Science.gov

Sample records for non-invasive cardiac stress

  1. Non-invasive Mapping of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Since more than 100 years, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard-of-care tool, which involves measuring electrical potentials from limited sites on the body surface to diagnose cardiac disorder, its possible mechanism, and the likely site of origin. Several decades of research has led to the development of a 252-lead ECG and computed tomography (CT) scan-based three-dimensional electro-imaging modality to non-invasively map abnormal cardiac rhythms including fibrillation. These maps provide guidance towards ablative therapy and thereby help advance the management of complex heart rhythm disorders. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using non-invasive technique in mapping the electrical disorder and guide the catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats), and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). PMID:26072438

  2. Stress detection in bivalve mollusk using non-invasive bioelectric monitoring of myoneural behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.L.; Hardison, B.S.; Dawson, V.K.; Waller, D.; Waller, W.T.; Dickson, K.L.; Allen, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Few studies have demonstrated cause-and-effect linkages between extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic bioelectric action potentials of bivalve mollusk using non-invasive, non-destructive approaches. A non-invasive, external probe configuration and detection system, similar to one used previously with native unionids, was developed for continuously monitoring bioelectric activities of clams and mussels. Using remote probes and differential amplifiers, bioelectric activities were recorded for cardiac, adductor, siphon and foot responses using a computer equipped with integrating software. To test if remote, non-invasive probes would detect similar information to that recorded by invasive needle electrodes, two individuals of zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha), and Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) were each configured with two sets of probes. One set was inserted between the valves and along the inside surface of the shelf; the other set was positioned remotely about the outside margins of the valves. Signal validation was made by simultaneously recording bioelectric responses for the same animal from both sets of probes. In preliminary stress tests monitored bivalves were subjected to changes in temperatures over 2 to 3 hr intervals from ambient to potentially lethal levels (20 to 30 C for zebra, 25 C to 40 C for corbicula). Dramatic increases resulted in both number and amplitude of cardiac events as temperature increased. Planned studies will use this approach to evaluate bivalve myoneural behavior patterns in response to chemical and non-chemical stimuli.

  3. Non-invasive cardiac investigations in patients awaiting renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Langford, E J; de Belder, A J; Cairns, H; Hendry, B M; Wainwright, R J

    1997-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal transplantation have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Invasive investigation may identify those at risk of cardiac death during or after renal transplantation, but which patients should undergo cardiac catheterization is currently not clear. In 95 patients awaiting renal transplantation we assessed the ability of echocardiography and exercise electrocardiography to identify patients at risk of cardiac death. Echocardiography identified impaired left ventricular (LV) systolic function in 20%, severe in 8%. Of the patients with severe LV dysfunction, 25% died before transplantation. Of those undergoing exercise electrocardiography, 44% did not achieve 85% of maximum predicted heart rate. No coronary artery disease requiring intervention was identified by exercise testing. These findings indicate that echocardiography, but not exercise electrocardiography, should be part of the assessment for renal transplantation. PMID:9135610

  4. Non-invasive determination of cardiac output by Doppler echocardiography and electrical bioimpedance.

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, D B; Findlay, I N; Wilson, J; Henderson, E; Dargie, H J

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac output measured by thermodilution in 25 patients within 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction was compared with cardiac output measured by Doppler echocardiography (24 patients) and electrical bioimpedance (25 patients). The mean (range) cardiac outputs measured by Doppler (4.03 (2.2-6.0) 1/min) and electrical bioimpedance (3.79 (1.1-6.2) 1/min) were similar to the mean thermodilution value (3.95 (2.1-6.2) 1/min). Both non-invasive techniques agreed closely with thermodilution in most patients. None the less, three results with each method disagreed with thermodilution by more than 1 1/min. Both non-invasive techniques were reproducible and accurate in most patients with acute myocardial infarction. Doppler echocardiography was time consuming and technically demanding. Electrical bioimpedance was simple to use and had the additional advantage of allowing continuous monitoring of the cardiac output. PMID:2317415

  5. Therapeutic Ultrasound to Non-Invasively Create Intra-Cardiac Communications in an Intact Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gabe E.; Miller, Ryan M.; Ensing, Greg; Ives, Kimberly; Gordon, David; Ludomirsky, Achi; Xu, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy (histotripsy) can accurately and safely generate ventricular septal defects (VSDs) through the intact chest of a neonatal animal, with the eventual goal of developing a non-invasive technique of creating intra-cardiac communications in patients with congenital heart disease. Background Histotripsy is an innovative ultrasonic technique that generates demarcated, mechanical tissue fractionation utilizing high intensity ultrasound pulses. Previous work has shown that histotripsy can create atrial septal defects in a beating heart in an open-chest canine model. Methods Nine neonatal pigs were treated with transcutaneous histotripsy targeting the ventricular septum. Ultrasound pulses of 5μs duration at a peak negative pressure of 13 MPa and a pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz were generated by a 1 MHz focused transducer. The procedure was guided by real-time ultrasound imaging. Results VSDs were created in all pigs with diameters ranging from 2–6.5mm. Six pigs were euthanized within 2 hrs of treatment, while 3 were recovered and maintained for 2–3 days to evaluate lesion maturation and clinical side effects. There were only transient clinical effects and pathology revealed mild collateral damage around the VSD with no significant damage to other cardiac or extra-cardiac structures. Conclusions Histotripsy can accurately and safely generate VSDs through the intact chest in a neonatal animal model. These results suggest that with further advances, histotripsy can be a useful, non-invasive technique to create intra-cardiac communications, which currently require invasive catheter-based or surgical procedures, to clinically stabilize newborn infants with complex congenital heart disease. PMID:20853366

  6. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology

  7. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology.

    PubMed

    Narayan, E J

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology for

  8. Non-invasive cardiac mapping in clinical practice: Application to the ablation of cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Rémi; Shah, Ashok J; Hocini, Mélèze; Denis, Arnaud; Derval, Nicolas; Cochet, Hubert; Sacher, Frédéric; Bear, Laura; Duchateau, Josselin; Jais, Pierre; Haissaguerre, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) started to demonstrate its efficiency in clinical settings. The initial application to localize focal ventricular arrhythmias such as ventricular premature beats was probably the easiest to challenge and validates the concept. Our clinical experience in using this non-invasive mapping technique to identify the sources of electrical disorders and guide catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats) and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) is described here. PMID:26403066

  9. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: postpartum decompensation and use of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lorello, G; Cubillos, J; McDonald, M; Balki, M

    2014-02-01

    The utility of a non-invasive cardiac output monitor (NICOM™) in guiding the peripartum management and identification of postpartum complications in a patient with severe peripartum cardiomyopathy is reported. A 31-year-old nulliparous woman at 35 weeks of gestation presented with a three-week history of worsening dyspnea and progressive functional deterioration. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction <20%. Cardiac status was monitored using NICOM™ during labor and delivery. The baseline values were: cardiac output 5.3 L/min, total peripheral resistance 1549 dynes.sec/cm(5), stroke volume 42.1 mL and stroke volume variation 18%. She received early epidural analgesia during labor, titrated slowly with a loading dose of 0.0625% bupivacaine 10 mL and fentanyl 25 μg, followed by patient-controlled epidural analgesia (0.0625% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2 μg/mL, infusion at 10 mL/h, bolus dose 5 mL and lockout interval 10 min). After epidural drug administration, total peripheral resistance decreased, cardiac output increased, and satisfactory analgesia was obtained. She had an uneventful vaginal delivery with a forceps-assisted second stage after prophylactic administration of furosemide 20 mg. NICOM™ was discontinued after delivery. Fifteen hours post-delivery, the patient developed cardiogenic shock, which resolved after aggressive therapy with inotropes and furosemide. NICOM™ can be used to guide treatment during labor and delivery in patients with critical peripartum cardiomyopathy. We suggest that use of NICOM™ be extended into the postpartum period to detect signs of cardiac decompensation in such patients. PMID:24360329

  10. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Matthias; Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals' natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating levels

  11. Non-invasive cortisol measurements as indicators of physiological stress responses in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pschernig, Elisabeth; Wallner, Bernard; Millesi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, including cortisol and corticosterone, serve as reliable indicators of adrenocortical activities and physiological stress loads in a variety of species. As an alternative to invasive analyses based on plasma, GC concentrations in saliva still represent single-point-of-time measurements, suitable for studying short-term or acute stress responses, whereas fecal GC metabolites (FGMs) reflect overall stress loads and stress responses after a species-specific time frame in the long-term. In our study species, the domestic guinea pig, GC measurements are commonly used to indicate stress responses to different environmental conditions, but the biological relevance of non-invasive measurements is widely unknown. We therefore established an experimental protocol based on the animals’ natural stress responses to different environmental conditions and compared GC levels in plasma, saliva, and fecal samples during non-stressful social isolations and stressful two-hour social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals. Plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased directly after the social confrontations, and plasma and saliva cortisol levels were strongly correlated. This demonstrates a high biological relevance of GC measurements in saliva. FGM levels measured 20 h afterwards, representing the reported mean gut passage time based on physiological validations, revealed that the overall stress load was not affected by the confrontations, but also no relations to plasma cortisol levels were detected. We therefore measured FGMs in two-hour intervals for 24 h after another social confrontation and detected significantly increased levels after four to twelve hours, reaching peak concentrations already after six hours. Our findings confirm that non-invasive GC measurements in guinea pigs are highly biologically relevant in indicating physiological stress responses compared to circulating

  12. Non-invasive cardiac assessment in high risk patients (The GROUND study): rationale, objectives and design of a multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Alexander M; Rutten, Annemarieke; van de Zaag-Loonen, Hester J; Bots, Michiel L; Dikkers, Riksta; Buiskool, Robert A; Mali, Willem P; Lubbers, Daniel D; Mosterd, Arend; Prokop, Mathias; Rensing, Benno J; Cramer, Maarten J; van Es, H Wouter; Moll, Frans L; van de Pavoordt, Eric D; Doevendans, Pieter A; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Mackaay, Albert J; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disease associated with a considerably increased risk of future cardiovascular events and most of these patients will die from coronary artery disease (CAD). Screening for silent CAD has become an option with recent non-invasive developments in CT (computed tomography)-angiography and MR (magnetic resonance) stress testing. Screening in combination with more aggressive treatment may improve prognosis. Therefore we propose to study whether a cardiac imaging algorithm, using non-invasive imaging techniques followed by treatment will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in PAD patients free from cardiac symptoms. Design The GROUND study is designed as a prospective, multi-center, randomized clinical trial. Patients with peripheral arterial disease, but without symptomatic cardiac disease will be asked to participate. All patients receive a proper risk factor management before randomization. Half of the recruited patients will enter the 'control group' and only undergo CT calcium scoring. The other half of the recruited patients (index group) will undergo the non invasive cardiac imaging algorithm followed by evidence-based treatment. First, patients are submitted to CT calcium scoring and CT angiography. Patients with a left main (or equivalent) coronary artery stenosis of > 50% on CT will be referred to a cardiologist without further imaging. All other patients in this group will undergo dobutamine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) testing. Patients with a DSMR positive for ischemia will also be referred to a cardiologist. These patients are candidates for conventional coronary angiography and cardiac interventions (coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous cardiac interventions (PCI)), if indicated. All participants of the trial will enter a 5 year follow up period for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Sequential interim analysis will take place. Based on sample size calculations about

  13. Quantification of the Impaired Cardiac Output Response to Exercise in Heart Failure: Application of a Non-Invasive Device

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonathan; Gujja, Pradeep; Neelagaru, Suresh; Hsu, Leon; Burkhoff, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An impaired cardiac output (CO) response to exercise is a hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF), and the degree to which CO is impaired is related to the severity of CHF and prognosis. However, practical methods for obtaining cardiac output during exercise are lacking, and what constitutes and impaired response is unclear. Forty six CHF patients and 13 normal subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) while CO and other hemodynamic measurements at rest and during exercise were obtained using a novel, non-invasive, bioreactance device based on assessment of relative phase shifts of electric currents injected across the thorax, heart rate and ventricular ejection time. An abnormal cardiac output response to exercise was defined as achieving ≤ 95% of the confidence limits of the slope of the relationship between CO and oxygen uptake (VO2). An impaired CO slope identified patients with more severe CHF as evidenced by a lower peak VO2, lower peak CO, heightened VE/VCO2 slope, and lower oxygen uptake efficiency slope. CO can be estimated during exercise using a novel bioreactance technique; patients with an impaired response to exercise exhibit reduced exercise capacity and inefficient ventilation typical of more severe CHF. Non- invasive measurement of cardiac performance in response to exercise provides a simple method of identifying patients with more severe CHF and may complement the CPX in identifying CHF patients at high risk. Key points Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output during exercise is feasible in patients with heart failure. Impairment in the CO response to exercise identifies heart failure patients with more severe disease, lower exercise capacity and inefficient ventilation. Non-invasive measurement of cardiac performance during exercise has potentially important applications for the functional and prognostic assessment of patients with heart failure. PMID:24149996

  14. Systolic time intervals: a review of the method in the non-invasive investigation of cardiac function in health, disease and clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, S.; Turner, P.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of systolic time intervals is a valuable, non-invasive procedure to assess left ventricular performance, particularly when influenced by drugs. In this review, we discuss various factors affecting systolic time intervals, the therapeutic implications of the technique and its place among other non-invasive tests of cardiac function. PMID:6353394

  15. Comparison of electrical velocimetry and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for the non-invasive determination of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Trinkmann, Frederik; Berger, Manuel; Doesch, Christina; Papavassiliu, Theano; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Borggrefe, Martin; Kaden, Jens J; Saur, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    A novel algorithm of impedance cardiography referred to as electrical velocimetry (EV) has been introduced for non-invasive determination of cardiac output (CO). Previous validation studies yielded diverging results and no comparison with the non-invasive gold standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has been performed. We therefore aimed to prospectively assess the accuracy and reproducibility of EV compared to CMR. 152 consecutive stable patients undergoing CMR were enrolled. EV measurements were taken twice before or after CMR in supine position and averaged over 20 s (AESCULON(®), Osypka Medical, Berlin, Germany). Bland-Altman analysis showed insufficient agreement of EV and CMR with a mean bias of 1.2 ± 1.4 l/min (bias 23 ± 26 %, percentage error 51 %). Reproducibility was high with 0.0 ± 0.3 l/min (bias 0 ± 8 %, percentage error 15 %). Outlier analysis revealed gender, height, CO and stroke volume (SV) by CMR as independent predictors for larger variation. Stratification of COCMR in quintiles demonstrated a good agreement for low values (<4.4 l/min) with bias increasing significantly with quintile as high as 3.1 ± 1.1 l/min (p < 0.001). Reproducibility was not affected (p = 0.71). Subgroup analysis in patients with arrhythmias (p = 0.19), changes in thoracic fluid content (p = 0.51) or left heart failure (p = 0.47) could not detect significant differences in accuracy. EV showed insufficient agreement with CMR and good reproducibility. Gender, height and increasing CO and SV were associated with increased bias while not affecting reproducibility. Therefore, absolute values should not be used interchangeably in clinical routine. EV yet may find its place for clinical application with further investigation on its trending ability pending. PMID:26115774

  16. Thermal Imaging to Study Stress Non-invasively in Unrestrained Birds.

    PubMed

    Jerem, Paul; Herborn, Katherine; McCafferty, Dominic; McKeegan, Dorothy; Nager, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Stress, a central concept in biology, describes a suite of emergency responses to challenges. Among other responses, stress leads to a change in blood flow that results in a net influx of blood to key organs and an increase in core temperature. This stress-induced hyperthermia is used to assess stress. However, measuring core temperature is invasive. As blood flow is redirected to the core, the periphery of the body can cool. This paper describes a protocol where peripheral body temperature is measured non-invasively in wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) using infrared thermography. In the field we created a set-up bringing the birds to an ideal position in front of the camera by using a baited box. The camera takes a short thermal video recording of the undisturbed bird before applying a mild stressor (closing the box and therefore capturing the bird), and the bird's response to being trapped is recorded. The bare skin of the eye-region is the warmest area in the image. This allows an automated extraction of the maximum eye-region temperature from each image frame, followed by further steps of manual data filtering removing the most common sources of errors (motion blur, blinking). This protocol provides a time series of eye-region temperature with a fine temporal resolution that allows us to study the dynamics of the stress response non-invasively. Further work needs to demonstrate the usefulness of the method to assess stress, for instance to investigate whether eye-region temperature response is proportional to the strength of the stressor. If this can be confirmed, it will provide a valuable alternative method of stress assessment in animals and will be useful to a wide range of researchers from ecologists, conservation biologists, physiologists to animal welfare researchers. PMID:26575985

  17. Thermal Imaging to Study Stress Non-invasively in Unrestrained Birds

    PubMed Central

    Jerem, Paul; Herborn, Katherine; McCafferty, Dominic; McKeegan, Dorothy; Nager, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Stress, a central concept in biology, describes a suite of emergency responses to challenges. Among other responses, stress leads to a change in blood flow that results in a net influx of blood to key organs and an increase in core temperature. This stress-induced hyperthermia is used to assess stress. However, measuring core temperature is invasive. As blood flow is redirected to the core, the periphery of the body can cool. This paper describes a protocol where peripheral body temperature is measured non-invasively in wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) using infrared thermography. In the field we created a set-up bringing the birds to an ideal position in front of the camera by using a baited box. The camera takes a short thermal video recording of the undisturbed bird before applying a mild stressor (closing the box and therefore capturing the bird), and the bird’s response to being trapped is recorded. The bare skin of the eye-region is the warmest area in the image. This allows an automated extraction of the maximum eye-region temperature from each image frame, followed by further steps of manual data filtering removing the most common sources of errors (motion blur, blinking). This protocol provides a time series of eye-region temperature with a fine temporal resolution that allows us to study the dynamics of the stress response non-invasively. Further work needs to demonstrate the usefulness of the method to assess stress, for instance to investigate whether eye-region temperature response is proportional to the strength of the stressor. If this can be confirmed, it will provide a valuable alternative method of stress assessment in animals and will be useful to a wide range of researchers from ecologists, conservation biologists, physiologists to animal welfare researchers. PMID:26575985

  18. Automated non-invasive measurement of cardiac output: comparison of electrical bioimpedance and carbon dioxide rebreathing techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S A; Russell, A E; West, M J; Chalmers, J

    1988-01-01

    Two commercial automated, non-invasive systems for estimation of cardiac output were evaluated. Values of cardiac output obtained by electrical bioimpedance cardiography (BoMed NCCOM3 machine) were compared with values derived from an indirect Fick technique that uses carbon dioxide rebreathing (Gould 9000 IV system) during 103 simultaneous measurements made at rest in 19 randomly selected subjects and on exercise in 11 subjects. Cardiac output values obtained with impedance cardiography were significantly correlated with those measured by the indirect Fick method, although there was a wide scatter with over 73% of the readings lying outside the limits defined by the line of identity +/- 20%. This correlation was greatly reduced when stroke volume index was used instead of cardiac output. Indirect Fick results were linearly related to oxygen uptake both at rest and on exercise, while impedance cardiography results did not correlate with oxygen uptake. Impedance cardiography gave consistently lower results for cardiac output than indirect Fick at all levels of exercise. Both machines were easy to use and produced acceptable mean (SE) coefficients of variation (BoMed NCCOM3 7.7 (1.0)%, Gould 9000 IV 10.6 (1.4)%). Further validation is required before either of these machines can be recommended as an alternative to invasive monitoring in clinical practice. PMID:3128316

  19. Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Rats for Prediction of the Fate of Grafted Kidneys from Cardiac Death Donors

    PubMed Central

    Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Iwai, Satomi; Hatanaka, Masaki; Teratani, Takumi; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yokawa, Takashi; Kuroda, Kagayaki; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Okumi, Masayoshi; Yazawa, Koji; Rakugi, Hiromi; Nonomura, Norio; Takahara, Shiro; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess cardiac death (CD) kidney grafts before transplantation to determine whether blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and diffusion MRI techniques can predict damage to these grafts after transplantation. We assessed CD kidney tissue by BOLD and diffusion MRI. We also examined pathological and gene expression changes in CD kidney grafts before and after transplantation. Although there was significantly more red cell congestion (RCC) in the inner stripe of the outer medulla (IS) in both 1 h after cardiac death (CD1h) and CD2h kidneys destined for grafts before transplantation compared with CD0h (p<0.05), CD2h, but not CD1h, kidney grafts had significantly different RCC in the IS 2 days after transplantation (p<0.05). Consistent with these pathological findings, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) gene expression was increased only in the cortex and medulla of CD2h kidney grafts after transplantation. BOLD MRI successfully and non-invasively imaged and quantified RCC in the IS in both CD1h and CD2h kidney grafts (p<0.05). Diffusion MRI also non-invasively assessed increased the apparent diffusion coefficient in the IS and decreased it in the outer stripe (OS) of CD2h grafts, in concordance with interstitial edema in the IS and tubule cellular edema in the OS. These two types of edema in the outer medulla could explain the prolonged RCC in the IS only of CD2h kidney grafts, creating part of a vicious cycle inhibiting red cells coming out of capillary vessels in the IS. Perfusion with University of Wisconsin solution before MRI measurements did not diminish the difference in tissue damage between CD1h and CD2h kidney grafts. BOLD and diffusion MRI, which are readily available non-invasive tools for evaluating CD kidney grafts tissue damage, can predict prolonged organ damage, and therefore the outcome, of transplanted CD kidney grafts. PMID:23667641

  20. Mechanography: a non-invasive technique for the evaluation of cardiac function in children

    PubMed Central

    Spitaels, Silja; Fouron, Jean-Claude; Davignon, André

    1972-01-01

    Experience in the pediatric age group with mechanography, an indirect method of cardiovascular investigation, is described with emphasis on the recording technique and on the analysis of the tracings. A few examples are presented with comments on the morphological aspects and the time characteristics of the pulse curves, showing how much information about cardiac disease and especially myocardial function in children may be obtained. PMID:4640813

  1. (Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  2. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  3. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  4. First in vivo application and evaluation of a novel method for non-invasive estimation of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Theodore G; Soulis, Dimitrios; Vardoulis, Orestis; Protogerou, Athanase; Sfikakis, Petros P; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-10-01

    Surgical or critically ill patients often require continuous assessment of cardiac output (CO) for diagnostic purposes or for guiding therapeutic interventions. A new method of non-invasive CO estimation has been recently developed, which is based on pressure wave analysis. However, its validity has been examined only in silico. Aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the reproducibility and accuracy of the "systolic volume balance" method (SVB). Twenty two subjects underwent 2-D transthoracic echocardiography for CO measurement (reference value of CO). The application of SVB method required aortic pressure wave analysis and estimation of total arterial compliance. Aortic pulses were derived by mathematical transformation of radial pressure waves recorded by applanation tonometry. Total compliance was estimated by the "pulse pressure" method. The agreement, association, variability, bias and precision between Doppler and SVB measures of CO were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean difference, SD of differences, percentage error (PR) and Bland-Altman analysis. SVB yielded very reproducible CO estimates (ICC=0.84, mean difference 0.27 ± 0.73 L/min, PR = 16.7%). SVB-derived CO was comparable with Doppler measurements, indicating a good agreement and accuracy (ICC = 0.74, mean difference = -0.22 ± 0.364 L/min, PR ≈ 15). The basic mathematical and physical principles of the SVB method provide highly reproducible and accurate estimates of CO compared with echocardiography. PMID:25108554

  5. Design and testing of an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for non-invasive cardiac assessments during exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for cardiac research, and it is frequently used for resting cardiac assessments. However, research into non-pharmacological stress cardiac evaluation is limited. Methods We aimed to design a portable and relatively inexpensive MRI cycle ergometer capable of continuously measuring pedalling workload while patients exercise to maintain target heart rates. Results We constructed and tested an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Resting and sub-maximal exercise images (at 110 beats per minute) were successfully obtained in 8 healthy adults. Conclusions The MRI-compatible cycle ergometer constructed by our research group enabled cardiac assessments at fixed heart rates, while continuously recording power output by directly measuring pedal force and crank rotation. PMID:22423637

  6. Enabling non-invasive assessment of an engineered endothelium on ePTFE vascular grafts without increasing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Perrin, Louisiane; Kats, Dina; Meade, Thomas; Ameer, Guillermo

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with contrast enhancement is a potentially powerful tool to non-invasively monitor cell distribution in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The most commonly used contrast agent for cell labeling is super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). However, uptake of SPIONs triggers the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells often leading to a pro-inflammatory phenotype. The objective of this study was to develop a labeling system to non-invasively visualize an engineered endothelium in vascular grafts without creating excessive oxidative stress. Specifically, we investigated: (1) chitosan-coated SPIONs (CSPIONs) as an antioxidant contrast agent for contrast enhancement, and (2) poly(1,8-octamethylene citrate) (POC) as an antioxidant interface to support cell adhesion and function of labeled cells on the vascular graft. While SPION-labeled endothelial cells (ECs) experienced elevated ROS formation and altered cell morphology, CSPION-labeled ECs cultured on POC-coated surfaces mitigated SPION-induced ROS formation and maintained EC morphology, phenotype, viability and functions. A monolayer of labeled ECs exhibited sufficient contrast with T2-weighed MR imaging. CSPION labeling of endothelial cells in combination with coating the graft wall with POC allows non-invasive monitoring of an engineered endothelium on ePTFE grafts without increasing oxidative stress. PMID:26283158

  7. An open-source framework for stress-testing non-invasive foetal ECG extraction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Fernando; Behar, Joachim; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, many studies have been published on the extraction of non-invasive foetal electrocardiogram (NI-FECG) from abdominal recordings. Most of these contributions claim to obtain excellent results in detecting foetal QRS (FQRS) complexes in terms of location. A small subset of authors have investigated the extraction of morphological features from the NI-FECG. However, due to the shortage of available public databases, the large variety of performance measures employed and the lack of open-source reference algorithms, most contributions cannot be meaningfully assessed. This article attempts to address these issues by presenting a standardised methodology for stress testing NI-FECG algorithms, including absolute data, as well as extraction and evaluation routines. To that end, a large database of realistic artificial signals was created, totaling 145.8 h of multichannel data and over one million FQRS complexes. An important characteristic of this dataset is the inclusion of several non-stationary events (e.g. foetal movements, uterine contractions and heart rate fluctuations) that are critical for evaluating extraction routines. To demonstrate our testing methodology, three classes of NI-FECG extraction algorithms were evaluated: blind source separation (BSS), template subtraction (TS) and adaptive methods (AM). Experiments were conducted to benchmark the performance of eight NI-FECG extraction algorithms on the artificial database focusing on: FQRS detection and morphological analysis (foetal QT and T/QRS ratio). The overall median FQRS detection accuracies (i.e. considering all non-stationary events) for the best performing methods in each group were 99.9% for BSS, 97.9% for AM and 96.0% for TS. Both FQRS detections and morphological parameters were shown to heavily depend on the extraction techniques and signal-to-noise ratio. Particularly, it is shown that their evaluation in the source domain, obtained after using a BSS technique, should be

  8. Addressing Assumptions for the Use of Non-invasive Cardiac Output Measurement Techniques During Exercise in COPD.

    PubMed

    Perrault, Hélène; Richard, Ruddy; Kapchinsky, Sophia; Baril, Jacinthe; Bourbeau, Jean; Taivassalo, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial functional limitation of COPD increasingly demonstrates the need for an integrated circulatory assessment. In this study cardiac output (Qc) derived from non-inert (CO2-RB), inert (N2O-RB) gas rebreathing approaches and bioimpedance were compared to examine the limitations of currently available non-invasive techniques for exercise Qc determination in patients with chronic lung disease. Thirteen COPD patients (GOLD II-III) completed three constant cycling bouts at 20, 35, and 50% of peak work on two occasions to assess Qc with bioimpedance as well as using CO2-RB and N2O-RB for all exercise tests. Results showed significantly lower Qc using the N2O-RB or end-tidal CO2-derived Qc compared to the PaCO2-derived CO2-RB or the bioimpedance at rest and for all exercise intensities. End-tidal CO2-derived values are however not statistically different from those obtained using inert-gas rebreathing. This study show that in COPD patients, CO2-rebreathing Qc values obtained using PaCO2 contents which account for any gas exchange impairment or inadequate gas mixing are similar to those obtained using thoracic bioimpedance. Alternately, the lower values for N2O rebreathing derived Qc indicates the inability of this technique to account for gas exchange impairment in the computation of Qc. These findings indicate that the choice of a gas rebreathing technique to measure Qc in patients must be dictated by the ability to include in the derived computations a correction for either gas exchange inadequacies and/or a vascular shunt. PMID:26408087

  9. Non-invasive technology that improves cardiac function after experimental myocardial infarction: Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz).

    PubMed

    Uryash, Arkady; Bassuk, Jorge; Kurlansky, Paul; Altamirano, Francisco; Lopez, Jose R; Adams, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) may produce significant inflammatory changes and adverse ventricular remodeling leading to heart failure and premature death. Pharmacologic, stem cell transplantation, and exercise have not halted the inexorable rise in the prevalence and great economic costs of heart failure despite extensive investigations of such treatments. New therapeutic modalities are needed. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz) is a non-invasive technology that increases pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium thereby producing several beneficial cardiovascular effects as demonstrated in animal models, normal humans and patients with heart disease. pGz upregulates endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its phosphorylation (p-eNOS) to improve myocardial function in models of myocardial stunning and preconditioning. Here we test whether pGz applied chronically after focal myocardial infarction in rats improves functional outcomes from MI. Focal MI was produced by left coronary artery ligation. One day after ligation animals were randomized to receive daily treatments of pGz for four weeks (MI-pGz) or serve as controls (MI-CONT), with an additional group as non-infarction controls (Sham). Echocardiograms and invasive pressure volume loop analysis were carried out. Infarct transmurality, myocardial fibrosis, and markers of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined along with protein analysis of eNOS, p-eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).At four weeks, survival was 80% in MI-pGz vs 50% in MI-CONT (p< 0.01). Ejection fraction and fractional shortening and invasive pressure volume relation indices of afterload and contractility were significantly better in MI-pGz. The latter where associated with decreased infarct transmurality and decreased fibrosis along with increased eNOS, p-eNOS. Additionally, MI-pGz had significantly lower levels of iNOS, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), and higher level of anti

  10. Non-Invasive Technology That Improves Cardiac Function after Experimental Myocardial Infarction: Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz)

    PubMed Central

    Kurlansky, Paul; Altamirano, Francisco; Lopez, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) may produce significant inflammatory changes and adverse ventricular remodeling leading to heart failure and premature death. Pharmacologic, stem cell transplantation, and exercise have not halted the inexorable rise in the prevalence and great economic costs of heart failure despite extensive investigations of such treatments. New therapeutic modalities are needed. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz) is a non-invasive technology that increases pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium thereby producing several beneficial cardiovascular effects as demonstrated in animal models, normal humans and patients with heart disease. pGz upregulates endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its phosphorylation (p-eNOS) to improve myocardial function in models of myocardial stunning and preconditioning. Here we test whether pGz applied chronically after focal myocardial infarction in rats improves functional outcomes from MI. Focal MI was produced by left coronary artery ligation. One day after ligation animals were randomized to receive daily treatments of pGz for four weeks (MI-pGz) or serve as controls (MI-CONT), with an additional group as non-infarction controls (Sham). Echocardiograms and invasive pressure volume loop analysis were carried out. Infarct transmurality, myocardial fibrosis, and markers of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined along with protein analysis of eNOS, p-eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).At four weeks, survival was 80% in MI-pGz vs 50% in MI-CONT (p< 0.01). Ejection fraction and fractional shortening and invasive pressure volume relation indices of afterload and contractility were significantly better in MI-pGz. The latter where associated with decreased infarct transmurality and decreased fibrosis along with increased eNOS, p-eNOS. Additionally, MI-pGz had significantly lower levels of iNOS, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), and higher level of anti

  11. A pilot study of prognostic value of non-invasive cardiac parameters for major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Min-Jie; Pan, Ye-Sheng; Hu, Wei-Guo; Lu, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Qing-Yong; Huang, Dong; Huang, Xiao-Li; Wei, Meng; Li, Jing-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the combination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and individual electrocardiographic parameters related to abnormal depolarization/repolarization or baroreceptor sensitivity that had the best predictive value for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with ACS who underwent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included in this prospective study. Ventricular late potential (VLP), heart rate turbulence (HRT), heart rate variability (HRV), and T wave alternans (TWA) parameters were measured using 24 h Holter monitoring 2-4 weeks after onset of ACS. Initial and follow-up LVEF was measured by ultrasound. Patients were followed for at least 6 months to record the occurrence of MACE. Models using combinations of the individual independent prognostic factors found by multivariate analysis were then constructed to use for estimation of risk of MACE. In multivariate analysis, VLP measured as QRS duration, HRV measured as standard deviation of normal RR intervals, and followup LVEF, but none of the other parameters studied, were independent risk factors for MACE. Areas under ROC curve (AUCs) for combinations of 2 or all 3 factors ranged from 0.73 to 0.76. Combinations of any of the three independent risk factors for MACE in ACS patients with PCI improved prediction and, because these risk factors were obtained non-invasively, may have future clinical usefulness. PMID:26885226

  12. Non-invasive monitoring of stress hormones in the bat Eptesicus isabellinus - Do fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations correlate with survival?

    PubMed

    Kelm, Detlev H; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Dehnhard, Martin; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2016-01-15

    Chronic stress may negatively impact fitness and survival in wildlife. Stress hormone analysis from feces is a non-invasive tool for identifying stressors and deducing about individual and population level fitness. Although many bat populations are endangered, fecal stress hormone analysis has not been established in bats as a method for focusing conservation efforts. The isabelline serotine bat, Eptesicus isabellinus, is exposed to human disturbance as its roosts are mostly found in anthropogenic structures. Moreover, this bat is host to various diseases and survival rates between colonies may vary significantly. To validate the analysis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, we applied an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge and tested four different enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for measuring glucocorticoid concentrations. Cortisol and its metabolites showed the highest increase in blood and feces after the ACTH challenge, but corticosterone and its metabolites also increased significantly. Baseline fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) concentrations did not increase until 1.5h after the animals were captured, which is a convenient time lag for sample collection from captured animals. We furthermore compared baseline FCM concentrations between five colonies of E. isabellinus in Andalusia, Spain, and tested for their correlation with survival rates. FCM concentrations did not vary between colonies, but FCM levels increased with the animals' age. FCM analysis may prove a useful tool for identifying bat colonies that experience uncommon environmental stress. However, inter-individual variation in hormone secretion, due to factors such as age, may require additional information to properly interpret differences in hormone concentrations. PMID:26673871

  13. Non-invasive assessment of reproductive status and stress in captive Asian elephants in three south Indian zoos.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Palugulla Reddy, Vivekananda; Kokkiligadda, Adiseshu; Shivaji, Sisinthy; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2014-05-15

    Asian elephants in captivity need immediate attention to be bred so as to meet the increasing demand for captive elephants and to overcome the dependence on supplementing the captive stock with wild animals. Unfortunately, captive breeding programs across the globe have met with limited success and therefore more effort is needed to improve breeding in captivity. Endocrine profiling of reproductive hormones (progestagens and androgens) and the stress hormone (glucocorticoids) could facilitate better management and breeding strategies. In the present study, we investigated reproductive and stress physiology of 12 captive Asian elephants for 10-27 months using a non-invasive method based on steroid analysis of 1700 elephant dung samples. Most of the elephants were cycling regularly. Males during musth showed increased fecal androgen metabolite concentrations and exhibited a slight increase in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Elephants used in public festivals and processions showed significantly increased in faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. The results indicate that captive elephants require periodic health care, better husbandry practices and scientific management for sustainable captive population. PMID:24698789

  14. Non-Invasive Drosophila ECG Recording by Using Eutectic Gallium-Indium Alloy Electrode: A Feasible Tool for Future Research on the Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Po-Hung; Tzeng, Te-Hsuen; Huang, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yu-Hao; Chang, Yi-Chung; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Wu, June-Tai; Lee, Hsiu-Hsian; Lai, Po-Jung; Liu, Kwei-Yan; Cheng, Ya-Chen; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Background Drosophila heart tube is a feasible model for cardiac physiological research. However, obtaining Drosophila electrocardiograms (ECGs) is difficult, due to the weak signals and limited contact area to apply electrodes. This paper presents a non-invasive Gallium-Indium (GaIn) based recording system for Drosophila ECG measurement, providing the heart rate and heartbeat features to be observed. This novel, high-signal-quality system prolongs the recording time of insect ECGs, and provides a feasible platform for research on the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases. Methods In this study, two types of electrode, tungsten needle probes and GaIn electrodes, were used respectively to noiselessly conduct invasive and noninvasive ECG recordings of Drosophila. To further analyze electrode properties, circuit models were established and simulated. By using electromagnetic shielded heart signal acquiring system, consisted of analog amplification and digital filtering, the ECG signals of three phenotypes that have different heart functions were recorded without dissection. Results and Discussion The ECG waveforms of different phenotypes of Drosophila recorded invasively and repeatedly with n value (n>5) performed obvious difference in heart rate. In long period ECG recordings, non-invasive method implemented by GaIn electrodes acts relatively stable in both amplitude and period. To analyze GaIn electrode, the correctness of GaIn electrode model established by this paper was validated, presenting accuracy, stability, and reliability. Conclusions Noninvasive ECG recording by GaIn electrodes was presented for recording Drosophila pupae ECG signals within a limited contact area and signal strength. Thus, the observation of ECG changes in normal and SERCA-depleted Drosophila over an extended period is feasible. This method prolongs insect survival time while conserving major ECG features, and provides a platform for electrophysiological signal research

  15. Peak Cardiac Power Measured Non-Invasively with a Bioreactance Technique is a Predictor of Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Hannah; Helmke, Stephen; Williams, Paula; Teruya, Sergio; Jones, Margaret; Burkhoff, Daniel; Mancini, Donna; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Peak oxygen consumption (VO2) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a powerful predictor of survival, providing an indirect assessment of cardiac output (CO). Hypothesis Non-invasive indices of CO derived from bioreactance methodology would add significantly to peak VO2 as a means of risk stratifying patients with heart failure. Methods 127 patients (53±14 years of age, 66% male) with heart failure and an average EF = 31±15 underwent a symptom-limited CPET using a bicycle ergometer while measuring CO noninvasively by a bioreactance technique. Peak cardiac power was derived from the product of the peak mean arterial blood pressure and CO divided by 451. Results Follow-up averaged 404±179 days (median, 366 days) to assess end points including death (n=3), heart transplant (n=10), or left ventricular assisted device (LVAD) implantation (n=2). Peak VO2 and peak power had similar area under the curves (0.77 and 0.76), which increased to 0.83 when combined. Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curves demonstrated different outcomes in the subgroup with a VO2 <14 ml*kg-1*min-1 when stratified by a cardiac power above or below 1.5 Watts (92.2% vs. 82.1% at 1 year and 81.6% vs. 58.3% at last follow-up, p=0.02 by log-rank test). Conclusions Among patients with heart failure, peak cardiac power measured with bioreactance methodology and peak VO2 had similar associations with adverse outcomes and peak power added independent prognostic information to peak VO2 in subjects with advanced disease (e.g. VO2 < 14 ml*kg-1*min-1). PMID:21091609

  16. Is it possible to identify infrahissian cardiac conduction abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy by non-invasive methods?

    PubMed Central

    Babuty, D; Fauchier, L; Tena-Carbi, D; Poret, P; Leche, J; Raynaud, M; Fauchier, J; Cosnay, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify intracardiac conduction abnormalities in patients with myotonic dystrophy from their clinical, ECG, and genetic features.
METHODS—39 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age 42.9 (12.1) years; 16 female, 23 male) underwent clinical examination, genetic studies, resting and 24 hour ambulatory ECG, signal averaged ECG, and electrophysiological studies.
RESULTS—23 patients suffered from cardiac symptoms, 23 had one or more cardiac conduction abnormality on resting ECG, one had sinus deficiency, and 21 (53.8%) had prolonged HV intervals. No correlation was found between the severity of the neurological symptoms, onset of disease, cardiac conduction abnormalities on ECG, and the intracardiac conduction abnormalities on electrophysiological study. The size of the DNA mutation was longer in the abnormal HV interval group than in the normal HV interval group (3.5 (1.8) v 2.2 (1.0) kb, p < 0.02). Signal averaged ECG parameters (total QRS duration (QRSD) and duration of low amplitude signals ⩽ 40 µV (LAS 40)) were greater in patients with an abnormal HV interval than in those with a normal HV interval (123.4 (24.6) v 102.8 (12.3) ms and 47.5 (12.8) v 35.3 (8.8) ms, respectively; p < 0.005). Only the association of QRSD ⩾ 100 ms with LAS 40 ⩾ 36 ms identified patients with an abnormal HV interval with good sensitivity (80%) and specificity (83.3%).
CONCLUSIONS—Infrahissian conduction abnormalities are common in myotonic dystrophy and can be identified using signal averaged electrocardiography.


Keywords: myotonic dystrophy; atrioventricular block; genetic factors; signal averaged ECG PMID:10525524

  17. The impact of oxidative stress on islet transplantation and monitoring the graft survival by non-invasive imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, K M; Sekar, T V; Bhakkiyalakshmi, E; Foygel, Kira; Rajaguru, P; Berger, F; Paulmurugan, R

    2013-01-01

    and C-peptide levels. These biochemical measurements provide markers at only the late stages of islet rejection. Use of molecular imaging techniques has the potential for real-time non-invasive monitoring of the functional status and viability of transplanted islet grafts in living animals. This review mainly focuses on the current status of islet transplantations, potential preventive strategies used to reduce oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in islet grafts, and use of molecular imaging as a tool to quantitatively evaluate the functional status of the transplanted islets in living animals. PMID:23317098

  18. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report, September 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  19. Non-invasive cardiac index monitoring during cardiopulmonary functional testing provides additional prognostic value in patients after acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Feng; Chen, Wei-Siang; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Liu, Min-Hui; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Huang, Yu-Yen; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic value of parameters derived from a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is well established in patients stabilized after acute heart failure (HF). Under multidisciplinary disease management, this study sought to test whether noninvasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring (NICOM) during the CPET provides additional prognostic value. In total, 131 patients stabilized after acute HF agreed to undergo the CPET with NICOM. Outcome follow-up focused on composite events of death and HF-related rehospitalization. Patients with a peak cardiac index (CI) of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (n = 32), compared to those with a peak CI of > 4.5 L/minute/m(2) (n = 99), had higher incidences of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, but had lower hemoglobin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)). During the 1.2 ± 0.7 years of follow-up, there were 8 (6.1%) deaths, and 16 (12.2%) HF-related rehospitalizations. In a Cox univariable analysis, a lower event-free survival was associated with a history of DM, a higher Ve/VCO(2) slope, lower peak VCO(2) and eGFR, and a peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (P < 0.05). The Cox multivariable analysis showed that the Ve/VCO(2) slope (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01~1.16, P = 0.02) and peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/m(2 )(HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.18~9.01, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors. In conclusion, NICOM during the CPET was demonstrated to provide prognostic information in addition to traditional risk factors, biomarkers, and other well-established CPET parameters. PMID:23258137

  20. SU-C-303-06: Treatment Planning Study for Non-Invasive Cardiac Arrhythmia Ablation with Scanned Carbon Ions in An Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Eichhorn, A; Constantinescu, A; Prall, M; Kaderka, R; Durante, M; Graeff, C; Lehmann, H I; Takami, M; Packer, D L; Lugenbiel, P; Thomas, D; Richter, D; Bert, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Scanned carbon ion beams might offer a non-invasive alternative treatment for cardiac arrhythmia, which are a major health-burden. We studied the feasibility of this procedure in an animal model. The underlying treatment planning and motion mitigation strategies will be presented. Methods: The study was carried out in 15 pigs, randomly distributed to 3 target groups: atrioventricular node (AVN, 8 animals with 25, 40, and 55 Gy target dose), left ventricular free-wall (LV, 4 animals with 40 Gy) and superior pulmonary vein (SPV, 3 animals with 40 Gy). Breathing motion was suppressed by repeated enforced breathholds at end exhale. Cardiac motion was mitigated by an inhomogeneous rescanning scheme with up to 15 rescans. The treatment planning was performed using the GSI in-house software TRiP4D on cardiac-gated 4DCTs, applying a range-considering ITV based on an extended CTV. For AVN and SPV isotropic 5 mm margins were applied to the CTV, while for the LV 2mm+2% range margins were used. The opposing fields for AVN and LV targets were optimized independently (SFUD), while SPV treatments were optimized as IMPT deliveries, including dose restrictions to the radiosensitive AVN. Results: Median value of D{sub 95} over all rescanning simulations was 99.1% (AVN), 98.0% (SPV) and 98.3% (LV) for the CTV and 94.7% (AVN) and 92.7% (SPV) for the PTV, respectively. The median D{sub 5}-D{sub 95} was improved with rescanning compared to unmitigated delivery from 13.3 to 6.5% (CTV) and from 23.4 to 11.6% (PTV). ICRP dose limits for aorta, trachea, esophagus and skin were respected. The maximal dose in the coronary arteries was limited to 30 Gy. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of a homogeneous dose delivery to different cardiac structures in a porcine model using a time-optimized inhomogeneous rescanning scheme. The presented treatment planning strategies were applied in a pig study with the analysis ongoing. Funding: This work was supported in part by the

  1. Eco-photonics: application of optical diagnostic modalities for non-invasive monitoring and evaluation of stress conditions of aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkov, A. N.; Axenov-Gribanov, D. V.; Pavlichenko, V. V.; Shakhtanova, N. S.; Bedulina, D. S.; Timofeyev, M. A.; Kalchenko, V.; Meglinski, I.

    2012-03-01

    The growing interest in monitoring ecological change has been stimulated by a global climate change, combined with the day-to-day human anthropogenic activities, that heavily influence the environment. A global warming accompanied by a anthropogenic activities falling within the freshwater ecosystem result a dramatic enhance of the overall stress for most of aquatic organisms. We explore the applicability of optical spectroscopy and advanced non-invasive imaging techniques, that have been used earlier in various biomedical applications, to study an influence of climatic changes on the physiological and biochemical processes that take place in living aquatic organisms. In current report we demonstrate that optical spectroscopy and modern imaging techniques can be successfully used to observe and evaluate thermal and/or hypoxic stress, experienced by freshwater organisms, such as Baikal amphipods.

  2. Prediction of rectal temperature using non-invasive physiologic variable measurements in hair pregnant ewes subjected to natural conditions of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Pérez, Ricardo; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Mejía-Vázquez, Ángel; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F Daniel; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Mellado, Miguel; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Guerra-Liera, Juan E; Robinson, P H; Macías-Cruz, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Rectal temperature (RT) is the foremost physiological variable indicating if an animal is suffering hyperthermia. However, this variable is traditionally measured by invasive methods, which may compromise animal welfare. Models to predict RT have been developed for growing pigs and lactating dairy cows, but not for pregnant heat-stressed ewes. Our aim was to develop a prediction equation for RT using non-invasive physiological variables in pregnant ewes under heat stress. A total of 192 records of respiratory frequency (RF) and hair coat temperature in various body regions (i.e., head, rump, flank, shoulder, and belly) obtained from 24 Katahdin × Pelibuey pregnant multiparous ewes were collected during the last third of gestation (i.e., d 100 to lambing) with a 15 d sampling interval. Hair coat temperatures were taken using infrared thermal imaging technology. Initially, a Pearson correlation analysis examined the relationship among variables, and then multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop the prediction equations. All predictor variables were positively correlated (P<0.01; r=0.59-0.67) with RT. The adjusted equation which best predicted RT (P<0.01; Radj(2)=56.15%; CV=0.65%) included as predictors RF and head and belly temperatures. Comparison of predicted and observed values for RT indicates a suitable agreement (P<0.01) between them with moderate accuracy (Radj(2)=56.15%) when RT was calculated with the adjusted equation. In general, the final equation does not violate any assumption of multiple regression analysis. The RT in heat-stressed pregnant ewes can be predicted with an adequate accuracy using non-invasive physiologic variables, and the final equation was: RT=35.57+0.004 (RF)+0.067 (heat temperature)+0.028 (belly temperature). PMID:26724191

  3. A computer controlled non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring system.

    PubMed

    McMenemin, I M; Kenny, G N

    1988-10-01

    A system for the non-invasive monitoring, recording and storing haemodynamic indices has been developed using an Apple II microcomputer, a Dinamap automatic arterial pressure monitor and a non-invasive cardiac output monitor based on bio-electrical impedance. This system was used during the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Numerical and graphical displays of heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance are available. A print-out of data can be produced for later analysis. PMID:3190976

  4. Aerial Imagery and Other Non-invasive Approaches to Detect Nitrogen and Water Stress in a Potato Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigon, Tyler John

    Post-emergence nitrogen (N) fertilizer is typically split applied to irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Minnesota in order to minimize the likelihood of nitrate leaching and to best match N availability to crop demands. Petiole nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration is often used as a diagnostic test to determine the rate and timing of split applications, but using this approach for variable rate applications is difficult. Canopy-level spectral measurements, such as hyperspectral and multispectral imagery, have the potential to be a reliable tool for making in-season N management decisions for precision agriculture applications. The objectives of this two year field study were to evaluate the effects of variety, N treatment, and water stress on growth characteristics and the ability of and canopy-level reflectance to predict N stress in potato. Treatments included two irrigation regimes (unstressed and stressed), five N regimes categorized by three N rates (34 kg N ha-1, 180 kg N ha-1, and 270 kg N ha-1) in which the 270 kg N ha-1 rate had post-emergence N either split applied or applied early in the season, and two potato varieties (Russet Burbank and Alpine Russet). Higher N rates and split applications generally resulted in higher tuber yield for both varieties. Insufficient supplemental water was found to reduce tuber yield and plant N uptake. Of the broadband indices, narrowband indices, and partial least squares regression (PLS) models evaluated, the best predictor of N stress as measured by leaf N concentration was the PLS model using derivative reflectance (r2 of 0.79 for RB and 0.77 for AR). However, the best technique for determining N stress level for variable rate application of N fertilizer was MTCI (MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index) due to its good relationship with leaf N concentration and high accuracy. As a final aspect of the study, results from the experimental plots were used to predict N stress in a

  5. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K.; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 – 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  6. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    PubMed

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  7. A non-invasive method for detecting the metabolic stress response in rodents: characterization and disruption of the circadian corticosterone rhythm.

    PubMed

    Thanos, P K; Cavigelli, S A; Michaelides, M; Olvet, D M; Patel, U; Diep, M N; Volkow, N D

    2009-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone (CORT) measures are a common procedure to detect stress responses in rodents. However, the procedure is invasive and can influence CORT levels, making it less than ideal for monitoring CORT circadian rhythms. In the current paper, we examined the applicability of a non-invasive fecal CORT metabolite measure to assess the circadian rhythm. We compared fecal CORT metabolite levels to circulating CORT levels, and analyzed change in the fecal circadian rhythm following an acute stressor (i.e. blood sampling by tail veil catheter). Fecal and blood samples were collected from male adolescent rats and analyzed for CORT metabolites and circulating CORT respectively. Fecal samples were collected hourly for 24 h before and after blood draw. On average, peak fecal CORT metabolite values occurred 7-9 h after the plasma CORT peak and time-matched fecal CORT values were well correlated with plasma CORT. As a result of the rapid blood draw, fecal production and CORT levels were altered the next day. These results indicate fecal CORT metabolite measures can be used to assess conditions that disrupt the circadian CORT rhythm, and provide a method to measure long-term changes in CORT production. This can benefit research that requires long-term glucocorticoid assessment (e.g. stress mechanisms underlying health). PMID:18380537

  8. A Non-Invasive Method for Detecting the Metabolic Stress Response in Rodents: Characterization and Disruption of the Circadian Corticosterone Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Michaelides, Michael; Olvet, Doreen M.; Patel, Ujval; Diep, Mai N.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2009-01-01

    1. Summary Plasma corticosterone (CORT) measures are a common procedure to detect stress responses in rodents. However, the procedure is invasive and can influence CORT levels, making it less than ideal for monitoring CORT circadian rhythms. In the current paper, we examined the applicability of a non-invasive fecal CORT metabolite measure to assess the circadian rhythm. We compared fecal CORT metabolite levels to circulating CORT levels, and analyzed change in the fecal circadian rhythm following an acute stressor (i.e. blood sampling by tail veil catheter). Fecal and blood samples were collected from male adolescent rats and analyzed for CORT metabolites and circulating CORT respectively. Fecal samples were collected hourly for 24 hours pre- and post-blood draw. On average, peak fecal CORT metabolite values occurred 7–9 hours after the plasma CORT peak and time-matched fecal CORT values were well correlated with plasma CORT. As a result of the rapid blood draw, fecal production and CORT levels were altered the next day. These results indicate fecal CORT metabolite measures can be used to assess conditions that disrupt the circadian CORT rhythm, and provide a method to measure long-term changes in CORT production. This can benefit research that requires long-term glucocorticoid assessment (e.g. stress mechanisms underlying health). PMID:18380537

  9. Portable oxidative stress sensor: dynamic and non-invasive measurements of extracellular H₂O₂ released by algae.

    PubMed

    Koman, Volodymyr B; Santschi, Christian; von Moos, Nadia R; Slaveykova, Vera I; Martin, Olivier J F

    2015-06-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by aerobic organisms are essential for physiological processes such as cell signaling, apoptosis, immune defense and oxidative stress mechanisms. Unbalanced oxidant/antioxidant budgets are involved in many diseases and, therefore, the sensitive measurement of ROS is of great interest. Here, we present a new device for the real-time monitoring of oxidative stress by measuring one of the most stable ROS, namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This portable oxidative stress sensor contains the heme protein cytochrome c (cyt c) as sensing element whose spectral response enables the detection of H2O2 down to a detection limit of 40 nM. This low detection limit is achieved by introducing cyt c in a random medium, enabling multiscattering that enhances the optical trajectory through the cyt c spot. A contact microspotting technique is used to produce reproducible and reusable cyt c spots which are stable for several days. Experiments in static and microfluidic regimes, as well as numerical simulations demonstrate the suitability of the cyt c/H2O2 reaction system for the real-time sensing of the kinetics of biological processes without H2O2 depletion in the measurement chamber. As an example, we detect the release of H2O2 from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to either 180 nM functionalized CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots, or to 10 mg/l TiO2 nanoparticles. The continuous measurement of extracellular H2O2 by this optical sensor with high sensitivity is a promising new means for real-time cytotoxicity tests, the investigation of oxidative stress and other physiological cell processes. PMID:25588702

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones in the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Beaulah Budithi, Neema Raja; Kumar, Vinod; Yalla, Suneel Kumar; Rai, Upashna; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-09-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is classified as endangered due to its declining population, habitat fragmentation and poaching. Efforts are being made to breed them in captivity as part of nationwide conservation breeding program. This study aimed to standardize Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to monitor reproductive (Progesterone metabolite, Testosterone) and stress hormone (Cortisol) in red panda. For this purpose, we collected 1471 faecal samples from four females and one male over a period of one year from Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, India. HPLC confirmed the presence of immunoreactive 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one, testosterone and cortisol metabolites in faecal samples. Using 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one EIA, we were able to monitor reproduction and detect pregnancy in one of the females, which successfully conceived and delivered during the study period. We were also able to monitor testosterone and cortisol in faecal samples of the red panda. Faecal testosterone levels were found in higher concentration in breeding season than in non-breeding season. Faecal cortisol concentrations showed a negative relationship with ambient temperature and peaked during winter months in all animals. Standardization of EIAs and faecal hormone monitoring would facilitate red panda conservation breeding programs in India and elsewhere. PMID:27481551

  11. Non-invasive assessment of the presence and severity of cardiac amyloidosis. A study in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy by cross sectional echocardiography and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, P; Backman, C; Bjerle, P; Eriksson, A; Holm, S; Olofsson, B O

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients with familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy were examined both by cross sectional echocardiography and by technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy to assess involvement of the heart non-invasively. All 12 patients had echocardiographic abnormalities. The most prominent findings were highly refractile myocardial echoes, thickened heart valves, and increased thickness of the heart walls. Four patients had abnormal myocardial uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate. The remaining eight had equivocal or no myocardial uptake and were considered to have normal scintigrams. A certain amount of amyloid is probably required to produce an abnormal scintigram, although lesions with less amyloid can evidently be identified by echocardiography. Neither the duration of polyneuropathy nor its severity showed any relation to the echocardiographic or scintigraphic findings. It is concluded that cross sectional echocardiography is superior to technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy in detecting cardiac involvement in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy and that these results may also be applicable to other forms of amyloidosis. Images PMID:6087862

  12. Lipid partitioning during cardiac stress.

    PubMed

    Kolwicz, Stephen C

    2016-10-01

    It is well documented that fatty acids serve as the primary fuel substrate for the contracting myocardium. However, extensive research has identified significant changes in the myocardial oxidation of fatty acids during acute or chronic cardiac stress. As a result, the redistribution or partitioning of fatty acids due to metabolic derangements could have biological implications. Fatty acids can be stored as triacylglycerols, serve as critical components for biosynthesis of phospholipid membranes, and form the potent signaling molecules, diacylglycerol and ceramides. Therefore, the contribution of lipid metabolism to health and disease is more intricate than a balance of uptake and oxidation. In this review, the available data regarding alterations that occur in endogenous cardiac lipid pathways during the pathological stressors of ischemia-reperfusion and pathological hypertrophy/heart failure are highlighted. In addition, changes in endogenous lipids observed in exercise training models are presented for comparison. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:27040509

  13. Lactate is an ideal non-invasive marker for evaluating temporal alterations in cell stress and toxicity in repeat dose testing regimes.

