to detect non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and to assess heart rate variability). We are also conducting protocols to obtain these same measures on a monthly basis for up to four months in subjects in the Bone Demineralization/calcium Metaboloism Team's long term bed rest study.

  9. AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuedong; Huang, Huiling; Jiang, Jingzhou; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Chunxi; Tang, Anli; Dai, Gang; He, Jiangui; Chen, Yili

    2016-06-10

    AVE 0991, the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) analog, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved. Mice were underwent aortic banding to induce cardiac hypertrophy followed by the administration of AVE 0991 (20 mg kg·day (-1)) for 4 weeks. It was shown that AVE 0991 reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved heart function, characterized by decreases in left ventricular weight and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and increases in ejection fraction. Moreover, AVE 0991 significantly down-regulated mean myocyte diameter and attenuate the gene expression of the hypertrophic markers. Furthermore, AVE 0991 inhibited the expression of NOX 2 and NOX 4, meaning that AVE 0991 reduced oxidative stress of cardiac hypertrophy mice. Our data showed that AVE 0991 treatment could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and improve heart function, which may be due to reduce oxidative stress. PMID:26403967

  10. Non-Invasive Measurement of Intracranial Pressure Pulsation using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, R. E.; Yost, W. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity causes a cephalad fluid shift which may elevate intracranial pressure (ICP). Elevation in ICP may affect cerebral hemodynamics in astronauts during space flight. ICP is, however, a difficult parameter to measure due to the invasiveness of currently available techniques. We already reported our development of a non-invasive ultrasound device for measurement of ICP. We recently modified the device so that we might reproducibly estimate ICP changes in association with cardiac cycles. In the first experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance with the ultrasound device in cadavera while changing ICP by infusing saline into the lateral ventricle. In the second experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance in five healthy volunteers while placing them in 60 deg, 30 deg head-up tilt, supine, and 10 deg head-down tilt position. In the cadaver study, fast Fourier transformation revealed that cranial pulsation is clearly associated with ICP pulsation. The ratio of cranial distance and ICP pulsation is 1.3microns/mmHg. In the tilting study, the magnitudes of cranial pulsation are linearly correlated to tilt angles (r=0.87). The ultrasound device has sufficient sensitivity to detect cranial pulsation in association with cardiac cycles. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsation, estimates of ICP during space flight are possible.

  11. [Stress cardiac MRI in management of ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Russel, S; Darmon, S; Vermillet, A; Haziza, F

    2014-11-01

    Stress magnetic cardiac resonance imaging (MRI) development is in progress. Many cardiac imaging technics already known are completed by this safe radiation free exam with a short time acquisition (30minutes) and a good diagnostic performance in particular for patients with three vessels coronary artery diseases. Best indication concerns symptomatic patients unable to exercise with intermediate or high pretest probability. Pharmacological heart stress can be induced with vasodilatators or dobutamine to identify the presence and extent of myocardial ischemia, with high precision to guide coronary vessels revascularization. MRI gives many other interesting informations like heart anatomy, left ventricular function. Myocardial viability can be assessed with study of late gadolinium enhancement or analysis of contractile reserve with low dose of dobutamine. PMID:25281219

  12. Social stress, autonomic neural activation, and cardiac activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo, A; Koolhaas, J; De Boer, S; Musso, E; Stilli, D; Buwalda, B; Meerlo, P

    1999-11-01

    Animal models of social stress represent a useful experimental tool to investigate the relationship between psychological stress, autonomic neural activity and cardiovascular disease. This paper summarizes the results obtained in a series of experiments performed on rats and aimed at verifying whether social challenges produce specific modifications in the autonomic neural control of heart rate and whether these changes can be detrimental for cardiac electrical stability. Short-term electrocardiographic recordings were performed via radiotelemetry and the autonomic input to the heart evaluated by means of time-domain heart rate variability measures. Compared to other stress contexts, a social defeat experience produces a strong shift of autonomic balance toward sympathetic dominance, poorly antagonized by vagal rebound, and associated with the occurrence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias. These effects were particularly severe when a wild-type strain of rats was studied. The data also suggest that the cardiac autonomic responses produced by different types of social contexts (dominant-subordinate interaction, dominant-dominant confrontation, social defeat) are related to different degrees of emotional activation, which in turn are likely modulated by the social rank of the experimental animal and the opponent, the prior experience with the stressor, and the level of controllability over the stimulus. PMID:10580306

  13. Non-Invasive Imaging of Vascular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ammirati, Enrico; Moroni, Francesco; Pedrotti, Patrizia; Scotti, Isabella; Magnoni, Marco; Bozzolo, Enrica P.; Rimoldi, Ornella E.; Camici, Paolo G.

    2014-01-01

    In large-vessel vasculitides, inflammatory infiltrates may cause thickening of the involved arterial vessel wall leading to progressive stenosis and occlusion. Dilatation, aneurysm formation, and thrombosis may also ensue. Activated macrophages and T lymphocytes are fundamental elements in vascular inflammation. The amount and density of the inflammatory infiltrate is directly linked to local disease activity. Additionally, patients with autoimmune disorders have an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk compared with age-matched healthy individuals as a consequence of accelerated atherosclerosis. Molecular imaging techniques targeting activated macrophages, neovascularization, or increased cellular metabolic activity can represent effective means of non-invasive detection of vascular inflammation. In the present review, novel non-invasive imaging tools that have been successfully tested in humans will be presented. These include contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which allows detection of neovessels within the wall of inflamed arteries; contrast-enhanced CV magnetic resonance that can detect increased thickness of the arterial wall, usually associated with edema, or mural enhancement using T2 and post-contrast T1-weighted sequences, respectively; and positron emission tomography associated with radio-tracers such as [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and the new [11C]-PK11195 in combination with computed tomography angiography to detect activated macrophages within the vessel wall. Imaging techniques are useful in the diagnostic work-up of large- and medium-vessel vasculitides, to monitor disease activity and the response to treatments. Finally, molecular imaging targets can provide new clues about the pathogenesis and evolution of immune-mediated disorders involving arterial vessels. PMID:25183963

  14. Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-01-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring. PMID:25331013

  15. Tissue-Informative Mechanism for Wearable Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-10-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring.

  16. Obesity and Oxidative Stress Predict AKI after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, Mias; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D.; Byrne, John G.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Brown, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity increases oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation, but the effect of obesity on postoperative AKI is not known. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and AKI in 445 patients undergoing cardiac surgery and whether oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), inflammation (IL-6), or antifibrinolysis (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]) contribute to any identified relationship. Overall, 112 (25%) of the 445 patients developed AKI. Higher BMI was independently associated with increased odds of AKI (26.5% increase per 5 kg/m2 [95% confidence interval, 4.3%–53.4%]; P=0.02). Baseline F2-isoprostane (P=0.04), intraoperative F2-isoprostane (P=0.003), and intraoperative PAI-1 (P=0.04) concentrations also independently predicted AKI. BMI no longer predicted AKI after adjustment for the effect of F2-isoprostanes, suggesting that obesity may affect AKI via effects on oxidative stress. In contrast, adjustment for IL-6 or PAI-1 did not substantially alter the association between BMI and AKI. Further, deconstruction of the obesity-AKI relationship into direct (i.e., independent of candidate pathways) and indirect (i.e., effect of BMI on AKI via each candidate pathway) effects indicated that F2-isoprostanes, but not IL-6 or PAI-1, partially mediate the relationship between obesity and AKI (P=0.001). In conclusion, obesity independently predicts AKI after cardiac surgery, and oxidative stress may partially mediate this association. PMID:22626819

  17. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  18. Myocardial Oxidative Stress in Infants Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sznycer-Taub, Nathaniel; Mackie, Stewart; Peng, Yun-Wen; Donohue, Janet; Yu, Sunkyung; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Charpie, John

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease often necessitates a period of myocardial ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest, followed by reperfusion after aortic cross-clamp removal. In experimental models, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is associated with significant oxidative stress and ventricular dysfunction. A prospective observational study was conducted in infants (<1 year) who underwent elective surgical repair of a ventricular septal defect (VSD) or tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Blood samples were drawn following anesthetic induction (baseline) and directly from the coronary sinus at 1, 3, 5, and 10 min following aortic cross-clamp removal. Samples were analyzed for oxidant stress using assays for thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl, 8-isoprostane, and total antioxidant capacity. For each subject, raw assay data were normalized to individual baseline samples and expressed as fold-change from baseline. Results were compared using a one-sample t test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Sixteen patients (ten with TOF and six with VSD) were enrolled in the study, and there were no major postoperative complications observed. For the entire cohort, there was an immediate, rapid increase in myocardial oxidative stress that was sustained for 10 min following aortic cross-clamp removal in all biomarker assays (all P < 0.01), except total antioxidant capacity. Infant cardiac surgery is associated with a rapid, robust, and time-dependent increase in myocardial oxidant stress as measured from the coronary sinus in vivo. Future studies with larger enrollment are necessary to assess any association between myocardial oxidative stress and early postoperative outcomes. PMID:26843460

  19. The impact of cardiac perception on emotion experience and cognitive performance under mental stress.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Nicole K; Werner, Natalie S

    2014-12-01

    Mental stress evokes several physiological responses such as the acceleration of heart rate, increase of electrodermal activity and the release of adrenaline. Moreover, physiological stress responses interact with emotional and behavioral stress responses. In the present study we provide evidence that viscero-sensory feedback from the heart (cardiac perception) is an important factor modulating emotional and cognitive stress responses. In our study, we compared participants with high versus low cardiac perception using a computerized mental stress task, in which they had to respond to rapidly presented visual and acoustic stimuli. Additionally, we assessed physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance). Participants high in cardiac perception reported more negative emotions and showed worse task performance under the stressor than participants low in cardiac perception. These results were not moderated by physiological responses. We conclude that cardiac perception modulates stress responses by intensifying negative emotions and by impairing cognitive performance. PMID:24719221

  20. Apocynin Attenuates Cardiac Injury in Type 4 Cardiorenal Syndrome via Suppressing Cardiac Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 With Oxidative Stress Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xun; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Huang, Feifei; Wang, Jing-Feng; Tang, Wanchun; Huang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) refers to the cardiac injury induced by chronic kidney disease. We aimed to assess oxidative stress and cardiac injury in patients with type 4 CRS, determine whether the antioxidant apocynin attenuated cardiac injury in rats with type 4 CRS, and explore potential mechanisms. Methods and Results A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with type 4 CRS (n=17) and controls (n=16). Compared with controls, patients with type 4 CRS showed elevated oxidative stress, which was significantly correlated with cardiac hypertrophy and decreased ejection fraction. In vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy and sham surgery, followed with apocynin or vehicle treatment for 8 weeks. Eight weeks after surgery, the 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy rats mimicked type 4 CRS, showing increased serum creatinine, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and decreased ejection fraction compared with sham-operated animals. Cardiac malondialdehyde, NADPH oxidase activity, fibroblast growth factor-2, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation increased significantly in the 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy rats. These changes were significantly attenuated by apocynin. In vitro study showed that apocynin reduced angiotensin II–induced NADPH oxidase–dependent oxidative stress, upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and fibrosis biomarkers, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cardiac fibroblasts. Importantly, the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 reduced the upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and fibrosis biomarkers in angiotensin II–treated fibroblasts. Conclusions Oxidative stress is a candidate mediator for type 4 CRS. Apocynin attenuated cardiac injury in type 4 CRS rats via inhibiting NADPH oxidase–dependent oxidative stress-activated ERK1/2 pathway and subsequent fibroblast growth factor-2 upregulation. Our study added evidence to the beneficial effect of apocynin in type 4 CRS. PMID:26109504

  1. Angiographic correlations of patients with small vessel disease diagnosed by adenosine-stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pilz, Guenter; Klos, Markus; Ali, Eman; Hoefling, Berthold; Scheck, Roland; Bernhardt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with adenosine-stress myocardial perfusion is gaining importance for the detection and quantification of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there is little knowledge about patients with CMR-detected ischemia, but having no relevant stenosis as seen on coronary angiography (CA). The aims of our study were to characterize these patients by CMR and CA and evaluate correlations and potential reasons for the ischemic findings. 73 patients with an indication for CA were first scanned on a 1.5T whole-body CMR-scanner including adenosine-stress first-pass perfusion. The images were analyzed by two independent investigators for myocardial perfusion which was classified as subendocardial ischemia (n = 22), no perfusion deficit (n = 27, control 1), or more than subendocardial ischemia (n = 24, control 2). All patients underwent CA, and a highly significant correlation between the classification of CMR perfusion deficit and the degree of coronary luminal narrowing was found. For quantification of coronary blood flow, corrected Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) was evaluated for the left anterior descending (LAD), circumflex (LCX) and right coronary artery (RCA). The main result was that corrected TFC in all coronaries was significantly increased in study patients compared to both control 1 and to control 2 patients. Study patients had hypertension or diabetes more often than control 1 patients. In conclusion, patients with CMR detected subendocardial ischemia have prolonged coronary blood flow. In connection with normal resting flow values in CAD, this supports the hypothesis of underlying coronary microvascular impairment. CMR stress perfusion differentiates non-invasively between this entity and relevant CAD. PMID:18275591

  2. Improving non-invasive ventilation documentation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew; Elkheir, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Record keeping for patients on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at St. Georges Hospital is poor. The initial NIV prescription is often not recorded, and changes to the NIV prescription or the rationale for the changes (ABG results) are also poorly documented. This leads to confusion for nurses/doctors as to what the correct settings are, meaning patients could receive ineffective ventilation. The use of NIV is also poorly recorded by nursing staff meaning that doctors are unsure if the prescribed NIV is being achieved. This can lead to treatment being escalated unnecessarily in the event of treatment failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the provision of ventilatory support in the form of positive pressure via the patient's upper airway using a mask or similar device. NIV is indicated for treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, of which there are many causes, though COPD is the indication in up to 70% of cases.[1] British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for NIV suggest that the rationale for commencing a patient on NIV and the proposed settings should be clearly documented.[2] Clinicians cannot effectively tailor changes to the patients NIV settings if this information is not clearly recorded, which could lead to increased time requiring NIV or NIV failure. Three main areas were considered important to measure for this project. The initial prescription of the NIV, changes to the NIV settings, and nursing documentation surrounding NIV. A baseline measurement of NIV documentation for two weeks found NIV documentation to globally very poor. NIV was formally prescribed 29% of the time, full detail of intended settings were documented 57% of the time, the decision to commence NIV was discussed with the respiratory consultant/SpR just 29% of the time and on no occasion was a decision regarding escalation of treatment recorded. Eighteen changes were made to the NIV settings. These were formally prescribed 22% of the time and detail of the intended

  3. Inflammation, oxidative stress and postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zakkar, M; Ascione, R; James, A F; Angelini, G D; Suleiman, M S

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication of cardiac surgery that occurs in up to 60% of patients. POAF is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, stroke and other arrhythmias that can impact on early and long term clinical outcomes and health economics. Many factors such as disease-induced cardiac remodelling, operative trauma, changes in atrial pressure and chemical stimulation and reflex sympathetic/parasympathetic activation have been implicated in the development of POAF. There is mounting evidence to support a major role for inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of POAF. Both are consequences of using cardiopulmonary bypass and reperfusion following ischaemic cardioplegic arrest. Subsequently, several anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs have been tested in an attempt to reduce the incidence of POAF. However, prevention remains suboptimal and thus far none of the tested drugs has provided sufficient efficacy to be widely introduced in clinical practice. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the onset and persistence of POAF is needed to develop more effective prediction and interventions. PMID:26116810

  4. Modern non-invasive mechanical ventilation turns 25.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario

    2013-11-01

    The history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation goes back more than 100 years, but it was not until 1987 when what we could call "modern" non-invasive mechanical ventilation was developed. The description of Delaubier and Rideau of a patient with Duchenne's disease who had been effectively ventilated through a nasal mask marked the start of a new era in the history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Over these last 25years, we have witnessed exponential growth in its use, field of activity and technological advances on an exciting fast-paced track. We believe that it is time to review the main milestones that have marked the development of non-invasive mechanical ventilation to date, while paying homage to this therapeutic method that has contributed so much to the advancement of respiratory medicine in the last 25years. PMID:23347549

  5. Non-invasive electrocardiogram detection of in vivo zebrafish embryos using electric potential sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon-Morales, E.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Aviles-Espinosa, R.

    2015-11-01

    In this letter, we report the continuous detection of the cardiac electrical activity in embryonic zebrafish using a non-invasive approach. We present a portable and cost-effective platform based on the electric potential sensing technology, to monitor in vivo electrocardiogram activity from the zebrafish heart. This proof of principle demonstration shows how electrocardiogram measurements from the embryonic zebrafish may become accessible by using electric field detection. We present preliminary results using the prototype, which enables the acquisition of electrophysiological signals from in vivo 3 and 5 days-post-fertilization zebrafish embryos. The recorded waveforms show electrocardiogram traces including detailed features such as QRS complex, P and T waves.

