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Sample records for non-invasive prenatal testing

  1. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making. PMID:26530119

  2. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues explored

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Frints, Suzanne G M; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become ‘normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical traits as well. In our view, however, the real moral challenge of NIPD testing consists in the possibility of linking up a technique with these features (easy, safe and early) with new genomic technologies that allow prenatal diagnostic testing for a much broader range of abnormalities than is the case in current procedures. An increase in uptake and more selective abortions need not in itself be taken to signal a thoughtless acceptance of these procedures. However, combining this with considerably enlarging the scope of NIPD testing will indeed make informed consent more difficult and challenge the notion of prenatal screening as serving reproductive autonomy. If broad NIPD testing includes later-onset diseases, the ‘right not to know' of the future child will become a new issue in the debate about prenatal screening. With regard to the controversial issue of selective abortion, it may make a morally relevant difference that after NIPD testing, abortion can be done early. A lower moral status may be attributed to the foetus at that moment, given the dominant opinion that the moral status of the foetus progressively increases with its development. PMID:19953123

  3. Public viewpoints on new non-invasive prenatal genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Farrimond, Hannah R; Kelly, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal screening programmes have been critiqued for their routine implementation according to clinical rationale without public debate. A new approach, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD), promises diagnosis of fetal genetic disorders from a sample of maternal blood without the miscarriage risk of current invasive prenatal tests (e.g. amniocentesis). Little research has investigated the attitudes of wider publics to NIPD. This study used Q-methodology, which combines factor analysis with qualitative comments, to identify four distinct "viewpoints" amongst 71 UK men and women: 1. NIPD as a new tool in the ongoing societal discrimination against the disabled; 2. NIPD as a positive clinical application offering peace of mind in pregnancy; 3. NIPD as a medical option justified for severe disorders only; and 4. NIPD as a valid expansion of personal choice. Concerns included the "trivialisation of testing" and the implications of commercial/direct-to-consumer tests. Q-methodology has considerable potential to identify viewpoints and frame public debate about new technologies. PMID:23885055

  4. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  5. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  6. Attitudes Towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy Among United States Adults of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Sayres, Lauren C.; Goodspeed, Taylor A.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) To determine how adults in the United States (US) view non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA testing) in order to help estimate uptake. Study Design A national sample of 1,861 US-based adults was surveyed using a validated online survey instrument. The survey was administered by a commercial survey research company. Respondents were randomized to receive a survey about prenatal testing for trisomy 13 and 18 or trisomy 21. Participants were asked to select among testing modalities, including cffDNA testing, and rank the features of testing that they considered most important to decision making. Results There was substantive interest in the use of cffDNA testing rather than traditional screening mechanisms with a minority of respondents reporting that they would support the use of both methods in combination. The lower rates of false negative and false positive test results and the ability to use the test earlier in the pregnancy were the most highly rated benefits of cffDNA testing. Participants expressed strong support for diagnostic confirmation via invasive testing after a positive result from either screening or cffDNA testing. However, almost one-third of participants reported that they would not endorse the use of either invasive or non-invasive prenatal testing. Conclusion(s) There appears to be support for uptake of non-invasive prenatal tests. Clinical guidelines should therefor go forward in providing guidance on how to integrate non-invasive methods into current standard of care. However, our findings indicate that even when accuracy, which is rated by patients as the most important aspect of prenatal testing, is significantly improved over existing screening methods and testing is offered non-invasively, the number of individuals who reported that they would decline any testing remained the same. Attention should therefor be directed at ensuring that the right of informed refusal of prenatal testing is not impacted

  7. Best Ethical Practices for Clinicians and Laboratories in the Provision of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Allyse, MA; Sayres, LC; Havard, M; King, JS; Greely, HT; Hudgins, L; Taylor, J; Norton, ME; Cho, MK; Magnus, D; Ormond, KE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an ethical framework for clinicians and companies providing non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA or whole fetal cells. Method In collaboration with an NIH-supported research ethics consultation committee, together with feedback from an inter-disciplinary group of clinicians, members of industry, legal experts and genetic counselors we developed a set of best practices for the provision of non-invasive prenatal genetic testing. Results Principal recommendations include the amendment of current informed consent procedures to include attention to the non-invasive nature of new testing and the potential for a broader range of results earlier in the pregnancy. We strongly recommend that tests should only be provided through licensed medical providers and not direct-to-consumer. Conclusion Prenatal tests, including new methods using cell-free fetal DNA, are not currently regulated by government agencies and limited professional guidance is available. In the absence of regulation, companies and clinicians should cooperate to adopt responsible best ethical practices in the provision of these tests. PMID:23613322

  8. Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT): Better Meet an Expert!

    PubMed Central

    Ohnhaeuser, T.; Schmitz, D.

    2016-01-01

    While NIPT is being implemented rapidly, the implementation of a corresponding specialized counselling process in many respects lags behind. As a consequence, legal requirements and other testing conditions sometimes are not fulfilled adequately. The reported case illustrates the importance of trained personnel in the counselling and NIPT process and shows so far neglected risks for the pregnant woman and her reproductive autonomy. PMID:27064737

  9. Questioning the costs and benefits of non-invasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Katie; Lutgendorf, Monica; Knutzen, Dana; Nielsen, Peter E

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal testing for Down syndrome through the use of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been increasingly implemented in clinical practice and a recent cost analysis suggests that NIPT is cost effective when compared to other screening modalities in high risk populations. However, this anaylsis makes many assumptions regarding uptake of testing and pregnancy termination, which cannot be applied to all populations in the United States. Additionally, this cost analysis, which hinges on fewer Down syndrome births, does not align with the goals of prenatal testing to support autonomous and value consistent decisions. NIPT is an expensive new technology and more careful analysis is needed to determine the impact of NIPT on outcomes and overall healthcare costs. PMID:23808328

  10. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Benn, P; Cuckle, H; Pergament, E

    2013-07-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma is revolutionizing prenatal screening and diagnosis. We review NIPT in the context of established screening and invasive technologies, the range of cytogenetic abnormalities detectable, cost, counseling and ethical issues. Current NIPT approaches involve whole-genome sequencing, targeted sequencing and assessment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between mother and fetus. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of NIPT for Down and Edwards syndromes, and possibly Patau syndrome, in high-risk women. Universal NIPT is not cost-effective, but using NIPT contingently in women found at moderate or high risk by conventional screening is cost-effective. Positive NIPT results must be confirmed using invasive techniques. Established screening, fetal ultrasound and invasive procedures with microarray testing allow the detection of a broad range of additional abnormalities not yet detectable by NIPT. NIPT approaches that take advantage of SNP information potentially allow the identification of parent of origin for imbalances, triploidy, uniparental disomy and consanguinity, and separate evaluation of dizygotic twins. Fetal fraction enrichment, improved sequencing and selected analysis of the most informative sequences should result in tests for additional chromosomal abnormalities. Providing adequate prenatal counseling poses a substantial challenge given the broad range of prenatal testing options now available. PMID:23765643

  11. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    van Schendel, Rachèl V; Kleinveld, Johanna H; Dondorp, Wybo J; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R M; Holtkamp, Kim C A; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L; Lachmeijer, Augusta M A; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherlands). Five focus groups with low-risk pregnant women (n=28), three focus groups with men (n=19) and 13 interviews with high- and low-risk pregnant women were conducted. Participants felt that current prenatal screening has great disadvantages such as uncertain results and risk of miscarriage from follow-up diagnostics. Characteristics of NIPT (accurate, safe and early testing) could therefore diminish these disadvantages of prenatal screening and help lower the barrier for participation. This suggests that NIPT might allow couples to decide about prenatal testing based mostly on their will to test or not, rather than largely based on fear of miscarriage risk or the uncertainty of results. The lower barrier for participation was also seen as a downside that could lead to uncritical use or pressure to test. Widening the scope of prenatal testing was seen as beneficial for severe disorders, although it was perceived difficult to determine where to draw the line. Participants argued that there should be a limit to the scope of NIPT, avoiding testing for minor abnormalities. The findings suggest that NIPT could enable more meaningful decision-making for prenatal screening. However, to ensure voluntary participation, especially when testing for multiple disorders, safeguards on the basis of informed decision-making will be of utmost importance. PMID:24642832

  12. An easy test but a hard decision: ethical issues concerning non-invasive prenatal testing for autosomal recessive disorders.

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather; Goldsmith, Lesley; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal testing based on cell-free fetal DNA in maternal serum is now possible for specific monogenic conditions, and studies have shown that the use of non-invasive testing is supported by prospective parents and health professionals. However, some ethical issues have been raised concerning informed consent and paternal rights. The objective of this study was to explore ethical aspects of the use of non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing for autosomal recessive disorders. We used a qualitative cross-sectional design, based on Thematic Analysis, and recruited 27 individuals of reproductive age who were carriers of one of four conditions: thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis or spinal muscular atrophy. Data were collected via focus groups or interviews. Participants were aware of the potential for such tests to be viewed as routine and suggested that obtaining written consent and allowing time for consideration is needed to facilitate autonomous choice and informed consent. All participants felt that mothers should be able to request such tests, but fathers who declined carrier testing should be made aware that fetal test results may reveal their status. We suggest that a written record of consent for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis should be used as a standard to help reinforce the serious nature of the test results. Where the father's carrier status could be revealed through fetal testing, he should be made aware of this before the results are available. Health professionals should discuss with the pregnant woman the best way to manage unsought information about the father's carrier status to minimise family disruption. PMID:25351779

  13. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    PubMed Central

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  14. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  15. Performance of Momguard, a new non-invasive prenatal testing protocol developed in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Hwang, Ah Reum; Jeong, Bada; Kim, Jihun; Oh, Mijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of Momguard, non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for detecting trisomy (T) 21, T18, T13, and sex-chromosome abnormalities recently developed in Korea. Methods This preliminary study formed part of a large prospective cohort study conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Only pregnant women who underwent both NIPT and confirmatory karyotyping were included in this study. NIPT results were compared with those of karyotype analyses. Results Among 93 eligible cases, NIPT results could not be obtained in one case due to a low fetal cell-free DNA fraction. Based on NIPT, eight cases of fetal aneuploidies, including T21 (n=5), T18 (n=2), and T13 (n=1), were identified. For T21 and T18, the sensitivity and specificity of NIPT were both 100%, with a false-positive and false-negative rate of 0% and a positive-predictive value of 100%. One patient classified as having intermediate risk for T13 by NIPT was confirmed to have T13 by karyotyping, and there were no false-negative cases. No cases of sex-chromosome anomalies were detected by NIPT or karyotyping during the study period. Conclusion Momguard is a reliable screening tool for detecting T21 and T18. For T13 and sex-chromosome anomalies, further prospective studies are necessary to confirm its utility. PMID:26430657

  16. Limited Clinical Utility of Non-invasive Prenatal Testing for Subchromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kitty K.; Karampetsou, Evangelia; Boustred, Christopher; McKay, Fiona; Mason, Sarah; Hill, Melissa; Plagnol, Vincent; Chitty, Lyn S.

    2016-01-01

    The use of massively parallel sequencing of maternal cfDNA for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of aneuploidy is widely available. Recently, the scope of testing has increased to include selected subchromosomal abnormalities, but the number of samples reported has been small. We developed a calling pipeline based on a segmentation algorithm for the detection of these rearrangements in maternal plasma. The same read depth used in our standard pipeline for aneuploidy NIPT detected 15/18 (83%) samples with pathogenic rearrangements > 6 Mb but only 2/10 samples with rearrangements < 6 Mb, unless they were maternally inherited. There were two false-positive calls in 534 samples with no known subchromosomal abnormalities (specificity 99.6%). Using higher read depths, we detected 29/31 fetal subchromosomal abnormalities, including the three samples with maternally inherited microduplications. We conclude that test sensitivity is a function of the fetal fraction, read depth, and size of the fetal CNV and that at least one of the two false negatives is due to a low fetal fraction. The lack of an independent method for determining fetal fraction, especially for female fetuses, leads to uncertainty in test sensitivity, which currently has implications for this technique’s future as a clinical diagnostic test. Furthermore, to be effective, NIPT must be able to detect chromosomal rearrangements across the whole genome for a very low false-positive rate. Because standard NIPT can only detect the majority of larger (>6 Mb) chromosomal rearrangements and requires knowledge of fetal fraction, we consider that it is not yet ready for routine clinical implementation. PMID:26708752

  17. Limited Clinical Utility of Non-invasive Prenatal Testing for Subchromosomal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kitty K; Karampetsou, Evangelia; Boustred, Christopher; McKay, Fiona; Mason, Sarah; Hill, Melissa; Plagnol, Vincent; Chitty, Lyn S

    2016-01-01

    The use of massively parallel sequencing of maternal cfDNA for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of aneuploidy is widely available. Recently, the scope of testing has increased to include selected subchromosomal abnormalities, but the number of samples reported has been small. We developed a calling pipeline based on a segmentation algorithm for the detection of these rearrangements in maternal plasma. The same read depth used in our standard pipeline for aneuploidy NIPT detected 15/18 (83%) samples with pathogenic rearrangements > 6 Mb but only 2/10 samples with rearrangements < 6 Mb, unless they were maternally inherited. There were two false-positive calls in 534 samples with no known subchromosomal abnormalities (specificity 99.6%). Using higher read depths, we detected 29/31 fetal subchromosomal abnormalities, including the three samples with maternally inherited microduplications. We conclude that test sensitivity is a function of the fetal fraction, read depth, and size of the fetal CNV and that at least one of the two false negatives is due to a low fetal fraction. The lack of an independent method for determining fetal fraction, especially for female fetuses, leads to uncertainty in test sensitivity, which currently has implications for this technique's future as a clinical diagnostic test. Furthermore, to be effective, NIPT must be able to detect chromosomal rearrangements across the whole genome for a very low false-positive rate. Because standard NIPT can only detect the majority of larger (>6 Mb) chromosomal rearrangements and requires knowledge of fetal fraction, we consider that it is not yet ready for routine clinical implementation. PMID:26708752

  18. For your interest? The ethical acceptability of using non-invasive prenatal testing to test 'purely for information'.

    PubMed

    Deans, Zuzana; Clarke, Angus J; Newson, Ainsley J

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is an emerging form of prenatal genetic testing that provides information about the genetic constitution of a foetus without the risk of pregnancy loss as a direct result of the test procedure. As with other prenatal tests, information from NIPT can help to make a decision about termination of pregnancy, plan contingencies for birth or prepare parents to raise a child with a genetic condition. NIPT can also be used by women and couples to test purely 'for information'. Here, no particular action is envisaged following the test; it is motivated entirely by an interest in the result. The fact that NIPT can be performed without posing a risk to the pregnancy could give rise to an increase in such requests. In this paper, we examine the ethical aspects of using NIPT 'purely for information', including the competing interests of the prospective parents and the future child, and the acceptability of testing for 'frivolous' reasons. Drawing on several clinical scenarios, we claim that arguments about testing children for genetic conditions are relevant to this debate. In addition, we raise ethical concerns over the potential for objectification of the child. We conclude that, in most cases, using NIPT to test for adult-onset conditions, carrier status or non-serious traits presenting in childhood would be unacceptable. PMID:25521970

  19. Positive Attitudes towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) in a Swedish Cohort of 1,003 Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Gustavsson, Peter; Wincent, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The clinical utilization of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for identification of fetal aneuploidies is expanding worldwide. The aim of this study was to gain an increased understanding of pregnant women’s awareness, attitudes, preferences for risk information and decision-making concerning prenatal examinations with emphasis on NIPT, before its introduction into Swedish healthcare. Method Pregnant women were recruited to fill in a questionnaire, including multiple-choice questions and Likert scales, at nine maternity clinics located in different areas of Stockholm, Sweden. Results In total, 1,003 women participated in the study (86% consent rate). The vast majority (90.7%) considered examinations aiming to detect fetal abnormalities to be good. Regarding NIPT, 59.8% stated that they had heard about the method previously, yet 74.0% would like to use the test if available. The main factor affecting the women’s decision to undergo prenatal chromosomal screening was worry about the baby’s health (82.5%), followed by the urge to have as much information as possible about the fetus (54.5%). Most women (79.9%) preferred to receive NIPT information orally. Conclusion The overwhelming majority of a cohort of 1,003 pregnant women considered prenatal examinations good. Moreover, the majority had a positive attitude towards NIPT and would like to use the test if available. PMID:27195496

  20. Non-invasive prenatal aneuploidy testing at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, using targeted sequencing of polymorphic loci

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Bernhard; Hill, Matthew; Gemelos, George; Demko, Zachary; Banjevic, Milena; Baner, Johan; Ryan, Allison; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Chopra, Nikhil; Dodd, Michael; Levy, Brynn; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Objective Develop a non-invasive prenatal test based on analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal blood to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y. Methods 166 samples from pregnant women, including eleven trisomy 21, three trisomy 18, two trisomy 13, two 45,X, and two 47,XXY samples were analyzed using an informatics-based method. Cell-free DNA from maternal blood was isolated and amplified using a multiplex PCR assay targeting 11,000 SNPs on chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y in a single reaction, then sequenced. A Bayesian-based Maximum Likelihood statistical method was applied to determine the chromosomal count of the five chromosomes interrogated in each sample, along with a sample-specific calculated accuracy for each test result. Results The algorithm correctly reported the chromosome copy number at all five chromosomes in 145 samples that passed a DNA quality test, for a total of 725/725 correct calls. The average calculated accuracy for these samples was 99.92%. Twenty-one samples did not pass the DNA quality test. Conclusions This informatics-based method non-invasively detected fetuses with trisomy 13, 18, and 21, 45,X, and 47,XXY with high sample-specific calculated accuracies for each individual chromosome and across all five chromosomes. PMID:23108718

  1. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing Using Cell Free DNA in Maternal Plasma: Recent Developments and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetic technologies have facilitated non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) through the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. NIPT can be used to identify monogenic disorders including the identification of autosomal recessive disorders where the maternally inherited mutation needs to be identified in the presence of an excess of maternal DNA that contains the same mutation. In the future, simultaneous screening for multiple monogenic disorders is anticipated. Several NIPT methods have been developed to screen for trisomy. These have been shown to be effective for fetal trisomy 21, 18 and 13. Although the testing has been extended to sex chromosome aneuploidy, robust estimates of the efficacy are not yet available and maternal mosaicism for gain or loss of an X-chromosome needs to be considered. Using methods based on the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms, diandric triploidy can be identified. NIPT is being developed to identify a number of microdeletion syndromes including α-globin gene deletion. NIPT is a profoundly important development in prenatal care that is substantially advancing the individual patient and public health benefits achieved through conventional prenatal screening and diagnosis. PMID:26237390

  2. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal sex determination: is ultrasound still relevant?