    PubMed

    Limonciel, Alice; Aschauer, Lydia; Wilmes, Anja; Prajczer, Sinikka; Leonard, Martin O; Pfaller, Walter; Jennings, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Technological developments are driving in vitro methods towards integrated "omic" strategies. However, there is still an over reliance on classical viability assays for dose range finding. Such assays are not readily suited to the investigation of subtle alterations in cell function and most require termination of the experiment, which makes it difficult to monitor temporal alterations in repeat-dose long term exposure experiments. To this end, we investigated the use of lactate production as a marker of cell stress in long term repeat dose experiments. We conducted daily exposures to eight compounds at five concentrations for 14 days on human renal proximal tubular cells (RPTEC/TERT1), human hepatoma cells (HepaRG) and mouse fibroblasts (BALB-3T3) cells. Compounds were chosen from a training set used in the 7th EU Framework project Predict-IV and consisted of amiodarone, diclofenac, troglitazone, cadmium chloride, cephaloridine, cidofovir, cyclosporine A and buflomedil. At days 1, 3, 7 and 14, lactate was measured in the supernatant medium. At day 14, cells were assayed for resazurin reduction capability and subsequently lysed in methanol for ATP determination. Compound-induced loss of viability was comparable across all cell lines. For all cell types, when cell viability was compromised at day 14, lactate production was induced during the treatment period. In some situations, lactate also fell below control values, indicating cell death. Thus, temporal alterations in supernatant lactate provides information on the time and concentration of stress induction and the time and concentration where cell death becomes the dominant factor. Supernatant lactate production is a simple, cheap and non-invasive parameter. Since many molecular pathways converge on the glycolytic pathway, enhanced lactate production may be considered as a global marker of sub-lethal injury and thus an ideal marker for investigating temporal alterations in long term repeat dose testing in vitro

  14. Non invasive monitoring in mechanically ventilated pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Subu, Awni M; Rehder, Kyle J; Cheifetz, Ira M; Turner, David A

    2014-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary monitoring is a key component in the evaluation and management of critically ill patients. Clinicians typically rely on a combination of invasive and non-invasive monitoring to assess cardiac output and adequacy of ventilation. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction: of continuous non-invasive monitors that allow for data to be obtained at the bedside of critically ill patients. These advances help to identify hemodynamic changes and allow for interventions before complications occur. In this manuscript, we highlight several important methods of non-invasive cardiopulmonary monitoring, including capnography, transcutaneous monitoring, pulse oximetry, and near infrared spectroscopy. PMID:25119483

  15. The feasibility and applications of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring, thromboelastography and transit-time flow measurement in living-related renal transplantation surgery: results of a prospective pilot observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Delayed graft function (DGF) remains a significant and detrimental postoperative phenomenon following living-related renal allograft transplantation, with a published incidence of up to 15%. Early therapeutic vasodilatory interventions have been shown to improve DGF, and modifications to immunosuppressive regimens may subsequently lessen its impact. This pilot study assesses the potential applicability of perioperative non-invasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM), transit-time flow monitoring (TTFM) of the transplant renal artery and pre-/perioperative thromboelastography (TEG) in the early prediction of DGF and perioperative complications. Methods Ten consecutive living-related renal allograft recipients were studied. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring commenced immediately following induction of anaesthesia and was maintained throughout the perioperative period. Doppler-based TTFM was performed during natural haemostatic pauses in the transplant surgery: immediately following graft reperfusion and following ureteric implantation. Central venous blood sampling for TEG was performed following induction of anaesthesia and during abdominal closure. Results A single incidence of DGF was seen within the studied cohort and one intra-operative (thrombotic) complication noted. NICOM confirmed a predictable trend of increased cardiac index (CI) following allograft reperfusion (mean CI - clamped: 3.17 ± 0.29 L/min/m2, post-reperfusion: 3.50 ± 0.35 L/min/m2; P < 0.05) mediated by a significant reduction in total peripheral resistance. Reduced TTFM at the point of allograft reperfusion (227 ml/min c.f. mean; 411 ml/min (95% CI: 358 to 465)) was identified in a subject who experienced intra-operative transplant renal artery thrombosis. TEG data exhibited significant reductions in clot lysis (LY30 (%): pre-op: 1.0 (0.29 to 1.71), post reperfusion 0.33 (0.15 to 0.80); P = 0.02) and a trend towards increased clot initiation following

  16. Autocalibrating pulse contour analysis based on radial artery applanation tonometry for continuous non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in intensive care unit patients after major gastrointestinal surgery--a prospective method comparison study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Y; Langemann, M; Schön, G; Kluge, S; Reuter, D A; Saugel, B

    2016-05-01

    The T-Line(®) system (Tensys(®) Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) non-invasively estimates cardiac output (CO) using autocalibrating pulse contour analysis of the radial artery applanation tonometry-derived arterial waveform. We compared T-Line CO measurements (TL-CO) with invasively obtained CO measurements using transpulmonary thermodilution (TDCO) and calibrated pulse contour analysis (PC-CO) in patients after major gastrointestinal surgery. We compared 1) TL-CO versus TD-CO and 2) TL-CO versus PC-CO in 27 patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) after major gastrointestinal surgery. For the assessment of TD-CO and PC-CO we used the PiCCO(®) system (Pulsion Medical Systems SE, Feldkirchen, Germany). Per patient, we compared two sets of TD-CO and 30 minutes of PC-CO measurements with the simultaneously recorded TL-CO values using Bland-Altman analysis. The mean of differences (± standard deviation; 95% limits of agreement) between TL-CO and TD-CO was -0.8 (±1.6; -4.0 to +2.3) l/minute with a percentage error of 45%. For TL-CO versus PC-CO, we observed a mean of differences of -0.4 (±1.5; -3.4 to +2.5) l/minute with a percentage error of 43%. In ICU patients after major gastrointestinal surgery, continuous non-invasive CO measurement based on autocalibrating pulse contour analysis of the radial artery applanation tonometry-derived arterial waveform (TL-CO) is feasible in a clinical study setting. However, the agreement of TL-CO with TD-CO and PC-CO observed in our study indicates that further improvements are needed before the technology can be recommended for clinical use in these patients. PMID:27246932

  17. Thallium cardiac stressing by esophageal pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.L.; Vacek, J.L.; Preston, D.F.; Robinson, R.G.; Feldkamp, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Forty-three patients were examined with the transesophageal pacing method of cardiac stressing and thallium imaging. Transesophageal cardiac pacing, using a pill electrode or a permanent pacemaker lead, is a safe alternative for patients who are physically unable to exercise. Prior studies suggest that transvenous right atrial pacing with thallium injection is equivalent to physical exercise thallium studies in the detection of coronary artery disease. The esophageal pacing bipolar electrode similarly increases heart rate without the necessity of transvenous pacing or fluoroscopy and without the adverse side effects often seen when using pharmacologic stressing agents (i.e., dipyridamole). The results compare well with cardiac catheterization, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic results. Cardiac paced stress testing requires no sedation, is performed on an out-patient basis, and causes little if any discomfort for the patient.

  18. Speckle tracking echocardiography in the critically ill: enticing research with minimal clinical practicality or the answer to non-invasive cardiac assessment?

    PubMed

    S, Orde; Sj, Huang; As, Mclean

    2016-09-01

    Echocardiography is developing rapidly. Speckle tracking echocardiography is the latest semi-automatic tool that has potential to quantitatively describe cardiac dysfunction that may be unrecognised by conventional echocardiography. It is a non-Doppler, angle-independent, feasible and reproducible method to evaluate myocardial function in both non-critically ill and critically ill populations. Increasingly it has become a standard measure of both left and right ventricle function in specific patient groups, e.g. chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy or pulmonary hypertension. To date there are few studies in the critically ill, predominantly in sepsis, yet all describe dysfunction beyond standard measures. Other areas of interest include heart-lung interactions, right ventricle function and twist and torsion of the heart. A word of caution is required, however, in that speckle tracking echocardiography is far from perfect and is more challenging, particularly in the critically ill, than implied by many published studies. It takes time to learn and perform and most values are not validated, particularly in the critically ill. We should be cautious in accepting that the latest software used in cardiology cohorts will automatically be the answer in the critically ill. Even with these limitations the technology is enticing and results fascinating. We are uncovering previously undescribed dysfunction and although it currently is essentially a research-based activity, there is great promise as a clinical tool as echocardiography analysis becomes more automated, and potentially speckle tracking echocardiography could help describe cardiac function in critical illness more accurately than is possible with current techniques. PMID:27608336

  19. Non-invasive physiological measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rolfe, P.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nondestructive type for monitoring the physiology of various organ systems. The topics covered are: non-invasive assessment of gastric activity; uterine activity, intestinal activity; monitoring of fetal cardiovascular system and bilirubin physiology of infants. Respiratory system of infants is monitored and ultrasonography of heart is discussed.

  20. Stress Management Training May Help Cardiac Rehab Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157876.html Stress Management Training May Help Cardiac Rehab Patients When added ... March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of stress management training can make cardiac rehabilitation programs more effective, ...

  1. Congenital coronary artery anomalies silent until geriatric age: non-invasive assessment, angiography tips, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Dell'Avvocata, Fabio; Van Tan, Nguyen; Daggubati, Rames; Nanijundappa, Aravinda

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) may be discovered more often as incidental findings during the normal diagnostic process for other cardiac diseases or less frequently on the basis of manifestations of myocardial ischemia. The cardiovascular professional may be involved in their angiographic diagnosis, functional assessment and eventual endovascular treatment. A complete angiographic definition is mandatory in order to understand the functional effects and plan any intervention in CAAs: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful non-invasive tools to detect three-dimensional morphology of the anomalies and its relationships with contiguous cardiac structures, whereas coronary arteriography remains the gold standard for a definitive anatomic picture. A practical idea of the possible functional significance is mandatory for deciding how to manage CAAs: non-invasive stress tests and in particular the invasive pharmacological stress tests with or without intravascular ultrasound monitoring can assess correctly the functional significance of the most CAAs. Finally, the knowledge of the particular endovascular techniques and material is of paramount importance for achieving technical and clinical success. CAAs represent a complex issue, which rarely involve the cardiovascular professional at different levels. A timely practical knowledge of the main issues regarding CAAs is important in the management of such entities. PMID:25678906

  2. Phospholemman: A Novel Cardiac Stress Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph Y.; Wang, JuFang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter J.; Rabinowitz, Joseph E.; Chan, Tung O.; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport, is a major sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na+-K+-ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and L-type Ca2+ channel. Functionally, when phosphorylated at serine68, PLM stimulates Na+-K+-ATPase but inhibits Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in cardiac myocytes. In heterologous expression systems, PLM modulates the gating of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel. Therefore, PLM occupies a key modulatory role in intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis and is intimately involved in regulation of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Genetic ablation of PLM results in a slight increase in baseline cardiac contractility and prolongation of action potential duration. When hearts are subjected to catecholamine stress, PLM minimizes the risks of arrhythmogenesis by reducing Na+ overload and simultaneously preserves inotropy by inhibiting Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. In heart failure, both expression and phosphorylation state of PLM are altered and may partly account for abnormalities in EC coupling. The unique role of PLM in regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and potentially L-type Ca2+ channel in the heart, together with the changes in its expression and phosphorylation in heart failure, make PLM a rational and novel target for development of drugs in our armamentarium against heart failure. PMID:20718822

  3. Non-invasive glucose monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

  4. Non-invasive assessment of animal exercise stress: real-time PCR of GLUT4, COX2, SOD1 and HSP70 in avalanche military dog saliva.

    PubMed

    Diverio, S; Guelfi, G; Barbato, O; Di Mari, W; Egidi, M G; Santoro, M M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase mRNA expression of a growing number of genes. The aim of this study was to assess if mRNA expression of the metabolism- and oxidative stress-related genes GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4), COX2 (cyclooxygenase 2), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1) and HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) in saliva changes following acute exercise stress in dogs. For this purpose, 12 avalanche dogs of the Italian Military Force Guardia di Finanza were monitored during simulation of a search for a buried person in an artificial avalanche area. Rectal temperature (RT) and saliva samples were collected the day before the trial (T0), immediately after the descent from a helicopter at the onset of a simulated avalanche search and rescue operation (T1), after the discovery of the buried person (T2) and 2 h later (T3). Expressions of GLUT4, SOD1, COX2 and HSP70 were measured by real-time PCR. The simulated avalanche search and rescue operation was shown to exert a significant effect on RT, as well as on the expression of all metabolism- and oxidative stress-related genes investigated, which peaked at T2. The observed expression patterns indicate an acute exercise stress-induced upregulation, as confirmed by the reductions in expression at T3. Moreover, our findings indicate that saliva is useful for assessing metabolism- and oxidative stress-related genes without the need for restraint, which could affect working dog performance. PMID:25245143

  5. The fear-factor stress test: an ethical, non-invasive laboratory method that produces consistent and sustained cortisol responding in men and women.

    PubMed

    du Plooy, Christopher; Thomas, Kevin G F; Henry, Michelle; Human, Robyn; Jacobs, W Jake

    2014-06-01

    We describe a method to administer a controlled, effective stressor to humans in the laboratory. The method combines the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the Cold Pressor Test into a single, believable procedure called the Fear-Factor Stress Test (FFST). In the procedure, participants imagine auditioning for the reality television show Fear Factor. They stand before a video recorder and a panel of judges while (a) delivering a motivational speech, (b) performing a verbal arithmetic task, and (c) placing one hand into a bucket of ice water for up to 2 min. We measured subjective anxiety, heart rate, and salivary cortisol in three groups of young adults (n = 30 each, equal numbers of men and women): FFST, TSST, and Control (a placebo version of the FFST). Although the FFST and TSST groups were not distinguishable at the cortisol measure taken 5 min post-manipulation, at 35 min postmanipulation average cortisol levels in the TSST group had returned to baseline, whereas those in the FFST group continued to rise. The proportion of individual cortisol responders (≥ 2 nmol/l increase over baseline) in the TSST and FFST groups did not differ at the 5-min measure, but at the 35-min measure the FFST group contained significantly more responders. The findings indicate that the FFST induces a more robust and sustained cortisol response (which we assume is a marker of an HPA-axis response) than the TSST, and that it does so without increasing participant discomfort or incurring appreciably greater resource and time costs. PMID:24435939

  6. Brain oxidative stress: detection and mapping of anti-oxidant marker 'Glutathione' in different brain regions of healthy male/female, MCI and Alzheimer patients using non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pravat K; Tripathi, Manjari; Sugunan, Sreedevi

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) serves as an important anti-oxidant in the brain by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species that are generated during different molecular processes. The GSH level in the brain provides indirect information on oxidative stress of the brain. We report in vivo detection of GSH non-invasively from various brain regions (frontal cortex, parietal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) in bilateral hemispheres of healthy male and female subjects and from bi-lateral frontal cortices in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AD patients who participated in this study were on medication with cholinesterase inhibitors. Healthy young male (age 26.4±3.0) and healthy young female (age 23.6±2.1) subjects have higher amount of GSH in the parietal cortical region and a specific GSH distribution pattern (parietal cortex>frontal cortex>hippocampus ~ cerebellum) has been found. Overall mean GSH content is higher in healthy young female compared to healthy young male subjects and GSH is distributed differently in two hemispheres among male and female subjects. In both young female and male subjects, statistically significant (p=0.02 for young female and p=0.001 for young male) difference in mean GSH content is found when compared between left frontal cortex (LFC) and right frontal cortex (RFC). In healthy young female subjects, we report statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content between RFC and LFC (r=0.641, p=0.004) as well as right parietal cortex (RPC) and left parietal cortex (LPC) (r=0.797, p=0.000) regions. In healthy young male subjects, statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content was observed between LFC and LPC (r=0.481, p=0.032) regions. This statistical analysis implicates that in case of a high GSH content in LPC of a young male, his LFC region would also contain high GSH and vice versa. The difference in mean of GSH content between healthy young female control and female AD

  7. Non-invasive and invasive imaging of vulnerable coronary plaque.

    PubMed

    Celeng, Csilla; Takx, Richard A P; Ferencik, Maros; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2016-08-01

    Vulnerable plaque is characterized by a large necrotic core and an overlying thin fibrous cap. Non-invasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for the assessment of morphological plaque characteristics, while positron emission tomography (PET) enables the detection of metabolic activity within the atherosclerotic lesions. Invasive imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical-coherence tomography (OCT), and intravascular MRI (IV-MRI) display plaques at a high spatial resolution. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for the detection of chemical components of atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we describe state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities and stress the combination of their advantages to identify vulnerable plaque features. PMID:27079893

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is induced upon cardiac stress and alters cardiac lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Manoja K.; Adam, Rene C.; Pollak, Nina M.; Jaeger, Doris; Zierler, Kathrin A.; Pöcher, Nadja; Schreiber, Renate; Romauch, Matthias; Moustafa, Tarek; Eder, Sandra; Ruelicke, Thomas; Preiss-Landl, Karina; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a PPARα-regulated gene elucidated in the liver of PPARα-deficient mice or PPARα agonist-treated mice. Mice globally lacking adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) exhibit a marked defect in TG catabolism associated with impaired PPARα-activated gene expression in the heart and liver, including a drastic reduction in hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression. Here we show that FGF21 mRNA expression is markedly increased in the heart of ATGL-deficient mice accompanied by elevated expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, which can be reversed by reconstitution of ATGL expression in cardiac muscle. In line with this assumption, the induction of ER stress increases FGF21 mRNA expression in H9C2 cardiomyotubes. Cardiac FGF21 expression was also induced upon fasting of healthy mice, implicating a role of FGF21 in cardiac energy metabolism. To address this question, we generated and characterized mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of FGF21 (CM-Fgf21). FGF21 was efficiently secreted from cardiomyocytes of CM-Fgf21 mice, which moderately affected cardiac TG homeostasis, indicating a role for FGF21 in cardiac energy metabolism. Together, our results show that FGF21 expression is activated upon cardiac ER stress linked to defective lipolysis and that a persistent increase in circulating FGF21 levels interferes with cardiac and whole body energy homeostasis. PMID:25176985

  9. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance. PMID:26835653

  10. Non-Invasive Neuromodulation for Headache Disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuhan; Marmura, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Migraine and other chronic headache disorders are common and if inadequately treated, can lead to significant disability. The effectiveness of medications can be limited by side effects, drug interactions, and comorbid diseases necessitating alternative methods. Technological developments in the past 5 years have made it possible to use non-invasive methods of neuromodulation to treat primary headache disorders. This field includes technologies such as supraorbital transcutaneous stimulation (STS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS). Existing trials show these modalities are safe and well tolerated and can be combined with standard pharmacotherapy. We review the technologies, biological rationales, and trials involving non-invasive neuromodulation for the treatment of primary headache disorders. PMID:26750126

  11. Non-invasive monitoring of physiological stress in the Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): validation of a fecal glucocorticoid assay and methods for practical application in the field.

    PubMed

    Shutt, Kathryn; Setchell, Joanna M; Heistermann, Michael

    2012-11-01

    variation in FGCMs in samples from wild gorillas. Our study highlights the importance of thorough biological and immunological validation of FGCM assays, and presents validated, practical methods for the application of non-invasive adrenocortical monitoring techniques to field conservation contexts where it is crucially needed. PMID:22926327

  12. Modelflow underestimates cardiac output in heat-stressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H; Crandall, Craig G

    2011-02-01

    An estimation of cardiac output can be obtained from arterial pressure waveforms using the Modelflow method. However, whether the assumptions associated with Modelflow calculations are accurate during whole body heating is unknown. This project tested the hypothesis that cardiac output obtained via Modelflow accurately tracks thermodilution-derived cardiac outputs during whole body heat stress. Acute changes of cardiac output were accomplished via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermic and heat-stressed conditions. In nine healthy normotensive subjects, arterial pressure was measured via brachial artery cannulation and the volume-clamp method of the Finometer. Cardiac output was estimated from both pressure waveforms using the Modeflow method. In normothermic conditions, cardiac outputs estimated via Modelflow (arterial cannulation: 6.1 ± 1.0 l/min; Finometer 6.3 ± 1.3 l/min) were similar with cardiac outputs measured by thermodilution (6.4 ± 0.8 l/min). The subsequent reduction in cardiac output during LBNP was also similar among these methods. Whole body heat stress elevated internal temperature from 36.6 ± 0.3 to 37.8 ± 0.4°C and increased cardiac output from 6.4 ± 0.8 to 10.9 ± 2.0 l/min when evaluated with thermodilution (P < 0.001). However, the increase in cardiac output estimated from the Modelflow method for both arterial cannulation (2.3 ± 1.1 l/min) and Finometer (1.5 ± 1.2 l/min) was attenuated compared with thermodilution (4.5 ± 1.4 l/min, both P < 0.01). Finally, the reduction in cardiac output during LBNP while heat stressed was significantly attenuated for both Modelflow methods (cannulation: -1.8 ± 1.2 l/min, Finometer: -1.5 ± 0.9 l/min) compared with thermodilution (-3.8 ± 1.19 l/min). These results demonstrate that the Modelflow method, regardless of Finometer or direct arterial waveforms, underestimates cardiac output during heat stress and during subsequent reductions in cardiac output via LBNP. PMID:21084673

  13. Non-invasive Intratracheal Instillation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Muñoz, Guadalupe; Looney, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The intratracheal instillation technique is used to deliver a variety of agents to the lungs ranging from pathogens (bacteria, viruses), toxins, to therapeutic agents. To model lung inflammation and injury, LPS can be administrated via intranasal, intratracheal, or aerosol approaches. Each technique has its limitations. The intratracheal technique can involve the non-invasive instillation method (via the oro-tracheal route) or a direct injection into the trachea. Here, we describe an optimized method for direct visual instillation of LPS via the non-invasive oro-tracheal route.

  14. Non invasive assessment of the human tear film dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ring, M H; Rabensteiner, D F; Horwath-Winter, J; Boldin, I; Schrödl, F; Reitsamer, H; Haslwanter, T

    2015-11-01

    Dry eye disease, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is a multifactorial syndrome with altered tear film homeostasis leading to ocular irritations. These alterations cause discomfort and stress for the patient, but only a few objective parameters allow for proper differential diagnosis into different subtypes of this condition. The mostly invasively performed standard assessment procedures for tear film diagnosis are manifold, but often correlate quite poorly with the subjectively reported symptoms. Due to the inherent limitations, e.g. the subjectivity of the commonly performed invasive tests, a number of devices have been developed to assess the human tear film non-invasively. Since the production, delivery, distribution and drainage of the tear film is a dynamic process, we have focused our review on non-invasive methods which are capable of continuous or repetitive observations of the tear film during an inter-blink interval. These dynamic methods include (1) Interferometry, (2) Pattern Projection, (3) Aberrometry, (4) Thermography; and (5) Evaporimetry. These techniques are discussed with respect to their diagnostic value, both for screening and differential diagnostic of Dry Eye Disease. Many of the parameters obtained from these tests have been shown to have the potential to reliably discriminate patients from healthy subjects, especially when the tests are performed automatically and objectively. The differentiation into subtypes based solely on a single, dynamic parameter may not be feasible, but the combination of non-invasively performed procedures may provide good discrimination results. PMID:26406882

  15. Enhancing Cardiac Triacylglycerol Metabolism Improves Recovery From Ischemic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated cardiac triacylglycerol (TAG) content is traditionally equated with cardiolipotoxicity and suggested to be a culprit in cardiac dysfunction. However, previous work demonstrated that myosin heavy-chain–mediated cardiac-specific overexpression of diacylglycerol transferase 1 (MHC-DGAT1), the primary enzyme for TAG synthesis, preserved cardiac function in two lipotoxic mouse models despite maintaining high TAG content. Therefore, we examined whether increased cardiomyocyte TAG levels due to DGAT1 overexpression led to changes in cardiac TAG turnover rates under normoxia and ischemia-reperfusion conditions. MHC-DGAT1 mice had elevated TAG content and synthesis rates, which did not alter cardiac function, substrate oxidation, or myocardial energetics. MHC-DGAT1 hearts had ischemia-induced lipolysis; however, when a physiologic mixture of long-chain fatty acids was provided, enhanced TAG turnover rates were associated with improved functional recovery from low-flow ischemia. Conversely, exogenous supply of palmitate during reperfusion suppressed elevated TAG turnover rates and impaired recovery from ischemia in MHC-DGAT1 hearts. Collectively, this study shows that elevated TAG content, accompanied by enhanced turnover, does not adversely affect cardiac function and, in fact, provides cardioprotection from ischemic stress. In addition, the results highlight the importance of exogenous supply of fatty acids when assessing cardiac lipid metabolism and its relationship with cardiac function. PMID:25858561

  16. Enhancing Cardiac Triacylglycerol Metabolism Improves Recovery From Ischemic Stress.

    PubMed

    Kolwicz, Stephen C; Liu, Li; Goldberg, Ira J; Tian, Rong

    2015-08-01

    Elevated cardiac triacylglycerol (TAG) content is traditionally equated with cardiolipotoxicity and suggested to be a culprit in cardiac dysfunction. However, previous work demonstrated that myosin heavy-chain-mediated cardiac-specific overexpression of diacylglycerol transferase 1 (MHC-DGAT1), the primary enzyme for TAG synthesis, preserved cardiac function in two lipotoxic mouse models despite maintaining high TAG content. Therefore, we examined whether increased cardiomyocyte TAG levels due to DGAT1 overexpression led to changes in cardiac TAG turnover rates under normoxia and ischemia-reperfusion conditions. MHC-DGAT1 mice had elevated TAG content and synthesis rates, which did not alter cardiac function, substrate oxidation, or myocardial energetics. MHC-DGAT1 hearts had ischemia-induced lipolysis; however, when a physiologic mixture of long-chain fatty acids was provided, enhanced TAG turnover rates were associated with improved functional recovery from low-flow ischemia. Conversely, exogenous supply of palmitate during reperfusion suppressed elevated TAG turnover rates and impaired recovery from ischemia in MHC-DGAT1 hearts. Collectively, this study shows that elevated TAG content, accompanied by enhanced turnover, does not adversely affect cardiac function and, in fact, provides cardioprotection from ischemic stress. In addition, the results highlight the importance of exogenous supply of fatty acids when assessing cardiac lipid metabolism and its relationship with cardiac function. PMID:25858561

  17. Non-invasive assessment of intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Robba, C; Bacigaluppi, S; Cardim, D; Donnelly, J; Bertuccio, A; Czosnyka, M

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is invaluable in the management of neurosurgical and neurological critically ill patients. Invasive measurement of ventricular or parenchymal pressure is considered the gold standard for accurate measurement of ICP but is not always possible due to certain risks. Therefore, the availability of accurate methods to non-invasively estimate ICP has the potential to improve the management of these vulnerable patients. This review provides a comparative description of different methods for non-invasive ICP measurement. Current methods are based on changes associated with increased ICP, both morphological (assessed with magnetic resonance, computed tomography, ultrasound, and fundoscopy) and physiological (assessed with transcranial and ophthalmic Doppler, tympanometry, near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography, visual-evoked potentials, and otoacoustic emissions assessment). At present, none of the non-invasive techniques alone seem suitable as a substitute for invasive monitoring. However, following the present analysis and considerations upon each technique, we propose a possible flowchart based on the combination of non-invasive techniques including those characterizing morphologic changes (e.g., repetitive US measurements of ONSD) and those characterizing physiological changes (e.g., continuous TCD). Such an integrated approach, which still needs to be validated in clinical practice, could aid in deciding whether to place an invasive monitor, or how to titrate therapy when invasive ICP measurement is contraindicated or unavailable. PMID:26515159

  18. Non-invasive monitoring of spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Bastany, Zoya J R; Askari, Shahbaz; Dumont, Guy A; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Spreading depression (SD), a slow propagating depolarization wave, plays an important role in pathophysiology of different neurological disorders. Yet, research into SD-related disorders has been hampered by the lack of non-invasive recording techniques of SD. Here we compared the manifestations of SD in continuous non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings to invasive electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in order to obtain further insights into generator structures and electrogenic mechanisms of surface recording of SD. SD was induced by KCl application and simultaneous SD recordings were performed by scalp EEG as well as ECoG electrodes of somatosensory neocortex of rats using a novel homemade EEG amplifier, AgCl recording electrodes, and high chloride conductive gel. Different methods were used to analyze the data; including the spectrogram, bi-spectrogram, pattern distribution, relative spectrum power, and multivariable Gaussian fit analysis. The negative direct current (DC) shifts recorded by scalp electrodes exhibited a high homogeneity to those recorded by ECoG electrodes. Furthermore, this novel method of recording and analysis was able to separate SD recorded by scalp electrodes from non-neuronal DC shifts induced by other potential generators, such as the skin, muscles, arteries, dura, etc. These data suggest a novel application for continuous non-invasive monitoring of DC potential changes, such as SD. Non-invasive monitoring of SD would allow early intervention and improve outcome in SD-related neurological disorders. PMID:27397413

  19. [Pulmonary non invasive infection by Scedosporium apiospermum].

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rodrigo; Barros, Manuel; Reyes, Mirtha

    2015-08-01

    We reported a case of non-invasive pulmonary infection by Scedosporium apiospermum in 67 years old female with bronchiectasis and caverns secondary to tuberculosis. Diagnosis was made with lung CT and bronchial lavage cultures. The patient was initially treated with itraconazole for six weeks without success and then voriconazole for 16 weeks, with good clinical response. PMID:26436797

  20. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  1. [Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2015-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases represent a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the amount of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy has long remained the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure with associated morbidity, it is rarely the cause for mortality, and has a few limitations. During the past two decades, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis have been developed, mainly in the field of viral hepatitis. This review will focus on different methods available for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis including a biological approach which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis and physical techniques which measure liver stiffness by transient elastography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance based elastography, their accuracy, advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25962254

  2. Physiology of non-invasive respiratory support.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, Stamatia; Panitch, Howard B

    2016-06-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in neonates to treat extrathoracic and intrathoracic airway obstruction, parenchymal lung disease and disorders of control of breathing. Avoidance of airway intubation is associated with a reduction in the incidence of chronic lung disease among preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) may help establish and maintain functional residual capacity (FRC), decrease respiratory work, and improve gas exchange. Other modes of non-invasive ventilation, which include heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HHHFNC), nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (NIMV), non-invasive pressure support ventilation (NI-PSV), and bi-level CPAP (SiPAP™), have also been shown to provide additional benefit in improving breathing patterns, reducing work of breathing, and increasing gas exchange when compared with nCPAP. Newer modes, such as neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), hold the promise of improving patient-ventilator synchrony and so might ultimately improve outcomes for preterm infants with respiratory distress. PMID:26923501

  3. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    PubMed

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-01

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response. PMID:25819147

  4. Instrumentation for Non-Invasive Assessment of Cardiovascular Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    It is critically important to be able to assess alterations in cardiovascular regulation during and after space flight. We propose to develop an instrument for the non-invasive assessment of such alterations that can be used on the ground and potentially during space flight. This instrumentation would be used by the Cardiovascular Alterations Team at multiple sites for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system and the evaluation of countermeasures. In particular, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team will use this instrumentation in conjunction with ground-based human bed-rest studies and during application of acute stresses e.g., tilt, lower body negative pressure, and exercise. In future studies, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team anticipates using this instrumentation to study astronauts before and after space flight and ultimately, during space flight. The instrumentation may also be used by the Bone Demineralization/Calcium Metabolism Team, the Neurovestibular Team and the Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team to measure changes in autonomic nervous function. The instrumentation will be based on a powerful new technology - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - which has been developed in our laboratory. CSI provides a non-invasive approach for the study of alterations in cardiovascular regulation. This approach involves the analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in physiologic signals such as heart rate and non-invasively measured arterial blood pressure in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of multiple physiologic mechanisms, CSI provides a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject.

  5. Monitoring of oxidative and metabolic stress during cardiac surgery by means of breath biomarkers: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, Florian; Miekisch, Wolfram; Fuchs, Patricia; Kischkel, Sabine; Schubert, Jochen K

    2007-01-01

    Background Volatile breath biomarkers provide a non-invasive window to observe physiological and pathological processes in the body. This study was intended to assess the impact of heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC) onto breath biomarker profiles. Special attention was attributed to oxidative or metabolic stress during surgery and extracorporeal circulation, which can cause organ damage and poor outcome. Methods 24 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation were enrolled into this observational study. Alveolar breath samples (10 mL) were taken after induction of anesthesia, after sternotomy, 5 min after end of ECC, and 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after end of surgery. Alveolar gas samples were withdrawn from the circuit under visual control of expired CO2. Inspiratory samples were taken near the ventilator inlet. Volatile substances in breath were preconcentrated by means of solid phase micro extraction, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. Results Mean exhaled concentrations of acetone, pentane and isoprene determined in this study were in accordance with results from the literature. Exhaled substance concentrations showed considerable inter-individual variation, and inspired pentane concentrations sometimes had the same order of magnitude than expired values. This is the reason why, concentrations were normalized by the values measured 120 min after surgery. Exhaled acetone concentrations increased slightly after sternotomy and markedly after end of ECC. Exhaled acetone concentrations exhibited positive correlation to serum C-reactive protein concentrations and to serum troponine-T concentrations. Exhaled pentane concentrations increased markedly after sternotomy and dropped below initial values after ECC. Breath pentane concentrations showed correlations with serum creatinine (CK) levels. Patients with an elevated CK-MB (myocardial&brain)/CK ratio had also high concentrations of

  6. Cardiac factors in orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löllgen, H.; Dirschedl, P.; Koppenhagen, K.; Klein, K. E.

    Cardiac function is determined by preload, afterload, heart rate and contractility. During orthostatic stress, the footward blood shift is compensated for by an increase of afterload. LBNP is widely used to analyze effects of volume displacement during orthostatic stress. Comparisons of invasive ( right heart catheterization) and non-invasive approach (echocardiography) yielded similar changes. Preload and afterload change with graded LBNP, heart rate increases, and stroke volume and cardiac output decrease. Thus, the working point on the left ventricular function curve is shifted to the left and downward, similar to hypovolemia. However, position on the Frank-Starling curve, the unchanged ejection fraction, and the constant Vcf indicate a normal contractile state during LBNP. A decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure during LBNP shwos impaired ventilation/perfusion ratio. Finally, LBNP induced cardiac and hemodynamic changes can be effectively countermeasured by dihydroergotamine, a potent venoconstrictor. Comparison of floating catheter data with that of echocardiography resulted in close correlation for cardiac output and stroke volume. In addition, cardiac dimensions changed in a similar way during LBNP. From our findings, echocardiography as a non-invasive procedure can reliably used in LBNP and orthostatic stress tests. Some informations can be obtained on borderline values indicating collaps or orthostatic syncope. Early fainters can be differentiated from late fainters by stroke volume changes.

  7. [Non invasive ventilation in the emergency setting].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Laetitia; Della Santa, Vincent; Hanhart, Walter-Alexandre

    2015-08-12

    Before the development of non invasive ventilation (NIV), endotracheal intubation was the only ventilatory therapy available in case of severe respiratory distress and acute respiratory failure. NIV used to be employed in intensive care settings only. Nowadays, the use of NIV has been democratized to include the emergency room, and the pre-hospital care setting for treatment of acute respiratory failure. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema and acute exacerbation of COPD are indications of choice, since NIV improves mortality. The efficiency of the therapy depends on early treatment; however, endotracheal intubation should not be delayed when it becomes necessary. PMID:26449102

  8. Non-Invasive Assessment of Susceptibility to Ventricular Arrhythmias During Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    cardiac susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in subjects exposed to simulated space flight in the Human Studies Core protocol being conducted by the Cardiovascular Alterations Team, which involves sixteen days .of bed rest. In particular, we are applying a powerful new non-invasive technology, developed in Professor Cohen's laboratory at MIT for the quantitative assessment of the risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This technology involves the measurement of microvolt levels of T wave alternans (TWA) during exercise stress, and was recently granted approval by the Food and Drug Administration to be used for the clinical evaluation of patients suspected to be at risk of ventricular arrhythmias. In addition, we are obtaining 24 hour Holter monitoring (to detect non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and to assess heart rate variability). We are also conducting protocols to obtain these same measures on a monthly basis for up to four months in subjects in the Bone Demineralization/calcium Metaboloism Team's long term bed rest study.

  9. AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuedong; Huang, Huiling; Jiang, Jingzhou; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Chunxi; Tang, Anli; Dai, Gang; He, Jiangui; Chen, Yili

    2016-06-10

    AVE 0991, the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) analog, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved. Mice were underwent aortic banding to induce cardiac hypertrophy followed by the administration of AVE 0991 (20 mg kg·day (-1)) for 4 weeks. It was shown that AVE 0991 reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved heart function, characterized by decreases in left ventricular weight and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and increases in ejection fraction. Moreover, AVE 0991 significantly down-regulated mean myocyte diameter and attenuate the gene expression of the hypertrophic markers. Furthermore, AVE 0991 inhibited the expression of NOX 2 and NOX 4, meaning that AVE 0991 reduced oxidative stress of cardiac hypertrophy mice. Our data showed that AVE 0991 treatment could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and improve heart function, which may be due to reduce oxidative stress. PMID:26403967

  10. Non-Invasive Measurement of Intracranial Pressure Pulsation using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, R. E.; Yost, W. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity causes a cephalad fluid shift which may elevate intracranial pressure (ICP). Elevation in ICP may affect cerebral hemodynamics in astronauts during space flight. ICP is, however, a difficult parameter to measure due to the invasiveness of currently available techniques. We already reported our development of a non-invasive ultrasound device for measurement of ICP. We recently modified the device so that we might reproducibly estimate ICP changes in association with cardiac cycles. In the first experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance with the ultrasound device in cadavera while changing ICP by infusing saline into the lateral ventricle. In the second experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance in five healthy volunteers while placing them in 60 deg, 30 deg head-up tilt, supine, and 10 deg head-down tilt position. In the cadaver study, fast Fourier transformation revealed that cranial pulsation is clearly associated with ICP pulsation. The ratio of cranial distance and ICP pulsation is 1.3microns/mmHg. In the tilting study, the magnitudes of cranial pulsation are linearly correlated to tilt angles (r=0.87). The ultrasound device has sufficient sensitivity to detect cranial pulsation in association with cardiac cycles. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsation, estimates of ICP during space flight are possible.

  11. [Stress cardiac MRI in management of ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Russel, S; Darmon, S; Vermillet, A; Haziza, F

    2014-11-01

    Stress magnetic cardiac resonance imaging (MRI) development is in progress. Many cardiac imaging technics already known are completed by this safe radiation free exam with a short time acquisition (30minutes) and a good diagnostic performance in particular for patients with three vessels coronary artery diseases. Best indication concerns symptomatic patients unable to exercise with intermediate or high pretest probability. Pharmacological heart stress can be induced with vasodilatators or dobutamine to identify the presence and extent of myocardial ischemia, with high precision to guide coronary vessels revascularization. MRI gives many other interesting informations like heart anatomy, left ventricular function. Myocardial viability can be assessed with study of late gadolinium enhancement or analysis of contractile reserve with low dose of dobutamine. PMID:25281219

  12. Social stress, autonomic neural activation, and cardiac activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo, A; Koolhaas, J; De Boer, S; Musso, E; Stilli, D; Buwalda, B; Meerlo, P

    1999-11-01

    Animal models of social stress represent a useful experimental tool to investigate the relationship between psychological stress, autonomic neural activity and cardiovascular disease. This paper summarizes the results obtained in a series of experiments performed on rats and aimed at verifying whether social challenges produce specific modifications in the autonomic neural control of heart rate and whether these changes can be detrimental for cardiac electrical stability. Short-term electrocardiographic recordings were performed via radiotelemetry and the autonomic input to the heart evaluated by means of time-domain heart rate variability measures. Compared to other stress contexts, a social defeat experience produces a strong shift of autonomic balance toward sympathetic dominance, poorly antagonized by vagal rebound, and associated with the occurrence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias. These effects were particularly severe when a wild-type strain of rats was studied. The data also suggest that the cardiac autonomic responses produced by different types of social contexts (dominant-subordinate interaction, dominant-dominant confrontation, social defeat) are related to different degrees of emotional activation, which in turn are likely modulated by the social rank of the experimental animal and the opponent, the prior experience with the stressor, and the level of controllability over the stimulus. PMID:10580306

  13. Non-Invasive Imaging of Vascular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ammirati, Enrico; Moroni, Francesco; Pedrotti, Patrizia; Scotti, Isabella; Magnoni, Marco; Bozzolo, Enrica P.; Rimoldi, Ornella E.; Camici, Paolo G.

    2014-01-01

    In large-vessel vasculitides, inflammatory infiltrates may cause thickening of the involved arterial vessel wall leading to progressive stenosis and occlusion. Dilatation, aneurysm formation, and thrombosis may also ensue. Activated macrophages and T lymphocytes are fundamental elements in vascular inflammation. The amount and density of the inflammatory infiltrate is directly linked to local disease activity. Additionally, patients with autoimmune disorders have an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk compared with age-matched healthy individuals as a consequence of accelerated atherosclerosis. Molecular imaging techniques targeting activated macrophages, neovascularization, or increased cellular metabolic activity can represent effective means of non-invasive detection of vascular inflammation. In the present review, novel non-invasive imaging tools that have been successfully tested in humans will be presented. These include contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which allows detection of neovessels within the wall of inflamed arteries; contrast-enhanced CV magnetic resonance that can detect increased thickness of the arterial wall, usually associated with edema, or mural enhancement using T2 and post-contrast T1-weighted sequences, respectively; and positron emission tomography associated with radio-tracers such as [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and the new [11C]-PK11195 in combination with computed tomography angiography to detect activated macrophages within the vessel wall. Imaging techniques are useful in the diagnostic work-up of large- and medium-vessel vasculitides, to monitor disease activity and the response to treatments. Finally, molecular imaging targets can provide new clues about the pathogenesis and evolution of immune-mediated disorders involving arterial vessels. PMID:25183963

  14. Tissue-Informative Mechanism for Wearable Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-10-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring.

  15. Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-01-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring. PMID:25331013

  16. Obesity and Oxidative Stress Predict AKI after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, Mias; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D.; Byrne, John G.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Brown, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity increases oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation, but the effect of obesity on postoperative AKI is not known. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and AKI in 445 patients undergoing cardiac surgery and whether oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), inflammation (IL-6), or antifibrinolysis (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]) contribute to any identified relationship. Overall, 112 (25%) of the 445 patients developed AKI. Higher BMI was independently associated with increased odds of AKI (26.5% increase per 5 kg/m2 [95% confidence interval, 4.3%–53.4%]; P=0.02). Baseline F2-isoprostane (P=0.04), intraoperative F2-isoprostane (P=0.003), and intraoperative PAI-1 (P=0.04) concentrations also independently predicted AKI. BMI no longer predicted AKI after adjustment for the effect of F2-isoprostanes, suggesting that obesity may affect AKI via effects on oxidative stress. In contrast, adjustment for IL-6 or PAI-1 did not substantially alter the association between BMI and AKI. Further, deconstruction of the obesity-AKI relationship into direct (i.e., independent of candidate pathways) and indirect (i.e., effect of BMI on AKI via each candidate pathway) effects indicated that F2-isoprostanes, but not IL-6 or PAI-1, partially mediate the relationship between obesity and AKI (P=0.001). In conclusion, obesity independently predicts AKI after cardiac surgery, and oxidative stress may partially mediate this association. PMID:22626819

  17. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  18. Myocardial Oxidative Stress in Infants Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sznycer-Taub, Nathaniel; Mackie, Stewart; Peng, Yun-Wen; Donohue, Janet; Yu, Sunkyung; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Charpie, John

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease often necessitates a period of myocardial ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest, followed by reperfusion after aortic cross-clamp removal. In experimental models, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is associated with significant oxidative stress and ventricular dysfunction. A prospective observational study was conducted in infants (<1 year) who underwent elective surgical repair of a ventricular septal defect (VSD) or tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Blood samples were drawn following anesthetic induction (baseline) and directly from the coronary sinus at 1, 3, 5, and 10 min following aortic cross-clamp removal. Samples were analyzed for oxidant stress using assays for thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl, 8-isoprostane, and total antioxidant capacity. For each subject, raw assay data were normalized to individual baseline samples and expressed as fold-change from baseline. Results were compared using a one-sample t test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Sixteen patients (ten with TOF and six with VSD) were enrolled in the study, and there were no major postoperative complications observed. For the entire cohort, there was an immediate, rapid increase in myocardial oxidative stress that was sustained for 10 min following aortic cross-clamp removal in all biomarker assays (all P < 0.01), except total antioxidant capacity. Infant cardiac surgery is associated with a rapid, robust, and time-dependent increase in myocardial oxidant stress as measured from the coronary sinus in vivo. Future studies with larger enrollment are necessary to assess any association between myocardial oxidative stress and early postoperative outcomes. PMID:26843460

  19. The impact of cardiac perception on emotion experience and cognitive performance under mental stress.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Nicole K; Werner, Natalie S

    2014-12-01

    Mental stress evokes several physiological responses such as the acceleration of heart rate, increase of electrodermal activity and the release of adrenaline. Moreover, physiological stress responses interact with emotional and behavioral stress responses. In the present study we provide evidence that viscero-sensory feedback from the heart (cardiac perception) is an important factor modulating emotional and cognitive stress responses. In our study, we compared participants with high versus low cardiac perception using a computerized mental stress task, in which they had to respond to rapidly presented visual and acoustic stimuli. Additionally, we assessed physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance). Participants high in cardiac perception reported more negative emotions and showed worse task performance under the stressor than participants low in cardiac perception. These results were not moderated by physiological responses. We conclude that cardiac perception modulates stress responses by intensifying negative emotions and by impairing cognitive performance. PMID:24719221

  20. Apocynin Attenuates Cardiac Injury in Type 4 Cardiorenal Syndrome via Suppressing Cardiac Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 With Oxidative Stress Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xun; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Huang, Feifei; Wang, Jing-Feng; Tang, Wanchun; Huang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) refers to the cardiac injury induced by chronic kidney disease. We aimed to assess oxidative stress and cardiac injury in patients with type 4 CRS, determine whether the antioxidant apocynin attenuated cardiac injury in rats with type 4 CRS, and explore potential mechanisms. Methods and Results A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with type 4 CRS (n=17) and controls (n=16). Compared with controls, patients with type 4 CRS showed elevated oxidative stress, which was significantly correlated with cardiac hypertrophy and decreased ejection fraction. In vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy and sham surgery, followed with apocynin or vehicle treatment for 8 weeks. Eight weeks after surgery, the 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy rats mimicked type 4 CRS, showing increased serum creatinine, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and decreased ejection fraction compared with sham-operated animals. Cardiac malondialdehyde, NADPH oxidase activity, fibroblast growth factor-2, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation increased significantly in the 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy rats. These changes were significantly attenuated by apocynin. In vitro study showed that apocynin reduced angiotensin II–induced NADPH oxidase–dependent oxidative stress, upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and fibrosis biomarkers, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cardiac fibroblasts. Importantly, the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 reduced the upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and fibrosis biomarkers in angiotensin II–treated fibroblasts. Conclusions Oxidative stress is a candidate mediator for type 4 CRS. Apocynin attenuated cardiac injury in type 4 CRS rats via inhibiting NADPH oxidase–dependent oxidative stress-activated ERK1/2 pathway and subsequent fibroblast growth factor-2 upregulation. Our study added evidence to the beneficial effect of apocynin in type 4 CRS. PMID:26109504

  1. Angiographic correlations of patients with small vessel disease diagnosed by adenosine-stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pilz, Guenter; Klos, Markus; Ali, Eman; Hoefling, Berthold; Scheck, Roland; Bernhardt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with adenosine-stress myocardial perfusion is gaining importance for the detection and quantification of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there is little knowledge about patients with CMR-detected ischemia, but having no relevant stenosis as seen on coronary angiography (CA). The aims of our study were to characterize these patients by CMR and CA and evaluate correlations and potential reasons for the ischemic findings. 73 patients with an indication for CA were first scanned on a 1.5T whole-body CMR-scanner including adenosine-stress first-pass perfusion. The images were analyzed by two independent investigators for myocardial perfusion which was classified as subendocardial ischemia (n = 22), no perfusion deficit (n = 27, control 1), or more than subendocardial ischemia (n = 24, control 2). All patients underwent CA, and a highly significant correlation between the classification of CMR perfusion deficit and the degree of coronary luminal narrowing was found. For quantification of coronary blood flow, corrected Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) was evaluated for the left anterior descending (LAD), circumflex (LCX) and right coronary artery (RCA). The main result was that corrected TFC in all coronaries was significantly increased in study patients compared to both control 1 and to control 2 patients. Study patients had hypertension or diabetes more often than control 1 patients. In conclusion, patients with CMR detected subendocardial ischemia have prolonged coronary blood flow. In connection with normal resting flow values in CAD, this supports the hypothesis of underlying coronary microvascular impairment. CMR stress perfusion differentiates non-invasively between this entity and relevant CAD. PMID:18275591

  2. Improving non-invasive ventilation documentation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew; Elkheir, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Record keeping for patients on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at St. Georges Hospital is poor. The initial NIV prescription is often not recorded, and changes to the NIV prescription or the rationale for the changes (ABG results) are also poorly documented. This leads to confusion for nurses/doctors as to what the correct settings are, meaning patients could receive ineffective ventilation. The use of NIV is also poorly recorded by nursing staff meaning that doctors are unsure if the prescribed NIV is being achieved. This can lead to treatment being escalated unnecessarily in the event of treatment failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the provision of ventilatory support in the form of positive pressure via the patient's upper airway using a mask or similar device. NIV is indicated for treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, of which there are many causes, though COPD is the indication in up to 70% of cases.[1] British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for NIV suggest that the rationale for commencing a patient on NIV and the proposed settings should be clearly documented.[2] Clinicians cannot effectively tailor changes to the patients NIV settings if this information is not clearly recorded, which could lead to increased time requiring NIV or NIV failure. Three main areas were considered important to measure for this project. The initial prescription of the NIV, changes to the NIV settings, and nursing documentation surrounding NIV. A baseline measurement of NIV documentation for two weeks found NIV documentation to globally very poor. NIV was formally prescribed 29% of the time, full detail of intended settings were documented 57% of the time, the decision to commence NIV was discussed with the respiratory consultant/SpR just 29% of the time and on no occasion was a decision regarding escalation of treatment recorded. Eighteen changes were made to the NIV settings. These were formally prescribed 22% of the time and detail of the intended

  3. Inflammation, oxidative stress and postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zakkar, M; Ascione, R; James, A F; Angelini, G D; Suleiman, M S

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication of cardiac surgery that occurs in up to 60% of patients. POAF is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, stroke and other arrhythmias that can impact on early and long term clinical outcomes and health economics. Many factors such as disease-induced cardiac remodelling, operative trauma, changes in atrial pressure and chemical stimulation and reflex sympathetic/parasympathetic activation have been implicated in the development of POAF. There is mounting evidence to support a major role for inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of POAF. Both are consequences of using cardiopulmonary bypass and reperfusion following ischaemic cardioplegic arrest. Subsequently, several anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs have been tested in an attempt to reduce the incidence of POAF. However, prevention remains suboptimal and thus far none of the tested drugs has provided sufficient efficacy to be widely introduced in clinical practice. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the onset and persistence of POAF is needed to develop more effective prediction and interventions. PMID:26116810

  4. Modern non-invasive mechanical ventilation turns 25.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario

    2013-11-01

    The history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation goes back more than 100 years, but it was not until 1987 when what we could call "modern" non-invasive mechanical ventilation was developed. The description of Delaubier and Rideau of a patient with Duchenne's disease who had been effectively ventilated through a nasal mask marked the start of a new era in the history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Over these last 25years, we have witnessed exponential growth in its use, field of activity and technological advances on an exciting fast-paced track. We believe that it is time to review the main milestones that have marked the development of non-invasive mechanical ventilation to date, while paying homage to this therapeutic method that has contributed so much to the advancement of respiratory medicine in the last 25years. PMID:23347549

  5. Non-invasive electrocardiogram detection of in vivo zebrafish embryos using electric potential sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon-Morales, E.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Aviles-Espinosa, R.

    2015-11-01

    In this letter, we report the continuous detection of the cardiac electrical activity in embryonic zebrafish using a non-invasive approach. We present a portable and cost-effective platform based on the electric potential sensing technology, to monitor in vivo electrocardiogram activity from the zebrafish heart. This proof of principle demonstration shows how electrocardiogram measurements from the embryonic zebrafish may become accessible by using electric field detection. We present preliminary results using the prototype, which enables the acquisition of electrophysiological signals from in vivo 3 and 5 days-post-fertilization zebrafish embryos. The recorded waveforms show electrocardiogram traces including detailed features such as QRS complex, P and T waves.

  6. ADP Protects Cardiac Mitochondria under Severe Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Niina; Pan, Shi; Provazza, Sarah; Beutner, Gisela; Vendelin, Marko; Birkedal, Rikke; Sheu, Shey-Shing

    2013-01-01

    ADP is not only a key substrate for ATP generation, but also a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). In this study, we assessed how oxidative stress affects the potency of ADP as an mPTP inhibitor and whether its reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production might be involved. We determined quantitatively the effects of ADP on mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity (CRC) until the induction of mPTP in normal and stressed isolated cardiac mitochondria. We used two models of chronic oxidative stress (old and diabetic mice) and two models of acute oxidative stress (ischemia reperfusion (IR) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)). In control mitochondria, the CRC was 344 ± 32 nmol/mg protein. 500 μmol/L ADP increased CRC to 774 ± 65 nmol/mg protein. This effect of ADP seemed to relate to its concentration as 50 μmol/L had a significantly smaller effect. Also, oligomycin, which inhibits the conversion of ADP to ATP by F0F1ATPase, significantly increased the effect of 50 μmol/L ADP. Chronic oxidative stress did not affect CRC or the effect of 500 μmol/L ADP. After IR or t-BH exposure, CRC was drastically reduced to 1 ± 0.2 and 32 ± 4 nmol/mg protein, respectively. Surprisingly, ADP increased the CRC to 447 ± 105 and 514 ± 103 nmol/mg protein in IR and t-BH, respectively. Thus, it increased CRC by the same amount as in control. In control mitochondria, ADP decreased both substrate and Ca2+-induced increase of ROS. However, in t-BH mitochondria the effect of ADP on ROS was relatively small. We conclude that ADP potently restores CRC capacity in severely stressed mitochondria. This effect is most likely not related to a reduction in ROS production. As the effect of ADP relates to its concentration, increased ADP as occurs in the pathophysiological situation may protect mitochondrial integrity and function. PMID:24349464

  7. A-kinase anchoring proteins: molecular regulators of the cardiac stress response.

    PubMed

    Diviani, Dario; Maric, Darko; Pérez López, Irene; Cavin, Sabrina; Del Vescovo, Cosmo D

    2013-04-01

    In response to stress or injury the heart undergoes a pathological remodeling process, associated with hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death and fibrosis, that ultimately causes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. It has become increasingly clear that signaling events associated with these pathological cardiac remodeling events are regulated by scaffolding and anchoring proteins, which allow coordination of pathological signals in space and time. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) constitute a family of functionally related proteins that organize multiprotein signaling complexes that tether the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as well as other signaling enzymes to ensure integration and processing of multiple signaling pathways. This review will discuss the role of AKAPs in the cardiac response to stress. Particular emphasis will be given to the adaptative process associated with cardiac hypoxia as well as the remodeling events linked to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction. PMID:22889610

  8. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Kristie J.; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature’s most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured—leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson’s ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction.

  9. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks.

    PubMed

    Koski, Kristie J; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature's most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured-leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson's ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction. PMID:23353627

  10. The influence of motor activity on the development of cardiac arrhythmias during experimental emotional stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulyaninskiy, L. S.; Urmancheyeva, T. G.; Stepanyan, Y. P.; Fufacheva, A. A.; Gritsak, A. V.; Kuznetsova, B. A.; Kvitka, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental emotional stress which can produce various disorders of cardiac rhythm: sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular, extrasystoles and paroxysmal ventricular tachysystoles was studied. In these conditions the adrenalin content in the blood and myocardium is increased 3 to 4 times. It is found that moderate motor activity leads to a relative decrease of adrenalin in the myocardium and arrest of cardiac arrhythmias.

  11. Non-invasive subcutaneous fat reduction: a review.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J; Verne, S; Griffith, R; Falto-Aizpurua, L; Nouri, K

    2015-09-01

    The risks, financial costs and lengthy downtime associated with surgical procedures for fat reduction have led to the development of a number of non-invasive techniques. Non-invasive body contouring now represents the fastest growing area of aesthetic medicine. There are currently four leading non-invasive techniques for reducing localized subcutaneous adipose tissue: low-level laser therapy (LLLT), cryolipolysis, radio frequency (RF) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). To review and compare leading techniques and clinical outcomes of non-invasive subcutaneous fat reduction. The terms 'non-invasive', 'low-level laser', 'cryolipolysis', 'ultrasound' and 'radio frequency' were combined with 'lipolysis', 'fat reduction' or 'body contour' during separate searches in the PubMed database. We identified 31 studies (27 prospective clinical studies and four retrospective chart reviews) with a total of 2937 patients that had been treated with LLLT (n = 1114), cryolipolysis (n = 706), HIFU (n = 843) or RF (n = 116) or other techniques (n = 158) for fat reduction or body contouring. A majority of these patients experienced significant and satisfying results without any serious adverse effects. The studies investigating these devices have all varied in treatment regimen, body locations, follow-up times or outcome operationalization. Each technique differs in offered advantages and severity of adverse effects. However, multiple non-invasive devices are safe and effective for circumferential reduction in local fat tissue by 2 cm or more across the abdomen, hips and thighs. Results are consistent and reproducible for each device and none are associated with any serious or permanent adverse effects. PMID:25664493

  12. An Acetone Nanosensor For Non-invasive Diabetes Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yun, X.; Stanacevic, M.; Gouma, P. I.

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes is a most common disease worldwide. Acetone in exhaled breath is a known biomarker of Type- 1 diabetes. An exhaled breath analyzer has been developed with the potential to diagnose diabetes as a non-invasive alternative of the currently used blood-based diagnostics. This device utilizes a chemiresistor based on ferroelectric tungsten oxide nanoparticles and detects acetone selectively in breath-simulated media. Real-time monitoring of the acetone concentration is feasible, potentially making this detector a revolutionary, non- invasive, diabetes diagnostic tool.

  13. Non-invasive brain stimulation in early rehabilitation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Blesneag, A V; Popa, L; Stan, A D

    2015-01-01

    The new tendency in rehabilitation involves non-invasive tools that, if applied early after stroke, promote neurorecovery. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may correct the disruption of cortical excitability and effectively contribute to the restoration of movement and speech. The present paper analyses the results of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) trials, highlighting different aspects related to the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation frequency, transcranial direct current stimulation polarity, the period and stimulation places in acute and subacute ischemic strokes. The risk of adverse events, the association with motor or language recovery specific training, and the cumulative positive effect evaluation are also discussed. PMID:26361512

  14. Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Ganswindt, Stefanie B; Myburgh, Jan G; Cameron, Elissa Z; Ganswindt, Andre

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of stress-inducing factors in captive crocodilians is a concern, since chronic stress can negatively affect animal health and reproduction, and hence production. Monitoring stress in wild crocodiles could also be beneficial for assessing the state of health in populations which are potentially threatened by environmental pollution. In both cases, a non-invasive approach to assess adrenocortical function as a measure of stress would be preferable, as animals are not disturbed during sample collection, and therefore sampling is feedback-free. So far, however, such a non-invasive method has not been established for any crocodilian species. As an initial step, we therefore examined the suitability of two enzyme-immunoassays, detecting faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) with a 11β,21-diol-20-one and 5β-3α-ol-11-one structure, respectively, for monitoring stress-related physiological responses in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was performed on 10 sub-adult crocodiles, resulting in an overall increase in serum corticosterone levels of 272% above the pre-injection levels 5h post-injection. Saline-treated control animals (n=8) showed an overall increase of 156% in serum corticosterone levels 5h post-administration. Faecal samples pre- and post-injection could be obtained from three of the six individually housed crocodiles, resulting in FGM concentrations 136-380% above pre-injection levels, always detected in the first sample collected post-treatment (7-15 days post-injection). FGM concentrations seem comparatively stable at ambient temperatures for up to 72 h post-defaecation. In conclusion, non-invasive hormone monitoring can be used for assessing adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles based on FGM analysis. PMID:25066028

  15. Reliable, Low Mass, Non-Invasive Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, F.; Tovey, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mass is a major driver for future spacecraft and missions exposed to high radiation levels (i.e. Europa Orbiter) present even more challenge. A variety of non-invasive measurement techniques are in development that enables determination of pressures within a propulsion network.

  16. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Packer, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    There is described an apparatus and method for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate which comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67.

  17. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Packer, S.

    1984-10-30

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate. The apparatus comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67. 2 figs.

  18. Non-invasive Prediction of Pork Loin Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to develop a non-invasive method to predict tenderness of pork loins. Boneless pork loins (n = 901) were evaluated either on line on the loin boning and trimming line of large-scale commercial plants (n = 465) or at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center abattoir ...

  19. NON-INVASIVE NEUROTOXICITY ASSAY USING LARVAL MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a method for non-invasive electrophysiological analysis of rapid escape responses in intact, freely behaving larval medaka (Oryzias latipes) before and after short-term exposure to environmental toxicants. ecordings are obtained as a larval medaka swims in a small cham...

  20. Non-invasive treatment options for focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, DONG

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) presents a strong clinical challenge especially for the treatment of the associated epilepsy. Epilepsy in FCD is often treatment-resistant and constitutes 50% of treatment-resistant cases. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been widely used in the treatment of FCD. However, evidence to suggest their specific effect on the treatment of FCD remains to be established. In view of this resistance, several alternative treatments have been suggested. Although treatment currently involves surgical management, non-invasive treatments have been identified. The aim of the present review, was to assess non-invasive management strategies including, i) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, ii) ketogenic diet (KD), and iii) vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). In addition, we discussed the literature available regarding the use of AEDs in FCD. Experiments conducted with mammals detailing rapamycin gene mutations in FCD have produced vital information for exploring treatment options using mTOR inhibitors. Of note is the importance of KD in children with FCD. This diet has been shown to modify disease progression by attenuating chromatin modification, a master regulator for gene expression and functional adaptation of the cell. FCD has also been studied widely with neurostimulation techniques. The outcomes of these techniques have been found to be variable. For widespread dysplasias, VNS has been shown to produce responder rates of >50%. Nevertheless, non-invasive cranial nerve stimulation techniques such as transcutaneous VNS and non-invasive VNS are gaining better patient compatibility, albeit their efficacy remains to be established. PMID:27168769

  1. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  2. Eyeblink Conditioning: A Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition,…

  3. Non-invasive method of measuring cerebral spinal fluid pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor); Lambert, James L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides a method of non-invasively determining intracranial pressure from measurements of an eye. A parameter of an optic nerve of the eye is determined, along with an intraocular pressure of the eye. The intracranial pressure may be determined from the intraocular pressure and the parameter.