  6. ADP Protects Cardiac Mitochondria under Severe Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Niina; Pan, Shi; Provazza, Sarah; Beutner, Gisela; Vendelin, Marko; Birkedal, Rikke; Sheu, Shey-Shing

    2013-01-01

    ADP is not only a key substrate for ATP generation, but also a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). In this study, we assessed how oxidative stress affects the potency of ADP as an mPTP inhibitor and whether its reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production might be involved. We determined quantitatively the effects of ADP on mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity (CRC) until the induction of mPTP in normal and stressed isolated cardiac mitochondria. We used two models of chronic oxidative stress (old and diabetic mice) and two models of acute oxidative stress (ischemia reperfusion (IR) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)). In control mitochondria, the CRC was 344 ± 32 nmol/mg protein. 500 μmol/L ADP increased CRC to 774 ± 65 nmol/mg protein. This effect of ADP seemed to relate to its concentration as 50 μmol/L had a significantly smaller effect. Also, oligomycin, which inhibits the conversion of ADP to ATP by F0F1ATPase, significantly increased the effect of 50 μmol/L ADP. Chronic oxidative stress did not affect CRC or the effect of 500 μmol/L ADP. After IR or t-BH exposure, CRC was drastically reduced to 1 ± 0.2 and 32 ± 4 nmol/mg protein, respectively. Surprisingly, ADP increased the CRC to 447 ± 105 and 514 ± 103 nmol/mg protein in IR and t-BH, respectively. Thus, it increased CRC by the same amount as in control. In control mitochondria, ADP decreased both substrate and Ca2+-induced increase of ROS. However, in t-BH mitochondria the effect of ADP on ROS was relatively small. We conclude that ADP potently restores CRC capacity in severely stressed mitochondria. This effect is most likely not related to a reduction in ROS production. As the effect of ADP relates to its concentration, increased ADP as occurs in the pathophysiological situation may protect mitochondrial integrity and function. PMID:24349464

  7. A-kinase anchoring proteins: molecular regulators of the cardiac stress response.

    PubMed

    Diviani, Dario; Maric, Darko; Pérez López, Irene; Cavin, Sabrina; Del Vescovo, Cosmo D

    2013-04-01

    In response to stress or injury the heart undergoes a pathological remodeling process, associated with hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death and fibrosis, that ultimately causes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. It has become increasingly clear that signaling events associated with these pathological cardiac remodeling events are regulated by scaffolding and anchoring proteins, which allow coordination of pathological signals in space and time. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) constitute a family of functionally related proteins that organize multiprotein signaling complexes that tether the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as well as other signaling enzymes to ensure integration and processing of multiple signaling pathways. This review will discuss the role of AKAPs in the cardiac response to stress. Particular emphasis will be given to the adaptative process associated with cardiac hypoxia as well as the remodeling events linked to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction. PMID:22889610

  8. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Kristie J.; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature’s most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured—leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson’s ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction.

  9. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks.

    PubMed

    Koski, Kristie J; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature's most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured-leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson's ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction. PMID:23353627

  10. The influence of motor activity on the development of cardiac arrhythmias during experimental emotional stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulyaninskiy, L. S.; Urmancheyeva, T. G.; Stepanyan, Y. P.; Fufacheva, A. A.; Gritsak, A. V.; Kuznetsova, B. A.; Kvitka, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental emotional stress which can produce various disorders of cardiac rhythm: sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular, extrasystoles and paroxysmal ventricular tachysystoles was studied. In these conditions the adrenalin content in the blood and myocardium is increased 3 to 4 times. It is found that moderate motor activity leads to a relative decrease of adrenalin in the myocardium and arrest of cardiac arrhythmias.

  11. Non-invasive subcutaneous fat reduction: a review.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J; Verne, S; Griffith, R; Falto-Aizpurua, L; Nouri, K

    2015-09-01

    The risks, financial costs and lengthy downtime associated with surgical procedures for fat reduction have led to the development of a number of non-invasive techniques. Non-invasive body contouring now represents the fastest growing area of aesthetic medicine. There are currently four leading non-invasive techniques for reducing localized subcutaneous adipose tissue: low-level laser therapy (LLLT), cryolipolysis, radio frequency (RF) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). To review and compare leading techniques and clinical outcomes of non-invasive subcutaneous fat reduction. The terms 'non-invasive', 'low-level laser', 'cryolipolysis', 'ultrasound' and 'radio frequency' were combined with 'lipolysis', 'fat reduction' or 'body contour' during separate searches in the PubMed database. We identified 31 studies (27 prospective clinical studies and four retrospective chart reviews) with a total of 2937 patients that had been treated with LLLT (n = 1114), cryolipolysis (n = 706), HIFU (n = 843) or RF (n = 116) or other techniques (n = 158) for fat reduction or body contouring. A majority of these patients experienced significant and satisfying results without any serious adverse effects. The studies investigating these devices have all varied in treatment regimen, body locations, follow-up times or outcome operationalization. Each technique differs in offered advantages and severity of adverse effects. However, multiple non-invasive devices are safe and effective for circumferential reduction in local fat tissue by 2 cm or more across the abdomen, hips and thighs. Results are consistent and reproducible for each device and none are associated with any serious or permanent adverse effects. PMID:25664493

  12. An Acetone Nanosensor For Non-invasive Diabetes Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yun, X.; Stanacevic, M.; Gouma, P. I.

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes is a most common disease worldwide. Acetone in exhaled breath is a known biomarker of Type- 1 diabetes. An exhaled breath analyzer has been developed with the potential to diagnose diabetes as a non-invasive alternative of the currently used blood-based diagnostics. This device utilizes a chemiresistor based on ferroelectric tungsten oxide nanoparticles and detects acetone selectively in breath-simulated media. Real-time monitoring of the acetone concentration is feasible, potentially making this detector a revolutionary, non- invasive, diabetes diagnostic tool.

  13. Non-invasive brain stimulation in early rehabilitation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Blesneag, A V; Popa, L; Stan, A D

    2015-01-01

    The new tendency in rehabilitation involves non-invasive tools that, if applied early after stroke, promote neurorecovery. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may correct the disruption of cortical excitability and effectively contribute to the restoration of movement and speech. The present paper analyses the results of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) trials, highlighting different aspects related to the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation frequency, transcranial direct current stimulation polarity, the period and stimulation places in acute and subacute ischemic strokes. The risk of adverse events, the association with motor or language recovery specific training, and the cumulative positive effect evaluation are also discussed. PMID:26361512

  14. Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Ganswindt, Stefanie B; Myburgh, Jan G; Cameron, Elissa Z; Ganswindt, Andre

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of stress-inducing factors in captive crocodilians is a concern, since chronic stress can negatively affect animal health and reproduction, and hence production. Monitoring stress in wild crocodiles could also be beneficial for assessing the state of health in populations which are potentially threatened by environmental pollution. In both cases, a non-invasive approach to assess adrenocortical function as a measure of stress would be preferable, as animals are not disturbed during sample collection, and therefore sampling is feedback-free. So far, however, such a non-invasive method has not been established for any crocodilian species. As an initial step, we therefore examined the suitability of two enzyme-immunoassays, detecting faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) with a 11β,21-diol-20-one and 5β-3α-ol-11-one structure, respectively, for monitoring stress-related physiological responses in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was performed on 10 sub-adult crocodiles, resulting in an overall increase in serum corticosterone levels of 272% above the pre-injection levels 5h post-injection. Saline-treated control animals (n=8) showed an overall increase of 156% in serum corticosterone levels 5h post-administration. Faecal samples pre- and post-injection could be obtained from three of the six individually housed crocodiles, resulting in FGM concentrations 136-380% above pre-injection levels, always detected in the first sample collected post-treatment (7-15 days post-injection). FGM concentrations seem comparatively stable at ambient temperatures for up to 72 h post-defaecation. In conclusion, non-invasive hormone monitoring can be used for assessing adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles based on FGM analysis. PMID:25066028

  15. Non-invasive method of measuring cerebral spinal fluid pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor); Lambert, James L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides a method of non-invasively determining intracranial pressure from measurements of an eye. A parameter of an optic nerve of the eye is determined, along with an intraocular pressure of the eye. The intracranial pressure may be determined from the intraocular pressure and the parameter.

  16. Non-invasive Prediction of Pork Loin Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to develop a non-invasive method to predict tenderness of pork loins. Boneless pork loins (n = 901) were evaluated either on line on the loin boning and trimming line of large-scale commercial plants (n = 465) or at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center abattoir ...

  17. NON-INVASIVE NEUROTOXICITY ASSAY USING LARVAL MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a method for non-invasive electrophysiological analysis of rapid escape responses in intact, freely behaving larval medaka (Oryzias latipes) before and after short-term exposure to environmental toxicants. ecordings are obtained as a larval medaka swims in a small cham...

  18. Non-invasive treatment options for focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, DONG

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) presents a strong clinical challenge especially for the treatment of the associated epilepsy. Epilepsy in FCD is often treatment-resistant and constitutes 50% of treatment-resistant cases. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been widely used in the treatment of FCD. However, evidence to suggest their specific effect on the treatment of FCD remains to be established. In view of this resistance, several alternative treatments have been suggested. Although treatment currently involves surgical management, non-invasive treatments have been identified. The aim of the present review, was to assess non-invasive management strategies including, i) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, ii) ketogenic diet (KD), and iii) vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). In addition, we discussed the literature available regarding the use of AEDs in FCD. Experiments conducted with mammals detailing rapamycin gene mutations in FCD have produced vital information for exploring treatment options using mTOR inhibitors. Of note is the importance of KD in children with FCD. This diet has been shown to modify disease progression by attenuating chromatin modification, a master regulator for gene expression and functional adaptation of the cell. FCD has also been studied widely with neurostimulation techniques. The outcomes of these techniques have been found to be variable. For widespread dysplasias, VNS has been shown to produce responder rates of >50%. Nevertheless, non-invasive cranial nerve stimulation techniques such as transcutaneous VNS and non-invasive VNS are gaining better patient compatibility, albeit their efficacy remains to be established. PMID:27168769

  19. Reliable, Low Mass, Non-Invasive Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, F.; Tovey, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mass is a major driver for future spacecraft and missions exposed to high radiation levels (i.e. Europa Orbiter) present even more challenge. A variety of non-invasive measurement techniques are in development that enables determination of pressures within a propulsion network.

  20. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Packer, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    There is described an apparatus and method for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate which comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67.

  1. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Packer, S.

    1984-10-30

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate. The apparatus comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67. 2 figs.

  2. Eyeblink Conditioning: A Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition,…

  3. Strategies for non-invasive delivery of biologics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Woo; Hil-lal, Taslim A; Byun, Youngro

    2012-07-01

    Macromolecular therapeutics, in particular, many biologics, is the most advancing category of drugs over conventional chemical drugs. The potency and specificity of the biologics for curing certain disease made them to be a leading compound in the pharmaceutical industry. However, due to their intrinsic nature, including high molecular weight, hydrophilicity and instability, they are difficult to be administered via non-invasive route. This is a major quest especially in biologics, as they are frequently used clinically for chronic disorders, which requires long-term administration. Therefore, many efforts have been made to develop formulation for non-invasive administration, in attempt to improve patient compliance and convenience. In this review, strategies for non-invasive delivery, in particular, oral, pulmonary and nasal delivery, that are recently adopted for delivery of biologics are discussed. Insulin, calcitonin and heparin were mainly focused for the discussion as they could represent protein, polypeptide and polysaccharide drugs, respectively. Many recent attempts for non-invasive delivery of biologics are compared to provide an insight of developing successful delivery system. PMID:22632037

  4. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  5. Complexity of cardiac signals for predicting changes in alpha-waves after stress in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Sung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Ma, Hsi-Pin; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-08-01

    The hierarchical interaction between electrical signals of the brain and heart is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the complexity of cardiac electrical activity can be used to predict changes in encephalic electricity after stress. Most methods for analyzing the interaction between the heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) require a computation-intensive mathematical model. To overcome these limitations and increase the predictive accuracy of human relaxing states, we developed a method to test our hypothesis. In addition to routine linear analysis, multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of the HRV were used to quantify nonstationary and nonlinear dynamic changes in the heart rate time series. Short-time Fourier transform was applied to quantify the power of EEG. The clinical, HRV, and EEG parameters of postcatheterization EEG alpha waves were analyzed using change-score analysis and generalized additive models. In conclusion, the complexity of cardiac electrical signals can be used to predict EEG changes after stress.

  6. Complexity of cardiac signals for predicting changes in alpha-waves after stress in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Sung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Ma, Hsi-Pin; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical interaction between electrical signals of the brain and heart is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the complexity of cardiac electrical activity can be used to predict changes in encephalic electricity after stress. Most methods for analyzing the interaction between the heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) require a computation-intensive mathematical model. To overcome these limitations and increase the predictive accuracy of human relaxing states, we developed a method to test our hypothesis. In addition to routine linear analysis, multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of the HRV were used to quantify nonstationary and nonlinear dynamic changes in the heart rate time series. Short-time Fourier transform was applied to quantify the power of EEG. The clinical, HRV, and EEG parameters of postcatheterization EEG alpha waves were analyzed using change-score analysis and generalized additive models. In conclusion, the complexity of cardiac electrical signals can be used to predict EEG changes after stress. PMID:26286628

  7. Complexity of cardiac signals for predicting changes in alpha-waves after stress in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Sung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Ma, Hsi-Pin; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical interaction between electrical signals of the brain and heart is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the complexity of cardiac electrical activity can be used to predict changes in encephalic electricity after stress. Most methods for analyzing the interaction between the heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) require a computation-intensive mathematical model. To overcome these limitations and increase the predictive accuracy of human relaxing states, we developed a method to test our hypothesis. In addition to routine linear analysis, multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of the HRV were used to quantify nonstationary and nonlinear dynamic changes in the heart rate time series. Short-time Fourier transform was applied to quantify the power of EEG. The clinical, HRV, and EEG parameters of postcatheterization EEG alpha waves were analyzed using change-score analysis and generalized additive models. In conclusion, the complexity of cardiac electrical signals can be used to predict EEG changes after stress. PMID:26286628

  8. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira; Santos, Bruno F. de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M. Francisco; de Oliveira, Daniel Pio; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all‑cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 – 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 – 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:25352460

  9. Body Surface Electrocardiographic Mapping for Non-invasive Identification of Arrhythmic Sources

    PubMed Central

    J Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Pascale, Patrizio; Roten, Laurent; Komatsu, Yuki; Daly, Matthew; Ramoul, Khaled; Denis, Arnaud; Derval, Nicolas; Sacher, Frederic; Dubois, Remi; Bokan, Ryan; Eliatou, Sandra; Strom, Maria; Ramanathan, Charu; Jais, Pierre; Ritter, Philippe; Haissaguerre, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe a novel three-dimensional, 252-lead electrocardiography (ECG) and computed tomography (CT)-based non-invasive cardiac imaging and mapping modality. This technique images potentials, electrograms and activation sequences (isochrones) on the epicardial surface of the heart. This tool has been investigated in the normal cardiac electrophysiology and various tachyarrhythmic, conduction and anomalous depo-repolarisation disorders. The clinical application of this system includes a wide range of electrical disorders like atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beat, ventricular tachycardia) and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). In addition, the system has been used in exploring abnormalities of the His-Purkinje conduction like the bundle branch block and intraventricular conduction disturbance and thereby useful in electrically treating the associated heart failure (cardiac resynchronisation). It has a potential role in furthering our understanding of abnormalities of ventricular action potential (depolarisation [Brugada syndrome and repolarisation], long QT and early repolarisation syndromes) and in evaluating the impact of drugs on His-Purkinje conduction and cardiac action potential. PMID:26835035

  10. Non-invasive determination of transcatheter pressure gradient in stenotic aortic valves: an analytical model.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Motamed, Pouyan K; Maftoon, Nima

    2015-03-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS), in which the opening of the aortic valve is narrowed, is the most common valvular heart disease. Cardiac catheterization is considered the reference standard for definitive evaluation of AS severity, based on instantaneous systolic value of transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG). However, using invasive cardiac catheterization might carry high risks knowing that undergoing multiple cardiac catheterizations for follow-up in patients with AS is common. The objective of this study was to suggest an analytical description of the AS that estimates TPG without a need for high risk invasive data collection. For this purpose, Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the elastic-deformation equation was solved analytically. The estimated TPG resulted from the suggested analytical description was validated against published in vivo and in vitro measurement data. Very good concordances were found between TPG obtained from the analytical formulation and in vivo (maximum root mean square error: 3.8 mmHg) and in vitro (maximum root mean square error: 9.4 mmHg). The analytical description can be integrated to non-invasive imaging modalities to estimate AS severity as an alternative to cardiac catheterization to help preventing its risks in patients with AS. PMID:25682932

  11. Control of histone H3 phosphorylation by CaMKIIδ in response to haemodynamic cardiac stress

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Salma; Al-Haffar, Kamar Mohamed Adib; Marashly, Qussay; Quijada, Pearl; Kunhi, Muhammad; Al-Yacoub, Nadya; Wade, Fallou S; Mohammed, Shamayel Faheem; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Sutherland, George; Assiri, Abdullah; Sussman, Mark; Bers, Donald; Al-Habeeb, Waleed; Poizat, Coralie

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is associated with the reactivation of a fetal cardiac gene programme that has become a hallmark of cardiac hypertrophy and maladaptive ventricular remodelling, yet the mechanisms that regulate this transcriptional reprogramming are not fully understood. Using mice with genetic ablation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δ (CaMKIIδ), which are resistant to pathological cardiac stress, we show that CaMKIIδ regulates the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine-10 during pressure overload hypertrophy. H3 S10 phosphorylation is strongly increased in the adult mouse heart in the early phase of cardiac hypertrophy and remains detectable during cardiac decompensation. This response correlates with up-regulation of CaMKIIδ and increased expression of transcriptional drivers of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and of fetal cardiac genes. Similar changes are detected in patients with end-stage heart failure, where CaMKIIδ specifically interacts with phospho-H3. Robust H3 phosphorylation is detected in both adult ventricular myocytes and in non-cardiac cells in the stressed myocardium, and these signals are abolished in CaMKIIδ-deficient mice after pressure overload. Mechanistically, fetal cardiac genes are activated by increased recruitment of CaMKIIδ and enhanced H3 phosphorylation at hypertrophic promoter regions, both in mice and in human failing hearts, and this response is blunted in CaMKIIδ-deficient mice under stress. We also document that the chaperone protein 14–3–3 binds phosphorylated H3 in response to stress, allowing proper elongation of fetal cardiac genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), as well as elongation of transcription factors regulating cardiac hypertrophy. These processes are impaired in CaMKIIδ-KO mice after pathological stress. The findings reveal a novel in vivo function of CaMKIIδ in regulating H3 phosphorylation and suggest a novel epigenetic mechanism by which CaMKIIδ controls cardiac hypertrophy.