    PubMed

    Colmant, Claire; Morin-Surroca, Michèle; Fuchs, Florent; Fernandez, Hervé; Senat, Marie-Victoire

    2013-12-01

    Early prenatal diagnosis of fetal sex is necessary to optimize pregnancy management in families known to be at risk of some heritable disorders. The demonstration of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in the mother's blood has made it possible to identify Y chromosome sequences in maternal blood and to determine fetal sex noninvasively, during the first trimester. This procedure can significantly reduce the number of invasive procedures for women with fetuses at risk of sex-linked diseases and optimize the management of these pregnancies. Fetal sex can be diagnosed by ultrasound with the same sensitivity and specificity, but later in pregnancy. We performed a review of the published literature evaluating the use of cffDNA and ultrasound for prenatal determination of fetal sex during the first trimester of pregnancy. We present the feasibility of the two methods and their impact on clinical practice. We applied a sensitive search of multiple bibliographic databases including Pubmed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of science between 1998 and 2013. Sixteen reports of the determination of fetal sex in maternal blood and 13 reports of the determination by ultrasound met our inclusion criteria. We found a sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100% from 8 weeks of gestation for cffDNA and from 13 weeks of gestation for ultrasound respectively. Based on this review, we conclude that fetal sex can be determined with a high level of accuracy by analyzing cffDNA and at an earlier gestation than ultrasound. Ten years after the first feasibility study, the French National Authority for Health (HAS) released a technological assessment report on the determination of fetal sex in maternal blood, which has resulted in validating this test for reimbursement by the national health insurance fund for the following indications: X-linked recessive disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:24094458

  3. Non-invasive prenatal testing: a review of international implementation and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Allyse, Megan; Minear, Mollie A; Berson, Elisa; Sridhar, Shilpa; Rote, Margaret; Hung, Anthony; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) is an advance in the detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies that analyzes cell-free fetal DNA in the blood of a pregnant woman. Since its introduction to clinical practice in Hong Kong in 2011, NIPT has quickly spread across the globe. While many professional societies currently recommend that NIPT be used as a screening method, not a diagnostic test, its high sensitivity (true positive rate) and specificity (true negative rate) make it an attractive alternative to the serum screens and invasive tests currently in use. Professional societies also recommend that NIPT be accompanied by genetic counseling so that families can make informed reproductive choices. If NIPT becomes more widely adopted, States will have to implement regulation and oversight to ensure it fits into existing legal frameworks, with particular attention to returning fetal sex information in areas where sex-based abortions are prevalent. Although there are additional challenges for NIPT uptake in the developing world, including the lack of health care professionals and infrastructure, the use of NIPT in low-resource settings could potentially reduce the need for skilled clinicians who perform invasive testing. Future advances in NIPT technology promise to expand the range of conditions that can be detected, including single gene disorders. With these advances come questions of how to handle incidental findings and variants of unknown significance. Moving forward, it is essential that all stakeholders have a voice in crafting policies to ensure the ethical and equitable use of NIPT across the world. PMID:25653560

  4. An Economic Analysis of Cell-Free DNA Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in the US General Pregnancy Population

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Peter; Curnow, Kirsten J.; Chapman, Steven; Michalopoulos, Steven N.; Hornberger, John; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analyze the economic value of replacing conventional fetal aneuploidy screening approaches with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in the general pregnancy population. Methods Using decision-analysis modeling, we compared conventional screening to NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis in the annual US pregnancy population. Sensitivity and specificity for fetal aneuploidies, trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and monosomy X, were estimated using published data and modeling of both first- and second trimester screening. Costs were assigned for each prenatal test component and for an affected birth. The overall cost to the healthcare system considered screening costs, the number of aneuploid cases detected, invasive procedures performed, procedure-related euploid losses, and affected pregnancies averted. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of variation in parameters. Costs were reported in 2014 US Dollars. Results Replacing conventional screening with NIPT would reduce healthcare costs if it can be provided for $744 or less in the general pregnancy population. The most influential variables were timing of screening entry, screening costs, and pregnancy termination rates. Of the 13,176 affected pregnancies undergoing screening, NIPT detected 96.5% (12,717/13,176) of cases, compared with 85.9% (11,314/13,176) by conventional approaches. NIPT reduced invasive procedures by 60.0%, with NIPT and conventional methods resulting in 24,596 and 61,430 invasive procedures, respectively. The number of procedure-related euploid fetal losses was reduced by 73.5% (194/264) in the general screening population. Conclusion Based on our analysis, universal application of NIPT would increase fetal aneuploidy detection rates and can be economically justified. Offering this testing to all pregnant women is associated with substantial prenatal healthcare benefits. PMID:26158465

  5. An Optimized Method for Accurate Fetal Sex Prediction and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Detection in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibo; Ding, Jie; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Xiang, Jingjing; Li, Qiong; Xuan, Liming; Kong, Lingyin; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Yijun; Shen, Jingjing; Liang, Bo; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) combined with bioinformatic analysis has been widely applied to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) by sequencing cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma, so-called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, many technical challenges, such as dependency on correct fetal sex prediction, large variations of chromosome Y measurement and high sensitivity to random reads mapping, may result in higher false negative rate (FNR) and false positive rate (FPR) in fetal sex prediction as well as in SCAs detection. Here, we developed an optimized method to improve the accuracy of the current method by filtering out randomly mapped reads in six specific regions of the Y chromosome. The method reduces the FNR and FPR of fetal sex prediction from nearly 1% to 0.01% and 0.06%, respectively and works robustly under conditions of low fetal DNA concentration (1%) in testing and simulation of 92 samples. The optimized method was further confirmed by large scale testing (1590 samples), suggesting that it is reliable and robust enough for clinical testing. PMID:27441628

  6. An Optimized Method for Accurate Fetal Sex Prediction and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Detection in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; He, Quanze; Li, Haibo; Ding, Jie; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Xiang, Jingjing; Li, Qiong; Xuan, Liming; Kong, Lingyin; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Yijun; Shen, Jingjing; Liang, Bo; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) combined with bioinformatic analysis has been widely applied to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) by sequencing cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma, so-called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, many technical challenges, such as dependency on correct fetal sex prediction, large variations of chromosome Y measurement and high sensitivity to random reads mapping, may result in higher false negative rate (FNR) and false positive rate (FPR) in fetal sex prediction as well as in SCAs detection. Here, we developed an optimized method to improve the accuracy of the current method by filtering out randomly mapped reads in six specific regions of the Y chromosome. The method reduces the FNR and FPR of fetal sex prediction from nearly 1% to 0.01% and 0.06%, respectively and works robustly under conditions of low fetal DNA concentration (1%) in testing and simulation of 92 samples. The optimized method was further confirmed by large scale testing (1590 samples), suggesting that it is reliable and robust enough for clinical testing. PMID:27441628

  7. AB148. The introduction of a contingent model of first trimester screening using non-invasive prenatal testing

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Zara; Fleischer, Ron; Chopra, Maya; Pinner, Jason; D’Souza, Mario; Fridgant, Yelena; Hyett, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective The availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has resulted in a paradigm shift in prenatal screening for Down syndrome and other common aneuploidies. NIPT has been validated in both high and low risk populations. The test has now reached a price-point (under AU$500) where consumer demand is high and services need to devise a model under which NIPT is made available. This article aims to describe our experience from 2012 as the first centre in Sydney to offer NIPT, and the progression towards the adoption of a contingent model of aneuploid screening in the first trimester. Methods An audit of the first 118 NIPT patients was undertaken by retrospective file review. Following this, a prospective study was undertaken by questionnaire and structured interview in an additional 84 NIPT patients. Maternal anxiety at the time of NIPT and 1 week following results delivery was measured using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results (I) Contingent screening is a model that will increase the detection rate of Down syndrome beyond that of combined first trimester screening as well as reducing the number of miscarriages related to invasive testing; (II) receiving a low risk NIPT result leads to a significant decrease in maternal anxiety (P<0.01) and alters decision making regarding invasive testing; (III) we have identified women’s motivations for NIPT beyond that of their first trimester screening result. Conclusions Following review of the first cohort of patients to undergo NIPT, we established a contingent model of aneuploidy screening in the first trimester. Under this model, the offer of NIPT is contingent on the patient’s result from combined First trimester screening. NIPT is offered to patients with an aneuploidy risk higher than 1:1,000, though the potential benefit of invasive testing for those with a risk higher than 1:50 is also discussed. Our results demonstrate that NIPT is considered a valuable addition

  8. DNA methylome profiling of maternal peripheral blood and placentas reveal potential fetal DNA markers for non-invasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuqian; Zhang, Junyu; Li, Qiaoli; Zhou, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Xu, Mingqing; Xia, Shihui; Xing, Qinghe; Wang, Lei; He, Lin; Zhao, Xinzhi

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing epigenetic (DNA methylation) differences to differentiate between maternal peripheral blood (PBL) and fetal (placental) DNA has been a promising strategy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) have yet to be fully ascertained. In the present study, we performed genome-wide comparative methylome analysis between maternal PBL and placental DNA from pregnancies of first trimester by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. A total of 36 931 DMRs and 45 804 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) covering the whole genome, exclusive of the Y chromosome, were identified via MeDIP-Seq and Infinium 450k array, respectively, of which 3759 sites in 2188 regions were confirmed by both methods. Not only did we find the previously reported potential fetal DNA markers in our identified DMRs/DMSs but also we verified fully the identified DMRs/DMSs in the validation round by MassARRAY EpiTYPER. The screened potential fetal DNA markers may be used for NIPT on aneuploidies and other chromosomal diseases, such as cri du chat syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In addition, these potential markers may have application in the early diagnosis of placental dysfunction, such as pre-eclampsia. PMID:24996894

  9. Introducing the non-invasive prenatal test for trisomy 21 in Belgium: a cost-consequences analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neyt, Mattias; Hulstaert, Frank; Gyselaers, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Background The first- and second-trimester screening for trisomy 21 (T21) are reimbursed for all pregnant women in Belgium. Using a cut-off risk of 1:300 for T21, about 5% of all pregnant women are referred for definitive prenatal diagnosis using an invasive test, at a sensitivity of (only) 72.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) are over 99% but come at a cost of €460 (£373) per test. The objective is to estimate the consequences of introducing NIPT for the detection of T21. Methods A cost-consequences analysis was performed presenting the impact on benefits, harms and costs. Context-specific real-world information was available to set up a model reflecting the current screening situation in Belgium. This model was used to construct the second and first line NIPT screening scenarios applying information from the literature on NIPT's test accuracy. Results Introducing NIPT in the first or second line reduces harm by decreasing the number of procedure-related miscarriages after invasive testing. In contrast with NIPT in the second line, offering NIPT in the first line additionally will miss fewer cases of T21 due to less false-negative test results. The introduction of NIPT in the second line results in cost savings, which is not true for NIPT at the current price in the first line. If NIPT is offered to all pregnant women, the price should be lowered to about €150 to keep the screening cost per T21 diagnosis constant. Conclusions In Belgium, the introduction and reimbursement of NIPT as a second line triage test significantly reduces procedure-related miscarriages without increasing the short-term screening costs. Offering and reimbursing NIPT in the first line to all pregnant women is preferred in the long term, as it would, in addition, miss fewer cases of T21. However, taking into account the government's limited resources for universal reimbursement, the price of NIPT should first be lowered substantially before this

  10. Development and validation of a measure of informed choice for women undergoing non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free DNA for aneuploidy is a highly accurate screening test; however, concerns exist around the potential for routinisation of testing. The multidimensional measure of informed choice (MMIC) is a quantitative instrument developed to assess informed choice for Down syndrome screening (DSS). We have validated a modified MMIC for NIPT and measured informed choice among women offered NIPT in a public health service. The measure was distributed to women recruited across eight maternity units in the United Kingdom who had accepted DSS. Construct validity was assessed by simultaneously conducting qualitative interviews. Five hundred and eighty-five questionnaires were completed and 45 interviews conducted after blood-draw (or equivalent for those that declined NIPT). The measure demonstrated good internal consistency and internal validity. Results indicate the vast majority of women (89%) made an informed choice; 95% were judged to have good knowledge, 88% had a positive attitude and 92% had deliberated. Of the 11% judged to have made an uninformed choice, 55% had not deliberated, 41% had insufficient knowledge, and 19% had a negative attitude. Ethnicity (OR=2.78, P=0.003) and accepting NIPT (OR=16.05, P=0.021) were found to be significant predictors of informed choice. The high rate of informed choice is likely to reflect the importance placed on the provision of pre-test counselling in this study. It will be vital to ensure that this is maintained once NIPT is offered in routine clinical practice. PMID:26508572

  11. Development and validation of a measure of informed choice for women undergoing non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2016-06-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free DNA for aneuploidy is a highly accurate screening test; however, concerns exist around the potential for routinisation of testing. The multidimensional measure of informed choice (MMIC) is a quantitative instrument developed to assess informed choice for Down syndrome screening (DSS). We have validated a modified MMIC for NIPT and measured informed choice among women offered NIPT in a public health service. The measure was distributed to women recruited across eight maternity units in the United Kingdom who had accepted DSS. Construct validity was assessed by simultaneously conducting qualitative interviews. Five hundred and eighty-five questionnaires were completed and 45 interviews conducted after blood-draw (or equivalent for those that declined NIPT). The measure demonstrated good internal consistency and internal validity. Results indicate the vast majority of women (89%) made an informed choice; 95% were judged to have good knowledge, 88% had a positive attitude and 92% had deliberated. Of the 11% judged to have made an uninformed choice, 55% had not deliberated, 41% had insufficient knowledge, and 19% had a negative attitude. Ethnicity (OR=2.78, P=0.003) and accepting NIPT (OR=16.05, P=0.021) were found to be significant predictors of informed choice. The high rate of informed choice is likely to reflect the importance placed on the provision of pre-test counselling in this study. It will be vital to ensure that this is maintained once NIPT is offered in routine clinical practice. PMID:26508572

  12. Non-invasive prenatal screening for trisomy 21: Consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Emily C; Sheldon, Jane P; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Yashar, Beverly M

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) has the potential to dramatically increase the prenatal detection rate of Down syndrome because of improvements in safety and accuracy over existing tests. There is concern that NIPS could lead to more negative attitudes towards Down syndrome and less support for individuals with Down syndrome. To assess the impact of NIPS on support for prenatal testing, decision-making about testing, and beliefs or attitudes about Down syndrome, we performed an Internet-based experiment using adults (N = 1,789) recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants were randomly assigned to read a mock news article about NIPS, a mock news article about amniocentesis, or no article. The content in the two articles varied only in their descriptions of the test characteristics. Participants then answered questions about their support for testing, hypothetical testing decision, and beliefs and attitudes about Down syndrome. Reading the mock NIPS news article predicted increased hypothetical test uptake. In addition, the NIPS article group also agreed more strongly that pregnant women, in general, should utilize prenatal testing. We also found that the more strongly participants supported prenatal testing for pregnant women, the less favorable their attitudes towards individuals with Down syndrome; providing some evidence that NIPS may indirectly result in more negative perceptions of individuals with this diagnosis. PMID:26553705

  13. Non-invasive prenatal diagnostic test accuracy for fetal sex using cell-free DNA a review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) can be detected in maternal blood during pregnancy, opening the possibility of early non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for a variety of genetic conditions. Since 1997, many studies have examined the accuracy of prenatal fetal sex determination using cffDNA, particularly for pregnancies at risk of an X-linked condition. Here we report a review and meta-analysis of the published literature to evaluate the use of cffDNA for prenatal determination (diagnosis) of fetal sex. We applied a sensitive search of multiple bibliographic databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, the Cochrane library and Web of Science. Results Ninety studies, incorporating 9,965 pregnancies and 10,587 fetal sex results met our inclusion criteria. Overall mean sensitivity was 96.6% (95% credible interval 95.2% to 97.7%) and mean specificity was 98.9% (95% CI = 98.1% to 99.4%). These results vary very little with trimester or week of testing, indicating that the performance of the test is reliably high. Conclusions Based on this review and meta-analysis we conclude that fetal sex can be determined with a high level of accuracy by analyzing cffDNA. Using cffDNA in prenatal diagnosis to replace or complement existing invasive methods can remove or reduce the risk of miscarriage. Future work should concentrate on the economic and ethical considerations of implementing an early non-invasive test for fetal sex. PMID:22937795

  14. Decision-making for non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: Hong Kong Chinese women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy.