  4. Strategies for non-invasive delivery of biologics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Woo; Hil-lal, Taslim A; Byun, Youngro

    2012-07-01

    Macromolecular therapeutics, in particular, many biologics, is the most advancing category of drugs over conventional chemical drugs. The potency and specificity of the biologics for curing certain disease made them to be a leading compound in the pharmaceutical industry. However, due to their intrinsic nature, including high molecular weight, hydrophilicity and instability, they are difficult to be administered via non-invasive route. This is a major quest especially in biologics, as they are frequently used clinically for chronic disorders, which requires long-term administration. Therefore, many efforts have been made to develop formulation for non-invasive administration, in attempt to improve patient compliance and convenience. In this review, strategies for non-invasive delivery, in particular, oral, pulmonary and nasal delivery, that are recently adopted for delivery of biologics are discussed. Insulin, calcitonin and heparin were mainly focused for the discussion as they could represent protein, polypeptide and polysaccharide drugs, respectively. Many recent attempts for non-invasive delivery of biologics are compared to provide an insight of developing successful delivery system. PMID:22632037

  5. Complexity of cardiac signals for predicting changes in alpha-waves after stress in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Sung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Ma, Hsi-Pin; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical interaction between electrical signals of the brain and heart is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the complexity of cardiac electrical activity can be used to predict changes in encephalic electricity after stress. Most methods for analyzing the interaction between the heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) require a computation-intensive mathematical model. To overcome these limitations and increase the predictive accuracy of human relaxing states, we developed a method to test our hypothesis. In addition to routine linear analysis, multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of the HRV were used to quantify nonstationary and nonlinear dynamic changes in the heart rate time series. Short-time Fourier transform was applied to quantify the power of EEG. The clinical, HRV, and EEG parameters of postcatheterization EEG alpha waves were analyzed using change-score analysis and generalized additive models. In conclusion, the complexity of cardiac electrical signals can be used to predict EEG changes after stress. PMID:26286628

  6. Complexity of cardiac signals for predicting changes in alpha-waves after stress in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Sung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Ma, Hsi-Pin; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-08-01

    The hierarchical interaction between electrical signals of the brain and heart is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the complexity of cardiac electrical activity can be used to predict changes in encephalic electricity after stress. Most methods for analyzing the interaction between the heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) require a computation-intensive mathematical model. To overcome these limitations and increase the predictive accuracy of human relaxing states, we developed a method to test our hypothesis. In addition to routine linear analysis, multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of the HRV were used to quantify nonstationary and nonlinear dynamic changes in the heart rate time series. Short-time Fourier transform was applied to quantify the power of EEG. The clinical, HRV, and EEG parameters of postcatheterization EEG alpha waves were analyzed using change-score analysis and generalized additive models. In conclusion, the complexity of cardiac electrical signals can be used to predict EEG changes after stress.

  7. Complexity of cardiac signals for predicting changes in alpha-waves after stress in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Sung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Ma, Hsi-Pin; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical interaction between electrical signals of the brain and heart is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the complexity of cardiac electrical activity can be used to predict changes in encephalic electricity after stress. Most methods for analyzing the interaction between the heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) require a computation-intensive mathematical model. To overcome these limitations and increase the predictive accuracy of human relaxing states, we developed a method to test our hypothesis. In addition to routine linear analysis, multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of the HRV were used to quantify nonstationary and nonlinear dynamic changes in the heart rate time series. Short-time Fourier transform was applied to quantify the power of EEG. The clinical, HRV, and EEG parameters of postcatheterization EEG alpha waves were analyzed using change-score analysis and generalized additive models. In conclusion, the complexity of cardiac electrical signals can be used to predict EEG changes after stress. PMID:26286628

  8. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira; Santos, Bruno F. de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M. Francisco; de Oliveira, Daniel Pio; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all‑cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 – 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 – 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:25352460

  9. Body Surface Electrocardiographic Mapping for Non-invasive Identification of Arrhythmic Sources

    PubMed Central

    J Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Pascale, Patrizio; Roten, Laurent; Komatsu, Yuki; Daly, Matthew; Ramoul, Khaled; Denis, Arnaud; Derval, Nicolas; Sacher, Frederic; Dubois, Remi; Bokan, Ryan; Eliatou, Sandra; Strom, Maria; Ramanathan, Charu; Jais, Pierre; Ritter, Philippe; Haissaguerre, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe a novel three-dimensional, 252-lead electrocardiography (ECG) and computed tomography (CT)-based non-invasive cardiac imaging and mapping modality. This technique images potentials, electrograms and activation sequences (isochrones) on the epicardial surface of the heart. This tool has been investigated in the normal cardiac electrophysiology and various tachyarrhythmic, conduction and anomalous depo-repolarisation disorders. The clinical application of this system includes a wide range of electrical disorders like atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beat, ventricular tachycardia) and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). In addition, the system has been used in exploring abnormalities of the His-Purkinje conduction like the bundle branch block and intraventricular conduction disturbance and thereby useful in electrically treating the associated heart failure (cardiac resynchronisation). It has a potential role in furthering our understanding of abnormalities of ventricular action potential (depolarisation [Brugada syndrome and repolarisation], long QT and early repolarisation syndromes) and in evaluating the impact of drugs on His-Purkinje conduction and cardiac action potential. PMID:26835035

  10. Non-invasive determination of transcatheter pressure gradient in stenotic aortic valves: an analytical model.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Motamed, Pouyan K; Maftoon, Nima

    2015-03-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS), in which the opening of the aortic valve is narrowed, is the most common valvular heart disease. Cardiac catheterization is considered the reference standard for definitive evaluation of AS severity, based on instantaneous systolic value of transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG). However, using invasive cardiac catheterization might carry high risks knowing that undergoing multiple cardiac catheterizations for follow-up in patients with AS is common. The objective of this study was to suggest an analytical description of the AS that estimates TPG without a need for high risk invasive data collection. For this purpose, Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the elastic-deformation equation was solved analytically. The estimated TPG resulted from the suggested analytical description was validated against published in vivo and in vitro measurement data. Very good concordances were found between TPG obtained from the analytical formulation and in vivo (maximum root mean square error: 3.8 mmHg) and in vitro (maximum root mean square error: 9.4 mmHg). The analytical description can be integrated to non-invasive imaging modalities to estimate AS severity as an alternative to cardiac catheterization to help preventing its risks in patients with AS. PMID:25682932

  11. Control of histone H3 phosphorylation by CaMKIIδ in response to haemodynamic cardiac stress

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Salma; Al-Haffar, Kamar Mohamed Adib; Marashly, Qussay; Quijada, Pearl; Kunhi, Muhammad; Al-Yacoub, Nadya; Wade, Fallou S; Mohammed, Shamayel Faheem; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Sutherland, George; Assiri, Abdullah; Sussman, Mark; Bers, Donald; Al-Habeeb, Waleed; Poizat, Coralie

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is associated with the reactivation of a fetal cardiac gene programme that has become a hallmark of cardiac hypertrophy and maladaptive ventricular remodelling, yet the mechanisms that regulate this transcriptional reprogramming are not fully understood. Using mice with genetic ablation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δ (CaMKIIδ), which are resistant to pathological cardiac stress, we show that CaMKIIδ regulates the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine-10 during pressure overload hypertrophy. H3 S10 phosphorylation is strongly increased in the adult mouse heart in the early phase of cardiac hypertrophy and remains detectable during cardiac decompensation. This response correlates with up-regulation of CaMKIIδ and increased expression of transcriptional drivers of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and of fetal cardiac genes. Similar changes are detected in patients with end-stage heart failure, where CaMKIIδ specifically interacts with phospho-H3. Robust H3 phosphorylation is detected in both adult ventricular myocytes and in non-cardiac cells in the stressed myocardium, and these signals are abolished in CaMKIIδ-deficient mice after pressure overload. Mechanistically, fetal cardiac genes are activated by increased recruitment of CaMKIIδ and enhanced H3 phosphorylation at hypertrophic promoter regions, both in mice and in human failing hearts, and this response is blunted in CaMKIIδ-deficient mice under stress. We also document that the chaperone protein 14–3–3 binds phosphorylated H3 in response to stress, allowing proper elongation of fetal cardiac genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), as well as elongation of transcription factors regulating cardiac hypertrophy. These processes are impaired in CaMKIIδ-KO mice after pathological stress. The findings reveal a novel in vivo function of CaMKIIδ in regulating H3 phosphorylation and suggest a novel epigenetic mechanism by which CaMKIIδ controls cardiac hypertrophy.

  12. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), a reliable non-invasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder) are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25206349

  13. Limitations of Stroke Volume Estimation by Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypergravity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Altitude and gravity changes during aeromedical evacuations induce exacerbated cardiovascular responses in unstable patients. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is difficult to perform in this environment with limited access to the patient. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of stroke volume estimation by finger photoplethysmography (SVp) in hypergravity. Methods Finger arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms were recorded continuously in ten healthy subjects before, during and after exposure to +Gz accelerations in a human centrifuge. The protocol consisted of a 2-min and 8-min exposure up to +4 Gz. SVp was computed from ABP using Liljestrand, systolic area, and Windkessel algorithms, and compared with reference values measured by echocardiography (SVe) before and after the centrifuge runs. Results The ABP signal could be used in 83.3% of cases. After calibration with echocardiography, SVp changes did not differ from SVe and values were linearly correlated (p<0.001). The three algorithms gave comparable SVp. Reproducibility between SVp and SVe was the best with the systolic area algorithm (limits of agreement −20.5 and +38.3 ml). Conclusions Non-invasive ABP photoplethysmographic monitoring is an interesting technique to estimate relative stroke volume changes in moderate and sustained hypergravity. This method may aid physicians for aeronautic patient monitoring. PMID:25798613

  14. Cardiac oxidative stress in a mouse model of neutral lipid storage disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Winkler, Sarah; Haemmerle, Guenter; Stessel, Heike; Wölkart, Gerald; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Systemic deletion of the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a phenotype characterized by severe steatotic cardiac dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to investigate a potential role of oxidative stress in cardiac ATGL deficiency. Hearts of mice with global ATGL knockout were compared to those of mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of ATGL and to those of wildtype littermates. Our results demonstrate that oxidative stress, measured as lucigenin chemiluminescence, was increased ~ 6-fold in ATGL-deficient hearts. In parallel, cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox and p47phox were upregulated 4–5-fold at the protein level. Moreover, a prominent upregulation of different inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactant protein-1, interleukin 6, and galectin-3) was observed in those hearts. Both the oxidative and inflammatory responses were abolished upon cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of ATGL. Investigating the effect of oxidative and inflammatory stress on nitric oxide/cGMP signal transduction we observed a ~ 2.5-fold upregulation of soluble guanylate cyclase activity and a ~ 2-fold increase in cardiac tetrahydrobiopterin levels. Systemic treatment of ATGL-deficient mice with the superoxide dismutase mimetic Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin did not ameliorate but rather aggravated cardiac oxidative stress. Our data suggest that oxidative and inflammatory stress seems involved in lipotoxic heart disease. Upregulation of soluble guanylate cyclase and cardiac tetrahydrobiopterin might be regarded as counterregulatory mechanisms in cardiac ATGL deficiency. PMID:23867907

  15. Pellino1-mediated TGF-β1 synthesis contributes to mechanical stress induced cardiac fibroblast activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Zhu, Yun; Li, Jiantao; Liu, Jiahao; Gao, Yun; Ha, Tuanzhu; Que, Linli; Liu, Li; Zhu, Guoqing; Chen, Qi; Xu, Yong; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua

    2015-02-01

    Activation of cardiac fibroblasts is a key event in the progression of cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying mechanical stress-induced cardiac fibroblast activation are complex and poorly understood. This study demonstrates that Pellino1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, was activated in vivo in pressure overloaded rat hearts and in cultured neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) exposed to mechanical stretch in vitro. Suppression of the expression and activity of Pellino1 by adenovirus-mediated delivery of shPellino1 (adv-shpeli1) attenuated pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy and decreased cardiac fibrosis in rat hearts. Transfection of adv-shpeli1 also significantly attenuated mechanical stress-induced proliferation, differentiation and collagen synthesis in NRCFs. Pellino1 silencing also abrogated mechanical stretch-induced polyubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor association factor-6 (TRAF6) and receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and consequently decreased the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in NRCFs. In addition, Pellino1 silencing prevented stretch-induced activation of p38 and activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding activity in NRCFs. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays showed that Pellino1 silencing prevented the binding of NF-κB and AP-1 to the promoter region of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) thus dampening TGF-β1 transactivation. Our data reveal a previously unrecognized role of Pellino1 in extracellular matrix deposition and cardiac fibroblast activation in response to mechanical stress and provides a novel target for treatment of cardiac fibrosis and heart failure. PMID:25446187

  16. The potential of label-free nonlinear optical molecular microscopy to non-invasively characterize the viability of engineered human tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leng-Chun; Lloyd, William R; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Feinberg, Stephen E; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear optical molecular imaging and quantitative analytic methods were developed to non-invasively assess the viability of tissue-engineered constructs manufactured from primary human cells. Label-free optical measures of local tissue structure and biochemistry characterized morphologic and functional differences between controls and stressed constructs. Rigorous statistical analysis accounted for variability between human patients. Fluorescence intensity-based spatial assessment and metabolic sensing differentiated controls from thermally-stressed and from metabolically-stressed constructs. Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing differentiated controls from thermally-stressed constructs. Unlike traditional histological (found to be generally reliable, but destructive) and biochemical (non-invasive, but found to be unreliable) tissue analyses, label-free optical assessments had the advantages of being both non-invasive and reliable. Thus, such optical measures could serve as reliable manufacturing release criteria for cell-based tissue-engineered constructs prior to human implantation, thereby addressing a critical regulatory need in regenerative medicine. PMID:24854093

  17. Skin rejuvenation with non-invasive pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G; Watkins, Michael T; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  18. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  19. Non-invasive microsensors for studying cell/tissue physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Taguchi, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Burrs, S.; McLamore, E. S.

    2013-05-01

    Non-invasive tools that allow real-time quantification of molecules relevant to metabolism, homeostasis, and cell signaling in cells and tissue are of great importance for studying physiology. Several microsensor technologies have been developed to monitor concentration of molecules such as ions, oxygen, electroactive molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide), and biomolecules (e.g., sugars, hormones). The major challenges for microsensors are overcoming relatively low sensitivity and low signal-to-noise ratio. Modern approaches for enhancing microsensor performance focus on the incorporation of catalytic nanomaterials to increase sensitivity, reduce response time, and increase operating range. To improve signal-to-noise ratio, a non-invasive microsensor modality called self-referencing (SR) is being applied. The SR technique allows measurement of temporal and spatial transport dynamics at the cell, tissue, organ, and organismal level.

  20. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  1. Non invasive ventilation as an additional tool for exercise training.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Cigni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of non invasive ventilation (NIV) to increase exercise capacity. In individuals with COPD, NIV during exercise reduces dyspnoea and increases exercise tolerance. Different modalities of mechanical ventilation have been used non-invasively as a tool to increase exercise tolerance in COPD, heart failure and lung and thoracic restrictive diseases. Inspiratory support provides symptomatic benefit by unloading the ventilatory muscles, whereas Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) counterbalances the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure in COPD patients. Severe stable COPD patients undergoing home nocturnal NIV and daytime exercise training showed some benefits. Furthermore, it has been reported that in chronic hypercapnic COPD under long-term ventilatory support, NIV can also be administered during walking. Despite these results, the role of NIV as a routine component of pulmonary rehabilitation is still to be defined. PMID:25874110

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: The Link with Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Gary; Yan, Bryan P.; Chan, Yin W. F.; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac arrhythmias represent a significant problem globally, leading to cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. There is increasing evidence to suggest that increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is elevated in conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, can lead to arrhythmogenesis. Method: A literature review was undertaken to screen for articles that investigated the effects of ROS on cardiac ion channel function, remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Results: Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress is observed in heart failure, leading to increased production of ROS. Mitochondrial ROS, which is elevated in diabetes and hypertension, can stimulate its own production in a positive feedback loop, termed ROS-induced ROS release. Together with activation of mitochondrial inner membrane anion channels, it leads to mitochondrial depolarization. Abnormal function of these organelles can then activate downstream signaling pathways, ultimately culminating in altered function or expression of cardiac ion channels responsible for generating the cardiac action potential (AP). Vascular and cardiac endothelial cells become dysfunctional, leading to altered paracrine signaling to influence the electrophysiology of adjacent cardiomyocytes. All of these changes can in turn produce abnormalities in AP repolarization or conduction, thereby increasing likelihood of triggered activity and reentry. Conclusion: ROS plays a significant role in producing arrhythmic substrate. Therapeutic strategies targeting upstream events include production of a strong reducing environment or the use of pharmacological agents that target organelle-specific proteins and ion channels. These may relieve oxidative stress and in turn prevent arrhythmic complications in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure. PMID:27536244

  3. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside Abrogates Oxidative Stress-Induced Damage in Cardiac Iron Overload Condition

    PubMed Central

    Puukila, Stephanie; Bryan, Sean; Laakso, Anna; Abdel-Malak, Jessica; Gurney, Carli; Agostino, Adrian; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Prasad, Kailash; Khaper, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload. PMID:25822525

  4. Non-invasive assessment of leaf water status using a dual-mode microwave resonator.

    PubMed

    Dadshani, Said; Kurakin, Andriy; Amanov, Shukhrat; Hein, Benedikt; Rongen, Heinz; Cranstone, Steve; Blievernicht, Ulrich; Menzel, Elmar; Léon, Jens; Klein, Norbert; Ballvora, Agim

    2015-01-01

    The water status in plant leaves is a good indicator for the water status in the whole plant revealing stress if the water supply is reduced. The analysis of dynamic aspects of water availability in plant tissues provides useful information for the understanding of the mechanistic basis of drought stress tolerance, which may lead to improved plant breeding and management practices. The determination of the water content in plant tissues during plant development has been a challenge and is currently feasible based on destructive analysis only. We present here the application of a non-invasive quantitative method to determine the volumetric water content of leaves and the ionic conductivity of the leaf juice from non-invasive microwave measurements at two different frequencies by one sensor device. A semi-open microwave cavity loaded with a ceramic dielectric resonator and a metallic lumped-element capacitor- and inductor structure was employed for non-invasive microwave measurements at 150 MHz and 2.4 Gigahertz on potato, maize, canola and wheat leaves. Three leaves detached from each plant were chosen, representing three developmental stages being representative for tissue of various age. Clear correlations between the leaf- induced resonance frequency shifts and changes of the inverse resonator quality factor at 2.4 GHz to the gravimetrically determined drying status of the leaves were found. Moreover, the ionic conductivity of Maize leaves, as determined from the ratio of the inverse quality factor and frequency shift at 150 MHz by use of cavity perturbation theory, was found to be in good agreement with direct measurements on plant juice. In conjunction with a compact battery- powered circuit board- microwave electronic module and a user-friendly software interface, this method enables rapid in-vivo water amount assessment of plants by a handheld device for potential use in the field. PMID:25918549

  5. SQUID magnetometry applied as non-invasive electroanalytic chemical technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, B.D.; MacVicar, M.L.A. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a SQUID magnetometer, employed as a highly sensitive ammeter, used to perform standard electroanalytic chemical measurements non- invasively. Specifically, the magnetic fields generated by the net ionic movement in the solution of a driven electrochemical system is detected by the gradiometer coils. The SQUID signal can then be compared to conventional current measurements. One such standard measurement investigated is Cyclic Voltametry (CV) which determines the I-V characteristics of an electrochemical system yielding critical kinetic parameters.

  6. The utility of novel non-invasive technologies for remote hemodynamic monitoring in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mabote, Thato; Wong, Kenneth; Cleland, John G F

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring a patient's hemodynamic status may be a revolutionary way to aid a 'health maintenance' strategy in which the physician strives to therapeutically keep the patient in an ideal hemodynamic range. Currently, home telemonitoring employs a 'crisis-prevention' approach. This strategy is still based on easily acquired measures such as heart rate, weight and blood pressure--measurements that are useful to help implement guideline-directed therapy but provide little information about impending decompensation or the risk of hospitalisation. Current systems provide limited information to personalize and adapt medication therapy for heart failure. Several innovative technologies that can remotely monitor estimates of cardiovascular hemodynamics, such as cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, augmentation index and added heart sounds may enable earlier detection of heart failure decompensation. This editorial presents an overview of the innovative technologies that are available for non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring and maybe adapted for home telemonitoring for chronic heart failure. PMID:25026973

  7. Non-invasive Chamber-Specific Identification of Cardiomyocytes in Differentiating Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brauchle, Eva; Knopf, Anne; Bauer, Hannah; Shen, Nian; Linder, Sandra; Monaghan, Michael G.; Ellwanger, Kornelia; Layland, Shannon L.; Brucker, Sara Y.; Nsair, Ali; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Summary One major obstacle to the application of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) for disease modeling and clinical therapies is the inability to identify the developmental stage of these cells without the need for genetic manipulation or utilization of exogenous markers. In this study, we demonstrate that Raman microspectroscopy can non-invasively identify embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived chamber-specific CMs and monitor cell maturation. Using this marker-free approach, Raman peaks were identified for atrial and ventricular CMs, ESCs were successfully discriminated from their cardiac derivatives, a distinct phenotypic spectrum for ESC-derived CMs was confirmed, and unique spectral differences between fetal versus adult CMs were detected. The real-time identification and characterization of CMs, their progenitors, and subpopulations by Raman microspectroscopy strongly correlated to the phenotypical features of these cells. Due to its high molecular resolution, Raman microspectroscopy offers distinct analytical characterization for differentiating cardiovascular cell populations. PMID:26777059

  8. Cellular phone enabled non-invasive tissue classifier.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Shlomi; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Cellular phone technology is emerging as an important tool in the effort to provide advanced medical care to the majority of the world population currently without access to such care. In this study, we show that non-invasive electrical measurements and the use of classifier software can be combined with cellular phone technology to produce inexpensive tissue characterization. This concept was demonstrated by the use of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to distinguish through the cellular phone between heart and kidney tissue via the non-invasive multi-frequency electrical measurements acquired around the tissues. After the measurements were performed at a remote site, the raw data were transmitted through the cellular phone to a central computational site and the classifier was applied to the raw data. The results of the tissue analysis were returned to the remote data measurement site. The classifiers correctly determined the tissue type with a specificity of over 90%. When used for the detection of malignant tumors, classifiers can be designed to produce false positives in order to ensure that no tumors will be missed. This mode of operation has applications in remote non-invasive tissue diagnostics in situ in the body, in combination with medical imaging, as well as in remote diagnostics of biopsy samples in vitro. PMID:19365554

  9. Non-invasive diagnosis of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Khalili, Korosh; Nguyen, Geoffrey Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a common and growing public health problem globally. The diagnosis of cirrhosis portends an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of cirrhosis and staging of fibrosis. However, despite its universal use, liver biopsy is an invasive and inaccurate gold standard with numerous drawbacks. In order to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, a number of non-invasive techniques have been investigated for the assessment of cirrhosis. This review will focus on currently available non-invasive markers of cirrhosis. The evidence behind the use of these markers will be highlighted, along with an assessment of diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics of each test. Non-invasive markers of cirrhosis can be radiologic or serum-based. Radiologic techniques based on ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and elastography have been used to assess liver fibrosis. Serum-based biomarkers of cirrhosis have also been developed. These are broadly classified into indirect and direct markers. Indirect biomarkers reflect liver function, which may decline with the onset of cirrhosis. Direct biomarkers, reflect extracellular matrix turnover, and include molecules involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. On the whole, radiologic and serum markers of fibrosis correlate well with biopsy scores, especially when excluding cirrhosis or excluding fibrosis. This feature is certainly clinically useful, and avoids liver biopsy in many cases. PMID:25492996

  10. Cardiac CT vs. Stress Testing in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Review and Expert Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease represent a major challenge to our health care systems affecting millions of patients each year. Until recently, the diagnosis of coronary artery disease could be conclusively determined only by invasive coronary angiography. To avoid risks from cardiac catheterization, many healthcare systems relied on stress testing as gatekeeper for coronary angiography. Advancements in cardiac computed tomography angiography technology now allows to noninvasively visualize coronary artery disease, challenging the role of stress testing as the default noninvasive imaging tool for evaluating patients with chest pain. In this review, we summarize current data on the clinical utility of cardiac computed tomography and stress testing in stable patients with suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:26500716

  11. Heart rate complexity: A novel approach to assessing cardiac stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Brindle, Ryan C; Ginty, Annie T; Phillips, Anna C; Fisher, James P; McIntyre, David; Carroll, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Correlation dimension (D2), a measure of heart rate (HR) complexity, has been shown to decrease in response to acute mental stress and relate to adverse cardiovascular health. However, the relationship between stress-induced changes in D2 and HR has yet to be established. The present studies aimed to assess this relationship systematically while controlling for changes in respiration and autonomic activity. In Study 1 (N = 25) D2 decreased during stress and predicted HR reactivity even after adjusting for changes in respiration rate, and cardiac vagal tone. This result was replicated in Study 2 (N = 162) and extended by including a measure of cardiac sympathetic activity; correlation dimension remained an independent predictor of HR reactivity in a hierarchical linear model containing measures of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity and their interaction. These results suggest that correlation dimension may provide additional information regarding cardiac stress reactivity above that provided by traditional measures of cardiac autonomic function. PMID:26585809

  12. Non-invasive measurement of Valsalva-induced hemodynamic changes on a bathroom scale ballistocardiograph.

    PubMed

    Inan, Omer T; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Wiard, Richard M; Kovacs, Gregory T A; Giovangrandi, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Unobtrusive and compact methods for monitoring time varying hemodynamic trends can allow physicians to monitor heart failure of outpatients at home. In this paper, the ballistocardiogram (BCG), measured on a modified commercial bathroom scale, is proposed as a viable option for this important need. The BCG measures the reaction force of the body to cardiac ejection of blood and is a non-invasive tool for evaluating cardiovascular function. The Valsalva maneuver was used to modulate the hemodynamics in a well documented manner, and BCG signals were acquired from 15 subjects. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was simultaneously obtained to measure the electrical to mechanical delay in ventricular contraction: the interval from the ECG R-wave peak to the BCG J-wave peak. This interval, called the RJ interval, decreased for all subjects following the release of intrathoracic strain compared to the resting value, suggesting that it is inversely correlated to cardiac contractility. The power spectrum magnitude of the BCGs showed that the high frequency content increased after release, also consistent with increased contractility (faster ejection). Additionally, J-wave amplitudes increased following release, suggesting that it is correlated to stroke volume. Since RJ interval computation required the ECG, BCG J-wave rise time was proposed as an alternative for evaluating cardiac contractility. The correlation between this rise time and RJ interval was high (R2=0.78). PMID:19162745

  13. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  14. Use of the single-breath method of estimating cardiac output during exercise-stress testing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buderer, M. C.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Mauldin, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    The single-breath cardiac output measurement technique of Kim et al. (1966) has been modified for use in obtaining cardiac output measurements during exercise-stress tests on Apollo astronauts. The modifications involve the use of a respiratory mass spectrometer for data acquisition and a digital computer program for data analysis. The variation of the modified method for triplicate steady-state cardiac output measurements was plus or minus 1 liter/min. The combined physiological and methodological variation seen during a set of three exercise tests on a series of subjects was 1 to 2.5 liter/min. Comparison of the modified method with the direct Fick technique showed that although the single-breath values were consistently low, the scatter of data was small and the correlation between the two methods was high. Possible reasons for the low single-breath cardiac output values are discussed.

  15. Non-invasive quantification of lower limb mechanical alignment in flexion

    PubMed Central

    Deakin, Angela; Fogg, Quentin A.; Picard, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Objective Non-invasive navigation techniques have recently been developed to determine mechanical femorotibial alignment (MFTA) in extension. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of an image-free navigation system with new software designed to provide multiple kinematic measurements of the knee. The secondary aim was to test two types of strap material used to attach optical trackers to the lower limb. Methods Seventy-two registrations were carried out on 6 intact embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age: 77.8 ± 12 years). A validated fabric strap, bone screws and novel rubber strap were used to secure the passive tracker baseplate for four full experiments with each knee. The MFTA angle was measured under the conditions of no applied stress, valgus stress, and varus stress. These measurements were carried out at full extension and at 30°, 40°, 50° and 60° of flexion. Intraclass correlation coefficients, repeatability coefficients, and limits of agreement (LOA) were used to convey precision and agreement in measuring MFTA with respect to each of the independent variables, i.e., degree of flexion, applied coronal stress, and method of tracker fixation. Based on the current literature, a repeatability coefficient and LOA of ≤3° were deemed acceptable. Results The mean fixed flexion for the 6 specimens was 12.8° (range: 6–20°). The mean repeatability coefficient measuring MFTA in extension with screws or fabric strapping of the baseplate was ≤2°, compared to 2.3° using rubber strapping. When flexing the knee, MFTA measurements taken using screws or fabric straps remained precise (repeatability coefficient ≤3°) throughout the tested range of flexion (12.8–60°); however, using rubber straps, the repeatability coefficient was >3° beyond 50° flexion. In general, applying a varus/valgus stress while measuring MFTA decreased precision beyond 40° flexion. Using fabric strapping, excellent repeatability

  16. d-Propranolol protects against oxidative stress and progressive cardiac dysfunction in iron overloaded rats

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jay H.; Spurney, Christopher F.; Iantorno, Micaela; Tziros, Constantine; Chmielinska, Joanna J.; Mak, I. Tong; Weglicki, William B.

    2013-01-01

    d-Propranolol (d-Pro: 2–8 mg·(kg body mass)−1·day−1) protected against cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress during 3–5 weeks of iron overload (2 mg Fe–dextran·(g body mass)−1·week−1) in Sprague–Dawley rats. At 3 weeks, hearts were perfused in working mode to obtain baseline function; red blood cell glutathione, plasma 8-isoprostane, neutrophil basal superoxide production, lysosomal-derived plasma N-acetyl-β-galactosaminidase (NAGA) activity, ventricular iron content, and cardiac iron deposition were assessed. Hearts from the Fe-treated group of rats exhibited lower cardiac work (26%) and output (CO, 24%); end-diastolic pressure rose 1.8-fold. Further, glutathione levels increased 2-fold, isoprostane levels increased 2.5-fold, neutrophil superoxide increased 3-fold, NAGA increased 4-fold, ventricular Fe increased 4.9-fold; and substantial atrial and ventricular Fe-deposition occurred. d-Pro (8 mg) restored heart function to the control levels, protected against oxidative stress, and decreased cardiac Fe levels. After 5 weeks of Fe treatment, echocardiography revealed that the following were depressed: percent fractional shortening (%FS, 31% lower); left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF, 17%), CO (25%); and aortic pressure maximum (Pmax, 24%). Mitral valve E/A declined by 18%, indicating diastolic dysfunction. Cardiac CD11b+ infiltrates were elevated. Low d-Pro (2 mg) provided modest protection, whereas 4–8 mg greatly improved LVEF (54%–75%), %FS (51%–81%), CO (43%–78%), Pmax (56%–100%), and E/A >100%; 8 mg decreased cardiac inflammation. Since d-Pro is an antioxidant and reduces cardiac Fe uptake as well as inflammation, these properties may preserve cardiac function during Fe overload. PMID:22913465

  17. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, João C. P.; Fujihara, Caroline J.; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Pantoja, José C. F.; Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots’ physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3–9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  18. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João C P; Fujihara, Caroline J; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Pantoja, José C F; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3-9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  19. Non-Invasive measurement of blood pressure - Why we should look at BP traces rather than listen to Korotkoff sounds.

    PubMed

    Celler, Branko G; Basilakis, Jim; Goozee, Kathryn; Ambikairajah, Eliathamby

    2015-08-01

    Accurate non-invasive measurement of blood pressure in unsupervised environments continues to be a challenge, particularly in the presence of movement artefact, electrical noise and most importantly cardiac arrhythmia which are common in those aged over 65 suffering from a range of chronic conditions. Large intra personal variability in signal morphometry and amplitudes further complicates the development of reliable signal processing algorithms for NIBP measurement. In this paper we demonstrate the effect of this variability and propose that the traditional methods of human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometry should no longer be considered a gold standard for the calibration of NIBP devices. PMID:26737650

  20. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist. PMID:25686913

  1. Non-Invasive Optical Biosensor for Probing Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ye

    2007-01-01

    Cell signaling mediated through a cellular target is encoded by spatial and temporal dynamics of downstream signaling networks. The coupling of temporal dynamics with spatial gradients of signaling activities guides cellular responses upon stimulation. Monitoring the integration of cell signaling in real time, if realized, would provide a new dimension for understanding cell biology and physiology. Optical biosensors including resonant waveguide grating (RWG) biosensor manifest a physiologically relevant and integrated cellular response related to dynamic redistribution of cellular matters, thus providing a non-invasive means for cell signaling study. This paper reviews recent progresses in biosensor instrumentation, and theoretical considerations and potential applications of optical biosensors for whole cell sensing.

  2. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights.

  3. A simple highly efficient non invasive EMG-based HMI.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, N; Olcese, U; Oddo, C M; Carpaneto, J; Micera, S; Carrozza, M C; Dario, P

    2006-01-01

    Muscle activity recorded non-invasively is sufficient to control a mobile robot if it is used in combination with an algorithm for its asynchronous analysis. In this paper, we show that several subjects successfully can control the movements of a robot in a structured environment made up of six rooms by contracting two different muscles using a simple algorithm. After a small training period, subjects were able to control the robot with performances comparable to those achieved manually controlling the robot. PMID:17945773

  4. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  5. Taxifolin protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis during biomechanical stress of pressure overload

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Xin; Cui, Yuqian; Zhou, Heng; Xu, Dachun; Shan, Tichao; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Yuan; Chen, Yuguo; Wu, Dawei

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathophysiological component to biomechanical stress, which has been considered to be an independent and predictive risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Taxifolin (TAX) is a typical plant flavonoid, which has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little is known about whether TAX can influence the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro studies, we found that TAX concentration-dependently inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II) induced hypertrophy and protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes. Then we established a mouse model by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to further confirm our findings. It was demonstrated that TAX prevented pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice, as assessed by ventricular mass/body weight, echocardiographic parameters, myocyte cross-sectional area, and the expression of ANP, BNP and β-MHC. The excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) played critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. TAX arrested oxidative stress and decreased the expression of 4-HNE induced by pressure overload. Moreover, TAX negatively modulated TAC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Further studies showed that TAX significantly attenuated left ventricular fibrosis and collagen synthesis through abrogating the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad2/3 nuclear translocation. These results demonstrated that TAX could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and attenuate ventricular fibrosis after pressure overload. These beneficial effects were at least through the inhibition of the excess production of ROS, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways. Therefore, TAX might be a potential candidate for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. - Highlights: • We focus on the protective effect of taxifolin on cardiac remodeling. • Taxifolin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated ventricular fibrosis. • Taxifolin

  6. Effects of acute stress on cardiac endocannabinoids, lipogenesis, and inflammation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, James; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Objective Trauma exposure can precipitate acute/post-traumatic stress responses (AS/PTSD) and disabling cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Identifying acute stress-related physiologic changes that may increase CVD risk could inform development of early CVD-prevention strategies. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and stress-related cardiovascular function. We examine stress-related endocannabinoid system (ECS) activity and its association with cardiovascular biochemistry/function following acute stress. Methods Rodents (n=8-16/group) were exposed to predator odor or saline; elevated plus maze (EPM), blood pressure (BP), serum and cardiac tissue ECS markers, and lipid metabolism were assessed at 24h and 2wks post-exposure. Results At 24h the predator odor group demonstrated anxiety-like behavior and had (a) elevated serum markers of cardiac failure/damage (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP]: 275.1 vs. 234.6, p=0.007; troponin-I: 1.50 vs. 0.78, p=0.076), lipogenesis (triacylglycerols [TAG]: 123.5 vs. 85.93, p=0.018), and inflammation (stearoyl delta-9 desaturase activity [SCD-16]: 0.21 vs. 0.07, p<0.001); (b) significant decrease in cardiac endocannabinoid (2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, 2-AG: 29.90 vs. 65.95, p<0.001) and fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE: oleoylethanolamide, OEA: 114.3 vs. 125.4, p=0.047; palmitoylethanolamide, PEA: 72.96 vs. 82.87, p=0.008); and (c) increased cardiac inflammation (IL-1β/IL-6 ratio: 19.79 vs.13.57, p=0.038; TNF-α/IL-6 ratio: 1.73 vs. 1.03, p=0.019) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]: 7.81 vs. 7.05, p=0.022), that were associated with cardiac steatosis (higher TAG: 1.09 vs. 0.72, p<0.001). Cardiac lipogenesis persisted, and elevated BP emerged two weeks after exposure. Conclusions Acute psychological stress elicits ECS-related cardiac responses associated with persistent, potentially-pathological changes in rat cardiovascular biochemistry

  7. Autophagy During Cardiac Stress: Joys and Frustrations of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Mentzer, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The study of autophagy has been transformed by the cloning of most genes in the pathway and the introduction of GFP-LC3 as a reporter to allow visual assessment of autophagy. The field of cardiac biology is not alone in attempting to understand the implications of autophagy. The purpose of this review is to address some of the controversies and conundrums associated with the evolving studies of autophagy in the heart. Autophagy is a cellular process involving a complex orchestration of regulatory gene products as well as machinery for assembly, selective targeting, and degradation of autophagosomes and their contents. Our understanding of the role of autophagy in human disease is rapidly evolving as investigators examine the process in different tissues and different pathophysiological contexts. In the field of heart disease, autophagy has been examined in the settings of ischemia and reperfusion, preconditioning, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. This review addresses the role of autophagy in cardioprotection, the balance of catabolism and anabolism, the concept of mitochondrial quality control, and the implications of impaired autophagic flux or frustrated autophagy. PMID:20148666

  8. Effects of stress, health competence, and social support on depressive symptoms after cardiac hospitalization.

    PubMed

    León-Pérez, Gabriela; Wallston, Kenneth A; Goggins, Kathryn M; Poppendeck, Heidi M; Kripalani, Sunil

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the role of stress on the psychological well-being of patients after cardiac hospitalization or about factors that protect against or exacerbate the effects of stress. We use prospective data from 1542 patients to investigate the relationship between post-discharge stress and changes in depressive symptoms, and whether the level of prior depressive symptoms, health competence, and perceived social support moderate this relationship. Net of depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks prior to hospitalization, higher levels of post-discharge stress significantly increase depressive symptoms 30 days after discharge. The level of prior depressive symptoms moderates the effect of stress. On the other hand, perceived health competence and social support buffer the negative effects of post-discharge stress. Knowing which patients are particularly vulnerable to experiencing stress and a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms can help trigger interventions prior to discharge and possibly ameliorate the prevalence of depression. PMID:26660867

  9. Impaired cardiac contractility response to hemodynamic stress in S100A1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Jun; Cole, Timothy J; Tenis, Nora; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Köntgen, Frank; Kemp, Bruce E; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2002-04-01

    Ca(2+) signaling plays a central role in cardiac contractility and adaptation to increased hemodynamic demand. We have generated mice with a targeted deletion of the S100A1 gene coding for the major cardiac isoform of the large multigenic S100 family of EF hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins. S100A1(-/-) mice have normal cardiac function under baseline conditions but have significantly reduced contraction rate and relaxation rate responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation that are associated with a reduced Ca(2+) sensitivity. In S100A1(-/-) mice, basal left-ventricular contractility deteriorated following 3-week pressure overload by thoracic aorta constriction despite a normal adaptive hypertrophy. Surprisingly, heterozygotes also had an impaired response to acute beta-adrenergic stimulation but maintained normal contractility in response to chronic pressure overload that coincided with S100A1 upregulation to wild-type levels. In contrast to other genetic models with impaired cardiac contractility, loss of S100A1 did not lead to cardiac hypertrophy or dilation in aged mice. The data demonstrate that high S100A1 protein levels are essential for the cardiac reserve and adaptation to acute and chronic hemodynamic stress in vivo. PMID:11909974

  10. Impaired Cardiac Contractility Response to Hemodynamic Stress in S100A1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiao-Jun; Cole, Timothy J.; Tenis, Nora; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Köntgen, Frank; Kemp, Bruce E.; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Ca2+ signaling plays a central role in cardiac contractility and adaptation to increased hemodynamic demand. We have generated mice with a targeted deletion of the S100A1 gene coding for the major cardiac isoform of the large multigenic S100 family of EF hand Ca2+-binding proteins. S100A1−/− mice have normal cardiac function under baseline conditions but have significantly reduced contraction rate and relaxation rate responses to β-adrenergic stimulation that are associated with a reduced Ca2+ sensitivity. In S100A1−/− mice, basal left-ventricular contractility deteriorated following 3-week pressure overload by thoracic aorta constriction despite a normal adaptive hypertrophy. Surprisingly, heterozygotes also had an impaired response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation but maintained normal contractility in response to chronic pressure overload that coincided with S100A1 upregulation to wild-type levels. In contrast to other genetic models with impaired cardiac contractility, loss of S100A1 did not lead to cardiac hypertrophy or dilation in aged mice. The data demonstrate that high S100A1 protein levels are essential for the cardiac reserve and adaptation to acute and chronic hemodynamic stress in vivo. PMID:11909974

  11. Non-invasive methodology for diagnostics of bearing impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, John N.

    2007-04-01

    Various events in reciprocating machinery, such as connecting rod or piston movement, and diesel combustion produce a series of highly transient forces within the machine. These events generate force transients of short duration and broad frequency content. Even though these events may be part of a machine cycle and therefore periodic, it is often more appropriate to treat them on an individual basis because more diagnostics information is available from a single waveform during a cycle than from averages over several cycles. However, it is very rare for one to have direct access to source waveforms because of the expense and reliability problems associated with the required instrumentation, and non-invasive techniques will have to be used. This paper explores the use of cepstral smoothing and minimum phase extraction technique for non-invasive diagnostics of bearing impacts in reciprocating machinery. The methodology is based on extracting diagnostic signals from vibration measurements taken at a "convenient" location such as the crankshaft casing or bearing end-cap, and consists of source identification, diagnostic signature recovery, and diagnostic system decision-making. A dynamic simulation with lumped mass model is developed to analyze bearing impacts for the big end bearings, experimental measurements from accelerometers, transfer functions of vibration, and the structural response are presented.

  12. Diagnosis and therapies for gastric non-invasive neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great discrepancy of pathological diagnosis for gastric non-invasive neoplasia/dysplasia between Japanese and western pathologists. In Japan, lesions that most western pathologists diagnose as dysplasia are often considered adenocarcinoma based on nuclear and structural atypia regardless of the presence of invasion. In the Vienna classification, gastric non-invasive intraepithelial neoplasia (NIN) were divided into low grade and high grade (including intra-mucosal cancer of Japanese criteria). The diagnosis by both endoscopy and pathology of biopsy specimen is difficult. Recent advances of diagnostic modality such as magnified endoscopy and imaged enhanced endoscopy is expected to improve the diagnostic yield for NIN. There are two treatment strategies for NIN, observation and diagnostic therapy by endoscopic resection (ER). ER is acceptable because of its less invasiveness and high local control rate, on the other hand, cancer-developing rate of low-grade NIN is reported to be low. Therefore there is controversy for the treatment of gastric NIN. Prospective study based on unified pathological definition is required in the future. PMID:26640329

  13. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  14. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hideo; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Uematsu, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Katsumi; Inoue, Miyabi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect) caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1) and the sphincteric urethra (V2) were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1), calculated by Qmax/V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR), which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS) will dramatically expand the information on voiding function. PMID:19468440

  15. Examination of postmortem retinal folds: A non-invasive study.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Toru; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-02-01

    The postmortem retinal fold has been previously documented, but its mechanism of formation is not known. All previous studies of the fold involved invasive techniques and the postmortem ocular fundus has yet to be non-invasively examined. Our study used the non-invasive techniques of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and ocular echography to examine 79 postmortem eyes of 42 bodies. We examined whether the postmortem retinal fold was associated with postmortem time, position, and/or age. Age was significantly associated with postmortem retinal fold formation (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.013), which led us to examine the effect of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on retinal folds. The absence of a PVD was statistically associated with the presence of a retinal fold (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Interestingly, the presence of a PVD was also significantly correlated with retinal fold height (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.0001). Therefore, we hypothesized that retinal folds result from postmortem vitreoretinal traction caused by eyeball flaccidity. We also believe that the loss of retinochoroidal hydrostatic pressure plays a role. It is important that forensic pathologists not confuse a postmortem retinal fold with traumatic retinal detachment or perimacular retinal folds caused by child abuse. When child abuse is suspected, forensic pathologists should perform enucleation and a subsequent histological examination for confirmation. PMID:25623189

  16. Modulation of Untruthful Responses with Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Shirley; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether non-invasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience), as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses). Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying non-invasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts. PMID:23550273

  17. Non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Yoav; Webb, Muriel; Cytter-Kuint, Ruth; Shteingart, Shimon; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation and follow up of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis have been traditionally performed by liver biopsy. However, during the last 20 years, it has become evident that this “gold-standard” is imperfect; even according to its proponents, it is only “the best” among available methods. Attempts at uncovering non-invasive diagnostic tools have yielded multiple scores, formulae, and imaging modalities. All are better tolerated, safer, more acceptable to the patient, and can be repeated essentially as often as required. Most are much less expensive than liver biopsy. Consequently, their use is growing, and in some countries the number of biopsies performed, at least for routine evaluation of hepatitis B and C, has declined sharply. However, the accuracy and diagnostic value of most, if not all, of these methods remains controversial. In this review for the practicing physician, we analyze established and novel biomarkers and physical techniques. We may be witnessing in recent years the beginning of the end of the first phase for the development of non-invasive markers. Early evidence suggests that they might be at least as good as liver biopsy. Novel experimental markers and imaging techniques could produce a dramatic change in diagnosis in the near future. PMID:26556987

  18. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs. PMID:26217455

  19. Dietary restriction, cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in bulimic women.

    PubMed

    Vögele, Claus; Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2009-08-01

    Recent findings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in relation to biochemical markers of dietary restriction status in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. We predicted that bulimic individuals (BN) with a biochemical profile indicating dietary restriction exhibit reduced cardiac sympathetic and/or increased vagal activity. We also hypothesized, that BN with a biochemical profile within a normal range (i.e. currently not dieting or malnourished) would show heart rate variability responses (HRV) and reactivity to mental stress indicating increased sympathetic activation compared with non-eating disordered controls. Seventeen female volunteers diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were categorized according to their serum profile (glucose, pre-albumin, IGF-1, TSH, leptin) into currently fasting versus non-fasting and compared with 16 non-eating disordered controls matched for age and BMI. Spectral components of HRV were calculated on heart rate data from resting and mental stress periods (standardized achievement challenge) using autoregressive analysis. Compared to non-fasting BN and controls, fasting BN showed increased vagal and decreased sympathetic modulation during both resting and recovery periods. Cardiac autonomic regulation was not impaired in response to mental challenge. No differences could be found between non-fasting BN and controls. The results confirm the notion of cardiac sympathetic inhibition and vagal dominance during dietary restriction and suggest the specificity of starvation related biochemical changes for cardiac autonomic control. The results are discussed in terms of the higher incidence in cardiac complications in these patients. PMID:19497332

  20. Non-invasive integrative analysis of contraction energetics in intact beating heart.

    PubMed

    Deschodt-Arsac, Véronique; Calmettes, Guillaume; Gouspillou, Gilles; Chapolard, Mathilde; Raffard, Gérard; Rouland, Richard; Jais, Pierre; Haissaguerre, Michel; Dos Santos, Pierre; Diolez, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The comprehensive study of human pathologies has revealed the complexity of the interactions involved in cardiovascular physiology. The recent validation of system's biology approaches - like our Modular Control and Regulation Analysis (MoCA) - motivates the current interest for new integrative and non-invasive analyses that could be used for medical study of human heart contraction energetics. By considering heart energetics as a supply-demand system, MoCA gives access to integrated organ function and brings out a new type of information, the "elasticities", which describe in situ the regulation of both energy demand and supply by cellular energetic status. These regulations determine the internal control of contraction energetics and may therefore be a key to the understanding of the links between molecular events in pathologies and whole organ function/dysfunction. A wider application to the effects of cardiac drugs in conjunction with the direct study of heart pathologies may be considered in the near future. MoCA can potentially be used not only to detect the origin of the defects associated with the pathology (elasticity analyses), but also to provide a quantitative description of how these defects influence global heart function (regulation analysis) and therefore open new therapeutic perspectives. Several key examples of current applications to intact isolated beating heart are presented in this paper. The future application to human pathologies will require the use of non-invasive NMR techniques for the simultaneous measurement of energy status ((31)P NMR) and heart contractile activity (3D MRI). This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction, adaptation and therapy. PMID:22789933

  1. Feasibility of Using Wideband Microwave System for Non-Invasive Detection and Monitoring of Pulmonary Oedema

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeieh, S. Ahdi; Zamani, A.; Bialkowski, K. S.; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a common manifestation of various fatal diseases that can be caused by cardiac or non-cardiac syndromes. The accumulated fluid has a considerably higher dielectric constant compared to lungs’ tissues, and can thus be detected using microwave techniques. Therefore, a non-invasive microwave system for the early detection of pulmonary oedema is presented. It employs a platform in the form of foam-based bed that contains two linear arrays of wideband antennas covering the band 0.7–1 GHz. The platform is designed such that during the tests, the subject lays on the bed with the back of the torso facing the antenna arrays. The antennas are controlled using a switching network that is connected to a compact network analyzer. A novel frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the torso showing any accumulated fluids in the lungs. The system is verified on an artificial torso phantom, and animal organs. As a feasibility study, preclinical tests are conducted on healthy subjects to determinate the type of obtained images, the statistics and threshold levels of their intensity to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy subjects. PMID:26365299

  2. Feasibility of Using Wideband Microwave System for Non-Invasive Detection and Monitoring of Pulmonary Oedema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeieh, S. Ahdi; Zamani, A.; Bialkowski, K. S.; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a common manifestation of various fatal diseases that can be caused by cardiac or non-cardiac syndromes. The accumulated fluid has a considerably higher dielectric constant compared to lungs’ tissues, and can thus be detected using microwave techniques. Therefore, a non-invasive microwave system for the early detection of pulmonary oedema is presented. It employs a platform in the form of foam-based bed that contains two linear arrays of wideband antennas covering the band 0.7-1 GHz. The platform is designed such that during the tests, the subject lays on the bed with the back of the torso facing the antenna arrays. The antennas are controlled using a switching network that is connected to a compact network analyzer. A novel frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the torso showing any accumulated fluids in the lungs. The system is verified on an artificial torso phantom, and animal organs. As a feasibility study, preclinical tests are conducted on healthy subjects to determinate the type of obtained images, the statistics and threshold levels of their intensity to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy subjects.

  3. Feasibility of Using Wideband Microwave System for Non-Invasive Detection and Monitoring of Pulmonary Oedema.

    PubMed

    Rezaeieh, S Ahdi; Zamani, A; Bialkowski, K S; Mahmoud, A; Abbosh, A M

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a common manifestation of various fatal diseases that can be caused by cardiac or non-cardiac syndromes. The accumulated fluid has a considerably higher dielectric constant compared to lungs' tissues, and can thus be detected using microwave techniques. Therefore, a non-invasive microwave system for the early detection of pulmonary oedema is presented. It employs a platform in the form of foam-based bed that contains two linear arrays of wideband antennas covering the band 0.7-1 GHz. The platform is designed such that during the tests, the subject lays on the bed with the back of the torso facing the antenna arrays. The antennas are controlled using a switching network that is connected to a compact network analyzer. A novel frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the torso showing any accumulated fluids in the lungs. The system is verified on an artificial torso phantom, and animal organs. As a feasibility study, preclinical tests are conducted on healthy subjects to determinate the type of obtained images, the statistics and threshold levels of their intensity to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy subjects. PMID:26365299

  4. Characterising the myocardial interstitial space: the clinical relevance of non-invasive imaging.

    PubMed

    White, Steven K; Sado, Daniel M; Flett, Andrew S; Moon, James C

    2012-05-01

    The myocardial interstitial or extracellular space exists as a complex and dynamic environment, vital for normal cardiac structure and function. The physiological pathways for normal control of collagen turnover, and the pathological development of fibrosis are beginning to be understood, as are their relationships to cardiac remodelling and adverse outcomes. Emerging non-invasive imaging techniques (echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography) may allow a clearer understanding and measurement of these processes in vivo. Preliminary results are exciting, spanning valvular and congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy and rarer diseases such as amyloid. In this review, such developments and research directions are explored, including the rapid developments in cardiovascular magnetic resonance T1 mapping and its use with contrast to derive extracellular volume. The authors present a state-of-the-art assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of each modality, and distil a framework to equip the reader with an understanding of the technical issues useful for the interpretation of emerging clinical studies. PMID:22422587

  5. Diosmin pretreatment improves cardiac function and suppresses oxidative stress in rat heart after ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Senthamizhselvan, Oomaidurai; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Raja, Boobalan

    2014-08-01

    Reperfusion of ischemic tissue leads to the generation of oxygen derived free radicals which plays an important role in cellular damage. Objective of the current study is to evaluate the cardio-protective and antioxidant effect of diosmin on ischemia-reperfusion related cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Diosmin (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (bw)) was given every day to the rats orally throughout the experimental period. Ischemia/reperfusion protocol was carried out ex vivo using langendorff perfusion method and the cardiac functional recovery was assessed in terms of percentage rate pressure product. Coronary effluents of LDH and CK-MB activities, antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation products, activity of TCA cycle enzymes were evaluated. Moreover, in vitro superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging potential of diosmin was also quantified. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR was used for assessing Bcl-2 mRNA expression in heart. Cardiac functional recovery was impaired after reperfusion compared with continuously perfused heart. It was significantly prevented by diosmin treatment. Impaired antioxidant enzyme activities and elevated lipid peroxidation products level were also significantly suppressed. The activity of TCA cycle enzymes was protected against reperfusion stress. Down regulated Bcl-2 was also significantly increased. This study concluded that diosmin pretreatment prevents all the impaired patterns including cardiac function, oxidative stress and apoptosis associated with reperfusion in control heart by its antioxidant role. PMID:24769512

  6. PM-induced cardiac oxidative stress and dysfunction are mediated by autonomic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rhoden, Claudia R; Wellenius, Gregory A; Ghelfi, Elisa; Lawrence, Joy; González-Flecha, Beatriz

    2005-10-10

    Epidemiological studies show that increases in particulate air pollution (PM) are associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the cardiac effects of PM remain unknown. We used pharmacological strategies to determine whether oxidants are implicated in PM-dependent cardiac dysfunction and whether PM-induced increase in autonomic stimulation on the heart mediates cardiac oxidative stress and toxicity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either intratracheal instillation of urban air particles (UAP 750 microg) or to inhalation of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs mass concentration 700+/-180 microg/m3) for 5 h. Oxidative stress and cardiac function were evaluated 30 min after UAP instillation or immediately after exposure to CAPs. Instillation of UAP led to significant increases in heart oxidants measured as organ chemiluminescence (UAP: 38+/-5 cps/cm2, sham: 10+/-1 cps/cm2) or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, UAP: 76+/-10, Sham 30+/-6 pmol/mg protein). Heart rate increased immediately after exposure (UAP: 390+/-20 bpm, sham: 350+/-10 bpm) and returned to basal levels over the next 30 min. Heart rate variability (SDNN) was unchanged immediately after exposure, but significantly increased during the recovery phase (UAP: 3.4+/-0.2, Sham: 2.4+/-0.3). To determine the role of ROS in the development of cardiac malfunction, rats were treated with 50 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 1 h prior to UAP instillation or CAPs inhalation. NAC prevented changes in heart rate and SDNN in UAP-exposed rats (340+/-8 and 2.9+/-0.3, respectively). To investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in PM-induced oxidative stress, rats were given 5 mg/kg atenolol (beta-1 receptor antagonist), 0.30 mg/kg glycopyrrolate (muscarinic receptor antagonist) or saline immediately before exposure to CAPs aerosols. Both atenolol and glycopyrrolate effectively prevented CAPs-induced cardiac oxidative stress (CL

  7. In vivo non-invasive multiphoton tomography of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Ehlers, Alexander; Le Harzic, Ronan

    2005-10-01

    High resolution non-invasive 3D imaging devices are required to detect pathogenic microorganisms such as Anthrax spores, bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical agents entering biological tissues such as the epidermis. Due to the low light penetration depth and the biodamage potential, ultraviolet light sources can not be employed to realize intratissue imaging of bio- and chemohazards. We report on the novel near infrared laser technology multiphoton tomography and the high resolution 4D imaging tool DermaInspect for non-invasive detection of intratissue agents and their influence on cellular metabolism based on multiphoton autofluorescence imaging (MAI) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Femtosecond laser pulses in the spectral range of 750 nm to 850 nm have been used to image in vivo human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. The non-linear induced autofluorescence of both, skin tissues and microorganisms, originates mainly from naturally endogenous fluorophores/protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, keratin, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and melanin. Bacteria emit in the blue/green spectral range due to NAD(P)H and flavoproteins and, in certain cases, in the red spectral range due to the biosynthesis of Zn-porphyrins, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin. Collagen and exogenous non-centrosymmetric molecules can be detected by SHG signals. The system DermaInspect consists of a wavelength-tunable compact 80/90 MHz Ti:sapphire laser, a scan module with galvo scan mirrors, piezo-driven objective, fast photon detector and time-resolved single photon counting unit. It can be used to perform optical sectioning and 3D autofluorescence lifetime imaging (τ-mapping) with 1 μm spatial resolution and 270 ps temporal resolution. The parameter fluorescence lifetime depends on the type of fluorophore and its microenvironment and can be used to distinguish bio- and chemohazards from cellular background and to gain information for pathogen

  8. The Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Matches Energetic Supply with Cardiac Workload during Stress and Modulates Permeability Transition.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Timothy S; Lambert, Jonathan P; Yuan, Ancai; Zhang, Xueqian; Gross, Polina; Song, Jianliang; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Gao, Erhe; Jain, Mohit; Houser, Steven R; Koch, Walter J; Cheung, Joseph Y; Madesh, Muniswamy; Elrod, John W

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac contractility is mediated by a variable flux in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)), thought to be integrated into mitochondria via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) channel to match energetic demand. Here, we examine a conditional, cardiomyocyte-specific, mutant mouse lacking Mcu, the pore-forming subunit of the MCU channel, in adulthood. Mcu(-/-) mice display no overt baseline phenotype and are protected against mCa(2+) overload in an in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model by preventing the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, decreasing infarct size, and preserving cardiac function. In addition, we find that Mcu(-/-) mice lack contractile responsiveness to acute β-adrenergic receptor stimulation and in parallel are unable to activate mitochondrial dehydrogenases and display reduced bioenergetic reserve capacity. These results support the hypothesis that MCU may be dispensable for homeostatic cardiac function but required to modulate Ca(2+)-dependent metabolism during acute stress. PMID:26119731

  9. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  10. Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatter, Cedric; Klein, Thomas; Grajciar, Branislav; Schmoll, Tilman; Wieser, Wolfgang; Andre, Raphael; Huber, Robert; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2012-07-01

    Retinal and choroidal vascular imaging is an important diagnostic benefit for ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The current gold standard for vessel visualization is fluorescence angiography. We present a potential non-invasive alternative to image blood vessels based on functional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). For OCT to compete with the field of view and resolution of angiography while maintaining motion artifacts to a minimum, ultrahigh-speed imaging has to be introduced. We employ Fourier domain mode locking swept source technology that offers high quality imaging at an A-scan rate of up to 1.68 MHz. We present retinal angiogram over ˜48 deg acquired in a few seconds in a single recording without the need of image stitching. OCT at 1060 nm allows for high penetration in the choroid and efficient separate characterization of the retinal and choroidal vascularization.

  11. Non-invasive imaging of microcirculation: a technology review

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Sam; Nilsson, Jan; Sturesson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Microcirculation plays a crucial role in physiological processes of tissue oxygenation and nutritional exchange. Measurement of microcirculation can be applied on many organs in various pathologies. In this paper we aim to review the technique of non-invasive methods for imaging of the microcirculation. Methods covered are: videomicroscopy techniques, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and laser speckle contrast imaging. Videomicroscopy techniques, such as orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and sidestream dark-field imaging, provide a plentitude of information and offer direct visualization of the microcirculation but have the major drawback that they may give pressure artifacts. Both laser Doppler perfusion imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging allow non-contact measurements but have the disadvantage of their sensitivity to motion artifacts and that they are confined to relative measurement comparisons. Ideal would be a non-contact videomicroscopy method with fully automatic analysis software. PMID:25525397

  12. [Non-invasive brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Gajo, Gianandrea; Pollak, Pierre; Lüscher, Christian; Benninger, David

    2015-04-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major socio-economic burden increasing with the aging population. In advanced PD, the emergence of symptoms refractory to conventional therapy poses a therapeutic challenge. The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD have raised interest in non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) as an alternative therapeutic tool. NIBS could offer an alternative approach for patients at risk who are excluded from surgery and/or to treat refractory symptoms. The treatment of the freezing of gait, a major cause of disability and falls in PD patients, could be enhanced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A therapeutic study is currently performed at the Department of Neurology at the CHUV. PMID:26062225

  13. [Elemental research on intelligent non-invasive temporary pacemakers].