  12. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), a reliable non-invasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder) are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25206349

  13. Limitations of Stroke Volume Estimation by Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypergravity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Altitude and gravity changes during aeromedical evacuations induce exacerbated cardiovascular responses in unstable patients. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is difficult to perform in this environment with limited access to the patient. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of stroke volume estimation by finger photoplethysmography (SVp) in hypergravity. Methods Finger arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms were recorded continuously in ten healthy subjects before, during and after exposure to +Gz accelerations in a human centrifuge. The protocol consisted of a 2-min and 8-min exposure up to +4 Gz. SVp was computed from ABP using Liljestrand, systolic area, and Windkessel algorithms, and compared with reference values measured by echocardiography (SVe) before and after the centrifuge runs. Results The ABP signal could be used in 83.3% of cases. After calibration with echocardiography, SVp changes did not differ from SVe and values were linearly correlated (p<0.001). The three algorithms gave comparable SVp. Reproducibility between SVp and SVe was the best with the systolic area algorithm (limits of agreement −20.5 and +38.3 ml). Conclusions Non-invasive ABP photoplethysmographic monitoring is an interesting technique to estimate relative stroke volume changes in moderate and sustained hypergravity. This method may aid physicians for aeronautic patient monitoring. PMID:25798613

  14. Cardiac oxidative stress in a mouse model of neutral lipid storage disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Winkler, Sarah; Haemmerle, Guenter; Stessel, Heike; Wölkart, Gerald; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Systemic deletion of the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a phenotype characterized by severe steatotic cardiac dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to investigate a potential role of oxidative stress in cardiac ATGL deficiency. Hearts of mice with global ATGL knockout were compared to those of mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of ATGL and to those of wildtype littermates. Our results demonstrate that oxidative stress, measured as lucigenin chemiluminescence, was increased ~ 6-fold in ATGL-deficient hearts. In parallel, cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox and p47phox were upregulated 4–5-fold at the protein level. Moreover, a prominent upregulation of different inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactant protein-1, interleukin 6, and galectin-3) was observed in those hearts. Both the oxidative and inflammatory responses were abolished upon cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of ATGL. Investigating the effect of oxidative and inflammatory stress on nitric oxide/cGMP signal transduction we observed a ~ 2.5-fold upregulation of soluble guanylate cyclase activity and a ~ 2-fold increase in cardiac tetrahydrobiopterin levels. Systemic treatment of ATGL-deficient mice with the superoxide dismutase mimetic Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin did not ameliorate but rather aggravated cardiac oxidative stress. Our data suggest that oxidative and inflammatory stress seems involved in lipotoxic heart disease. Upregulation of soluble guanylate cyclase and cardiac tetrahydrobiopterin might be regarded as counterregulatory mechanisms in cardiac ATGL deficiency. PMID:23867907

  15. Pellino1-mediated TGF-β1 synthesis contributes to mechanical stress induced cardiac fibroblast activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Zhu, Yun; Li, Jiantao; Liu, Jiahao; Gao, Yun; Ha, Tuanzhu; Que, Linli; Liu, Li; Zhu, Guoqing; Chen, Qi; Xu, Yong; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua

    2015-02-01

    Activation of cardiac fibroblasts is a key event in the progression of cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying mechanical stress-induced cardiac fibroblast activation are complex and poorly understood. This study demonstrates that Pellino1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, was activated in vivo in pressure overloaded rat hearts and in cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) exposed to mechanical stretch in vitro. Suppression of the expression and activity of Pellino1 by adenovirus-mediated delivery of shPellino1 (adv-shpeli1) attenuated pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy and decreased cardiac fibrosis in rat hearts. Transfection of adv-shpeli1 also significantly attenuated mechanical stress-induced proliferation, differentiation and collagen synthesis in NRCFs. Pellino1 silencing also abrogated mechanical stretch-induced polyubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor association factor-6 (TRAF6) and receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and consequently decreased the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in NRCFs. In addition, Pellino1 silencing prevented stretch-induced activation of p38 and activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding activity in NRCFs. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays showed that Pellino1 silencing prevented the binding of NF-κB and AP-1 to the promoter region of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) thus dampening TGF-β1 transactivation. Our data reveal a previously unrecognized role of Pellino1 in extracellular matrix deposition and cardiac fibroblast activation in response to mechanical stress and provides a novel target for treatment of cardiac fibrosis and heart failure. PMID:25446187

  16. The potential of label-free nonlinear optical molecular microscopy to non-invasively characterize the viability of engineered human tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leng-Chun; Lloyd, William R; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Feinberg, Stephen E; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear optical molecular imaging and quantitative analytic methods were developed to non-invasively assess the viability of tissue-engineered constructs manufactured from primary human cells. Label-free optical measures of local tissue structure and biochemistry characterized morphologic and functional differences between controls and stressed constructs. Rigorous statistical analysis accounted for variability between human patients. Fluorescence intensity-based spatial assessment and metabolic sensing differentiated controls from thermally-stressed and from metabolically-stressed constructs. Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing differentiated controls from thermally-stressed constructs. Unlike traditional histological (found to be generally reliable, but destructive) and biochemical (non-invasive, but found to be unreliable) tissue analyses, label-free optical assessments had the advantages of being both non-invasive and reliable. Thus, such optical measures could serve as reliable manufacturing release criteria for cell-based tissue-engineered constructs prior to human implantation, thereby addressing a critical regulatory need in regenerative medicine. PMID:24854093

  17. Skin rejuvenation with non-invasive pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G; Watkins, Michael T; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  18. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  19. Non-invasive microsensors for studying cell/tissue physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Taguchi, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Burrs, S.; McLamore, E. S.

    2013-05-01

    Non-invasive tools that allow real-time quantification of molecules relevant to metabolism, homeostasis, and cell signaling in cells and tissue are of great importance for studying physiology. Several microsensor technologies have been developed to monitor concentration of molecules such as ions, oxygen, electroactive molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide), and biomolecules (e.g., sugars, hormones). The major challenges for microsensors are overcoming relatively low sensitivity and low signal-to-noise ratio. Modern approaches for enhancing microsensor performance focus on the incorporation of catalytic nanomaterials to increase sensitivity, reduce response time, and increase operating range. To improve signal-to-noise ratio, a non-invasive microsensor modality called self-referencing (SR) is being applied. The SR technique allows measurement of temporal and spatial transport dynamics at the cell, tissue, organ, and organismal level.

  20. Non invasive ventilation as an additional tool for exercise training.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Cigni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of non invasive ventilation (NIV) to increase exercise capacity. In individuals with COPD, NIV during exercise reduces dyspnoea and increases exercise tolerance. Different modalities of mechanical ventilation have been used non-invasively as a tool to increase exercise tolerance in COPD, heart failure and lung and thoracic restrictive diseases. Inspiratory support provides symptomatic benefit by unloading the ventilatory muscles, whereas Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) counterbalances the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure in COPD patients. Severe stable COPD patients undergoing home nocturnal NIV and daytime exercise training showed some benefits. Furthermore, it has been reported that in chronic hypercapnic COPD under long-term ventilatory support, NIV can also be administered during walking. Despite these results, the role of NIV as a routine component of pulmonary rehabilitation is still to be defined. PMID:25874110

  1. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: The Link with Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Gary; Yan, Bryan P.; Chan, Yin W. F.; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac arrhythmias represent a significant problem globally, leading to cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. There is increasing evidence to suggest that increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is elevated in conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, can lead to arrhythmogenesis. Method: A literature review was undertaken to screen for articles that investigated the effects of ROS on cardiac ion channel function, remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Results: Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress is observed in heart failure, leading to increased production of ROS. Mitochondrial ROS, which is elevated in diabetes and hypertension, can stimulate its own production in a positive feedback loop, termed ROS-induced ROS release. Together with activation of mitochondrial inner membrane anion channels, it leads to mitochondrial depolarization. Abnormal function of these organelles can then activate downstream signaling pathways, ultimately culminating in altered function or expression of cardiac ion channels responsible for generating the cardiac action potential (AP). Vascular and cardiac endothelial cells become dysfunctional, leading to altered paracrine signaling to influence the electrophysiology of adjacent cardiomyocytes. All of these changes can in turn produce abnormalities in AP repolarization or conduction, thereby increasing likelihood of triggered activity and reentry. Conclusion: ROS plays a significant role in producing arrhythmic substrate. Therapeutic strategies targeting upstream events include production of a strong reducing environment or the use of pharmacological agents that target organelle-specific proteins and ion channels. These may relieve oxidative stress and in turn prevent arrhythmic complications in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure. PMID:27536244

  3. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside Abrogates Oxidative Stress-Induced Damage in Cardiac Iron Overload Condition

    PubMed Central

    Puukila, Stephanie; Bryan, Sean; Laakso, Anna; Abdel-Malak, Jessica; Gurney, Carli; Agostino, Adrian; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Prasad, Kailash; Khaper, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload. PMID:25822525

  4. Non-invasive assessment of leaf water status using a dual-mode microwave resonator.

    PubMed

    Dadshani, Said; Kurakin, Andriy; Amanov, Shukhrat; Hein, Benedikt; Rongen, Heinz; Cranstone, Steve; Blievernicht, Ulrich; Menzel, Elmar; Léon, Jens; Klein, Norbert; Ballvora, Agim

    2015-01-01

    The water status in plant leaves is a good indicator for the water status in the whole plant revealing stress if the water supply is reduced. The analysis of dynamic aspects of water availability in plant tissues provides useful information for the understanding of the mechanistic basis of drought stress tolerance, which may lead to improved plant breeding and management practices. The determination of the water content in plant tissues during plant development has been a challenge and is currently feasible based on destructive analysis only. We present here the application of a non-invasive quantitative method to determine the volumetric water content of leaves and the ionic conductivity of the leaf juice from non-invasive microwave measurements at two different frequencies by one sensor device. A semi-open microwave cavity loaded with a ceramic dielectric resonator and a metallic lumped-element capacitor- and inductor structure was employed for non-invasive microwave measurements at 150 MHz and 2.4 Gigahertz on potato, maize, canola and wheat leaves. Three leaves detached from each plant were chosen, representing three developmental stages being representative for tissue of various age. Clear correlations between the leaf- induced resonance frequency shifts and changes of the inverse resonator quality factor at 2.4 GHz to the gravimetrically determined drying status of the leaves were found. Moreover, the ionic conductivity of Maize leaves, as determined from the ratio of the inverse quality factor and frequency shift at 150 MHz by use of cavity perturbation theory, was found to be in good agreement with direct measurements on plant juice. In conjunction with a compact battery- powered circuit board- microwave electronic module and a user-friendly software interface, this method enables rapid in-vivo water amount assessment of plants by a handheld device for potential use in the field. PMID:25918549

  5. SQUID magnetometry applied as non-invasive electroanalytic chemical technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, B.D.; MacVicar, M.L.A. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a SQUID magnetometer, employed as a highly sensitive ammeter, used to perform standard electroanalytic chemical measurements non- invasively. Specifically, the magnetic fields generated by the net ionic movement in the solution of a driven electrochemical system is detected by the gradiometer coils. The SQUID signal can then be compared to conventional current measurements. One such standard measurement investigated is Cyclic Voltametry (CV) which determines the I-V characteristics of an electrochemical system yielding critical kinetic parameters.

  6. The utility of novel non-invasive technologies for remote hemodynamic monitoring in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mabote, Thato; Wong, Kenneth; Cleland, John G F

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring a patient's hemodynamic status may be a revolutionary way to aid a 'health maintenance' strategy in which the physician strives to therapeutically keep the patient in an ideal hemodynamic range. Currently, home telemonitoring employs a 'crisis-prevention' approach. This strategy is still based on easily acquired measures such as heart rate, weight and blood pressure--measurements that are useful to help implement guideline-directed therapy but provide little information about impending decompensation or the risk of hospitalisation. Current systems provide limited information to personalize and adapt medication therapy for heart failure. Several innovative technologies that can remotely monitor estimates of cardiovascular hemodynamics, such as cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, augmentation index and added heart sounds may enable earlier detection of heart failure decompensation. This editorial presents an overview of the innovative technologies that are available for non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring and maybe adapted for home telemonitoring for chronic heart failure. PMID:25026973

  7. Non-invasive Chamber-Specific Identification of Cardiomyocytes in Differentiating Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brauchle, Eva; Knopf, Anne; Bauer, Hannah; Shen, Nian; Linder, Sandra; Monaghan, Michael G.; Ellwanger, Kornelia; Layland, Shannon L.; Brucker, Sara Y.; Nsair, Ali; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Summary One major obstacle to the application of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) for disease modeling and clinical therapies is the inability to identify the developmental stage of these cells without the need for genetic manipulation or utilization of exogenous markers. In this study, we demonstrate that Raman microspectroscopy can non-invasively identify embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived chamber-specific CMs and monitor cell maturation. Using this marker-free approach, Raman peaks were identified for atrial and ventricular CMs, ESCs were successfully discriminated from their cardiac derivatives, a distinct phenotypic spectrum for ESC-derived CMs was confirmed, and unique spectral differences between fetal versus adult CMs were detected. The real-time identification and characterization of CMs, their progenitors, and subpopulations by Raman microspectroscopy strongly correlated to the phenotypical features of these cells. Due to its high molecular resolution, Raman microspectroscopy offers distinct analytical characterization for differentiating cardiovascular cell populations. PMID:26777059

  8. Cellular phone enabled non-invasive tissue classifier.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Shlomi; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Cellular phone technology is emerging as an important tool in the effort to provide advanced medical care to the majority of the world population currently without access to such care. In this study, we show that non-invasive electrical measurements and the use of classifier software can be combined with cellular phone technology to produce inexpensive tissue characterization. This concept was demonstrated by the use of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to distinguish through the cellular phone between heart and kidney tissue via the non-invasive multi-frequency electrical measurements acquired around the tissues. After the measurements were performed at a remote site, the raw data were transmitted through the cellular phone to a central computational site and the classifier was applied to the raw data. The results of the tissue analysis were returned to the remote data measurement site. The classifiers correctly determined the tissue type with a specificity of over 90%. When used for the detection of malignant tumors, classifiers can be designed to produce false positives in order to ensure that no tumors will be missed. This mode of operation has applications in remote non-invasive tissue diagnostics in situ in the body, in combination with medical imaging, as well as in remote diagnostics of biopsy samples in vitro. PMID:19365554

  9. Non-invasive diagnosis of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Khalili, Korosh; Nguyen, Geoffrey Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a common and growing public health problem globally. The diagnosis of cirrhosis portends an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of cirrhosis and staging of fibrosis. However, despite its universal use, liver biopsy is an invasive and inaccurate gold standard with numerous drawbacks. In order to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, a number of non-invasive techniques have been investigated for the assessment of cirrhosis. This review will focus on currently available non-invasive markers of cirrhosis. The evidence behind the use of these markers will be highlighted, along with an assessment of diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics of each test. Non-invasive markers of cirrhosis can be radiologic or serum-based. Radiologic techniques based on ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and elastography have been used to assess liver fibrosis. Serum-based biomarkers of cirrhosis have also been developed. These are broadly classified into indirect and direct markers. Indirect biomarkers reflect liver function, which may decline with the onset of cirrhosis. Direct biomarkers, reflect extracellular matrix turnover, and include molecules involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. On the whole, radiologic and serum markers of fibrosis correlate well with biopsy scores, especially when excluding cirrhosis or excluding fibrosis. This feature is certainly clinically useful, and avoids liver biopsy in many cases. PMID:25492996

  10. Cardiac CT vs. Stress Testing in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Review and Expert Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease represent a major challenge to our health care systems affecting millions of patients each year. Until recently, the diagnosis of coronary artery disease could be conclusively determined only by invasive coronary angiography. To avoid risks from cardiac catheterization, many healthcare systems relied on stress testing as gatekeeper for coronary angiography. Advancements in cardiac computed tomography angiography technology now allows to noninvasively visualize coronary artery disease, challenging the role of stress testing as the default noninvasive imaging tool for evaluating patients with chest pain. In this review, we summarize current data on the clinical utility of cardiac computed tomography and stress testing in stable patients with suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:26500716

  11. Heart rate complexity: A novel approach to assessing cardiac stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Brindle, Ryan C; Ginty, Annie T; Phillips, Anna C; Fisher, James P; McIntyre, David; Carroll, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Correlation dimension (D2), a measure of heart rate (HR) complexity, has been shown to decrease in response to acute mental stress and relate to adverse cardiovascular health. However, the relationship between stress-induced changes in D2 and HR has yet to be established. The present studies aimed to assess this relationship systematically while controlling for changes in respiration and autonomic activity. In Study 1 (N = 25) D2 decreased during stress and predicted HR reactivity even after adjusting for changes in respiration rate, and cardiac vagal tone. This result was replicated in Study 2 (N = 162) and extended by including a measure of cardiac sympathetic activity; correlation dimension remained an independent predictor of HR reactivity in a hierarchical linear model containing measures of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity and their interaction. These results suggest that correlation dimension may provide additional information regarding cardiac stress reactivity above that provided by traditional measures of cardiac autonomic function. PMID:26585809

  12. Non-invasive measurement of Valsalva-induced hemodynamic changes on a bathroom scale ballistocardiograph.

    PubMed

    Inan, Omer T; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Wiard, Richard M; Kovacs, Gregory T A; Giovangrandi, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Unobtrusive and compact methods for monitoring time varying hemodynamic trends can allow physicians to monitor heart failure of outpatients at home. In this paper, the ballistocardiogram (BCG), measured on a modified commercial bathroom scale, is proposed as a viable option for this important need. The BCG measures the reaction force of the body to cardiac ejection of blood and is a non-invasive tool for evaluating cardiovascular function. The Valsalva maneuver was used to modulate the hemodynamics in a well documented manner, and BCG signals were acquired from 15 subjects. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was simultaneously obtained to measure the electrical to mechanical delay in ventricular contraction: the interval from the ECG R-wave peak to the BCG J-wave peak. This interval, called the RJ interval, decreased for all subjects following the release of intrathoracic strain compared to the resting value, suggesting that it is inversely correlated to cardiac contractility. The power spectrum magnitude of the BCGs showed that the high frequency content increased after release, also consistent with increased contractility (faster ejection). Additionally, J-wave amplitudes increased following release, suggesting that it is correlated to stroke volume. Since RJ interval computation required the ECG, BCG J-wave rise time was proposed as an alternative for evaluating cardiac contractility. The correlation between this rise time and RJ interval was high (R2=0.78). PMID:19162745

  13. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  14. Use of the single-breath method of estimating cardiac output during exercise-stress testing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buderer, M. C.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Mauldin, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    The single-breath cardiac output measurement technique of Kim et al. (1966) has been modified for use in obtaining cardiac output measurements during exercise-stress tests on Apollo astronauts. The modifications involve the use of a respiratory mass spectrometer for data acquisition and a digital computer program for data analysis. The variation of the modified method for triplicate steady-state cardiac output measurements was plus or minus 1 liter/min. The combined physiological and methodological variation seen during a set of three exercise tests on a series of subjects was 1 to 2.5 liter/min. Comparison of the modified method with the direct Fick technique showed that although the single-breath values were consistently low, the scatter of data was small and the correlation between the two methods was high. Possible reasons for the low single-breath cardiac output values are discussed.