    PubMed

    Lau, J Y C; Yi, H; Ahmed, S

    2016-05-01

    Individual autonomy in antenatal screening is internationally recognized and supported. Policy and practice guidelines in various countries place emphasis on the woman's right to make her own decision and are related to concepts such as self-determination, independence, and self-sufficiency. In contrast, the dominant perspective in Chinese medical ethics suggests that the family is pivotal in making medical decisions, hence providing support for relational autonomy. This study explored Hong Kong Chinese pregnant women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome. A qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured interviews with 36 women who had undertaken NIPT in Hong Kong. The findings show that most Hong Kong Chinese women valued aspects of both relational and individual autonomy in decision-making for NIPT. Women expected support from doctors as experts on the topic and wanted to involve their husband in decision-making while retaining control over the outcome. Somewhat surprisingly, the findings do not provide support for the involvement of family members in decision-making for NIPT. The adequacy of current interpretations of autonomy in prenatal testing policies as an individual approach needs discussion, where policy developers need to find a balance between individual and relational approaches. PMID:26864268

  15. Non-Invasive Testing, Non-Invasive Counseling.

    PubMed

    Rebouché, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a new prenatal genetic test that is painless, early, and increasingly available. State legislatures have reacted by prohibiting abortion for reason of fetal sex or of fetal diagnosis and managing genetic counseling. This article explores these legislative responses and considers how physicians and genetic counselors currently communicate post-testing options. The article then examines the challenges ahead for genetic counseling, particularly in light of the troubling grip of abortion politics on conversations about prenatal diagnosis. PMID:26242943

  16. “Don’t Want No Risk and Don’t Want No Problems”: Public Understandings of the Risks and Benefits of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Allyse, Megan; Sayres, Lauren Carter; Goodspeed, Taylor; Michie, Marsha; Cho, Mildred K

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent availability of new non-invasive prenatal genetic tests for fetal aneuploidy has raised questions concerning whether and how these new tests will be integrated into prenatal medical care. Among the many factors to be considered are public understandings and preferences about prenatal testing mechanisms and the prospect of fetal aneuploidy. Methods To address these issues, we conducted a nation-wide mixed-method survey of 2,960 adults in the United States to explore justifications for choices among prenatal testing mechanisms. Open responses were qualitatively coded and grouped by theme. Results Respondents cited accuracy, followed by cost, as the most significant aspects of prenatal testing. Acceptance of testing was predicated on differing valuations of knowledge and on personal and religious beliefs. Trust in the medical establishment, attitudes towards risk, and beliefs about health and illness were also considered relevant. Conclusions Although a significant portion of the sample population valued the additional accuracy provided by the new non-invasive tests, they nevertheless expressed concerns over high costs. Furthermore, participants continued to express reservations about the value of prenatal genetic information per se, regardless of how it was obtained. PMID:25932463

  17. Could Digital PCR Be an Alternative as a Non-Invasive Prenatal Test for Trisomy 21: A Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    El Khattabi, Laïla Allach; Rouillac-Le Sciellour, Christelle; Le Tessier, Dominique; Luscan, Armelle; Coustier, Audrey; Porcher, Raphael; Bhouri, Rakia; Nectoux, Juliette; Sérazin, Valérie; Quibel, Thibaut; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Tsatsaris, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    Objective NIPT for fetal aneuploidy by digital PCR has been hampered by the large number of PCR reactions needed to meet statistical requirements, preventing clinical application. Here, we designed an octoplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay which allows increasing the number of available targets and thus overcomes statistical obstacles. Method After technical optimization of the multiplex PCR on mixtures of trisomic and euploid DNA, we performed a validation study on samples of plasma DNA from 213 pregnant women. Molecular counting of circulating cell-free DNA was performed using a mix of hydrolysis probes targeting chromosome 21 and a reference chromosome. Results The results of our validation experiments showed that ddPCR detected trisomy 21 even when the sample’s trisomic DNA content is as low as 5%. In a validation study of plasma samples from 213 pregnant women, ddPCR discriminated clearly between the trisomy 21 and the euploidy groups. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that digital PCR can meet the requirements for non-invasive prenatal testing of trisomy 21. This approach is technically simple, relatively cheap, easy to implement in a diagnostic setting and compatible with ethical concerns regarding access to nucleotide sequence information. These advantages make it a potential technique of choice for population-wide screening for trisomy 21 in pregnant women. PMID:27167625

  18. Women's Experiences and Preferences for Service Delivery of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy in a Public Health Setting: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy is currently only available in the UK through the private sector outside of the research arena. As part of an implementation study in the UK National Health Service we conducted a mixed methods study to assess women's experience of being offered NIPT using validated measures of decisional conflict, decisional regret and anxiety. Clinical service preferences were also explored. Women with a Down syndrome screening risk >1:1000 were invited to take part in the study and offered NIPT, NIPT and invasive testing (for women with a risk above 1:150) or no further testing. A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews were conducted at two time points; at the time of testing and one month following receipt of results (or equivalent for NIPT decliners). In total, 845 questionnaires and 81 interviews were analysed. The main motivation to accept NIPT was for reassurance (30.8%). Decisional conflict occurred in a minimal number of cases (3.8%), however, none of the participants experienced decisional regret. Around a third (29.9%) of women had elevated anxiety at the time of testing, including intermediate risk women who traditionally would not be offered further testing (54.4% high risk; 20.1% medium risk), a finding supported through the qualitative interviews where prolonged or additional anxiety was found to occur in some medium risk cases. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the opportunity to have a test that was procedurally safe, accurate, reduced the need for invasive testing and identified cases of Down syndrome that might otherwise have been missed. Reassurance was identified as the main motivator for accepting NIPT, particularly amongst medium risk women, with high risk women inclined to accept NIPT to inform decisions around invasive testing. The current turnaround time for test result was identified as a key limitation. All the women interviewed thought NIPT should be adopted as part of NHS

  19. Women’s Experiences and Preferences for Service Delivery of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy in a Public Health Setting: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy is currently only available in the UK through the private sector outside of the research arena. As part of an implementation study in the UK National Health Service we conducted a mixed methods study to assess women’s experience of being offered NIPT using validated measures of decisional conflict, decisional regret and anxiety. Clinical service preferences were also explored. Women with a Down syndrome screening risk >1:1000 were invited to take part in the study and offered NIPT, NIPT and invasive testing (for women with a risk above 1:150) or no further testing. A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews were conducted at two time points; at the time of testing and one month following receipt of results (or equivalent for NIPT decliners). In total, 845 questionnaires and 81 interviews were analysed. The main motivation to accept NIPT was for reassurance (30.8%). Decisional conflict occurred in a minimal number of cases (3.8%), however, none of the participants experienced decisional regret. Around a third (29.9%) of women had elevated anxiety at the time of testing, including intermediate risk women who traditionally would not be offered further testing (54.4% high risk; 20.1% medium risk), a finding supported through the qualitative interviews where prolonged or additional anxiety was found to occur in some medium risk cases. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the opportunity to have a test that was procedurally safe, accurate, reduced the need for invasive testing and identified cases of Down syndrome that might otherwise have been missed. Reassurance was identified as the main motivator for accepting NIPT, particularly amongst medium risk women, with high risk women inclined to accept NIPT to inform decisions around invasive testing. The current turnaround time for test result was identified as a key limitation. All the women interviewed thought NIPT should be adopted as part of NHS

  20. Accuracy of non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free DNA for detection of Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Freeman, Karoline; Geppert, Julia; Agbebiyi, Adeola; Uthman, Olalekan A; Madan, Jason; Clarke, Angus; Quenby, Siobhan; Clarke, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure test accuracy of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes using cell-free fetal DNA and identify factors affecting accuracy. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. Data sources PubMed, Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase and the Cochrane Library published from 1997 to 9 February 2015, followed by weekly autoalerts until 1 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies English language journal articles describing case–control studies with ≥15 trisomy cases or cohort studies with ≥50 pregnant women who had been given NIPT and a reference standard. Results 41, 37 and 30 studies of 2012 publications retrieved were included in the review for Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes. Quality appraisal identified high risk of bias in included studies, funnel plots showed evidence of publication bias. Pooled sensitivity was 99.3% (95% CI 98.9% to 99.6%) for Down, 97.4% (95.8% to 98.4%) for Edwards, and 97.4% (86.1% to 99.6%) for Patau syndrome. The pooled specificity was 99.9% (99.9% to 100%) for all three trisomies. In 100 000 pregnancies in the general obstetric population we would expect 417, 89 and 40 cases of Downs, Edwards and Patau syndromes to be detected by NIPT, with 94, 154 and 42 false positive results. Sensitivity was lower in twin than singleton pregnancies, reduced by 9% for Down, 28% for Edwards and 22% for Patau syndrome. Pooled sensitivity was also lower in the first trimester of pregnancy, in studies in the general obstetric population, and in cohort studies with consecutive enrolment. Conclusions NIPT using cell-free fetal DNA has very high sensitivity and specificity for Down syndrome, with slightly lower sensitivity for Edwards and Patau syndrome. However, it is not 100% accurate and should not be used as a final diagnosis for positive cases. Trial registration number CRD42014014947. PMID:26781507

  1. Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Prenatal tests Prenatal tests E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... if you’re feeling fine. What are prenatal tests? Prenatal tests are medical tests you get during ...

  2. Motivations for Undertaking DNA Sequencing-Based Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Fetal Aneuploidy: A Qualitative Study with Early Adopter Patients in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Huso; Hallowell, Nina; Griffiths, Sian; Yeung Leung, Tak

    2013-01-01

    Background A newly introduced cell-free fetal DNA sequencing based non-invasive prenatal testing (DNA-NIPT) detects Down syndrome with sensitivity of 99% at early gestational stage without risk of miscarriage. Attention has been given to its public health implications; little is known from consumer perspectives. This qualitative study aimed to explore women’s motivations for using, and perceptions of, DNA-NIPT in Hong Kong. Methods and Findings In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women who had undertaken DNA-NIPT recruited by purposive sampling based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The sample included 31 women identified as high-risk from serum and ultrasound based Down syndrome screening (SU-DSS). Thematic narrative analysis examined informed-decision making of the test and identified the benefits and needs. Women outlined a number of reasons for accessing DNA-NIPT: reducing the uncertainty associated with risk probability-based results from SU-DSS, undertaking DNA-NIPT as a comprehensive measure to counteract risk from childbearing especially at advanced age, perceived predictive accuracy and absence of risk of harm to fetus. Accounts of women deemed high-risk or not high-risk are distinctive in a number of respects. High-risk women accessed DNA-NIPT to get a clearer idea of their risk. This group perceived SU-DSS as an unnecessary and confusing procedure because of its varying, protocol-dependent detection rates. Those women not deemed high-risk, in contrast, undertook DNA-NIPT for psychological assurance and to reduce anxiety even after receiving the negative result from SU-DSS. Conclusions DNA-NIPT was regarded positively by women who chose this method of screening over the routine, less expensive testing options. Given its perceived utility, health providers need to consider whether DNA-NIPT should be offered as part of universal routine care to women at high-risk for fetal aneuploidy. If this is the case, then further development

  3. Uptake, outcomes, and costs of implementing non-invasive prenatal testing for Down’s syndrome into NHS maternity care: prospective cohort study in eight diverse maternity units

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David; Hill, Melissa; Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Lewis, Celine; Mason, Sarah; McKay, Fiona; Jenkins, Lucy; Howarth, Abigail; Cameron, Louise; McEwan, Alec; Fisher, Jane; Kroese, Mark; Morris, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the benefits and costs of implementing non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down’s syndrome into the NHS maternity care pathway. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight maternity units across the United Kingdom between 1 November 2013 and 28 February 2015. Participants All pregnant women with a current Down’s syndrome risk on screening of at least 1/1000. Main outcome measures Outcomes were uptake of NIPT, number of cases of Down’s syndrome detected, invasive tests performed, and miscarriages avoided. Pregnancy outcomes and costs associated with implementation of NIPT, compared with current screening, were determined using study data on NIPT uptake and invasive testing in combination with national datasets. Results NIPT was prospectively offered to 3175 pregnant women. In 934 women with a Down’s syndrome risk greater than 1/150, 695 (74.4%) chose NIPT, 166 (17.8%) chose invasive testing, and 73 (7.8%) declined further testing. Of 2241 women with risks between 1/151 and 1/1000, 1799 (80.3%) chose NIPT. Of 71 pregnancies with a confirmed diagnosis of Down’s syndrome, 13/42 (31%) with the diagnosis after NIPT and 2/29 (7%) after direct invasive testing continued, resulting in 12 live births. In an annual screening population of 698 500, offering NIPT as a contingent test to women with a Down’s syndrome screening risk of at least 1/150 would increase detection by 195 (95% uncertainty interval −34 to 480) cases with 3368 (2279 to 4027) fewer invasive tests and 17 (7 to 30) fewer procedure related miscarriages, for a non-significant difference in total costs (£−46 000, £−1 802 000 to £2 661 000). The marginal cost of NIPT testing strategies versus current screening is very sensitive to NIPT costs; at a screening threshold of 1/150, NIPT would be cheaper than current screening if it cost less than £256. Lowering the risk threshold increases the number of Down’s syndrome cases detected and

  4. Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Lethal Skeletal Dysplasia by Targeted Capture Sequencing of Maternal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaoshen; Chen, Chao; Gao, Changxin; Yu, Song; Liu, Yan; Song, Wei; Asan; Zhu, Hongmei; Yang, Ling; Deng, Hongmei; Su, Yue; Yi, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the discovery of cell-free foetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women, many non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed. In the area of skeletal dysplasia diagnosis, some PCR-based non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed to facilitate the ultrasound diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias that are caused by de novo mutations. However, skeletal dysplasias are a group of heterogeneous genetic diseases, the PCR-based method is hard to detect multiple gene or loci simultaneously, and the diagnosis rate is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using targeted capture sequencing to detect foetal de novo pathogenic mutations responsible for skeletal dysplasia. Methodology/Principal Findings Three families whose foetuses were affected by skeletal dysplasia and two control families whose foetuses were affected by other single gene diseases were included in this study. Sixteen genes related to some common lethal skeletal dysplasias were selected for analysis, and probes were designed to capture the coding regions of these genes. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on the maternal plasma DNA, the maternal genomic DNA, and the paternal genomic DNA. The de novo pathogenic variants in the plasma DNA data were identified using a bioinformatical process developed for low frequency mutation detection and a strict variant interpretation strategy. The causal variants could be specifically identified in the plasma, and the results were identical to those obtained by sequencing amniotic fluid samples. Furthermore, a mean of 97% foetal specific alleles, which are alleles that are not shared by maternal genomic DNA and amniotic fluid DNA, were identified successfully in plasma samples. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that capture sequencing of maternal plasma DNA can be used to non-invasive detection of de novo pathogenic variants. This method has the potential

  5. The Epigenome View: An Effort towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Elisavet A.; Koumbaris, George; Kypri, Elena; Hadjidaniel, Michael; Patsalis, Philippos C.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications have proven to play a significant role in cancer development, as well as fetal development. Taking advantage of the knowledge acquired during the last decade, great interest has been shown worldwide in deciphering the fetal epigenome towards the development of methylation-based non-invasive prenatal tests (NIPT). In this review, we highlight the different approaches implemented, such as sodium bisulfite conversion, restriction enzyme digestion and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, for the identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between free fetal DNA found in maternal blood and DNA from maternal blood cells. Furthermore, we evaluate the use of selected DMRs identified towards the development of NIPT for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. In addition, we perform a comparison analysis, evaluate the performance of each assay and provide a comprehensive discussion on the potential use of different methylation-based technologies in retrieving the fetal methylome, with the aim of further expanding the development of NIPT assays. PMID:24722507