    PubMed

    Nie, Bang-ji; Xu, Long; Xin, Xue-gang; Wang, Cheng-lai; Wu, Min-shan

    2005-01-01

    Some research on intelligent non-invasive temporary pacemakers is introduced in this paper. An industrial computer, some IC chips and other elements are used to construct its hardware, and its software is in C++ language. The experimental device has some intelligent functions of recognizing some arrhythmia. The system has a pacemaker module and an ECG monitor module. Its software includes a main program, a RS-232C communication program, a printer VxD, a pacing control VxD and ECG signal pretreatment and recognizing program and so on. The pacing-generating circuit is employed to make the precision control of pacing current. The communication between industrial-computer system and ECG module is completed through the DLL. The real time processing of ECG signals is based on filter method for a higher recognizing ratio. The system calculates several parameters to recognize certain arrhythmia and uses MIT/BIH database to validate the reliability of ECG recognition. PMID:15875682

  14. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making. PMID:26530119

  15. Non invasive sensing technologies for cultural heritage management and fruition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The relevance of the information produced by science and technology for the knowledge of the cultural heritage depends on the quality of the feedback and, consequently, on the "cultural" distance between scientists and end-users. In particular, the solution to this problem mainly resides in the capability of end-users' capability to assess and transform the knowledge produced by diagnostics with regard to: information on both cultural objects and sites (decay patterns, vulnerability, presence of buried archaeological remains); decision making (management plan, conservation project, and excavation plan). From our experience in the field of the cultural heritage and namely the conservation, of monuments, there is a significant gap of information between technologists (geophysicists/physicists/engineers) and end-users (conservators/historians/architects). This cultural gap is due to the difficulty to interpret "indirect data" produced by non invasive diagnostics (i.e. radargrams/thermal images/seismic tomography etc..) in order to provide information useful to improve the historical knowledge (e.g. the chronology of the different phases of a building), to characterise the state of conservation (e.g. detection of cracks in the masonry) and to monitor in time cultural heritage artifacts and sites. The possible answer to this difficulty is in the set-up of a knowledge chain regarding the following steps: - Integrated application of novel and robust data processing methods; - Augmented reality as a tool for making easier the interpretation of non invasive - investigations for the analysis of decay pathologies of masonry and architectural surfaces; - The comparison between direct data (carrots, visual inspection) and results from non-invasive tests, including geophysics, aims to improve the interpretation and the rendering of the monuments and even of the archaeological landscapes; - The use of specimens or test beds for the detection of archaeological features and

  16. Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, Gary; Boas, David A.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews diffuse optical brain imaging, a technique that employs near-infrared light to non-invasively probe the brain for changes in parameters relating to brain function. We describe the general methodology, including types of measurements and instrumentation (including the tradeoffs inherent in the various instrument components), and the basic theory required to interpret the recorded data. A brief review of diffuse optical applications is included, with an emphasis on research that has been done with psychiatric populations. Finally, we discuss some practical issues and limitations that are relevant when conducting diffuse optical experiments. We find that, while diffuse optics can provide substantial advantages to the psychiatric researcher relative to the alternative brain imaging methods, the method remains substantially underutilized in this field.

  17. Non-invasive Respiratory Support and Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Rahul; Fisher, Marilyn; Cerone, Jennifer; Barry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe two premature infants who developed stage 3, zone I retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with plus disease in both eyes, despite limited exposure to supra-ambient oxygen. Both infants received noninvasive respiratory support for several weeks. Both cases are notable because the ROP was more posterior and aggressive than is typical for the gestational ages or birth weights. These cases are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the factors that cause ROP. Further investigation is required to determine if there is an association between the use of non-invasive respiratory support, even in the absence of supra-ambient oxygen, and severe ROP development. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e47-e50.]. PMID:27537495

  18. Eyeblink conditioning: a non-invasive biomarker for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-02-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition, abnormalities in the cerebellum, a region of the brain highly involved in EBC, have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the current paper, we review studies that have employed EBC as a biomarker for several neurodevelopmental disorders including fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, specific language impairment, and schizophrenia. In addition, we discuss the benefits of using such a tool in individuals with ASD. PMID:23942847

  19. Hybrid CARS for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Pestov, Dmitry; Zhang, Aihua; Murawski, Robert; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Laane, Jaan; Scully, Marlan

    2007-10-01

    We develop a spectroscopy technique that combines the advantages of both the frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the time-resolved CARS. We use broadband preparation pulses to get an instantaneous coherent excitation of multiplex molecular vibration levels and subsequent optically shaped time-delayed narrowband probing pulse to detect these vibrations. This technique can suppress the nonresonant background and retrieve the molecular fingerprint signal efficiently and rapidly. We employ this technique to glucose detection, the final goal of which is accurate, non-invasive (i.e. painless) and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration in the Diabetes diagnosis to replace the current glucose measurement process, which requires painful fingerpricks and therefore cannot be performed more than a few times a day. We have gotten the CARS spectra of glucose aqueous solution down to 2 mM.

  20. Non-invasive ventilation in exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Vagheggini, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the evidence and helped to define when and where non invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) should be the first line treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Noninvasive ventilation has its best indication in moderate-to-severe respiratory acidosis in patients with AECOPD. For this indication, studies conducted in ICU, in wards and in accident and emergency departments confirmed its effectiveness in preventing endotracheal intubation and reducing mortality. The skill of the health care team promotes proper NIV utilization and improves the patient outcome. Patients with severe acidosis or with altered levels of consciousness due to hypercapnic acute respiratory failure are exposed to high risk of NIV failure. In these patients a NIV trial may be attempted in closely monitored clinical settings where prompt endotracheal intubation may be assured. PMID:18268921

  1. Non-invasive Loading Model of Murine Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Poulet, Blandine

    2016-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is the commonest degenerative joint disease, leading to joint pain and disability. The mouse has been the primary animal used for research, due to its size, relatively short lifespan, and the availability of genetically modified animals. Importantly, they show pathogenesis similar to osteoarthritis in humans. Mechanical loading is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis, and various mouse models have been developed to study the role and effects of mechanics on health and disease in various joints. This review describes the main mouse models used to non-invasively apply mechanical loads on joints. Most of the mouse models of osteoarthritis target the knee, including repetitive loading and joint injury such as ligament rupture, but a few studies have also characterised models for elbow, temporomandibular joint, and whole-body vibration spinal loading. These models are a great opportunity to dissect the influences of various types of mechanical input on joint health and disease. PMID:27177901

  2. Non-invasive measurments of intense relativistic electron beam size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Carl; McCuistian, Trent; Moir, David; Rodriguez, Patrick; Broste, William; Johnson, Jeff

    2000-10-01

    To understand relativistic electron beam transport dynamics the size of the beam is often measured using invasive techniques such as imaging the Cerenkov or OTR light emitted from a screen inserted into the beam. These techniques would completely disrupt the DARHT 2 beam, so we are developing a non-invasive method using diamagnetic loops. We show that through conservation of canonical angular momentum the RMS radius of the beam can be found by measuring the magnetic flux excluded by the diamagnetic beam. Furthermore, this measurement is shown to be independent of the details of the beam radial current profile for DARHT 2 parameters. We present results from our test and calibration experiments, as well as results of beam radius measurements on the 20-MeV DARHT 1 accelerator.

  3. Non-invasive assessment of skeletal muscle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merletti, Roberto; Orizio, Claudio; di Prampero, Pietro E.; Tesch, Per

    2005-10-01

    After the first 3 years (2002-2005), the MAP project has made available: - systems fo electrodes, signal conditioning and digital processing for multichannel simultaneously-detected EMG and MMG as well as for simultaneous electrical stimulation and EMG detection with artifact cancellation. - innovative non-invasive techniques for the extraction of individual motor unit action potentials (MUAPS) and individual motor and MMG contributions from the surface EMG interference signal and the MMG signal. - processing techniques for extractions of indicators of progressive fatigue from the electrically-elicited (M-wave) EMG signal. - techniques for the analysis of dynamic multichannel EMG during cyclic or explosive exercise (in collaboration with project EXER/MAP-MED-027).

  4. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  5. It Takes Two: Non Invasive Brain Stimulation Combined with Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephen J.; Cunningham, David A; Plow, Ela; Blazak, Brittani

    2015-01-01

    The goal of post-acute neurorehabilitation is to maximize patients' function, ideally by using surviving brain and central nervous system tissue when possible. Yet the structures incorporated into neurorehabilitative approaches often differ from this target, which may explain why efficacy of conventional clinical treatments targeting neurological impairments varies widely. Non-invasive brain stimulation such as with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) offers the possibility of directly targeting brain structures to facilitate or inhibit their activity so as to steer neural plasticity in recovery, and measure neuronal output and interactions for evaluating progress. Latest advances as stereotactic navigation and electric field modeling are enabling more precise targeting of patient's residual structures in diagnosis and therapy. Given its promise, this supplement illustrates the wide-ranging significance of TMS and tDCS in neurorehabilitation, including in stroke, pediatrics, traumatic brain injury, focal hand dystonia, neuropathic pain and spinal cord injury. TMS and tDCS are still not widely used and remain poorly understood in neurorehabilitation. Thus, the present supplement includes articles that highlight ready clinical application of these technologies, including their comparative diagnostic capabilities relative to neuroimaging, their therapeutic benefit, their optimal delivery, the stratification of likely responders, and the variable benefits associated with their clinical use due to interactions between pathophysiology and the innate reorganization of the patient's brain. Overall, the supplement concludes that whether provided in isolation or in combination, non-invasive brain stimulation with neuro-rehabilitation are synergistic in the potential to transform clinical practice. PMID:25813373

  6. Non-invasive assessment of microvascular and endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cynthia; Daskalakis, Constantine; Falkner, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    The authors have utilized capillaroscopy and forearm blood flow techniques to investigate the role of microvascular dysfunction in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive, relatively inexpensive methodology for directly visualizing the microcirculation. Percent capillary recruitment is assessed by dividing the increase in capillary density induced by postocclusive reactive hyperemia (postocclusive reactive hyperemia capillary density minus baseline capillary density), by the maximal capillary density (observed during passive venous occlusion). Percent perfused capillaries represents the proportion of all capillaries present that are perfused (functionally active), and is calculated by dividing postocclusive reactive hyperemia capillary density by the maximal capillary density. Both percent capillary recruitment and percent perfused capillaries reflect the number of functional capillaries. The forearm blood flow (FBF) technique provides accepted non-invasive measures of endothelial function: The ratio FBF(max)/FBF(base) is computed as an estimate of vasodilation, by dividing the mean of the four FBF(max) values by the mean of the four FBFbase values. Forearm vascular resistance at maximal vasodilation (FVR(max)) is calculated as the mean arterial pressure (MAP) divided by FBF(max). Both the capillaroscopy and forearm techniques are readily acceptable to patients and can be learned quickly. The microvascular and endothelial function measures obtained using the methodologies described in this paper may have future utility in clinical patient cardiovascular risk-reduction strategies. As we have published reports demonstrating that microvascular and endothelial dysfunction are found in initial stages of hypertension including prehypertension, microvascular and endothelial function measures may eventually aid in early identification, risk-stratification and prevention of end-stage vascular pathology, with its potentially fatal

  7. Non-invasive glucose determination in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Wolfgang; Meuer, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Kiefer, Wolfgang; Menzebach, Johannes-Ulrich; Schrader, Bernhard

    2005-02-01

    For non-invasive in vivo glucose determinations by means of near-infrared spectroscopy, the anterior chamber of the human eye is a promising site. An optical set-up for the non-invasive glucose determination in the human eye precisely in the anterior chamber with a beam reflected from the surface of the eye lens is presented here. As the anterior chamber has a depth of 3.13±0.50 mm, the beam follows an optical path of 5.3-7.3 mm depending on the angle of incidence, which is individually constant. We will show that it is possible to acquire good concentration predictions for physiological glucose concentrations with such a long optical path. A chemometric study of NIR glucose spectra with concentrations of glucose in water of 10-350 mg/dL (0.56-1.94 mmol/L) resulted in a calibration model which was able to predict physiological glucose concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction RMSEPTest=15.41 mg/dL. The Clarke error grid diagram shows that the model performs well according to medical impact. Using a first in vivo set-up, the precision is not sufficient for a reliable prediction of glucose concentration, especially due to the flickering of the patient's eye and the low reflectivity of the eye lens. Therefore, we have designed a new in vivo set-up: a prototype for a self-monitoring device with controlled geometry and laser radiation at several distinct wavelengths instead of the halogen lamp as light source. This allows a far higher signal/noise ratio under much better reproducible geometrical conditions and at the same time a much smaller necessary light flux.

  8. Non-invasive diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sebastian; Seitz, Helmut Karl; Rausch, Vanessa

    2014-10-28

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world. For many reasons, it is underestimated and underdiagnosed. An early diagnosis is absolutely essential since it (1) helps to identify patients at genetic risk for ALD; (2) can trigger efficient abstinence namely in non-addicted patients; and (3) initiate screening programs to prevent life-threatening complications such as bleeding from varices, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or hepatocellular cancer. The two major end points of ALD are alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the rare and clinically-defined alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The prediction and early diagnosis of both entities is still insufficiently solved and usually relies on a combination of laboratory, clinical and imaging findings. It is not widely conceived that conventional screening tools for ALD such as ultrasound imaging or routine laboratory testing can easily overlook ca. 40% of manifest alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Non-invasive methods such as transient elastography (Fibroscan), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging or shear wave elastography have significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Present algorithms allow either the exclusion or the exact definition of advanced fibrosis stages in ca. 95% of patients. The correct interpretation of liver stiffness requires a timely abdominal ultrasound and actual transaminase levels. Other non-invasive methods such as controlled attenuation parameter, serum levels of M30 or M65, susceptometry or breath tests are under current evaluation to assess the degree of steatosis, apoptosis and iron overload in these patients. Liver biopsy still remains an important option to rule out comorbidities and to confirm the prognosis namely for patients with AH. PMID:25356026

  9. Non-invasive diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sebastian; Seitz, Helmut Karl; Rausch, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world. For many reasons, it is underestimated and underdiagnosed. An early diagnosis is absolutely essential since it (1) helps to identify patients at genetic risk for ALD; (2) can trigger efficient abstinence namely in non-addicted patients; and (3) initiate screening programs to prevent life-threatening complications such as bleeding from varices, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or hepatocellular cancer. The two major end points of ALD are alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the rare and clinically-defined alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The prediction and early diagnosis of both entities is still insufficiently solved and usually relies on a combination of laboratory, clinical and imaging findings. It is not widely conceived that conventional screening tools for ALD such as ultrasound imaging or routine laboratory testing can easily overlook ca. 40% of manifest alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Non-invasive methods such as transient elastography (Fibroscan), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging or shear wave elastography have significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Present algorithms allow either the exclusion or the exact definition of advanced fibrosis stages in ca. 95% of patients. The correct interpretation of liver stiffness requires a timely abdominal ultrasound and actual transaminase levels. Other non-invasive methods such as controlled attenuation parameter, serum levels of M30 or M65, susceptometry or breath tests are under current evaluation to assess the degree of steatosis, apoptosis and iron overload in these patients. Liver biopsy still remains an important option to rule out comorbidities and to confirm the prognosis namely for patients with AH. PMID:25356026

  10. Novel non invasive diagnostic strategies in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    TRUTA, ANAMARIA; POPON, TUDOR ADRIAN HODOR; SARACI, GEORGE; GHERVAN, LIVIU; POP, IOAN VICTOR

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide, derived from the urothelium of the urinary bladder and defined by long asymptomatic and atypical clinical picture. Its complex etiopathogenesis is dependent on numerous risk factors that can be divided into three distinct categories: genetic and molecular abnormalities, chemical or environmental exposure and previous genitourinary disorders and family history of different malignancies. Various genetic polymorphisms and microRNA might represent useful diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Genetic and molecular abnormalities - risk factors are represented by miRNA or genetic polymorphisms proved to be part of bladder carcinogenesis such as: genetic mutations of oncogenes TP53, Ras, Rb1 or p21 oncoproteins, cyclin D or genetic polymorhisms of XPD,ERCC1, CYP1B1, NQO1C609T, MDM2SNP309, CHEK2, ERCC6, NRF2, NQO1Pro187Ser polymorphism and microRNA (miR-143, −145, −222, −210, −10b, 576-3p). The aim of our article is to highlight the most recent acquisitions via molecular biomarkers (miRNAs and genetic polymorphisms) involved in bladder cancer in order to provide early diagnosis, precise therapy according to the molecular profile of bladder tumors, as well as to improve clinical outcome, survival rates and life quality of oncological patients. These molecular biomarkers play a key role in bladder carcinogenesis, clinical evolution, prognosis and therapeutic response and explain the molecular mechanisms involved in bladder carcinogenesis; they can also be selected as therapeutic targets in developing novel therapeutic strategies in bladder malignancies. Moreover, the purpose in defining these molecular non invasive biomarkers is also to develop non invasive screening programs in bladder malignancies with the result of decreasing bladder cancer incidence in risk population. PMID:27152066

  11. High Definition Oscillometry: Non-invasive Blood Pressure Measurement and Pulse Wave Analysis.

    PubMed

    Egner, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure has become increasingly important in research. High-Definition Oscillometry (HDO) delivers not only accurate, reproducible and thus reliable blood pressure but also visualises the pulse waves on screen. This allows for on-screen feedback in real time on data validity but even more on additional parameters like systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke volume (SV), stroke volume variances (SVV), rhythm and dysrhythmia. Since complex information on drug effects are delivered within a short period of time, almost stress-free and visible in real time, it makes HDO a valuable technology in safety pharmacology and toxicology within a variety of fields like but not limited to cardiovascular, renal or metabolic research. PMID:26091643

  12. Analysis of uncultured extremophilic snow algae by non-invasive single cell Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Thomas; Tanaka, Zuki; Netzter, Nathan; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Chen, Bin

    2011-10-01

    The study of life in extreme environments is a critical component of Astrobiology. But many of the so-called "extremophiles" are not readily cultivatable and therefore difficult to study under laboratory conditions. An example of such an extremophile is the snow alga Chlamydomonas cd. nivalis which expresses still unstudied secondary metabolites within its life cycle. In this paper, we present the first time the non-invasive single cell Raman spectroscopy of the life cycle dependent metabolite composition of C. nivalis. These secondary metabolites are likely related to the adaptation of C. nivalis to various stress factors. Normalized carotenoid Raman spectra intensities reveal characteristic ratio differences that allow identification of life cycle stages and putative secondary metabolites.

  13. Impact of weightlessness on cardiac shape and left ventricular stress/strain distributions.

    PubMed

    Iskovitz, Ilana; Kassemi, Mohammad; Thomas, James D

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a finite element model of the heart is developed to investigate the impact of different gravitational loadings of Earth, Mars, Moon, and microgravity on the cardiac shape and strain/stress distributions in the left ventricle. The finite element model is based on realistic 3D heart geometry, detailed fiber/sheet micro-architecture, and a validated orthotropic cardiac tissue model and constitutive relationship that capture the passive behavior of the heart at end-diastole. The model predicts the trend and magnitude of cardiac shape change at different gravitational levels with great fidelity in comparison to recent cardiac sphericity measurements performed during simulated reduced-gravity parabolic flight experiments. Moreover, the numerical predictions indicate that although the left ventricular strain distributions remain relatively unaltered across the gravitational fields and the strain extrema values occur at the same relative locations, their values change noticeably with decreasing gravity. As for the stress, however, both the magnitude and location of the extrema change with a decrease in the gravitational field. Consequently, tension regions of the heart on Earth can change into compression regions in space. PMID:24048335

  14. Non-invasive blood sampling from primates using laboratory-bred blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus; Reduviidae, Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Ruth; Voigt, Christian C

    2006-10-01

    Primates are easily stressed by the conventional veterinary blood sampling routine and consequently, measured blood parameters may be biased. In this study, we tested blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus) on one lemur and two ape species (Microcebus murinus, Pongo abelii, Pan paniscus) as an alternative, non-invasive technique for bleeding primates. Within time periods of between 6 and 62 min we obtained blood volumes of 0.01-2.4 ml in 11 out of 12 trials from all three species. Therefore, we conclude that these bugs represent a new, gentle and effective tool for bleeding captive primates without stress. PMID:16741605

  15. Popeye domain containing proteins and stress-mediated modulation of cardiac pacemaking

    PubMed Central

    Simrick, Subreena; Schindler, Roland; Poon, Kar-Lai; Brand, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An intricate network of ion channels and pumps are involved in generating a diastolic pacemaker potential, which is transmitted to the working myocardium with the help of the cardiac conduction system. The principles of cardiac pacemaking are reasonably well understood, however, the mechanism by which the heart increases its beating frequency in response to adrenergic stimulation has not been fully worked out. The Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode plasma membrane-localized proteins that are able to bind cAMP with high affinity and mice with null mutations in Popdc1 or -2 have a stress-induced pacemaker dysfunction. The phenotype in both mutants develops in an age-dependent manner and thus may model pacemaker dysfunction in man, as well as providing novel mechanistic insights into the process of pacemaker adaptation to stress. PMID:23562093

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in bone marrow-derived cells prevents acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Li, T-T; Jia, L-X; Zhang, W-M; Li, X-Y; Zhang, J; Li, Y-L; Li, H-H; Qi, Y-F; Du, J

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in hypertensive cardiac injury. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is involved in the inflammatory response. However, the role of ER stress in elevated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of ER stress in Ang II-induced hypertensive cardiac injury. Transcriptome analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ang II infusion in mice increased ER stress-related genes expression in the heart. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency, a key mediator of ER stress, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines in Ang II-infused mouse hearts. CHOP deficiency increased Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury: (1) Masson trichrome staining showed increased fibrotic areas, (2) immunohistochemistry staining showed increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor β1 and (3) quantitative real-time PCR showed increased expression of collagen in CHOP-deficient mouse heart. Bone marrow transplantation experiments indicated that CHOP deficiency in bone marrow cells was responsible for Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury. Moreover, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry revealed that CHOP deficiency decreased neutrophil apoptosis in response to Ang II. Taken together, our study demonstrated that hypertension induced ER stress after Ang II infusion. ER stress in bone marrow-derived cells protected acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to Ang II. PMID:27277680

  17. Three versions of Perceived Stress Scale: validation in a sample of Chinese cardiac patients who smoke

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Smoking causes heart disease, the major cause of death in China and Hong Kong. Stress is one major trigger of smoking and relapse, and understanding stress among smoking cardiac patients can therefore help in designing effective interventions to motivate them to quit. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and to compare the appropriateness of the three versions of the scale (PSS-14, PSS-10, and PSS-4) among Chinese cardiac patients who were also smokers. Methods From March 2002 to December 2004, 1860 cardiac patients who smoked were recruited at the cardiac outpatient clinics of ten acute hospitals in Hong Kong, and 1800 questionnaires were analysed. Participants completed a questionnaire including the PSS, nicotine dependence and certain demographic variables. The psychometric properties of the PSS were investigated: construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis, reliability using Cronbach's alpha and concurrent validity by examining the relationship with smoking- and health-related variables. Results For all the three versions of the PSS, confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the 2-factor structure of the scale, with the positive and negative factors correlating significantly and negatively to a moderate extent (r < -0.5), and high Cronbach's alpha values for the two subscales (alpha > 0.5). All the correlations of the two subscales and the smoking- and health-related variables were statistically significant and in the expected directions although of small magnitudes, except daily cigarette consumption. Conclusions The findings confirmed the satisfactory psychometric properties of all three Chinese versions of PSS. We recommend the use of PSS-10 for research which focuses on the two components of perceived stress, as it shows a higher reliability; and the use of PSS-4 if such partition is not essential and space for multiple measures is limited. PMID:20735860

  18. Minocycline suppresses oxidative stress and attenuates fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis triggered by in utero cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Shen, Ruoqing; Nzenwa, Ify; Gelfand, Robert; Mahata, Sushil K; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the molecular mechanisms by which minocycline, a second generation tetracycline, prevents cardiac myocyte death induced by in utero cocaine exposure. Timed mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received one of the following treatments twice daily from embryonic (E) day 15-21 (E15-E21): (i) intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline (control); (ii) IP injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg BW); and (iii) IP injections of cocaine + oral administration of 25 mg/kg BW of minocycline. Pups were killed on postnatal day 15 (P15). Additional pregnant dams received twice daily IP injections of cocaine (from E15-E21) + oral administration of a relatively higher (37.5 mg/kg BW) dose of minocycline. Minocycline treatment continued from E15 until the pups were sacrificed on P15. In utero cocaine exposure resulted in an increase in oxidative stress and fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis through activation of c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Continued minocycline treatment from E15 through P15 significantly prevented oxidative stress, kinase activation, perturbation of BAX/BCL-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and attenuated fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis after prenatal cocaine exposure. These results demonstrate in vivo cardioprotective effects of minocycline in preventing fetal cardiac myocyte death after prenatal cocaine exposure. Given its proven clinical safety and ability to cross the placental barrier and enter into the fetal circulation, minocycline may be an effective therapy for preventing cardiac consequences of in utero cocaine exposure. PMID:21424555

  19. An MR-Compatible Treadmill for Exercise Stress Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Eric L.; Arnold, John W.; Jekic, Mihaela; Bender, Jacob; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Dickerson, Jennifer A.; Raman, Subha V.; Simonetti, Orlando P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an MR-safe treadmill that enables cardiovascular exercise stress testing adjacent to the MRI system, facilitating cardiac MR imaging immediately following exercise stress. The treadmill was constructed of non-ferromagnetic components utilizing a hydraulic power system. Computer control ensured precise execution of the standard Bruce treadmill protocol commonly used for cardiovascular exercise stress testing. The treadmill demonstrated no evidence of ferromagnetic attraction and did not affect image quality. Treadmill performance met design specifications both inside and outside the MRI environment. Ten healthy volunteers performed the Bruce protocol with the treadmill positioned adjacent to the MRI table. Upon reaching peak stress (98% ± 8% of age-predicted maximum heart rate (APMHR)), the subjects lay down directly on the MRI table, a cardiac array coil was placed, an intravenous line connected, and stress cine and perfusion imaging performed. Cine imaging commenced on average within 24 ± 4 s and was completed within 40 ± 7 s of the end of exercise. Subject heart rates were 86% ± 9% of APMHR at the start of imaging and 81% ± 9% of APMHR upon completion of cine imaging. The MRI compatible treadmill was shown to operate safely and effectively in the MRI environment. PMID:22190228

  20. Effects of training periodization on cardiac autonomic modulation and endogenous stress markers in volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Mazon, J; Gastaldi, A; Di Sacco, T; Cozza, I; Dutra, S; Souza, H

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the effects of selective loads of periodization model (SLPM) on autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV) and endogenous stress markers before and after a competition period in volleyball players (N=32). The experimental protocol for the evaluation of HRV consisted of using spectral analysis of time series composed of the R-R intervals derived from electrocardiogram obtained in the supine position and during the tilt test. Stress marker levels were determined by quantifying the plasma concentration of endogenous catecholamines, cortisol and free testosterone. The results showed no changes between the levels of HRV before and after a competition period. In contrast, the quantification of the plasma concentration of endogenous stress markers revealed reductions in the levels of total catecholamines, noradrenaline and cortisol. These changes were accompanied by increases in the concentration of free testosterone and in the testosterone/cortisol ratio. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the SLPM did not change the cardiac autonomic modulation of HRV, but promoted beneficial adaptations in athletes, including positive changes in the plasma concentration of the endogenous stress markers. The absence of changes in HRV indicates that there is no direct relationship between cardiac autonomic modulation and endogenous stress markers in the present study. PMID:21812826

  1. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator.

  2. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  3. Non-Invasive Quantification of Cartilage Using a Novel In Vivo Bioluminescent Reporter Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mailhiot, Sarah E.; Zignego, Donald L.; Prigge, Justin R.; Wardwell, Ella R.; Schmidt, Edward E.; June, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models are common tools for examining post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA), which involves cartilage deterioration following injury or stress. One challenge to current mouse models is longitudinal monitoring of the cartilage deterioration in vivo in the same mouse during an experiment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility for using a novel transgenic mouse for non-invasive quantification of cartilage. Chondrocytes are defined by expression of the matrix protein aggrecan, and we developed a novel mouse containing a reporter luciferase cassette under the inducible control of the endogenous aggrecan promoter. We generated these mice by crossing a Cre-dependent luciferase reporter allele with an aggrecan creERT2 knockin allele. The advantage of this design is that the targeted knockin retains the intact endogenous aggrecan locus and expresses the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 protein from a second IRES-driven open reading frame. These mice display bioluminescence in the joints, tail, and trachea, consistent with patterns of aggrecan expression. To evaluate this mouse as a technology for non-invasive quantification of cartilage loss, we characterized the relationship between loss of bioluminescence and loss of cartilage after induction with (i) ex vivo collagenase digestion, (ii) an in vivo OA model utilizing treadmill running, and (iii) age. Ex vivo experiments revealed that collagenase digestion of the femur reduced both luciferase signal intensity and pixel area, demonstrating a link between cartilage degradation and bioluminescence. In an in vivo model of experimental OA, we found decreased bioluminescent signal and pixel area, which correlated with pathological disease. We detected a decrease in both bioluminescent signal intensity and area with natural aging from 2 to 13 months of age. These results indicate that the bioluminescent signal from this mouse may be used as a non-invasive quantitative measure of cartilage. Future studies may use

  4. Thallium-201 perfusion imaging with atrial pacing or dipyridamole stress testing for evaluation of cardiac risk prior to nonvascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, H.G.; Mark, A.L.; Williams, G.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Preoperative assessment of cardiac risk using thallium-201 scintigraphy and atrial pacing (n = 42) or dipyridamole stress testing (n = 35) was performed in 77 patients (mean age 65 +/- 7 years), who subsequently underwent elective nonvascular surgery. All patients were at low cardiac risk by clinical criteria; none could perform exercise stress testing due to physical limitations. ST depression consistent with ischemia occurred in 11 patients during atrial pacing and in 1 patient during dipyridamole stress testing (p less than 0.01). Nine patients had reversible perfusion defects with atrial pacing, and 10 patients with dipyridamole stress testing; fixed defects were present in 15 and 8 patients, respectively. Only one patient (fixed perfusion defect with atrial pacing, left main disease on coronary angiography) underwent preoperative coronary revascularization. Two patients subsequently had postoperative cardiac events. One patient (reversible perfusion defect with dipyridamole stress testing) experienced sudden death after a nonvascular procedure, while a second patient (normal thallium images with dipyridamole testing) had a nonfatal myocardial infarction. In patients having atrial pacing or dipyridamole stress testing, thallium-201 scans that are normal or show only a fixed perfusion defect confirm a low risk of cardiac complications following nonvascular surgery. The presence of a reversible perfusion defect does not preclude a postoperative course free of cardiac complications in patients at low cardiac risk by clinical criteria.

  5. Tissue Damage Characterization Using Non-invasive Optical Modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, David

    The ability to determine the degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is essential for proper wound assessment and a significant factor for determining patient treatment and morbidity. Accurate characterization of tissue damage is critical for a number of medical applications including surgical removal of nonviable tissue, severity assessment of subcutaneous ulcers, and depth assessment of visually open wounds. The main objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method for identifying the extent of tissue damage underneath intact skin that is not apparent upon visual examination. This work investigated the relationship between tissue optical properties, blood flow, and tissue viability by testing the hypotheses that (a) changes in tissue oxygenation and/or microcirculatory blood flow measurable by Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) differ between healthy and damaged tissue and (b) the magnitude of those changes differs for different degrees of tissue damage. This was accomplished by developing and validating a procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation dynamics at multiple depths (up to 1 centimeter) using non-invasive DCS and DNIRS technologies. Due to the lack of pressure ulcer animal models that are compatible with our optical systems, a proof of concept was conducted in a porcine burn model prior to conducting clinical trials in order to assess the efficacy of the system in-vivo. A reduction in total hemoglobin was observed for superficial (5%) and deep burns (35%) along with a statistically significant difference between the optical properties of superficial and deep burns (p < 0.05). Burn depth and viable vessel density were estimated via histological samples. 42% of vessels in the dermal layer were viable for superficial burns, compared to 25% for deep burns. The differences detected in optical properties and hemoglobin content by optical measurements

  6. Non-invasive Optical Molecular Imaging for Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhen

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. Improved fundamental understanding of molecular processes and pathways resulting in cancer development has catalyzed a shift towards molecular analysis of cancer using imaging technologies. It is expected that the non-invasive or minimally invasive molecular imaging analysis of cancer can significantly aid in improving the early detection of cancer and will result in reduced mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. The central hypothesis of the proposed research is that non-invasive imaging of changes in metabolic activity of individual cells, and extracellular pH within a tissue will improve early stage detection of cancer. The specific goals of this research project were to: (a) develop novel optical imaging probes to image changes in choline metabolism and tissue pH as a function of progression of cancer using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (b) correlate changes in tissue extracellular pH and metabolic activity of tissues as a function of disease state using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (c) provide fundamental understanding of relationship between tumor hypoxia, acidification of the extracellular space and altered cellular metabolism with progression of cancer. Three novel molecular imaging probes were developed to detect changes in choline and glucose metabolism and extracellular pH in model systems and clinically isolated cells and biopsies. Glucose uptake and metabolism was measured using a fluorescence analog of glucose, 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose), while choline metabolism was measured using a click chemistry analog of choline, propargyl choline, which can be in-situ labeled with a fluorophore Alexa-488 azide via a click chemistry reaction. Extracellular pH in tissue were measured by Alexa-647 labeled pHLIP (pH low insertion peptide

  7. Non-invasive photo acoustic approach for human bone diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Helmy, Ahdy; Suryadevara, Vinay Kumar; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher

    2016-12-01

    The existing modalities of bone diagnosis including X-ray and ultrasound may cite drawback in some cases related to health issues and penetration depth, while the ultrasound modality may lack image quality. Photo acoustic approach however, provides light energy to the acoustic wave, enabling it to activate and respond according to the propagating media (which is type of bones in this case). At the same time, a differential temperature change may result in the bio heat response, resulting from the heat absorbed across the multiple materials under study. In this work, we have demonstrated the features of using photo acoustic modality in order to non-invasively diagnose the type of human bones based on their electrical, thermal, and acoustic properties that differentiate the output response of each type. COMSOL software was utilized to combine both acoustic equations and bio heat equations, in order to study both the thermal and acoustic responses through which the differential diagnosis can be obtained. In this study, we solved both the acoustic equation and bio heat equations for four types of bones, bone (cancellous), bone (cortical), bone marrow (red), and bone marrow (yellow). 1 MHz acoustic source frequency was chosen and 10(5) W/m(2) power source was used in the simulation. The simulation tested the dynamic response of the wave over a distance of 5 cm from each side for the source. Near 2.4 cm was detected from simulation from each side of the source with a temperature change of within 0.5 K for various types of bones, citing a promising technique for a practical model to detect the type of bones via the differential temperature as well as the acoustic was response via the multiple materials associated with the human bones (skin and blood). The simulation results suggest that the PA technique may be applied to non-invasive diagnosis for the different types of bones, including cancerous bones. A practical model for detecting both the temperature change via

  8. Hyperpulsatile pressure, systemic inflammation and cardiac stress are associated with cardiac wall remodeling in an African male cohort: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    van Vuren, Esmé Jansen; Malan, Leoné; von Känel, Roland; Cockeran, Marike; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation may contribute to an increase in cardiac wall stress through pathways related to cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte death and modifications of the extracellular matrix. We sought to explore associations among cardiac remodeling, inflammation and myocardial cell injury in a bi-ethnic cohort of South African men and women. We included 165 men (76 African and 89 Caucasian) and 174 women (80 African and 94 Caucasian) between 20 and 65 years of age. Inflammatory markers used were C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), whereas troponin T (Trop T) and the N-terminal of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were used as cardiac markers. The frequency of ischemic events (ST segment depression) and left ventricular strain (left ventricular hypertrophy: LVH) were monitored by a 24-h recording of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), ECG and 12-lead standard ECG. Hypertension diagnosed with ambulatory monitoring was more frequent in Africans (53.85 vs. 24.59%; P<0.001), as was the number of ischemic events (6±15 (1; 5) vs. 3±6 (0; 3)). Inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α) and the degree of LVH were all significantly higher in Africans (P<0.05). BP was associated (P<0.05) with Trop T in men across ethnic groups. In African men, cardiac stress (NT-proBNP) was associated with TNF-alpha (P<0.001), Trop T (P<0.001) and pulse pressure (P=0.048; adjusted R(2)=0.45). The susceptibility for cardiac wall remodeling appears to increase with hyperpulsatile pressure, low-grade systemic inflammation and ventricular stress, and may lead to the development of future cardiovascular events in African men. PMID:27169396

  9. Non invasive analysis of miniature paintings: Proposal for an analytical protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Bianco, Valentina; Pellizzi, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The characterisation of palettes used in manuscript illumination is a hard analytical task, due to value and fragility of the analysed items. Analysis on miniatures must be necessarily non-invasive and fast and requires the use of several techniques since no single technique is able to provide all information needed. In this work a four-step analytical protocol is proposed for non-invasive in situ characterisation of miniature paintings. The protocol allows the identification of coloured materials through the use in sequence of complementary techniques, so as to fully exploit the information given by each instrument. Preliminarily to the instrumental investigations on ancient books and miniatures is the compilation of spectroscopic databases obtained from "standard" samples prepared on parchment, according to recipes described in medieval artistic treatises. The protocol starts with an extensive investigation with UV-visible spectrophotometry in reflectance mode, collecting spectra from all the most significant painted areas in the manuscript; chemometric classification is then performed on the spectra to highlight areas possibly containing the same materials. The second step involves in-depth inspection of miniatures under optical microscopy that guides the interpretation of reflectance spectra. XRF spectrometry is then performed to characterise pigments and metal layers, to verify the presence of overlapping layers, to identify mordants in lakes and to recognise minor components that may yield information concerning provenance; in addition, chemometric classification can be performed on element concentrations to highlight similar areas. Finally, Raman spectroscopy is used to shed light on the uncertain cases, if still present. Such a procedure offers a wealth of information without causing stress to the manuscripts under analysis.

  10. Non invasive analysis of miniature paintings: proposal for an analytical protocol.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Bianco, Valentina; Pellizzi, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The characterisation of palettes used in manuscript illumination is a hard analytical task, due to value and fragility of the analysed items. Analysis on miniatures must be necessarily non-invasive and fast and requires the use of several techniques since no single technique is able to provide all information needed. In this work a four-step analytical protocol is proposed for non-invasive in situ characterisation of miniature paintings. The protocol allows the identification of coloured materials through the use in sequence of complementary techniques, so as to fully exploit the information given by each instrument. Preliminarily to the instrumental investigations on ancient books and miniatures is the compilation of spectroscopic databases obtained from "standard" samples prepared on parchment, according to recipes described in medieval artistic treatises. The protocol starts with an extensive investigation with UV-visible spectrophotometry in reflectance mode, collecting spectra from all the most significant painted areas in the manuscript; chemometric classification is then performed on the spectra to highlight areas possibly containing the same materials. The second step involves in-depth inspection of miniatures under optical microscopy that guides the interpretation of reflectance spectra. XRF spectrometry is then performed to characterise pigments and metal layers, to verify the presence of overlapping layers, to identify mordants in lakes and to recognise minor components that may yield information concerning provenance; in addition, chemometric classification can be performed on element concentrations to highlight similar areas. Finally, Raman spectroscopy is used to shed light on the uncertain cases, if still present. Such a procedure offers a wealth of information without causing stress to the manuscripts under analysis. PMID:22391225

  11. Non-invasive baroreflex sensitivity assessment using wavelet transfer function-based time-frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Keissar, K; Maestri, R; Pinna, G D; La Rovere, M T; Gilad, O

    2010-07-01

    A novel approach for the estimation of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is introduced based on time-frequency analysis of the transfer function (TF). The TF method (TF-BRS) is a well-established non-invasive technique which assumes stationarity. This condition is difficult to meet, especially in cardiac patients. In this study, the classical TF was replaced with a wavelet transfer function (WTF) and the classical coherence was replaced with wavelet transform coherence (WTC), adding the time domain as an additional degree of freedom with dynamic error estimation. Error analysis and comparison between WTF-BRS and TF-BRS were performed using simulated signals with known transfer function and added noise. Similar comparisons were performed for ECG and blood pressure signals, in the supine position, of 19 normal subjects, 44 patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction (MI) and 45 patients with chronic heart failure. This yielded an excellent linear association (R > 0.94, p < 0.001) for time-averaged WTF-BRS, validating the new method as consistent with a known method. The additional advantage of dynamic analysis of coherence and TF estimates was illustrated in two physiological examples of supine rest and change of posture showing the evolution of BRS synchronized with its error estimations and sympathovagal balance. PMID:20585147

  12. Development of a FBG probe for non-invasive carotid pulse waveform assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, C.; Bilro, L.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Lima, H.; André, P. S.; Nogueira, R.; Pinto, J. L.

    2012-06-01

    One of the early predictors of cardiovascular diseases, with growing interest, is the arterial stiffness which is typically evaluated through the velocity and morphology of the arterial pressure wave. In each cardiac cycle the heart generates a pressure wave which propagates through the arterial tree. Along its path, the pressure wave interacts with the arterial walls and, consequently, the morphology of a local arterial pressure wave can be assessed by the arterial distention movement. Due to its superficiality, proximity of the heart and high probability of atherosclerosis development, the carotid artery has particular interest to be monitored. In this work, the development of a non-invasive fibre Bragg grating (FBG) probe for the acquisition of the arterial distention wave is presented. Comparing to traditional methods, optical FBG based sensors can offer many advantages, namely, compactness, immunity to electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity, low noise and immunity to light source intensity due to its codification in the wavelength domain. The arterial movements induce strain on a uniform FBG, with the arterial distention pattern. The carotid pulse wave was successful accessed in young human carotid artery, with an acquisition rate of 950 Hz, allowing a clear distinction of the carotid pulse identification points.

  13. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  14. Non-invasive experimental determination of a CT source model.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Babak; Büermann, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive methods to determine equivalent X-ray source models of a CT scanner are presented. A high-precision technique called TRIC ("Time Resolved Integrated Charge") was developed and used to characterize the bow tie filters (BT) of the CT scanner installed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Aluminum (Al) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) equivalent thicknesses of the BT filters at all tube high voltages were evaluated, assuming that those consist of only one material. Thereby two different dose probes were used, a solid state detector and an ionization chamber, the former characterized by a significant and the latter by an almost negligible energy dependence of the air kerma response. A method was developed to correct for the energy dependence of the solid state dose probe. Next, a two-component material was assumed and equivalent BT filters were evaluated. The latter method was also applied using the known real BT filter materials and compared with the shape of the real BT filters. Finally, the results obtained by the TRIC method were compared with those obtained by using the so-called COBRA method ("Characterization Of Bow tie Relative Attenuation"), the latter being more suitable for measurements in a clinical environment. PMID:26602858

  15. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to. PMID:26834603

  16. Non-invasive Renal Denervation: Update on External Ultrasound Approaches.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Ott, Christian; Bramlage, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, intravenous renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as an alternative to pharmacological treatment in patients with resistant hypertension, but currently involves an invasive and technically challenging procedure. The Surround Sound™ system utilises externally delivered ultrasound to achieve RDN using a completely non-invasive, automated real-time tracking system coupled with a therapeutic delivery module thereby addressing these limitations. A brief history, technical overview and summary of preclinical and clinical studies of the KonaMedical Surround Sound™ system are presented. A literature search using the terms "renal denervation", "resistant hypertension" and "external ultrasound" was performed using PubMed, and references retrieved were selected based on relevancy and year of publication (date range 1991-2015). The Surround Sound™ system appears to be a promising approach to RDN which eliminates several of the factors currently limiting the intravenous approach. So far, it has demonstrated efficacy for reducing blood pressure in resistant hypertension patients with minimal adverse effects. Several double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trials are currently underway to confirm the validity of these findings. PMID:27137523

  17. Non-Invasive Gait Monitoring in a Ubiquitous Computing House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Yuji; Motooka, Nobuhisa; Siio, Itiro; Tsukada, Koji; Kambara, Keisuke

    Computers become smaller and cheaper from day to day, and the utilization, as daily life equipments, is now becoming ubiquitous. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the development of applications, as well as the installation of ubiquitous computing technologies into our daily living environments. Based on this idea, in order to investigate how ubiquitous computing can be used in the most efficient way, an experimental house, Ocha House, has been constructed in the campus of Ochanomizu university in 2009. In this study, we described the feature of the design of the experimental house and proposed a non-invasive gait monitoring technique as a healthcare application. Specifically, five wireless accelerometers were fixed on the floor of the house, and the floor vibration was measured when the subject walked along the accelerometers. As a result, the floor acceleration intensity was found to surge at the ground contact, and the gait cycle could be detected. By combining the simple acceleration sensors and the housing structures, human motion monitoring would become less invasive.

  18. Public viewpoints on new non-invasive prenatal genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Farrimond, Hannah R; Kelly, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal screening programmes have been critiqued for their routine implementation according to clinical rationale without public debate. A new approach, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD), promises diagnosis of fetal genetic disorders from a sample of maternal blood without the miscarriage risk of current invasive prenatal tests (e.g. amniocentesis). Little research has investigated the attitudes of wider publics to NIPD. This study used Q-methodology, which combines factor analysis with qualitative comments, to identify four distinct "viewpoints" amongst 71 UK men and women: 1. NIPD as a new tool in the ongoing societal discrimination against the disabled; 2. NIPD as a positive clinical application offering peace of mind in pregnancy; 3. NIPD as a medical option justified for severe disorders only; and 4. NIPD as a valid expansion of personal choice. Concerns included the "trivialisation of testing" and the implications of commercial/direct-to-consumer tests. Q-methodology has considerable potential to identify viewpoints and frame public debate about new technologies. PMID:23885055

  19. Invasive and non-invasive modalities of imaging carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, T Y; U-King-Im, J M; Walsh, S R; Young, V E; Sadat, U; Li, Z Y; Patterson, A J; Varty, K; Gillard, J H

    2009-12-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, acute ischemic complications of atherosclerosis remain the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries, with carotid atherosclerotic disease one of the major preventable causes of stroke. As the impact of this disease challenges our healthcare systems, we are becoming aware that factors influencing this disease are more complex than previously realized. In current clinical practice, risk stratification relies primarily on evaluation of the degree of luminal stenosis and patient symptomatology. Adequate investigation and optimal imaging are important factors that affect the quality of a carotid endarterectomy (CEA) service and are fundamental to patient selection. Digital subtraction angiography is still perceived as the most accurate imaging modality for carotid stenosis and historically has been the cornerstone of most of the major CEA trials but concerns regarding potential neurological complications have generated substantial interest in non-invasive modalities, such as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. The purpose of this review is to give an overview to the vascular specialist of the current imaging modalities in clinical practice to identify patients with carotid stenosis. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique are outlined. Finally, limitations of assessing luminal stenosis in general are discussed. This article will not cover imaging of carotid atheroma morphology, function and other emerging imaging modalities of assessing plaque risk, which look beyond simple luminal measurements. PMID:19935602

  20. Non invasive tools for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Cervello, Melchiorre; Licata, Anna; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition, leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favour the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Defining the phase of the natural history is crucial for therapeutic choice and prognosis. Liver biopsy is currently considered the best available standard of reference but it has some limits, so alternative tools have been developed to substitute liver biopsy when assessing liver fibrosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound (US), US Doppler, contrast enhanced US and Elastography. US could be used for the diagnosis of advanced LC while is not able to evaluate progression of fibrosis, in this case Elastography is more reliable. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about non invasive methods useful in defining liver fibrosis. PMID:25561782

  1. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  2. Non-invasive biosensor and wilreless interrogating system for hypoglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Saukesi, K.

    2002-11-01

    Hypoglycemia - abnormal decrease in blood sugar - is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chiralit of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin.It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or laptop computer.

  3. Facilitate Insight by Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Richard P.; Snyder, Allan W.

    2011-01-01

    Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL). Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control), whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011) with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability) of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability) of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement. PMID:21311746

  4. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to. PMID:26834603

  5. A non-invasive method of tendon force measurement.

    PubMed

    Pourcelot, Philippe; Defontaine, Marielle; Ravary, Bérangère; Lemâtre, Mickaël; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2005-10-01

    The ability to measure the forces exerted in vivo on tendons and, consequently, the forces produced by muscles on tendons, offers a unique opportunity to investigate questions in disciplines as varied as physiology, biomechanics, orthopaedics and neuroscience. Until now, tendon loads could be assessed directly only by means of invasive sensors implanted within or attached to these collagenous structures. This study shows that the forces acting on tendons can be measured, in a non-invasive way, from the analysis of the propagation of an acoustic wave. Using the equine superficial digital flexor tendon as a model, it is demonstrated that the velocity of an ultrasonic wave propagating along the main axis of a tendon increases with the force applied to this tendon. Furthermore, we show that this velocity measurement can be performed even in the presence of skin overlying the tendon. To validate this measurement technique in vivo, the ultrasonic velocity plots obtained in the Achilles tendon at the walk were compared to the loads plots reported by other authors using invasive transducers. PMID:16084214

  6. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  7. Non-invasive fecal metabonomic detection of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Lee Cheng; Chue, Xiu Ping; Koh, Poh Koon; Cheah, Peh Yean; Ho, Han Kiat; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality in many developed countries. Effective screening strategies were called for to facilitate timely detection and to promote a better clinical outcome. In this study, the role of fecal metabonomics in the non-invasive detection of CRC was investigated. Gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS) was utilized for the metabolic profiling of feces obtained from 11 CRC patients and 10 healthy subjects. Concurrently, matched tumor and normal mucosae surgically excised from CRC patients were profiled. CRC patients were differentiated clearly from healthy subjects based on their fecal metabonomic profiles (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis [OPLS-DA], 1 predictive and 3 Y-orthogonal components, R2X = 0.373, R2Y = 0.995, Q2 [cumulative] = 0.215). The robustness of the OPLS-DA model was demonstrated by an area of 1 under the receiver operator characteristic curve. OPLS-DA revealed fecal marker metabolites (e.g., fructose, linoleic acid, and nicotinic acid) that provided novel insights into the tumorigenesis of CRC. Interestingly, a disparate set of CRC-related metabolic aberrations occurred at the tissue level, implying the contribution of processes beyond the direct shedding of tumor cells to the fecal metabotype. In summary, this work established proof-of-principle for GC/TOFMS-based fecal metabonomic detection of CRC and offered new perspectives on the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24424155

  8. Non-invasive instant genotyping of fluorescently labelled transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fink, Dieter; Yau, Tien Yin; Kolbe, Thomas; Rülicke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence proteins have been useful as genetic reporters for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and are frequently used for the analysis of transgene activity. Here, we show that expression levels of the ubiquitously expressed fluorescent proteins eGFP, mCherry, and tdTomato can be measured in transgenic mouse lines with random or targeted integrations. We identified the tail of the mouse as the tissue best suited for quantifying fluorescence intensity and show that expression levels in the tail correlate with gene dose. This allows for instant non-invasive determination of the genetic condition at the transgenic locus (hemizygous/heterozygous and homozygous), while simultaneously providing an objective comparison for transgene expression levels among different mouse lines. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that the gene dose of a ubiquitously expressed fluorescence reporter can be reliably quantified and directly linked to the genotype of transgenic mice. Based on this information, animals with the appropriate genotype can be instantly selected without laborious analysis for establishing and breeding of new transgenic lines, reducing the number of "waste" animals. Furthermore, no tissue sampling is necessary, which is a significant refinement of genotyping procedures. Both aspects are important improvements for the genotyping of transgenic mice that follow the principles of the 3 Rs (reduction and refinement). PMID:25981046

  9. Non-invasive prenatal screening for trisomy 21: Consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Emily C; Sheldon, Jane P; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Yashar, Beverly M

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) has the potential to dramatically increase the prenatal detection rate of Down syndrome because of improvements in safety and accuracy over existing tests. There is concern that NIPS could lead to more negative attitudes towards Down syndrome and less support for individuals with Down syndrome. To assess the impact of NIPS on support for prenatal testing, decision-making about testing, and beliefs or attitudes about Down syndrome, we performed an Internet-based experiment using adults (N = 1,789) recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants were randomly assigned to read a mock news article about NIPS, a mock news article about amniocentesis, or no article. The content in the two articles varied only in their descriptions of the test characteristics. Participants then answered questions about their support for testing, hypothetical testing decision, and beliefs and attitudes about Down syndrome. Reading the mock NIPS news article predicted increased hypothetical test uptake. In addition, the NIPS article group also agreed more strongly that pregnant women, in general, should utilize prenatal testing. We also found that the more strongly participants supported prenatal testing for pregnant women, the less favorable their attitudes towards individuals with Down syndrome; providing some evidence that NIPS may indirectly result in more negative perceptions of individuals with this diagnosis. PMID:26553705

  10. Use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate non-invasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    DeMuro, Jonas P; Mongelli, Michael N; Hanna, Adel F

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure exacerbations, as well as pneumonia benefit from the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), due to increased patient comfort and a reduced incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, some patients do not tolerate NIV due to anxiety or agitation, and traditionally physicians have withheld sedation from these patients due to concerns of loss of airway protection and respiratory depression. We report our recent experience with a 91-year-old female who received NIV for acute respiratory distress secondary to pneumonia. The duration of NIV was a total time period of 86 h, using the bilevel positive airway pressure mode via a full face mask. The patient was initially agitated with the NIV, but with the addition of the dexmedetomidine, she tolerated it well. The dexmedetomidine was administered without a loading dose, as a continuous infusion ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mcg/kg/hr, titrated to a Ramsey score of three. This case illustrates the safe use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate NIV, and improve compliance, which may reduce ICU length of stay. PMID:24459626

  11. Novel non-invasive protein and peptide drug delivery approaches.

    PubMed

    Wallis, L; Kleynhans, E; Toit, T Du; Gouws, C; Steyn, D; Steenekamp, J; Viljoen, J; Hamman, J

    2014-01-01

    Protein and peptide based therapeutics are typically administered by injection due to their poor uptake when administered via enteral routes of drug administration. Unfortunately, chronic administration of these drugs through multiple injections presents certain patient related problems and it is difficult to mimic the normal physiological release patterns via this mode of drug administration. A need therefore exists to non-invasively deliver these drugs by means of alternative ways such as via the oral, pulmonary, nasal, transdermal and buccal administration routes. Although some attempts of needle free peptide and protein drug delivery have progressed to the clinical stage, relatively limited success has been achieved in terms of commercially available products. Despite the low frequency of clinical breakthroughs with noninvasive protein drug delivery this far, it remains an active research area with renewed interest not only due to its improved therapeutic potential, but also due to the attractive commercial outcomes it offers. It is the aim of this review article to reflect on the main strategies investigated to overcome the barriers against effective systemic protein drug delivery in different routes of drug administration. Approaches based on chemical modifications and pharmaceutical technologies are discussed with reference to examples of drugs and devices that have shown potential, while attempts that have failed are also briefly outlined. PMID:25106909

  12. Relationship of radionuclide indexes of cardiac function during interventions: volume loading, afterload stress, exercise, and pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.A.

    1983-04-01

    We compared three radionuclide index of cardiac function: 1) the ejection fraction (EF), 2) the mean ejection rate (ER), and 3) the mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (MVCF) during volume loading, phenylephrine hydrochloride stress, exercise, and atrial pacing. All behaved in a similar (linear) fashion, allowing appropriate hemodynamic conclusions to be drawn using either index. During atrial pacing, the ejection fraction declined when velocity indexes increased, suggesting that the ejection fraction may not be a suitable index to characterize alterations in inotropic state during rapid alterations in heart rate, particular in the absence of angina pectoris. This may result from the reductions in cardiac volume for the duration of pacing, where the velocity index is preserved. In most circumstances excluding atrial pacing, ejection fraction during interventions is an adequate index of the change of myocardial contractile state. Overall, radionuclide angiography is an excellent technique to characterize acute hemodynamic interventions, with ejection fraction, in general, the simplest and most reliable of cardiac indexes during stress interventions.