  15. Non-invasive quantification of lower limb mechanical alignment in flexion

    PubMed Central

    Deakin, Angela; Fogg, Quentin A.; Picard, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Objective Non-invasive navigation techniques have recently been developed to determine mechanical femorotibial alignment (MFTA) in extension. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of an image-free navigation system with new software designed to provide multiple kinematic measurements of the knee. The secondary aim was to test two types of strap material used to attach optical trackers to the lower limb. Methods Seventy-two registrations were carried out on 6 intact embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age: 77.8 ± 12 years). A validated fabric strap, bone screws and novel rubber strap were used to secure the passive tracker baseplate for four full experiments with each knee. The MFTA angle was measured under the conditions of no applied stress, valgus stress, and varus stress. These measurements were carried out at full extension and at 30°, 40°, 50° and 60° of flexion. Intraclass correlation coefficients, repeatability coefficients, and limits of agreement (LOA) were used to convey precision and agreement in measuring MFTA with respect to each of the independent variables, i.e., degree of flexion, applied coronal stress, and method of tracker fixation. Based on the current literature, a repeatability coefficient and LOA of ≤3° were deemed acceptable. Results The mean fixed flexion for the 6 specimens was 12.8° (range: 6–20°). The mean repeatability coefficient measuring MFTA in extension with screws or fabric strapping of the baseplate was ≤2°, compared to 2.3° using rubber strapping. When flexing the knee, MFTA measurements taken using screws or fabric straps remained precise (repeatability coefficient ≤3°) throughout the tested range of flexion (12.8–60°); however, using rubber straps, the repeatability coefficient was >3° beyond 50° flexion. In general, applying a varus/valgus stress while measuring MFTA decreased precision beyond 40° flexion. Using fabric strapping, excellent repeatability

  16. d-Propranolol protects against oxidative stress and progressive cardiac dysfunction in iron overloaded rats

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jay H.; Spurney, Christopher F.; Iantorno, Micaela; Tziros, Constantine; Chmielinska, Joanna J.; Mak, I. Tong; Weglicki, William B.

    2013-01-01

    d-Propranolol (d-Pro: 2–8 mg·(kg body mass)−1·day−1) protected against cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress during 3–5 weeks of iron overload (2 mg Fe–dextran·(g body mass)−1·week−1) in Sprague–Dawley rats. At 3 weeks, hearts were perfused in working mode to obtain baseline function; red blood cell glutathione, plasma 8-isoprostane, neutrophil basal superoxide production, lysosomal-derived plasma N-acetyl-β-galactosaminidase (NAGA) activity, ventricular iron content, and cardiac iron deposition were assessed. Hearts from the Fe-treated group of rats exhibited lower cardiac work (26%) and output (CO, 24%); end-diastolic pressure rose 1.8-fold. Further, glutathione levels increased 2-fold, isoprostane levels increased 2.5-fold, neutrophil superoxide increased 3-fold, NAGA increased 4-fold, ventricular Fe increased 4.9-fold; and substantial atrial and ventricular Fe-deposition occurred. d-Pro (8 mg) restored heart function to the control levels, protected against oxidative stress, and decreased cardiac Fe levels. After 5 weeks of Fe treatment, echocardiography revealed that the following were depressed: percent fractional shortening (%FS, 31% lower); left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF, 17%), CO (25%); and aortic pressure maximum (Pmax, 24%). Mitral valve E/A declined by 18%, indicating diastolic dysfunction. Cardiac CD11b+ infiltrates were elevated. Low d-Pro (2 mg) provided modest protection, whereas 4–8 mg greatly improved LVEF (54%–75%), %FS (51%–81%), CO (43%–78%), Pmax (56%–100%), and E/A >100%; 8 mg decreased cardiac inflammation. Since d-Pro is an antioxidant and reduces cardiac Fe uptake as well as inflammation, these properties may preserve cardiac function during Fe overload. PMID:22913465

  17. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, João C. P.; Fujihara, Caroline J.; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Pantoja, José C. F.; Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots’ physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3–9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  18. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João C P; Fujihara, Caroline J; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Pantoja, José C F; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3-9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  19. Non-Invasive measurement of blood pressure - Why we should look at BP traces rather than listen to Korotkoff sounds.

    PubMed

    Celler, Branko G; Basilakis, Jim; Goozee, Kathryn; Ambikairajah, Eliathamby

    2015-08-01

    Accurate non-invasive measurement of blood pressure in unsupervised environments continues to be a challenge, particularly in the presence of movement artefact, electrical noise and most importantly cardiac arrhythmia which are common in those aged over 65 suffering from a range of chronic conditions. Large intra personal variability in signal morphometry and amplitudes further complicates the development of reliable signal processing algorithms for NIBP measurement. In this paper we demonstrate the effect of this variability and propose that the traditional methods of human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometry should no longer be considered a gold standard for the calibration of NIBP devices. PMID:26737650

  20. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist. PMID:25686913

  1. Non-Invasive Optical Biosensor for Probing Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ye

    2007-01-01

    Cell signaling mediated through a cellular target is encoded by spatial and temporal dynamics of downstream signaling networks. The coupling of temporal dynamics with spatial gradients of signaling activities guides cellular responses upon stimulation. Monitoring the integration of cell signaling in real time, if realized, would provide a new dimension for understanding cell biology and physiology. Optical biosensors including resonant waveguide grating (RWG) biosensor manifest a physiologically relevant and integrated cellular response related to dynamic redistribution of cellular matters, thus providing a non-invasive means for cell signaling study. This paper reviews recent progresses in biosensor instrumentation, and theoretical considerations and potential applications of optical biosensors for whole cell sensing.

  2. A simple highly efficient non invasive EMG-based HMI.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, N; Olcese, U; Oddo, C M; Carpaneto, J; Micera, S; Carrozza, M C; Dario, P

    2006-01-01

    Muscle activity recorded non-invasively is sufficient to control a mobile robot if it is used in combination with an algorithm for its asynchronous analysis. In this paper, we show that several subjects successfully can control the movements of a robot in a structured environment made up of six rooms by contracting two different muscles using a simple algorithm. After a small training period, subjects were able to control the robot with performances comparable to those achieved manually controlling the robot. PMID:17945773

  3. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights.

  4. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  5. Taxifolin protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis during biomechanical stress of pressure overload

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Xin; Cui, Yuqian; Zhou, Heng; Xu, Dachun; Shan, Tichao; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Yuan; Chen, Yuguo; Wu, Dawei

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathophysiological component to biomechanical stress, which has been considered to be an independent and predictive risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Taxifolin (TAX) is a typical plant flavonoid, which has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little is known about whether TAX can influence the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro studies, we found that TAX concentration-dependently inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II) induced hypertrophy and protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes. Then we established a mouse model by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to further confirm our findings. It was demonstrated that TAX prevented pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice, as assessed by ventricular mass/body weight, echocardiographic parameters, myocyte cross-sectional area, and the expression of ANP, BNP and β-MHC. The excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) played critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. TAX arrested oxidative stress and decreased the expression of 4-HNE induced by pressure overload. Moreover, TAX negatively modulated TAC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Further studies showed that TAX significantly attenuated left ventricular fibrosis and collagen synthesis through abrogating the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad2/3 nuclear translocation. These results demonstrated that TAX could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and attenuate ventricular fibrosis after pressure overload. These beneficial effects were at least through the inhibition of the excess production of ROS, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways. Therefore, TAX might be a potential candidate for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. - Highlights: • We focus on the protective effect of taxifolin on cardiac remodeling. • Taxifolin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated ventricular fibrosis. • Taxifolin

  6. Effects of acute stress on cardiac endocannabinoids, lipogenesis, and inflammation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, James; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Objective Trauma exposure can precipitate acute/post-traumatic stress responses (AS/PTSD) and disabling cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Identifying acute stress-related physiologic changes that may increase CVD risk could inform development of early CVD-prevention strategies. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and stress-related cardiovascular function. We examine stress-related endocannabinoid system (ECS) activity and its association with cardiovascular biochemistry/function following acute stress. Methods Rodents (n=8-16/group) were exposed to predator odor or saline; elevated plus maze (EPM), blood pressure (BP), serum and cardiac tissue ECS markers, and lipid metabolism were assessed at 24h and 2wks post-exposure. Results At 24h the predator odor group demonstrated anxiety-like behavior and had (a) elevated serum markers of cardiac failure/damage (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP]: 275.1 vs. 234.6, p=0.007; troponin-I: 1.50 vs. 0.78, p=0.076), lipogenesis (triacylglycerols [TAG]: 123.5 vs. 85.93, p=0.018), and inflammation (stearoyl delta-9 desaturase activity [SCD-16]: 0.21 vs. 0.07, p<0.001); (b) significant decrease in cardiac endocannabinoid (2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, 2-AG: 29.90 vs. 65.95, p<0.001) and fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE: oleoylethanolamide, OEA: 114.3 vs. 125.4, p=0.047; palmitoylethanolamide, PEA: 72.96 vs. 82.87, p=0.008); and (c) increased cardiac inflammation (IL-1β/IL-6 ratio: 19.79 vs.13.57, p=0.038; TNF-α/IL-6 ratio: 1.73 vs. 1.03, p=0.019) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]: 7.81 vs. 7.05, p=0.022), that were associated with cardiac steatosis (higher TAG: 1.09 vs. 0.72, p<0.001). Cardiac lipogenesis persisted, and elevated BP emerged two weeks after exposure. Conclusions Acute psychological stress elicits ECS-related cardiac responses associated with persistent, potentially-pathological changes in rat cardiovascular biochemistry

  7. Effects of stress, health competence, and social support on depressive symptoms after cardiac hospitalization.

    PubMed

    León-Pérez, Gabriela; Wallston, Kenneth A; Goggins, Kathryn M; Poppendeck, Heidi M; Kripalani, Sunil

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the role of stress on the psychological well-being of patients after cardiac hospitalization or about factors that protect against or exacerbate the effects of stress. We use prospective data from 1542 patients to investigate the relationship between post-discharge stress and changes in depressive symptoms, and whether the level of prior depressive symptoms, health competence, and perceived social support moderate this relationship. Net of depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks prior to hospitalization, higher levels of post-discharge stress significantly increase depressive symptoms 30 days after discharge. The level of prior depressive symptoms moderates the effect of stress. On the other hand, perceived health competence and social support buffer the negative effects of post-discharge stress. Knowing which patients are particularly vulnerable to experiencing stress and a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms can help trigger interventions prior to discharge and possibly ameliorate the prevalence of depression. PMID:26660867

  8. Autophagy During Cardiac Stress: Joys and Frustrations of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Mentzer, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The study of autophagy has been transformed by the cloning of most genes in the pathway and the introduction of GFP-LC3 as a reporter to allow visual assessment of autophagy. The field of cardiac biology is not alone in attempting to understand the implications of autophagy. The purpose of this review is to address some of the controversies and conundrums associated with the evolving studies of autophagy in the heart. Autophagy is a cellular process involving a complex orchestration of regulatory gene products as well as machinery for assembly, selective targeting, and degradation of autophagosomes and their contents. Our understanding of the role of autophagy in human disease is rapidly evolving as investigators examine the process in different tissues and different pathophysiological contexts. In the field of heart disease, autophagy has been examined in the settings of ischemia and reperfusion, preconditioning, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. This review addresses the role of autophagy in cardioprotection, the balance of catabolism and anabolism, the concept of mitochondrial quality control, and the implications of impaired autophagic flux or frustrated autophagy. PMID:20148666

  9. Impaired cardiac contractility response to hemodynamic stress in S100A1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Jun; Cole, Timothy J; Tenis, Nora; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Köntgen, Frank; Kemp, Bruce E; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2002-04-01

    Ca(2+) signaling plays a central role in cardiac contractility and adaptation to increased hemodynamic demand. We have generated mice with a targeted deletion of the S100A1 gene coding for the major cardiac isoform of the large multigenic S100 family of EF hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins. S100A1(-/-) mice have normal cardiac function under baseline conditions but have significantly reduced contraction rate and relaxation rate responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation that are associated with a reduced Ca(2+) sensitivity. In S100A1(-/-) mice, basal left-ventricular contractility deteriorated following 3-week pressure overload by thoracic aorta constriction despite a normal adaptive hypertrophy. Surprisingly, heterozygotes also had an impaired response to acute beta-adrenergic stimulation but maintained normal contractility in response to chronic pressure overload that coincided with S100A1 upregulation to wild-type levels. In contrast to other genetic models with impaired cardiac contractility, loss of S100A1 did not lead to cardiac hypertrophy or dilation in aged mice. The data demonstrate that high S100A1 protein levels are essential for the cardiac reserve and adaptation to acute and chronic hemodynamic stress in vivo. PMID:11909974

  10. Impaired Cardiac Contractility Response to Hemodynamic Stress in S100A1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiao-Jun; Cole, Timothy J.; Tenis, Nora; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Köntgen, Frank; Kemp, Bruce E.; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Ca2+ signaling plays a central role in cardiac contractility and adaptation to increased hemodynamic demand. We have generated mice with a targeted deletion of the S100A1 gene coding for the major cardiac isoform of the large multigenic S100 family of EF hand Ca2+-binding proteins. S100A1−/− mice have normal cardiac function under baseline conditions but have significantly reduced contraction rate and relaxation rate responses to β-adrenergic stimulation that are associated with a reduced Ca2+ sensitivity. In S100A1−/− mice, basal left-ventricular contractility deteriorated following 3-week pressure overload by thoracic aorta constriction despite a normal adaptive hypertrophy. Surprisingly, heterozygotes also had an impaired response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation but maintained normal contractility in response to chronic pressure overload that coincided with S100A1 upregulation to wild-type levels. In contrast to other genetic models with impaired cardiac contractility, loss of S100A1 did not lead to cardiac hypertrophy or dilation in aged mice. The data demonstrate that high S100A1 protein levels are essential for the cardiac reserve and adaptation to acute and chronic hemodynamic stress in vivo. PMID:11909974

  11. Non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Yoav; Webb, Muriel; Cytter-Kuint, Ruth; Shteingart, Shimon; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation and follow up of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis have been traditionally performed by liver biopsy. However, during the last 20 years, it has become evident that this “gold-standard” is imperfect; even according to its proponents, it is only “the best” among available methods. Attempts at uncovering non-invasive diagnostic tools have yielded multiple scores, formulae, and imaging modalities. All are better tolerated, safer, more acceptable to the patient, and can be repeated essentially as often as required. Most are much less expensive than liver biopsy. Consequently, their use is growing, and in some countries the number of biopsies performed, at least for routine evaluation of hepatitis B and C, has declined sharply. However, the accuracy and diagnostic value of most, if not all, of these methods remains controversial. In this review for the practicing physician, we analyze established and novel biomarkers and physical techniques. We may be witnessing in recent years the beginning of the end of the first phase for the development of non-invasive markers. Early evidence suggests that they might be at least as good as liver biopsy. Novel experimental markers and imaging techniques could produce a dramatic change in diagnosis in the near future. PMID:26556987

  12. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs. PMID:26217455

  13. Diagnosis and therapies for gastric non-invasive neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great discrepancy of pathological diagnosis for gastric non-invasive neoplasia/dysplasia between Japanese and western pathologists. In Japan, lesions that most western pathologists diagnose as dysplasia are often considered adenocarcinoma based on nuclear and structural atypia regardless of the presence of invasion. In the Vienna classification, gastric non-invasive intraepithelial neoplasia (NIN) were divided into low grade and high grade (including intra-mucosal cancer of Japanese criteria). The diagnosis by both endoscopy and pathology of biopsy specimen is difficult. Recent advances of diagnostic modality such as magnified endoscopy and imaged enhanced endoscopy is expected to improve the diagnostic yield for NIN. There are two treatment strategies for NIN, observation and diagnostic therapy by endoscopic resection (ER). ER is acceptable because of its less invasiveness and high local control rate, on the other hand, cancer-developing rate of low-grade NIN is reported to be low. Therefore there is controversy for the treatment of gastric NIN. Prospective study based on unified pathological definition is required in the future. PMID:26640329

  14. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  15. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hideo; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Uematsu, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Katsumi; Inoue, Miyabi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect) caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1) and the sphincteric urethra (V2) were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1), calculated by Qmax/V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR), which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS) will dramatically expand the information on voiding function. PMID:19468440

  16. Examination of postmortem retinal folds: A non-invasive study.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Toru; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-02-01

    The postmortem retinal fold has been previously documented, but its mechanism of formation is not known. All previous studies of the fold involved invasive techniques and the postmortem ocular fundus has yet to be non-invasively examined. Our study used the non-invasive techniques of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and ocular echography to examine 79 postmortem eyes of 42 bodies. We examined whether the postmortem retinal fold was associated with postmortem time, position, and/or age. Age was significantly associated with postmortem retinal fold formation (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.013), which led us to examine the effect of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on retinal folds. The absence of a PVD was statistically associated with the presence of a retinal fold (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Interestingly, the presence of a PVD was also significantly correlated with retinal fold height (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.0001). Therefore, we hypothesized that retinal folds result from postmortem vitreoretinal traction caused by eyeball flaccidity. We also believe that the loss of retinochoroidal hydrostatic pressure plays a role. It is important that forensic pathologists not confuse a postmortem retinal fold with traumatic retinal detachment or perimacular retinal folds caused by child abuse. When child abuse is suspected, forensic pathologists should perform enucleation and a subsequent histological examination for confirmation. PMID:25623189

  17. Non-invasive methodology for diagnostics of bearing impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, John N.