  6. The Role of RNAs and microRNAs in Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, all possible clinical applications of circulating mRNA and miRNA for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis appearing in the medical literature so far are described. Data from the literature have also been reported and commented on along with some possible future applications. PMID:26237384

  7. SRY sequence in maternal plasma: Implications for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: First report from India

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Edna; Nair, Sona; Nadkarni, Anita; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The presence of circulatory cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has found new applications in non-invasive risk-free prenatal diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made use of a size separation approach along with real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate the use of fetal DNA in the detection of the sex of the fetus. Cell-free fetal DNA was isolated from the plasma of 30 women (10–20 weeks gestation) using a size separation approach. We made use of Taq Man Chemistry and real time PCR using primers and probes for GAPDH and SRY. RESULTS: Only 24 cases could be studied as there was no amplification in six cases. Fetal sex was accurately determined in all of the 24 cases wherein 19 women were carrying male fetuses and five women were carrying female fetuses. An increase in the amount of fetal DNA was observed with an increase in the gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Real time PCR analysis is a highly sensitive and accurate tool for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, allowing detection of the sex of the fetus as early as 10 weeks of gestation. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis eliminates the risk of fetal loss associated with the invasive procedure. PMID:22754228

  8. Bisulfite Conversion of DNA: Performance Comparison of Different Kits and Methylation Quantitation of Epigenetic Biomarkers that Have the Potential to Be Used in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Leontiou, Chrysanthia A.; Hadjidaniel, Michael D.; Mina, Petros; Antoniou, Pavlos; Ioannides, Marios; Patsalis, Philippos C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Several methods exist for evaluating DNA methylation, but bisulfite sequencing remains the gold standard by which base-pair resolution of CpG methylation is achieved. The challenge of the method is that the desired outcome (conversion of unmethylated cytosines) positively correlates with the undesired side effects (DNA degradation and inappropriate conversion), thus several commercial kits try to adjust a balance between the two. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of four bisulfite conversion kits [Premium Bisulfite kit (Diagenode), EpiTect Bisulfite kit (Qiagen), MethylEdge Bisulfite Conversion System (Promega) and BisulFlash DNA Modification kit (Epigentek)] regarding conversion efficiency, DNA degradation and conversion specificity. Methods Performance was tested by combining fully methylated and fully unmethylated λ-DNA controls in a series of spikes by means of Sanger sequencing (0%, 25%, 50% and 100% methylated spikes) and Next-Generation Sequencing (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% methylated spikes). We also studied the methylation status of two of our previously published differentially methylated regions (DMRs) at base resolution by using spikes of chorionic villus sample in whole blood. Results The kits studied showed different but comparable results regarding DNA degradation, conversion efficiency and conversion specificity. However, the best performance was observed with the MethylEdge Bisulfite Conversion System (Promega) followed by the Premium Bisulfite kit (Diagenode). The DMRs, EP6 and EP10, were confirmed to be hypermethylated in the CVS and hypomethylated in whole blood. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the MethylEdge Bisulfite Conversion System (Promega) was shown to have the best performance among the kits. In addition, the methylation level of two of our DMRs, EP6 and EP10, was confirmed

  9. Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests are considered routine — that is, almost all pregnant women receiving prenatal care get them. They include things like checking urine levels for protein, sugar, or signs of infection. Other non- routine tests are recommended only for ...

  10. 14 Years of Polish Experience in Non-Invasive Prenatal Blood Group Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Orzińska, Agnieszka; Guz, Katarzyna; Dębska, Marzena; Uhrynowska, Małgorzata; Celewicz, Zbigniew; Wielgo, Mirosław; Brojer, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Blood cell antigens may cause maternal alloimmunization leading to fetal/newborn disorders. Non-invasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD) of the blood group permits the determination of feto-maternal incompatibility. Aim To evaluate 14 years of blood group NIPD at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM) in Warsaw. Methods Plasma DNA from 536 RhD-negative, 24 Rhc-negative, 26 RhE-negative, 43 K-negative, and 42 HPA-1a-negative pregnant women was examined by real-time PCR to detect RHD, RHCE*c, RHCE*E, RHCE*C, KEL*01 and HPA*1A, respectively. We tested for CCR5, SRY or bi-allelic polymorphisms and quantified the total or fetal DNA. Results The results of fetal antigen status prediction by NIPD in all but one case (false-positive result of KEL*01) were correct taking neonate serology as a reference. It was confirmed that all negative results of NIPD contained fetal DNA except for four cases where there was no difference between the parents' polymorphisms. Conclusions A fetal genotype compatible with the mother was determined in 25% of all pregnancies tested at the IHTM for the fetal blood group. These cases were not at risk of disease, so it was possible to avoid invasive procedures. PMID:26733766

  11. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia: next-generation sequencing allows for a safer, more accurate, and comprehensive approach

    PubMed Central

    Chitty, Lyn S; Mason, Sarah; Barrett, Angela N; McKay, Fiona; Lench, Nicholas; Daley, Rebecca; Jenkins, Lucy A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Accurate prenatal diagnosis of genetic conditions can be challenging and usually requires invasive testing. Here, we demonstrate the potential of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal blood to transform prenatal diagnosis of monogenic disorders. Methods Analysis of cell-free DNA using a PCR and restriction enzyme digest (PCR–RED) was compared with a novel NGS assay in pregnancies at risk of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia. Results PCR–RED was performed in 72 cases and was correct in 88.6%, inconclusive in 7% with one false negative. NGS was performed in 47 cases and was accurate in 96.2% with no inconclusives. Both approaches were used in 27 cases, with NGS giving the correct result in the two cases inconclusive with PCR–RED. Conclusion NGS provides an accurate, flexible approach to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of de novo and paternally inherited mutations. It is more sensitive than PCR–RED and is ideal when screening a gene with multiple potential pathogenic mutations. These findings highlight the value of NGS in the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for other monogenic disorders. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What's already known about this topic? Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) using PCR-based methods has been reported for the detection or exclusion of individual paternally inherited or de novo alleles in maternal plasma. What does this study add? NIPD using next generation sequencing provides an accurate, more sensitive approach which can be used to detect multiple mutations in a single assay and so is ideal when screening a gene with multiple potential pathogenic mutations. Next generation sequencing thus provides a flexible approach to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis ideal for use in a busy service laboratory. PMID:25728633

  12. Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis in the Management of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Aragones †, Ana; Perlado-Marina †, Sara; Trujillo-Tiebas, Maria José; Gallego-Merlo, Jesús; Lorda-Sanchez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Ramirez, Luz; Linares, Concepcion; Hernandez, Corazón; Rodriguez de Alba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis (PD) is recommended in pregnancies after a Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). However, conventional PD entails a risk of fetal loss which makes PGD patients reluctant to undergo obstetric invasive procedures. The presence of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood allows performing a non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) without risk for the pregnancy outcome. This work shows the introduction of NIPD for confirmation of PGD results in eight pregnancies. In those pregnancies referred to PGD for an X-linked disorder (six out of eight), fetal sex determination in maternal blood was performed to confirm fetal sex. One pregnancy referred to PGD for Marfan syndrome and one referred for Huntington disease (HD) were also analyzed. In seven out of eight cases, PGD results were confirmed by NIPD in maternal blood. No results were obtained in the HD pregnancy. NIPD in PGD pregnancies can be a reliable alternative for couples that after a long process feel reluctant to undergo PD due to the risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26237485

  13. Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis in the Management of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Aragones, Ana; Perlado-Marina, Sara; Trujillo-Tiebas, Maria José; Gallego-Merlo, Jesús; Lorda-Sanchez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Ramirez, Luz; Linares, Concepcion; Hernandez, Corazón; de Alba, Marta Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis (PD) is recommended in pregnancies after a Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). However, conventional PD entails a risk of fetal loss which makes PGD patients reluctant to undergo obstetric invasive procedures. The presence of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood allows performing a non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) without risk for the pregnancy outcome. This work shows the introduction of NIPD for confirmation of PGD results in eight pregnancies. In those pregnancies referred to PGD for an X-linked disorder (six out of eight), fetal sex determination in maternal blood was performed to confirm fetal sex. One pregnancy referred to PGD for Marfan syndrome and one referred for Huntington disease (HD) were also analyzed. In seven out of eight cases, PGD results were confirmed by NIPD in maternal blood. No results were obtained in the HD pregnancy. NIPD in PGD pregnancies can be a reliable alternative for couples that after a long process feel reluctant to undergo PD due to the risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26237485

  14. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for cystic fibrosis: detection of paternal mutations, exploration of patient preferences and cost analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Melissa; Twiss, Philip; Verhoef, Talitha I; Drury, Suzanne; McKay, Fiona; Mason, Sarah; Jenkins, Lucy; Morris, Stephen; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives We aim to develop non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) for cystic fibrosis (CF) and determine costs and implications for implementation. Methods A next-generation sequencing assay was developed to detect ten common CF mutations for exclusion of the paternal mutation in maternal plasma. Using uptake data from a study exploring views on NIPD for CF, total test-related costs were estimated for the current care pathway and compared with those incorporating NIPD. Results The assay reliably predicted mutation status in all control and maternal plasma samples. Of carrier or affected adults with CF (n = 142) surveyed, only 43.5% reported willingness to have invasive testing for CF with 94.4% saying they would have NIPD. Using these potential uptake data, the incremental costs of NIPD over invasive testing per 100 pregnancies at risk of CF are £9025 for paternal mutation exclusion, and £26 510 for direct diagnosis. Conclusions We have developed NIPD for risk stratification in around a third of CF families. There are economic implications due to potential increased test demand to inform postnatal management rather than to inform decisions around termination of an affected pregnancy. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25708280

  15. Non-invasive, serum DNA pregnancy testing leading to incidental discovery of cancer: a good thing?

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vinay

    2015-11-01

    Cell-free DNA for perinatal screening is a growing industry. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is based on the premise that foetal DNA is able to cross the placental barrier and enter the mother's circulation, where it can be examined for chromosomal abnormalities, such as trisomy 13, 18 or 21. Such tests are expected to be widely used by pregnant women, with the annual market expected to surpass $1 billion. Recently, a number of case reports have emerged in the haematology-oncology literature. The routine use of NIPT has led to the discovery of maternal neoplasms. Most writers have concluded that this is yet another benefit of the test; however, a closer examination of the cases reveals that this incidental detection may not improve patient outcomes. In some cases, early detection provides lead time bias, but does not change the ultimate clinical outcome, and in other cases, detection constitutes earlier knowledge of a cancer whose natural history cannot be altered. Here, we explore in detail cases where cancer was incidentally discovered among women undergoing routine non-invasive pregnancy testing, and investigate whether or not these women were benefitted by the discovery. PMID:26278647

  16. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  17. High Levels of Sample-to-Sample Variation Confound Data Analysis for Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening of Fetal Microdeletions.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tianjiao; Yeniterzi, Suveyda; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Dunkel, Mary; Shaw, Patricia A; Bunce, Kimberly D; Peters, David G

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that inter-individual genomic copy number variation in control samples is a confounding factor in the non-invasive prenatal detection of fetal microdeletions via the sequence-based analysis of maternal plasma DNA. The database of genomic variants (DGV) was used to determine the "Genomic Variants Frequency" (GVF) for each 50kb region in the human genome. Whole genome sequencing of fifteen karyotypically normal maternal plasma and six CVS DNA controls samples was performed. The coefficient of variation of relative read counts (cv.RTC) for these samples was determined for each 50kb region. Maternal plasma from two pregnancies affected with a chromosome 5p microdeletion was also sequenced, and analyzed using the GCREM algorithm. We found strong correlation between high variance in read counts and GVF amongst controls. Consequently we were unable to confirm the presence of the microdeletion via sequencing of maternal plasma samples obtained from two sequential affected pregnancies. Caution should be exercised when performing NIPT for microdeletions. It is vital to develop our understanding of the factors that impact the sensitivity and specificity of these approaches. In particular, benign copy number variation amongst controls is a major confounder, and their effects should be corrected bioinformatically. PMID:27249650

  18. High Levels of Sample-to-Sample Variation Confound Data Analysis for Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening of Fetal Microdeletions

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tianjiao; Yeniterzi, Suveyda; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Dunkel, Mary; Shaw, Patricia A.; Bunce, Kimberly D.; Peters, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that inter-individual genomic copy number variation in control samples is a confounding factor in the non-invasive prenatal detection of fetal microdeletions via the sequence-based analysis of maternal plasma DNA. The database of genomic variants (DGV) was used to determine the “Genomic Variants Frequency” (GVF) for each 50kb region in the human genome. Whole genome sequencing of fifteen karyotypically normal maternal plasma and six CVS DNA controls samples was performed. The coefficient of variation of relative read counts (cv.RTC) for these samples was determined for each 50kb region. Maternal plasma from two pregnancies affected with a chromosome 5p microdeletion was also sequenced, and analyzed using the GCREM algorithm. We found strong correlation between high variance in read counts and GVF amongst controls. Consequently we were unable to confirm the presence of the microdeletion via sequencing of maternal plasma samples obtained from two sequential affected pregnancies. Caution should be exercised when performing NIPT for microdeletions. It is vital to develop our understanding of the factors that impact the sensitivity and specificity of these approaches. In particular, benign copy number variation amongst controls is a major confounder, and their effects should be corrected bioinformatically. PMID:27249650

  19. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of First Trimester Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening for Fetal Trisomies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brandon S.; Nelson, Richard E.; Jackson, Brian R.; Grenache, David G.; Ashwood, Edward R.; Schmidt, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a relatively new technology for diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies. NIPT is more accurate than conventional maternal serum screening (MSS) but is also more costly. Contingent NIPT may provide a cost-effective alternative to universal NIPT screening. Contingent screening used a two-stage process in which risk is assessed by MSS in the first stage and, based on a risk cutoff, high-risk pregnancies are referred for NIPT. The objective of this study was to (1) determine the optimum MSS risk cutoff for contingent NIPT and (2) compare the cost effectiveness of optimized contingent NIPT to universal NIPT and conventional MSS. Study Design Decision-analytic model using micro-simulation and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We evaluated cost effectiveness from three perspectives: societal, governmental, and payer. Results From a societal perspective, universal NIPT dominated both contingent NIPT and MSS. From a government and payer perspective, contingent NIPT dominated MSS. Compared to contingent NIPT, adopting a universal NIPT would cost $203,088 for each additional case detected from a government perspective and $263,922 for each additional case detected from a payer perspective. Conclusions From a societal perspective, universal NIPT is a cost-effective alternative to MSS and contingent NIPT. When viewed from narrower perspectives, contingent NIPT is less costly than universal NIPT and provides a cost-effective alternative to MSS. PMID:26133556

  20. Comprehensive maternal serum proteomics identifies the cytoskeletal proteins as non-invasive biomarkers in prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lizhu; Gu, Hui; Li, Jun; Yang, Ze-Yu; Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Shan, Liping; Wu, Lina; Wei, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yili; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Henan; Cao, Songying; Huang, Tianchu; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common group of major birth defects. Presently there are no clinically used biomarkers for prenatally detecting CHDs. Here, we performed a comprehensive maternal serum proteomics assessment, combined with immunoassays, for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for prenatal diagnosis of CHDs. A total of 370 women were included in this study. An isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic approach was used first to compare protein profiles in pooled serum collected from women who had CHD-possessing or normal fetuses, and 47 proteins displayed significant differential expressions. Targeted verifications were performed on 11 proteins using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS), and the resultant candidate biomarkers were then further validated using ELISA analysis. Finally, we identified a biomarker panel composed of 4 cytoskeletal proteins capable of differentiating CHD-pregnancies from normal ones [with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.938, P < 0.0001]. The discovery of cytoskeletal protein changes in maternal serum not only could help us in prenatal diagnosis of CHDs, but also may shed new light on CHD embryogenesis studies. PMID:26750556

  1. [Non invasive prenatal diagnosis. Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood].