  13. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. PMID:27591472

  14. Regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress by β-arrestins in cultured human cardiac fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Jennifer L.; Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Han, Mei; Li, Jinju; Theccanat, Tiju; Xu, Xianyao; Akhter, Shahab A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oxidative stress in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) promotes transformation to myofibroblasts and collagen synthesis leading to myocardial fibrosis, a precursor to heart failure (HF). NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major source of cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, mechanisms of Nox4 regulation are unclear. β-arrestins are scaffold proteins that signal in G-protein-dependent and -independent pathways; for example, in ERK activation. We hypothesize that β-arrestins regulate oxidative stress in a Nox4-dependent manner and increase fibrosis in HF. CFs were isolated from normal and failing adult human left ventricles. Mitochondrial ROS/superoxide production was quantitated using MitoSox. β-arrestin and Nox4 expressions were manipulated using adenoviral overexpression or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and Nox4 expression in CFs were significantly increased in HF. Nox4 knockdown resulted in inhibition of mitochondrial superoxide production and decreased basal and TGF-β-stimulated collagen and α-SMA expression. CF β-arrestin expression was upregulated fourfold in HF. β-arrestin knockdown in failing CFs decreased ROS and Nox4 expression by 50%. β-arrestin overexpression in normal CFs increased mitochondrial superoxide production twofold. These effects were prevented by inhibition of either Nox or ERK. Upregulation of Nox4 seemed to be a primary mechanism for increased ROS production in failing CFs, which stimulates collagen deposition. β-arrestin expression was upregulated in HF and plays an important and newly identified role in regulating mitochondrial superoxide production via Nox4. The mechanism for this effect seems to be ERK-mediated. Targeted inhibition of β-arrestins in CFs might decrease oxidative stress as well as pathological cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26449263

  15. Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

    2014-01-01

    Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

  16. Changing trends of hemodynamic monitoring in ICU - from invasive to non-invasive methods: Are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Arora, Shubhangi; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Goudra, Basavana G; Sinha, Ashish C

    2014-04-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring in the form of invasive arterial, central venous pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure monitoring may be required in seriously ill Intensive care unit patients, in patients undergoing surgeries involving gross hemodynamic changes and in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries. These techniques are considered the gold standards of hemodynamic monitoring but are associated with their inherent risks. A number of non-invasive techniques based on various physical principles are under investigation at present. The goal is to not only avoid the risk of invasive intervention, but also to match the gold standard set by them as far as possible. Techniques based on photoplethysmography, arterial tonometry and pulse transit time analysis have come up for continuous arterial pressure monitoring. Of these the first has been studied most extensively and validated, however it has been shown to be substandard in patients with gross hemodynamic instability. The other two still need further evaluation. While the non-invasive methods for arterial blood pressure monitoring are based on diverse technologies, those for measurement of central venous and pulmonary pressures are mostly based on imaging techniques such as echocardiography, Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography scan and chest X ray. Most of these techniques are based on measurement of the dimensions of the great veins. This makes them operator and observer dependent. However, studies done till now have revealed adequate inter-observer agreement. These techniques are still in their incipience and although initial studies are encouraging, further research is needed on this front. PMID:25024945

  17. Label-free imaging of metabolism and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rupsa; Heylman, Christopher; George, Steven C.; Gratton, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a label-free optical imaging technique to assess metabolic status and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous fluorophores. Our results show the sensitivity of this method to detect shifts in metabolism and oxidative stress in the cardiomyocytes upon pathological stimuli of hypoxia and cardiotoxic drugs. This non-invasive imaging technique could prove beneficial for drug development and screening, especially for in vitro cardiac models created from stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and to study the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases and therapy. PMID:27231614

  18. Label-free imaging of metabolism and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Datta, Rupsa; Heylman, Christopher; George, Steven C; Gratton, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate a label-free optical imaging technique to assess metabolic status and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous fluorophores. Our results show the sensitivity of this method to detect shifts in metabolism and oxidative stress in the cardiomyocytes upon pathological stimuli of hypoxia and cardiotoxic drugs. This non-invasive imaging technique could prove beneficial for drug development and screening, especially for in vitro cardiac models created from stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and to study the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases and therapy. PMID:27231614

  19. Using new non-invasive quick method to detect Borrelia Burgdorferi (B.B.) infection from specific parts of the heart in "seemingly normal" ECGs, and from the ECGs of Atrial Fibrillation (AF), a majority of AF ECGs are found to have: 1) Significant B.B. infection, 2) Markedly increased ANP, 3) Increased Cardiac Troponin I & 4) Markedly reduced Taurine. These 4 factors were mainly localized at infected areas of the SA node area, R-&L-Atria & pulmonary veins at the L-atrium.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Yapor, Dario; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is found in a majority of people we tested. Once Borrelia Burgdorferi (B.B.) spirochete enters human body, it not only causes pain by infecting joints, but it also often enters the brain and the heart. Infection of brain can be quickly detected from the pupil and infection of the heart by ECGs non-invasively. By evaluating recorded ECGs of atrial fibrillation (AF), using U.S. patented non-invasive highly sensitive electromagnetic field (EMF) resonance phenomenon between 2 identical molecules or between a molecule and its antibody, we examined 25 different AF patients' ECGs and found the majority of them suffer from various degrees of B.B. spirochete infection in SA node areas, also in the right & left atria, and pulmonary vein near and around its junction at left atrium & lesser degrees of infection at the AV node & His Bundle. When B.B. infection reaches over 224-600ng or higher at these areas, AF often appears in the majority of all AF analyzed. In order to develop AF, the 4 abnormal factors must be present simultaneously: 1) B.B. infection must be increased to 224-600ng or higher, 2) Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) must be markedly reduced from normal value of less than 4ng to over 100-400ng, 3) A significant increase of Cardiac Troponin I from normal value of less than 3ng to over 12ng and 4) Taurine must also be markedly reduced from normal value of 4-6ng to 0.25ng. These 4 changes were mainly found only at infected sites of the SA node area, both atria and between the end of the T wave & the beginning of the SA node area, which corresponds to U waves at recorded ECG. Origin of the U wave is mainly due to abnormal electrical potential of pulmonary vein at L-atrium. If all 4 factors do not occur at the infection site, no AF will develop. In seemingly normal ECGs, if using this method, one can detect invisible B.B. infection in early stages. Long before AF appears, AF can be prevented by improved treatment with Amoxicillin 500ng 3 times

  20. Skin Hydration Assessment through Modern Non-Invasive Bioengineering Technologies

    PubMed Central

    CONSTANTIN, Maria-Magdalena; POENARU, Elena; POENARU, Calin; CONSTANTIN, Traian

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive bioengineering technologies continuously discovered and developed in recent decades provide a significant input to research development and remarkably contribute to the improvement of medical education and care to our patients. Aim: Assessing skin hydration by using the capacitance method for a group of patients with allergic contact dermatitis versus healthy subjects, before and after applying a moisturiser (assessing the immediate and long-term effectiveness of hydration). Results: For both groups, but especially for the patients with dry skin, there was a clear improvement of hydration, statistically significant after applying the moisturiser. In the case of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, hydration was at a maximum immediately after the first application, and then maintained an increased level after 7 and 28 days, respectively. In the healthy subjects, the increase in hydration was lower, but progressive. The moisturiser determined an increase in hydration for all age groups, but those who showed the most obvious effect were the young adults (18-29 years old) with an increase of 19.9%. The maintenance effect of hydration lasted for 28 days, while the improvement was important for allergic skin (17.1%) and significant for healthy skin (10.9%). Conclusion: The assessment of epidermal hydration performed by using the corneometer showed very good hydration of the stratum corneum for both groups studied, with immediate and long-term effect. This study also showed that the degree of skin hydration was inversely proportional with age. The corneometer is easy to use, efficient and widely utilised in international studies for measurements in healthy or pathological conditions, for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of various preparations intended for application to the skin surface, under well-controlled and standardised conditions. PMID:25553123

  1. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for severe influenza pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Pérez, M; Almirall, J; Lorente, L; Marqués, A; Socias, L; Vidaur, L; Rello, J

    2013-03-01

    The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure caused by viral pneumonia remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the use of NIV in a cohort of (H1N1)v pneumonia. Usefulness and success of NIV were assessed in a prospective, observational registry of patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus pneumonia in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) in 2009-10. Significant variables for NIV success were included in a multivariate analysis. In all, 685 patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia were admitted to participating ICUs; 489 were ventilated, 177 with NIV. The NIV was successful in 72 patients (40.7%), the rest required intubation. Low Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, low Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and absence of renal failure were associated with NIV success. Success of NIV was independently associated with fewer than two chest X-ray quadrant opacities (OR 3.5) and no vasopressor requirement (OR 8.1). However, among patients with two or more quadrant opacities, a SOFA score ≤7 presented a higher success rate than those with SOFA score >7 (OR 10.7). Patients in whom NIV was successful required shorter ventilation time, shorter ICU stay and hospital stay than NIV failure. In patients in whom NIV failed, the delay in intubation did not increase mortality (26.5% versus 24.2%). Clinicians used NIV in 25.8% of influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia admitted to ICU, and treatment was effective in 40.6% of them. NIV success was associated with shorter hospital stay and mortality similar to non-ventilated patients. NIV failure was associated with a mortality similar to those who were intubated from the start. PMID:22404211

  2. Non-invasive Thrombolysis using Microtripsy: A Parameter Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Jin, Lifang; Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Owens, Gabe E.; Gurm, Hitinder S.; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Histotripsy fractionates soft tissue by well-controlled acoustic cavitation using microsecond-long, high-intensity ultrasound pulses. The feasibility of using histotripsy as a non-invasive, drug-free, and image-guided thrombolysis method has been shown previously. A new histotripsy approach, termed Microtripsy, has recently been investigated for the thrombolysis application to improve treatment accuracy and avoid potential vessel damage. In this study, we investigated the effects of pulse repetition frequency (PRF) on microtripsy thrombolysis. Microtripsy thrombolysis treatments using different PRFs (5, 50, and 100 Hz) and doses (20, 50, and 100 pulses) were performed on blood clots in an in vitro vessel flow model. To quantitatively evaluate the microtripsy thrombolysis effect, the location of focal cavitation, the incident rate of pre-focal cavitation on the vessel wall, the size and location of the resulting flow channel, and the generated clot debris particles were measured. The results demonstrated that focal cavitation was always well-confined in the vessel lumen without contacting the vessel wall for all PRFs. Pre-focal cavitation on the front vessel wall was never observed at 5Hz PRF, but occasionally observed at PRFs of 50 Hz (1.2%) and 100 Hz (5.4%). However, the observed pre-focal cavitation was weak and didn’t significantly impact the focal cavitation. Results further demonstrated that, although the extent of clot fractionation per pulse was the highest at 5 Hz PRF at the beginning of treatment (<20 pulses), 100 Hz PRF generated the largest flow channels with a much shorter treatment time. Finally, results showed fewer large debris particles were generated at a higher PRF. Overall, the results of this study suggest that a higher PRF (50 or 100 Hz) may be a better choice for microtripsy thrombolysis to use clinically due to the larger resulting flow channel, shorter treatment time, and smaller debris particles. PMID:26670850

  3. Non-invasive optical characterization of biomaterial mineralization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sharad; Hunter, Martin; Cebe, Peggy; Levitt, Jonathan M; Kaplan, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2008-05-01

    Current approaches to study biomaterial mineralization are invasive and prevent dynamic characterization of this process within the same sample. Polarized light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) may offer a non-invasive alternative for assessing the levels of mineralization as well as some aspects of the organization of the mineral deposits. Specifically, we used LSS to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite deposits on three types of silk films (water-annealed, methanol-treated and polyaspartic acid (PAA)-mixed) following 1, 3, 5 and 7 cycles of mineralization. We found that the total light scattering intensity provided a quantitative measure of the degree of mineralization as confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The PAA-mixed silk films yielded the highest level of mineral deposition and the water-annealed ones the least, consistent with the beta sheet content of the films prior to the onset of mineralization. The wavelength dependence of the singly backscattered light was consistent with a self-affine fractal morphology of the deposited films within scales in the range of 150-300nm; this was confirmed by Fourier analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the corresponding films. The deposits of minerals in the water-annealed films were predominantly flake-like, with positively correlated density fluctuations (Hurst parameter, H>0.5), whereas methanol-treated and PAA-mixed silk films resulted in densely-packed, bulk mineral deposits with negatively correlated density fluctuations (H<0.5). Therefore, LSS could serve as a valuable tool for understanding the role of biomaterial properties in mineral formation, and, ultimately, for optimizing biomaterial designs that yield mineral deposits with the desired organization. PMID:18313137

  4. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues explored

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Frints, Suzanne G M; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become ‘normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical traits as well. In our view, however, the real moral challenge of NIPD testing consists in the possibility of linking up a technique with these features (easy, safe and early) with new genomic technologies that allow prenatal diagnostic testing for a much broader range of abnormalities than is the case in current procedures. An increase in uptake and more selective abortions need not in itself be taken to signal a thoughtless acceptance of these procedures. However, combining this with considerably enlarging the scope of NIPD testing will indeed make informed consent more difficult and challenge the notion of prenatal screening as serving reproductive autonomy. If broad NIPD testing includes later-onset diseases, the ‘right not to know' of the future child will become a new issue in the debate about prenatal screening. With regard to the controversial issue of selective abortion, it may make a morally relevant difference that after NIPD testing, abortion can be done early. A lower moral status may be attributed to the foetus at that moment, given the dominant opinion that the moral status of the foetus progressively increases with its development. PMID:19953123

  5. Non-invasive investigation of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tibble, JA; Bjarnason, I

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of inflammatory activity in intestinal disease in man can be done using a variety of different techniques. These range from the use of non-invasive acute phase inflammatory markers measured in plasma such as C reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (both of which give an indirect assessment of disease activity) to the direct assessment of disease activity by intestinal biopsy performed during endoscopy in association with endoscopic scoring systems. Both radiology and endoscopy are conventional for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However these techniques have severe limitations when it comes to assessing functional components of the disease such as activity and prognosis. Here we briefly review the value of two emerging intestinal function tests. Intestinal permeability, although ideally suited for diagnostic screening for small bowel Crohn’s disease, appears to give reliable predictive data for imminent relapse of small bowel Crohn’s disease and it can be used to assess responses to treatment. More significantly it is now clear that single stool assay of neutrophil specific proteins (calprotectin, lactoferrin) give the same quantitative data on intestinal inflammation as the 4-day faecal excretion of 111Indium labelled white cells. Faecal calprotectin is shown to be increased in over 95% of patients with IBD and correlates with clinical disease activity. It reliably differentiates between patients with IBD and irritable bowel syndrome. More importantly, at a given faecal calprotectin concentration in patients with quiescent IBD, the test has a specificity and sensitivity in excess of 85% in predicting clinical relapse of disease. This suggests that relapse of IBD is closely related to the degree of intestinal inflammation and suggests that targeted treatment at an asymptomatic stage of the disease may be indicated. PMID:11819811

  6. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, "sausage-like" pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  7. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, “sausage-like” pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  8. Stress testing for risk stratification of patients with low to moderate probability of acute cardiac ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Rudraiah, L; Zalenski, R J

    2001-02-01

    In summary, this article focused on the use of stress testing to risk-stratify patients at the conclusion of their emergency evaluation for ACI. As discussed, those patients in the probably not ACI category require additional risk stratification prior to discharge. It should be kept in mind that patients in this category are heterogeneous, containing subgroups at both higher and lower risk of ACI and cardiac events. The patients with lower pretest probability for ACI may only need exercise testing in the ED. Patients with higher pretest probability should undergo myocardial perfusion or echocardiographic stress testing to maximize diagnostic and prognostic information. Prognostic information is the key to provocative testing in the ED. Prognostic information is the component that will help emergency physicians identify the patients who may be discharged home safely without having to worry about a 6% annual cardiac death rate and a 10% overall death rate over the next 30 months. Stress testing provides this key prognostic data, and it can be obtained in short-stay chest pain observation units in a safe, timely, and cost-effective fashion. PMID:11214405

  9. Evaluation of Stress Intensity and Anxiety Level in Preoperative Period of Cardiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosiek, Anna; Kornatowski, Tomasz; Rosiek-Kryszewska, Aleksandra; Leksowski, Łukasz; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The stress related to patient's stay in a hospital increases when it is necessary to perform a surgery. Therefore, the study of the phenomenon of stress intensity in hospitalized patients has become an important issue for public health. Material and Method. The study was conducted in University Hospital No. 1 in the cardiosurgery clinic. The study involved 58 patients who were admitted as planned to the hospital. The study used a standardized questionnaire measuring intensity of the stress and also deepened interviews with patients about stress and anxiety felt before the surgery. Results. The greater the patient's anxiety resulting from his state of health, the greater the intensity of stress in the preoperative period. This relationship is linear. The results of the study also made it possible to see intrapersonal factors (pain, illness, and suffering) and extrapersonal factors (anesthesia, surgery, and complications after surgery), which are causes of anxiety before surgery. Conclusion. The research showed high (negative) results of anxiety and stress associated with the disease, surgery, and complications after cardiac surgery. Active involvement in hospitalization elements, such as patient education before surgery, psychological support, and medical care organization taking into account patient's preferences, reduces the impact of stressors. PMID:27042655

  10. Evaluation of Stress Intensity and Anxiety Level in Preoperative Period of Cardiac Patients.

    PubMed

    Rosiek, Anna; Kornatowski, Tomasz; Rosiek-Kryszewska, Aleksandra; Leksowski, Łukasz; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The stress related to patient's stay in a hospital increases when it is necessary to perform a surgery. Therefore, the study of the phenomenon of stress intensity in hospitalized patients has become an important issue for public health. Material and Method. The study was conducted in University Hospital No. 1 in the cardiosurgery clinic. The study involved 58 patients who were admitted as planned to the hospital. The study used a standardized questionnaire measuring intensity of the stress and also deepened interviews with patients about stress and anxiety felt before the surgery. Results. The greater the patient's anxiety resulting from his state of health, the greater the intensity of stress in the preoperative period. This relationship is linear. The results of the study also made it possible to see intrapersonal factors (pain, illness, and suffering) and extrapersonal factors (anesthesia, surgery, and complications after surgery), which are causes of anxiety before surgery. Conclusion. The research showed high (negative) results of anxiety and stress associated with the disease, surgery, and complications after cardiac surgery. Active involvement in hospitalization elements, such as patient education before surgery, psychological support, and medical care organization taking into account patient's preferences, reduces the impact of stressors. PMID:27042655

  11. Cardiac reactivity and preserved performance under stress: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed

    Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier; Cortoos, Aisha; Morais, José; Soetens, Eric; Roelands, Bart; van den Nest, Annick; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-07-01

    In the present experiment, cognitive control under stress was investigated using a real-life paradigm, namely an evaluation flight for military student pilots. The magnitude of cognitive interference on color-word, numerical and emotional Stroop paradigms was studied during a baseline recording and right before the test flight. Cardio-respiratory parameters were simultaneously assessed during rest and the performance of the Stroop tasks. Cognitive data suggested a different speed/accuracy trade-off under stress, and no modulation of the interference effect for color words or numerical stimuli. However, we observed a major increase in error rates for specific emotional stimuli related to the evaluation situation in the stress condition. The increase in cognitive interference from emotional stimuli, expressed as an increase in error rates, was correlated to the decreased cardiac reactivity to challenge in the stress situation. This relationship is discussed in the framework of Sanders' (1983) model of stress and performance. In terms of future research, this link warrants a fruitful lead to be followed for investigating the causal mechanism of performance decrements under the influence of stress. PMID:23528304

  12. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function following Myocardial Ischemia by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Issan, Yossi; Kornowski, Ran; Aravot, Dan; Shainberg, Asher; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Sodhi, Komal; Abraham, Nader G.; Hochhauser, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation. Methods In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage markers and signaling pathways were measured. Results HO-1 induction lowered release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospho kinase (CK), decreased propidium iodide staining, improved cell morphology and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes. In diabetic mice, Fractional Shortening (FS) was lower than non-diabetic mice (35±1%vs.41±2, respectively p<0.05). CoPP-treated diabetic animals improved cardiac function (43±2% p<0.01), reduced CK, Troponin T levels and infarct size compared to non-treated diabetic mice (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.01 respectively). CoPP-enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the decrease in superoxide levels in cardiac tissues and plasma TNFα levels (p<0.05). The increased levels of HO-1 by CoPP treatment after LAD ligation led to a shift of the Bcl-2/bax ratio towards the antiapoptotic process (p<0.05). CoPP significantly increased the expression levels of pAKT and pGSK3β (p<0.05) in cardiomyocytes and in diabetic mice with MI. SnPP abolished CoPP's cardioprotective effects. Conclusions HO-1 induction plays a role in cardioprotection against hypoxic damage in cardiomyocytes and in reducing post ischemic cardiac damage in the diabetic heart as proved by

  13. Hemoglobin-associated Oxidative Stress in the Pericardial Compartment of Post-operative Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Philip A.; Chacko, Balu K.; Ravi, Saranya; Johnson, Michelle S.; Mitchell, Tanecia; Barnes, Stephen; Arabshahi, Alireza; Dell’Italia, Louis J.; George, David J.; Steele, Chad; George, James F.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Melby, Spencer J.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and valvular heart disease often require treatment with corrective surgery to prevent future myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Mechanisms underlying the development of the associated complications of surgery are multifactorial and have been linked to inflammation and oxidative stress, classically as measured in the blood or plasma of patients. Post-operative pericardial fluid (PO-PCF) has not been investigated in depth with respect to the potential to induce oxidative stress. This is important since cardiac surgery disrupts the integrity of the pericardial membrane surrounding the heart, and causes significant alterations in the composition of the pericardial fluid (PCF). This includes contamination with hemolyzed blood and high concentrations of oxidized hemoglobin, which suggests that cardiac surgery results in oxidative stress within the pericardial space. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that PO-PCF is highly pro-oxidant and that the potential interaction between inflammatory cell-derived hydrogen peroxide with hemoglobin is associated with oxidative stress. Blood and PCF were collected from 31 patients at the time of surgery and postoperatively from 4 to 48 hours after coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or valve repair (mitral or aortic). PO-PCF contained high concentrations of neutrophils and monocytes which are capable of generating elevated amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide through the oxidative burst. In addition, PO-PCF primed naïve neutrophils resulting in an enhanced oxidative burst upon stimulation. The PO-PCF also contained increased concentrations of cell-free oxidized hemoglobin which was associated with elevated levels of F2α-isoprostanes and prostaglandins, consistent with both oxidative stress and activation of cyclooxygenase. Lastly, protein analysis of the PO-PCF revealed evidence of protein thiol oxidation and protein carbonylation. We conclude that PO-PCF is

  14. Volatile organic compounds as non-invasive markers for plant phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Niederbacher, B; Winkler, J B; Schnitzler, J P

    2015-09-01

    Plants emit a great variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can actively participate in plant growth and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. VOC emissions are strongly dependent on environmental conditions; the greatest ambiguity is whether or not the predicted change in climate will influence and modify plant-pest interactions that are mediated by VOCs. The constitutive and induced emission patterns between plant genotypes, species, and taxa are highly variable and can be used as pheno(chemo)typic markers to distinguish between different origins and provenances. In recent years significant progress has been made in molecular and genetic plant breeding. However, there is actually a lack of knowledge in functionally linking genotypes and phenotypes, particularly in analyses of plant-environment interactions. Plant phenotyping, the assessment of complex plant traits such as growth, development, tolerance, resistance, etc., has become a major bottleneck, and quantitative information on genotype-environment relationships is the key to addressing major future challenges. With increasing demand to support and accelerate progress in breeding for novel traits, the plant research community faces the need to measure accurately increasingly large numbers of plants and plant traits. In this review article, we focus on the promising outlook of VOC phenotyping as a fast and non-invasive measure of phenotypic dynamics. The basic principle is to define plant phenotypes according to their disease resistance and stress tolerance, which in turn will help in improving the performance and yield of economically relevant plants. PMID:25969554

  15. Non-Invasive Investigation of Bone Adaptation in Humans to Mechanical Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified peak cyclic forces, number of loading cycles, and loading rate as contributors to the regulation of bone metabolism. We have proposed a theoretical model that relates bone density to a mechanical stimulus derived from average daily cumulative peak cyclic 'effective' tissue stresses. In order to develop a non-invasive experimental model to test the theoretical model we need to: (1) monitor daily cumulative loading on a bone, (2) compute the internal stress state(s) resulting from the imposed loading, and (3) image volumetric bone density accurately, precisely, and reproducibly within small contiguous volumes throughout the bone. We have chosen the calcaneus (heel) as an experimental model bone site because it is loaded by ligament, tendon and joint contact forces in equilibrium with daily ground reaction forces that we can measure; it is a peripheral bone site and therefore more easily and accurately imaged with computed tomography; it is composed primarily of cancellous bone; and it is a relevant site for monitoring bone loss and adaptation in astronauts and the general population. This paper presents an overview of our recent advances in the areas of monitoring daily ground reaction forces, biomechanical modeling of the forces on the calcaneus during gait, mathematical modeling of calcaneal bone adaptation in response to cumulative daily activity, accurate and precise imaging of the calcaneus with quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and application to long duration space flight.

  16. A new electric method for non-invasive continuous monitoring of stroke volume and ventricular volume-time curves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this paper a new non-invasive, operator-free, continuous ventricular stroke volume monitoring device (Hemodynamic Cardiac Profiler, HCP) is presented, that measures the average stroke volume (SV) for each period of 20 seconds, as well as ventricular volume-time curves for each cardiac cycle, using a new electric method (Ventricular Field Recognition) with six independent electrode pairs distributed over the frontal thoracic skin. In contrast to existing non-invasive electric methods, our method does not use the algorithms of impedance or bioreactance cardiography. Instead, our method is based on specific 2D spatial patterns on the thoracic skin, representing the distribution, over the thorax, of changes in the applied current field caused by cardiac volume changes during the cardiac cycle. Since total heart volume variation during the cardiac cycle is a poor indicator for ventricular stroke volume, our HCP separates atrial filling effects from ventricular filling effects, and retrieves the volume changes of only the ventricles. Methods ex-vivo experiments on a post-mortem human heart have been performed to measure the effects of increasing the blood volume inside the ventricles in isolation, leaving the atrial volume invariant (which can not be done in-vivo). These effects have been measured as a specific 2D pattern of voltage changes on the thoracic skin. Furthermore, a working prototype of the HCP has been developed that uses these ex-vivo results in an algorithm to decompose voltage changes, that were measured in-vivo by the HCP on the thoracic skin of a human volunteer, into an atrial component and a ventricular component, in almost real-time (with a delay of maximally 39 seconds). The HCP prototype has been tested in-vivo on 7 human volunteers, using G-suit inflation and deflation to provoke stroke volume changes, and LVot Doppler as a reference technique. Results The ex-vivo measurements showed that ventricular filling caused a pattern over the

  17. Popeye domain containing proteins are essential for stress-mediated modulation of cardiac pacemaking in mice

    PubMed Central

    Froese, Alexander; Breher, Stephanie S.; Waldeyer, Christoph; Schindler, Roland F.R.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Rinné, Susanne; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Schlueter, Jan; Becher, Jan; Simrick, Subreena; Vauti, Franz; Kuhtz, Juliane; Meister, Patrick; Kreissl, Sonja; Torlopp, Angela; Liebig, Sonja K.; Laakmann, Sandra; Müller, Thomas D.; Neumann, Joachim; Stieber, Juliane; Ludwig, Andreas; Maier, Sebastian K.; Decher, Niels; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Kirchhof, Paulus; Fabritz, Larissa; Brand, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac pacemaker cells create rhythmic pulses that control heart rate; pacemaker dysfunction is a prevalent disorder in the elderly, but little is known about the underlying molecular causes. Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode membrane proteins with high expression levels in cardiac myocytes and specifically in the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system. Here, we report the phenotypic analysis of mice deficient in Popdc1 or Popdc2. ECG analysis revealed severe sinus node dysfunction when freely roaming mutant animals were subjected to physical or mental stress. In both mutants, bradyarrhythmia developed in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that the conserved Popeye domain functioned as a high-affinity cAMP-binding site. Popdc proteins interacted with the potassium channel TREK-1, which led to increased cell surface expression and enhanced current density, both of which were negatively modulated by cAMP. These data indicate that Popdc proteins have an important regulatory function in heart rate dynamics that is mediated, at least in part, through cAMP binding. Mice with mutant Popdc1 and Popdc2 alleles are therefore useful models for the dissection of the mechanisms causing pacemaker dysfunction and could aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22354168

  18. Appropriate Use of Cardiac Stress Testing with Imaging: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ladapo, Joseph A.; Blecker, Saul; O'Donnell, Michael; Jumkhawala, Saahil A.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate use criteria (AUC) for cardiac stress tests address concerns about utilization growth and patient safety. We systematically reviewed studies of appropriateness, including within physician specialties; evaluated trends over time and in response to AUC updates; and characterized leading indications for inappropriate/rarely appropriate testing. Methods We searched PubMed (2005–2015) for English-language articles reporting stress echocardiography or myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) appropriateness. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results Thirty-four publications of 41,578 patients were included, primarily from academic centers. Stress echocardiography appropriate testing rates were 53.0% (95% CI, 45.3%–60.7%) and 50.9% (42.6%–59.2%) and inappropriate/rarely appropriate rates were 19.1% (11.4%–26.8%) and 28.4% (23.9%–32.8%) using 2008 and 2011 AUC, respectively. Stress MPI appropriate testing rates were 71.1% (64.5%–77.7%) and 72.0% (67.6%–76.3%) and inappropriate/rarely appropriate rates were 10.7% (7.2%–14.2%) and 15.7% (12.4%–19.1%) using 2005 and 2009 AUC, respectively. There was no significant temporal trend toward rising rates of appropriateness for stress echocardiography or MPI. Unclassified stress echocardiograms fell by 79% (p = 0.04) with updated AUC. There were no differences between cardiac specialists and internists. Conclusions Rates of appropriate use tend to be lower for stress echocardiography compared to MPI, and updated AUC reduced unclassified stress echocardiograms. There is no conclusive evidence that AUC improved appropriate use over time. Further research is needed to determine if integration of appropriateness guidelines in academic and community settings is an effective approach to optimizing inappropriate/rarely appropriate use of stress testing and its associated costs and patient harms. PMID:27536775

  19. PARM-1 Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Molecule Involved in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Isodono, Koji; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Imoto, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Asada, Satoshi; Adachi, Atsuo; Ueyama, Tomomi; Oh, Hidemasa; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    To identify novel transmembrane and secretory molecules expressed in cardiac myocytes, signal sequence trap screening was performed in rat neonatal cardiac myocytes. One of the molecules identified was a transmembrane protein, prostatic androgen repressed message-1 (PARM-1). While PARM-1 has been identified as a gene induced in prostate in response to castration, its function is largely unknown. Our expression analysis revealed that PARM-1 was specifically expressed in hearts and skeletal muscles, and in the heart, cardiac myocytes, but not non-myocytes expressed PARM-1. Immunofluorescent staining showed that PARM-1 was predominantly localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In Dahl salt-sensitive rats, high-salt diet resulted in hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure, and significantly stimulated PARM-1 expression in the hearts, with a concomitant increase in ER stress markers such as GRP78 and CHOP. In cultured cardiac myocytes, PARM-1 expression was stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines, but not by hypertrophic stimuli. A marked increase in PARM-1 expression was observed in response to ER stress inducers such as thapsigargin and tunicamycin, which also induced apoptotic cell death. Silencing PARM-1 expression by siRNAs enhanced apoptotic response in cardiac myocytes to ER stresses. PARM-1 silencing also repressed expression of PERK and ATF6, and augmented expression of CHOP without affecting IRE-1 expression and JNK and Caspase-12 activation. Thus, PARM-1 expression is induced by ER stress, which plays a protective role in cardiac myocytes through regulating PERK, ATF6 and CHOP expression. These results suggested that PARM-1 is a novel ER transmembrane molecule involved in cardiac remodeling in hypertensive heart disease. PMID:20305782

  20. Non-invasive measurement of pulmonary blood flow during prone positioning in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reutershan, Jörg; Schmitt, Andre; Dietz, Klaus; Fretschner, Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    In the daily clinical routine at the bedside, information on effective pulmonary blood flow (PBF) is limited and requires invasive monitoring, including a pulmonary artery catheter, to determine both cardiac output and intrapulmonary shunt. Therefore we evaluated a non-invasive method for the measurement of PBF in a clinical setting, including 12 patients with acute respiratory failure (acute respiratory distress syndrome) undergoing prone positioning. PBF was determined before (baseline), during and after prone positioning, by using a foreign gas rebreathing method with a new photoacoustic gas analyser. Values were compared with the cardiac output corrected for intrapulmonary shunt (COeff). Responders to prone positioning were defined according to the improvement of arterial oxygenation. A total of 84 measurements were performed. PBF values correlated well with COeff (R2=0.96; P<0.0001). Bias and limits of agreement (+/- 2 S.D.) for all measurements were -0.11 +/- 0.76 litre/min. At baseline, responders showed significantly lower PBF levels than non-responders (4.8 +/- 1.0 compared with. 6.4 +/- 1.2 litre/min; P=0.03). During prone positioning, PBF increased continuously in responders and remained high after patients had been returned to the supine position. PBF was unaffected in non-responders. Mean total increase in PBF was 1.2 +/- 0.2 litre/min in responders compared with -0.4 +/- 0.2 litre/min in non-responders (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the investigated rebreathing system allows for a non-invasive determination of PBF at the bedside. The accuracy of the measurements is comparable with the thermodilution method. It is able to reliably reflect changes in PBF induced by prone positioning. Moreover, measuring PBF might be a promising tool to identify responders to prone therapy. PMID:12877652

  1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Cardiac Patients: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Considerations for Assessment and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tulloch, Heather; Greenman, Paul S.; Tassé, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on physical health, particularly cardiovascular disease. We review the literature on the role of trauma in the development of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, aftermath of a cardiac event, and risk for recurrence in cardiac patients. We explore possible mechanisms to explain these relationships, as well as appropriate assessment and treatment strategies for this population. Our main conclusion is that screening and referral for appropriate treatments are important given the high prevalence rates of PTSD in cardiac populations and the associated impact on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25545708

  2. Nobiletin attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammatory in streptozotocin: induced diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Zheng; Xiang, Shi-Zhao; Jin, Ya-Ge; Wei, Wen-Ying; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Deng, Wei; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by the presence of diastolic and/or systolic myocardial dysfunction, is one of the major causes of heart failure. Nobiletin, which is extracted from the fruit peel of citrus, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and hypolipidemic properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether nobiletin exerts the therapeutic effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in mice. 80 experimental male C57BL mice were randomly assigned into four groups: sham + vehicle (VEH/SH), sham + nobiletin (NOB/SH), DCM + vehicle (VEH/DM), and DCM + nobiletin (NOB/DM). Nobiletin treatment ameliorated cardiac dysfunction in the DCM group, as shown by the result of echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. Nobiletin treatment also blunted the mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase isoforms p67(phox), p22(phox), and p91(phox), and abated oxidative stress. Although administration of diabetic mice with nobiletin did not significantly effect the level of blood glucose, it decreased the TGF-β1, CTGF, fibronectin, and collagen Iα expressions and blunted cardiac fibrosis. In addition, nobiletin inhibited the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), P38, and NF-κB in the cardiac tissue of diabetic mice. Collectively, our study indicates that treatment with nobiletin mitigates cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis, and these beneficial of nobiletin may belong to the suppression of JNK, P38, and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:27160937

  3. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in children

    PubMed Central

    Abadesso, Clara; Nunes, Pedro; Silvestre, Catarina; Matias, Ester; Loureiro, Helena; Almeida, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the clinical efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in avoiding endotracheal intubation (ETI), to demonstrate clinical and gasometric improvement and to identify predictive risk factors associated with NIV failure. An observational prospective clinical study was carried out. Included Patients with acute respiratory disease (ARD) treated with NIV, from November 2006 to January 2010 in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). NIV was used in 151 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Patients were divided in two groups: NIV success and NIV failure, if ETI was required. Mean age was 7.2±20.3 months (median: 1 min: 0,3 max.: 156). Main diagnoses were bronchiolitis in 102 (67.5%), and pneumonia in 44 (29%) patients. There was a significant improvement in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), pH, and pCO2 at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset (P<0.05) in both groups. Improvement in pulse oximetric saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) was verified at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset in the success group (P<0.001). In the failure group, significant SpO2/FiO2 improvement was only observed in the first 4 hours. NIV failure occurred in 34 patients (22.5%). Risk factors for NIV failure were apnea, prematurity, pneumonia, and bacterial co-infection (P<0.05). Independent risk factors for NIV failure were apneia (P<0.001; odds ratio 15.8; 95% confidence interval: 3.42–71.4) and pneumonia (P<0.001, odds ratio 31.25; 95% confidence interval: 8.33–111.11). There were no major complications related with NIV. In conclusion this study demonstrates the efficacy of NIV as a form of respiratory support for children and infants with ARF, preventing clinical deterioration and avoiding ETI in most of the patients. Risk factors for failure were related with immaturity and severe infection. PMID:22802994

  4. Effects of horizontal console position on operator muscular stress during cardiac ultrasonic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takayoshi; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound examinations tend to put sonographers in unnatural postures, which may lead to musculoskeletal disorders. In order to address this issue, in this study, we focused on the horizontal position of the console of a diagnostic ultrasound system to quantitatively assess the influence of the work plane position on musculoskeletal stress cardiac ultrasonic diagnosis in the bed-sitting position. Five subjects were asked to simulate a scanning task that involved touching five points on the console, setting the work plane at different positions in the space. Electromyogram of each part of the body indicated that the least stressful position of the left hand was about 350 mm from the center of the trunk in the longitudinal (front-rear) direction and 100 mm left from the center of the trunk in the lateral (left-right) direction. It is necessary to rotate the console in front of the operator for this purpose. PMID:26576974

  5. Cardiac and blood pressure responses to mental stress in reactive hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Pannarale, G; Isea, J E; Coats, A J; Conway, J; Sleight, P

    1991-01-01

    To study the haemodynamic response to a standardized mental stress, we measured ascending aorta velocity using Doppler ultrasonography in 20 reactive ("white-coat") hypertensives and 20 age and sex matched normal controls (NC) familiar with the hospital setting. Reactive hypertensives (RH) had 3 office diastolic BP recordings between 90-110 mmHg and ambulatory BP less than 140/90 mmHg. The cardiac response to mental arithmetic was greater in RH than NC (minute distance, RH: +36.7 +/- 40.2% vs NC: +10.3 +/- 19%, p less than 0.05; peak velocity, RH: +8.4 +/- 16.5% vs NC: -1.4 +/- 11.9%, p less than 0.05), and there was a different peripheral resistance response (RH: -12.2 +/- 24.2% vs NC: +6.5 +/- 22%, p less than 0.05). We suggest that subjects with reactive hypertension have a strong cardiac response to mental stress and this could be a characteristic of this condition. PMID:2022068

  6. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story

    PubMed Central

    Elnakish, Mohammad T.; Ahmed, Amany A. E.; Mohler, Peter J.; Janssen, Paul M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models. PMID:26146529

  7. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story.

    PubMed

    Elnakish, Mohammad T; Ahmed, Amany A E; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models. PMID:26146529

  8. Attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress using the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid prevents cardiac fibrosis induced by isoproterenol.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Pedro; Montenegro, José; Vivar, Raúl; Letelier, Alan; Urroz, Pablo Aránguiz; Copaja, Miguel; Pivet, Deisy; Humeres, Claudio; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Lavandero, Sergio; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo

    2012-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in various diseases. In the human heart, ischemia/reperfusion has been correlated to ER stress, and several markers of the unfolded protein response (UPR) participate during cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. Here, we used isoproterenol (ISO) injection as a model for in vivo cardiac fibrosis. ISO induced significant cardiomyocyte loss and collagen deposition in the damaged areas of the endocardium. These responses were accompanied by an increase in the protein levels of the luminal ER chaperones BIP and PDI, as well as an increase in the UPR effector CHOP. The use of the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) prevented the activation of the UPR, the increase in luminal chaperones and also, leads to decreased collagen deposition, cardiomyocyte loss into the damaged zones. Our results suggest that cardiac damage and fibrosis induced in vivo by the beta-adrenergic agonist ISO are tightly related to ER stress signaling pathways, and that increasing the ER luminal folding capacity with exogenously administrated 4-PBA is a powerful strategy for preventing the development of cardiac fibrosis. Additionally, 4-PBA might prevent the loss of cardiomyocytes. Our data suggests that the attenuation of ER stress pathways with pharmacological compounds such as the chemical chaperone 4-PBA can prevent the development of cardiac fibrosis and adverse remodeling. PMID:22101259

  9. Automated Non-invasive Video-Microscopy of Oyster Spat Heart Rate during Acute Temperature Change: Impact of Acclimation Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Domnik, Nicolle J.; Polymeropoulos, Elias T.; Elliott, Nicholas G.; Frappell, Peter B.; Fisher, John T.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated, non-invasive method to detect real-time cardiac contraction in post-larval (1.1–1.7 mm length), juvenile oysters (i.e., oyster spat) via a fiber-optic trans-illumination system. The system is housed within a temperature-controlled chamber and video microscopy imaging of the heart was coupled with video edge-detection to measure cardiac contraction, inter-beat interval, and heart rate (HR). We used the method to address the hypothesis that cool acclimation (10°C vs. 22°C—Ta10 or Ta22, respectively; each n = 8) would preserve cardiac phenotype (assessed via HR variability, HRV analysis and maintained cardiac activity) during acute temperature changes. The temperature ramp (TR) protocol comprised 2°C steps (10 min/experimental temperature, Texp) from 22°C to 10°C to 22°C. HR was related to Texp in both acclimation groups. Spat became asystolic at low temperatures, particularly Ta22 spat (Ta22: 8/8 vs. Ta10: 3/8 asystolic at Texp = 10°C). The rate of HR decrease during cooling was less in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat when asystole was included in analysis (P = 0.026). Time-domain HRV was inversely related to temperature and elevated in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat (P < 0.001), whereas a lack of defined peaks in spectral density precluded frequency-domain analysis. Application of the method during an acute cooling challenge revealed that cool temperature acclimation preserved active cardiac contraction in oyster spat and increased time-domain HRV responses, whereas warm acclimation enhanced asystole. These physiologic changes highlight the need for studies of mechanisms, and have translational potential for oyster aquaculture practices. PMID:27445833

  10. Automated Non-invasive Video-Microscopy of Oyster Spat Heart Rate during Acute Temperature Change: Impact of Acclimation Temperature.

    PubMed

    Domnik, Nicolle J; Polymeropoulos, Elias T; Elliott, Nicholas G; Frappell, Peter B; Fisher, John T

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated, non-invasive method to detect real-time cardiac contraction in post-larval (1.1-1.7 mm length), juvenile oysters (i.e., oyster spat) via a fiber-optic trans-illumination system. The system is housed within a temperature-controlled chamber and video microscopy imaging of the heart was coupled with video edge-detection to measure cardiac contraction, inter-beat interval, and heart rate (HR). We used the method to address the hypothesis that cool acclimation (10°C vs. 22°C-Ta10 or Ta22, respectively; each n = 8) would preserve cardiac phenotype (assessed via HR variability, HRV analysis and maintained cardiac activity) during acute temperature changes. The temperature ramp (TR) protocol comprised 2°C steps (10 min/experimental temperature, Texp) from 22°C to 10°C to 22°C. HR was related to Texp in both acclimation groups. Spat became asystolic at low temperatures, particularly Ta22 spat (Ta22: 8/8 vs. Ta10: 3/8 asystolic at Texp = 10°C). The rate of HR decrease during cooling was less in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat when asystole was included in analysis (P = 0.026). Time-domain HRV was inversely related to temperature and elevated in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat (P < 0.001), whereas a lack of defined peaks in spectral density precluded frequency-domain analysis. Application of the method during an acute cooling challenge revealed that cool temperature acclimation preserved active cardiac contraction in oyster spat and increased time-domain HRV responses, whereas warm acclimation enhanced asystole. These physiologic changes highlight the need for studies of mechanisms, and have translational potential for oyster aquaculture practices. PMID:27445833

  11. Are Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Perceived Stress Related to Functional Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents? The TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Riese, Harriëtte; Van Roon, Arie M.; Hunfeld, Joke A. M.; Groot, Paul F. C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Stressors have been related to medically insufficiently explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSS). However, the underlying mechanism of this association is largely unclear. In the current study, we examined whether FSS are associated with different perceived stress and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) levels during a standardized stressful situation, and whether these associations are symptom-specific. Methods We examined 715 adolescents (16.1 years, 51.3% girls) from the Dutch cohort study Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Sample during the Groningen Social Stress Test (GSST). FSS were assessed by the Youth Self-Report, and clustered into a cluster of overtiredness, dizziness and musculoskeletal pain and a cluster of headache and gastrointestinal symptoms. Perceived stress levels (i.e. unpleasantness and arousal) were assessed by the Self-Assessment Manikin, and cardiac ANS activity by assessing heart rate variability (HRV-HF) and pre-ejection period (PEP). Perceived stress and cardiac ANS levels before, during, and after the GSST were studied as well as cardiac ANS reactivity. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Results Perceived arousal levels during (beta = 0.09, p = 0.04) and after (beta = 0.07, p = 0.047) the GSST, and perceived unpleasantness levels before (beta = 0.07, p = 0.048) and during (beta = 0.12, p = 0.001) the GSST were related to FSS during the past couple of months. The association between perceived stress and FSS was stronger for the FSS cluster of overtiredness, dizziness and musculoskeletal pain than for the cluster of headache and gastrointestinal symptoms. Neither ANS activity levels before, during, and after the GSST, nor maximal HF-HRV and PEP reactivity were related to FSS. Conclusions This study suggests that perceived stress levels during social stress are related to FSS, whereas cardiac ANS activity and reactivity are not related to FSS. PMID:27089394

  12. Costs and clinical outcomes for non-invasive versus invasive diagnostic approaches to patients with suspected in-stent restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, James T.; Machacz, Susanne F.; O’Day, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This study compared costs and clinical outcomes of invasive versus non-invasive diagnostic evaluations for patients with suspected in-stent restenosis (ISR) after percutaneous coronary intervention. We developed a decision model to compare 2 year diagnosis-related costs for patients who presented with suspected ISR and were evaluated by: (1) invasive coronary angiography (ICA); (2) non-invasive stress testing strategy of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with referral to ICA based on MPI; (3) coronary CT angiography-based testing strategy with referral to ICA based on CCTA. Costs were modeled from the payer’s perspective using 2014 Medicare rates. 56 % of patients underwent follow-up diagnostic testing over 2 years. Compared to ICA, MPI (98.6 %) and CCTA (98.1 %) exhibited lower rates of correct diagnoses. Non-invasive strategies were associated with reduced referrals to ICA and costs compared to an ICA-based strategy, with diagnostic costs lower for CCTA than MPI. Overall 2-year costs were highest for ICA for both metallic as well as BVS stents ($1656 and $1656, respectively) when compared to MPI ($1444 and $1411) and CCTA. CCTA costs differed based upon stent size and type, and were highest for metallic stents >3.0 mm followed by metallic stents <3.0 mm, BVS < 3.0 mm and BVS > 3.0 mm ($1466 vs. $1242 vs. $855 vs. $490, respectively). MPI for suspected ISR results in lower costs and rates of complications than invasive strategies using ICA while maintaining high diagnostic performance. Depending upon stent size and type, CCTA results in lower costs than MPI. PMID:26335370

  13. In Emergency Department Patients with Acute Chest Pain, Stress Cardiac MRI Observation Unit Care Reduces 1- year Cardiac-Related Health Care Expenditures: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Chadwick D.; Hwang, Wenke; Case, Doug; Hoekstra, James W.; Lefebvre, Cedric; Blumstein, Howard; Hamilton, Craig A.; Harper, Erin N.; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the direct cost of medical care and clinical events during the first year after patients with intermediate risk acute chest pain were randomized to stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) observation unit (OU) testing, versus inpatient care. Background In a recent study, randomization to OU-CMR reduced median index hospitalization cost compared to inpatient care in patients presenting to the emergency department with intermediate risk acute chest pain. Methods Emergency department patients with intermediate risk chest pain were randomized to OU-CMR (OU care, cardiac markers, stress CMR) or inpatient care (admission, care per admitting provider). This analysis reports the direct cost of cardiac-related care and clinical outcomes (MI, revascularization, cardiovascular death) during the first year of follow-up subsequent to discharge. Consistent with health economics literature, provider cost was calculated from work-related relative value units using the Medicare conversion factor; facility charges were converted to cost using departmental specific cost-to-charge ratios. Linear models were used to compare cost accumulation among study groups. Results One-hundred nine (109) randomized subjects were included in this analysis (52 OU-CMR, 57 inpatient care). The median age was 56 years; baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. At 1 year, 6% of OU-CMR and 9% of inpatient care participants experienced a major cardiac event (p=0.72) with 1 patient in each group experiencing a cardiac event after discharge. First-year cardiac-related costs were significantly lower for participants randomized to OU-CMR compared to participants receiving inpatient care (geometric mean = $3101 vs $4742 including the index visit (p = .004) and $29 vs $152 following discharge (p = .012)). During the year following randomization, 6% of OU-CMR and 9% of inpatient care participants experienced a major cardiac event (p=0.72). Conclusions An OU-CMR strategy

  14. Non-invasive measurements of hemoglobin + myoglobin, their oxygenation and NIR light pathlength in heart in vivo by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gussakovsky, Eugene; Jilkina, Olga; Yang, Yanmin; Kupriyanov, Valery

    2009-02-01

    The existing non-invasive optical methods of the hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) estimation in cardiac tissues imply knowledge of the light pathlength (L) when various modifications of Lambert-Beer law for either spectrophotometry or light diffuse reflectance is applied. For Hb and/or Mb quantification in tissue, a few invasive (biochemical) approaches were applied. For L (differential pathlength factor; DPF) determination in tissue, special optical methods were used. No approaches have been proposed to simultaneously and non-invasively determine Hb/Mb and L in cardiac or other muscle tissues. In the present study, the first derivative of the NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum is shown to be effective in simultaneous determination of Hb+Mb concentration (in mM) and L (in mm) in cardiac tissue in vivo. The results showed that measured in a few minutes in a normal pig heart in vivo the total Hb+Mb concentration was 0.9-1.2 mM of heme, tissue oxygen saturation parameter (OSP) was approximately 65%, and DPF at 700-965 nm was of 2.7-2.8. At the experimental ischemia, total [Hb+Mb] decreased by 25%, OSP reduced to zero, while DPF did not change. These results correlated with the previously published. The method may be applied during open-heart surgery, heart studies ex vivo or to any muscle tissue to continuously and non-invasively monitor the [Hb+Mb] content and oxygenation as well as L, which may reflect the changes in tissue structure.

  15. Diagnosis of Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Non-invasive techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Valecillos, R.; Hirschhaut, E.; Giordano, H.; Boccalandro, I.; Suárez, C.; Aparicio, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The natural history of Chagas' disease and its manifestations when the heart is involved are detailed clinically and pathologically. Three phases are recognized: the acute phase, lasting from 1-3 months, the latent phase, which may last from 10-20 years, and the chronic phase, which has the most serious manifestations. This phase is subdivided into three clinical stages. An analysis of the varied cardiac manifestations on 235 patients is included. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:412174

  16. Non-invasive Foetal ECG – a Comparable Alternative to the Doppler CTG?

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, J.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the alternative of using the non-invasive foetal ECG compared with the conventionally used Doppler CTG. Non-invasive abdominal electrocardiograms (ECG) have been approved for clinical routine since 2008; subsequently they were also approved for antepartum and subpartum procedures. The first study results have been published. Non-invasive foetal ECG is especially indicated during early pregnancy, while the Doppler CTG is recommended for the vernix period. Beyond the vernix period no difference has been recorded in the success rate of either approach. The foetal ECG signal quality is independent of the BMI, whereas the success rate of the Doppler CTG is diminished with an increased BMI. During the first stage of labour, non-invasive foetal ECG demonstrates better signal quality; however during the second stage of labour no difference has been identified between the methods. PMID:25308981

  17. [Options for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis based on clinical data].

    PubMed

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-01-11

    Liver cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Studies have focused on non-invasive markers for liver fibrosis because of the dangers and complications of liver biopsy. The authors review the non-invasive direct as well as indirect methods for liver fibrosis assessment and present the positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of those. Clinical utilities of transient elastography (Fibrsocan) is also reviewed. Non-invasive methods are useful in the assessment of liver fibrosis, monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response. Their accuracy can be increased by the combined or sequential use of non-invasive markers. PMID:25563681

  18. HACE1-dependent protein degradation provides cardiac protection in response to haemodynamic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liyong; Chen, Xin; Sharma, Parveen; Moon, Mark; Sheftel, Alex D.; Dawood, Fayez; Nghiem, Mai P.; Wu, Jun; Li, Ren-Ke; Gramolini, Anthony O.; Sorensen, Poul H.; Penninger, Josef M.; Brumell, John H.; Liu, Peter P.

    2014-03-01

    The HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase HACE1 is a tumour suppressor known to regulate Rac1 activity under stress conditions. HACE1 is increased in the serum of patients with heart failure. Here we show that HACE1 protects the heart under pressure stress by controlling protein degradation. Hace1 deficiency in mice results in accelerated heart failure and increased mortality under haemodynamic stress. Hearts from Hace1-/- mice display abnormal cardiac hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction, accumulation of LC3, p62 and ubiquitinated proteins enriched for cytoskeletal species, indicating impaired autophagy. Our data suggest that HACE1 mediates p62-dependent selective autophagic turnover of ubiquitinated proteins by its ankyrin repeat domain through protein-protein interaction, which is independent of its E3 ligase activity. This would classify HACE1 as a dual-function E3 ligase. Our finding that HACE1 has a protective function in the heart in response to haemodynamic stress suggests that HACE1 may be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease.

  19. Transcranial MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Non-Invasive Functional Neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Beat; Morel, Anne; Zadicario, Eyal; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Martin, Ernst

    2010-03-01

    While the development of transcranial MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound has been driven mainly by applications for tumor ablation this new intervention method is also very attractive for functional neurosurgery due to its non-invasiveness, the absence of ionizing radiation and the closed-loop intervention control by MRI. Here we provide preliminary data to demonstrate the clinical feasibility, safety and precision of non-invasive functional neurosurgery by transcranial MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound.

  20. Non-invasive estimation of thermal tissue properties by high-intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appanaboyina, Sunil; Partanen, Ari; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic Resonance guided High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) can be used to locally heat tissue while non-invasively monitoring tissue temperature via MR-based thermometry. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a computational technique based on inverse heat-transfer modeling for the non-invasive measurement of thermal tissue properties from data collected using an MR-HIFU system.

  1. Towards non-invasive characterization of breast cancer and cancer metabolism with diffuse optics

    PubMed Central

    Busch, David R.; Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in diffuse optical imaging and monitoring of breast cancer, i.e. optical mammography. Optical mammography permits non-invasive, safe and frequent measurement of tissue hemodynamics oxygen metabolism and components (lipids, water, etc.), the development of new compound indices indicative of the risk and malignancy, and holds potential for frequent non-invasive longitudinal monitoring of therapy progression. PMID:24244206

  2. Estimating Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties From Non-Invasive Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Harry A.; Webster, Laurie

    1997-01-01

    An important component in developing countermeasures for maintaining musculoskeletal integrity during long-term space flight is an effective and meaningful method of monitoring skeletal condition. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an attractive non-invasive approach because it avoids the exposure to radiation associated with X-ray based imaging and also provides measures related to bone microstructure rather than just density. The purpose of the research for the 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship period was to extend the usefulness of the MRI data to estimate the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. The main mechanical properties of interest are the elastic modulus and ultimate strength. Correlations are being investigated between these and fractal analysis parameters, MRI relaxation times, apparent densities, and bone mineral densities. Bone specimens from both human and equine donors have been studied initially to ensure high-quality MR images. Specimens were prepared and scanned from human proximal tibia bones as well as the equine distal radius. The quality of the images from the human bone appeared compromised due to freezing artifact, so only equine bone was included in subsequent procedures since these specimens could be acquired and imaged fresh before being frozen. MRI scans were made spanning a 3.6 cm length on each of 5 equine distal radius specimens. The images were then sent to Dr. Raj Acharya of the State University of New York at Buffalo for fractal analysis. Each piece was cut into 3 slabs approximately 1.2 cm thick and high-resolution contact radiographs were made to provide images for comparing fractal analysis with MR images. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were also made of each slab for subsequent bone mineral density determination. Slabs were cut into cubes for mechanical using a slow-speed diamond blade wafering saw (Buehler Isomet). The dimensions and wet weights of each cube specimen were measured and recorded. Wet weights

  3. Non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Papagianni, Marianthi; Sofogianni, Areti; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease and includes simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Since NASH progresses to cirrhosis more frequently and increases liver-related and cardiovascular disease risk substantially more than simple steatosis, there is a great need to differentiate the two entities. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of NAFLD but its disadvantages, including the risk of complications and sampling bias, stress the need for developing alternative diagnostic methods. Accordingly, several non-invasive markers have been evaluated for the diagnosis of simple steatosis and NASH, including both serological indices and imaging methods. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of these markers in the diagnosis of NAFLD. Current data suggest that ultrasound and the fibrosis-4 score are probably the most appealing methods for detecting steatosis and for distinguishing NASH from simple steatosis, respectively, because of their low cost and relatively high accuracy. However, currently available methods, both serologic and imaging, cannot obviate the need for liver biopsy for diagnosing NASH due to their substantial false positive and false negative rates. Therefore, the current role of these methods is probably limited in patients who are unwilling or have contraindications for undergoing biopsy. PMID:25866601

  4. Multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor: multiplexed, non-invasive and continuous measurements of cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Koman, Volodymyr B.; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J. F.

    2015-01-01

    The continuous measurement of uptake or release of biomarkers provides invaluable information for understanding and monitoring the metabolism of cells. In this work, a multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor for the multiplexed, non-invasive, and continuous detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lactate and glucose is presented. The sensing scheme is based on optical monitoring of the oxidation state of the metalloprotein cytochrome c (cyt c). The analyte of interest is enzymatically converted into H2O2 leading to an oxidation of the cyt c. Contact microspotting is used to prepare nanoliter-sized sensing spots containing either pure cyt c, a mixture of cyt c with glucose oxidase (GOx) to detect glucose, or a mixture of cyt c with lactate oxidase (LOx) to detect lactate. The sensing spots are embedded in a multiscattering porous medium that enhances the optical signal. We achieve limits of detection down to 240 nM and 110 nM for lactate and glucose, respectively. A microfluidic embodiment enables multiplexed and crosstalk-free experiments on living organisms. As an example, we study the uptake of exogenously supplied glucose by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and simultaneously monitor the stress-related generation of H2O2. This multifunctional detection scheme provides a powerful tool to study biochemical processes at cellular level. PMID:26203366

  5. Biodegradable nano-films for capture and non-invasive release of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myoung-Hwan; Castleberry, Steven; Deng, Jason Z.; Hsu, Bryan; Mayner, Sarah; Jensen, Anne E.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.; Toner, Mehmet; Stott, Shannon L.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2016-01-01

    Selective isolation and purification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood is an important capability for both clinical medicine and biological research. Current techniques to perform this task place the isolated cells under excessive stresses that reduce cell viability, and potentially induce phenotype change, therefore losing valuable information about the isolated cells. We present a biodegradable nano-film coating on the surface of a microfluidic chip, which can be used to effectively capture as well as non-invasively release cancer cell lines such as PC-3, LNCaP, DU 145, H1650 and H1975. We have applied layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to create a library of ultrathin coatings using a broad range of materials through complementary interactions. By developing an LbL nano-film coating with an affinity-based cell-capture surface that is capable of selectively isolating cancer cells from whole blood, and that can be rapidly degraded on command, we are able to gently isolate cancer cells and recover them without compromising cell viability or proliferative potential. Our approach has the capability to overcome practical hurdles and provide viable cancer cells for downstream analyses, such as live cell imaging, single cell genomics, and in vitro cell culture of recovered cells. Furthermore, CTCs from cancer patients were also captured, identified, and successfully released using the LbL-modified microchips. PMID:26142780

  6. Biodegradable nano-films for capture and non-invasive release of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Reátegui, Eduardo; Park, Myoung-Hwan; Castleberry, Steven; Deng, Jason Z; Hsu, Bryan; Mayner, Sarah; Jensen, Anne E; Sequist, Lecia V; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A; Toner, Mehmet; Stott, Shannon L; Hammond, Paula T

    2015-10-01

    Selective isolation and purification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood is an important capability for both clinical medicine and biological research. Current techniques to perform this task place the isolated cells under excessive stresses that reduce cell viability, and potentially induce phenotype change, therefore losing valuable information about the isolated cells. We present a biodegradable nano-film coating on the surface of a microfluidic chip, which can be used to effectively capture as well as non-invasively release cancer cell lines such as PC-3, LNCaP, DU 145, H1650 and H1975. We have applied layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to create a library of ultrathin coatings using a broad range of materials through complementary interactions. By developing an LbL nano-film coating with an affinity-based cell-capture surface that is capable of selectively isolating cancer cells from whole blood, and that can be rapidly degraded on command, we are able to gently isolate cancer cells and recover them without compromising cell viability or proliferative potential. Our approach has the capability to overcome practical hurdles and provide viable cancer cells for downstream analyses, such as live cell imaging, single cell genomics, and in vitro cell culture of recovered cells. Furthermore, CTCs from cancer patients were also captured, identified, and successfully released using the LbL-modified microchips. PMID:26142780

  7. Multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor: multiplexed, non-invasive and continuous measurements of cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Koman, Volodymyr B; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J F

    2015-07-01

    The continuous measurement of uptake or release of biomarkers provides invaluable information for understanding and monitoring the metabolism of cells. In this work, a multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor for the multiplexed, non-invasive, and continuous detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lactate and glucose is presented. The sensing scheme is based on optical monitoring of the oxidation state of the metalloprotein cytochrome c (cyt c). The analyte of interest is enzymatically converted into H2O2 leading to an oxidation of the cyt c. Contact microspotting is used to prepare nanoliter-sized sensing spots containing either pure cyt c, a mixture of cyt c with glucose oxidase (GOx) to detect glucose, or a mixture of cyt c with lactate oxidase (LOx) to detect lactate. The sensing spots are embedded in a multiscattering porous medium that enhances the optical signal. We achieve limits of detection down to 240 nM and 110 nM for lactate and glucose, respectively. A microfluidic embodiment enables multiplexed and crosstalk-free experiments on living organisms. As an example, we study the uptake of exogenously supplied glucose by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and simultaneously monitor the stress-related generation of H2O2. This multifunctional detection scheme provides a powerful tool to study biochemical processes at cellular level. PMID:26203366

  8. Non-invasive monitoring of glucocorticoid metabolites in brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea) feces.

    PubMed

    Hulsman, A; Dalerum, F; Ganswindt, A; Muenscher, S; Bertschinger, H J; Paris, M

    2011-01-01

    The brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea) is the least known of the large predators of southern Africa. The current IUCN status of the brown hyaena is "Near Threatened", and there are conservation concerns related to a general lack of biological knowledge of the species. For instance, a better knowledge of the responses to environmental and social stressors would improve our abilities to sustainably manage brown hyaena populations in both captive and free-ranging environments. We conducted adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenges in one female and one male adult brown hyaena at Lion Park Zoo, South Africa, to validate measurements of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in brown hyaena feces via an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). We also measured gastrointestinal transit times (GIT times) and the GCM degradation in feces left in ambient temperature for up to 32 hr to more reliably assess the use of this assay as a tool for non-invasive glucocorticoid measurements. Intramuscular injections of synthetic ACTH yielded GCM levels of 388% (female) and 2,682% (male) above baseline with peak increases occurring 25- to 40-hr after injection. The time delay of fecal GCM excretion approximately corresponded with food transit time in the brown hyaenas. Fecal GCM levels declined significantly over time since defecation. Our results provided a good validation that fecal GCMs accurately reflect circulating glucocorticoid stress hormones in brown hyaenas, but we highlight that samples have to be frozen immediately after defecation to avoid bias in the measurements as a result of bacterial degredation. PMID:21538501

  9. Non-invasive evaluation of culprit lesions by PET imaging: shifting the clinical paradigm away from resultant anatomy toward causative physiology

    PubMed Central

    Bengel, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Although coronary angiography is the gold standard for assessing coronary artery disease (CAD), there is at best a weak correlation between degree of stenosis and the risk of developing cardiac events. Plaque rupture is the most common type of plaque complication, accounting for about 70% of fatal acute myocardial infarctions or sudden coronary deaths. Recently, the feasibility of 18F-fluoride PET/CT in the evaluation of atherosclerotic lesions was assessed. Radionuclide techniques allow non-invasive biologic assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. This may help to further shift the clinical paradigm in coronary disease away from anatomy toward causative physiology and biology. PMID:25610799

  10. Oxidative Stress Induced Ventricular Arrhythmia and Impairment of Cardiac Function in Nos1ap Deleted Mice.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Koji; Sasano, Tetsuo; Kurokawa, Junko; Takahashi, Kentaro; Okamura, Tadashi; Kato, Norihiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Furukawa, Tetsushi

    2016-05-25

    Genome-wide association study has identified that the genetic variations at NOS1AP (neuronal nitric oxide synthase-1 adaptor protein) were associated with QT interval and sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, the mechanism linking a genetic variant of NOS1AP and SCD is poorly understood. We used Nos1ap knockout mice (Nos1ap(-/-)) to determine the involvement of Nos1ap in SCD, paying special attention to oxidative stress.At baseline, a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and ultrasound echocardiography (UCG) showed no difference between Nos1ap(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. Oxidative stress was induced by a single injection of doxorubicin (Dox, 25 mg/kg). After Dox injection, Nos1ap(-/-) showed significantly higher mortality than WT (93.3 versus 16.0% at day 14, P < 0.01). ECG showed significantly longer QTc in Nos1ap(-/-) than WT, and UCG revealed significant reduction of fractional shortening (%FS) only in Nos1ap(-/-) after Dox injection. Spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias were documented by telemetry recording after Dox injection only in Nos1ap(-/-). Ex vivo optical mapping revealed that the action potential duration (APD)90 was prolonged at baseline in Nos1ap(-/-), and administration of Dox lengthened APD90 more in Nos1ap(-/-) than in WT. The expression of Bnp and the H2O2 level were higher in Nos1ap(-/-) after Dox injection. Nos1ap(-/-) showed a reduced amplitude of calcium transient in isolated cardiomyocytes after Dox injection. Administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine significantly reduced mortality of Nos1ap(-/-) by Dox injection, accompanied by prevention of QT prolongation and a reduction in %FS.Although Nos1ap(-/-) mice have apparently normal hearts, oxidative stress evokes ventricular tachyarrhythmia and heart failure, which may cause sudden cardiac death. PMID:27170476

  11. Prenatal Stress and Balance of the Child's Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System at Age 5-6 Years

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Autonomic nervous system (ANS) misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. Methods Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study) filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12–20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80th percentiles). Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5–6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB), measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. Results 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17). Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07). Conclusion Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years. PMID:22272345

  12. A review on the non-invasive evaluation of skeletal muscle oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, A. A. A.; Laili, M. H.; Aziz, N. A.; Laili, A. R.; Salikin, M. S.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review is to conduct a feasibility study of non-invasive evaluation in skeletal muscle oxygenation. This non-invasive evaluation could extract many information using a safe non-invasive method regarding to the oxygenation and microcirculation status in human blood muscle. This brief review highlights the progress of the application of NIRS to evaluate skeletal muscle oxygenation in various activity of human nature from the historical point of view to the present advancement. Since the discovery of non-invasive optical method during 1992, there are many non-invasive techniques uses optical properties on human subject such as near infrared spectroscopy NIRS, optical topography, functional near infrared spectroscopy fNIRS and imaging fNIRI. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the light absorption potential (LAP) towards chromophores content inside human muscle. Modified beer lambert law was studied in order to build a better understanding toward LAP between chromophores under tissue multilayers in human muscle. This paper will describe the NIRS principle and the basis for its proposed used in skeletal muscle oxygenation. This will cover the advantages and limitation of such application. Thus, these non-invasive techniques could open other possibilities to study muscle performance diagnosis.