    2007-04-01

    Various events in reciprocating machinery, such as connecting rod or piston movement, and diesel combustion produce a series of highly transient forces within the machine. These events generate force transients of short duration and broad frequency content. Even though these events may be part of a machine cycle and therefore periodic, it is often more appropriate to treat them on an individual basis because more diagnostics information is available from a single waveform during a cycle than from averages over several cycles. However, it is very rare for one to have direct access to source waveforms because of the expense and reliability problems associated with the required instrumentation, and non-invasive techniques will have to be used. This paper explores the use of cepstral smoothing and minimum phase extraction technique for non-invasive diagnostics of bearing impacts in reciprocating machinery. The methodology is based on extracting diagnostic signals from vibration measurements taken at a "convenient" location such as the crankshaft casing or bearing end-cap, and consists of source identification, diagnostic signature recovery, and diagnostic system decision-making. A dynamic simulation with lumped mass model is developed to analyze bearing impacts for the big end bearings, experimental measurements from accelerometers, transfer functions of vibration, and the structural response are presented.

  18. Modulation of Untruthful Responses with Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Shirley; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether non-invasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience), as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses). Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying non-invasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts. PMID:23550273

  19. Dietary restriction, cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in bulimic women.

    PubMed

    Vögele, Claus; Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2009-08-01

    Recent findings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in relation to biochemical markers of dietary restriction status in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. We predicted that bulimic individuals (BN) with a biochemical profile indicating dietary restriction exhibit reduced cardiac sympathetic and/or increased vagal activity. We also hypothesized, that BN with a biochemical profile within a normal range (i.e. currently not dieting or malnourished) would show heart rate variability responses (HRV) and reactivity to mental stress indicating increased sympathetic activation compared with non-eating disordered controls. Seventeen female volunteers diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were categorized according to their serum profile (glucose, pre-albumin, IGF-1, TSH, leptin) into currently fasting versus non-fasting and compared with 16 non-eating disordered controls matched for age and BMI. Spectral components of HRV were calculated on heart rate data from resting and mental stress periods (standardized achievement challenge) using autoregressive analysis. Compared to non-fasting BN and controls, fasting BN showed increased vagal and decreased sympathetic modulation during both resting and recovery periods. Cardiac autonomic regulation was not impaired in response to mental challenge. No differences could be found between non-fasting BN and controls. The results confirm the notion of cardiac sympathetic inhibition and vagal dominance during dietary restriction and suggest the specificity of starvation related biochemical changes for cardiac autonomic control. The results are discussed in terms of the higher incidence in cardiac complications in these patients. PMID:19497332

  20. Non-invasive integrative analysis of contraction energetics in intact beating heart.

    PubMed

    Deschodt-Arsac, Véronique; Calmettes, Guillaume; Gouspillou, Gilles; Chapolard, Mathilde; Raffard, Gérard; Rouland, Richard; Jais, Pierre; Haissaguerre, Michel; Dos Santos, Pierre; Diolez, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The comprehensive study of human pathologies has revealed the complexity of the interactions involved in cardiovascular physiology. The recent validation of system's biology approaches - like our Modular Control and Regulation Analysis (MoCA) - motivates the current interest for new integrative and non-invasive analyses that could be used for medical study of human heart contraction energetics. By considering heart energetics as a supply-demand system, MoCA gives access to integrated organ function and brings out a new type of information, the "elasticities", which describe in situ the regulation of both energy demand and supply by cellular energetic status. These regulations determine the internal control of contraction energetics and may therefore be a key to the understanding of the links between molecular events in pathologies and whole organ function/dysfunction. A wider application to the effects of cardiac drugs in conjunction with the direct study of heart pathologies may be considered in the near future. MoCA can potentially be used not only to detect the origin of the defects associated with the pathology (elasticity analyses), but also to provide a quantitative description of how these defects influence global heart function (regulation analysis) and therefore open new therapeutic perspectives. Several key examples of current applications to intact isolated beating heart are presented in this paper. The future application to human pathologies will require the use of non-invasive NMR techniques for the simultaneous measurement of energy status ((31)P NMR) and heart contractile activity (3D MRI). This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction, adaptation and therapy. PMID:22789933

  1. Feasibility of Using Wideband Microwave System for Non-Invasive Detection and Monitoring of Pulmonary Oedema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeieh, S. Ahdi; Zamani, A.; Bialkowski, K. S.; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a common manifestation of various fatal diseases that can be caused by cardiac or non-cardiac syndromes. The accumulated fluid has a considerably higher dielectric constant compared to lungs’ tissues, and can thus be detected using microwave techniques. Therefore, a non-invasive microwave system for the early detection of pulmonary oedema is presented. It employs a platform in the form of foam-based bed that contains two linear arrays of wideband antennas covering the band 0.7-1 GHz. The platform is designed such that during the tests, the subject lays on the bed with the back of the torso facing the antenna arrays. The antennas are controlled using a switching network that is connected to a compact network analyzer. A novel frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the torso showing any accumulated fluids in the lungs. The system is verified on an artificial torso phantom, and animal organs. As a feasibility study, preclinical tests are conducted on healthy subjects to determinate the type of obtained images, the statistics and threshold levels of their intensity to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy subjects.

  2. Feasibility of Using Wideband Microwave System for Non-Invasive Detection and Monitoring of Pulmonary Oedema

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeieh, S. Ahdi; Zamani, A.; Bialkowski, K. S.; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a common manifestation of various fatal diseases that can be caused by cardiac or non-cardiac syndromes. The accumulated fluid has a considerably higher dielectric constant compared to lungs’ tissues, and can thus be detected using microwave techniques. Therefore, a non-invasive microwave system for the early detection of pulmonary oedema is presented. It employs a platform in the form of foam-based bed that contains two linear arrays of wideband antennas covering the band 0.7–1 GHz. The platform is designed such that during the tests, the subject lays on the bed with the back of the torso facing the antenna arrays. The antennas are controlled using a switching network that is connected to a compact network analyzer. A novel frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the torso showing any accumulated fluids in the lungs. The system is verified on an artificial torso phantom, and animal organs. As a feasibility study, preclinical tests are conducted on healthy subjects to determinate the type of obtained images, the statistics and threshold levels of their intensity to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy subjects. PMID:26365299

  3. Feasibility of Using Wideband Microwave System for Non-Invasive Detection and Monitoring of Pulmonary Oedema.

    PubMed

    Rezaeieh, S Ahdi; Zamani, A; Bialkowski, K S; Mahmoud, A; Abbosh, A M

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a common manifestation of various fatal diseases that can be caused by cardiac or non-cardiac syndromes. The accumulated fluid has a considerably higher dielectric constant compared to lungs' tissues, and can thus be detected using microwave techniques. Therefore, a non-invasive microwave system for the early detection of pulmonary oedema is presented. It employs a platform in the form of foam-based bed that contains two linear arrays of wideband antennas covering the band 0.7-1 GHz. The platform is designed such that during the tests, the subject lays on the bed with the back of the torso facing the antenna arrays. The antennas are controlled using a switching network that is connected to a compact network analyzer. A novel frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the torso showing any accumulated fluids in the lungs. The system is verified on an artificial torso phantom, and animal organs. As a feasibility study, preclinical tests are conducted on healthy subjects to determinate the type of obtained images, the statistics and threshold levels of their intensity to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy subjects. PMID:26365299

  4. Characterising the myocardial interstitial space: the clinical relevance of non-invasive imaging.

    PubMed

    White, Steven K; Sado, Daniel M; Flett, Andrew S; Moon, James C

    2012-05-01

    The myocardial interstitial or extracellular space exists as a complex and dynamic environment, vital for normal cardiac structure and function. The physiological pathways for normal control of collagen turnover, and the pathological development of fibrosis are beginning to be understood, as are their relationships to cardiac remodelling and adverse outcomes. Emerging non-invasive imaging techniques (echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography) may allow a clearer understanding and measurement of these processes in vivo. Preliminary results are exciting, spanning valvular and congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy and rarer diseases such as amyloid. In this review, such developments and research directions are explored, including the rapid developments in cardiovascular magnetic resonance T1 mapping and its use with contrast to derive extracellular volume. The authors present a state-of-the-art assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of each modality, and distil a framework to equip the reader with an understanding of the technical issues useful for the interpretation of emerging clinical studies. PMID:22422587

  5. Diosmin pretreatment improves cardiac function and suppresses oxidative stress in rat heart after ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Senthamizhselvan, Oomaidurai; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Raja, Boobalan

    2014-08-01

    Reperfusion of ischemic tissue leads to the generation of oxygen derived free radicals which plays an important role in cellular damage. Objective of the current study is to evaluate the cardio-protective and antioxidant effect of diosmin on ischemia-reperfusion related cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Diosmin (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (bw)) was given every day to the rats orally throughout the experimental period. Ischemia/reperfusion protocol was carried out ex vivo using langendorff perfusion method and the cardiac functional recovery was assessed in terms of percentage rate pressure product. Coronary effluents of LDH and CK-MB activities, antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation products, activity of TCA cycle enzymes were evaluated. Moreover, in vitro superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging potential of diosmin was also quantified. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR was used for assessing Bcl-2 mRNA expression in heart. Cardiac functional recovery was impaired after reperfusion compared with continuously perfused heart. It was significantly prevented by diosmin treatment. Impaired antioxidant enzyme activities and elevated lipid peroxidation products level were also significantly suppressed. The activity of TCA cycle enzymes was protected against reperfusion stress. Down regulated Bcl-2 was also significantly increased. This study concluded that diosmin pretreatment prevents all the impaired patterns including cardiac function, oxidative stress and apoptosis associated with reperfusion in control heart by its antioxidant role. PMID:24769512

  6. PM-induced cardiac oxidative stress and dysfunction are mediated by autonomic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rhoden, Claudia R; Wellenius, Gregory A; Ghelfi, Elisa; Lawrence, Joy; González-Flecha, Beatriz

    2005-10-10

    Epidemiological studies show that increases in particulate air pollution (PM) are associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the cardiac effects of PM remain unknown. We used pharmacological strategies to determine whether oxidants are implicated in PM-dependent cardiac dysfunction and whether PM-induced increase in autonomic stimulation on the heart mediates cardiac oxidative stress and toxicity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either intratracheal instillation of urban air particles (UAP 750 microg) or to inhalation of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs mass concentration 700+/-180 microg/m3) for 5 h. Oxidative stress and cardiac function were evaluated 30 min after UAP instillation or immediately after exposure to CAPs. Instillation of UAP led to significant increases in heart oxidants measured as organ chemiluminescence (UAP: 38+/-5 cps/cm2, sham: 10+/-1 cps/cm2) or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, UAP: 76+/-10, Sham 30+/-6 pmol/mg protein). Heart rate increased immediately after exposure (UAP: 390+/-20 bpm, sham: 350+/-10 bpm) and returned to basal levels over the next 30 min. Heart rate variability (SDNN) was unchanged immediately after exposure, but significantly increased during the recovery phase (UAP: 3.4+/-0.2, Sham: 2.4+/-0.3). To determine the role of ROS in the development of cardiac malfunction, rats were treated with 50 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 1 h prior to UAP instillation or CAPs inhalation. NAC prevented changes in heart rate and SDNN in UAP-exposed rats (340+/-8 and 2.9+/-0.3, respectively). To investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in PM-induced oxidative stress, rats were given 5 mg/kg atenolol (beta-1 receptor antagonist), 0.30 mg/kg glycopyrrolate (muscarinic receptor antagonist) or saline immediately before exposure to CAPs aerosols. Both atenolol and glycopyrrolate effectively prevented CAPs-induced cardiac oxidative stress (CL

  7. In vivo non-invasive multiphoton tomography of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Ehlers, Alexander; Le Harzic, Ronan

    2005-10-01

    High resolution non-invasive 3D imaging devices are required to detect pathogenic microorganisms such as Anthrax spores, bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical agents entering biological tissues such as the epidermis. Due to the low light penetration depth and the biodamage potential, ultraviolet light sources can not be employed to realize intratissue imaging of bio- and chemohazards. We report on the novel near infrared laser technology multiphoton tomography and the high resolution 4D imaging tool DermaInspect for non-invasive detection of intratissue agents and their influence on cellular metabolism based on multiphoton autofluorescence imaging (MAI) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Femtosecond laser pulses in the spectral range of 750 nm to 850 nm have been used to image in vivo human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. The non-linear induced autofluorescence of both, skin tissues and microorganisms, originates mainly from naturally endogenous fluorophores/protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, keratin, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and melanin. Bacteria emit in the blue/green spectral range due to NAD(P)H and flavoproteins and, in certain cases, in the red spectral range due to the biosynthesis of Zn-porphyrins, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin. Collagen and exogenous non-centrosymmetric molecules can be detected by SHG signals. The system DermaInspect consists of a wavelength-tunable compact 80/90 MHz Ti:sapphire laser, a scan module with galvo scan mirrors, piezo-driven objective, fast photon detector and time-resolved single photon counting unit. It can be used to perform optical sectioning and 3D autofluorescence lifetime imaging (τ-mapping) with 1 μm spatial resolution and 270 ps temporal resolution. The parameter fluorescence lifetime depends on the type of fluorophore and its microenvironment and can be used to distinguish bio- and chemohazards from cellular background and to gain information for pathogen

  8. The Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Matches Energetic Supply with Cardiac Workload during Stress and Modulates Permeability Transition.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Timothy S; Lambert, Jonathan P; Yuan, Ancai; Zhang, Xueqian; Gross, Polina; Song, Jianliang; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Gao, Erhe; Jain, Mohit; Houser, Steven R; Koch, Walter J; Cheung, Joseph Y; Madesh, Muniswamy; Elrod, John W

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac contractility is mediated by a variable flux in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)), thought to be integrated into mitochondria via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) channel to match energetic demand. Here, we examine a conditional, cardiomyocyte-specific, mutant mouse lacking Mcu, the pore-forming subunit of the MCU channel, in adulthood. Mcu(-/-) mice display no overt baseline phenotype and are protected against mCa(2+) overload in an in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model by preventing the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, decreasing infarct size, and preserving cardiac function. In addition, we find that Mcu(-/-) mice lack contractile responsiveness to acute β-adrenergic receptor stimulation and in parallel are unable to activate mitochondrial dehydrogenases and display reduced bioenergetic reserve capacity. These results support the hypothesis that MCU may be dispensable for homeostatic cardiac function but required to modulate Ca(2+)-dependent metabolism during acute stress. PMID:26119731

  9. [Elemental research on intelligent non-invasive temporary pacemakers].

    PubMed

    Nie, Bang-ji; Xu, Long; Xin, Xue-gang; Wang, Cheng-lai; Wu, Min-shan

    2005-01-01

    Some research on intelligent non-invasive temporary pacemakers is introduced in this paper. An industrial computer, some IC chips and other elements are used to construct its hardware, and its software is in C++ language. The experimental device has some intelligent functions of recognizing some arrhythmia. The system has a pacemaker module and an ECG monitor module. Its software includes a main program, a RS-232C communication program, a printer VxD, a pacing control VxD and ECG signal pretreatment and recognizing program and so on. The pacing-generating circuit is employed to make the precision control of pacing current. The communication between industrial-computer system and ECG module is completed through the DLL. The real time processing of ECG signals is based on filter method for a higher recognizing ratio. The system calculates several parameters to recognize certain arrhythmia and uses MIT/BIH database to validate the reliability of ECG recognition. PMID:15875682

  10. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making. PMID:26530119

  11. Non invasive sensing technologies for cultural heritage management and fruition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The relevance of the information produced by science and technology for the knowledge of the cultural heritage depends on the quality of the feedback and, consequently, on the "cultural" distance between scientists and end-users. In particular, the solution to this problem mainly resides in the capability of end-users' capability to assess and transform the knowledge produced by diagnostics with regard to: information on both cultural objects and sites (decay patterns, vulnerability, presence of buried archaeological remains); decision making (management plan, conservation project, and excavation plan). From our experience in the field of the cultural heritage and namely the conservation, of monuments, there is a significant gap of information between technologists (geophysicists/physicists/engineers) and end-users (conservators/historians/architects). This cultural gap is due to the difficulty to interpret "indirect data" produced by non invasive diagnostics (i.e. radargrams/thermal images/seismic tomography etc..) in order to provide information useful to improve the historical knowledge (e.g. the chronology of the different phases of a building), to characterise the state of conservation (e.g. detection of cracks in the masonry) and to monitor in time cultural heritage artifacts and sites. The possible answer to this difficulty is in the set-up of a knowledge chain regarding the following steps: - Integrated application of novel and robust data processing methods; - Augmented reality as a tool for making easier the interpretation of non invasive - investigations for the analysis of decay pathologies of masonry and architectural surfaces; - The comparison between direct data (carrots, visual inspection) and results from non-invasive tests, including geophysics, aims to improve the interpretation and the rendering of the monuments and even of the archaeological landscapes; - The use of specimens or test beds for the detection of archaeological features and

  12. Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, Gary; Boas, David A.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews diffuse optical brain imaging, a technique that employs near-infrared light to non-invasively probe the brain for changes in parameters relating to brain function. We describe the general methodology, including types of measurements and instrumentation (including the tradeoffs inherent in the various instrument components), and the basic theory required to interpret the recorded data. A brief review of diffuse optical applications is included, with an emphasis on research that has been done with psychiatric populations. Finally, we discuss some practical issues and limitations that are relevant when conducting diffuse optical experiments. We find that, while diffuse optics can provide substantial advantages to the psychiatric researcher relative to the alternative brain imaging methods, the method remains substantially underutilized in this field.