    PubMed

    Sesarini, Carla; Argibay, Pablo; Otaño, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Current prenatal diagnosis of monogeneic and chromosomal diseases, includes invasive procedures which carry a small but significant risk. For many years, analysis of fetal cells in maternal circulation has been studied, however it has failed its clinical use due to the scarcity of these cells and their persistance after delivery. For more than a decade, the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood has been identified. These fetal DNA fragments would derive from the placenta and are not detected after delivery, making them a source of fetal material for carrying out diagnosis techniques using maternal blood. However, the vast majority of cell free DNA in maternal circulation is of maternal origin, with the fetal component contributing from 3% to 6% and rising towards term. Available methodologies do not allow separation of fetal from maternal cell free DNA, so current applications have been focused on the analysis of genes not present in the mother, such as Y chromosome sequences, or RHD gene in RhD-negative women, or paternal or de novo mutations. Also, the detection of cell-free fetal RNA in maternal blood offers the possibility of obtaining information regarding genetic expression profiles of embrionic tissues, and using genes expressed only at the feto-placental unit, controls for the presence of fetal material could be established, regardless of maternal genetic tissue. The present article describes the evidences regarding the passage of fetal nucleic acids to maternal circulation, its current prenatal diagnosis application and possible future perspectives. PMID:21163745

  2. Prenatal Foetal Non-invasive ECG instead of Doppler CTG – A Better Alternative?

    PubMed Central

    Sänger, N.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Schiermeier, S.; Hatzmann, W.; Yuan, J.; Herrmann, E.; Louwen, F.; Reinhard, J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate foetal signal quality obtained using an antenatal foetal ECG system (Monica 24™) and compare it with Doppler ultrasound CTG monitoring (Corometrics® 250 series). Material and Methods: Seventy pregnant women (gestational age: between 20 + 0 weeks and 40 + 0 weeks) were examined using the Monica AN24™ system and also underwent Doppler CTG. The signal quality of both methods was compared and correlated with gestational age and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Results: Overall, ECG had a signal quality of 77.4 % and CTG had a signal quality of 73.1 % (p > 0.05). In gestational weeks (GW) 20–26, the signal quality of ECG was significantly better compared to that obtained with CTG (75.5 vs. 45.3 %; p = 0.003), while in GW 27–36, the signal quality was better with CTG (72.3 vs. 83.0 %, p = 0.001). No difference in signal quality was found between the two methods after the 37th GW (87.7 vs. 86.1 %; p > 0.05). CTG showed a statistically significant correlation with BMI (rho 0.25, p < 0.05) while ECG showed no such correlation. Conclusion: The use of non-invasive ECG is particularly indicated in the early weeks of pregnancy, while CTG offers superior results during the vernix period. There was no difference in signal quality after the vernix period. The signal quality with ECG was found to be independent of BMI, while the signal quality of CTG deteriorated with increasing BMI. PMID:25278624

  3. Improvement in strategies for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hoyos, Maria; Trujillo-Tiebas, M. Jose; Bustamante Aragonés, A.; Rodriguez de Alba, M.; Alvarez, D. Diego; Diaz-Recasens, Joaquín; Ayuso, Carmen; Ramos, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We focused on the improvements of prenatal diagnosis by the analysis of DNA from maternal plasma, using Huntington disease as a model of disease. Methods We studied plasma from a pregnancy at risk of having a fetus affected with Huntington disease by the use of two direct analysis of the mutation and polymorphic STRs. Results Direct methods were not informative. Analysis with STRs revealed the presence of the allele that does not co-segregate with the disease, thus the fetus was healthy. Conclusions This strategy is very useful to face complex cases when the direct study is not informative not only for Huntington disease but also for many other disorders. PMID:18853247

  4. Understanding Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... several things, particularly the risk of Down Syndrome. Rh Incompatibility This test determines whether the mother and ... at the first prenatal visit. If there is Rh incompatibility, treatments can help prevent later complications. Ultrasound ...

  5. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination: benefits and disadvantages from the service users' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods. PMID:22453293

  6. Personalized management of cirrhosis by non-invasive tests of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Espinosa, Wendell Zaragoza; Wong, Vicnent Wai-Sun

    2015-09-01

    Owing to the high prevalence of various chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, the development of non-invasive tests of fibrosis allows accurate diagnosis of cirrhosis and reduces the need for liver biopsy. In this review, we discuss the application of these non-invasive tests beyond the diagnosis of cirrhosis. In particular, their role in the selection of patients for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance and varices screening is highlighted. PMID:26523265

  7. Rapid non-invasive tests for diagnostics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A rapid test for an infectious disease that can be used at point-of-care at a physician's office, a pharmacy, or in the field is critical for the prompt and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Ultimately by treating infections early on will decrease transmission of the pathogen. In contrast to metabolic diseases or cancer where multiple biomarkers are required, infectious disease targets (e.g. antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) are simple and specific for the pathogen causing the disease. Our laboratory has focused on three major infectious disease; HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These diseases are pandemic in much of the world thus putting natives, tourists and military personnel at risk for becoming infected, and upon returning to the U.S., transmitting these diseases to their contacts. Our devices are designed to detect antigens, antibodies or nucleic acids in blood or saliva samples in less than 30 minutes. An overview describing the current status of each of the three diagnostic platforms is presented. These microfluidic point-of-care devices will be relatively inexpensive, disposable, and user friendly.

  8. Non-Invasive Prenatal RHD Genotyping Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA from Maternal Plasma: An Italian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Picchiassi, Elena; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Tarquini, Federica; Bini, Vittorio; Centra, Michela; Pennacchi, Luana; Galeone, Fabiana; Micanti, Mara; Coata, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a non-invasive approach to fetal RHD genotyping using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma and a combination of methodological strategies. Methods Real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed on 216 RhD-negative women between weeks 10+0 and 14+6 of gestation (1st qPCR). qPCR was repeated (2nd qPCR) to increase the amount of each sample for analysis, on 95 plasma aliquots that were available from first trimester blood collection (group 1) and on 13 samples that were collected between weeks 18+0 and 25+6 of gestation (group 2). qPCR was specific for exons 5 and 7 of the RHD gene (RHD5 and RHD7). The results were interpreted according to the number of positive replicates of both exons. Results 1st qPCR: diagnostic accuracy was of 93.3%. Diagnostic accuracy increased from 90.5% (1st qPCR) to 93.7% (2nd qPCR) in group 1 and from 84.6% (1st qPCR) to 92.3% (2nd qPCR) in group 2. These increments were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our approach to RHD genotyping in early pregnancy yielded high diagnostic accuracy. Increasing the amount of DNA analyzed in each sample did not improve significantly the diagnostic accuracy of the test. PMID:25960712

  9. A Method to Quantify Cell-Free Fetal DNA Fraction in Maternal Plasma Using Next Generation Sequencing: Its Application in Non-Invasive Prenatal Chromosomal Aneuploidy Detection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xu-Ping; Gan, Hai-Yan; Li, Fen-Xia; Tian, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Liang, Rong-Liang; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The fraction of circulating cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal plasma is a critical parameter for aneuploidy screening with non-invasive prenatal testing, especially for those samples located in equivocal zones. We developed an approach to quantify cff DNA fractions directly with sequencing data, and increased cff DNAs by optimizing library construction procedure. Methods Artificial DNA mixture samples (360), with known cff DNA fractions, were used to develop a method to determine cff DNA fraction through calculating the proportion of Y chromosomal unique reads, with sequencing data generated by Ion Proton. To validate our method, we investigated cff DNA fractions of 2,063 pregnant women with fetuses who were diagnosed as high risk of fetal defects. The z-score was calculated to determine aneuploidies for chromosomes 21, 18 and 13. The relationships between z-score and parameters of pregnancies were also analyzed. To improve cff DNA fractions in our samples, two groups were established as follows: in group A, the large-size DNA fragments were removed, and in group B these were retained, during library construction. Results A method to determine cff DNA fractions was successfully developed using 360 artificial mixture samples in which cff DNA fractions were known. A strong positive correlation was found between z-score and fetal DNA fraction in the artificial mixture samples of trisomy 21, 18 and 13, as well as in clinical maternal plasma samples. There was a positive correlation between gestational age and the cff DNA fraction in the clinical samples, but no correlation for maternal age. Moreover, increased fetal DNA fractions were found in group A compared to group B. Conclusion A relatively accurate method was developed to determine the cff DNA fraction in maternal plasma. By optimizing, we can improve cff DNA fractions in sequencing samples, which may contribute to improvements in detection rate and reliability. PMID:26765738

  10. 13CO2 breath tests in non-invasive hepatological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Musialik, Joanna; Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Buschhaus, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    In liver diagnostics, a simple, non-invasive test with high sensitivity and specificity is permanently being sought in order to assess the degree of liver damage. In addition to liver biopsy, algorithms using blood parameters or elastometry are used in clinical practice. However, these methods do not provide information about the true liver reserve, so the liver breath test seem to be a promising diagnostic tool. The basis of this test depends on the ability of particular hepatocyte enzyme systems to metabolise a tested substance labelled with a stable carbon isotope. The kinetics of 13CO2 elimination with expiratory air then permits quantitative assessment of the functional liver reserve and the degree of organ damage. In this paper the most commonly used tests, grouped according to the main metabolic pathways, are described. The usefulness of liver breath tests in specific clinical situations, both as a diagnostic and prognostic tool, is presented. PMID:25960807

  11. [Clinical Application of Non-invasive Diagnostic Tests for Liver Fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Woo; Park, Neung Hwa

    2016-07-25

    The diagnostic assessment of liver fibrosis is an important step in the management of patients with chronic liver diseases. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard to assess necroinflammation and fibrosis. However, recent technical advances have introduced numerous serum biomarkers and imaging tools using elastography as noninvasive alternatives to biopsy. Serum markers can be direct or indirect markers of the fibrosis process. The elastography-based studies include transient elastography, acoustic radiation force imaging, supersonic shear wave imaging and magnetic resonance elastography. As accumulation of clinical data shows that noninvasive tests provide prognostic information of clinical relevance, non-invasive diagnostic tools have been incorporated into clinical guidelines and practice. Here, the authors review noninvasive tests for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. PMID:27443617

  12. MedlinePlus: Prenatal Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reliable Is Laboratory Testing? (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You? (Mayo ... Spanish Amniotic Fluid Analysis (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Biophysical Profile (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  13. Ethical issues in prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Burgess, M M

    1994-04-01

    Many ethical concerns raised by prenatal testing are based on the use and effects of genetic information in nonclinical contexts. Correct or incorrect beliefs about social uses of genetic information may limit the voluntariness of informed consent to prenatal testing. A qualitative study of persons predictively tested for Huntington's disease illustrates how the social context, in this case the family history of being at risk, affects the interpretation of the genetic information and alters relationships. This constitutes a risk of genetic testing. Prenatal testing also requires ethical analysis based on careful understanding of how social attitudes and nonclinical uses affect voluntariness and potential harm and benefits of testing. Investigators conducting research on prenatal tests share the responsibility to evaluate social attitudes toward at-risk persons, nonclinical uses of genetic information, and the social benefits and harm of such uses. PMID:8070072

  14. Non invasive blood flow measurement in cerebellum detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy earlier than psychometric tests

    PubMed Central

    Felipo, Vicente; Urios, Amparo; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Cauli, Omar; Andrés-Costa, Maria-Jesús; González, Olga; Serra, Miguel A; Sánchez-González, Javier; Aliaga, Roberto; Giner-Durán, Remedios; Belloch, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether non invasive blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling in several brain regions detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood flow (BF) was analyzed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in different brain areas of 14 controls, 24 cirrhotic patients without and 16 cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Images were collected using a 3 Tesla MR scanner (Achieva 3T-TX, Philips, Netherlands). Pulsed ASL was performed. Patients showing MHE were detected using the battery Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) consisting of five tests. Different cognitive and motor functions were also assessed: alterations in selective attention were evaluated using the Stroop test. Patients and controls also performed visuo-motor and bimanual coordination tests. Several biochemical parameters were measured: serum pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-18), 3-nitrotyrosine, cGMP and nitrates+nitrites in plasma, and blood ammonia. Bivariate correlations were evaluated. RESULTS: In patients with MHE, BF was increased in cerebellar hemisphere (P = 0.03) and vermis (P = 0.012) and reduced in occipital lobe (P = 0.017). BF in cerebellar hemisphere was also increased in patients without MHE (P = 0.02). Bimanual coordination was impaired in patients without MHE (P = 0.05) and much more in patients with MHE (P < 0.0001). Visuo-motor coordination was impaired only in patients with MHE (P < 0.0001). Attention was slightly affected in patients without MHE and more strongly in patients with MHE (P < 0.0001). BF in cerebellar hemisphere and vermis correlated with performance in most tests of PHES [(number connection tests A (NCT-A), B (NCT-B)and line tracing test] and in the congruent task of Stroop test. BF in frontal lobe correlated with NCT-A. Performance in bimanual and visuomotor coordination tests correlated only with BF in cerebellar hemisphere. BF in occipital lobe correlates with performance in the PHES battery and with

  15. The Glass Slide Extraction System Snap Card Improves Non-Invasive Prenatal Genotyping in Pregnancies with Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Thomasz; Doescher, Andrea; Haydock, Paul V.; Aldrich, Russ; Petershofen, Eduard K.; Müller, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Determination of fetal blood groups in maternal plasma samples critically depends on adequate pre-analytical steps for optimal amplification of fetal DNA. We compared the extraction of cell-free DNA by binding on a glass surface (BCSI SNAP™ Card) with an automated system based on bead technology (MagnaPure compact™). Methods Maternal blood samples from 281 pregnancies (7th-39th week of gestation) with known antibodies were evaluated in this study. Both the SNAP card and the MagnaPure method were applied to isolate DNA in order to directly compare the amplification in a single base extension assay and/or real-time PCR. Results The mean concentration of total DNA obtained by the SNAP card (33.8 ng/µl) exceeded more than twofold that of MagnaPure extraction (15.7 ng/µl). SNAP card-extracted samples allowed to detect 3.7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) versus 2.5 SNPs in MagnaPure extracts to control for traces of fetal DNA. This difference is highest for samples from 7th-13th week of gestation. Conclusion The SNAP card system improves DNA extraction efficacy for prenatal diagnosis in maternal blood samples and provides an at least eightfold higher total amount of DNA for the ensuing analysis. Its advantage is most evident for samples from early stages of pregnancy and thus especially valuable for pregnancies with antibodies. PMID:26733769

  16. An open-source framework for stress-testing non-invasive foetal ECG extraction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Fernando; Behar, Joachim; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, many studies have been published on the extraction of non-invasive foetal electrocardiogram (NI-FECG) from abdominal recordings. Most of these contributions claim to obtain excellent results in detecting foetal QRS (FQRS) complexes in terms of location. A small subset of authors have investigated the extraction of morphological features from the NI-FECG. However, due to the shortage of available public databases, the large variety of performance measures employed and the lack of open-source reference algorithms, most contributions cannot be meaningfully assessed. This article attempts to address these issues by presenting a standardised methodology for stress testing NI-FECG algorithms, including absolute data, as well as extraction and evaluation routines. To that end, a large database of realistic artificial signals was created, totaling 145.8 h of multichannel data and over one million FQRS complexes. An important characteristic of this dataset is the inclusion of several non-stationary events (e.g. foetal movements, uterine contractions and heart rate fluctuations) that are critical for evaluating extraction routines. To demonstrate our testing methodology, three classes of NI-FECG extraction algorithms were evaluated: blind source separation (BSS), template subtraction (TS) and adaptive methods (AM). Experiments were conducted to benchmark the performance of eight NI-FECG extraction algorithms on the artificial database focusing on: FQRS detection and morphological analysis (foetal QT and T/QRS ratio). The overall median FQRS detection accuracies (i.e. considering all non-stationary events) for the best performing methods in each group were 99.9% for BSS, 97.9% for AM and 96.0% for TS. Both FQRS detections and morphological parameters were shown to heavily depend on the extraction techniques and signal-to-noise ratio. Particularly, it is shown that their evaluation in the source domain, obtained after using a BSS technique, should be

  17. Eugenics and prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R

    1986-01-01

    Prejudices against people with disabilities, poor people, and immigrants during the nineteenth century generated a science of "race improvement" called eugenics. In the United States, a number of eugenic measures were enacted early in this century, but it was in Nazi Germany that eugenics flourished under the name of racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene). In the guise of furthering the health of the German people, German scientists and physicians initially designed programs of sterilization. Next came euthanasia and finally mass extermination of "lives not worth living." Remembering this history, many German women oppose the new technical developments in prenatal diagnosis because they see them as yet another way to specify what kinds of people are and are not fit to inhabit the world. This paper tries to place the new technologies in the context of eugenics and to point out some of the ways in which the new, supposedly liberating, choices in fact limit women's control over our lives. PMID:3516893

  18. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal DNA in maternal plasma: a preliminary study for identification of paternally-inherited alleles using single nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J J; Tan, J A M A; Chua, K H; Tan, P C; George, E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with a mutation can be used to identify the presence of the paternally-inherited wild-type or mutant allele as result of the inheritance of either allele in the fetus and allows the prediction of the fetal genotype. This study aims to identify paternal SNPs located at the flanking regions upstream or downstream from the β-globin gene mutations at CD41/42 (HBB:c.127_130delCTTT), IVS1-5 (HBB:c.92+5G>C) and IVS2-654 (HBB:c.316-197C>T) using free-circulating fetal DNA. Setting Haematology Lab, Department of Biomedical Science, University of Malaya. Participants Eight couples characterised as β-thalassaemia carriers where both partners posed the same β-globin gene mutations at CD41/42, IVS1-5 and IVS2-654, were recruited in this study. Outcome measures Genotyping was performed by allele specific-PCR and the locations of SNPs were identified after sequencing alignment. Results Genotype analysis revealed that at least one paternal SNP was present for each of the couples. Amplification on free-circulating DNA revealed that the paternal mutant allele of SNP was present in three fcDNA. Thus, the fetuses may be β-thalassaemia carriers or β-thalassaemia major. Paternal wild-type alleles of SNP were present in the remaining five fcDNA samples, thus indicating that the fetal genotypes would not be homozygous mutants. Conclusions This preliminary research demonstrates that paternal allele of SNP can be used as a non-invasive prenatal diagnosis approach for at-risk couples to determine the β-thalassaemia status of the fetus. PMID:26201722