  13. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira de; Santos, Bruno F de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M Francisco; Oliveira, Daniel Pio de; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-11-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.Fundamento: Estudos têm demonstrado a acurácia diagnóstica e o valor prognóstico da ecocardiografia com estresse f

  14. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    González-Sánchez, Carlos; Fraile, Juan-Carlos; Pérez-Turiel, Javier; Damm, Ellen; Schneider, Jochen G.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Schmitt, Daniel; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC) sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram). First experimental results are shown. PMID:27399713

  15. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Carlos; Fraile, Juan-Carlos; Pérez-Turiel, Javier; Damm, Ellen; Schneider, Jochen G; Zimmermann, Heiko; Schmitt, Daniel; Ihmig, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC) sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram). First experimental results are shown. PMID:27399713

  16. Cardiac Repolarization Instability during Psychological Stress in Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Abisse, Saddam S.; Lampert, Rachel; Burg, Mattew; Soufer, Robert; Shusterman, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Changes in the autonomic nervous system activity (ANS) are a major trigger of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA). Mental arithmetic, a condition administered in a laboratory setting, can provide insight into the ANS effects on cardiac physiology. We examined the responses of cardiac repolarization to laboratory-induced psychological stressors in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) with the objective of identifying the indices that differentiate patients with and without subsequent VTA in follow-up. Methods Continuous ECG signals were recorded using 3 standard bipolar (Holter) leads in 56 patients (age: 63.6±11.9, female: 12%, LVEF: 32.3±11) with ICDs during mental arithmetic. The patients were separated into those with subsequent VTA during 3–4 years of follow-up (Group 1: N=9 pts) and those without VTA (Group 2: N=47 pts). Changes in repolarization (QT-interval, mean T-wave amplitude (Tamp), and T-wave area (Tarea) were analyzed during 5min of baseline, stress and recovery. The temporal instability of Tamp and Tarea was examined using the range (Δ) and variance (σ2) of beat-to-beat variations of the corresponding parameters. Results There were no significant differences in HR between the two groups at baseline (61 vs. 63 bpm, p=0.97), during stress (64 vs. 65 bpm, p=0.40), and recovery (62 vs. 61 bpm, p= 0.88). However, during mental stress and post-stress recovery ΔTamp was almost 2-fold greater in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (111 (57–203)) vs. 68 (44–94) μV p=0.04, respectively). Changes in QT-intervals were also greater in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (p=0.02). Conclusion Among patients with ICDs, changes of T-wave amplitude after psychological stress were greater in those with subsequent arrhythmic events. This might signal proarrhythmic repolarization response and help identify patients who would benefit the most from ICD implantation and proactive management. PMID:21920534

  17. Volume regulation mechanisms in Rana castebeiana cardiac tissue under hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Laura N; Souza, Marta M

    2008-01-01

    Volume changes of cardiac tissue under hyperosmotic stress in Rana catesbeiana were characterized by the identification of the osmolytes involved and the possible regulatory processes activated by both abrupt and gradual changes in media osmolality (from 220 to 280mosmol/kg H(2)O). Slices of R. catesbeiana cardiac tissue were subjected to hyperosmotic shock, and total tissue Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and ninhydrin-positive substances were measured. Volume changes were also induced in the presence of transport inhibitors to identify osmolyte pathways. The results show a maximum volume loss to 90.86+/-0.73% of the original volume (measured as 9% decrease in wet weight) during abrupt hyperosmotic shock. However, during a gradual osmotic challenge the volume was never significantly different from that of the control. During both types of hyperosmotic shock, we observed an increase in Na(+) but no significant change in Cl(-) contents. Additionally, we found no change in ninhydrin-positive substances during any osmotic challenge. Pharmacological analyses suggest the involvement of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, and perhaps the HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) exchanger. There is indirect evidence for decrease in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. The Na(+) fluxes seem to result from Mg(2+) signaling, as saline rich in Mg(2+) enhances the regulatory volume increase, followed by a higher intracellular Na(+) content. The volume maintenance mechanisms activated during the gradual osmotic change are similar to that activated by abrupt osmotic shock. PMID:18457937

  18. A Cycling Movement Based System for Real-Time Muscle Fatigue and Cardiac Stress Monitoring and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chang, Ya-Ju; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Chiu, Li-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we defined a new parameter, referred to as the cardiac stress index (CSI), using a nonlinear detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) of heart rate (HR). Our study aimed to incorporate the CSI into a cycling based fatigue monitoring system developed in our previous work so the muscle fatigue and cardiac stress can be both continuously and quantitatively assessed for subjects undergoing the cycling exercise. By collecting electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, the DFA scaling exponent α was evaluated on the RR time series extracted from a windowed ECG segment. We then obtained the running estimate of α by shifting a one-minute window by a step of 20 seconds so the CSI, defined as the percentage of all the less-than-one α values, can be synchronously updated every 20 seconds. Since the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale is considered as a convenient index which is commonly used to monitor subjective perceived exercise intensity, we then related the Borg RPE scale value to the CSI in order to investigate and quantitatively characterize the relationship between exercise-induced fatigue and cardiac stress. Twenty-two young healthy participants were recruited in our study. Each participant was asked to maintain a fixed pedaling speed at a constant load during the cycling exercise. Experimental results showed that a decrease in DFA scaling exponent α or an increase in CSI was observed during the exercise. In addition, the Borg RPE scale and CSI were positively correlated, suggesting that the factors due to cardiac stress might also contribute to fatigue state during physical exercise. Since the CSI can effectively quantify the cardiac stress status during physical exercise, our system may be used in sports medicine, or used by cardiologists who carried out stress tests for monitoring heart condition in patients with heart diseases. PMID:26115515

  19. 4-Dimensional light-sheet microscopy to elucidate shear stress modulation of cardiac trabeculation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juhyun; Fei, Peng; Packard, René R. Sevag; Kang, Hanul; Xu, Hao; Baek, Kyung In; Jen, Nelson; Chen, Junjie; Yen, Hilary; Chi, Neil C.; Ho, Chih-Ming; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic shear forces are intimately linked with cardiac development, during which trabeculae form a network of branching outgrowths from the myocardium. Mutations that alter Notch signaling also result in trabeculation defects. Here, we assessed whether shear stress modulates trabeculation to influence contractile function. Specifically, we acquired 4D (3D + time) images with light sheets by selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) for rapid scanning and deep axial penetration during zebrafish morphogenesis. Reduction of blood viscosity via gata1a morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) reduced shear stress, resulting in downregulation of Notch signaling and attenuation of trabeculation. Arrest of cardiomyocyte contraction either by troponin T type 2a (tnnt2a) MO or in weak atriumm58 (wea) mutants resulted in reduced shear stress and downregulation of Notch signaling and trabeculation. Integrating 4D SPIM imaging with synchronization algorithm demonstrated that coinjection of neuregulin1 mRNA with gata1 MO rescued trabeculation to restore contractile function in association with upregulation of Notch-related genes. Crossbreeding of Tg(flk:mCherry) fish, which allows visualization of the vascular system with the Tg(tp1:gfp) Notch reporter line, revealed that shear stress–mediated Notch activation localizes to the endocardium. Deleting endocardium via the clochesk4 mutants downregulated Notch signaling, resulting in nontrabeculated ventricle. Subjecting endothelial cells to pulsatile flow in the presence of the ADAM10 inhibitor corroborated shear stress–activated Notch signaling to modulate trabeculation. PMID:27018592

  20. Stress Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Observation Unit Care Reduces Cost for Patients With Emergent Chest Pain: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Chadwick D.; Hwang, Wenke; Hoekstra, James W.; Case, Doug; Lefebvre, Cedric; Blumstein, Howard; Hiestand, Brian; Diercks, Deborah B.; Hamilton, Craig A.; Harper, Erin N.; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Study objective We determine whether imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an observation unit would reduce medical costs among patients with emergent non-low-risk chest pain who otherwise would be managed with an inpatient care strategy. Methods Emergency department patients (n=110) at intermediate or high probability for acute coronary syndrome without electrocardiographic or biomarker evidence of a myocardial infarction provided consent and were randomized to stress cardiac MRI in an observation unit versus standard inpatient care. The primary outcome was direct hospital cost calculated as the sum of hospital and provider costs. Estimated median cost differences (Hodges-Lehmann) and distribution-free 95% confidence intervals (Moses) were used to compare groups. Results There were 110 participants with 53 randomized to cardiac MRI and 57 to inpatient care; 8 of 110 (7%) experienced acute coronary syndrome. In the MRI pathway, 49 of 53 underwent stress cardiac MRI, 11 of 53 were admitted, 1 left against medical advice, 41 were discharged, and 2 had acute coronary syndrome. In the inpatient care pathway, 39 of 57 patients initially received stress testing, 54 of 57 were admitted, 3 left against medical advice, and 6 had acute coronary syndrome. At 30 days, no subjects in either group experienced acute coronary syndrome after discharge. The cardiac MRI group had a reduced median hospitalization cost (Hodges-Lehmann estimate $588; 95% confidence interval $336 to $811); 79% were managed without hospital admission. Conclusion Compared with inpatient care, an observation unit strategy involving stress cardiac MRI reduced incident cost without any cases of missed acute coronary syndrome in patients with emergent chest pain. PMID:20554078

  1. Comparison of dobutamine infusion and supine bicycle exercise for radionuclide cardiac stress testing

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.L.; Palac, R.; Mason, J.; Barnes, W.E.; Eastman, G.; Virupannavar, S.; Loeb, H.S.; Kaplan, E.

    1984-05-01

    A comparison is made of the inotropic drug dobutamine to supine bicycle exercise as a means of inducing stress in radionuclide ventriculography studies. Dobutamine has the following properties, making it favorable for widespread usage: 1) ability to be given safely in a peripheral vein, 2) rapid onset, and 3) short duration of action. Each patient underwent supine bicycle progressive resistance testing of 2 minutes per stage followed 30 minutes later by dobutamine administration. Accuracy of diagnosis was 0.93 and sensitivity was 0.89 with dobutamine, while with bicycle the accuracy was 0.93 and sensitivity was 0.94. While not designed to replace supine bicycle testing, incremental infusions of dobutamine appear to be nearly equal in accuracy and sensitivity, providing a satisfactory technique for cardiac evaluation of previously excluded patients.

  2. Binge Ethanol and MDMA Combination Exacerbates Toxic Cardiac Effects by Inducing Cellular Stress

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Ros-Simó, Clara; Milanés, María-Victoria; Valverde, Olga; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA). Drinking in the dark (DID) procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone. PMID:26509576

  3. Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation as Modifiers of Cardiac Autonomic Responses to Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Eum, Ki-Do; Fang, Shona C.; Rodrigues, Ema G.; Modest, Geoffrey A.; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation on the association between personal exposures to ambient fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and cardiac autonomic dysfunction, indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV), has not been examined. Methods We performed a repeated measures study on community adults in a densely populated inner city neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. Continuous ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and personal exposure to PM2.5 were measured for up to two consecutive days. Peripheral blood and spot urine samples were collected at 12-hour intervals for the measurements of markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts as well as for the analysis of urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage. Results After adjusting for confounders, we found a pronounced decrease in nighttime standard deviation of normal-to normal intervals (SDNN): an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5 (13.6 μg/m3) was associated with an 8.4% decrease in SDNN (95% CI: −11.3 to −5.5). Compared with the lower eightieth percentile, significantly greater PM2.5 associated nighttime SDNN reductions were observed among subjects in the upper twentieth percentile of 8-OHdG by −25.3%, CRP by −24.9%, fibrinogen by −28.7%, WBC by −23.4%, and platelet counts by −24.0% (all P < 0.0001; all Pinteraction <0.01). Conclusions These data suggest that oxidative stress and systemic inflammation exacerbate the adverse effects of PM2.5 on the cardiac autonomic function even at ambient levels of exposure. PMID:25074558

  4. Two-Photon Microscopy for Non-Invasive, Quantitative Monitoring of Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William L.; Kaplan, David L.; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Background The engineering of functional tissues is a complex multi-stage process, the success of which depends on the careful control of culture conditions and ultimately tissue maturation. To enable the efficient optimization of tissue development protocols, techniques suitable for monitoring the effects of added stimuli and induced tissue changes are needed. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present the quantitative use of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a noninvasive means to monitor the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) using entirely endogenous sources of contrast. We demonstrate that the individual fluorescence contribution from the intrinsic cellular fluorophores NAD(P)H, flavoproteins and lipofuscin can be extracted from TPEF images and monitored dynamically from the same cell population over time. Using the redox ratio, calculated from the contributions of NAD(P)H and flavoproteins, we identify distinct patterns in the evolution of the metabolic activity of hMSCs maintained in either propagation, osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation media. The differentiation of these cells is mirrored by changes in cell morphology apparent in high resolution TPEF images and by the detection of collagen production via SHG imaging. Finally, we find dramatic increases in lipofuscin levels in hMSCs maintained at 20% oxygen vs. those in 5% oxygen, establishing the use of this chromophore as a potential biomarker for oxidative stress. Conclusions/Significance In this study we demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the metabolic activity, morphology, ECM production and oxidative stress of hMSCs in a non-invasive manner. This is accomplished using generally available multiphoton microscopy equipment and simple data analysis techniques, such that the method can widely adopted by laboratories with a diversity of comparable equipment. This method therefore represents a powerful tool, which enables

  5. Non-Invasive Molecular Imaging of Fibrosis Using a Collagen-Targeted Peptidomimetic of the Platelet Collagen Receptor Glycoprotein VI

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Stéphane; Meulemans, Alain; Louedec, Liliane; Bantsimba-Malanda, Claudie; Hervatin, Florence; Marchal-Somme, Joëlle; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Le Guludec, Dominique; Billiald, Philippe; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Background Fibrosis, which is characterized by the pathological accumulation of collagen, is recognized as an important feature of many chronic diseases, and as such, constitutes an enormous health burden. We need non-invasive specific methods for the early diagnosis and follow-up of fibrosis in various disorders. Collagen targeting molecules are therefore of interest for potential in vivo imaging of fibrosis. In this study, we developed a collagen-specific probe using a new approach that takes advantage of the inherent specificity of Glycoprotein VI (GPVI), the main platelet receptor for collagens I and III. Methodology/Principal Findings An anti-GPVI antibody that neutralizes collagen-binding was used to screen a bacterial random peptide library. A cyclic motif was identified, and the corresponding peptide (designated collagelin) was synthesized. Solid-phase binding assays and histochemical analysis showed that collagelin specifically bound to collagen (Kd 10−7 M) in vitro, and labelled collagen fibers ex vivo on sections of rat aorta and rat tail. Collagelin is therefore a new specific probe for collagen. The suitability of collagelin as an in vivo probe was tested in a rat model of healed myocardial infarctions (MI). Injecting Tc-99m-labelled collagelin and scintigraphic imaging showed that uptake of the probe occurred in the cardiac area of rats with MI, but not in controls. Post mortem autoradiography and histological analysis of heart sections showed that the labeled areas coincided with fibrosis. Scintigraphic molecular imaging with collagelin provides high resolution, and good contrast between the fibrotic scars and healthy tissues. The capacity of collagelin to image fibrosis in vivo was confirmed in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Conclusion/Significance Collagelin is a new collagen-targeting agent which may be useful for non-invasive detection of fibrosis in a broad spectrum of diseases. PMID:19440310

  6. Cardiac energy metabolism and oxidative stress biomarkers in diabetic rat treated with resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Carolo dos Santos, Klinsmann; Pereira Braga, Camila; Octavio Barbanera, Pedro; Seiva, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira; Fernandes Junior, Ary; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), polyphenol from grape, was studied to evaluate its effects on calorimetric parameters, energy metabolism, and antioxidants in the myocardium of diabetic rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8): C (control group): normal rats; C-RSV: normal rats receiving RSV; DM: diabetic rats; and DM-RSV: diabetics rats receiving RSV. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced with administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg(-1) body weight, single dose, i.p.). After 48 hours of STZ administration, the animals received RSV (1.0 mg/kg/day) for gavage for 30 days. Food, water, and energy intake were higher in the DM group, while administration of RSV caused decreases (p<0.05) in these parameters. The glycemia decreased and higher final body weight increased in DM-RSV when compared with the DM group. The diabetic rats showed higher serum-free fatty acid, which was normalized with RSV. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) decreased (p<0.05) in the DM group. This was accompanied by reductions in RQ. The C-RSV group showed higher VO2 and VCO2 values. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was lower in the DM group and normalizes with RSV. The DM group exhibited higher myocardial β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity, and RSV decreased the activity of these enzymes. The DM group had higher cardiac lactate dehydrogenase compared to the DM-RSV group. Myocardial protein carbonyl was increased in the DM group. RSV increased reduced glutathione in the cardiac tissue of diabetic animals. The glutathione reductase activity was higher in the DM-RSV group compared to the DM group. In conclusion, diabetes is accompanied by cardiac energy metabolism dysfunction and change in the biomarkers of oxidative stress. The cardioprotective effect may be mediated through RVS's ability to normalize free fatty acid oxidation, enhance utilization glucose, and control the biomarkers' level of oxidative stress under

  7. Functional Relevance of Coronary Artery Disease by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and Cardiac Computed Tomography: Myocardial Perfusion and Fractional Flow Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Andreini, Daniele; Bertella, Erika; Mushtaq, Saima; Guaricci, Andrea Igoren; Pepi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it is responsible for an increasing resource burden. The identification of patients at high risk for adverse events is crucial to select those who will receive the greatest benefit from revascularization. To this aim, several non-invasive functional imaging modalities are usually used as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography, but the diagnostic yield of elective invasive coronary angiography remains unfortunately low. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging by cardiac magnetic resonance (stress-CMR) has emerged as an accurate technique for diagnosis and prognostic stratification of the patients with known or suspected CAD thanks to high spatial and temporal resolution, absence of ionizing radiation, and the multiparametric value including the assessment of cardiac anatomy, function, and viability. On the other side, cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has emerged as unique technique providing coronary arteries anatomy and more recently, due to the introduction of stress-CCT and noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT), functional relevance of CAD in a single shot scan. The current review evaluates the technical aspects and clinical experience of stress-CMR and CCT in the evaluation of functional relevance of CAD discussing the strength and weakness of each approach. PMID:25692133

  8. Non-Invasive Measurement of Pulsatile Intracranial Pressures Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, Richard E.; Shuer, Lawrence M.; Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, John H.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1997-01-01

    Early detection of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) will aid clinical decision-making for head trauma, brain tumor and other cerebrovascular diseases. Conventional methods, however, require surgical procedures which take time and are accompanied by increased risk of infection. Accordingly we have developed and refined a new ultrasound device to measure skull movements which are known to occur in conjunction with altered ICP. The principle of this device is based upon pulse phase locked loop (PPLL), which enables us to detect changes in distance on the order of microns between an ultrasound transducer on one side of the skull and the opposite inner surface of the cranium. The present study was designed to verify this measurement technique in cadavera. Transcranial distance was increased in steps of 10 mmHg from zero to 50 mmHg by saline infusion into the lateral ventricle of two cadavera. In separate experiments, pulsations of ICP with the amplitudes of zero to 2 mmHg were generated by rhythmic injections of saline using a syringe. When the ICP was stepwise increased from zero to 50 mmHg, transcranial distance increased in proportion with the ICP increase (y=12 x - 76, r=0.938), where y is changes in transcranial distance in microns and x is ICP in mmHg. In the data recorded while ICP pulsations were generated, fast Fourier transform analysis demonstrated that cranial pulsations were clearly associated with ICP pulsations. The results indicate that changes in transcranial distance is linearly correlated with those in ICP, and also that the PPLL device has sufficient sensitivity to detect transcranial pulsations which occur in association with the cardiac cycle. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsations, we may be able to estimate the pressure-volume index in the cranium. As a result, estimates of intracranial compliance may be possible by using the PPLL device. Further studies are necessary in normal subjects and patients.

  9. Preliminary evidence that exercise dependence is associated with blunted cardiac and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2011-02-01

    Low or blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress have been shown to characterise those with a tobacco or alcohol dependency. The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise dependency would be similarly associated with blunted reactivity. Young female exercisers (N=219) were screened by questionnaire for exercise dependence. Ten women with probable exercise dependence and 10 non dependent controls were selected for laboratory stress testing. Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a 10-min mental arithmetic stress task. The exercise dependent women showed blunted cardiac reactions to the stress task and blunted cortisol at 10, 20, and 30 minute post stress exposure. These effects could not be accounted for in terms of group differences in stress task performance, nor could the cardiac effects be attributed to group differences in cardio-respiratory fitness. It would seem that low stress reactivity is characteristic of a wide range of dependencies, and is not confined to substance dependence. Our results offer further support for the hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity may be a peripheral marker of a central motivational dysregulation. PMID:21145361

  10. Oxidative stress and redox signalling in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Mike; Looi, Yee H; Shah, Ajay M

    2007-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and its antecedent conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy and adverse remodelling after MI. Oxidative stress describes an imbalance between antioxidant defences and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which at high levels cause cell damage but at lower levels induce subtle changes in intracellular signalling pathways (termed redox signalling). ROS are derived from many sources including mitochondria, xanthine oxidase, uncoupled nitric oxide synthases and NADPH oxidases. The latter enzymes are especially important in redox signalling, being implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension and atherosclerosis, and activated by diverse pathologically relevant stimuli. We review the contribution of ROS to heart failure pathophysiology and discuss potential therapies that may specifically target detrimental redox signalling. Indeed, drugs such as ACE inhibitors and statins may act in part through such mechanisms. A better understanding of redox signalling mechanisms may enable the development of new targeted therapeutic strategies rather than the non‐specific antioxidant approaches that have to date been disappointing in clinical trials. PMID:16670100

  11. Relationship between post-cardiac arrest myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial dysfunction in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reperfusion after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA) is an event that increases reactive oxygen species production leading to oxidative stress. More specifically, myocardial oxidative stress may play a role in the severity of post-CA myocardial dysfunction. This study investigated the relationship between myocardial oxidative stress and post-CA myocardial injury and dysfunction in a rat model of CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 26 rats and was untreated for 6 min. CPR, including mechanical chest compression, ventilation, and epinephrine, was then initiated and continued for additional 6 min prior to defibrillations. Resuscitated animals were sacrificed at two h (n = 9), 4 h (n = 6) and 72 h (n = 8) following resuscitation, and plasma collected for assessment of: high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), as marker of myocardial injury; isoprostanes (IsoP), as marker of lipid peroxidation; and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), as marker of DNA oxidative damage. Hearts were also harvested for measurement of tissue IsoP and 8-OHG. Myocardial function was assessed by echocardiography at the corresponding time points. Additional 8 rats were not subjected to CA and served as baseline controls. Results Compared to baseline, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was reduced at 2 and 4 h following resuscitation (p < 0.01), while it was similar at 72 h. Inversely, plasma hs-cTnT increased, compared to baseline, at 2 and 4 h post-CA (p < 0.01), and then recovered at 72 h. Similarly, plasma and myocardial tissue IsoP and 8-OHG levels increased at 2 and 4 h post-resuscitation (p < 0.01 vs. baseline), while returned to baseline 72 h later. Myocardial IsoP were directly related to hs-cTnT levels (r = 0.760, p < 0.01) and inversely related to LVEF (r = -0.770, p < 0.01). Myocardial 8-OHG were also directly related to hs-cTnT levels (r = 0.409, p < 0.05) and

  12. Deficiency of methionine sulfoxide reductase A causes cellular dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in cardiac myocytes under physical and oxidative stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Changlong; Li, Yuejin; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Chen, Guozhen; Kreymerman, Alexander; Prentice, Howard; Weissbach, Herbert; Huang, Xupei

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} Deficiency of MsrA in the heart renders myocardial cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. {yields} Mitochondrial damage happens in the heart lacking MsrA. {yields} More protein oxidation in myocardial cells lacking MsrA. {yields} MsrA protects the heart against oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. Using a MsrA gene knockout (MsrA{sup -/-}) mouse model, we have investigated the role of MsrA in the heart. Our data indicate that cellular contractility and cardiac function are not significantly changed in MsrA{sup -/-} mice if the hearts are not stressed. However, the cellular contractility, when stressed using a higher stimulation frequency (2 Hz), is significantly reduced in MsrA{sup -/-} cardiac myocytes. MsrA{sup -/-} cardiac myocytes also show a significant decrease in contractility after oxidative stress using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Corresponding changes in Ca{sup 2+} transients are observed in MsrA{sup -/-} cardiomyocytes treated with 2 Hz stimulation or with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Electron microscope analyses reveal a dramatic morphological change of mitochondria in MsrA{sup -/-} mouse hearts. Further biochemical measurements indicate that protein oxidation levels in MsrA{sup -/-} mouse hearts are significantly higher than those in wild type controls. Our study demonstrates that the lack of MsrA in cardiac myocytes reduces myocardial cell's capability against stress stimulations resulting in a cellular dysfunction in the heart.

  13. Heterogeneity among cardiac ischemic and anginal responses to exercise, mental stress, and daily life.

    PubMed

    Sheps, D S; McMahon, R P; Pepine, C J; Stone, P H; Goldberg, A D; Taylor, H; Cohen, J D; Becker, L C; Chaitman, B; Knatterud, G L; Kaufmann, P G

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare and contrast indicators of ischemia in a well-characterized group of 196 patients with coronary artery disease, documented angiographically or by verified history of myocardial infarction, and a positive exercise test result. Myocardial ischemia occurs frequently in response to everyday stressors in patients with coronary artery disease. The Psychophysiological Interventions in Myocardial Ischemia study provides a unique opportunity to study neuroendocrine and psychological manifestations of ischemia. Patients with exercise-induced ischemia underwent exercise radionuclide ventriculography and electrocardiographic monitoring and 2 laboratory mental stressors (Speech and Stroop) after being withdrawn from cardiac medications. In addition, 48-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms were recorded during routine daily activities. Patients with a history of angina within the past 3 months reported angina during the bicycle or treadmill test with a much higher frequency than patients without such an anginal history (77% vs 26%). Ejection fraction (EF) responses to the Stroop test were abnormal in 48% of patients with an abnormal EF response to the Speech task, versus 17% in patients with a normal EF response (p <0.01). Seventy-six percent of patients had an abnormal EF response to bicycle exercise. Three indicators of ischemia (ST-segment depression, wall motion abnormality, and EF response) were compared during the same laboratory stressor and across different types of stress tests. Presence of the 3 indicators was only moderately associated during exercise, and only weak or nonsignificant associations occurred among the presence of the 3 ischemic markers during mental stress. Occurrence of the same ischemic markers was moderately associated between the 2 mental stress tasks, but few associations were found between the occurrence of the same ischemic marker during exercise and mental stress. There is a marked heterogeneity of

  14. Examination of spinal column vibrations: a non-invasive approach.

    PubMed

    Hinz, B; Seidel, H; Bräuer, D; Menzel, G; Blüthner, R; Erdmann, U

    1988-01-01

    Accelerations of vertebrae during whole-body vibration (WBV) are used in occupational biomechanics for the prediction of internal stress. To avoid invasive techniques, a method for the calculation of bone accelerations was developed using measurements on the skin. The soft tissue between spinous processes L3 and T5 and miniature accelerometers stuck to the skin over them was modelled by a simple Kelvin element, whose parameters i.e. angular natural frequency omega n and critical damping zeta, describe an approximate transfer function between the bone (input) and the skin surface (output). The parameters were determined from free damped oscillations of the accelerometer-skin complex in the Z-axis, and depended significantly on the factors "subject" and "point of measurement". In one subject, the time courses of bone accelerations during sinusoidal WBV (4.5 and 8 Hz; 1.5 m.s-2 RMS) were calculated using separate transfer functions for each of 11 different spinal levels. Since the output signals on the skin were non-sinusoidal, the skin accelerations had to be treated with an inverse transfer function in the frequency domain. A comparison of accelerations measured on the skin and predicted for the bone mainly indicates that absolute peak values of bone accelerations are smaller and occur earlier. Both kinds of acceleration hint at differences in WBV-induced internal stress within the spine. PMID:3416855

  15. Imaging human brain networks to improve the clinical efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sale, Martin V; Mattingley, Jason B; Zalesky, Andrew; Cocchi, Luca

    2015-10-01

    The flexible integration of segregated neural processes is essential to healthy brain function. Advances in neuroimaging techniques have revealed that psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by anomalies in the dynamic integration of widespread neural populations. Re-establishing optimal neural activity is an important component of the treatment of such disorders. Non-invasive brain stimulation is emerging as a viable tool to selectively restore both local and widespread neural activity in patients affected by psychiatric and neurological disorders. Importantly, the different forms of non-invasive brain stimulation affect neural activity in distinct ways, which has important ramifications for their clinical efficacy. In this review, we discuss how non-invasive brain stimulation techniques influence widespread neural integration across brain regions. We suggest that the efficacy of such techniques in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological conditions is contingent on applying the appropriate stimulation paradigm to restore specific aspects of altered neural integration. PMID:26409343

  16. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period and difficult airway].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is a method of ventilatory assistance aimed at increasing alveolar ventilation, thus achieving, in selected subjects, the avoidance of endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation, with the consequent improvement in survival. There has been a systematic review and study of the technical, clinical experiences, and recommendations concerning the application of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period. The use of prophylactic non-invasive mechanical ventilation before surgery that involves significant alterations in the ventilatory function may decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. Its intraoperative use will mainly depend on the type of surgery, type of anaesthetic technique, and the clinical status of the patient. Its use allows greater anaesthetic depth without deterioration of oxygenation and ventilation of patients. PMID:25702198

  17. Non-invasive Central and Peripheral Stimulation: New Hope for Essential Tremor?

    PubMed Central

    Chalah, Moussa A.; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Ayache, Samar S.

    2015-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is among the most frequent movement disorders. It usually manifests as a postural and kinematic tremor of the arms, but may also involve the head, voice, lower limbs, and trunk. An oscillatory network has been proposed as a neural correlate of ET, and is mainly composed of the olivocerebellar system, thalamus, and motor cortex. Since pharmacological agents have limited benefits, surgical interventions like deep brain stimulation are the last-line treatment options for the most severe cases. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation, are used to ameliorate ET. Their non-invasiveness, along with their side effects profile, makes them an appealing treatment option. In addition, peripheral stimulation has been applied in the same perspective. Hence, the aim of the present review is to shed light on the emergent use of non-invasive central and peripheral stimulation techniques in this interesting context. PMID:26635516

  18. Cardiac and pulmonary oxidative stress in rats exposed to realistic emissions of source aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Miriam; Diaz, Edgar A.; Gupta, Tarun; Kang, Choong-Min; Ruiz, Pablo; Coull, Brent A.; Godleski, John J.; Gonzalez-Flecha, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    In vivo chemiluminescence (CL) is a measure of reactive oxygen species in tissues. CL was used to assess pulmonary and cardiac responses to inhaled aerosols derived from aged emissions of three coal-fired power plants in the USA. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to either filtered air or: (1) primary emissions (P); (2) ozone oxidized emissions (PO); (3) oxidized emissions + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); (4) neutralized oxidized emissions + SOA (PONS); and (5) control scenarios: oxidized emissions + SOA in the absence of primary particles (OS), oxidized emissions alone (O), and SOA alone (S). Immediately after 6 hours of exposure, CL in the lung and heart was measured. Tissues were also assayed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Exposure to P or PO aerosols led to no changes compared to filtered air in lung or heart CL at any individual plant or when all data were combined. POS caused significant increases in lung CL and TBARS at only one plant, and not in combined data from all plants; PONS resulted in increased lung CL only when data from all plants were combined. Heart CL was also significantly increased with exposure to POS only when data from all plants were combined. PONS increased heart CL significantly in one plant with TBARS accumulation, but not in combined data. Exposure to O, OS, and S had no CL effects. Univariate analyses of individual measured components of the exposure atmospheres did not identify any component associated with increased CL. These data suggest that coal-fired power plant emissions combined with other atmospheric constituents produce limited pulmonary and cardiac oxidative stress. PMID:21913821

  19. Chronic non-invasive corticosterone administration abolishes the diurnal pattern of tph2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Nina C.; Montoya, Christian D.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Both hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and serotonergic systems are commonly dysregulated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We describe here a non-invasive rat model for hypercortisolism, as observed in major depression, and its effects on physiology, behavior, and the expression of tph2, the gene encoding tryptophan hydroxylase 2, the rate-limiting enzyme for brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) synthesis. We delivered corticosterone (40 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml or 400 µg/ml) or vehicle to adrenal-intact adult, male rats via the drinking water for three weeks. On days 15, 16, 17 and 18, respectively, the rats’ emotionality was assessed in the open-field (OF), social interaction (SI), elevated plus-maze (EPM), and forced swim tests (FST). On day 21, half of the rats in each group were killed 2 h into the dark phase of a 12/12 h reversed light/dark cycle; the other half were killed 2 h into the light phase. We then measured indices of HPA axis activity, plasma glucose and interleukin-6 (IL-6) availability, and neuronal tph2 expression at each time point. Chronic corticosterone intake was sufficient to cause increased anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in a dose-dependent manner. It also disrupted the diurnal pattern of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), corticosterone, and glucose concentrations, caused adrenal atrophy, and prevented regular weight gain. No diurnal or treatment-dependent changes were found for plasma levels of IL-6. Remarkably, all doses of corticosterone treatment abolished the diurnal variation of tph2 mRNA expression in the brainstem dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) by elevating the gene’s expression during the animals’ inactive (light) phase. Our data demonstrate that chronic elevation of corticosterone creates a vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome that is associated with increased tph2 expression, similar to that observed in depressed patients. PMID:21924839

  20. Comparison of non-invasive and invasive blood pressure in aeromedical care.

    PubMed

    McMahon, N; Hogg, L A; Corfield, A R; Exton, A D

    2012-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement is an essential physiological measurement for all critically ill patients. Previous work has shown that non-invasive blood pressure is not an accurate reflection of invasive blood pressure measurement. In a transport environment, the effects of motion and vibration may make non-invasive blood pressure less accurate. Consecutive critically ill patients transported by a dedicated aeromedical retrieval and critical care transfer service with simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure measurements were analysed. Two sets of measurements were recorded, first in a hospital environment before departure (pre-flight) and a second during aeromedical transport (in-flight). A total of 56 complete sets of data were analysed. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement (precision) for pre-flight systolic blood pressure were -37.3 mmHg to 30.0 mmHg, and for pre-flight mean arterial pressure -20.5 mmHg to 25.0 mmHg. The limits of agreement for in-flight systolic blood pressure were -40.6 mmHg to 33.1 mmHg, while those for in-flight mean blood pressure in-flight were -23.6 mmHg to 24.6 mmHg. The bias for the four conditions ranged from 0.5 to -3.8 mmHg. There were no significant differences in values between pre-flight and in-flight blood pressure measurements for all categories of blood pressure measurement. Thus, our data show that non-invasive blood pressure is not a precise reflection of invasive intra-arterial blood pressure. Mean blood pressure measured non-invasively may be a better marker of invasive blood pressure than systolic blood pressure. Our data show no evidence of non-invasive blood pressures being less accurate in an aeromedical transport environment. PMID:23033983

  1. Non invasive measurement of strain and temperature by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, T. M.; Root, J. H.; Tennant, D. C.; Kroeze, D. E.; Leggett, D.

    1990-06-01

    Two methods have been developed to determine temperature noninvasively within engineering components by neutron diffraction. The integrated intensity of a diffraction line depends on temperature through the Debye-Waller factor. The angular position of the line, in the absence of an applied load, depends on temperature through the thermal expansion coefficient. Temperature may thus be determined by accurate relative intensity measurements with respect to a reference temperature and, alternatively, by accurate measurement of the interplanar spacings. It was also shown to be feasible to measure the strain response to an applied load at elevated temperatures. Measurements were made on Waspalloy and the Ti alloy AMS 4928. For Waspalloy, the thermal expansion at zero stress gave the average temperature with a precision of +/- 4 K and agreed with thermocouple measurements to within 5 K on average. The intensity data suggest that temperature can be measured with a precision of +/- 10 K in a loaded component.

  2. Non-invasive Ventilation in Premature Infants: Based on Evidence or Habit

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shalabh; Sinha, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Despite surfactant and mechanical ventilation being the standard of care for preterm infants with respiratory failure, non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly being employed in neonatal units. The latter can be accomplished in a variety of ways but none of them have been proven so far to be superior to intubation and mechanical ventilation. Nonetheless, they appear to be safe and effective in experienced hands. This article relates to the use of non-invasive forms of respiratory support and evidence is reviewed from the clinical trials which have evaluated the use of these techniques. PMID:24404523

  3. Personalized management of cirrhosis by non-invasive tests of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Espinosa, Wendell Zaragoza; Wong, Vicnent Wai-Sun

    2015-09-01

    Owing to the high prevalence of various chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, the development of non-invasive tests of fibrosis allows accurate diagnosis of cirrhosis and reduces the need for liver biopsy. In this review, we discuss the application of these non-invasive tests beyond the diagnosis of cirrhosis. In particular, their role in the selection of patients for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance and varices screening is highlighted. PMID:26523265

  4. Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, Kaori; Hosako, I.

    2010-08-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for carrying out the non-invasive analysis of artworks. THz waves can penetrate opaque materials and they can perform three-dimensional material mapping non-destructively by spectroscopic imaging. Several attempts have been made to analyse artworks. Clear results, such as imaging of hidden art by using model paintings, have been obtained by many institutions. We succeeded to observe the first ever non-invasive cross-sectional image of a tempera masterpiece by Giotto. These results prove that THz technology can yield useful information in art conservation science.

  5. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. PMID:27177966

  6. Inhibition of cardiac oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis by curcumin treatment contributes to protection against acute myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Mito, Sayaka; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Ma, Meilei; Lakshmanan, Arunprasath; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2011-10-01

    Curcumin is used anecdotally as an herb in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine. In the present study, the effects and possible mechanism of curcumin in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) rats were further investigated. They were divided randomly into a treatment and vehicle group, and orally administrated curcumin (50 mg/kg/day) and 1% gum arabic, respectively, for 3 weeks after myosin injection. The results showed that curcumin significantly suppressed the myocardial protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the catalytic subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase. In addition, curcumin significantly decreased myocardial endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling proteins and improved cardiac function. Furthermore, curcumin significantly decreased the key regulators or inducers of apoptosis. In summary, our results indicate that curcumin has the potential to protect EAM by modulating cardiac oxidative and ER stress-mediated apoptosis, and provides a novel therapeutic strategy for autoimmune myocarditis. PMID:21781008

  7. Keap1 redox-dependent regulation of doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress response in cardiac myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Kendra K S; Wallace, Kendall B

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely prescribed treatment for a broad scope of cancers, but clinical utility is limited by the cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that occurs with repeated administration. DOX-induced cardiotoxicity is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidation of lipids, DNA and proteins. A major cellular defense mechanism against such oxidative stress is activation of the Keap1/Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway, which transcriptionally regulates expression of antioxidant genes such as Nqo1 and Gstp1. In the present study, we address the hypothesis that an initial event associated with DOX-induced oxidative stress is activation of the Keap1/Nrf2-dependent expression of antioxidant genes and that this is regulated through drug-induced changes in redox status of the Keap1 protein. Incubation of H9c2 rat cardiac myoblasts with DOX resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in non-protein sulfhydryl groups. Associated with this was a near 2-fold increase in Nrf2 protein content and enhanced transcription of several of the Nrf2-regulated down-stream genes, including Gstp1, Ugt1a1, and Nqo1; the expression of Nfe2l2 (Nrf2) itself was unaltered. Furthermore, both the redox status and the total amount of Keap1 protein were significantly decreased by DOX, with the loss of Keap1 being due to both inhibited gene expression and increased autophagic, but not proteasomal, degradation. These findings identify the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway as a potentially important initial response to acute DOX-induced oxidative injury, with the primary regulatory events being the oxidation and autophagic degradation of the redox sensor Keap1 protein. PMID:24211725

  8. Stress response and cardiac activity of term and preterm calves in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Christina; Aurich, Jörg; Trenk, Lisa; Ille, Natascha; Drillich, Marc; Pohl, Werner; Aurich, Christine

    2016-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis of gestational age affecting fetal cardiac activity and the stress response at birth. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability variables, SD of the beat-to-beat interval and root mean square of successive beat-to-beat differences, and postnatal salivary cortisol concentration were studied in calves born at term (Term, n = 7, gestation length 286.3 ± 2.1 days) or after induction of parturition (Preterm, n = 7, gestation length 279.6 ± 0.2 days). Observation periods covered the last month of gestation (phase A), the last hours before birth including the first stage of labor (phase B), and the neonatal period (phase C). Fetal HR decreased in phase A (P < 0.001) and did not differ between groups. During phase B, HR increased (P < 0.05) and was higher in Preterm than in Term calves in phases B (P < 0.05) and C (P < 0.01). In Term calves, heart rate variability increased from Day 6 until birth (P < 0.05). At birth, SD of the beat-to-beat interval was higher in Term than in Preterm calves (P < 0.01). On Day 1 after birth (phase C), HR accelerations were more frequent in Term than Preterm calves (P < 0.01), whereas decelerations were more frequent in Preterm calves (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration increased postnatally (P < 0.001) and was correlated with gestation length (r ≥ 0.68, P < 0.01). Because of a certain degree of immaturity, the ability to cope with the stress of birth may be impaired in calves born 1 week before term. PMID:27312949

  9. Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Myocardial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, C.; Gimenes, R.; Rosa, C. M.; Xavier, N. P.; Campos, D. H. S.; Fernandes, A. A. H.; Cezar, M. D. M.; Guirado, G. N.; Cicogna, A. C.; Takamoto, A. H. R.; Okoshi, M. P.; Okoshi, K.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on cardiac remodeling and myocardial function in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed), exercised control (C-Ex), sedentary diabetes (DM-Sed), and exercised diabetes (DM-Ex). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats exercised for 9 weeks in treadmill at 11 m/min, 18 min/day. Myocardial function was evaluated in left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles and oxidative stress in LV tissue. Statistical analysis was given by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Echocardiogram showed diabetic groups with higher LV diastolic diameter-to-body weight ratio and lower posterior wall shortening velocity than controls. Left atrium diameter was lower in DM-Ex than DM-Sed (C-Sed: 5.73 ± 0.49; C-Ex: 5.67 ± 0.53; DM-Sed: 6.41 ± 0.54; DM-Ex: 5.81 ± 0.50 mm; P < 0.05 DM-Sed vs C-Sed and DM-Ex). Papillary muscle function was depressed in DM-Sed compared to C-Sed. Exercise attenuated this change in DM-Ex. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower in diabetics than controls and higher in DM-Ex than DM-Sed. Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Conclusion. Low intensity exercise attenuates left atrium dilation and myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats. PMID:26509175

  10. Effects of anisosmotic stress on cardiac muscle cell length, diameter, area, and sarcomere length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, R.; Barnes, M. A.; Cooper, G. 4th; Zile, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of anisosmotic stress on adult mammalian cardiac muscle cell (cardiocyte) size. Cardiocyte size and sarcomere length were measured in cardiocytes isolated from 10 normal rats and 10 normal cats. Superfusate osmolarity was decreased from 300 +/- 6 to 130 +/- 5 mosM and increased to 630 +/- 8 mosM. Cardiocyte size and sarcomere length increased progressively when osmolarity was decreased, and there were no significant differences between cat and rat cardiocytes with respect to percent change in cardiocyte area or diameter; however, there were significant differences in cardiocyte length (2.8 +/- 0.3% in cat vs. 6.1 +/- 0.3% in rat, P < 0.05) and sarcomere length (3.3 +/- 0.3% in cat vs. 6.1 +/- 0.3% in rat, P < 0.05). To determine whether these species-dependent differences in length were related to diastolic interaction of the contractile elements or differences in relative passive stiffness, cardiocytes were subjected to the osmolarity gradient 1) during treatment with 7 mM 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), which inhibits cross-bridge interaction, or 2) after pretreatment with 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), a bivalent Ca2+ chelator. Treatment with EGTA or BDM abolished the differences between cat and rat cardiocytes. Species-dependent differences therefore appeared to be related to the degree of diastolic cross-bridge association and not differences in relative passive stiffness. In conclusion, the osmolarity vs. cell size relation is useful in assessing the cardiocyte response to anisosmotic stress and may in future studies be useful in assessing changes in relative passive cardiocyte stiffness produced by pathological processes.

  11. Novel thiazolidinedione mitoNEET ligand-1 acutely improves cardiac stem cell survival under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Logan, Suzanna J; Yin, Liya; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Enrick, Molly K; Stevanov, Kelly M; Carroll, Richard T; Ohanyan, Vahagn A; Kolz, Christopher L; Chilian, William M

    2015-03-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of death worldwide, and regenerative therapies through exogenous stem cell delivery hold promising potential. One limitation of such therapies is the vulnerability of stem cells to the oxidative environment associated with IHD. Accordingly, manipulation of stem cell mitochondrial metabolism may be an effective strategy to improve survival of stem cells under oxidative stress. MitoNEET is a redox-sensitive, mitochondrial target of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), and influences cellular oxidative capacity. Pharmacological targeting of mitoNEET with the novel TZD, mitoNEET Ligand-1 (NL-1), improved cardiac stem cell (CSC) survival compared to vehicle (0.1% DMSO) during in vitro oxidative stress (H2O2). 10 μM NL-1 also reduced CSC maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) compared to vehicle. Following treatment with dexamethasone, CSC maximal OCR increased compared to baseline, but NL-1 prevented this effect. Smooth muscle α-actin expression increased significantly in CSC following differentiation compared to baseline, irrespective of NL-1 treatment. When CSCs were treated with glucose oxidase for 7 days, NL-1 significantly improved cell survival compared to vehicle (trypan blue exclusion). NL-1 treatment of cells isolated from mitoNEET knockout mice did not increase CSC survival with H2O2 treatment. Following intramyocardial injection of CSCs into Zucker obese fatty rats, NL-1 significantly improved CSC survival after 24 h, but not after 10 days. These data suggest that pharmacological targeting of mitoNEET with TZDs may acutely protect stem cells following transplantation into an oxidative environment. Continued treatment or manipulation of mitochondrial metabolism may be necessary to produce long-term benefits related to stem cell therapies. PMID:25725808

  12. Distinctive cardiac autonomic dysfunction following stress exposure in both sexes in an animal model of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Koresh, Ori; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Matar, Michael A; Geva, Amir B; Cohen, Hagit

    2016-07-15

    It is unclear whether the poor autonomic flexibility or dysregulation observed in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a pre-trauma vulnerability factor or results from exposure to trauma. We used an animal model of PTSD to assess the association between the behavioral response to predator scent stress (PSS) and the cardiac autonomic modulation in male and female rats. The rats were surgically implanted with radiotelemetry devices to measure their electrocardiograms and locomotor activity (LMA). Following baseline telemetric monitoring, the animals were exposed to PSS or sham-PSS. Continuous telemetric monitoring (24h/day sampling) was performed over the course of 7days. The electrocardiographic recordings were analyzed using the time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability (HRV). The behavioral response patterns were assessed using the elevated plus maze and acoustic startle response paradigms for the retrospective classification of individuals according to the PTSD-related cut-off behavioral criteria. During resting conditions, the male rats had significantly higher heart rates (HR) and lower HRV parameters than the female rats during both the active and inactive phases of the daily cycle. Immediately after PSS exposure, both the female and male rats demonstrated a robust increase in HR and a marked drop in HRV parameters, with a shift of sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance. In both sexes, autonomic system habituation and recovery were selectively inhibited in the rats whose behavior was extremely disrupted after exposure to PSS. However, in the female rats, exposure to the PSS produced fewer EBR rats, with a more rapid recovery curve than that of the male rats. PSS did not induce changes to the circadian rhythm of the LMA. According to our results, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder that is related to failure-of-recovery mechanisms that impede the restitution of physiological homeostasis. PMID

  13. Inadequate Blood Pressure Control in Hypertensive Patients Referred for Cardiac Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Tarek M; Akinseye, Oluwaseun A; Kerwin, Todd C

    2015-09-01

    The current study examined the degree of blood pressure (BP) control and incidence of myocardial ischemia in hypertensive patients (n=2039) referred for cardiac stress test. Patients were categorized into well-controlled (<140/90 mm Hg), poorly controlled (140-160/90-100 mm Hg), and very poorly controlled (>160/100 mm Hg) groups according to their resting BP. The mean age[±standard error of the mean] of the patients was 68±13 years, and 885 (43.4%) were men. The prevalence of well-controlled hypertension (HTN) was 47.2%, poorly controlled HTN was 29.5%, and very poorly controlled HTN was 23.3%. Evidence of ischemia was seen in 19.8% and 19.3% of the well-controlled and poorly controlled groups, respectively. The very poorly controlled group had the lowest incidence of ischemia (14.3%) (P<.05) compared with the other two groups. Symptoms that mimic ischemic heart disease in hypertensive patients may be partly explained by poorly controlled BP. Quality of care might be improved by optimally controlling BP in patients with angina symptoms prior to ordering diagnostic testing associated with radiation exposure and cost. PMID:26011137

  14. Stress ventricular function test in conscious, nonthoracotomised dogs to assess cardiac drug efficacy.

    PubMed

    French, W J; Averill, W; Ung, S; Laks, M M

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of left ventricular (LV) function is frequently performed in unconscious or thoracotomised animals in the resting state; these conditions may seriously affect the basal haemodynamic state. To assess myocardial function in conscious animals, a technique was developed to place a catheter across the atrial septum into the left ventricle without a thoracotomy. A stress ventricular function test (SVFT) was performed by raising the systemic blood pressure with methoxamine in the conscious dog. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SVFT in the detection of a decrease in ventricular function, a SVFT was performed before and after the acute infusion of verapamil to determine resting and reserve LV function. A slope relating systolic aortic pressure to the LV end-diastolic pressure was obtained in 10 dogs using a low dose (0.005) and in four dogs a high dose (0.01 microgram X kg-1 X min-1) verapamil (V). The mean slope before V was 3.6 +/- 1.2 and after 2.0 +/- 0.92 (p less than 0.001). The day-to-day variability of the SVFT was less than 22% (coefficient of variability). The SVFT is a sensitive, reproducible method to assess resting and increased or decreased myocardial contractility and is useful in selecting appropriate doses of cardiac drugs to determine their effect on the myocardium during acute and chronic infusion studies in the conscious, nonthoracotomised dog. PMID:3986853

  15. Invasive versus Non Invasive Methods Applied to Mummy Research: Will This Controversy Ever Be Solved?

    PubMed Central

    Moissidou, Despina; Day, Jasmine; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification). Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry), although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts. PMID:26345295

  16. The roadmap for estimation of cell-type-specific neuronal activity from non-invasive measurements.

    PubMed

    Uhlirova, Hana; Kılıç, Kıvılcım; Tian, Peifang; Sakadžić, Sava; Gagnon, Louis; Thunemann, Martin; Desjardins, Michèle; Saisan, Payam A; Nizar, Krystal; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Hagler, Donald J; Vandenberghe, Matthieu; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Silva, Gabriel A; Masliah, Eliezer; Kleinfeld, David; Vinogradov, Sergei; Buxton, Richard B; Einevoll, Gaute T; Boas, David A; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The computational properties of the human brain arise from an intricate interplay between billions of neurons connected in complex networks. However, our ability to study these networks in healthy human brain is limited by the necessity to use non-invasive technologies. This is in contrast to animal models where a rich, detailed view of cellular-level brain function with cell-type-specific molecular identity has become available due to recent advances in microscopic optical imaging and genetics. Thus, a central challenge facing neuroscience today is leveraging these mechanistic insights from animal studies to accurately draw physiological inferences from non-invasive signals in humans. On the essential path towards this goal is the development of a detailed 'bottom-up' forward model bridging neuronal activity at the level of cell-type-specific populations to non-invasive imaging signals. The general idea is that specific neuronal cell types have identifiable signatures in the way they drive changes in cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (measurable with quantitative functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), and electrical currents/potentials (measurable with magneto/electroencephalography). This forward model would then provide the 'ground truth' for the development of new tools for tackling the inverse problem-estimation of neuronal activity from multimodal non-invasive imaging data.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574309

  17. The Role of RNAs and microRNAs in Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, all possible clinical applications of circulating mRNA and miRNA for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis appearing in the medical literature so far are described. Data from the literature have also been reported and commented on along with some possible future applications. PMID:26237384

  18. Differential radioactivity monitor for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Packer, S.

    1982-09-23

    There is described an apparatus and method for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate which comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67.

  19. Can non-invasive measurement of gut oxygenation predict necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that contribute to the development of NEC include hypoperfusion or decreased oxygenation of splanchnic tissue. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) will be used to assess gut oxygenation non-invasively. Typically NIRS is primarily used for cerebral hemodynamic monitoring; we intend to apply it ...

  20. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  1. Non-Invasive Management of Madura Foot with Oral Posaconazole and Ciprofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit M.; Sharma, Namita; Nat, Amritpal; Rane, Meghan; Endy, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Madura foot is a chronic infection caused by fungus and/or bacteria. Traditionally, treatment has been surgical debridement or amputation. Non-invasive management with long-term antimicrobials alone has been reported as successful. We report a case of Madura foot in a Somali refugee successfully managed with oral posaconazole and ciprofloxacin. PMID:25349373

  2. Aortic stenosis in adults. Non-invasive estimation of pressure differences by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Hegrenaes, L; Hatle, L

    1985-01-01

    The peak and mean aortic transvalvar pressure differences measured invasively and non-invasively by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography were compared in 87 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis. The mean values were calculated from the maximal velocities of the aortic jet recorded with a spectral display of the Doppler frequency shifts and by applying a modified Bernoulli equation. Technically satisfactory velocity curves for estimating the mean pressure differences could not be obtained in three patients and invasive measurements were not obtained in two. In all patients the peak transvalvar pressure difference was calculated since the aortic jet was identified non-invasively. The peak and mean pressure differences measured invasively and non-invasively correlated well--with only minor underestimation of the pressure differences measured with the Doppler technique--regardless of age, sex, and the presence or absence of aortic valvar regurgitation, or other valvar lesions. With a systematic search for the highest velocities in the aortic jet and with on line spectral analysis of the Doppler frequencies the peak and the mean aortic pressure differences can be determined non-invasively with a high degree of precision in almost all patients. Images PMID:4052281

  3. Application of quantum dot nanoparticles for potential non-invasive bio-imaging of mammalian spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various obstacles are encountered by mammalian spermatozoa during their journey through the female genital tract, and only few or none will reach the site of fertilization. Currently, there are limited technical approaches for non-invasive investigation of spermatozoa migration after insemination. A...