  13. Non-invasive Respiratory Support and Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Rahul; Fisher, Marilyn; Cerone, Jennifer; Barry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe two premature infants who developed stage 3, zone I retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with plus disease in both eyes, despite limited exposure to supra-ambient oxygen. Both infants received noninvasive respiratory support for several weeks. Both cases are notable because the ROP was more posterior and aggressive than is typical for the gestational ages or birth weights. These cases are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the factors that cause ROP. Further investigation is required to determine if there is an association between the use of non-invasive respiratory support, even in the absence of supra-ambient oxygen, and severe ROP development. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e47-e50.]. PMID:27537495

  14. Eyeblink conditioning: a non-invasive biomarker for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-02-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition, abnormalities in the cerebellum, a region of the brain highly involved in EBC, have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the current paper, we review studies that have employed EBC as a biomarker for several neurodevelopmental disorders including fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, specific language impairment, and schizophrenia. In addition, we discuss the benefits of using such a tool in individuals with ASD. PMID:23942847

  15. Hybrid CARS for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Pestov, Dmitry; Zhang, Aihua; Murawski, Robert; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Laane, Jaan; Scully, Marlan

    2007-10-01

    We develop a spectroscopy technique that combines the advantages of both the frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the time-resolved CARS. We use broadband preparation pulses to get an instantaneous coherent excitation of multiplex molecular vibration levels and subsequent optically shaped time-delayed narrowband probing pulse to detect these vibrations. This technique can suppress the nonresonant background and retrieve the molecular fingerprint signal efficiently and rapidly. We employ this technique to glucose detection, the final goal of which is accurate, non-invasive (i.e. painless) and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration in the Diabetes diagnosis to replace the current glucose measurement process, which requires painful fingerpricks and therefore cannot be performed more than a few times a day. We have gotten the CARS spectra of glucose aqueous solution down to 2 mM.

  16. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  17. Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatter, Cedric; Klein, Thomas; Grajciar, Branislav; Schmoll, Tilman; Wieser, Wolfgang; Andre, Raphael; Huber, Robert; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2012-07-01

    Retinal and choroidal vascular imaging is an important diagnostic benefit for ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The current gold standard for vessel visualization is fluorescence angiography. We present a potential non-invasive alternative to image blood vessels based on functional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). For OCT to compete with the field of view and resolution of angiography while maintaining motion artifacts to a minimum, ultrahigh-speed imaging has to be introduced. We employ Fourier domain mode locking swept source technology that offers high quality imaging at an A-scan rate of up to 1.68 MHz. We present retinal angiogram over ˜48 deg acquired in a few seconds in a single recording without the need of image stitching. OCT at 1060 nm allows for high penetration in the choroid and efficient separate characterization of the retinal and choroidal vascularization.

  18. Non-invasive imaging of microcirculation: a technology review

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Sam; Nilsson, Jan; Sturesson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Microcirculation plays a crucial role in physiological processes of tissue oxygenation and nutritional exchange. Measurement of microcirculation can be applied on many organs in various pathologies. In this paper we aim to review the technique of non-invasive methods for imaging of the microcirculation. Methods covered are: videomicroscopy techniques, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and laser speckle contrast imaging. Videomicroscopy techniques, such as orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and sidestream dark-field imaging, provide a plentitude of information and offer direct visualization of the microcirculation but have the major drawback that they may give pressure artifacts. Both laser Doppler perfusion imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging allow non-contact measurements but have the disadvantage of their sensitivity to motion artifacts and that they are confined to relative measurement comparisons. Ideal would be a non-contact videomicroscopy method with fully automatic analysis software. PMID:25525397

  19. [Non-invasive brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Gajo, Gianandrea; Pollak, Pierre; Lüscher, Christian; Benninger, David

    2015-04-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major socio-economic burden increasing with the aging population. In advanced PD, the emergence of symptoms refractory to conventional therapy poses a therapeutic challenge. The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD have raised interest in non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) as an alternative therapeutic tool. NIBS could offer an alternative approach for patients at risk who are excluded from surgery and/or to treat refractory symptoms. The treatment of the freezing of gait, a major cause of disability and falls in PD patients, could be enhanced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A therapeutic study is currently performed at the Department of Neurology at the CHUV. PMID:26062225

  20. Non-invasive measurments of intense relativistic electron beam size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Carl; McCuistian, Trent; Moir, David; Rodriguez, Patrick; Broste, William; Johnson, Jeff

    2000-10-01

    To understand relativistic electron beam transport dynamics the size of the beam is often measured using invasive techniques such as imaging the Cerenkov or OTR light emitted from a screen inserted into the beam. These techniques would completely disrupt the DARHT 2 beam, so we are developing a non-invasive method using diamagnetic loops. We show that through conservation of canonical angular momentum the RMS radius of the beam can be found by measuring the magnetic flux excluded by the diamagnetic beam. Furthermore, this measurement is shown to be independent of the details of the beam radial current profile for DARHT 2 parameters. We present results from our test and calibration experiments, as well as results of beam radius measurements on the 20-MeV DARHT 1 accelerator.

  1. Non-invasive assessment of skeletal muscle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merletti, Roberto; Orizio, Claudio; di Prampero, Pietro E.; Tesch, Per

    2005-10-01

    After the first 3 years (2002-2005), the MAP project has made available: - systems fo electrodes, signal conditioning and digital processing for multichannel simultaneously-detected EMG and MMG as well as for simultaneous electrical stimulation and EMG detection with artifact cancellation. - innovative non-invasive techniques for the extraction of individual motor unit action potentials (MUAPS) and individual motor and MMG contributions from the surface EMG interference signal and the MMG signal. - processing techniques for extractions of indicators of progressive fatigue from the electrically-elicited (M-wave) EMG signal. - techniques for the analysis of dynamic multichannel EMG during cyclic or explosive exercise (in collaboration with project EXER/MAP-MED-027).

  2. Non-invasive ventilation in exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Vagheggini, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the evidence and helped to define when and where non invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) should be the first line treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Noninvasive ventilation has its best indication in moderate-to-severe respiratory acidosis in patients with AECOPD. For this indication, studies conducted in ICU, in wards and in accident and emergency departments confirmed its effectiveness in preventing endotracheal intubation and reducing mortality. The skill of the health care team promotes proper NIV utilization and improves the patient outcome. Patients with severe acidosis or with altered levels of consciousness due to hypercapnic acute respiratory failure are exposed to high risk of NIV failure. In these patients a NIV trial may be attempted in closely monitored clinical settings where prompt endotracheal intubation may be assured. PMID:18268921

  3. Non-invasive Loading Model of Murine Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Poulet, Blandine

    2016-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is the commonest degenerative joint disease, leading to joint pain and disability. The mouse has been the primary animal used for research, due to its size, relatively short lifespan, and the availability of genetically modified animals. Importantly, they show pathogenesis similar to osteoarthritis in humans. Mechanical loading is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis, and various mouse models have been developed to study the role and effects of mechanics on health and disease in various joints. This review describes the main mouse models used to non-invasively apply mechanical loads on joints. Most of the mouse models of osteoarthritis target the knee, including repetitive loading and joint injury such as ligament rupture, but a few studies have also characterised models for elbow, temporomandibular joint, and whole-body vibration spinal loading. These models are a great opportunity to dissect the influences of various types of mechanical input on joint health and disease. PMID:27177901

  4. Non-invasive diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sebastian; Seitz, Helmut Karl; Rausch, Vanessa

    2014-10-28

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world. For many reasons, it is underestimated and underdiagnosed. An early diagnosis is absolutely essential since it (1) helps to identify patients at genetic risk for ALD; (2) can trigger efficient abstinence namely in non-addicted patients; and (3) initiate screening programs to prevent life-threatening complications such as bleeding from varices, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or hepatocellular cancer. The two major end points of ALD are alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the rare and clinically-defined alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The prediction and early diagnosis of both entities is still insufficiently solved and usually relies on a combination of laboratory, clinical and imaging findings. It is not widely conceived that conventional screening tools for ALD such as ultrasound imaging or routine laboratory testing can easily overlook ca. 40% of manifest alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Non-invasive methods such as transient elastography (Fibroscan), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging or shear wave elastography have significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Present algorithms allow either the exclusion or the exact definition of advanced fibrosis stages in ca. 95% of patients. The correct interpretation of liver stiffness requires a timely abdominal ultrasound and actual transaminase levels. Other non-invasive methods such as controlled attenuation parameter, serum levels of M30 or M65, susceptometry or breath tests are under current evaluation to assess the degree of steatosis, apoptosis and iron overload in these patients. Liver biopsy still remains an important option to rule out comorbidities and to confirm the prognosis namely for patients with AH. PMID:25356026

  5. Non-invasive diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sebastian; Seitz, Helmut Karl; Rausch, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world. For many reasons, it is underestimated and underdiagnosed. An early diagnosis is absolutely essential since it (1) helps to identify patients at genetic risk for ALD; (2) can trigger efficient abstinence namely in non-addicted patients; and (3) initiate screening programs to prevent life-threatening complications such as bleeding from varices, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or hepatocellular cancer. The two major end points of ALD are alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the rare and clinically-defined alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The prediction and early diagnosis of both entities is still insufficiently solved and usually relies on a combination of laboratory, clinical and imaging findings. It is not widely conceived that conventional screening tools for ALD such as ultrasound imaging or routine laboratory testing can easily overlook ca. 40% of manifest alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Non-invasive methods such as transient elastography (Fibroscan), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging or shear wave elastography have significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Present algorithms allow either the exclusion or the exact definition of advanced fibrosis stages in ca. 95% of patients. The correct interpretation of liver stiffness requires a timely abdominal ultrasound and actual transaminase levels. Other non-invasive methods such as controlled attenuation parameter, serum levels of M30 or M65, susceptometry or breath tests are under current evaluation to assess the degree of steatosis, apoptosis and iron overload in these patients. Liver biopsy still remains an important option to rule out comorbidities and to confirm the prognosis namely for patients with AH. PMID:25356026

  6. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  7. It Takes Two: Non Invasive Brain Stimulation Combined with Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephen J.; Cunningham, David A; Plow, Ela; Blazak, Brittani

    2015-01-01

    The goal of post-acute neurorehabilitation is to maximize patients' function, ideally by using surviving brain and central nervous system tissue when possible. Yet the structures incorporated into neurorehabilitative approaches often differ from this target, which may explain why efficacy of conventional clinical treatments targeting neurological impairments varies widely. Non-invasive brain stimulation such as with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) offers the possibility of directly targeting brain structures to facilitate or inhibit their activity so as to steer neural plasticity in recovery, and measure neuronal output and interactions for evaluating progress. Latest advances as stereotactic navigation and electric field modeling are enabling more precise targeting of patient's residual structures in diagnosis and therapy. Given its promise, this supplement illustrates the wide-ranging significance of TMS and tDCS in neurorehabilitation, including in stroke, pediatrics, traumatic brain injury, focal hand dystonia, neuropathic pain and spinal cord injury. TMS and tDCS are still not widely used and remain poorly understood in neurorehabilitation. Thus, the present supplement includes articles that highlight ready clinical application of these technologies, including their comparative diagnostic capabilities relative to neuroimaging, their therapeutic benefit, their optimal delivery, the stratification of likely responders, and the variable benefits associated with their clinical use due to interactions between pathophysiology and the innate reorganization of the patient's brain. Overall, the supplement concludes that whether provided in isolation or in combination, non-invasive brain stimulation with neuro-rehabilitation are synergistic in the potential to transform clinical practice. PMID:25813373

  8. Non-invasive assessment of microvascular and endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cynthia; Daskalakis, Constantine; Falkner, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    The authors have utilized capillaroscopy and forearm blood flow techniques to investigate the role of microvascular dysfunction in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive, relatively inexpensive methodology for directly visualizing the microcirculation. Percent capillary recruitment is assessed by dividing the increase in capillary density induced by postocclusive reactive hyperemia (postocclusive reactive hyperemia capillary density minus baseline capillary density), by the maximal capillary density (observed during passive venous occlusion). Percent perfused capillaries represents the proportion of all capillaries present that are perfused (functionally active), and is calculated by dividing postocclusive reactive hyperemia capillary density by the maximal capillary density. Both percent capillary recruitment and percent perfused capillaries reflect the number of functional capillaries. The forearm blood flow (FBF) technique provides accepted non-invasive measures of endothelial function: The ratio FBF(max)/FBF(base) is computed as an estimate of vasodilation, by dividing the mean of the four FBF(max) values by the mean of the four FBFbase values. Forearm vascular resistance at maximal vasodilation (FVR(max)) is calculated as the mean arterial pressure (MAP) divided by FBF(max). Both the capillaroscopy and forearm techniques are readily acceptable to patients and can be learned quickly. The microvascular and endothelial function measures obtained using the methodologies described in this paper may have future utility in clinical patient cardiovascular risk-reduction strategies. As we have published reports demonstrating that microvascular and endothelial dysfunction are found in initial stages of hypertension including prehypertension, microvascular and endothelial function measures may eventually aid in early identification, risk-stratification and prevention of end-stage vascular pathology, with its potentially fatal

  9. Non-invasive glucose determination in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Wolfgang; Meuer, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Kiefer, Wolfgang; Menzebach, Johannes-Ulrich; Schrader, Bernhard

    2005-02-01

    For non-invasive in vivo glucose determinations by means of near-infrared spectroscopy, the anterior chamber of the human eye is a promising site. An optical set-up for the non-invasive glucose determination in the human eye precisely in the anterior chamber with a beam reflected from the surface of the eye lens is presented here. As the anterior chamber has a depth of 3.13±0.50 mm, the beam follows an optical path of 5.3-7.3 mm depending on the angle of incidence, which is individually constant. We will show that it is possible to acquire good concentration predictions for physiological glucose concentrations with such a long optical path. A chemometric study of NIR glucose spectra with concentrations of glucose in water of 10-350 mg/dL (0.56-1.94 mmol/L) resulted in a calibration model which was able to predict physiological glucose concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction RMSEPTest=15.41 mg/dL. The Clarke error grid diagram shows that the model performs well according to medical impact. Using a first in vivo set-up, the precision is not sufficient for a reliable prediction of glucose concentration, especially due to the flickering of the patient's eye and the low reflectivity of the eye lens. Therefore, we have designed a new in vivo set-up: a prototype for a self-monitoring device with controlled geometry and laser radiation at several distinct wavelengths instead of the halogen lamp as light source. This allows a far higher signal/noise ratio under much better reproducible geometrical conditions and at the same time a much smaller necessary light flux.

  10. Novel non invasive diagnostic strategies in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    TRUTA, ANAMARIA; POPON, TUDOR ADRIAN HODOR; SARACI, GEORGE; GHERVAN, LIVIU; POP, IOAN VICTOR

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide, derived from the urothelium of the urinary bladder and defined by long asymptomatic and atypical clinical picture. Its complex etiopathogenesis is dependent on numerous risk factors that can be divided into three distinct categories: genetic and molecular abnormalities, chemical or environmental exposure and previous genitourinary disorders and family history of different malignancies. Various genetic polymorphisms and microRNA might represent useful diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Genetic and molecular abnormalities - risk factors are represented by miRNA or genetic polymorphisms proved to be part of bladder carcinogenesis such as: genetic mutations of oncogenes TP53, Ras, Rb1 or p21 oncoproteins, cyclin D or genetic polymorhisms of XPD,ERCC1, CYP1B1, NQO1C609T, MDM2SNP309, CHEK2, ERCC6, NRF2, NQO1Pro187Ser polymorphism and microRNA (miR-143, −145, −222, −210, −10b, 576-3p). The aim of our article is to highlight the most recent acquisitions via molecular biomarkers (miRNAs and genetic polymorphisms) involved in bladder cancer in order to provide early diagnosis, precise therapy according to the molecular profile of bladder tumors, as well as to improve clinical outcome, survival rates and life quality of oncological patients. These molecular biomarkers play a key role in bladder carcinogenesis, clinical evolution, prognosis and therapeutic response and explain the molecular mechanisms involved in bladder carcinogenesis; they can also be selected as therapeutic targets in developing novel therapeutic strategies in bladder malignancies. Moreover, the purpose in defining these molecular non invasive biomarkers is also to develop non invasive screening programs in bladder malignancies with the result of decreasing bladder cancer incidence in risk population. PMID:27152066

  11. Analysis of uncultured extremophilic snow algae by non-invasive single cell Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Thomas; Tanaka, Zuki; Netzter, Nathan; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Chen, Bin

    2011-10-01

    The study of life in extreme environments is a critical component of Astrobiology. But many of the so-called "extremophiles" are not readily cultivatable and therefore difficult to study under laboratory conditions. An example of such an extremophile is the snow alga Chlamydomonas cd. nivalis which expresses still unstudied secondary metabolites within its life cycle. In this paper, we present the first time the non-invasive single cell Raman spectroscopy of the life cycle dependent metabolite composition of C. nivalis. These secondary metabolites are likely related to the adaptation of C. nivalis to various stress factors. Normalized carotenoid Raman spectra intensities reveal characteristic ratio differences that allow identification of life cycle stages and putative secondary metabolites.