  19. A non-invasive test for receptor binding applied to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Britton, K. E.; Tedder, R. S.; Khokhar, A. M.; Brown, N. J.; Davison, A.; Slater, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Studies in animals have determined the importance of specific receptors to the action of many hormones and drugs. In man, a non-invasive external counting technique has been used and absence of receptor function has been demonstrated in a patient with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus using radioactively labelled arginine vasopressin. This is in contrast to the findings in a patient with pituitary diabetes insipidus and a normal control. These results suggest a model for the study of hormone and drug kinetics in man avoiding multiple samplings of biological fluids. PMID:196275

  20. The impact of new trends in POCTs for companion diagnostics, non-invasive testing and molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Huckle, David

    2015-06-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics have been slowly developing over several decades and have taken on a new importance in current healthcare delivery for both diagnostics and development of new drugs. Molecular diagnostics have become a key driver of technology change and opened up new areas in companion diagnostics for use alongside pharmaceuticals and in new clinical approaches such as non-invasive testing. Future areas involving smartphone and other information technology advances, together with new developments in molecular biology, microfluidics and surface chemistry are adding to advances in the market. The focus for point-of-care tests with molecular diagnostic technologies is focused on advancing effective applications. PMID:25990929

  1. 13C-egg white breath test: a non-invasive test of pancreatic trypsin activity in the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Evenepoel, P; Hiele, M; Geypens, B; Geboes, K; Rutgeerts, P; Ghoos, Y

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The recent availability of egg white protein highly enriched with 13C has allowed breath test technology to be adapted for the study of protein digestion and absorption. Pancreatic trypsin is considered to be the key enzyme in the proteolytic cascade.
AIM—To evaluate trypsin activity in the small intestine of healthy volunteers and patients with pancreatic disease by a recently developed 13C-egg white breath test.
METHODS—A total of 48 healthy volunteers and 30 patients with pancreatic disease were studied after ingestion of a test meal consisting of 22 g 13C-labelled egg protein. Breath samples were taken before and after ingestion of the meal and analysed for 13CO2 concentration. Moreover, pancreatic trypsin output after maximal stimulation was measured in 13 patients and nine healthy volunteers.
RESULTS—The six hour cumulative 13CO2 excretion in breath was significantly lower in patients than controls (mean (SEM): 6.23 (0.82)% v 19.16 (0.58)%, p<0.0001). An excellent correlation was found between the six hour cumulative 13CO2 excretion and trypsin activity after maximal pancreatic stimulation.
CONCLUSION—The non-invasive 13C-egg white breath test is promising as an indirect pancreatic proteolytic function test.


Keywords: breath test; pancreatic disease; trypsin; protein; assimilation PMID:10601055

  2. Understanding Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... trimester. The former checks for genetic defects like Downs Syndrome; the latter checks for abnormal lung development. Chorionic ... looks for several things, particularly the risk of Down Syndrome. Rh Incompatibility This test determines whether the mother ...

  3. Noninvasive prenatal testing for trisomy 21: challenges for implementation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lisa; Hyett, Jon

    2013-10-01

    The term 'Non invasive prenatal testing' is used to describe the rapidly emerging molecular technologies related to cell free DNA assessment that are being applied to prenatal screening for Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities. This technology is now available to Australian women through a number of off-shore laboratories. We review the basis of this method of testing, the literature describing the effectiveness of NIPT in screening for trisomy 21 and the potential methods by which this tool could be incorporated into current screening strategies. PMID:23902297

  4. Comparison of accuracy of fibrosis degree classifications by liver biopsy and non-invasive tests in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-invasive tests have been constructed and evaluated mainly for binary diagnoses such as significant fibrosis. Recently, detailed fibrosis classifications for several non-invasive tests have been developed, but their accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated in comparison to liver biopsy, especially in clinical practice and for Fibroscan. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of detailed fibrosis classifications available for non-invasive tests and liver biopsy. The secondary aim was to validate these accuracies in independent populations. Methods Four HCV populations provided 2,068 patients with liver biopsy, four different pathologist skill-levels and non-invasive tests. Results were expressed as percentages of correctly classified patients. Results In population #1 including 205 patients and comparing liver biopsy (reference: consensus reading by two experts) and blood tests, Metavir fibrosis (FM) stage accuracy was 64.4% in local pathologists vs. 82.2% (p < 10-3) in single expert pathologist. Significant discrepancy (≥ 2FM vs reference histological result) rates were: Fibrotest: 17.2%, FibroMeter2G: 5.6%, local pathologists: 4.9%, FibroMeter3G: 0.5%, expert pathologist: 0% (p < 10-3). In population #2 including 1,056 patients and comparing blood tests, the discrepancy scores, taking into account the error magnitude, of detailed fibrosis classification were significantly different between FibroMeter2G (0.30 ± 0.55) and FibroMeter3G (0.14 ± 0.37, p < 10-3) or Fibrotest (0.84 ± 0.80, p < 10-3). In population #3 (and #4) including 458 (359) patients and comparing blood tests and Fibroscan, accuracies of detailed fibrosis classification were, respectively: Fibrotest: 42.5% (33.5%), Fibroscan: 64.9% (50.7%), FibroMeter2G: 68.7% (68.2%), FibroMeter3G: 77.1% (83.4%), p < 10-3 (p < 10-3). Significant discrepancy (≥ 2 FM) rates were, respectively: Fibrotest: 21.3% (22.2%), Fibroscan: 12.9% (12.3%), FibroMeter2G: 5

  5. Non-invasive assessment of hemispheric language dominance by optical topography during a brief passive listening test: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bembich, Stefano; Demarini, Sergio; Clarici, Andrea; Massaccesi, Stefano; Grasso, Domenico Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The Wada test is usually used for pre-surgical assessment of language lateralization. Considering its invasiveness and risk of complications, alternative methods have been proposed but they are not always applicable to non-cooperative patients. In this study we explored the possibility of using optical topography (OT) – a multichannel near-infrared system – for non-invasive assessment of hemispheric language dominance during passive listening. Material/Methods Cortical activity was monitored in a sample of healthy, adult Italian native speakers, all right-handed. We assessed changes in oxy-haemoglobin concentration in temporal, parietal and posterior frontal lobes during a passive listening of bi-syllabic words and vowel-consonant-vowel syllables lasting less then 3 minutes. Activated channels were identified by t tests. Results Left hemisphere showed significant activity only during the passive listening of bi-syllabic words. Specifically, the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior inferior parietal lobe were activated. Conclusions During passive listening of bi-syllabic words, right handed healthy adults showed a significant activation in areas already known to be involved in speech comprehension. Although more research is needed, OT proved to be a promising alternative to the Wada test for non-invasive assessment of hemispheric language lateralization, even if using a particularly brief trial, which has been designed for future applications with non-cooperative subjects. PMID:22129900

  6. Use of Entero-Test, a simple approach for non-invasive clinical evaluation of the biliary disposition of drugs

    PubMed Central

    Guiney, William J; Beaumont, Claire; Thomas, Steve R; Robertson, Darren C; McHugh, Simon M; Koch, Annelize; Richards, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the non-invasive collection of bile from healthy human subjects for the qualitative characterization of the biliary disposition of a drug, using spectrometric techniques. METHODS Twenty subjects underwent non-invasive bile capture using a peroral string test (Entero-Test) device prior to and following a single oral dose of simvastatin (80 mg). The device, consisting of a weighted gelatin capsule containing a highly absorbent nylon string, was swallowed by each subject with the proximal end of the string taped to the face. Once the weighted string was judged to have reached the duodenum, gallbladder contraction was stimulated in order to release bile. The string was then retrieved via the mouth, and bile samples were analysed for drug-related material using spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques following solvent extraction. RESULTS Numerous metabolites of simvastatin were detected, and the major metabolites were consistent with those reported from studies where bile was collected using invasive techniques from patients dosed with [14C]-simvastatin. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study demonstrate the utility of deploying the Entero-Test in human studies to provide structural information on biliary metabolites. This can be readily applied in drug development studies, including those in the target patient population and may eliminate the need for more invasive sampling techniques. PMID:21366667

  7. Non-invasive panel tests for gastrointestinal motility monitoring within the MARS-500 Project

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara; Guardigli, Massimo; Simoni, Patrizia; Festi, Davide; Afonin, Boris; Vasilyeva, Galina

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To develop an integrated approach for monitoring gastrointestinal motility and inflammation state suitable for application in long-term spaceflights. METHODS: Breath tests based on the oral administration of 13C-labeled or hydrogen-producing substrates followed by the detection of their metabolites (13CO2 or H2) in breath were used to measure gastrointestinal motility parameters during the 520-d spaceflight ground simulation within the MARS-500 Project. In particular, the gastric emptying rates of solid and liquid contents were evaluated by 13C-octanoic acid and 13C-acetate breath tests, respectively, whereas the orocecal transit time was assessed by an inulin H2-breath test, which was performed simultaneously with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. A ready-to-eat, standardized pre-packaged muffin containing 100 mg of 13C-octanoic acid was used in the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to avoid the extemporaneous preparation of solid meals. In addition, a cassette-type lateral flow immunoassay was employed to detect fecal calprotectin, a biomarker of intestinal inflammation. Because no items could be introduced into the simulator during the experiment, all materials and instrumentation required for test performance during the entire mission simulation had to be provided at the beginning of the experiment. RESULTS: The experiments planned during the simulation of a manned flight to Mars could be successfully performed by the crewmembers without any external assistance. No evident alterations (i.e., increasing or decreasing trends) in the gastric emptying rates were detected using the 13C-breath tests during the mission simulation, as the gastric emptying half-times were in the range of those reported for healthy subjects. In contrast to the 13C-breath tests, the results of the inulin H2-breath test were difficult to interpret because of the high variability of the H2 concentration in the breath samples, even within the same subject. This variability suggested that

  8. Nondestructive testing and evaluation of composites by non-invasive IR Imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Siddiqui, Juned A.; Arora, Vanita; Ghali, S. V.; Muniyappa, Amarnath; Takei, Masahiro

    2013-05-01

    InfraRed Thermography (IRT) is one of the promising technique for non-destructive testing method for characterization of materials. This technique relies on evaluation of the surface temperature variations to detect the presence of surface and subsurface anomalies within the material. Due to its whole field and remote testing capabilities, IRT has gained significant importance in testing of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) materials. A GFRP sample with defects of various sizes at a given depth was inspected using non-stationary thermographic techniques. In order to highlight the defect detection capabilities of the proposed non-stationary schemes, a comparison has been made using matched excitation energy in frequency domain by taking signal to noise ratio into consideration.

  9. The urea breath test: a non-invasive clinical tool for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Perri, F; Ghoos, Y; Hiele, M; Andriulli, A; Rutgeerts, P

    1995-03-01

    The urea breath test exploits the urease enzyme of Helicobacter pylori. The hydrolysis of labelled urea releases labelled carbon dioxide that is excreted in the breath. Distribution of urea throughout the stomach prevents sampling errors and allows for semiquantitative assessment of the extent of Helicobacter pylori infection. The urea breath test is very specific and sensitive and can be proposed as the method of choice for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in ulcer patients before and after eradicating treatment as well as in epidemiological studies. PMID:7579592

  10. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of β-thalassemia by detection of the cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zafari, Mandana; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Gill, Pooria; Alipour, Abbass; Shiran, Mohammadreza; Jalalli, Hossein; Banihashemi, Ali; Fatahi, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of fetal DNA (f-DNA) opens the possibility of early non-invasive procedure for detection of paternally inherited mutation of beta-thalassemia. Since 2002, some studies have examined the sensitivity and specificity of this method for detection of paternally inherited mutation of thalassemia in pregnant women at risk of having affected babies. We conducted a systematic review of published articles that evaluated using this method for early detection of paternally inherited mutation in maternal plasma. A sensitive search of multiple databases was done in which nine studies met our inclusion criteria. The sensitivity and specificity was 99 and 99 %, respectively. The current study found that detection of paternally inherited mutation of thalassemia using analysis of cell-free fetal DNA is highly accurate. This method could replace conventional and invasive methods. PMID:26968552

  11. Development of new non-invasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: The relevance of information on adenoma detection

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ulrike; Knudsen, Amy B.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are actively pursuing the development of a new non-invasive test (NIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as an alternative to fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). The majority of pilot studies focus on the detection of invasive CRC rather than precursor lesions (i.e., adenomas). We aimed to explore the relevance of adenoma detection for the viability of an NIT for CRC screening by considering a hypothetical test that does not detect adenomas beyond chance. We used the Simulation Model of Colorectal Cancer (SimCRC) to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening and the lifetime costs (payers’ perspective) for a cohort of US 50-year-olds to whom CRC screening is offered from age 50–75. We compared annual screening with guaiac and immunochemical FOBTs (with sensitivities up to 70% and 24% for CRC and adenomas, respectively) to annual screening with a hypothetical NIT (sensitivity of 90% for CRC, no detection of adenomas beyond chance, specificity and cost similar to FOBTs). Screening with the NIT was not more effective, but was 29–44% more costly than screening with FOBTs. The findings were robust to varying the screening interval, the NIT’s sensitivity for CRC, adherence rates favoring the NIT, and the NIT’s unit cost. A comparative modelling approach using a model that assumes a shorter adenoma dwell time (MISCAN-COLON) confirmed the superiority of the immunochemical FOBT over a NIT with no ability to detect adenomas. Information on adenoma detection is crucial to determine whether a new NIT is a viable alternative to FOBTs for CRC screening. Current evidence thus lacks an important piece of information to identify marker candidates that hold real promise and deserve further (large-scale) evaluation. PMID:25403937

  12. In-vivo testing of a non-invasive prototype device for the continuous monitoring of intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A.; Korfhagen, Joseph; Beiler, Shauna; Beiler, Chris; Wagner, Kenneth; Adeoye, Opeolu M.; Shaw, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a stroke subtype with the highest mortality rate. Hematoma expansion and re-bleeding post-ICH are common and exacerbate the initial cerebral insult. There is a need for continuous monitoring of the neurologic status of patients with an ICH injury. New Method A prototype device for non-invasive continuous monitoring of an ICH was developed and tested in-vivo using a porcine ICH model. The device consists of receiving and transmitting antennae in the 400–1000 MHz frequency range, placed directly in line with the site of the ICH. The device exploits the differences in the dielectric properties and geometry of tissue media of a healthy brain and a brain with an ICH injury. The power received by the receiving antenna is measured and the percent change in power received immediately after infusion of blood and 30 minutes after the infusion, allowing for the blood to clot, is calculated. Results An increase in the received power in the presence of an ICH is observed at 400 MHz, consistent with previous in-vitro studies. Frequency sweep experiments show a maximum percent change in received power in the 750–1000 MHz frequency range. Comparison with existing methods Currently, CT, MRI and catheter angiography (CA) are the main clinical neuroimaging modalities. However, these techniques require specialized equipment and personnel, substantial time, and patient- transportation to a radiology suite to obtain results. Moreover, CA is invasive and uses intra-venous dye or vascular catheters to accomplish the imaging. Conclusions The device has the potential to significantly improve neurologic care in the critically ill brain-injured patient. PMID:24997340

  13. An update on current prenatal testing options: first trimester and noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Latendresse, Gwen; Deneris, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal genetic testing is rapidly evolving and requires that prenatal care providers stay up-to-date with accurate, evidence-based knowledge. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), first trimester maternal serum markers, and fetal nuchal translucency are the most recently developed screening tests added to the testing repertoire for detection of chromosomal disorders such as trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). NIPT is a new, highly accurate technique that uses maternal serum and is rapidly being introduced as a first trimester screening tool and increasingly being requested by pregnant women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that all pregnant women be offered first and second trimester screening options, regardless of risk status, but does not yet recommend NIPT. It is important for prenatal care providers to be aware of and understand these testing options in order to assist women and their families in making well-informed decisions during pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to update midwives and other prenatal care providers on the current prenatal genetic testing options available and how to appropriately offer and discuss them with their clients. We discuss how these tests work; what to do with the results; and most importantly, how to support and communicate accurate information to women and families as they navigate through an increasingly complicated array of testing choices. PMID:25712277

  14. A Non-invasive Platform for Functional Characterization of Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes with Applications in Cardiotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Maddah, Mahnaz; Heidmann, Julia D.; Mandegar, Mohammad A.; Walker, Chase D.; Bolouki, Sara; Conklin, Bruce R.; Loewke, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present a non-invasive method to characterize the function of pluripotent stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes based on video microscopy and image analysis. The platform, called Pulse, generates automated measurements of beating frequency, beat duration, amplitude, and beat-to-beat variation based on motion analysis of phase-contrast images captured at a fast frame rate. Using Pulse, we demonstrate recapitulation of drug effects in stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes without the use of exogenous labels and show that our platform can be used for high-throughput cardiotoxicity drug screening and studying physiologically relevant phenotypes. PMID:25801505

  15. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening Tests for Down Syndrome Sonogram Nuchal Translucency (NT test) Sonogram and blood test Combined Fully Integrated ... 20 weeks What the Test Tells You The NT sonogram measures the amount of fluid under the ...