  4. Who is Who? Non-invasive Methods to Individually Sex and Mark Altricial Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance; Honarmand, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments require early determination of offspring's sex as well as early marking of newborns for individual recognition. According to animal welfare guidelines, non-invasive techniques should be preferred whenever applicable. In our group, we work on different species of song birds in the lab and in the field, and we successfully apply non-invasive methods to sex and individually mark chicks. This paper presents a comprehensive non-invasive tool-box. Sexing birds prior to the expression of secondary sexual traits requires the collection of DNA-bearing material for PCR. We established a quick and easy method to sex birds of any age (post hatching) by extracting DNA from buccal swabs. Results can be obtained within 3 hours. For individual marking chick's down feathers are trimmed in specific patterns allowing fast identification within the hatching order. This set of methods is easily applicable in a standard equipped lab and especially suitable for working in the field as no special equipment is required for sampling and storage. Handling of chicks is minimized and marking and sexing techniques are non-invasive thereby supporting the RRR-principle of animal welfare guidelines. PMID:24893585

  5. Who is who? Non-invasive methods to individually sex and mark altricial chicks.

    PubMed

    Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance; Honarmand, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments require early determination of offspring's sex as well as early marking of newborns for individual recognition. According to animal welfare guidelines, non-invasive techniques should be preferred whenever applicable. In our group, we work on different species of song birds in the lab and in the field, and we successfully apply non-invasive methods to sex and individually mark chicks. This paper presents a comprehensive non-invasive tool-box. Sexing birds prior to the expression of secondary sexual traits requires the collection of DNA-bearing material for PCR. We established a quick and easy method to sex birds of any age (post hatching) by extracting DNA from buccal swabs. Results can be obtained within 3 hours. For individual marking chick's down feathers are trimmed in specific patterns allowing fast identification within the hatching order. This set of methods is easily applicable in a standard equipped lab and especially suitable for working in the field as no special equipment is required for sampling and storage. Handling of chicks is minimized and marking and sexing techniques are non-invasive thereby supporting the RRR-principle of animal welfare guidelines. PMID:24893585

  6. Cadmium induced cardiac oxidative stress in rats and its attenuation by GSP through the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Nazimabashir; Manoharan, Vaihundam; Miltonprabu, Selvaraj

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the toxic heavy metals in the environment, which induces oxidative stress, dyslipidemia and membrane disturbances in heart. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against Cd induced oxidative stress mediated cardio-toxicity in rats. In this study, male Wistar rats were treated with Cd as cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 5 mg/ kg bw, PO) and pre-administered with GSP (100 mg/kg bw, PO) 90 min before the Cd intoxication for 4 weeks. Our results demonstrate a significant increase in the levels of cardiac troponins T and I (cTnT & I), cardiac serum markers, lipid peroxidative markers and plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL) and free fatty acids (FFA). Cd induced oxidative stress decreased the levels of mitochondrial Krebs cycle enzymes as well as the respiratory chain enzyme activities and altered the levels of cardiac enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The inflammatory (NF-kB, NO, TNF-α, IL-6), apoptotic markers (caspase 3, cytochrome C, Bax, Bcl-2), membrane bound ATPases and antioxidant Nrf2 (HO-1, keap1) markers were also measured in the control and experimental rats. All these alterations caused by Cd could be lessened by the pre-supplementation of GSP. The pre-administration of GSP significantly increased the activities of mitochondrial and respiratory chain enzymes, reduced the levels of cardio-oxidative stress markers in Cd-treated rats, which examines the stress stabilizing action of GSP. GSP also prevented the cytochrome C release, inhibited the caspase activation and maintained the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax by its free radical scavenging ability. Nrf2 expression was transiently increased while the impaired cardiac markers were restored near to their basal levels by the pre-treatment with GSP in Cd intoxicated rats. The cardioprotective nature of the GSP was further fortified by our light microscopic and ultra structural findings. Overall, our results suggest

  7. High Order Statistics and Time-Frequency Domain to Classify Heart Sounds for Subjects under Cardiac Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Moukadem, Ali; Schmidt, Samuel; Dieterlen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of classification of the first and the second heart sounds (S1 and S2) under cardiac stress test. The main objective is to classify these sounds without electrocardiogram (ECG) reference and without taking into consideration the systolic and the diastolic time intervals criterion which can become problematic and useless in several real life settings as severe tachycardia and tachyarrhythmia or in the case of subjects being under cardiac stress activity. First, the heart sounds are segmented by using a modified time-frequency based envelope. Then, to distinguish between the first and the second heart sounds, new features, named αopt, β, and γ, based on high order statistics and energy concentration measures of the Stockwell transform (S-transform) are proposed in this study. A study of the variation of the high frequency content of S1 and S2 over the HR (heart rate) is also discussed. The proposed features are validated on a database that contains 2636 S1 and S2 sounds corresponding to 62 heart signals and 8 subjects under cardiac stress test collected from healthy subjects. Results and comparisons with existing methods in the literature show a large superiority for our proposed features. PMID:26089957

  8. Hrd1 and ER-Associated Protein Degradation, ERAD, Are Critical Elements of the Adaptive ER Stress Response in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Doroudgar, Shirin; Völkers, Mirko; Thuerauf, Donna J; Khan, Mohsin; Mohsin, Sadia; Respress, Jonathan L; Wang, Wei; Gude, Natalie; Müller, Oliver J; Wehrens, Xander HT; Sussman, Mark A; Glembotski, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Hrd1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been studied in yeast, where it contributes to ER protein quality control by ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins that accumulate during ER stress. Neither Hrd1 nor ERAD have been studied in the heart, or in cardiac myocytes, where protein quality control is critical for proper heart function. Objective The objectives of this study were to elucidate roles for Hrd1 in ER stress, ERAD, and viability in cultured cardiac myocytes and in the mouse heart, in vivo. Methods and Results The effects of siRNA-mediated Hrd1 knockdown were examined in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. The effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Hrd1 knockdown and overexpression were examined in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure-overload induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which challenges protein-folding capacity. In cardiac myocytes, the ER stressors, thapsigargin (TG) and tunicamycin (TM) increased ERAD, as well as adaptive ER stress proteins, and minimally affected cell death. However, when Hrd1 was knocked down, TG and TM dramatically decreased ERAD, while increasing maladaptive ER stress proteins and cell death. In vivo, Hrd1 knockdown exacerbated cardiac dysfunction, and increased apoptosis and cardiac hypertrophy, while Hrd1 overexpression preserved cardiac function, and decreased apoptosis and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure-overload. Conclusions Hrd1 and ERAD are essential components of the adaptive ER stress response in cardiac myocytes. Hrd1 contributes to preserving heart structure and function in a mouse model of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26137860

  9. Physician Decision-Making And Trends In Use Of Cardiac Stress Testing To Diagnose Coronary Heart Disease In The United States, 1993–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ladapo, Joseph A.; Blecker, Saul; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac stress testing, particularly with imaging, has been the focus of debates about rising health care costs, inappropriate use, and patient safety in the context of radiation exposure. Objective To determine whether U.S. trends in cardiac stress test use may be attributable to population shifts in demographics, risk factors, and provider characteristics and evaluate whether racial/ethnic disparities exist in physician decision making. Design Analyses of repeated cross-sectional data. Setting National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (1993 to 2010). Patients Adults without coronary heart disease. Measurements Cardiac stress test referrals and inappropriate use. Results Between 1993 to 1995 and 2008 to 2010, the annual number of U.S. ambulatory visits in which a cardiac stress test was ordered or performed increased from 28 per 10 000 visits to 45 per 10 000 visits. No trend was found toward more frequent testing after adjustment for patient characteristics, risk factors, and provider characteristics (P = 0.134). Cardiac stress tests with imaging comprised a growing portion of all tests, increasing from 59% in 1993 to 1995 to 87% in 2008 to 2010. At least 34.6% were probably inappropriate, with associated annual costs and harms of $501 million and 491 future cases of cancer. Authors found no evidence of a lower likelihood of black patients receiving a cardiac stress test (odds ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.21]) than white patients, although some evidence of disparity in Hispanic patients was found (odds ratio, 0.75 [CI, 0.55 to 1.02]). Limitations Cross-sectional design with limited clinical data. Conclusion National growth in cardiac stress test use can largely be explained by population and provider characteristics, but use of imaging cannot. Physician decision making about cardiac stress test use does not seem to contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25285541

  10. Non-invasive assessment of sciatic nerve stiffness during human ankle motion using ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ricardo J; Nordez, Antoine; Hug, François; Ates, Filiz; Coppieters, Michel W; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Freitas, Sandro R

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral nerves are exposed to mechanical stress during movement. However the in vivo mechanical properties of nerves remain largely unexplored. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the effect of passive dorsiflexion on sciatic nerve shear wave velocity (an index of stiffness) when the knee was in 90° flexion (knee 90°) or extended (knee 180°). The secondary aim was to determine the effect of five repeated dorsiflexions on the nerve shear wave velocity. Nine healthy participants were tested. The repeatability of sciatic nerve shear wave velocity was good for both knee 90° and knee 180° (ICCs≥0.92, CVs≤8.1%). The shear wave velocity of the sciatic nerve significantly increased (p<0.0001) during dorsiflexion when the knee was extended (knee 180°), but no changes were observed when the knee was flexed (90°). The shear wave velocity-angle relationship displayed a hysteresis for knee 180°. Although there was a tendency for the nerve shear wave velocity to decrease throughout the repetition of the five ankle dorsiflexions, the level of significance was not reached (p=0.055). These results demonstrate that the sciatic nerve stiffness can be non-invasively assessed during passive movements. In addition, the results highlight the importance of considering both the knee and the ankle position for clinical and biomechanical assessment of the sciatic nerve. This non-invasive technique offers new perspectives to provide new insights into nerve mechanics in both healthy and clinical populations (e.g., specific peripheral neuropathies). PMID:26725218

  11. Non-Invasive Microbial Metabolic Activity Sensing at Single Cell Level by Perfusion of Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Christina E. M.; Singh, Abhijeet; Helfrich, Stefan; Grünberger, Alexander; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Nöh, Katharina; Kohlheyer, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Phase contrast microscopy cannot give sufficient information on bacterial metabolic activity, or if a cell is dead, it has the fate to die or it is in a viable but non-growing state. Thus, a reliable sensing of the metabolic activity helps to distinguish different categories of viability. We present a non-invasive instantaneous sensing method using a fluorogenic substrate for online monitoring of esterase activity and calcein efflux changes in growing wild type bacteria. The fluorescent conversion product of calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CAM) and its efflux indicates the metabolic activity of cells grown under different conditions at real-time. The dynamic conversion of CAM and the active efflux of fluorescent calcein were analyzed by combining microfluidic single cell cultivation technology and fluorescence time lapse microscopy. Thus, an instantaneous and non-invasive sensing method for apparent esterase activity was created without the requirement of genetic modification or harmful procedures. The metabolic activity sensing method consisting of esterase activity and calcein secretion was demonstrated in two applications. Firstly, growing colonies of our model organism Corynebacterium glutamicum were confronted with intermittent nutrient starvation by interrupting the supply of iron and carbon, respectively. Secondly, bacteria were exposed for one hour to fatal concentrations of antibiotics. Bacteria could be distinguished in growing and non-growing cells with metabolic activity as well as non-growing and non-fluorescent cells with no detectable esterase activity. Microfluidic single cell cultivation combined with high temporal resolution time-lapse microscopy facilitated monitoring metabolic activity of stressed cells and analyzing their descendants in the subsequent recovery phase. Results clearly show that the combination of CAM with a sampling free microfluidic approach is a powerful tool to gain insights in the metabolic activity of growing and non

  12. Non-invasive monitoring of hemodynamic changes during hemodialysis by the use of a newly developed admittance cardiograph.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Masayoshi; Minami, Junichi; Ishimitsu, Toshihiko; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi; Matsuoka, Hiroaki

    2005-04-01

    Only a little information is available for the evaluation of the complex hemodynamic changes that occur during hemodialysis. Recently, we developed the transthoracic electrical admittance cardiograph for repeated measurements of cardiac output, and monitored hemodynamic changes during hemodialysis by the use of this device. We measured cardiovascular hemodynamic and autonomic parameters non-invasively during 210 min of hemodialysis in 19 chronic hemodialysis patients who for more than 2 months had no history of cardiovascular collapses during hemodialysis. Blood pressure was monitored every 10 min using a cuff-oscillometric device (TM-2425; A & D, Tokyo, Japan). Cardiac output was monitored on a beat-by-beat basis by a newly developed electrical admittance cardiograph (NICOVIEW PA1100; NEC, Tokyo, Japan). Electrocardiogram R-R intervals were also monitored by the TM-2425. Power spectral analysis of R-R intervals was performed to obtain the low-frequency (LF; 0.05-0.15 Hz) and the high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.40 Hz) components based on an autoregressive model. Change in circulatory blood volume was also monitored by a CRIT-LINE (In-Line Diagnostics, Riverdale, UT, USA). Although blood volume declined significantly by 16.3 +/- 1.4% (mean +/- SE) during hemodialysis (P < 0.0001), mean blood pressure did not change significantly. Heart rate increased significantly from the initial values of 76.3 +/- 3.4-86.4 +/- 4.9 beats/min (P = 0.03). Cardiac output and stroke volume decreased significantly from 4.47 +/- 0.30 to 2.91 +/- 0.32 L/min (P < 0.0001), and from 57.0 +/- 3.7 to 33.9 +/- 3.1 mL (P < 0.0001), respectively. Total peripheral vascular resistance increased significantly from 1940 +/- 146 to 3117 +/- 280 dyne x s x cm(5) (P < 0.0001). The LF component did not show significant change, while the HF component decreased significantly (P = 0.007), and the LF/HF ratio increased significantly (P = 0.03). These results suggest that a reduction in parasympathetic nerve

  13. Changes in short-chain acyl-coA dehydrogenase during rat cardiac development and stress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinxian; Xu, Lipeng; Huang, Qiuju; Luo, Jiani; Liu, Peiqing; Chen, Shaorui; Yuan, Xi; Lu, Yao; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Sigui

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the expression of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD), a key enzyme of fatty acid β-oxidation, during rat heart development and the difference of SCAD between pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy. The expression of SCAD was lowest in the foetal and neonatal heart, which had time-dependent increase during normal heart development. In contrast, a significant decrease in SCAD expression was observed in different ages of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). On the other hand, swim-trained rats developed physiological cardiac hypertrophy, whereas SHR developed pathological cardiac hypertrophy. The two kinds of cardiac hypertrophy exhibited divergent SCAD changes in myocardial fatty acids utilization. In addition, the expression of SCAD was significantly decreased in pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, however, increased in physiological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. SCAD siRNA treatment triggered the pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which showed that the down-regulation of SCAD expression may play an important role in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. The changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was accordant with that of SCAD. Moreover, the specific PPARα ligand fenofibrate treatment increased the expression of SCAD and inhibited pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we speculate that the down-regulated expression of SCAD in pathological cardiac hypertrophy may be responsible for ‘the recapitulation of foetal energy metabolism’. The deactivation of PPARα may result in the decrease in SCAD expression in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Changes in SCAD are different in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy, which may be used as the molecular markers of pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25753319

  14. Naringin Reduces Hyperglycemia-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis by Relieving Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Adebiyi, Olubunmi A.; Adebiyi, Oluwafeyisetan O.; Owira, Peter M. O.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia promotes myocardial fibrotic lesions through upregulation of PKC and p38 in response to redox changes. The effects of naringin on hyperglycemia-induced myocardial fibrotic changes and its putative effects on PKC-β and p38 protein expression in type 1 rat model of diabetes are hereby investigated. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups I-VI. Groups I and II, were orally treated with distilled water {3.0 ml/kg body weight (BW)} and naringin (50 mg/kg BW), respectively. Groups III, IV, V and VI were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, BW) and were similarly treated with subcutaneous insulin (8.0 I.U/kg BW, twice daily), naringin (50 mg/kg BW), distilled water (3.0 ml/Kg BW) and ramipril (3.0 mg/kg/BW), respectively. The animals were sacrificed after 56 days by halothane overdose; blood and heart samples removed for further analysis. Results The untreated diabetic rats exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase activity, increased cardiac fibrosis, PKC-β and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase expression compared to controls. Naringin treatment significantly ameliorated these changes in diabetic rats compared to the untreated diabetic controls. Conclusions Naringin’s amelioration of myocardial fibrosis by modulating p38 and PKC-β protein expression possibly through its known antioxidant actions and may therefore be useful in retarding the progression of fibrosis in a diabetic heart. PMID:26967518

  15. Attitudes Towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy Among United States Adults of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Sayres, Lauren C.; Goodspeed, Taylor A.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) To determine how adults in the United States (US) view non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA testing) in order to help estimate uptake. Study Design A national sample of 1,861 US-based adults was surveyed using a validated online survey instrument. The survey was administered by a commercial survey research company. Respondents were randomized to receive a survey about prenatal testing for trisomy 13 and 18 or trisomy 21. Participants were asked to select among testing modalities, including cffDNA testing, and rank the features of testing that they considered most important to decision making. Results There was substantive interest in the use of cffDNA testing rather than traditional screening mechanisms with a minority of respondents reporting that they would support the use of both methods in combination. The lower rates of false negative and false positive test results and the ability to use the test earlier in the pregnancy were the most highly rated benefits of cffDNA testing. Participants expressed strong support for diagnostic confirmation via invasive testing after a positive result from either screening or cffDNA testing. However, almost one-third of participants reported that they would not endorse the use of either invasive or non-invasive prenatal testing. Conclusion(s) There appears to be support for uptake of non-invasive prenatal tests. Clinical guidelines should therefor go forward in providing guidance on how to integrate non-invasive methods into current standard of care. However, our findings indicate that even when accuracy, which is rated by patients as the most important aspect of prenatal testing, is significantly improved over existing screening methods and testing is offered non-invasively, the number of individuals who reported that they would decline any testing remained the same. Attention should therefor be directed at ensuring that the right of informed refusal of prenatal testing is not impacted

  16. Serine 105 phosphorylation of transcription factor GATA4 is necessary for stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    van Berlo, Jop H.; Elrod, John W.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Pu, William T.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive growth process that occurs in response to stress stimulation or injury wherein multiple signal transduction pathways are induced, culminating in transcription factor activation and the reprogramming of gene expression. GATA4 is a critical transcription factor in the heart that is known to induce/regulate the hypertrophic program, in part, by receiving signals from MAPKs. Here we generated knock-in mice in which a known MAPK phosphorylation site at serine 105 (S105) in Gata4 that augments activity was mutated to alanine. Homozygous Gata4-S105A mutant mice were viable as adults, although they showed a compromised stress response of the myocardium. For example, cardiac hypertrophy in response to phenylephrine agonist infusion for 2 wk was largely blunted in Gata4-S105A mice, as was the hypertrophic response to pressure overload at 1 and 2 wk of applied stimulation. Gata4-S105A mice were also more susceptible to heart failure and cardiac dilation after 2 wk of pressure overload. With respect to the upstream pathway, hearts from Gata4-S105A mice did not efficiently hypertrophy following direct ERK1/2 activation using an activated MEK1 transgene in vivo. Mechanistically, GATA4 mutant protein from these hearts failed to show enhanced DNA binding in response to hypertrophic stimulation. Moreover, hearts from Gata4-S105A mice had significant changes in the expression of hypertrophy-inducible, fetal, and remodeling-related genes. PMID:21746915

  17. Keap1 redox-dependent regulation of doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress response in cardiac myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Nordgren, Kendra K.S. Wallace, Kendall B.

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely prescribed treatment for a broad scope of cancers, but clinical utility is limited by the cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that occurs with repeated administration. DOX-induced cardiotoxicity is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidation of lipids, DNA and proteins. A major cellular defense mechanism against such oxidative stress is activation of the Keap1/Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway, which transcriptionally regulates expression of antioxidant genes such as Nqo1 and Gstp1. In the present study, we address the hypothesis that an initial event associated with DOX-induced oxidative stress is activation of the Keap1/Nrf2-dependent expression of antioxidant genes and that this is regulated through drug-induced changes in redox status of the Keap1 protein. Incubation of H9c2 rat cardiac myoblasts with DOX resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in non-protein sulfhydryl groups. Associated with this was a near 2-fold increase in Nrf2 protein content and enhanced transcription of several of the Nrf2-regulated down-stream genes, including Gstp1, Ugt1a1, and Nqo1; the expression of Nfe2l2 (Nrf2) itself was unaltered. Furthermore, both the redox status and the total amount of Keap1 protein were significantly decreased by DOX, with the loss of Keap1 being due to both inhibited gene expression and increased autophagic, but not proteasomal, degradation. These findings identify the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway as a potentially important initial response to acute DOX-induced oxidative injury, with the primary regulatory events being the oxidation and autophagic degradation of the redox sensor Keap1 protein. - Highlights: • DOX caused a ∼2-fold increase in Nrf2 protein content. • DOX enhanced transcription of several Nrf2-regulated down-stream genes. • Redox status and total amount of Keap1 protein were significantly decreased by DOX. • Loss of Keap1 protein was due to

  18. Association of neuropeptide Y promoter polymorphism (rs16147) with perceived stress and cardiac vagal outflow in humans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-An; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Tieh-Ching; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in resilience to stress, and higher vagal (parasympathetic) activity has been associated with greater stress resilience. Thus, we examined whether rs16147, a functional promoter polymorphism (C>T) of the NPY gene, could influence vagal tone during chronic high stress levels. NPY genotyping, chronic psychological stress level measurement (using the Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), cardiac autonomic function assessment (using short-term heart rate variability [HRV]) were performed in 1123 healthy, drug-free Han Chinese participants who were divided into low- and high-PSS groups. In the high-PSS group (n = 522), the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences and high frequency power (both HRV indices of parasympathetic activity) were significantly increased in T/T homozygotes compared to C/C homozygotes. However, no significant between-genotype difference was found in any HRV variable in the low-PSS group (n = 601). Our results are the first to demonstrate that functional NPY variation alters chronic stress-related vagal control, suggesting a potential parasympathetic role for NPY gene in stress regulation. PMID:27527739

  19. Association of neuropeptide Y promoter polymorphism (rs16147) with perceived stress and cardiac vagal outflow in humans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsin-An; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Tieh-Ching; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in resilience to stress, and higher vagal (parasympathetic) activity has been associated with greater stress resilience. Thus, we examined whether rs16147, a functional promoter polymorphism (C>T) of the NPY gene, could influence vagal tone during chronic high stress levels. NPY genotyping, chronic psychological stress level measurement (using the Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), cardiac autonomic function assessment (using short-term heart rate variability [HRV]) were performed in 1123 healthy, drug-free Han Chinese participants who were divided into low- and high-PSS groups. In the high-PSS group (n = 522), the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences and high frequency power (both HRV indices of parasympathetic activity) were significantly increased in T/T homozygotes compared to C/C homozygotes. However, no significant between-genotype difference was found in any HRV variable in the low-PSS group (n = 601). Our results are the first to demonstrate that functional NPY variation alters chronic stress-related vagal control, suggesting a potential parasympathetic role for NPY gene in stress regulation. PMID:27527739

  20. Fatal brain gas embolism during non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, Claire B; Chevrolet, Jean-Claude; Gasche, Yvan; Charbonney, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Gas embolism is a dreaded complication following invasive medical procedures, traumatic lung injury and decompression accidents. We report a case of fatal gas embolism following the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). The patient initially underwent left bronchial artery embolisation for massive haemoptysis in the context of severe tuberculotic sequels. Under NIV and after heavy coughing he became hemiparetic and his level of consciousness suddenly dropped. Computed tomography of the brain showed multiple air embolism and ischaemic lesions were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Echocardiographic investigations showed no intracardiac defect. Vasculo-pulmonary abnormalities in the context of heavy coughing and non-invasive ventilation may have played a major role in the occurrence of this event. New neurological events in a patient with tuberculotic sequels or any known vascular pulmonary abnormalities and NIV should raise the suspicion of brain gas embolism. PMID:21716825

  1. Non-invasive online detection of microbial lysine formation in stirred tank bioreactors by using calorespirometry.

    PubMed

    Regestein, Lars; Maskow, Thomas; Tack, Andreas; Knabben, Ingo; Wunderlich, Martin; Lerchner, Johannes; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-05-01

    Non-invasive methods for online monitoring of biotechnological processes without compromising the integrity of the reactor system are very important to generate continuous data. Even though calorimetry has been used in conventional biochemical analysis for decades, it has not yet been specifically applied for online detection of product formation at technical scale. Thus, this article demonstrates a calorespirometric method for online detection of microbial lysine formation in stirred tank bioreactors. The respective heat generation of two bacterial strains, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 (wild-type) and C. glutamicum DM1730 (lysine producer), was compared with the O2 -consumption in order to determine whether lysine was formed. As validation of the proposed calorespirometric method, the online results agreed well with the offline measured data. This study has proven that calorespirometry is a viable non-invasive technique to detect product formation at any time point. PMID:23280310

  2. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation: the benefits of the BiPAP system.

    PubMed

    Teba, L; Marks, P; Benzo, R

    1996-01-01

    Many of the complications with endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation can be avoided with the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). This technique has been especially successful in treating patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIMV improves gas exchange, avoids complications caused by endotracheal intubation, and allows patients to talk and take medications orally. This article reviews our experiences treating 27 patients with ARF with a BiPAP (bi-level positive airway pressure) ventilator. This is a portable unit which allows for selection of different modes of ventilation and adjustment of inspiratory and expiratory pressures. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation should be considered in patients presenting with ARF who are hemodynamically stable and in whom spontaneous breathing is preserved. PMID:8599242

  3. [Cerebral arteriovenous malformations: value of the non invasive vascular imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Leclerc, X; Gauvrit, J Y; Trystram, D; Reyns, N; Pruvo, J P; Meder, J F

    2004-12-01

    Imaging evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) requires selective visualization of the different compartments of the malformation in order to select the therapeutic management. Conventional angiography remains the reference to analyze intracranial vessel conspicuity but non-invasive methods constitute an excellent alternative. Among these techniques, CT angiography is rarely used because of the need to inject iodinated contrast material and because of irradiation. MR angiography provides useful information and can be performed using several techniques: time of flight with or without contrast material injection, phase contrast, three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo acquisition after contrast material injection and, more recently, MR digital subtraction angiography. The purpose of this review article is to summarize the different non-invasive techniques for vascular imaging and to analyze the usefulness of these techniques for the assessment of brain AVMs. PMID:15687950

  4. Perspectives on emerging biomarkers for non-invasive assessment of embryo viability in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Aydiner, F; Yetkin, C E; Seli, E

    2010-03-01

    A key step in assisted reproduction is the assessment of embryo viability in order to identify the embryo(s) most likely to result in pregnancy. Currently used embryo assessment systems are largely based on morphology and cleavage rate. While these systems have been pivotal in improving implantation and pregnancy rates and reducing multiple gestations, their precision is still insufficient. The limitations of strategies based on morphology have led to the investigation of adjunctive technologies for non-invasive assessment of embryo viability in assisted reproduction. These include the measurement of glucose, pyruvate, or amino acid levels in the embryo culture media, assessment of oxygen consumption by the embryo, genomic and proteomic profiling, and most recently, analytical examination of the embryonic metabolome. As the number of ART cycles increases worldwide, improvements in the ability to quickly and non-invasively identify the best embryos for transfer become an increasingly more important goal for reproductive medicine. PMID:20196727

  5. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, B. M.; O'Flynn, B.; Mathewson, A.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  6. A non-invasive technique for rapid extraction of DNA from fish scales.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Singh, Poonam Jayant; Nagpure, N S; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Srivastava, S K; Lakra, W S

    2007-11-01

    DNA markers are being increasingly used in studies related to population genetics and conservation biology of endangered species. DNA isolation for such studies requires a source of biological material that is easy to collect, non-bulky and reliable. Further, the sampling strategies based on non-invasive procedures are desirable, especially for the endangered fish species. In view of above, a rapid DNA extraction method from fish scales has been developed with the use of a modified lysis buffer that require about 2 hr duration. This methodology is non-invasive, less expensive and reproducible with high efficiency of DNA recovery. The DNA extracted by this technique, have been found suitable for performing restriction enzyme digestion and PCR amplification. Therefore, the present DNA extraction procedure can be used as an alternative technique in population genetic studies pertaining to endangered fish species. The technique was also found equally effective for DNA isolation from fresh, dried and ethanol preserved scales. PMID:18072545

  7. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute heart failure].

    PubMed

    Alfonso Megido, Joaquín; González Franco, Alvaro

    2014-03-01

    When acute heart failure progresses and there is acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, routine therapeutic measures should be accompanied by other measures that help to correct oxygenation of the patient. The final and most drastic step is mechanical ventilation. Non-invasive ventilation has been developed in the last few years as a method that attempts to improve oxygenation without the need for intubation, thus, in theory, reducing morbidity and mortality in these patients. The present article describes the controversies surrounding the results of this technique and discusses its indications. The article also discusses how to start non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute pulmonary edema from a practical point of view. PMID:24930085

  8. Non-invasive brain stimulation in children: applications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Thilinie; Kirton, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurostimulation and neuromodulation technique that has provided over two decades of data in focal, non-invasive brain stimulation based on the principles of electromagnetic induction. Its minimal risk, excellent tolerability and increasingly sophisticated ability to interrogate neurophysiology and plasticity make it an enviable technology for use in pediatric research with future extension into therapeutic trials. While adult trials show promise in using TMS as a novel, non-invasive, non-pharmacologic diagnostic and therapeutic tool in a variety of nervous system disorders, its use in children is only just emerging. TMS represents an exciting advancement to better understand and improve outcomes from disorders of the developing brain. PMID:24163755

  9. Algorithms Based on CWT and Classifiers to Control Cardiac Alterations and Stress Using an ECG and a SCR

    PubMed Central

    Villarejo, María Viqueira; Zapirain, Begoña García; Zorrilla, Amaia Méndez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG) for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and J48) have been used, respectively. The designed algorithm analyses the ECG signal and is able to detect the heart rate (99.42%), arrhythmia (93.48%) and extrasystoles (99.29%). The detection of stress level is complemented with Skin Conductance Response (SCR), whose success is 94.02%. The heart rate variability does not show added value to the stress detection in this case. With this pulsimeter, it is possible to prevent and detect anomalies for a non-intrusive way associated to a telemedicine system. It is also possible to use it during physical activity due to the fact the CWT minimizes the motion artifacts. PMID:23666135

  10. Thymosin Beta 4 Prevents Oxidative Stress by Targeting Antioxidant and Anti-Apoptotic Genes in Cardiac Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Sudhiranjan

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein with diverse functions relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory responses. The effecter molecules targeted by Tβ4 for cardiac protection remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the molecules targeted by Tβ4 that mediate cardio-protection under oxidative stress. Methods Rat neonatal fibroblasts cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in presence and absence of Tβ4 and expression of antioxidant, apoptotic and pro-fibrotic genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were estimated by DCF-DA using fluorescent microscopy and fluorimetry. Selected antioxidant and antiapoptotic genes were silenced by siRNA transfections in cardiac fibroblasts and the effect of Tβ4 on H2O2-induced profibrotic events was evaluated. Results Pre-treatment with Tβ4 resulted in reduction of the intracellular ROS levels induced by H2O2 in the cardiac fibroblasts. This was associated with an increased expression of antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and reduction of Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Tβ4 treatment reduced the expression of pro-fibrotic genes [connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), collagen type-1 (Col-I) and collagen type-3 (Col-III)] in the cardiac fibroblasts. Silencing of Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase gene triggered apoptotic cell death in the cardiac fibroblasts, which was prevented by treatment with Tβ4. Conclusion This is the first report that exhibits the targeted molecules modulated by Tβ4 under oxidative stress utilizing the cardiac fibroblasts. Tβ4 treatment prevented the profibrotic gene expression in the in vitro settings. Our findings indicate that Tβ4 selectively targets and upregulates catalase, Cu/Zn-SOD and Bcl2, thereby, preventing H2O2-induced profibrotic changes in the myocardium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the

  11. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation, a Tool to Revert Maladaptive Plasticity in Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Naro, Antonino; Milardi, Demetrio; Russo, Margherita; Terranova, Carmen; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Calabro, Rocco S; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulatory effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have been extensively studied in chronic pain. A hypothetic mechanism of action would be to prevent or revert the ongoing maladaptive plasticity within the pain matrix. In this review, the authors discuss the mechanisms underlying the development of maladaptive plasticity in patients with chronic pain and the putative mechanisms of NIBS in modulating synaptic plasticity in neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:27512368

  12. Cell-free nucleic acids as a non-invasive route for investigating atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cerne, Darko; Bajalo, Jana Lukac

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is directly linked with atherosclerotic burden and cell-free nucleic acids (cf-NA) analysis has recently emerged as a novel research tool in atherosclerosis practice and research. cf-NA are nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, miRNA, mitochondrial DNA) found in plasma and cell-free fractions of various other biological fluids. They have all the characteristics of the nucleic acids in the cells of their origin, thus constituting an emerging field for non-invasive assessment. Initially, quantitative and qualitative analysis of cf-NA has been accepted as clinically useful in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, and in the diagnosis and monitoring of numerous cancers. As to atherosclerosis, cf-NA analysis poses an important challenge in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of acute coronary syndrome, in prediction of cardiovascular disease, in non-invasive early detection of atherosclerosis and understanding its pathological mechanism in vivo, in assessing various issues of treatment for atherosclerosis in vivo, and in the unique simultaneous measurement of mRNA levels and protein concentrations in a single sample of plasma. Examples of its use are presented in this review. Besides the advances in technologies, the precise evaluation and optimization of pre-analytical and analytical aspects of cf-NA analysis have impacted importantly on the reliability of test results. We have, therefore, reviewed the most important analytical considerations. Further clinical studies and analytical improvements will answer the question as to whether cf-NA, as novel biomarkers, can be reliably applied clinically in non-invasive, early diagnosis and monitoring of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques of patients who could suffer from acute coronary syndrome. PMID:24320033

  13. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation, a Tool to Revert Maladaptive Plasticity in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Naro, Antonino; Milardi, Demetrio; Russo, Margherita; Terranova, Carmen; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Calabro, Rocco S.; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulatory effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have been extensively studied in chronic pain. A hypothetic mechanism of action would be to prevent or revert the ongoing maladaptive plasticity within the pain matrix. In this review, the authors discuss the mechanisms underlying the development of maladaptive plasticity in patients with chronic pain and the putative mechanisms of NIBS in modulating synaptic plasticity in neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:27512368

  14. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement

    PubMed Central

    Durduran, Turgut; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) uses the temporal fluctuations of near-infrared (NIR) light to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) non-invasively. Here, we provide a brief history of DCS applications in brain with an emphasis on the underlying physical ideas, common instrumentation and validation. Then we describe recent clinical research that employs DCS-measured CBF as a biomarker of patient well-being, and as an indicator of hemodynamic and metabolic response to functional stimuli. PMID:23770408

  15. Non-invasive prediction of hemoglobin levels by principal component and back propagation artificial neural network

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiquan; Lu, Qipeng; Gao, Hongzhi; Peng, Zhongqi

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate non-invasive diagnosis of anemia, specific equipment was developed, and non-invasive hemoglobin (HB) detection method based on back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was studied. In this paper, we combined a broadband light source composed of 9 LEDs with grating spectrograph and Si photodiode array, and then developed a high-performance spectrophotometric system. By using this equipment, fingertip spectra of 109 volunteers were measured. In order to deduct the interference of redundant data, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of collected spectra. Then the principal components of the spectra were taken as input of BP-ANN model. On this basis we obtained the optimal network structure, in which node numbers of input layer, hidden layer, and output layer was 9, 11, and 1. Calibration and correction sample sets were used for analyzing the accuracy of non-invasive hemoglobin measurement, and prediction sample set was used for testing the adaptability of the model. The correlation coefficient of network model established by this method is 0.94, standard error of calibration, correction, and prediction are 11.29g/L, 11.47g/L, and 11.01g/L respectively. The result proves that there exist good correlations between spectra of three sample sets and actual hemoglobin level, and the model has a good robustness. It is indicated that the developed spectrophotometric system has potential for the non-invasive detection of HB levels with the method of BP-ANN combined with PCA. PMID:24761296

  16. A non-invasive head-holding device for chronic neural recordings in awake behaving monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Amemori, Satoko; Amemori, Ken-ichi; Cantor, Margaret L.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Background We have developed a novel head-holding device for behaving non-human primates that affords stability suitable for reliable chronic electrophysiological recording experiments. The device is completely non-invasive, and thus avoids the risk of infection and other complications that can occur with the use of conventional, surgically implanted head-fixation devices. New method The device consists of a novel non-invasive head mold and bar clamp holder, and is customized to the shape of each monkey’s head. The head-holding device that we introduce, combined with our recording system and reflection-based eye-tracking system, allows for chronic behavioral experiments and single-electrode or multi-electrode recording, as well as manipulation of brain activity. Results and comparison with existing methods With electrodes implanted chronically in multiple brain regions, we could record neural activity from cortical and subcortical structures with stability equal to that recorded with conventional head-post fixation. Consistent with the non-invasive nature of the device, we could record neural signals for more than two years with a single implant. Importantly, the monkeys were able to hold stable eye fixation positions while held by this device, demonstrating the possibility of analyzing eye movement data with only the gentle restraint imposed by the non-invasive head-holding device. Conclusions We show that the head-holding device introduced here can be extended to the head holding of smaller animals, and note that it could readily be adapted for magnetic resonance brain imaging over extended periods of time. PMID:25448381

  17. Non-invasive, non-radiological quantification of anteroposterior knee joint ligamentous laxity

    PubMed Central

    Russell, D. F.; Deakin, A. H.; Fogg, Q. A.; Picard, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We performed in vitro validation of a non-invasive skin-mounted system that could allow quantification of anteroposterior (AP) laxity in the outpatient setting. Methods A total of 12 cadaveric lower limbs were tested with a commercial image-free navigation system using trackers secured by bone screws. We then tested a non-invasive fabric-strap system. The lower limb was secured at 10° intervals from 0° to 60° of knee flexion and 100 N of force was applied perpendicular to the tibia. Acceptable coefficient of repeatability (CR) and limits of agreement (LOA) of 3 mm were set based on diagnostic criteria for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency. Results Reliability and precision within the individual invasive and non-invasive systems was acceptable throughout the range of flexion tested (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.88, CR 1.6 mm). Agreement between the two systems was acceptable measuring AP laxity between full extension and 40° knee flexion (LOA 2.9 mm). Beyond 40° of flexion, agreement between the systems was unacceptable (LOA > 3 mm). Conclusions These results indicate that from full knee extension to 40° flexion, non-invasive navigation-based quantification of AP tibial translation is as accurate as the standard validated commercial system, particularly in the clinically and functionally important range of 20° to 30° knee flexion. This could be useful in diagnosis and post-operative evaluation of ACL pathology. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:233–7. PMID:24184443

  18. Sub-millimeter Bunch Length Non-invasive Diagnostic Based on the Diffraction and Cherenkov Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevelev, M.; Deng, H.; Potylitsyn, A.; Naumenko, G.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Sh; Gogolev, S.; Shkitov, D.

    2012-05-01

    A layout for the investigation the coherent Cherenkov radiation from a dielectric target with a large spectral dispersion and the coherent diffraction radiation from a conducting screen as a tool for non-invasive longitudinal electron beam profile diagnostics are proposed for the 20~30MeV Linac at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). In this paper the status of the joint experiment and future plans are presented.

  19. Development and validation of a MRgHIFU non-invasive tissue acoustic property estimation technique.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sara L; Dillon, Christopher; Odéen, Henrik; Parker, Dennis; Christensen, Douglas; Payne, Allison

    2016-11-01

    MR-guided high-intensity focussed ultrasound (MRgHIFU) non-invasive ablative surgeries have advanced into clinical trials for treating many pathologies and cancers. A remaining challenge of these surgeries is accurately planning and monitoring tissue heating in the face of patient-specific and dynamic acoustic properties of tissues. Currently, non-invasive measurements of acoustic properties have not been implemented in MRgHIFU treatment planning and monitoring procedures. This methods-driven study presents a technique using MR temperature imaging (MRTI) during low-temperature HIFU sonications to non-invasively estimate sample-specific acoustic absorption and speed of sound values in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Using measured thermal properties, specific absorption rate (SAR) patterns are calculated from the MRTI data and compared to simulated SAR patterns iteratively generated via the Hybrid Angular Spectrum (HAS) method. Once the error between the simulated and measured patterns is minimised, the estimated acoustic property values are compared to the true phantom values obtained via an independent technique. The estimated values are then used to simulate temperature profiles in the phantoms, and compared to experimental temperature profiles. This study demonstrates that trends in acoustic absorption and speed of sound can be non-invasively estimated with average errors of 21% and 1%, respectively. Additionally, temperature predictions using the estimated properties on average match within 1.2 °C of the experimental peak temperature rises in the phantoms. The positive results achieved in tissue-mimicking phantoms presented in this study indicate that this technique may be extended to in vivo applications, improving HIFU sonication temperature rise predictions and treatment assessment. PMID:27441427

  20. Comparison of invasive and non-invasive blood pressure monitoring during clinical anaesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Paul D; Grint, Nicola; Dugdale, Alexandra

    2010-03-01

    Monitoring blood pressure during anaesthesia is widely recommended in man and animals. The accuracy of any device used to measure blood pressure is an important consideration when selecting monitoring equipment, the ANSI/AAMI SP10 standard is widely cited in this respect in recent veterinary publications. Blood pressure was monitored using invasive and non-invasive techniques during clinical anaesthesia in 19 dogs. The results were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. The bias (and limits of agreement) between invasive and non-invasive measurement was 7.1 mmHg (+/-34.7) for systolic blood pressure, -1.8 mmHg (+/-27.4) for mean blood pressure and 6.9 mmHg (+/-27.5) for diastolic blood pressure. In a clinical setting the bias between invasive and non-invasive measurement techniques was similar or smaller than laboratory reports, however the limits of agreement were considerably wider suggesting that care should be exercised when interpreting NIBP values. PMID:20306347

  1. Non-invasive pressure difference estimation from PC-MRI using the work-energy equation

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Fabrizio; Figueroa, C. Alberto; Smith, Nicolas P.; Lamata, Pablo; Nordsletten, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure difference is an accepted clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease conditions such as aortic coarctation. Currently, measurements of pressure differences in the clinic rely on invasive techniques (catheterization), prompting development of non-invasive estimates based on blood flow. In this work, we propose a non-invasive estimation procedure deriving pressure difference from the work-energy equation for a Newtonian fluid. Spatial and temporal convergence is demonstrated on in silico Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Image (PC-MRI) phantoms with steady and transient flow fields. The method is also tested on an image dataset generated in silico from a 3D patient-specific Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and finally evaluated on a cohort of 9 subjects. The performance is compared to existing approaches based on steady and unsteady Bernoulli formulations as well as the pressure Poisson equation. The new technique shows good accuracy, robustness to noise, and robustness to the image segmentation process, illustrating the potential of this approach for non-invasive pressure difference estimation. PMID:26409245

  2. Non-invasive pressure difference estimation from PC-MRI using the work-energy equation.

    PubMed

    Donati, Fabrizio; Figueroa, C Alberto; Smith, Nicolas P; Lamata, Pablo; Nordsletten, David A

    2015-12-01

    Pressure difference is an accepted clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease conditions such as aortic coarctation. Currently, measurements of pressure differences in the clinic rely on invasive techniques (catheterization), prompting development of non-invasive estimates based on blood flow. In this work, we propose a non-invasive estimation procedure deriving pressure difference from the work-energy equation for a Newtonian fluid. Spatial and temporal convergence is demonstrated on in silico Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Image (PC-MRI) phantoms with steady and transient flow fields. The method is also tested on an image dataset generated in silico from a 3D patient-specific Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and finally evaluated on a cohort of 9 subjects. The performance is compared to existing approaches based on steady and unsteady Bernoulli formulations as well as the pressure Poisson equation. The new technique shows good accuracy, robustness to noise, and robustness to the image segmentation process, illustrating the potential of this approach for non-invasive pressure difference estimation. PMID:26409245

  3. From promise to practice: pairing non-invasive sampling with genomics in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Matthew D.; Etter, Paul D.; Johnson, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation genomics has become an increasingly popular term, yet it remains unclear whether the non-invasive sampling that is essential for many conservation-related studies is compatible with the minimum requirements for harnessing next-generation sequencing technologies. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of using genotyping-by-sequencing of non-invasively collected hair samples to simultaneously identify and genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We identified and genotyped 3,803 high-confidence SNPs across eight sites distributed along two elevational transects using starting DNA amounts as low as 1 ng. Fifty-five outlier loci were detected as candidate gene regions under divergent selection, constituting potential targets for future validation. Genome-wide estimates of gene diversity significantly and positively correlated with elevation across both transects, with all low elevation sites exhibiting significant heterozygote deficit likely due to inbreeding. More broadly, our results highlight a range of issues that must be considered when pairing genomic data collection with non-invasive sampling, particularly related to field sampling protocols for minimizing exogenous DNA, data collection strategies and quality control steps for enhancing target organism yield, and analytical approaches for maximizing cost-effectiveness and information content of recovered genomic data. PMID:26244114

  4. SRY sequence in maternal plasma: Implications for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: First report from India

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Edna; Nair, Sona; Nadkarni, Anita; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The presence of circulatory cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has found new applications in non-invasive risk-free prenatal diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made use of a size separation approach along with real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate the use of fetal DNA in the detection of the sex of the fetus. Cell-free fetal DNA was isolated from the plasma of 30 women (10–20 weeks gestation) using a size separation approach. We made use of Taq Man Chemistry and real time PCR using primers and probes for GAPDH and SRY. RESULTS: Only 24 cases could be studied as there was no amplification in six cases. Fetal sex was accurately determined in all of the 24 cases wherein 19 women were carrying male fetuses and five women were carrying female fetuses. An increase in the amount of fetal DNA was observed with an increase in the gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Real time PCR analysis is a highly sensitive and accurate tool for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, allowing detection of the sex of the fetus as early as 10 weeks of gestation. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis eliminates the risk of fetal loss associated with the invasive procedure. PMID:22754228

  5. Continuous non-invasive monitoring improves blood pressure stability in upright position: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Benes, Jan; Simanova, Alena; Tovarnicka, Tereza; Sevcikova, Silvie; Kletecka, Jakub; Zatloukal, Jan; Pradl, Richard; Chytra, Ivan; Kasal, Eduard

    2015-02-01

    Intermittent blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the standard-of-care during low and intermediate risk anaesthesia, yet it could lead to delayed recognition of BP fluctuations. Perioperative hypotension is known to be associated with postoperative complications. Continuous, non-invasive methods for BP monitoring have been developed recently. We have tested a novel non-invasive, continuous monitor (using the volume clamp method) to assist with maintaining BP in safe ranges for patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. Forty adult patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery in an upright position were included in this prospective randomised controlled trial. Patients were equally allocated to the group with continuous monitoring of BP using the CNAP® Monitor and to the control group managed using an intermittent oscillometric BP cuff. The absolute and proportional time spent outside the range of ±20% of the target BP along with other hemodynamic and clinical parameters were evaluated. The continuous monitoring decreased the anaesthesia time spent below -20% pressure range [absolute: 12 min (4-20) vs. 27 min (16-34); p=0.001; relative to procedure length: 14% (7-20) vs. 33.5% (17.5-53); p=0.003]. No significant differences were observed in postoperative morbidity or in hospital length of stay. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring via the CNAP® Monitor allows for better BP management in patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. In our randomised trial the time spent in hypotension was significantly shorter using continuous monitoring. PMID:24841333

  6. Non-invasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis: Adjuncts or Alternatives to Liver Biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jun L.; Pavlides, Michael; Moolla, Ahmad; Ryan, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis reflects sustained liver injury often from multiple, simultaneous factors. Whilst the presence of mild fibrosis on biopsy can be a reassuring finding, the identification of advanced fibrosis is critical to the management of patients with chronic liver disease. This necessity has lead to a reliance on liver biopsy which itself is an imperfect test and poorly accepted by patients. The development of robust tools to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis has dramatically enhanced clinical decision making in patients with chronic liver disease, allowing a rapid and informed judgment of disease stage and prognosis. Should a liver biopsy be required, the appropriateness is clearer and the diagnostic yield is greater with the use of these adjuncts. While a number of non-invasive liver fibrosis markers are now used in routine practice, a steady stream of innovative approaches exists. With improvement in the reliability, reproducibility and feasibility of these markers, their potential role in disease management is increasing. Moreover, their adoption into clinical trials as outcome measures reflects their validity and dynamic nature. This review will summarize and appraise the current and novel non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, both blood and imaging based, and look at their prospective application in everyday clinical care. PMID:27378924

  7. Assessment of lung function using a non-invasive oscillating gas-forcing technique☆

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Lei; Clifton, David A.; Hahn, Clive E.W.; Farmery, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional methods for monitoring lung function can require complex, or special, gas analysers, and may therefore not be practical in clinical areas such as the intensive care unit (ICU) or operating theatre. The system proposed in this article is a compact and non-invasive system for the measurement and monitoring of lung variables, such as alveolar volume, airway dead space, and pulmonary blood flow. In contrast with conventional methods, the compact apparatus and non-invasive nature of the proposed method could eventually allow it to be used in the ICU, as well as in general clinical settings. We also propose a novel tidal ventilation model using a non-invasive oscillating gas-forcing technique, where both nitrous oxide and oxygen are used as indicator gases. Experimental results are obtained from healthy volunteers, and are compared with those obtained using a conventional continuous ventilation model. Our findings show that the proposed technique can be used to assess lung function, and has several advantages over conventional methods such as compact and portable apparatus, easy usage, and quick estimation of cardiopulmonary variables. PMID:23702307

  8. Best Ethical Practices for Clinicians and Laboratories in the Provision of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Allyse, MA; Sayres, LC; Havard, M; King, JS; Greely, HT; Hudgins, L; Taylor, J; Norton, ME; Cho, MK; Magnus, D; Ormond, KE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an ethical framework for clinicians and companies providing non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA or whole fetal cells. Method In collaboration with an NIH-supported research ethics consultation committee, together with feedback from an inter-disciplinary group of clinicians, members of industry, legal experts and genetic counselors we developed a set of best practices for the provision of non-invasive prenatal genetic testing. Results Principal recommendations include the amendment of current informed consent procedures to include attention to the non-invasive nature of new testing and the potential for a broader range of results earlier in the pregnancy. We strongly recommend that tests should only be provided through licensed medical providers and not direct-to-consumer. Conclusion Prenatal tests, including new methods using cell-free fetal DNA, are not currently regulated by government agencies and limited professional guidance is available. In the absence of regulation, companies and clinicians should cooperate to adopt responsible best ethical practices in the provision of these tests. PMID:23613322

  9. A non-invasive method for the determination of liquid injectables by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Ji, Nan; Yin, Lihui; Wang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    Drug safety has become a very important subject, and more countries have joined in the fight against counterfeit drugs. This study demonstrated a non-invasive Raman spectroscopy method that could be utilized for screening liquid injectable drugs for spurious/falsely-labeled/falsified/counterfeit medical products (SFFCs). Two problems were solved to remove the blocks in identification and quantitation: one problem was the weak API signal extraction from the non-invasive Raman spectra and the other was the problem of Raman absolute measurement. Principal component analysis (PCA) and classical least square (CLS) algorithms were performed to establish the models. Water was chosen as the "internal standard" to normalize the spectra to solve the problem of Raman absolute measurement. The results showed that the 11 positive samples and 66 negative samples were all well identified with a threshold of 0.95. One of the positive samples contained the excipient propylene glycol, which was identified successfully at the same time. The accuracy of quantitative results was approximately 5% for doxofylline liquid injectables and about 10% for the low-concentration and big glass bottle-containers of Levofloxacin Lactate and Sodium Chloride Injections as compared to the results using an HPLC method, this is satisfactory for fast screening of SFFCs. In conclusion, with the development of a database of identification and quantitation models, this method may determine liquid injectable drugs in a fast and non-invasive way and become one of the most powerful weapons against SFFCs. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:25588367

  10. [The effect of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Ozyılmaz, Ezgi; Kaya, Akın

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative respiratory failure is related with the highest mortality and morbidity among all perioperative complications. The most common underlying mechanism of postoperative respiratory failure is the development of atelectasis. Anaesthesia, medications which cause respiratory depression, high FiO2 use, postoperative pain and disruption of muscle forces due to surgery leads to decrease in functional residual capacity and results in atelectasis formation. Atelectasis causes severe hypoxemia due to ventilation, perfusion mismatch, shunt and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Intrathoracic positive pressure is an effective therapeutic option in both prevention and treatment of atelectasis. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is related with a lower mortality and morbidity rate due to lack of any potential complication risks of endotracheal intubation. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation can be applied as prophylactic or curative. Both of these techniques are related with lower reintubation rates, nosocomial infections, duration of hospitalization and mortality in patients with postoperative respiratory failure. The differences of this therapy from standard application and potential complications should be well known in order to improve prognosis in these group of patients. The primary aim of this review is to underline the pathogenesis of postoperative respiratory failure. The secondary aim is to clarify the optimum method, effect and complications of non-invasive mechanical ventilation therapy under the light of the studies which was performed in specific patient groups. PMID:22779943

  11. Promoting social plasticity in developmental disorders with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Boggio, Paulo S.; Asthana, Manish K.; Costa, Thiago L.; Valasek, Cláudia A.; Osório, Ana A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Being socially connected directly impacts our basic needs and survival. People with deficits in social cognition might exhibit abnormal behaviors and face many challenges in our highly social-dependent world. These challenges and limitations are associated with a substantial economical and subjective impact. As many conditions where social cognition is affected are highly prevalent, more treatments have to be developed. Based on recent research, we review studies where non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques have been used to promote Social Plasticity in developmental disorders. We focused on three populations where non-invasive brain stimulation seems to be a promising approach in inducing social plasticity: Schizophrenia, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Williams Syndrome (WS). There are still very few studies directly evaluating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the social cognition of these populations. However, when considering the promising preliminary evidences presented in this review and the limited amount of clinical interventions available for treating social cognition deficits in these populations today, it is clear that the social neuroscientist arsenal may profit from non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for rehabilitation and promotion of social plasticity. PMID:26388712

  12. Non-Invasive Techniques for Detection and Diagnosis of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongjuan; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Xin; Dan, Hongxia; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral and maxillofacial malignancy, and its morbidity and mortality rates are still high in most countries. Oral potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) are used to refer to a heterogeneous group of conditions that are characterized by increased risk for malignant transformation to OSCC. Currently identified oral PMDs include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, palatal lesions associated with reverse smoking, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, actinic keratosis, and discoid lupus erythematosus. The early detection and diagnosis of these lesions are important for cancer prevention and disease management. In recent years, there has been a growing and persistent demand for new non-invasive, practical diagnostic techniques that might facilitate the early detection of oral PMDs. The non-invasive detection techniques evaluated in this review are divided into four categories: vital staining with a solution that can be used as a mouth rinse or applied onto a suspected area of the mouth, light-based detection systems, optical diagnostic technologies that employ returned optical signals to reflect structural and morphological changes within tissues, and salivary biomarkers. Most of these techniques have shown great potential for screening and monitoring oral PMDs. In this review article, the authors critically assess these non-invasive detection techniques for oral PMDs. We also provide a summary of the sensitivity and specificity of each technique in detecting oral PMDs and oral cancer, as well as their advantages, disadvantages, clinical applications, and indications. PMID:26888696

  13. Non-invasive Diagnosis of Fibrosis in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Anil; Sharma, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in developed as well as in developing countries. Its prevalence continues to rise currently affecting approximately 20-30% of adults and 10% of children in the United States. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from fatty liver, which in general follows a benign non-progressive clinical course, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more serious form of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for evaluating the degree of hepatic necroinflammation and fibrosis; however, several non-invasive investigations, such as serum biomarkers, have been developed to establish the diagnosis and also to evaluate treatment response. There has been a substantial development of non-invasive risk scores, biomarker panels, and radiological modalities to identify at risk patients with NAFLD without recourse to liver biopsy on a routine basis. Examples include combination of serum markers like NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), BARD score, fibrometer, FIB4, and non-invasive tools like fibroscan which assess fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Other markers of fibrosis that have been evaluated include high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasma pentraxin 3, interleukin-6, and cytokeratin-18. This review focuses on the methods currently available in daily clinical practice in hepatology and touches briefly on the potential future markers under investigation. PMID:25755423

  14. The Book of Kells: a non-invasive MOLAB investigation by complementary spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Doherty, B; Daveri, A; Clementi, C; Romani, A; Bioletti, S; Brunetti, B; Sgamellotti, A; Miliani, C

    2013-11-01

    This paper highlights the efficacy of non-invasive portable spectroscopy for assessing the execution technique and constituent materials in one of the most important medieval manuscripts, the Book of Kells. An aimed campaign of in situ measurements by the MObile LABoratory (MOLAB) has analyzed its elemental composition and vibrational and electronic molecular properties. The ample analytical toolbox has afforded complementary diagnostic information of the pigment palette permitting the characterization of both inorganic and organic materials as pigments and dyes in the white, purple, blue, red, orange, green and black areas. In particular, the novel widespread use of calcinated gypsum (anhydrite) as both a white pigment and in correlation to the organic dyes in this manuscript has been noted. The non-invasive identification of the organic dye orchil is significant considering its rare non invasive detection in medieval manuscripts. Finally the occurrence of particular alterations of the organic black areas giving rise to calcium carboxylate and calcium oxalate has been specifically highlighted. Importantly, this work elaborates complex aspects of the employed painting materials which have given rise to numerous significant points of interest for a more elaborate understanding of this Irish treasure. PMID:23850791

  15. The Book of Kells: A non-invasive MOLAB investigation by complementary spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, B.; Daveri, A.; Clementi, C.; Romani, A.; Bioletti, S.; Brunetti, B.; Sgamellotti, A.; Miliani, C.

    2013-11-01

    This paper highlights the efficacy of non-invasive portable spectroscopy for assessing the execution technique and constituent materials in one of the most important medieval manuscripts, the Book of Kells. An aimed campaign of in situ measurements by the MObile LABoratory (MOLAB) has analyzed its elemental composition and vibrational and electronic molecular properties. The ample analytical toolbox has afforded complementary diagnostic information of the pigment palette permitting the characterization of both inorganic and organic materials as pigments and dyes in the white, purple, blue, red, orange, green and black areas. In particular, the novel widespread use of calcinated gypsum (anhydrite) as both a white pigment and in correlation to the organic dyes in this manuscript has been noted. The non-invasive identification of the organic dye orchil is significant considering its rare non invasive detection in medieval manuscripts. Finally the occurrence of particular alterations of the organic black areas giving rise to calcium carboxylate and calcium oxalate has been specifically highlighted. Importantly, this work elaborates complex aspects of the employed painting materials which have given rise to numerous significant points of interest for a more elaborate understanding of this Irish treasure.

  16. Multi-scale simulations predict responses to non-invasive nerve root stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hirata, Akimasa; Terao, Yasuo; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Established biophysical neurone models have achieved limited success in reproducing electrophysiological responses to non-invasive stimulation of the human nervous system. This is related to our insufficient knowledge of the induced electric currents inside the human body. Despite the numerous research and clinical applications of non-invasive stimulation, it is still unclear which internal sites are actually affected by it. Approach. We performed multi-scale computer simulations that, by making use of advances in computing power and numerical algorithms, combine a microscopic model of electrical excitation of neurones with a macroscopic electromagnetic model of the realistic whole-body anatomy. Main results. The simulations yield responses consistent with those experimentally recorded following magnetic and electrical motor root stimulation in human subjects, and reproduce the observed amplitudes and latencies for a wide variety of stimulation parameters. Significance. Our findings demonstrate that modern computational techniques can produce detailed predictions about which and where neurones are activated, leading to improved understanding of the physics and basic mechanisms of non-invasive stimulation and enabling potential new applications that make use of improved targeting of stimulation.

  17. Non-drug Non-invasive Treatment in the Management of Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, RL

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a major medical problem. World-wide, from 60% to 80% of people will have it during their lifetime and 2-5% will have it at any given time. The disease impacts upon activities of daily living ultimately leading to a loss of functional independence and quality of life. Aim: The main purpose of this study was to assess the results of non-drug non-invasive treatment in the management of LBP. Subjects and Methods: This was prospective study conducted in the Department of Orthopedics in M. M. Medical College, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India from June 2005 to June 2010. A total of 251 out-patients of LBP with a mean age of 45 years were studied. They were managed with non-invasive treatment and were followed for 24 months. Results: Objective Lumbar Spine Assessments up to the age of 40 years at 2 years were excellent. At 40-60 years of age, it was good to excellent. Over the age of 60 years, it was good. The back pain functional scale were found very good up to the age of 40 years at 2-year follow-up, good to very good between 40 and 60 years and over the age of 60 years it was good. Conclusions: Non-drug non-invasive interventions can reduce pain and improve function in LBP. PMID:25328793

  18. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Branchi, Federica; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Baccarin, Alessandra; Lampertico, Pietro; Conte, Dario; Fraquelli, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the role, clinical applications and future perspectives of the most widely used non-invasive techniques for the evaluation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. During the past decade many non-invasive methods have been developed to reduce the need for liver biopsy in staging fibrosis and to overcome whenever possible its limitations, mainly: invasiveness, costs, low reproducibility, poor acceptance by patients. Elastographic techniques conceived to assess liver stiffness, in particular transient elastography, and the most commonly used biological markers will be assessed against their respective role and limitations in staging hepatic fibrosis. Recent evidence highlights that both liver stiffness and some bio-chemical markers correlate with survival and major clinical end-points such as liver decompensation, development of hepatocellular carcinoma and portal hypertension. Thus the non-invasive techniques here discussed can play a major role in the management of patients with chronic HBV-related hepatitis. Given their prognostic value, transient elastography and some bio-chemical markers can be used to better categorize patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis and assign them to different classes of risk for clinically relevant outcomes. Very recent data indicates that the combined measurements of liver and spleen stiffness enable the reliable prediction of portal hypertension and esophageal varices development. PMID:25356021

  19. Olmesartan, an AT1 Antagonist, Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cardiac Inflammatory Mediators in Rats with Heart Failure Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Watanabe, Kenichi; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T.; Gurusamy, Narasimman; Ma, Meilei; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Yamaguchi, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II has been involved in immune and inflammatory responses which might contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a role in myocarditis. Here, we investigated whether olmesartan, an AT1R antagonist protects against experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) by suppression of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory cytokines. EAM was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin, were divided into two groups and treated with either olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for a period of 21 days. Myocardial functional parameters measured by hemodynamic and echocardiographic analyses were significantly improved by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Treatment with olmesartan attenuated the myocardial mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, [Interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ)] and the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Myocardial protein expressions of AT1R, NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox) and the expression of markers of oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), and the cardiac apoptosis were also significantly decreased by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, olmesartan treatment down-regulated the myocardial expressions of glucose regulated protein-78, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene, caspase-12, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-JNK. These findings suggest that olmesartan protects against EAM in rats, at least in part via suppression of oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:21383952

  20. Effects of psychological stress test on the cardiac response of public safety workers: alternative parameters to autonomic balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Franco, M. R.; Vargas-Luna, F. M.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that public safety workers (PSW) face many stressful situations that yield them as high-risk population for suffering chronic stress diseases. In this multidisciplinary research the cardiac response to induced psychological stress by a short duration Stroop test was evaluated in 20 female and 19 male PSW, in order to compare traditionally used cardiac response parameters with alternative ones. Electrocardiograms have been recorded using the Eindhoven electrodes configuration for 1 min before, 3 min during and 1 min after the test. Signals analysis has been performed for the heart rate and the power spectra of its variability and of the variability of the amplitude of the R-wave, i.e. the highest peak of the electrocardiographic signal periodic sequence. The results demonstrated that the traditional autonomic balance index shows no significant differences between stages. In contrast, the median of the area of the power spectrum of the R-wave amplitude variability in the frequency region dominated by the autonomous nervous system (0.04-to-0.4 Hz) is the more sensitive parameter. Moreover, this parameter allows to identify gender differences consistent with those encountered in other studies.