  12. High Definition Oscillometry: Non-invasive Blood Pressure Measurement and Pulse Wave Analysis.

    PubMed

    Egner, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure has become increasingly important in research. High-Definition Oscillometry (HDO) delivers not only accurate, reproducible and thus reliable blood pressure but also visualises the pulse waves on screen. This allows for on-screen feedback in real time on data validity but even more on additional parameters like systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke volume (SV), stroke volume variances (SVV), rhythm and dysrhythmia. Since complex information on drug effects are delivered within a short period of time, almost stress-free and visible in real time, it makes HDO a valuable technology in safety pharmacology and toxicology within a variety of fields like but not limited to cardiovascular, renal or metabolic research. PMID:26091643

  13. Impact of weightlessness on cardiac shape and left ventricular stress/strain distributions.

    PubMed

    Iskovitz, Ilana; Kassemi, Mohammad; Thomas, James D

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a finite element model of the heart is developed to investigate the impact of different gravitational loadings of Earth, Mars, Moon, and microgravity on the cardiac shape and strain/stress distributions in the left ventricle. The finite element model is based on realistic 3D heart geometry, detailed fiber/sheet micro-architecture, and a validated orthotropic cardiac tissue model and constitutive relationship that capture the passive behavior of the heart at end-diastole. The model predicts the trend and magnitude of cardiac shape change at different gravitational levels with great fidelity in comparison to recent cardiac sphericity measurements performed during simulated reduced-gravity parabolic flight experiments. Moreover, the numerical predictions indicate that although the left ventricular strain distributions remain relatively unaltered across the gravitational fields and the strain extrema values occur at the same relative locations, their values change noticeably with decreasing gravity. As for the stress, however, both the magnitude and location of the extrema change with a decrease in the gravitational field. Consequently, tension regions of the heart on Earth can change into compression regions in space. PMID:24048335

  14. Non-invasive blood sampling from primates using laboratory-bred blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus; Reduviidae, Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Ruth; Voigt, Christian C

    2006-10-01

    Primates are easily stressed by the conventional veterinary blood sampling routine and consequently, measured blood parameters may be biased. In this study, we tested blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus) on one lemur and two ape species (Microcebus murinus, Pongo abelii, Pan paniscus) as an alternative, non-invasive technique for bleeding primates. Within time periods of between 6 and 62 min we obtained blood volumes of 0.01-2.4 ml in 11 out of 12 trials from all three species. Therefore, we conclude that these bugs represent a new, gentle and effective tool for bleeding captive primates without stress. PMID:16741605

  15. Popeye domain containing proteins and stress-mediated modulation of cardiac pacemaking

    PubMed Central

    Simrick, Subreena; Schindler, Roland; Poon, Kar-Lai; Brand, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An intricate network of ion channels and pumps are involved in generating a diastolic pacemaker potential, which is transmitted to the working myocardium with the help of the cardiac conduction system. The principles of cardiac pacemaking are reasonably well understood, however, the mechanism by which the heart increases its beating frequency in response to adrenergic stimulation has not been fully worked out. The Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode plasma membrane-localized proteins that are able to bind cAMP with high affinity and mice with null mutations in Popdc1 or -2 have a stress-induced pacemaker dysfunction. The phenotype in both mutants develops in an age-dependent manner and thus may model pacemaker dysfunction in man, as well as providing novel mechanistic insights into the process of pacemaker adaptation to stress. PMID:23562093

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in bone marrow-derived cells prevents acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Li, T-T; Jia, L-X; Zhang, W-M; Li, X-Y; Zhang, J; Li, Y-L; Li, H-H; Qi, Y-F; Du, J

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in hypertensive cardiac injury. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is involved in the inflammatory response. However, the role of ER stress in elevated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of ER stress in Ang II-induced hypertensive cardiac injury. Transcriptome analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ang II infusion in mice increased ER stress-related genes expression in the heart. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency, a key mediator of ER stress, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines in Ang II-infused mouse hearts. CHOP deficiency increased Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury: (1) Masson trichrome staining showed increased fibrotic areas, (2) immunohistochemistry staining showed increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor β1 and (3) quantitative real-time PCR showed increased expression of collagen in CHOP-deficient mouse heart. Bone marrow transplantation experiments indicated that CHOP deficiency in bone marrow cells was responsible for Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury. Moreover, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry revealed that CHOP deficiency decreased neutrophil apoptosis in response to Ang II. Taken together, our study demonstrated that hypertension induced ER stress after Ang II infusion. ER stress in bone marrow-derived cells protected acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to Ang II. PMID:27277680

  17. Three versions of Perceived Stress Scale: validation in a sample of Chinese cardiac patients who smoke

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Smoking causes heart disease, the major cause of death in China and Hong Kong. Stress is one major trigger of smoking and relapse, and understanding stress among smoking cardiac patients can therefore help in designing effective interventions to motivate them to quit. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and to compare the appropriateness of the three versions of the scale (PSS-14, PSS-10, and PSS-4) among Chinese cardiac patients who were also smokers. Methods From March 2002 to December 2004, 1860 cardiac patients who smoked were recruited at the cardiac outpatient clinics of ten acute hospitals in Hong Kong, and 1800 questionnaires were analysed. Participants completed a questionnaire including the PSS, nicotine dependence and certain demographic variables. The psychometric properties of the PSS were investigated: construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis, reliability using Cronbach's alpha and concurrent validity by examining the relationship with smoking- and health-related variables. Results For all the three versions of the PSS, confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the 2-factor structure of the scale, with the positive and negative factors correlating significantly and negatively to a moderate extent (r < -0.5), and high Cronbach's alpha values for the two subscales (alpha > 0.5). All the correlations of the two subscales and the smoking- and health-related variables were statistically significant and in the expected directions although of small magnitudes, except daily cigarette consumption. Conclusions The findings confirmed the satisfactory psychometric properties of all three Chinese versions of PSS. We recommend the use of PSS-10 for research which focuses on the two components of perceived stress, as it shows a higher reliability; and the use of PSS-4 if such partition is not essential and space for multiple measures is limited. PMID:20735860

  18. Minocycline suppresses oxidative stress and attenuates fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis triggered by in utero cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Shen, Ruoqing; Nzenwa, Ify; Gelfand, Robert; Mahata, Sushil K; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the molecular mechanisms by which minocycline, a second generation tetracycline, prevents cardiac myocyte death induced by in utero cocaine exposure. Timed mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received one of the following treatments twice daily from embryonic (E) day 15-21 (E15-E21): (i) intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline (control); (ii) IP injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg BW); and (iii) IP injections of cocaine + oral administration of 25 mg/kg BW of minocycline. Pups were killed on postnatal day 15 (P15). Additional pregnant dams received twice daily IP injections of cocaine (from E15-E21) + oral administration of a relatively higher (37.5 mg/kg BW) dose of minocycline. Minocycline treatment continued from E15 until the pups were sacrificed on P15. In utero cocaine exposure resulted in an increase in oxidative stress and fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis through activation of c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Continued minocycline treatment from E15 through P15 significantly prevented oxidative stress, kinase activation, perturbation of BAX/BCL-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and attenuated fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis after prenatal cocaine exposure. These results demonstrate in vivo cardioprotective effects of minocycline in preventing fetal cardiac myocyte death after prenatal cocaine exposure. Given its proven clinical safety and ability to cross the placental barrier and enter into the fetal circulation, minocycline may be an effective therapy for preventing cardiac consequences of in utero cocaine exposure. PMID:21424555

  19. Non-Invasive Quantification of Cartilage Using a Novel In Vivo Bioluminescent Reporter Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mailhiot, Sarah E.; Zignego, Donald L.; Prigge, Justin R.; Wardwell, Ella R.; Schmidt, Edward E.; June, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models are common tools for examining post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA), which involves cartilage deterioration following injury or stress. One challenge to current mouse models is longitudinal monitoring of the cartilage deterioration in vivo in the same mouse during an experiment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility for using a novel transgenic mouse for non-invasive quantification of cartilage. Chondrocytes are defined by expression of the matrix protein aggrecan, and we developed a novel mouse containing a reporter luciferase cassette under the inducible control of the endogenous aggrecan promoter. We generated these mice by crossing a Cre-dependent luciferase reporter allele with an aggrecan creERT2 knockin allele. The advantage of this design is that the targeted knockin retains the intact endogenous aggrecan locus and expresses the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 protein from a second IRES-driven open reading frame. These mice display bioluminescence in the joints, tail, and trachea, consistent with patterns of aggrecan expression. To evaluate this mouse as a technology for non-invasive quantification of cartilage loss, we characterized the relationship between loss of bioluminescence and loss of cartilage after induction with (i) ex vivo collagenase digestion, (ii) an in vivo OA model utilizing treadmill running, and (iii) age. Ex vivo experiments revealed that collagenase digestion of the femur reduced both luciferase signal intensity and pixel area, demonstrating a link between cartilage degradation and bioluminescence. In an in vivo model of experimental OA, we found decreased bioluminescent signal and pixel area, which correlated with pathological disease. We detected a decrease in both bioluminescent signal intensity and area with natural aging from 2 to 13 months of age. These results indicate that the bioluminescent signal from this mouse may be used as a non-invasive quantitative measure of cartilage. Future studies may use

  20. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator.

  1. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  2. Effects of training periodization on cardiac autonomic modulation and endogenous stress markers in volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Mazon, J; Gastaldi, A; Di Sacco, T; Cozza, I; Dutra, S; Souza, H

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the effects of selective loads of periodization model (SLPM) on autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV) and endogenous stress markers before and after a competition period in volleyball players (N=32). The experimental protocol for the evaluation of HRV consisted of using spectral analysis of time series composed of the R-R intervals derived from electrocardiogram obtained in the supine position and during the tilt test. Stress marker levels were determined by quantifying the plasma concentration of endogenous catecholamines, cortisol and free testosterone. The results showed no changes between the levels of HRV before and after a competition period. In contrast, the quantification of the plasma concentration of endogenous stress markers revealed reductions in the levels of total catecholamines, noradrenaline and cortisol. These changes were accompanied by increases in the concentration of free testosterone and in the testosterone/cortisol ratio. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the SLPM did not change the cardiac autonomic modulation of HRV, but promoted beneficial adaptations in athletes, including positive changes in the plasma concentration of the endogenous stress markers. The absence of changes in HRV indicates that there is no direct relationship between cardiac autonomic modulation and endogenous stress markers in the present study. PMID:21812826

  3. An MR-Compatible Treadmill for Exercise Stress Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Eric L.; Arnold, John W.; Jekic, Mihaela; Bender, Jacob; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Dickerson, Jennifer A.; Raman, Subha V.; Simonetti, Orlando P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an MR-safe treadmill that enables cardiovascular exercise stress testing adjacent to the MRI system, facilitating cardiac MR imaging immediately following exercise stress. The treadmill was constructed of non-ferromagnetic components utilizing a hydraulic power system. Computer control ensured precise execution of the standard Bruce treadmill protocol commonly used for cardiovascular exercise stress testing. The treadmill demonstrated no evidence of ferromagnetic attraction and did not affect image quality. Treadmill performance met design specifications both inside and outside the MRI environment. Ten healthy volunteers performed the Bruce protocol with the treadmill positioned adjacent to the MRI table. Upon reaching peak stress (98% ± 8% of age-predicted maximum heart rate (APMHR)), the subjects lay down directly on the MRI table, a cardiac array coil was placed, an intravenous line connected, and stress cine and perfusion imaging performed. Cine imaging commenced on average within 24 ± 4 s and was completed within 40 ± 7 s of the end of exercise. Subject heart rates were 86% ± 9% of APMHR at the start of imaging and 81% ± 9% of APMHR upon completion of cine imaging. The MRI compatible treadmill was shown to operate safely and effectively in the MRI environment. PMID:22190228

  4. Thallium-201 perfusion imaging with atrial pacing or dipyridamole stress testing for evaluation of cardiac risk prior to nonvascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, H.G.; Mark, A.L.; Williams, G.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Preoperative assessment of cardiac risk using thallium-201 scintigraphy and atrial pacing (n = 42) or dipyridamole stress testing (n = 35) was performed in 77 patients (mean age 65 +/- 7 years), who subsequently underwent elective nonvascular surgery. All patients were at low cardiac risk by clinical criteria; none could perform exercise stress testing due to physical limitations. ST depression consistent with ischemia occurred in 11 patients during atrial pacing and in 1 patient during dipyridamole stress testing (p less than 0.01). Nine patients had reversible perfusion defects with atrial pacing, and 10 patients with dipyridamole stress testing; fixed defects were present in 15 and 8 patients, respectively. Only one patient (fixed perfusion defect with atrial pacing, left main disease on coronary angiography) underwent preoperative coronary revascularization. Two patients subsequently had postoperative cardiac events. One patient (reversible perfusion defect with dipyridamole stress testing) experienced sudden death after a nonvascular procedure, while a second patient (normal thallium images with dipyridamole testing) had a nonfatal myocardial infarction. In patients having atrial pacing or dipyridamole stress testing, thallium-201 scans that are normal or show only a fixed perfusion defect confirm a low risk of cardiac complications following nonvascular surgery. The presence of a reversible perfusion defect does not preclude a postoperative course free of cardiac complications in patients at low cardiac risk by clinical criteria.

  5. Non-invasive Optical Molecular Imaging for Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhen

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. Improved fundamental understanding of molecular processes and pathways resulting in cancer development has catalyzed a shift towards molecular analysis of cancer using imaging technologies. It is expected that the non-invasive or minimally invasive molecular imaging analysis of cancer can significantly aid in improving the early detection of cancer and will result in reduced mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. The central hypothesis of the proposed research is that non-invasive imaging of changes in metabolic activity of individual cells, and extracellular pH within a tissue will improve early stage detection of cancer. The specific goals of this research project were to: (a) develop novel optical imaging probes to image changes in choline metabolism and tissue pH as a function of progression of cancer using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (b) correlate changes in tissue extracellular pH and metabolic activity of tissues as a function of disease state using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (c) provide fundamental understanding of relationship between tumor hypoxia, acidification of the extracellular space and altered cellular metabolism with progression of cancer. Three novel molecular imaging probes were developed to detect changes in choline and glucose metabolism and extracellular pH in model systems and clinically isolated cells and biopsies. Glucose uptake and metabolism was measured using a fluorescence analog of glucose, 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose), while choline metabolism was measured using a click chemistry analog of choline, propargyl choline, which can be in-situ labeled with a fluorophore Alexa-488 azide via a click chemistry reaction. Extracellular pH in tissue were measured by Alexa-647 labeled pHLIP (pH low insertion peptide

  6. Tissue Damage Characterization Using Non-invasive Optical Modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, David

    The ability to determine the degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is essential for proper wound assessment and a significant factor for determining patient treatment and morbidity. Accurate characterization of tissue damage is critical for a number of medical applications including surgical removal of nonviable tissue, severity assessment of subcutaneous ulcers, and depth assessment of visually open wounds. The main objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method for identifying the extent of tissue damage underneath intact skin that is not apparent upon visual examination. This work investigated the relationship between tissue optical properties, blood flow, and tissue viability by testing the hypotheses that (a) changes in tissue oxygenation and/or microcirculatory blood flow measurable by Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) differ between healthy and damaged tissue and (b) the magnitude of those changes differs for different degrees of tissue damage. This was accomplished by developing and validating a procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation dynamics at multiple depths (up to 1 centimeter) using non-invasive DCS and DNIRS technologies. Due to the lack of pressure ulcer animal models that are compatible with our optical systems, a proof of concept was conducted in a porcine burn model prior to conducting clinical trials in order to assess the efficacy of the system in-vivo. A reduction in total hemoglobin was observed for superficial (5%) and deep burns (35%) along with a statistically significant difference between the optical properties of superficial and deep burns (p < 0.05). Burn depth and viable vessel density were estimated via histological samples. 42% of vessels in the dermal layer were viable for superficial burns, compared to 25% for deep burns. The differences detected in optical properties and hemoglobin content by optical measurements

  7. Non-invasive photo acoustic approach for human bone diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Helmy, Ahdy; Suryadevara, Vinay Kumar; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher

    2016-12-01

    The existing modalities of bone diagnosis including X-ray and ultrasound may cite drawback in some cases related to health issues and penetration depth, while the ultrasound modality may lack image quality. Photo acoustic approach however, provides light energy to the acoustic wave, enabling it to activate and respond according to the propagating media (which is type of bones in this case). At the same time, a differential temperature change may result in the bio heat response, resulting from the heat absorbed across the multiple materials under study. In this work, we have demonstrated the features of using photo acoustic modality in order to non-invasively diagnose the type of human bones based on their electrical, thermal, and acoustic properties that differentiate the output response of each type. COMSOL software was utilized to combine both acoustic equations and bio heat equations, in order to study both the thermal and acoustic responses through which the differential diagnosis can be obtained. In this study, we solved both the acoustic equation and bio heat equations for four types of bones, bone (cancellous), bone (cortical), bone marrow (red), and bone marrow (yellow). 1 MHz acoustic source frequency was chosen and 10(5) W/m(2) power source was used in the simulation. The simulation tested the dynamic response of the wave over a distance of 5 cm from each side for the source. Near 2.4 cm was detected from simulation from each side of the source with a temperature change of within 0.5 K for various types of bones, citing a promising technique for a practical model to detect the type of bones via the differential temperature as well as the acoustic was response via the multiple materials associated with the human bones (skin and blood). The simulation results suggest that the PA technique may be applied to non-invasive diagnosis for the different types of bones, including cancerous bones. A practical model for detecting both the temperature change via

  8. Hyperpulsatile pressure, systemic inflammation and cardiac stress are associated with cardiac wall remodeling in an African male cohort: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    van Vuren, Esmé Jansen; Malan, Leoné; von Känel, Roland; Cockeran, Marike; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation may contribute to an increase in cardiac wall stress through pathways related to cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte death and modifications of the extracellular matrix. We sought to explore associations among cardiac remodeling, inflammation and myocardial cell injury in a bi-ethnic cohort of South African men and women. We included 165 men (76 African and 89 Caucasian) and 174 women (80 African and 94 Caucasian) between 20 and 65 years of age. Inflammatory markers used were C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), whereas troponin T (Trop T) and the N-terminal of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were used as cardiac markers. The frequency of ischemic events (ST segment depression) and left ventricular strain (left ventricular hypertrophy: LVH) were monitored by a 24-h recording of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), ECG and 12-lead standard ECG. Hypertension diagnosed with ambulatory monitoring was more frequent in Africans (53.85 vs. 24.59%; P<0.001), as was the number of ischemic events (6±15 (1; 5) vs. 3±6 (0; 3)). Inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α) and the degree of LVH were all significantly higher in Africans (P<0.05). BP was associated (P<0.05) with Trop T in men across ethnic groups. In African men, cardiac stress (NT-proBNP) was associated with TNF-alpha (P<0.001), Trop T (P<0.001) and pulse pressure (P=0.048; adjusted R(2)=0.45). The susceptibility for cardiac wall remodeling appears to increase with hyperpulsatile pressure, low-grade systemic inflammation and ventricular stress, and may lead to the development of future cardiovascular events in African men. PMID:27169396

  9. Non invasive analysis of miniature paintings: Proposal for an analytical protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Bianco, Valentina; Pellizzi, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The characterisation of palettes used in manuscript illumination is a hard analytical task, due to value and fragility of the analysed items. Analysis on miniatures must be necessarily non-invasive and fast and requires the use of several techniques since no single technique is able to provide all information needed. In this work a four-step analytical protocol is proposed for non-invasive in situ characterisation of miniature paintings. The protocol allows the identification of coloured materials through the use in sequence of complementary techniques, so as to fully exploit the information given by each instrument. Preliminarily to the instrumental investigations on ancient books and miniatures is the compilation of spectroscopic databases obtained from "standard" samples prepared on parchment, according to recipes described in medieval artistic treatises. The protocol starts with an extensive investigation with UV-visible spectrophotometry in reflectance mode, collecting spectra from all the most significant painted areas in the manuscript; chemometric classification is then performed on the spectra to highlight areas possibly containing the same materials. The second step involves in-depth inspection of miniatures under optical microscopy that guides the interpretation of reflectance spectra. XRF spectrometry is then performed to characterise pigments and metal layers, to verify the presence of overlapping layers, to identify mordants in lakes and to recognise minor components that may yield information concerning provenance; in addition, chemometric classification can be performed on element concentrations to highlight similar areas. Finally, Raman spectroscopy is used to shed light on the uncertain cases, if still present. Such a procedure offers a wealth of information without causing stress to the manuscripts under analysis.