  16. Preferences for prenatal tests for Down syndrome: an international comparison of the views of pregnant women and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hill, Melissa; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Langlois, Sylvie; Lee, Hyun; Winsor, Stephanie; Dineley, Brigid; Horniachek, Marisa; Lalatta, Faustina; Ronzoni, Luisa; Barrett, Angela N; Advani, Henna V; Choolani, Mahesh; Rabinowitz, Ron; Pajkrt, Eva; van Schendel, Rachèl V; Henneman, Lidewij; Rommers, Wieke; Bilardo, Caterina M; Rendeiro, Paula; Ribeiro, Maria João; Rocha, José; Bay Lund, Ida Charlotte; Petersen, Olav B; Becher, Naja; Vogel, Ida; Stefánsdottir, Vigdis; Ingvarsdottir, Sigrun; Gottfredsdottir, Helga; Morris, Stephen; Chitty, Lyn S

    2016-07-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing is increasingly available worldwide and stakeholder viewpoints are essential to guide implementation. Here we compare the preferences of women and health professionals from nine different countries towards attributes of non-invasive and invasive prenatal tests for Down syndrome. A discrete choice experiment was used to obtain participants' stated preference for prenatal tests that varied according to four attributes: accuracy, time of test, risk of miscarriage, and type of information. Pregnant women and health professionals were recruited from Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. A total of 2666 women's and 1245 health professionals' questionnaires were included in the analysis. Differences in preferences were seen between women and health professionals within and between countries. Overall, women placed greater emphasis on test safety and comprehensive information than health professionals, who emphasised accuracy and early testing. Differences between women's and health professionals' preferences are marked between countries. Varied approaches to implementation and service delivery are therefore needed and individual countries should develop guidelines appropriate for their own social and screening contexts. PMID:26577044

  17. Non-invasive monitoring and quantitative analysis of patch test reactions by reflectance spectrophotometry, laser Doppler flowmetry and transepidermal water loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikje, Natalja Skrebova; Arase, Seiji

    2008-02-01

    Reflectance spectrophotometry (RS), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) techniques were simultaneously used to non-invasively monitor skin colour (SC), skin blood flow (SBF) and barrier function damage (BFD) in routinely patch-tested Japanese patients in dermatology clinic. The analytical quality, reliability and reproducibility of each technique were compared and analyzed in correlated to visual scoring patch test (PT) reactions as negative (-), doubtful (+?), weak (+) and strong (++/+++) at 48- and 72-hour monitoring. An attempt was made to quantify predominant in the clinic "+?"- and "+'"-PT-reactions. The relationship between 48 h and 72 h measurements in different reaction groups was poor for TEWL, LDF showed a tendency to decrease at 72 h, but good for RS. A correlation between visual scorings and instrumental mean values was poor for TEWL, good for LDF and excellent for RS. So, measurements by RS were the most statistically significant to non-invasively monitor and quantify doubtful, weak and strong PT reactions, accordingly providing continuous data grading of reaction intensity suitable in the clinic. Moreover, monitoring of SC changes was the most reliable parameter for the quantitative distinguishing of doubtful and weak reactions in pigmented skin.

  18. Emerging stool-based and blood-based non-invasive DNA tests for colorectal cancer screening: the importance of cancer prevention in addition to cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Perry J

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening can be undertaken utilizing a variety of distinct approaches, which provides both opportunities and confusion. Traditionally, there has often been a trade-off between the degree of invasiveness of a screening test and its ability to prevent cancer, with fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and optical colonoscopy (OC) at each end of the spectrum. CT colonography (CTC), although currently underutilized for CRC screening, represents an exception since it is only minimally invasive, yet provides accurate evaluation for advanced adenomas. More recently, the FDA approved a multi-target stool DNA test (Cologuard) and a blood-based test (Epi proColon) for average-risk CRC screening. This commentary will provide an overview of these two new non-invasive tests, including the clinical indications, mechanism of action, and diagnostic performance. Relevance to radiology practice, including a comparison with CTC, will also be discussed. PMID:27259335

  19. Validation of AshTest as a Non-Invasive Alternative to Transjugular Liver Biopsy in Patients with Suspected Severe Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rudler, Marika; Mouri, Sarah; Charlotte, Frederic; Cluzel, Philippe; Ngo, Yen; Munteanu, Mona; Lebray, Pascal; Ratziu, Vlad; Thabut, Dominique; Poynard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims According to guidelines, the histological diagnosis of severe alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) can require liver biopsy if a specific treatment is needed. The blood test AshTest (BioPredictive, Paris, France) has been initially validated for the non-invasive diagnosis of ASH in a large population of heavy drinkers. The aim was to validate the AshTest accuracy in the specific context of use of patients with suspected severe ASH, in order to reduce the need for transjugular biopsy before deciding treatment. Methods The reference was liver biopsy, performed using the transjugular route, classified according to its histological severity as none, minimal, moderate or severe. Biopsies were assessed by the same experienced pathologist, blinded to simultaneous AshTest results. Results A total of 123 patients with severe clinical ASH (recent jaundice and Maddrey function greater or equal to 32) were included, all had cirrhosis and 80% had EASL histological definition of ASH. 95% of patients received prednisolone; and the 2-year mortality was 63%. The high AshTest performance was confirmed both for the binary outcome [AUROC = 0.803 (95%CI 0.684–0.881)] significantly higher than the AST/ALT AUROC [0.603 (0.462–0.714); P<0.001], and for the severity of ASH-score system by the Obuchowski measures for [mean (SE) 0.902 (0.017) vs. AST/ALT 0.833 (0.023); P = 0.01], as well as for the diagnosis and severity of ballooning, PMN and Mallory bodies. According to attributability of discordances, AshTest had a 2–7% risk of 2 grades misclassification. Conclusion These results confirmed the diagnostic performance of AshTest in cirrhotic patients with severe clinical ASH, in the specific context of use of corticosteroid treatment. AshTest is an appropriate non-invasive alternative to transjugular liver biopsy. PMID:26252713

  20. A simulation test of the effectiveness of several methods for error-checking non-invasive genetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Kendall, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS) is becoming a popular tool for population estimation. However, multiple NGS studies have demonstrated that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping errors can bias demographic estimates. These errors can be detected by comprehensive data filters such as the multiple-tubes approach, but this approach is expensive and time consuming as it requires three to eight PCR replicates per locus. Thus, researchers have attempted to correct PCR errors in NGS datasets using non-comprehensive error checking methods, but these approaches have not been evaluated for reliability. We simulated NGS studies with and without PCR error and 'filtered' datasets using non-comprehensive approaches derived from published studies and calculated mark-recapture estimates using CAPTURE. In the absence of data-filtering, simulated error resulted in serious inflations in CAPTURE estimates; some estimates exceeded N by ??? 200%. When data filters were used, CAPTURE estimate reliability varied with per-locus error (E??). At E?? = 0.01, CAPTURE estimates from filtered data displayed < 5% deviance from error-free estimates. When E?? was 0.05 or 0.09, some CAPTURE estimates from filtered data displayed biases in excess of 10%. Biases were positive at high sampling intensities; negative biases were observed at low sampling intensities. We caution researchers against using non-comprehensive data filters in NGS studies, unless they can achieve baseline per-locus error rates below 0.05 and, ideally, near 0.01. However, we suggest that data filters can be combined with careful technique and thoughtful NGS study design to yield accurate demographic information. ?? 2005 The Zoological Society of London.

  1. Invasive prenatal genetic testing: A Catholic healthcare provider's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bringman, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive prenatal testing is performed for a variety of reasons, but the most common indication is for genetic testing of the fetus. Although many times the information obtained from this type of testing results in selective termination of fetuses with genetic diagnoses, the information itself may be morally neutral. Should a Catholic healthcare provider be willing to perform invasive prenatal testing in the setting of uncertainty with respect to the patient's plans following a diagnosis of a genetic abnormality? PMID:25473130

  2. Ambiguous genitalia: what prenatal genetic testing is practical?

    PubMed

    Adam, Margaret P; Fechner, Patricia Y; Ramsdell, Linda A; Badaru, Angela; Grady, Richard E; Pagon, Roberta A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Cheng, Edith Y; Parisi, Melissa A; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2012-06-01

    Concern for ambiguous genitalia or chromosome-phenotype discordance detected in a prenatal setting has increased over the last two decades. Practitioners faced with this prenatal finding have a variety of genetic tests available to them; however, it is unclear to what extent prenatal testing for disorders of sex development (DSD) is useful or practical. We undertook a retrospective review of the medical records of 140 individuals evaluated through the DSD clinic at Seattle Children's Hospital with birthdates from 01/01/1994 through 08/16/2011 to determine the rate of prenatal detection of ambiguous genitalia in individuals with DSD, what prenatal diagnostic workup was undertaken, and the postnatal outcome, including whether a postnatal genetic diagnosis was confirmed. Of all 140 subjects, 34 (24%) were identified prenatally. The most common postnatal diagnoses were penoscrotal hypospadias with transposition of the scrotum with no known genetic cause (24/140; 17%) and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (20/140; 14%). Apart from these, no single diagnosis comprised more than a few cases. Prenatal diagnostic testing varied widely, from no tests to multiple molecular tests with amniotic fluid hormone concentrations. In the absence of other fetal anomalies or growth retardation on ultrasound, prenatal karyotype with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the SRY gene is the most useful test when ambiguous genitalia is suspected. Further prenatal testing for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in 46,XY individuals and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 46,XX individuals may be considered. However, targeted molecular testing for rare DSD conditions in the absence of a family history of DSD has a low yield. PMID:22581420

  3. Design and testing of an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for non-invasive cardiac assessments during exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for cardiac research, and it is frequently used for resting cardiac assessments. However, research into non-pharmacological stress cardiac evaluation is limited. Methods We aimed to design a portable and relatively inexpensive MRI cycle ergometer capable of continuously measuring pedalling workload while patients exercise to maintain target heart rates. Results We constructed and tested an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Resting and sub-maximal exercise images (at 110 beats per minute) were successfully obtained in 8 healthy adults. Conclusions The MRI-compatible cycle ergometer constructed by our research group enabled cardiac assessments at fixed heart rates, while continuously recording power output by directly measuring pedal force and crank rotation. PMID:22423637

  4. Non-invasive cardiac index monitoring during cardiopulmonary functional testing provides additional prognostic value in patients after acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Feng; Chen, Wei-Siang; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Liu, Min-Hui; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Huang, Yu-Yen; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic value of parameters derived from a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is well established in patients stabilized after acute heart failure (HF). Under multidisciplinary disease management, this study sought to test whether noninvasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring (NICOM) during the CPET provides additional prognostic value. In total, 131 patients stabilized after acute HF agreed to undergo the CPET with NICOM. Outcome follow-up focused on composite events of death and HF-related rehospitalization. Patients with a peak cardiac index (CI) of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (n = 32), compared to those with a peak CI of > 4.5 L/minute/m(2) (n = 99), had higher incidences of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, but had lower hemoglobin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)). During the 1.2 ± 0.7 years of follow-up, there were 8 (6.1%) deaths, and 16 (12.2%) HF-related rehospitalizations. In a Cox univariable analysis, a lower event-free survival was associated with a history of DM, a higher Ve/VCO(2) slope, lower peak VCO(2) and eGFR, and a peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (P < 0.05). The Cox multivariable analysis showed that the Ve/VCO(2) slope (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01~1.16, P = 0.02) and peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/m(2 )(HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.18~9.01, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors. In conclusion, NICOM during the CPET was demonstrated to provide prognostic information in addition to traditional risk factors, biomarkers, and other well-established CPET parameters. PMID:23258137

  5. Second-generation non-invasive high-throughput DNA sequencing technology in the screening of Down's syndrome in advanced maternal age women

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIAO; ZHANG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using non-invasive DNA testing technology in screening Down's syndrome among women of advanced maternal age (AMA) and to provide evidence for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome. With a double-blind design, 8 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 87 women aged ≥35 years after 12 weeks of pregnancy. All cases were recorded with unique identification cards with clinical details and followed up until delivery. All the non-invasive prenatal testing results were confirmed by amniotic fluid fetal karyotyping (the gold standard of aneuploidy test), follow-up examination by neonatologists or neonatal blood karyotyping. The sensitivity, specificity and other indicators of non-invasive DNA testing technology were calculated based on the data of 87 women of AMA. Among the 87 women of AMA, 5 were cases with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (3 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 18 and 1 case of 47, XXX). The sensitivity and specificity reached 100% for trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and 47, XXX. The present study supports that non-invasive DNA testing is a useful method of AMA screening of Down's syndrome with 100% accuracy. Therefore, it can be used as an important alternative screening method for Down's syndrome in women of AMA. PMID:27313855

  6. Commercial Landscape of noninvasive prenatal testing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and scientific, legal, and business publications. We also describe the patenting and licensing landscape of technologies underlying these tests and ongoing patent litigation in the United States. Finally, we discuss how IP issues may affect clinical translation of NIPT and their potential implications for stakeholders. Fetal medicine professionals (clinicians and researchers), genetic counselors, insurers, regulators, test developers and patients may be able to use this information to make informed decisions about clinical implementation of current and emerging noninvasive prenatal tests. PMID:23686656

  7. The non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test detects hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction as a marker of disease activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT) in patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Methods 118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative 13C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%)). cPDR1.5h was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p < 0.001). 13C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36). The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1). Conclusion The 13C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial) function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:21810560

  8. Practice Bulletin No. 162: Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal genetic diagnostic testing is intended to determine, with as much certainty as possible, whether a specific genetic disorder or condition is present in the fetus. In contrast, prenatal genetic screening is designed to assess whether a patient is at increased risk of having a fetus affected by a genetic disorder. Originally, prenatal genetic testing focused primarily on Down syndrome (trisomy 21), but now it is able to detect a broad range of genetic disorders. Although it is necessary to perform amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) to definitively diagnose most genetic disorders, in some circumstances, fetal imaging with ultrasonography, echocardiography, or magnetic resonance imaging may be diagnostic of a particular structural fetal abnormality that is suggestive of an underlying genetic condition.The objective of prenatal genetic testing is to detect health problems that could affect the woman, fetus, or newborn and provide the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider with enough information to allow a fully informed decision about pregnancy management. Prenatal genetic testing cannot identify all abnormalities or problems in a fetus, and any testing should be focused on the individual patient's risks, reproductive goals, and preferences. It is important that patients understand the benefits and limitations of all prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, including the conditions for which tests are available and the conditions that will not be detected by testing. It also is important that patients realize that there is a broad range of clinical presentations, or phenotypes, for many genetic disorders and that results of genetic testing cannot predict all outcomes. Prenatal genetic testing has many benefits, including reassuring patients when results are normal, identifying disorders for which prenatal treatment may provide benefit, optimizing neonatal outcomes by ensuring the appropriate location for

  9. Non-invasive physiological measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rolfe, P.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nondestructive type for monitoring the physiology of various organ systems. The topics covered are: non-invasive assessment of gastric activity; uterine activity, intestinal activity; monitoring of fetal cardiovascular system and bilirubin physiology of infants. Respiratory system of infants is monitored and ultrasonography of heart is discussed.

  10. Lactate is an ideal non-invasive marker for evaluating temporal alterations in cell stress and toxicity in repeat dose testing regimes.