  1. Non-invasive optical detection of glucose in cell culture nutrient medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin the development of a non-invasive optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration in the output medium of cell cultures grown in a unique NASA bioreactor referred to as an integrated rotating-wall vessel (IRWV). The input, a bovine serum based nutrient media, has a known glucose concentration. The cells within the bioreactor digest a portion of the glucose. Thus, the non-invasive optical sensor is needed to monitor the decrease in glucose due to cellular consumption since the critical parameters for sustained cellular productivity are glucose and pH. Previous glucose sensing techniques have used chemical reactions to quantify the glucose concentration. Chemical reactions, however, cannot provide for continuous, real time, non-invasive measurement as is required in this application. Our effort while in the fellowship program was focused on the design, optical setup, and testing of one bench top prototype non-invasive optical sensor using a mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy technique. Glucose has a fundamental vibrational absorption peak in the mid-infrared wavelength range at 9.6 micron. Preliminary absorption data using a CO2 laser were collected at this wavelength for water based glucose solutions at different concentrations and one bovine serum based nutrient medium (GTSF) with added glucose. The results showed near linear absorption responses for the glucose-in-water data with resolutions as high at 108 mg/dl and as low as 10 mg/dl. The nutrient medium had a resolution of 291 mg/dl. The variability of the results was due mainly to thermal and polarization drifts of the laser while the decrease in sensitivity to glucose in the nutrient medium was expected due to the increase in the number of confounders present in the nutrient medium. A multispectral approach needs to be used to compensate for these confounders. The CO2 laser used for these studies was wavelength tunable (9.2 to 10.8 micrometers), however

  2. Oxidative stress and nitric oxide pathway in adult patients who are candidates for cardiac surgery: patterns and differences

    PubMed Central

    Cavalca, Viviana; Tremoli, Elena; Porro, Benedetta; Veglia, Fabrizio; Myasoedova, Veronika; Squellerio, Isabella; Manzone, Daniela; Zanobini, Marco; Trezzi, Matteo; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Werba, José Pablo; Tedesco, Calogero; Alamanni, Francesco; Parolari, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We investigated whether oxidative stress and the arginine/nitric oxide pathway differ in control subjects and in adult patients who are candidates for the three most common cardiac surgical operations: coronary bypass surgery, aortic valve replacement for calcific non-rheumatic aortic stenosis or mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral insufficiency. METHODS In this prospective observational study, we studied 165 consecutive patients undergoing surgery from January to June 2011 (coronary bypass surgery, n = 63; aortic valve replacement for calcific non-rheumatic aortic stenosis, n = 51; mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral insufficiency, n = 51). Thirty-three healthy subjects with cardiovascular risk factors similar to surgery patients were also studied (Controls). Oxidative stress (the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione and urinary isoprostane), antioxidants (alpha- and gamma tocopherol) and factors involved in nitric oxide synthesis (arginine, symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine) were measured before surgery. Analysis of variance general linear models and principal component analysis were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Surgical patients had increased levels of oxidative stress and decreased levels of antioxidants. Increased levels of nitric oxide inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine were detected in surgical candidates, suggesting arginine/nitric oxide pathway impairment. Concerning the differences among surgical procedures, higher oxidative stress and a major imbalance of the ratio between substrate and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis were evidenced in patients who were candidates for mitral valve repair with respect to coronary bypass surgery patients and patients with calcific non-rheumatic aortic stenosis. CONCLUSIONS Patients undergoing cardiac surgery have increased oxidative stress and a trend towards an impaired arginine/nitric oxide pathway with respect to Controls. Patients affected by mitral valve

  3. mTORC2 regulates cardiac response to stress by inhibiting MST1

    PubMed Central

    Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Zhai, Peiyong; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Del Re, Dominic P.; Nagarajan, Narayani; Yee, Derek; Liu, Tong; Magnuson, Mark A.; Volpe, Massimo; Frati, Giacomo; Li, Hong; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The mTOR and Hippo pathways have recently emerged as the major signaling transduction cascades regulating organ size and cellular homeostasis. However, direct crosstalk between two pathways is yet to be determined. Here we demonstrate that mTORC2 is a direct negative regulator of the MST1 kinase, a key component of the Hippo pathway. mTORC2 phosphorylates MST1 at serine 438 in the SARAH domain, thereby reducing its homodimerization and activity. We found that Rictor/mTORC2 preserves cardiac structure and function by restraining the activity of MST1 kinase. Cardiac-specific mTORC2 disruption through rictor deletion leads to a marked activation of MST1 that, in turn, promotes cardiac dysfunction and dilation, impairing cardiac growth and adaptation in response to pressure overload. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the existence of a direct crosstalk between mTORC2 and MST1 that is critical for cardiac cell survival and growth. PMID:25843706

  4. Cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expression is modulated by oxidative stress in acutely infrasound-exposed cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhaohui; Meng, Rongsen; Zhuang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yiqiao; Liu, Fangpeng; Zhu, Miao-Zhang; Li, Ruiman

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of acute infrasound exposure on oxidative damage and investigate the underlying mechanisms in rat cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured and exposed to infrasound for several days. In the study, the expression of CAT, GPx, SOD1, and SOD2 and their activities in rat cardiomyocytes in infrasound exposure groups were significantly decreased compared to those in the various time controls, along with significantly higher levels of O2 (-) and H2O2. Decreased cardiac cell viability was not observed in various time controls. A significant reduction in cardiac cell viability was observed in the infrasound group compared to the control, while significantly increased cardiac cell viability was observed in the infrasound exposure and rosiglitazone pretreatment group. Compared to the control, rosiglitazone significantly upregulated CAT, GPx, SOD1, and SOD2 expression and their activities in rat cardiomyocytes exposed to infrasound, while the levels of O2 (-) or H2O2 were significantly decreased. A potential link between a significant downregulation of PPAR-γ expression in rat cardiomyocytes in the infrasound group was compared to the control and infrasound-induced oxidative stress. These findings indicate that infrasound can induce oxidative damage in rat cardiomyocytes by inactivating PPAR-γ. PMID:23632742

  5. Non invasive Measurements of Myocardial Hypertrophy in Patients with Essential Hypertension Treated with Eprosartan: Contribution of the Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Solé, Ricardo

    2007-04-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the treatment with eprosartan on cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive patients using the echocardiogram to measure the hypertrophy of left ventricle. We studied 60 untreated patients diagnosed of mild to moderate hypertension which received after the diagnosis 600 mg/day of eprosartan, a novel direct angiotensin inhibitor recently introduced to treat hypertension. All patients were submitted to a standard echocardiographic study before the treatment and after 6 months of it We evaluated by echocardiogram the following parameters: left ventricular septum and posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass, E/A index of mitral flow considering abnormal when this index was less than 1, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Results: at the beginning we found a systolic/diastolic pressures of 165±9/ 96±4 mmHg compared with the end of study of 124±2/79±3 mmHg (p<0.05). Septum and posterior wall thickness were respectively at baseline 13.2±2 and 12.1±1.1 mmHg and at the end 11.5±1.2 and 10.5±1.3 mmHg (p<0.05 for both of them). The E/A mitral flow index was less than 1 at baseline in 45 patients compared with 19 patients after treatment (p<0.05). Respect to left ventricular mass we found at the beginning 232±7.5 gr., compared to 194±9 gr., at the end of this study (p<0.05). We did not find any significant differences regarding left ventricular ejection fraction between both groups. Conclusions: we can remark that eprosartan is a very useful drug to reduce not only blood pressure but also left ventricular hypertrophy and improve left ventricular diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension according with parameters measured with non invasive methods.

  6. Non invasive Measurements of Myocardial Hypertrophy in Patients with Essential Hypertension Treated with Eprosartan: Contribution of the Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera Sole, Ricardo

    2007-04-28

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the treatment with eprosartan on cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive patients using the echocardiogram to measure the hypertrophy of left ventricle. We studied 60 untreated patients diagnosed of mild to moderate hypertension which received after the diagnosis 600 mg/day of eprosartan, a novel direct angiotensin inhibitor recently introduced to treat hypertension. All patients were submitted to a standard echocardiographic study before the treatment and after 6 months of it We evaluated by echocardiogram the following parameters: left ventricular septum and posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass, E/A index of mitral flow considering abnormal when this index was less than 1, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Results: at the beginning we found a systolic/diastolic pressures of 165{+-}9/ 96{+-}4 mmHg compared with the end of study of 124{+-}2/79{+-}3 mmHg (p<0.05). Septum and posterior wall thickness were respectively at baseline 13.2{+-}2 and 12.1{+-}1.1 mmHg and at the end 11.5{+-}1.2 and 10.5{+-}1.3 mmHg (p<0.05 for both of them). The E/A mitral flow index was less than 1 at baseline in 45 patients compared with 19 patients after treatment (p<0.05). Respect to left ventricular mass we found at the beginning 232{+-}7.5 gr., compared to 194{+-}9 gr., at the end of this study (p<0.05). We did not find any significant differences regarding left ventricular ejection fraction between both groups. Conclusions: we can remark that eprosartan is a very useful drug to reduce not only blood pressure but also left ventricular hypertrophy and improve left ventricular diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension according with parameters measured with non invasive methods.

  7. Glucocorticoids Induce Cardiac Fibrosis via Mineralocorticoid Receptor in Oxidative Stress: Contribution of Elongation Factor Eleven-Nineteen Lysine-Rich Leukemia (ELL)

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Yosuke; Mano, Toshiaki; Ohtani, Tomohito; Sakata, Yasushi; Takeda, Yasuharu; Tamaki, Shunsuke; Tsukamoto, Yasumasa; Miwa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac fibrosis is considered to be a crucial factor in the development of heart failure. Blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) attenuated cardiac fibrosis and improved the prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure but the ligand for MR and the regulatory mechanism of MR pathway in the diseased heart are unclear. Here, we investigated whether glucocorticoids can promote cardiac fibrosis through MR in oxidative stress and the involvement of elongation factor eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia (ELL), a co-activator of MR, in this pathway. Methods and Results The MR antagonist eplerenone attenuated corticosterone-induced collagen synthesis assessed by [3H]proline incorporation in rat neonatal cultured cardiac fibroblasts in the presence of H2O2, as an oxidative stress but not in the absence of H2O2. H2O2 increased the ELL expression levels and MR-bound ELL. ELL expression levels and MR-bound ELL were also increased in the left ventricle of heart failure model rats with significant fibrosis and enhanced oxidative stress. Eplerenone did not attenuate corticosterone-induced increase of [3H]proline incorporation in the presence of H2O2 after knockdown of ELL expression using small interfering RNA in cardiac fibroblasts. Conclusion Glucocorticoids can promote cardiac fibrosis via MR in oxidative stress, and oxidative stress modulates MR response to glucocorticoids through the interaction with ELL. Preventing cardiac fibrosis by modulating glucocorticoid-MR-ELL pathway may become a new therapeutic strategy for heart failure. PMID:25349466

  8. The association between fibrinogen reactivity to mental stress and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarino, Antonio Ivan; Hamer, Mark; Gaze, David; Collinson, Paul; Rumley, Ann; Lowe, Gordon; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Plasma fibrinogen is considered as a positive mediator between mental stress and cardiovascular disease because it is an acute-phase protein released in response to mental stress and a coagulation factor. However those three factors have never been studied together within a single integrated framework, using cardiac troponin T as a marker of cardiovascular risk. Methods 491 disease-free men and women aged 53–76 were tested for fibrinogen levels before, immediately after, and following recovery from standardized mental stress tasks. We measured plasma cardiac troponin T using a high-sensitivity assay (HS-CTnT) and coronary calcification using electron-beam dual-source computed tomography. Results The average fibrinogen concentration increased by 5.1% (s.d. = 7.3) in response to stress and then tended to return to baseline values. People with higher baseline fibrinogen values had smaller increases (blunted responses) following the stress task (P = 0.001), and people with higher stress responses showed better recovery (P < 0.001). In unadjusted analyses, higher baseline fibrinogen was associated with higher chances of having detectable HS-CTnT (P = 0.072) but, conversely, higher fibrinogen response was associated with lower chances of having detectable HS-CTnT (P = 0.007). The adjustment for clinical, inflammatory, and haemostatic factors, as well as for coronary calcification eliminated the effect of baseline fibrinogen, whereas the negative association between fibrinogen response and HS-CTnT remained robust: the odds of detectable HS-CTnT halved for each 10% increase in fibrinogen concentration due to stress (OR = 0.49, P = 0.007, 95% CI = 0.30–0.82). Conclusions Greater fibrinogen responses to mental stress are associated with lower likelihood of detectable high-sensitivity troponin T plasma concentration. A more dynamic fibrinogen response appears to be advantageous for cardiovascular health. PMID:26010862

  9. Need for a standardized protocol for stress echocardiography in provoking subaortic and valvular gradient in various cardiac conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    (Semi) supine exercise testing has an established role in the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease and can help clinical decision making. Stress echocardiography has the advantages of its wide availability, low cost, and versatility for the assessment of disease severity. However, exercise-induced changes in valve hemodynamics, left ventricular outflow obstruction and pulmonary artery pressure depended on load variation. Changing position from supine to upright rapidly decreases load conditions for the ventricles. Therefore several cardiac centers have proposed exercise stress echocardiography in the upright position with gradient monitoring sometimes also in post-exercise recovery. Doppler measurement of subaortic gradient has been a very helpful and informative examination in several heart diseases (especially in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, valve heart diseases, prosthesis dysfunction). PMID:25017422

  10. The Cardiac Stress Response Factor Ms1 Can Bind to DNA and Has a Function in the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Zaleska, Mariola; Fogl, Claudia; Kho, Ay Lin; Ababou, Abdessamad; Ehler, Elisabeth; Pfuhl, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Ms1 (also known as STARS and ABRA) has been shown to act as an early stress response gene in processes as different as hypertrophy in skeletal and cardiac muscle and growth of collateral blood vessels. It is important for cardiac development in zebrafish and is upregulated in mouse models for cardiac hypertrophy as well as in human failing hearts. Ms1 possesses actin binding sites at its C-terminus and is usually found in the cell bound to actin filaments in the cytosol or in sarcomeres. We determined the NMR structure of the only folded domain of Ms1 comprising the second actin binding site called actin binding domain 2 (ABD2, residues 294-375), and found that it is similar to the winged helix-turn-helix fold adopted mainly by DNA binding domains of transcriptional factors. In vitro experiments show specific binding of this domain, in combination with a newly discovered AT-hook motif located N-terminally, to the sequence (A/C/G)AAA(C/A). NMR and fluorescence titration experiments confirm that this motif is indeed bound specifically by the recognition helix. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes endogenous Ms1 is found in the nucleus in a spotted pattern, reminiscent of PML bodies. In adult rat cardiomyocytes Ms1 is exclusively found in the sarcomere. A nuclear localisation site in the N-terminus of the protein is required for nuclear localisation. This suggests that Ms1 has the potential to act directly in the nucleus through specific interaction with DNA in development and potentially as a response to stress in adult tissues. PMID:26656831

  11. Cardiac oxidative stress and dysfunction by fine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) are mediated by angiotensin-II.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Elisa; Wellenius, Gregory A; Lawrence, Joy; Millet, Emil; Gonzalez-Flecha, Beatriz

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation exposure to fine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) increases cardiac oxidants by mechanisms involving modulation of the sympathovagal tone on the heart. Angiotensin-II is a potent vasoconstrictor and a sympatho-excitatory peptide involved in the regulation of blood pressure. We hypothesized that increases in angiotensin-II after fine particulate matter (PM) exposure could be involved in the development of cardiac oxidative stress. Adult rats were treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (benazepril), or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB; valsartan) before exposure to fine PM aerosols or filtered air. Exposures were carried out for 5 hours in the chamber of the Harvard fine particle concentrator (fine PM mass concentration: 440 +/- 80 microg/m(3)). At the end of the exposure the animals were tested for in situ chemiluminescence (CL) of the heart, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and for plasma levels of angiotensin-II. Also, continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements were collected on a subgroup of exposed animals. PM exposure was associated with statistically significant increases in plasma angiotensin concentrations. Pre-treatment with the ACE inhibitor effectively lowered angiotensin concentration, whereas ARB treatment led to increases in angiotensin above the PM-only level. PM exposure also led to significant increases in heart oxidative stress (CL, TBARS), and a shortening of the T-end to T-peak interval on the ECG that were prevented by treatment with both the ACE inhibitor and ARB. These results show that ambient fine particles can increase plasma levels of angiotensin-II and suggest a role of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of particle-related acute cardiac events. PMID:20718632

  12. Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction by Fine Concentrated Ambient Particles (CAPs) are Mediated by Angiotensin-II

    PubMed Central

    Ghelfi, Elisa; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Lawrence, Joy; Millet, Emil; Gonzalez-Flecha, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to fine Concentrated Ambient Particles (CAPs) increases cardiac oxidants by mechanisms involving modulation of the sympathovagal tone on the heart. Angiotensin-II is a potent vasoconstrictor and a sympatho-excitatory peptide involved in the regulation of blood pressure. We hypothesized that increases in angiotensin-II after fine PM exposure could be involved in the development of cardiac oxidative stress. Adult rats were treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (Benazepril ®), or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB, Valsartan ®) before exposure to fine PM aerosols or filtered air. Exposures were carried out for 5 hours in the chamber of the Harvard Fine Particle Concentrator (fine PM mass concentration: 440 ± 80 μg/m3). At the end of the exposure the animals were tested for in situ chemiluminescence (CL) of the heart, TBARS and for plasma levels of angiotensin-II. Also, continuous ECG measurements were collected on a subgroup of exposed animals. PM exposure was associated with statistically significant increases in plasma angiotensin concentrations. Pretreatment with the ACE inhibitor effectively lowered angiotensin concentration, whereas ARB treatment led to increases in angiotensin above the PM-only level. PM exposure also led to significant increases in heart oxidative stress (CL, TBARs), and a shortening of the T-end to T-peak interval on the ECG that were prevented by treatment with both the ACE inhibitor and ARB. These results show that ambient fine particles can increase plasma levels of angiotensin-II and suggest a role of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of particle-related acute cardiac events. PMID:20718632

  13. The Cardiac Stress Response Factor Ms1 Can Bind to DNA and Has a Function in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Ay Lin; Ababou, Abdessamad; Ehler, Elisabeth; Pfuhl, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Ms1 (also known as STARS and ABRA) has been shown to act as an early stress response gene in processes as different as hypertrophy in skeletal and cardiac muscle and growth of collateral blood vessels. It is important for cardiac development in zebrafish and is upregulated in mouse models for cardiac hypertrophy as well as in human failing hearts. Ms1 possesses actin binding sites at its C-terminus and is usually found in the cell bound to actin filaments in the cytosol or in sarcomeres. We determined the NMR structure of the only folded domain of Ms1 comprising the second actin binding site called actin binding domain 2 (ABD2, residues 294–375), and found that it is similar to the winged helix-turn-helix fold adopted mainly by DNA binding domains of transcriptional factors. In vitro experiments show specific binding of this domain, in combination with a newly discovered AT-hook motif located N-terminally, to the sequence (A/C/G)AAA(C/A). NMR and fluorescence titration experiments confirm that this motif is indeed bound specifically by the recognition helix. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes endogenous Ms1 is found in the nucleus in a spotted pattern, reminiscent of PML bodies. In adult rat cardiomyocytes Ms1 is exclusively found in the sarcomere. A nuclear localisation site in the N-terminus of the protein is required for nuclear localisation. This suggests that Ms1 has the potential to act directly in the nucleus through specific interaction with DNA in development and potentially as a response to stress in adult tissues. PMID:26656831

  14. Suppression of oxidative stress in endothelial progenitor cells promotes angiogenesis and improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    JIN, PENG; LI, TAO; LI, XUEQI; SHEN, XINGHUA; ZHAO, YANRU

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in diabetes, which is characterized by inadequate angiogenesis and consequent poor blood reperfusion in the diabetic ischemic heart. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect that oxidative stress in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has on cardiac angiogenesis in diabetic mice. EPCs derived from diabetic mice revealed reductions in superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression levels and activity compared with those from normal mice. An endothelial tube formation assay showed that angiogenesis was markedly delayed for diabetic EPCs, compared with normal controls. EPCs subjected to various pretreatments were tested as a cell therapy in a diabetic mouse model of myocardial infarction. Induction of oxidative stress in normal EPCs by H2O2 or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SOD reduced their angiogenic activity in the ischemic myocardium of the diabetic mice. Conversely, cell therapy using EPCs from diabetic mice following SOD gene overexpression or treatment with the antioxidant Tempol normalized their ability to promote angiogenesis. These results indicate that decreased expression levels of SOD in EPCs contribute to impaired angiogenesis. In addition, normalization of diabetic EPCs by ex vivo SOD gene therapy accelerates the ability of the EPCs to promote angiogenesis and improve cardiac function when used as a cell therapy following myocardial infarction in diabetic mice. PMID:27284297

  15. Activation of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel by ROS contributes to ER stress and cardiac contractile dysfunction: involvement of CHOP through Wnt.

    PubMed

    Shen, M; Wang, L; Wang, B; Wang, T; Yang, G; Shen, L; Wang, T; Guo, X; Liu, Y; Xia, Y; Jia, L; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurring in stringent conditions is critically involved in cardiomyocytes apoptosis and cardiac contractile dysfunction (CCD). However, the molecular machinery that mediates cardiac ER stress and subsequent cell death remains to be fully deciphered, which will hopefully provide novel therapeutic targets for these disorders. Here, we establish tunicamycin-induced model of cardiomyocyte ER stress, which effectively mimicks pathological stimuli to trigger CCD. Tunicamycin activates volume-sensitive outward rectifying Cl(-) currents. Blockade of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channel by 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a non-selective Cl(-) channel blocker, and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), a selective VSOR Cl(-) channel blocker, improves cardiac contractility, which correlates with suppressed ER stress through inhibiting the canonical GRP78/eIF2α/ATF4 and XBP1 pathways, and promotes survival of cardiomyocytes by inverting tunicamycin-induced decrease of Wnt through the CHOP pathway. VSOR activation of tunicamycin-treated cardiomyocytes is attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our study demonstrates a pivotal role of ROS/VSOR in mediating ER stress and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes via the CHOP-Wnt pathway, and suggests the therapeutic values of VSOR Cl(-) channel blockers against ER stress-associated cardiac anomalies. PMID:25412307

  16. Activation of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel by ROS contributes to ER stress and cardiac contractile dysfunction: involvement of CHOP through Wnt

    PubMed Central

    Shen, M; Wang, L; Wang, B; Wang, T; Yang, G; Shen, L; Wang, T; Guo, X; Liu, Y; Xia, Y; Jia, L; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurring in stringent conditions is critically involved in cardiomyocytes apoptosis and cardiac contractile dysfunction (CCD). However, the molecular machinery that mediates cardiac ER stress and subsequent cell death remains to be fully deciphered, which will hopefully provide novel therapeutic targets for these disorders. Here, we establish tunicamycin-induced model of cardiomyocyte ER stress, which effectively mimicks pathological stimuli to trigger CCD. Tunicamycin activates volume-sensitive outward rectifying Cl− currents. Blockade of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl− channel by 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a non-selective Cl− channel blocker, and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), a selective VSOR Cl− channel blocker, improves cardiac contractility, which correlates with suppressed ER stress through inhibiting the canonical GRP78/eIF2α/ATF4 and XBP1 pathways, and promotes survival of cardiomyocytes by inverting tunicamycin-induced decrease of Wnt through the CHOP pathway. VSOR activation of tunicamycin-treated cardiomyocytes is attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our study demonstrates a pivotal role of ROS/VSOR in mediating ER stress and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes via the CHOP-Wnt pathway, and suggests the therapeutic values of VSOR Cl− channel blockers against ER stress-associated cardiac anomalies. PMID:25412307

  17. Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Geerts, Bart F; Aarts, Leon P; Jansen, Jos R

    2011-01-01

    Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological studies is limited. The ‘holy grail’ for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operator independent, fast responding, non-invasive, continuous, easy to use, cheap and safe. This method does not exist today. In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial pulse contour analysis, ultrasound and bio-impedance are reviewed. PMID:21284692

  18. The immunological response created by interstitial and non-invasive laser immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; West, Connor L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. LIT can be performed through either interstitial or non-invasive laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. The development of LIT has been focused on creating an optimal immune response created by irradiating the tumor. One important factor that could enhance the immune response is the duration of laser irradiation. Irradiating the tumor for a shorter or longer amount of time could weaken the immune response created by LIT. Another factor that could weaken this immune response is the proliferation of regulatory T cells (TRegs) in response to the laser irradiation. However, low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) can help suppress the proliferation of TRegs and help create a more optimal immune response. An additional factor that could weaken the effectiveness of LIT is the selectivity of the laser. If LIT is performed non-invasively, then deeply embedded tumors and highly pigmented skin could cause an uneven temperature distribution inside the tumor. To solve this problem, an immunologically modified carbon nanotube system was created by using an immunoadjuvant known as glycated chitosan (GC) as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. In this preliminary study, tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT either interstitially by an 805-nm laser with GC and low-dose CY, or non-invasively by a 980-nm laser with SWNT-GC. The goal was to observe the effects of CY on the immune response induced by LIT and to also determine the effect of irradiation duration for

  19. Health technology assessment of non-invasive interventions for weight loss and body shape in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nojomi, Marzieh; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Velayati, Ashraf; Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Ahmad; Dadgostar, Haleh; Ghorabi, Gholamhossein; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases is increasing in Iran, and prevention and treatment strategies are needed to address this problem. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome, cost, safety and cost-consequence of non-invasive weight loss interventions in Iran. Methods: We performed a systematic review to compare non-invasive interventions (cryolipolysis and radiofrequency/ ultrasonic cavitation) with semi-invasive (lipolysis) and invasive (liposuction). A sensitive electronic searching was done to find available interventional studies. Reduction of abdomen circumference (cm), reduction in fat layer thickness (%) and weight reduction (kg) were outcomes of efficacy. Meta-analysis with random models was used for pooling efficacy estimates among studies with the same follow-up duration. Average cost per intervention was estimated based on the capital, maintenance, staff, consumable and purchase costs. Results: Of 3,111 studies identified in our reviews, 13 studies assessed lipolysis, 10 cryolipolysis and 8 considered radiofrequency. Nine studies with the same follow-up duration in three different outcome group were included in meta-analysis. Radiofrequency showed an overall pooled estimate of 2.7 cm (95% CI; 2.3-3.1) of mean reduction in circumference of abdomen after intervention. Pooled estimate of reduction in fat layer thickness was 78% (95% CI; 73%-83%) after Lipolysis and a pooled estimate of weight loss was 3.01 kg (95% CI; 2.3-3.6) after lipousuction. The cost analysis revealed no significant differences between the costs of these interventions. Conclusion: The present study showed that non-invasive interventions appear to have better clinical efficacy, specifically in the body shape measurement, and less cost compared to invasive intervention (liposuction) PMID:27390717

  20. Non-invasive measurements of tissue hemodynamics with hybrid diffuse optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durduran, Turgut

    Diffuse optical techniques were used to measure hemodynamics of tissues non-invasively. Spectroscopy and tomography of the brain, muscle and implanted tumors were carried out in animal models and humans. Two qualitatively different methods, diffuse optical tomography and diffuse correlation tomography, were hybridized permitting simultaneous measurement of total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation and blood flow. This combination of information was processed further to derive estimates of oxygen metabolism (e.g. CMRO 2) in tissue. The diffuse correlation measurements of blood flow were demonstrated in human tissues, for the first time, demonstrating continous, non-invasive imaging of oxygen metabolism in large tissue volumes several centimeters below the tissue surface. The bulk of these investigations focussed on cerebral hemodynamics. Extensive validation of this methodology was carried out in in vivo rat brain models. Three dimensional images of deep tissue hemodynamics in middle cerebral artery occlusion and cortical spreading depression (CSD) were obtained. CSD hemodynamics were found to depend strongly on partial pressure of carbon dioxide. The technique was then adapted for measurement of human brain. All optical spectroscopic measurements of CMRO2 during functional activation were obtained through intact human skull non-invasively. Finally, a high spatio-temporal resolution measurement of cerebral blood flow due to somatosensory cortex activation following electrical forepaw stimulation in rats was carried out with laser speckle flowmetry. New analysis methods were introduced for laser speckle flowmetry. In other organs, deep tissue hemodynamics were measured on human calf muscle during exercise and cuff-ischemia and were shown to have some clinical utility for peripheral vascular disease. In mice tumor models, the measured hemodynamics were shown to be predictive of photodynamic therapy efficacy, again suggesting promise of clinical utility

  1. Non-Invasive Brain-to-Brain Interface (BBI): Establishing Functional Links between Two Brains

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Kim, Hyungmin; Filandrianos, Emmanuel; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Park, Shinsuk

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI). In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI) techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat), thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI). The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer’s intention to stimulate a rat’s brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP) with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer’s intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration) to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications. PMID:23573251

  2. A review of non-invasive imaging methods and applications in contaminant hydrogeology research.

    PubMed

    Werth, Charles J; Zhang, Changyong; Brusseau, Mark L; Oostrom, Mart; Baumann, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Contaminant hydrogeological processes occurring in porous media are typically not amenable to direct observation. As a result, indirect measurements (e.g., contaminant breakthrough at a fixed location) are often used to infer processes occurring at different scales, locations, or times. To overcome this limitation, non-invasive imaging methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology research. Four of the most common methods, and the subjects of this review, are optical imaging using UV or visible light, dual-energy gamma radiation, X-ray microtomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Non-invasive imaging techniques have provided valuable insights into a variety of complex systems and processes, including porous media characterization, multiphase fluid distribution, fluid flow, solute transport and mixing, colloidal transport and deposition, and reactions. In this paper we review the theory underlying these methods, applications of these methods to contaminant hydrogeology research, and methods' advantages and disadvantages. As expected, there is no perfect method or tool for non-invasive imaging. However, optical methods generally present the least expensive and easiest options for imaging fluid distribution, solute and fluid flow, colloid transport, and reactions in artificial two-dimensional (2D) porous media. Gamma radiation methods present the best opportunity for characterization of fluid distributions in 2D at the Darcy scale. X-ray methods present the highest resolution and flexibility for three-dimensional (3D) natural porous media characterization, and 3D characterization of fluid distributions in natural porous media. And MRI presents the best option for 3D characterization of fluid distribution, fluid flow, colloid transport, and reaction in artificial porous media. Obvious deficiencies ripe for method development are the ability to image transient processes such as fluid flow and colloid transport in natural porous media in three

  3. Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Lethal Skeletal Dysplasia by Targeted Capture Sequencing of Maternal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaoshen; Chen, Chao; Gao, Changxin; Yu, Song; Liu, Yan; Song, Wei; Asan; Zhu, Hongmei; Yang, Ling; Deng, Hongmei; Su, Yue; Yi, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the discovery of cell-free foetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women, many non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed. In the area of skeletal dysplasia diagnosis, some PCR-based non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed to facilitate the ultrasound diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias that are caused by de novo mutations. However, skeletal dysplasias are a group of heterogeneous genetic diseases, the PCR-based method is hard to detect multiple gene or loci simultaneously, and the diagnosis rate is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using targeted capture sequencing to detect foetal de novo pathogenic mutations responsible for skeletal dysplasia. Methodology/Principal Findings Three families whose foetuses were affected by skeletal dysplasia and two control families whose foetuses were affected by other single gene diseases were included in this study. Sixteen genes related to some common lethal skeletal dysplasias were selected for analysis, and probes were designed to capture the coding regions of these genes. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on the maternal plasma DNA, the maternal genomic DNA, and the paternal genomic DNA. The de novo pathogenic variants in the plasma DNA data were identified using a bioinformatical process developed for low frequency mutation detection and a strict variant interpretation strategy. The causal variants could be specifically identified in the plasma, and the results were identical to those obtained by sequencing amniotic fluid samples. Furthermore, a mean of 97% foetal specific alleles, which are alleles that are not shared by maternal genomic DNA and amniotic fluid DNA, were identified successfully in plasma samples. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that capture sequencing of maternal plasma DNA can be used to non-invasive detection of de novo pathogenic variants. This method has the potential

  4. Comparison of Non-Invasive Methods for the Detection of Coronary Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bampi, Angela Bacelar Albuquerque; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Favarato, Desiderio; Lemos, Pedro Alves; da Luz, Protásio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive detection of atherosclerosis is critical for its prevention. Objective: To correlate non-invasively detectable indicators of coronary atherosclerosis, or Coronary Artery Disease (i.e., classical risk factors, hs-CRP test results, carotid intima-media thickness, endothelial function, ankle-brachial index and calcium score by computed tomography) with the extent of coronary disease assessed by the Friesinger index from conventional coronary angiography. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 100 consecutive patients, mean age 55.1 ± 10.7 years, 55% men and 45% women. Patients with acute coronary syndrome, renal dialytic insufficiency, collagen disease and cancer were not included. All patients were subjected to clinical evaluation and laboratory tests. Endothelial function of the brachial artery and carotid artery were evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound; ankle-brachial index and computed tomography for coronary determination of calcium score were also performed, and non-HDL cholesterol and TG/HDL-c ratio were calculated. All patients were subjected to coronary angiography at the request of the assistant physician. We considered patients without an obstructive lesion (< 29% stenosis) demonstrated by coronary angiography to be normal. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that calcium score, HDL-c, TG/HDL ratio and IMT were significantly correlated with the Friesinger index. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only calcium score and low HDL-c levels correlated significantly with the extension of CAD. On the other hand, hs-CRP, LDL-c, flow-mediated dilation, and Framingham score did not correlate with the Friesinger index. ROC analysis showed that calcium score, HDL-c and TG-HDL ratio accurately predicted extensive CAD in a statistically significant manner. CONCLUSION: It is possible to approximately determine the presence and extent of CAD by non-invasive methods, especially by calcium score, HDL-c and TG/HDL-c ratio assays

  5. A REVIEW OF NON-INVASIVE IMAGING METHODS AND APPLICATIONS IN CONTAMINANT HYDROGEOLOGY RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Werth, Charles J.; Zhang, Changyong; Brusseau, M. L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Baumann, T.

    2010-03-08

    Contaminant hydrogeological processes occurring in porous media are typically not amenable to direct observation. As a result, indirect measurements (e.g., contaminant breakthrough at a fixed location) are often used to infer processes occurring at different scales, locations, or times. To overcome this limitation, non-invasive imaging methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology research. The most common methods, and the subjects of this review, are optical imaging using UV or visible light, dual-energy gamma-radiation, X-ray microtomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Non-invasive imaging techniques have provided valuable insights into a variety of complex systems and processes, including porous media characterization, multiphase fluid distribution, fluid flow, solute transport and mixing, colloidal transport and deposition, and reactions. In this paper we review the theory underlying these methods, applications of these methods to contaminant hydrogeology research, and methods’ advantages and disadvantages. As expected, there is no perfect method or tool for non-invasive imaging. However, optical methods generally present the least expensive and easiest options for imaging fluid distribution, solute and fluid flow, colloid transport, and reactions in artificial two-dimensional (2D) porous media. Gamma radiation methods present the best opportunity for characterization of fluid distributions in 2D at the Darcy scale. X-ray methods present the highest resolution and flexibility for three-dimensional (3D) natural porous media characterization, and 3D characterization of fluid distributions in natural porous media. And MRI presents the best option for 3D characterization of fluid distribution, fluid flow, colloid transport, and reaction in artificial porous media. Obvious deficiencies ripe for method development are the ability to image transient processes such as fluid flow and colloid transport in natural porous media in three

  6. Characterization of arterial wall mechanical behavior and stresses from human clinical data

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Ingrid; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stephane; Humphrey, Jay D.; Zidi, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of material identification and wall stress computation for human common carotid arteries based on non-invasive in vivo clinical data: dynamical intraluminal pressure measured by applanation tonometry, and medial diameter and intimal-medial thickness measured by a high-resolution ultrasound echotracking. The mechanical behavior was quantified assuming an axially pre-stretched, thick-walled, cylindrical artery subjected to dynamical blood pressure and perivascular constraints. The wall was further assumed to be three-dimensional and to consist of a nonlinear, hyperelastic, anisotropic, incompressible material with smooth muscle activity and residual stresses. Mechanical contributions by individual constituents an elastin-dominated matrix, collagen fibers, and vascular smooth muscle were accounted for using a previously proposed microstructurally-motivated constitutive relation. The in vivo boundary value problem was solved semi-analytically to compute the inner pressure during a mean cardiac cycle. Using a nonlinear least-squares method, optimal model parameters were determined by minimizing differences between computed and measured inner pressures over a mean cardiac cycle. The fit-to-data from two healthy patients was very good and the predicted radial, circumferential, and axial stretch and stress fields were sensible. Hence, the proposed approach was able to identify complex geometric and material parameters directly from non-invasive in vivo human data. PMID:18684458

  7. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation therapy in patients with heart failure].

    PubMed

    Dursunoğlu, Dursun; Dursunoğlu, Neşe

    2012-05-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) therapy in patients with acute heart failure (HF) improves left ventricular functions via decreasing left ventricular afterload and reduces intubation rate and short-term mortality. In patients with chronic HF, NIMV therapy eliminates central and obstructive apneas and Cheyne-Stokes respiration, and improves morbidity. There are essentially three modes of NIMV that are used in the treatment of HF: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) and adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Hereby, NIMV therapy in patients with acute and chronic HF is reviewed as well as methods, indications, effectiveness and complications. PMID:22381927

  8. Non-invasive evaluation of arrhythmic risk in dilated cardiomyopathy: From imaging to electrocardiographic measures

    PubMed Central

    Iacoviello, Massimo; Monitillo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Malignant ventricular arrhythmias are a major adverse event and worsen the prognosis of patients affected by ischemic and non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. The main parameter currently used to stratify arrhythmic risk and guide decision making towards the implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator is the evaluation of the left ventricular ejection fraction. However, this strategy is characterized by several limitations and consequently additional parameters have been suggested in order to improve arrhythmic risk stratification. The aim of this review is to critically revise the prognostic significance of non-invasive diagnostic tools in order to better stratify the arrhythmic risk prognosis of dilated cardiomyopathy patients. PMID:25068017

  9. Luminescent Tension-Indicating Orthopedic Strain Gauges for Non-Invasive Measurements Through Tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anker, Jeffrey (Inventor); Rogalski, Melissa (Inventor); Anderson, Dakota (Inventor); Heath, Jonathon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Strain gauges that can provide information with regard to the state of implantable devices are described. The strain gauges can exhibit luminescence that is detectable through living tissue, and the detectable luminescent emission can vary according to the strain applied to the gauge. A change in residual strain of the device can signify a loss of mechanical integrity and/or loosening of the implant, and this can be non-invasively detected either by simple visual detection of the luminescent emission or through examination of the emission with a detector such as a spectrometer or a camera.

  10. A new antenna system for microwave non-invasive hyperthermia lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangbok; Hwang, Joosung; Kwon, Youngwoo; Cheon, Changyul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an antenna system for microwave non-invasive hyperthermia lipolysis. The antenna system consists of a circular waveguide antenna radiating electromagnetic waves, AlN (Aluminum Nitride) radome and heat sink. The AlN radome with heat sink helps to extract heat from the skin to keep skin temperature not to rise during heating the lipolysis. The antenna was designed to be operated with TE(21) mode to maintain uniform temperature over wider area. The usability of the proposed system was verified by performing numerical simulation and hyperthermia lipolysis experiments on rats. PMID:23367220

  11. Transport and Non-Invasive Position Detection of Electron Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Osterhoff, Jens; Sokollik, Thomas; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Michael; Weingartner, R; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; DeSantis, Stefano; Byrd, John; Gruner, F; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-20

    The controlled imaging and transport of ultra-relativistic electrons from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam transport with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the electron source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.

  12. Novel multi wavelength sensor concept to measure carboxy- and methemoglobin concentration non-invasively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, Ulrich; Kraitl, Jens; Gewiss, Helge; Kamysek, Svend; Brock, Beate; Ewald, Hartmut

    2016-03-01

    This paper will describe a novel multi-wavelength photometric method to measure carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) concentration non-invasively. COHb and MetHb are so called dysfunctional hemoglobin derivatives and they are not able to carry oxygen. Standard pulse oximeters are only able to measure two derivatives, namely oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) but the presence of other derivatives in the blood may distort the readings. The paper presents a new approach of a noninvasive sensor system to measure COHb and MetHb and the validation in vivo and in vitro.

  13. [BiPAP (Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure)--an apparatus for non-invasive respiratory support].

    PubMed

    Nørregaard, F O; Vindelev, P O; Juhl, B

    1996-01-22

    Ventilatory support to patients suffering from respiratory insufficiency using a non-invasive technique has gained increasing popularity during the last few years. BiPAP (biphasic positive airway pressure) (Respiconics) offers inspiratory support and expiratory resistance to this group of patients both in the hospital and, in particular, in the home. The apparatus has proven to be effective as for instance a long term support device for patients suffering from neuromuscular diseases, sleep apnoeas and during the postoperative period. It works without pressurized air and is portable. PMID:8638299

  14. Non-invasive temperature measurements by neutron diffraction in aero-engine components

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, T.M.; Root, J.H.; Tennant, D.C.; Leggett, D.

    1995-12-31

    A requirement exists in the aeronautical industry for measuring temperature non-invasively in critical components, such as the turbine disc in an operating engine. Neutron diffraction, unique among nuclear techniques, offers the possibility of measuring both temperature and strain within an operating engine by virtue of the high penetration of neutrons through industrial materials. Static diffraction experiments on Waspaloy and Ti6Al4V showed, by comparison with thermocouples, that both the diffraction peak position and the peak intensity can measure the temperature to within {+-}6 K at 800 K.

  15. A non-invasive test for receptor binding applied to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Britton, K. E.; Tedder, R. S.; Khokhar, A. M.; Brown, N. J.; Davison, A.; Slater, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Studies in animals have determined the importance of specific receptors to the action of many hormones and drugs. In man, a non-invasive external counting technique has been used and absence of receptor function has been demonstrated in a patient with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus using radioactively labelled arginine vasopressin. This is in contrast to the findings in a patient with pituitary diabetes insipidus and a normal control. These results suggest a model for the study of hormone and drug kinetics in man avoiding multiple samplings of biological fluids. PMID:196275

  16. [Research on a non-invasive pulse wave detection and analysis system].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Yu, Gang

    2008-10-01

    A novel non-invasive pulse wave detection and analysis system has been developed, including the software and the hardware. Bi-channel signals can be acquired, stored and shown on the screen dynamically at the same time. Pulse wave can be reshown and printed after pulse wave analysis and pulse wave velocity analysis. This system embraces a computer which is designed for fast data saving, analyzing and processing, and a portable data sampling machine which is based on a singlechip. Experimental results have shown that the system is stable and easy to use, and the parameters are calculated accurately. PMID:19024446

  17. Non-invasive brain stimulation reveals reorganized cortical outputs in amputees.

    PubMed

    Hall, E J; Flament, D; Fraser, C; Lemon, R N

    1990-08-24

    EMG responses to non-invasive electromagnetic brain stimulation (EMS) were recorded from arm muscles of congenital amputees. Responses were obtained with lower thresholds on the amputated than on the intact side and were evoked from a larger cortical area. Contracting muscles showed increased responses to EMS; the increase was more pronounced on the amputated side. Similar findings were obtained in one traumatic amputee who suffered an early amputation, but not in another patient with a late amputation. We conclude that in congenital amputees there is substantial reorganisation of the corticospinal system and that this may also occur in early traumatic cases. PMID:2243618

  18. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleontological cephalopod research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2013-11-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum-maximum size of objects that can be studied, of the degree of post-processing needed and availability. Main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells in order to improve our understanding of diversity and disparity, functional morphology and biology of extinct and extant cephalopods.

  19. Non-invasive respiratory support for infants in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Erik A; Chaudhary, Aasma; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2016-06-01

    The overwhelming majority of neonatal deaths worldwide occur in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these deaths are attributable to respiratory illnesses and complications of preterm birth. The available data suggest that non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a safe and cost-effective therapy to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality in these settings. Bubble CPAP compared to mechanical ventilator-generated CPAP reduces the need for subsequent invasive ventilation in newborn infants. There are limited data on the safety and efficacy of high-flow nasal cannulae in low- and middle-income countries, requiring further study prior to widespread implementation. PMID:26915655

  20. Intercomparison of techniques for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of methods are presently available for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass of both normal individuals and patients with metabolic disorders. Chief among these methods are radiographic techniques such as radiogrammetry, photon absorptiometry, computer tomography, Compton scattering and neutron activation analysis. In this review, the salient features of the bone measurement techniques are discussed along with their accuracy and precision. The advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques for measuring bone mass are summarized. Where possible, intercomparisons are made of the various techniques.

  1. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative patients. A clinical review].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of ventilatory support that is increasing in importance day by day in the management of postoperative respiratory failure. Its role in the prevention and treatment of atelectasis is particularly important in the in the period after thoracic and abdominal surgeries. Similarly, in the transplanted patient, NIV can shorten the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, reducing the risk of infectious complications in these high-risk patients. It has been performed A systematic review of the literature has been performed, including examining the technical, clinical experiences and recommendations concerning the application of NIV in the postoperative period. PMID:25892605

  2. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Focal Hand Dystonia: Update and Future Direction

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Joo; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Focal hand dystonia (FHD) is characterized by excessive and unwanted muscle activation in both the hand and arm resulting in impaired performance in particular tasks. Understanding the pathophysiology of FHD has progressed significantly for several decades and this has led to consideration of other potential therapies such as non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). A number of studies have been conducted to develop new therapy for FHD using transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. In this paper, we review previous studies and describe the potential therapeutic use of NIBS for FHD. We also discuss the future direction of NIBS to treat FHD. PMID:27240806

  3. Validation of a non-invasive arterial monitor GATE model for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giansiracusa, P. J.; Peake, D. J.; Sobott, B. A.; O'Keefe, G.; Rassool, R. P.

    2014-02-01

    The Non-Invasive Arterial Monitor (NIAM3) is an SiPM based detector system designed for calibrating Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) images without invasive blood sampling. By imaging the radial and ulnar arteries in the wrist directly with a custom built PET system the resultant PET images can be calibrated. An integral step in the development of a complex detector system is the creation of a model which accurately reflects the physical reality being studied. This paper describes the development of a simulation for NIAM which shows good agreement between the model and physical detector setup.

  4. Urine Exosomes for Non-Invasive Assessment of Gene Expression and Mutations of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Neda; Salazar, Guillermo; Shapiro, Edan; Ahn, Jennifer; Lipsky, Michael; Lin, James; Hruby, Greg W.; Badani, Ketan K.; Petrylak, Daniel P.; Benson, Mitchell C.; Donovan, Michael J.; Comper, Wayne D.; McKiernan, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The analysis of exosome/microvesicle (extracellular vesicles (EVs)) and the RNA packaged within them (exoRNA) has the potential to provide a non-invasive platform to detect and monitor disease related gene expression potentially in lieu of more invasive procedures such as biopsy. However, few studies have tested the diagnostic potential of EV analysis in humans. Experimental Design The ability of EV analysis to accurately reflect prostate tissue mRNA expression was examined by comparing urinary EV TMPRSS2:ERG exoRNA from pre-radical prostatectomy (RP) patients versus corresponding RP tissue in 21 patients. To examine the differential expression of TMPRSS2:ERG across patient groups a random urine sample was taken without prostate massage from a cohort of 207 men including prostate biopsy negative (Bx Neg, n = 39), prostate biopsy positive (Bx Pos, n = 47), post-radical prostatectomy (post-RP, n = 37), un-biopsied healthy age-matched men (No Bx, n = 44), and young male controls (Cont, n = 40). The use of EVs was also examined as a potential platform to non-invasively differentiate Bx Pos versus Bx Neg patients via the detection of known prostate cancer genes TMPRSS2:ERG, BIRC5, ERG, PCA3 and TMPRSS2. Results In this technical pilot study urinary EVs had a sensitivity: 81% (13/16), specificity: 80% (4/5) and an overall accuracy: 81% (17/21) for non-invasive detection of TMPRSS2:ERG versus RP tissue. The rate of TMPRSS2:ERG exoRNA detection was found to increase with age and the expression level correlated with Bx Pos status. Receiver operator characteristic analyses demonstrated that various cancer-related genes could differentiate Bx Pos from Bx Neg patients using exoRNA isolated from urinary EVs: BIRC5 (AUC 0.674 (CI:0.560–0.788), ERG (AUC 0.785 (CI:0.680–0.890), PCA3 (AUC 0.681 (CI:0.567–0.795), TMPRSS2:ERG (AUC 0.744 (CI:0.600–0.888), and TMPRSS2 (AUC 0.637 (CI:0.519–0.754). Conclusion This pilot study suggests that urinary EVs have the potential

  5. A Glucose Sensing Contact Lens: A Non-Invasive Technique for Continuous Physiological Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a range of glucose sensing contact lenses, using a daily, disposable contact lens embedded with newly developed boronic acid containing fluorophores. Our findings show that our approach may be suitable for the continuous monitoring of tear glucose levels in the range 50–1000 μM, which typically track blood glucose levels, which are ≈5–10 fold higher. Our non-invasive approach may well offer an alternative solution to current invasive glucose monitoring techniques for diabetes, such as “finger pricking.” PMID:27340364

  6. Transport and Non-Invasive Position Detection of Electron Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Osterhoff, J.; Nakamura, K.; Bakeman, M.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Shiraishi, S.; Lin, C.; Tilborg, J. van; Geddes, C. G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Toth, Cs.; De Santis, S.; Byrd, J. M.; Leemans, W. P.; Sokollik, T.; Weingartner, R.; Gruener, F.

    2010-11-04

    The controlled imaging and transport of ultra-relativistic electrons from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam transport with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the electron source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.

  7. Method for Non-Invasive Determination of Chemical Properties of Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul W. (Inventor); Jones, Alan (Inventor); Thomas, Nathan A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for non-invasively determining a chemical property of an aqueous solution is provided. The method provides the steps of providing a colored solute having a light absorbance spectrum and transmitting light through the colored solute at two different wavelengths. The method further provides the steps of measuring light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different transmitted light wavelengths, and comparing the light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different wavelengths to determine a chemical property of an aqueous solution.

  8. Non-invasive measurements of granular flows by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, M.; Altobelli, S.A.; Caprihan, A.; Fukushima, E.; Jeong, E.K.

    1993-01-20

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to measure granular-flow in a partially filled, steadily rotating, long, horizontal cylinder. This non-invasive technique can yield statistically averaged two-dimensional concentrations and velocity profiles anywhere in the flow of suitable granular materials. First, rigid body motion of a cylinder fill with granular material was studied to confirm the validity of this method. Then, the density variation of the flowing layer where particles collide and dilate, and the depth of the flowing layer and the flow velocity profile were obtained as a function of the cylinder rotation rate.

  9. Dielectric spectroscopy for non-invasive monitoring of epithelial cell differentiation within three-dimensional scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Jamal; Asami, Koji; Rosenberg, Lawrence; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we introduce a cellular differentiation cellular model based on dielectric spectroscopy that characterizes epithelial differentiation processes. Non-invasive cellular monitoring was achieved within a three-dimensional microenvironment consisting of a cell-containing collagen I gel seeded onto microfabricated scaffolds. In this proof-of-concept investigation, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were cultured within microfabricated, geometrically controlled scaffolds and allowed us to differentiate to hollow cyst-like structures. This transformation within the three-dimensional environment is monitored and characterized through dielectric spectroscopy while maintaining cell culture in vitro.

  10. 1NON-INVASIVE RADIOIODINE IMAGING FOR ACCURATE QUANTITATION OF NIS REPORTER GENE EXPRESSION IN TRANSPLANTED HEARTS

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Davide; Mennander, Ari A; Pham, Linh D; Rao, Vinay P; Miyagi, Naoto; Byrne, Guerard W; Russell, Stephen J; McGregor, Christopher GA

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We studied the concordance of transgene expression in the transplanted heart using bicistronic adenoviral vector coding for a transgene of interest (human carcinoembryonic antigen: hCEA - beta human chorionic gonadotropin: βhCG) and for a marker imaging transgene (human sodium iodide symporter: hNIS). Methods Inbred Lewis rats were used for syngeneic heterotopic cardiac transplantation. Donor rat hearts were perfused ex vivo for 30 minutes prior to transplantation with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n=3), with 109 pfu/ml of adenovirus expressing hNIS (Ad-NIS; n=6), hNIS-hCEA (Ad-NIS-CEA; n=6) and hNIS-βhCG (Ad-NIS-CG; n=6). On post-operative day (POD) 5, 10, 15 all animals underwent micro-SPECT/CT imaging of the donor hearts after tail vein injection of 1000 μCi 123I and blood sample collection for hCEA and βhCG quantification. Results Significantly higher image intensity was noted in the hearts perfused with Ad-NIS (1.1±0.2; 0.9±0.07), Ad-NIS-CEA (1.2±0.3; 0.9±0.1) and Ad-NIS-CG (1.1±0.1; 0.9±0.1) compared to UW group (0.44±0.03; 0.47±0.06) on POD 5 and 10 (p<0.05). Serum levels of hCEA and βhCG increased in animals showing high cardiac 123I uptake, but not in those with lower uptake. Above this threshold, image intensities correlated well with serum levels of hCEA and βhCG (R2=0.99 and R2=0.96 respectively). Conclusions These data demonstrate that hNIS is an excellent reporter gene for the transplanted heart. The expression level of hNIS can be accurately and non-invasively monitored by serial radioisotopic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. High concordance has been demonstrated between imaging and soluble marker peptides at the maximum transgene expression on POD 5. PMID:17980613

  11. Low nourishment of B-vitamins is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress in newly diagnosed cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Waly, Mostafa I; Ali, Amanat; Al-Nassri, Amira; Al-Mukhaini, Mohamed; Valliatte, John; Al-Farsi, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    We are currently witnessing a dramatic change in lifestyle and food choices that is accompanied with an increase in the rate of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although studies have reported an association of CVD with hyperhomocysteinemia-mediated oxidative stress, the biochemical basis is not known. This case-control study was aimed to evaluate the nutritional and biochemical status of B-vitamins in relation to hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress in newly diagnosed cardiac patients. The retrospective dietary intake of the study subjects (cases and controls) was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were drawn to assess their serum levels of B-vitamins (folate, vitamins B6 and B12), homocysteine (HCY), and oxidative stress indices such as glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrites and nitrates (NN). It was observed that the cases had a lower dietary intake of B-vitamins as compared to their matched control subjects as well as to the corresponding recommended dietary allowances. Biochemical analysis of cases, as compared to controls, indicated depletion of GSH, impairment of TAC, and an elevation in the serum levels of HCY, MDA, and NN. These results suggest that lower status (dietary intake and serum levels) of B-vitamins is involved in the etiology of hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress, the typical risk factors for CVD. PMID:26246496

  12. Azelnidipine prevents cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats by reducing intracellular calcium accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous evidences suggest that diabetic heart is characterized by compromised ventricular contraction and prolonged relaxation attributable to multiple causative factors including calcium accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therapeutic interventions to prevent calcium accumulation and oxidative stress could be therefore helpful in improving the cardiac function under diabetic condition. Methods This study was designed to examine the effect of long-acting calcium channel blocker (CCB), Azelnidipine (AZL) on contractile dysfunction, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) cycling proteins, stress-activated signaling molecules and apoptosis on cardiomyocytes in diabetes. Adult male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Contractile functions were traced from live diabetic rats to isolated individual cardiomyocytes including peak shortening (PS), time-to-PS (TPS), time-to-relengthening (TR90), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (± dL/dt) and intracellular Ca2+ fluorescence. Results Diabetic heart showed significantly depressed PS, ± dL/dt, prolonged TPS, TR90 and intracellular Ca2+ clearing and showed an elevated resting intracellular Ca2+. AZL itself exhibited little effect on myocyte mechanics but it significantly alleviated STZ-induced myocyte contractile dysfunction. Diabetes increased the levels of superoxide, enhanced expression of the cardiac damage markers like troponin I, p67phox NADPH oxidase subunit, restored the levels of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), calcium regulatory proteins RyR2 and SERCA2a, and suppressed the levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. All of these STZ-induced alterations were reconciled by AZL treatment. Conclusion Collectively, the data suggest beneficial effect of AZL in diabetic cardiomyopathy via altering intracellular Ca2+ handling proteins and preventing apoptosis by its antioxidant property. PMID:22054019

  13. Detecting the exposure to Cd and PCBs by means of a non-invasive transcriptomic approach in laboratory and wild contaminated European eels (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Baillon, Lucie; Pierron, Fabien; Oses, Jennifer; Pannetier, Pauline; Normandeau, Eric; Couture, Patrice; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Lambert, Patrick; Bernatchez, Louis; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2016-03-01

    Detecting and separating specific effects of contaminants in a multi-stress field context remain a major challenge in ecotoxicology. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of a non-invasive transcriptomic method, by means of a complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray comprising 1000 candidate genes, on caudal fin clips. Fin gene transcription patterns of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) exposed in the laboratory to cadmium (Cd) or a polychloro-biphenyl (PCBs) mixture but also of wild eels from three sampling sites with differing contamination levels were compared to test whether fin clips may be used to detect and discriminate the exposure to these contaminants. Also, transcriptomic profiles from the liver and caudal fin of eels experimentally exposed to Cd were compared to assess the detection sensitivity of the fin transcriptomic response. A similar number of genes were differentially transcribed in the fin and liver in response to Cd exposure, highlighting the detection sensitivity of fin clips. Moreover, distinct fin transcription profiles were observed in response to Cd or PCB exposure. Finally, the transcription profiles of eels from the most contaminated site clustered with those from laboratory-exposed fish. This study thus highlights the applicability and usefulness of performing gene transcription assays on non-invasive tissue sampling in order to detect the in situ exposure to Cd and PCBs in fish. PMID:26566612

  14. Distinct pathways regulate proapoptotic Nix and BNip3 in cardiac stress.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Anita S; Brunskill, Eric W; Marreez, Yehia; Benner, Bonnie J; Regula, Kelly M; Kirschenbaum, Lorrie A; Dorn, Gerald W

    2006-01-20

    Up-regulation of myocardial Nix and BNip3 is associated with apoptosis in cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia, respectively. To identify mechanisms of gene regulation for these critical cardiac apoptosis effectors, the determinants of Nix and BNip3 promoter activation were elucidated by luciferase reporter gene expression in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. BNip3 transcription was increased by hypoxia but not by phenylephrine (10 microM), angiotensin II (100 nM), or isoproterenol (10 microM). In contrast, Nix transcription was increased by phenylephrine but not by isoproterenol, angiotensin II, or hypoxia. Since phenylephrine stimulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via protein kinase C (PKC), the effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 10 nM for 24 h) and adenoviral PKC expression were assessed. PMA and PKC alpha, but not PKC epsilon or dominant negative PKC alpha, increased Nix transcription. Multiple Nix promoter GC boxes bound transcription factor Sp-1, and basal and PMA- or PKC alpha-stimulated Nix promoter activity was suppressed by mithramycin inhibition of Sp1-DNA interactions. In vivo determinants of Nix expression were evaluated in Nix promoter-luciferase (NixP) transgenic mice that underwent ischemia-reperfusion (1 h/24 h), transverse aortic coarctation (TAC), or cross-breeding with the G(q) overexpression model of hypertrophy. Luciferase activity increased in G alpha(q)-NixP hearts 3.2 +/- 0.4-fold and in TAC hearts 2.8 +/- 0.4-fold but did not increase with infarction-reperfusion. NixP activity was proportional to the extent of TAC hypertrophy and was inhibited by mithramycin. These studies revealed distinct mechanisms of transcriptional regulation for cardiac Nix and BNip3. BNip3 is hypoxia-inducible, whereas Nix expression was induced by G alpha(q)-mediated hypertrophic stimuli. PKC alpha, a G(q) effector, transduced Nix transcriptional induction via Sp1. PMID:16291751

  15. PHD2/3-dependent hydroxylation tunes cardiac response to β-adrenergic stress via phospholamban

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liang; Pi, Xinchun; Townley-Tilson, W.H. Davin; Li, Na; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Entman, Mark L.; Taffet, George E.; Mishra, Ashutosh; Peng, Junmin; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Meissner, Gerhard; Patterson, Cam

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of heart failure. Both clinical trials and experimental animal studies demonstrate that chronic hypoxia can induce contractile dysfunction even before substantial ventricular damage, implicating a direct role of oxygen in the regulation of cardiac contractile function. Prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins are well recognized as oxygen sensors and mediate a wide variety of cellular events by hydroxylating a growing list of protein substrates. Both PHD2 and PHD3 are highly expressed in the heart, yet their functional roles in modulating contractile function remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that combined deletion of Phd2 and Phd3 dramatically decreased expression of phospholamban (PLN), resulted in sustained activation of calcium/calmodulin-activated kinase II (CaMKII), and sensitized mice to chronic β-adrenergic stress–induced myocardial injury. We have provided evidence that thyroid hormone receptor-α (TR-α), a transcriptional regulator of PLN, interacts with PHD2 and PHD3 and is hydroxylated at 2 proline residues. Inhibition of PHDs increased the interaction between TR-α and nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCOR2) and suppressed Pln transcription. Together, these obse