  10. Non invasive analysis of miniature paintings: proposal for an analytical protocol.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Bianco, Valentina; Pellizzi, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The characterisation of palettes used in manuscript illumination is a hard analytical task, due to value and fragility of the analysed items. Analysis on miniatures must be necessarily non-invasive and fast and requires the use of several techniques since no single technique is able to provide all information needed. In this work a four-step analytical protocol is proposed for non-invasive in situ characterisation of miniature paintings. The protocol allows the identification of coloured materials through the use in sequence of complementary techniques, so as to fully exploit the information given by each instrument. Preliminarily to the instrumental investigations on ancient books and miniatures is the compilation of spectroscopic databases obtained from "standard" samples prepared on parchment, according to recipes described in medieval artistic treatises. The protocol starts with an extensive investigation with UV-visible spectrophotometry in reflectance mode, collecting spectra from all the most significant painted areas in the manuscript; chemometric classification is then performed on the spectra to highlight areas possibly containing the same materials. The second step involves in-depth inspection of miniatures under optical microscopy that guides the interpretation of reflectance spectra. XRF spectrometry is then performed to characterise pigments and metal layers, to verify the presence of overlapping layers, to identify mordants in lakes and to recognise minor components that may yield information concerning provenance; in addition, chemometric classification can be performed on element concentrations to highlight similar areas. Finally, Raman spectroscopy is used to shed light on the uncertain cases, if still present. Such a procedure offers a wealth of information without causing stress to the manuscripts under analysis. PMID:22391225

  11. Development of a FBG probe for non-invasive carotid pulse waveform assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, C.; Bilro, L.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Lima, H.; André, P. S.; Nogueira, R.; Pinto, J. L.

    2012-06-01

    One of the early predictors of cardiovascular diseases, with growing interest, is the arterial stiffness which is typically evaluated through the velocity and morphology of the arterial pressure wave. In each cardiac cycle the heart generates a pressure wave which propagates through the arterial tree. Along its path, the pressure wave interacts with the arterial walls and, consequently, the morphology of a local arterial pressure wave can be assessed by the arterial distention movement. Due to its superficiality, proximity of the heart and high probability of atherosclerosis development, the carotid artery has particular interest to be monitored. In this work, the development of a non-invasive fibre Bragg grating (FBG) probe for the acquisition of the arterial distention wave is presented. Comparing to traditional methods, optical FBG based sensors can offer many advantages, namely, compactness, immunity to electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity, low noise and immunity to light source intensity due to its codification in the wavelength domain. The arterial movements induce strain on a uniform FBG, with the arterial distention pattern. The carotid pulse wave was successful accessed in young human carotid artery, with an acquisition rate of 950 Hz, allowing a clear distinction of the carotid pulse identification points.

  12. Non-invasive baroreflex sensitivity assessment using wavelet transfer function-based time-frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Keissar, K; Maestri, R; Pinna, G D; La Rovere, M T; Gilad, O

    2010-07-01

    A novel approach for the estimation of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is introduced based on time-frequency analysis of the transfer function (TF). The TF method (TF-BRS) is a well-established non-invasive technique which assumes stationarity. This condition is difficult to meet, especially in cardiac patients. In this study, the classical TF was replaced with a wavelet transfer function (WTF) and the classical coherence was replaced with wavelet transform coherence (WTC), adding the time domain as an additional degree of freedom with dynamic error estimation. Error analysis and comparison between WTF-BRS and TF-BRS were performed using simulated signals with known transfer function and added noise. Similar comparisons were performed for ECG and blood pressure signals, in the supine position, of 19 normal subjects, 44 patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction (MI) and 45 patients with chronic heart failure. This yielded an excellent linear association (R > 0.94, p < 0.001) for time-averaged WTF-BRS, validating the new method as consistent with a known method. The additional advantage of dynamic analysis of coherence and TF estimates was illustrated in two physiological examples of supine rest and change of posture showing the evolution of BRS synchronized with its error estimations and sympathovagal balance. PMID:20585147

  13. Invasive and non-invasive modalities of imaging carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, T Y; U-King-Im, J M; Walsh, S R; Young, V E; Sadat, U; Li, Z Y; Patterson, A J; Varty, K; Gillard, J H

    2009-12-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, acute ischemic complications of atherosclerosis remain the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries, with carotid atherosclerotic disease one of the major preventable causes of stroke. As the impact of this disease challenges our healthcare systems, we are becoming aware that factors influencing this disease are more complex than previously realized. In current clinical practice, risk stratification relies primarily on evaluation of the degree of luminal stenosis and patient symptomatology. Adequate investigation and optimal imaging are important factors that affect the quality of a carotid endarterectomy (CEA) service and are fundamental to patient selection. Digital subtraction angiography is still perceived as the most accurate imaging modality for carotid stenosis and historically has been the cornerstone of most of the major CEA trials but concerns regarding potential neurological complications have generated substantial interest in non-invasive modalities, such as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. The purpose of this review is to give an overview to the vascular specialist of the current imaging modalities in clinical practice to identify patients with carotid stenosis. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique are outlined. Finally, limitations of assessing luminal stenosis in general are discussed. This article will not cover imaging of carotid atheroma morphology, function and other emerging imaging modalities of assessing plaque risk, which look beyond simple luminal measurements. PMID:19935602

  14. Non invasive tools for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Cervello, Melchiorre; Licata, Anna; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition, leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favour the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Defining the phase of the natural history is crucial for therapeutic choice and prognosis. Liver biopsy is currently considered the best available standard of reference but it has some limits, so alternative tools have been developed to substitute liver biopsy when assessing liver fibrosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound (US), US Doppler, contrast enhanced US and Elastography. US could be used for the diagnosis of advanced LC while is not able to evaluate progression of fibrosis, in this case Elastography is more reliable. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about non invasive methods useful in defining liver fibrosis. PMID:25561782

  15. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  16. Non-invasive biosensor and wilreless interrogating system for hypoglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Saukesi, K.

    2002-11-01

    Hypoglycemia - abnormal decrease in blood sugar - is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chiralit of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin.It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or laptop computer.

  17. Facilitate Insight by Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Richard P.; Snyder, Allan W.

    2011-01-01

    Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL). Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control), whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011) with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability) of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability) of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement. PMID:21311746

  18. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to. PMID:26834603

  19. A non-invasive method of tendon force measurement.

    PubMed

    Pourcelot, Philippe; Defontaine, Marielle; Ravary, Bérangère; Lemâtre, Mickaël; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2005-10-01

    The ability to measure the forces exerted in vivo on tendons and, consequently, the forces produced by muscles on tendons, offers a unique opportunity to investigate questions in disciplines as varied as physiology, biomechanics, orthopaedics and neuroscience. Until now, tendon loads could be assessed directly only by means of invasive sensors implanted within or attached to these collagenous structures. This study shows that the forces acting on tendons can be measured, in a non-invasive way, from the analysis of the propagation of an acoustic wave. Using the equine superficial digital flexor tendon as a model, it is demonstrated that the velocity of an ultrasonic wave propagating along the main axis of a tendon increases with the force applied to this tendon. Furthermore, we show that this velocity measurement can be performed even in the presence of skin overlying the tendon. To validate this measurement technique in vivo, the ultrasonic velocity plots obtained in the Achilles tendon at the walk were compared to the loads plots reported by other authors using invasive transducers. PMID:16084214

  20. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  1. Non-invasive fecal metabonomic detection of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Lee Cheng; Chue, Xiu Ping; Koh, Poh Koon; Cheah, Peh Yean; Ho, Han Kiat; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality in many developed countries. Effective screening strategies were called for to facilitate timely detection and to promote a better clinical outcome. In this study, the role of fecal metabonomics in the non-invasive detection of CRC was investigated. Gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS) was utilized for the metabolic profiling of feces obtained from 11 CRC patients and 10 healthy subjects. Concurrently, matched tumor and normal mucosae surgically excised from CRC patients were profiled. CRC patients were differentiated clearly from healthy subjects based on their fecal metabonomic profiles (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis [OPLS-DA], 1 predictive and 3 Y-orthogonal components, R2X = 0.373, R2Y = 0.995, Q2 [cumulative] = 0.215). The robustness of the OPLS-DA model was demonstrated by an area of 1 under the receiver operator characteristic curve. OPLS-DA revealed fecal marker metabolites (e.g., fructose, linoleic acid, and nicotinic acid) that provided novel insights into the tumorigenesis of CRC. Interestingly, a disparate set of CRC-related metabolic aberrations occurred at the tissue level, implying the contribution of processes beyond the direct shedding of tumor cells to the fecal metabotype. In summary, this work established proof-of-principle for GC/TOFMS-based fecal metabonomic detection of CRC and offered new perspectives on the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24424155

  2. Non-invasive instant genotyping of fluorescently labelled transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fink, Dieter; Yau, Tien Yin; Kolbe, Thomas; Rülicke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence proteins have been useful as genetic reporters for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and are frequently used for the analysis of transgene activity. Here, we show that expression levels of the ubiquitously expressed fluorescent proteins eGFP, mCherry, and tdTomato can be measured in transgenic mouse lines with random or targeted integrations. We identified the tail of the mouse as the tissue best suited for quantifying fluorescence intensity and show that expression levels in the tail correlate with gene dose. This allows for instant non-invasive determination of the genetic condition at the transgenic locus (hemizygous/heterozygous and homozygous), while simultaneously providing an objective comparison for transgene expression levels among different mouse lines. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that the gene dose of a ubiquitously expressed fluorescence reporter can be reliably quantified and directly linked to the genotype of transgenic mice. Based on this information, animals with the appropriate genotype can be instantly selected without laborious analysis for establishing and breeding of new transgenic lines, reducing the number of "waste" animals. Furthermore, no tissue sampling is necessary, which is a significant refinement of genotyping procedures. Both aspects are important improvements for the genotyping of transgenic mice that follow the principles of the 3 Rs (reduction and refinement). PMID:25981046

  3. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  4. Non-invasive experimental determination of a CT source model.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Babak; Büermann, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive methods to determine equivalent X-ray source models of a CT scanner are presented. A high-precision technique called TRIC ("Time Resolved Integrated Charge") was developed and used to characterize the bow tie filters (BT) of the CT scanner installed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Aluminum (Al) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) equivalent thicknesses of the BT filters at all tube high voltages were evaluated, assuming that those consist of only one material. Thereby two different dose probes were used, a solid state detector and an ionization chamber, the former characterized by a significant and the latter by an almost negligible energy dependence of the air kerma response. A method was developed to correct for the energy dependence of the solid state dose probe. Next, a two-component material was assumed and equivalent BT filters were evaluated. The latter method was also applied using the known real BT filter materials and compared with the shape of the real BT filters. Finally, the results obtained by the TRIC method were compared with those obtained by using the so-called COBRA method ("Characterization Of Bow tie Relative Attenuation"), the latter being more suitable for measurements in a clinical environment. PMID:26602858

  5. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to. PMID:26834603

  6. Non-invasive Renal Denervation: Update on External Ultrasound Approaches.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Ott, Christian; Bramlage, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, intravenous renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as an alternative to pharmacological treatment in patients with resistant hypertension, but currently involves an invasive and technically challenging procedure. The Surround Sound™ system utilises externally delivered ultrasound to achieve RDN using a completely non-invasive, automated real-time tracking system coupled with a therapeutic delivery module thereby addressing these limitations. A brief history, technical overview and summary of preclinical and clinical studies of the KonaMedical Surround Sound™ system are presented. A literature search using the terms "renal denervation", "resistant hypertension" and "external ultrasound" was performed using PubMed, and references retrieved were selected based on relevancy and year of publication (date range 1991-2015). The Surround Sound™ system appears to be a promising approach to RDN which eliminates several of the factors currently limiting the intravenous approach. So far, it has demonstrated efficacy for reducing blood pressure in resistant hypertension patients with minimal adverse effects. Several double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trials are currently underway to confirm the validity of these findings. PMID:27137523

  7. Non-Invasive Gait Monitoring in a Ubiquitous Computing House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Yuji; Motooka, Nobuhisa; Siio, Itiro; Tsukada, Koji; Kambara, Keisuke

    Computers become smaller and cheaper from day to day, and the utilization, as daily life equipments, is now becoming ubiquitous. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the development of applications, as well as the installation of ubiquitous computing technologies into our daily living environments. Based on this idea, in order to investigate how ubiquitous computing can be used in the most efficient way, an experimental house, Ocha House, has been constructed in the campus of Ochanomizu university in 2009. In this study, we described the feature of the design of the experimental house and proposed a non-invasive gait monitoring technique as a healthcare application. Specifically, five wireless accelerometers were fixed on the floor of the house, and the floor vibration was measured when the subject walked along the accelerometers. As a result, the floor acceleration intensity was found to surge at the ground contact, and the gait cycle could be detected. By combining the simple acceleration sensors and the housing structures, human motion monitoring would become less invasive.

  8. Public viewpoints on new non-invasive prenatal genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Farrimond, Hannah R; Kelly, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal screening programmes have been critiqued for their routine implementation according to clinical rationale without public debate. A new approach, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD), promises diagnosis of fetal genetic disorders from a sample of maternal blood without the miscarriage risk of current invasive prenatal tests (e.g. amniocentesis). Little research has investigated the attitudes of wider publics to NIPD. This study used Q-methodology, which combines factor analysis with qualitative comments, to identify four distinct "viewpoints" amongst 71 UK men and women: 1. NIPD as a new tool in the ongoing societal discrimination against the disabled; 2. NIPD as a positive clinical application offering peace of mind in pregnancy; 3. NIPD as a medical option justified for severe disorders only; and 4. NIPD as a valid expansion of personal choice. Concerns included the "trivialisation of testing" and the implications of commercial/direct-to-consumer tests. Q-methodology has considerable potential to identify viewpoints and frame public debate about new technologies. PMID:23885055

  9. Non-invasive prenatal screening for trisomy 21: Consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Emily C; Sheldon, Jane P; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Yashar, Beverly M

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) has the potential to dramatically increase the prenatal detection rate of Down syndrome because of improvements in safety and accuracy over existing tests. There is concern that NIPS could lead to more negative attitudes towards Down syndrome and less support for individuals with Down syndrome. To assess the impact of NIPS on support for prenatal testing, decision-making about testing, and beliefs or attitudes about Down syndrome, we performed an Internet-based experiment using adults (N = 1,789) recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants were randomly assigned to read a mock news article about NIPS, a mock news article about amniocentesis, or no article. The content in the two articles varied only in their descriptions of the test characteristics. Participants then answered questions about their support for testing, hypothetical testing decision, and beliefs and attitudes about Down syndrome. Reading the mock NIPS news article predicted increased hypothetical test uptake. In addition, the NIPS article group also agreed more strongly that pregnant women, in general, should utilize prenatal testing. We also found that the more strongly participants supported prenatal testing for pregnant women, the less favorable their attitudes towards individuals with Down syndrome; providing some evidence that NIPS may indirectly result in more negative perceptions of individuals with this diagnosis. PMID:26553705

  10. Use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate non-invasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    DeMuro, Jonas P; Mongelli, Michael N; Hanna, Adel F

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure exacerbations, as well as pneumonia benefit from the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), due to increased patient comfort and a reduced incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, some patients do not tolerate NIV due to anxiety or agitation, and traditionally physicians have withheld sedation from these patients due to concerns of loss of airway protection and respiratory depression. We report our recent experience with a 91-year-old female who received NIV for acute respiratory distress secondary to pneumonia. The duration of NIV was a total time period of 86 h, using the bilevel positive airway pressure mode via a full face mask. The patient was initially agitated with the NIV, but with the addition of the dexmedetomidine, she tolerated it well. The dexmedetomidine was administered without a loading dose, as a continuous infusion ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mcg/kg/hr, titrated to a Ramsey score of three. This case illustrates the safe use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate NIV, and improve compliance, which may reduce ICU length of stay. PMID:24459626