    PubMed

    Limonciel, Alice; Aschauer, Lydia; Wilmes, Anja; Prajczer, Sinikka; Leonard, Martin O; Pfaller, Walter; Jennings, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Technological developments are driving in vitro methods towards integrated "omic" strategies. However, there is still an over reliance on classical viability assays for dose range finding. Such assays are not readily suited to the investigation of subtle alterations in cell function and most require termination of the experiment, which makes it difficult to monitor temporal alterations in repeat-dose long term exposure experiments. To this end, we investigated the use of lactate production as a marker of cell stress in long term repeat dose experiments. We conducted daily exposures to eight compounds at five concentrations for 14 days on human renal proximal tubular cells (RPTEC/TERT1), human hepatoma cells (HepaRG) and mouse fibroblasts (BALB-3T3) cells. Compounds were chosen from a training set used in the 7th EU Framework project Predict-IV and consisted of amiodarone, diclofenac, troglitazone, cadmium chloride, cephaloridine, cidofovir, cyclosporine A and buflomedil. At days 1, 3, 7 and 14, lactate was measured in the supernatant medium. At day 14, cells were assayed for resazurin reduction capability and subsequently lysed in methanol for ATP determination. Compound-induced loss of viability was comparable across all cell lines. For all cell types, when cell viability was compromised at day 14, lactate production was induced during the treatment period. In some situations, lactate also fell below control values, indicating cell death. Thus, temporal alterations in supernatant lactate provides information on the time and concentration of stress induction and the time and concentration where cell death becomes the dominant factor. Supernatant lactate production is a simple, cheap and non-invasive parameter. Since many molecular pathways converge on the glycolytic pathway, enhanced lactate production may be considered as a global marker of sub-lethal injury and thus an ideal marker for investigating temporal alterations in long term repeat dose testing in vitro

  11. Excreted Thiocyanate Detects Live Reef Fishes Illegally Collected Using Cyanide—A Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Testing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Marcela C. M.; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A. P.; Rocha, Rui J. M.; Lopes, Isabel; Pereira, Ruth; Duarte, Armando C.; Rubec, Peter J.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Cyanide fishing is a method employed to capture marine fish alive on coral reefs. They are shipped to markets for human consumption in Southeast Asia, as well as to supply the marine aquarium trade worldwide. Although several techniques can be used to detect cyanide in reef fish, there is still no testing method that can be used to survey the whole supply chain. Most methods for cyanide detection are time-consuming and require the sacrifice of the sampled fish. Thiocyanate anion (SCN−) is a metabolite produced by the main metabolic pathway for cyanide anion (CN−) detoxification. Our study employed an optical fiber (OF) methodology (analytical time <6 min) to detect SCN− in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Our OF methodology is able to detect trace levels (>3.16 µg L−1) of SCN− in seawater. Given that marine fish exposed to cyanide excrete SCN− in the urine, elevated levels of SCN− present in the seawater holding live reef fish indicate that the surveyed specimens were likely exposed to cyanide. In our study, captive-bred clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii) pulse exposed for 60 s to either 12.5 or 25 mg L−1 of CN− excreted up to 6.96±0.03 and 9.84±0.03 µg L−1 of SCN−, respectively, during the 28 days following exposure. No detectable levels of SCN− were recorded in the water holding control organisms not exposed to CN−, or in synthetic seawater lacking fish. While further research is necessary, our methodology can allow a rapid detection of SCN− in the holding water and can be used as a screening tool to indicate if live reef fish were collected with cyanide. PMID:22536375

  12. The scale epithelium as a novel, non-invasive tool for environmental assessment in fish: Testing exposure to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Alves, R M S; Pereira, B F; Ribeiro, R G L G; Pitol, D L; Ciamarro, C M; Valim, J R T; Caetano, F H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing pollution levels have turned our attention to assessing lethal and sublethal effects of toxic agents using the most informative techniques possible. We must seek non-invasive or non-lethal sampling methods that represent an attractive alternative to traditional techniques of environmental assessment in fish. Detergents are amongst the most common contaminants of water bodies, and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate) is one of the most used anionic surfactant on the market. Our study analyzed morphological alterations (histological and histochemical) of the scale epithelium of Prochilodus lineatus under exposure to two concentrations of LAS, 3.6mg/L and 0.36mg/L, for a period of 30 days and evaluated at 14, 21 and 30 days. In order to establish morphological analysis of the scale epithelium as a new non-lethal environmental assessment tool that is reliable and comparable to classic methods, the relative sensibility of this technique was compared to a commonly used method of environmental assessment in fish, the estimation of the effects of pollutants upon branchial morphology. Two experiments were carried out, testing animals in tanks, and in individual aquariums. Results of analyses on gill tissue show that exposure to 3.6mg/L of surfactant caused severe damage, including hyperplasia, hypertrophy and fusion at 14 days, with aneurisms at 21 and 30 days; while exposure to 0.36mg/L had lighter effects on the organ, mainly lower incidence of fusion and hyperplasia. Aditionally, scale morphology was altered severely in response to 3.6mg/L of LAS, consistently showing increased mucous and club cell production. Epithelial thickness was the most variable parameter measured. Scale epithelium sensibility has the potential to be a reliable environmental marker for fish species since it has the advantage of being less invasive when compared to traditional methods. However, more studies are required to increase the robustness of the technique before it can be

  13. Paternity testing using the poisonous sting in captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari: a non-invasive tool for captive sustainability programmes.

    PubMed

    Janse, M; Kappe, A L; Van Kuijk, B L M

    2013-03-01

    A group of captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari produced 20 offspring, with an unknown father. Part of the poisonous sting was removed from each fish and DNA was extracted from the epidermis for paternity research using eight microsatellite markers of which four were from another species Aetobatus flagellum. This non-invasive sampling technique can be applied on all members of Myliobatiformes. PMID:23464564

  14. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA. PMID:27117661

  15. Cell-free nucleic acids as a non-invasive route for investigating atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cerne, Darko; Bajalo, Jana Lukac

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is directly linked with atherosclerotic burden and cell-free nucleic acids (cf-NA) analysis has recently emerged as a novel research tool in atherosclerosis practice and research. cf-NA are nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, miRNA, mitochondrial DNA) found in plasma and cell-free fractions of various other biological fluids. They have all the characteristics of the nucleic acids in the cells of their origin, thus constituting an emerging field for non-invasive assessment. Initially, quantitative and qualitative analysis of cf-NA has been accepted as clinically useful in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, and in the diagnosis and monitoring of numerous cancers. As to atherosclerosis, cf-NA analysis poses an important challenge in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of acute coronary syndrome, in prediction of cardiovascular disease, in non-invasive early detection of atherosclerosis and understanding its pathological mechanism in vivo, in assessing various issues of treatment for atherosclerosis in vivo, and in the unique simultaneous measurement of mRNA levels and protein concentrations in a single sample of plasma. Examples of its use are presented in this review. Besides the advances in technologies, the precise evaluation and optimization of pre-analytical and analytical aspects of cf-NA analysis have impacted importantly on the reliability of test results. We have, therefore, reviewed the most important analytical considerations. Further clinical studies and analytical improvements will answer the question as to whether cf-NA, as novel biomarkers, can be reliably applied clinically in non-invasive, early diagnosis and monitoring of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques of patients who could suffer from acute coronary syndrome. PMID:24320033

  16. Prenatal genetic testing kits sold at your local pharmacy: promoting autonomy or promoting confusion?

    PubMed

    Modra, Lucy

    2006-09-01

    Research groups around the world are developing non-invasive methods of prenatal genetic diagnosis, in which foetal cells are obtained by maternal blood test. Meanwhile, an increasing number of genetic tests are sold directly to the public. I extrapolate from these developments to consider a scenario in which PNGD self-testing kits are sold directly to the public. Given the opposition to over-the-counter genetic tests and the continuing controversy surrounding PNGD, it is reasonable to expect objections to PNGD self-testing kits. I focus on one potential objection, that PNGD self-testing kits would undermine the autonomy of potential test subjects. More specifically, that 'direct to the public' PNGD would fail to ensure that consumers exercise authority in the following PNGD-related choices: Should I use PNGD? Based on the results of the PNGD test, should I continue or terminate my pregnancy? Under the current system, PNGD is provided by health care practitioners, who are required to counsel women both before and after the test. In contrast, 'direct to the public' PNGD would allow women to make their PNGD-related decisions outside the context of the health care system. I compare these two decision-making contexts, arguing that the health care system is not unequivocally better at promoting the autonomy of potential test subjects. Therefore the promotion of autonomy does not constitute a strong argument against such test kits. Other objections may be more persuasive, so I do not offer an overall assessment of the acceptability of 'direct to the public' PNGD. PMID:17100009

  17. Digynic triploidy: utility and challenges of noninvasive prenatal testing

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Julie; Shenoy, Archana; Goetzinger, Katherine; Cottrell, Catherine E; Baldridge, Dustin; White, Frances V; Shinawi, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Low fraction fetal DNA in noninvasive prenatal testing in the context of fetal growth restriction and multiple congenital anomalies should alert medical professionals to the possibility of digynic triploidy. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray can detect the parental origin of triploidy and explain its mechanism. PMID:26185638

  18. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:27014443

  19. Quality of prenatal care questionnaire: instrument development and testing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Utilization indices exist to measure quantity of prenatal care, but currently there is no published instrument to assess quality of prenatal care. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ). Methods Data for this instrument development study were collected in five Canadian cities. Items for the QPCQ were generated through interviews with 40 pregnant women and 40 health care providers and a review of prenatal care guidelines, followed by assessment of content validity and rating of importance of items. The preliminary 100-item QPCQ was administered to 422 postpartum women to conduct item reduction using exploratory factor analysis. The final 46-item version of the QPCQ was then administered to another 422 postpartum women to establish its construct validity, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results Exploratory factor analysis reduced the QPCQ to 46 items, factored into 6 subscales, which subsequently were validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was also demonstrated using a hypothesis testing approach; there was a significant positive association between women’s ratings of the quality of prenatal care and their satisfaction with care (r = 0.81). Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r = 0.63) between the “Support and Respect” subscale of the QPCQ and the “Respectfulness/Emotional Support” subscale of the Prenatal Interpersonal Processes of Care instrument. The overall QPCQ had acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.96), as did each of the subscales. The test-retest reliability result (Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.88) indicated stability of the instrument on repeat administration approximately one week later. Temporal stability testing confirmed that women’s ratings of their quality of prenatal care did not change as a result of giving

  20. Non-invasive glucose monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

  1. Attitudes among Danes toward prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Uldall, Sigurd W; Norup, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Denmark offers public financed prenatal testing (PNT) to all pregnant women, but results are typically not available until after 12 weeks gestation, which is also the time limit for termination of pregnancy (TOP) on request. Committees decide on requests for later TOP. In a questionnaire survey, we investigated attitudes among Danes toward these issues. We also asked for opinions on two claims commonly found in the debate concerning women's right to decide on TOP in relation to PNT. One thousand people aged 18-45 years were drawn randomly from the national personal register. The response rate was 49%. Women and older respondents were overrepresented and may have caused a bias toward conservative attitudes. A majority supported the current PNT program and time limit for TOP on request, but only one-third supported committees deciding on all cases of late TOP. The implications of prenatal testing results becoming more accessible are discussed. PMID:23210604

  2. Prenatal Testing - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian ( ... 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Portuguese (português) Non-Stress Test in Pregnancy Teste sem estresse ...

  3. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the 13C-urea breath test as the primary diagnostic investigation for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection compared to invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    Nocon, Marc; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Leodolter, Andreas; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. There is a risk factor for gastric or duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer and MALT (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue)-Lymphomas. There are several invasive and non-invasive methods available for the diagnosis of H. pylori. The 13C-urea breath test is a non-invasive method recommended for monitoring H. pylori eradication therapy. However, this test is not yet used for primary assessment of H. pylori in Germany. Objectives What are the clinical and health economic benefits of the 13C-urea breath test in the primary assessment of H. pylori compared to other invasive and non-invasive methods? Methods A systematic literature search including a hand search was performed for studies investigating test criteria and cost-effectiveness of the 13C-urea breath test in comparison to other methods used in the primary assessment of H. pylori. Only studies that directly compared the 13C-urea breath test to other H. pylori-tests were included. For the medical part, biopsy-based tests were used as the gold standard. Results 30 medical studies are included. Compared to the immunoglobulin G (IgG) test, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in twelve studies, lower in six studies and one study reports no differences. The specificity is higher in 13 studies, lower in three studies and two studies report no differences. Compared to the stool antigen test, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in nine studies, lower in three studies and one study reports no difference. The specificity is higher in nine studies, lower in two studies and two studies report no differences. Compared to the urease test, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in four studies, lower in three studies and four studies report no differences. The specificity is higher in five studies, lower in five studies and one study reports no difference. Compared to histology, the

  4. Prenatal Testing - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Non-Stress Test in Pregnancy (Arabic) اختبار ...

  5. Non-Invasive Imaging of Vascular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ammirati, Enrico; Moroni, Francesco; Pedrotti, Patrizia; Scotti, Isabella; Magnoni, Marco; Bozzolo, Enrica P.; Rimoldi, Ornella E.; Camici, Paolo G.

    2014-01-01

    In large-vessel vasculitides, inflammatory infiltrates may cause thickening of the involved arterial vessel wall leading to progressive stenosis and occlusion. Dilatation, aneurysm formation, and thrombosis may also ensue. Activated macrophages and T lymphocytes are fundamental elements in vascular inflammation. The amount and density of the inflammatory infiltrate is directly linked to local disease activity. Additionally, patients with autoimmune disorders have an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk compared with age-matched healthy individuals as a consequence of accelerated atherosclerosis. Molecular imaging techniques targeting activated macrophages, neovascularization, or increased cellular metabolic activity can represent effective means of non-invasive detection of vascular inflammation. In the present review, novel non-invasive imaging tools that have been successfully tested in humans will be presented. These include contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which allows detection of neovessels within the wall of inflamed arteries; contrast-enhanced CV magnetic resonance that can detect increased thickness of the arterial wall, usually associated with edema, or mural enhancement using T2 and post-contrast T1-weighted sequences, respectively; and positron emission tomography associated with radio-tracers such as [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and the new [11C]-PK11195 in combination with computed tomography angiography to detect activated macrophages within the vessel wall. Imaging techniques are useful in the diagnostic work-up of large- and medium-vessel vasculitides, to monitor disease activity and the response to treatments. Finally, molecular imaging targets can provide new clues about the pathogenesis and evolution of immune-mediated disorders involving arterial vessels. PMID:25183963

  6. Assessment of an Interactive Computer-Based Patient Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing Education Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…

  7. A new ethical landscape of prenatal testing: individualizing choice to serve autonomy and promote public health: a radical proposal.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A new landscape of prenatal testing (PNT) is presently developing, including new techniques for risk-reducing, non-invasive sampling of foetal DNA and drastically enhanced possibilities of what may be rapidly and precisely analysed, surrounded by a growing commercial genetic testing industry and a general trend of individualization in healthcare policies. This article applies a set of established ethical notions from past debates on PNT for analysing PNT screening-programmes in this new situation. While some basic challenges of PNT stay untouched, the new development supports a radical individualization of how PNT screening is organized. This reformation is, at the same time, difficult to reconcile with responsible spending of resources in a publicly funded healthcare context. Thus, while the ethical imperative of individualization holds and applies to PNT, the new landscape of PNT provides reasons to start rolling back the type of mass-screening programmes currently established in many countries. Instead, more limited offers are suggested, based on considerations of severity of conditions and optimized to simultaneously serve reproductive autonomy and public health within an acceptable frame of priorities. The new landscape of PNT furthermore underscores the ethical importance of supporting and including people with disabilities. For the very same reason, no ban on what may be analysed using PNT in the new landscape should be applied, although private offers must, of course, conform to strict requirements of respecting reproductive autonomy and what that means in terms of counselling. PMID:25521972

  8. Unfair discrimination in prenatal aneuploidy screening using cell-free DNA?

    PubMed

    Rolfes, Vasilija; Schmitz, Dagmar

    2016-03-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing on the basis of cell-free DNA of placental origin (NIPT) changed the landscape of prenatal care and is seen as superior to all other up to now implemented prenatal screening procedures - at least in the high-risk population. NIPT has spread almost worldwide commercially, but only in a few countries the costs of NIPT are covered by insurance companies. Such financial barriers in prenatal testing can lead to significant restrictions to the average range of opportunities of pregnant women and couples, which on an intersubjective level can be defined as unfair discrimination and on an individual level weakens reproductive autonomy. Given that enabling reproductive autonomy is the main ethical justification for offering prenatal (genetic) testing, these barriers are not only an issue of justice in health care, but are potentially counteracting the primary purpose of these testing procedures. PMID:26773245

  9. Informatics-based, highly accurate, noninvasive prenatal paternity testing

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Allison; Baner, Johan; Demko, Zachary; Hill, Matthew; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Baird, Michael L.; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an informatics-based, noninvasive, prenatal paternity test using array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism measurements of cell-free DNA isolated from maternal plasma. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 21 adult pregnant women (with gestational ages between 6 and 21 weeks), and a genetic sample was taken from the corresponding biological fathers. Paternity was confirmed by genetic testing of the infant, products of conception, control of fertilization, and/or preimplantation genetic diagnosis during in vitro fertilization. Parental DNA samples and maternal plasma cell-free DNA were amplified and analyzed using a HumanCytoSNP-12 array. An informatics-based method measured single-nucleotide polymorphism data, confirming or rejecting paternity. Each plasma sample with a sufficient fetal cell-free DNA fraction was independently tested against the confirmed father and 1,820 random, unrelated males. Results: One of the 21 samples had insufficient fetal cell-free DNA. The test correctly confirmed paternity for the remaining 20 samples (100%) when tested against the biological father, with P values of <10−4. For the 36,400 tests using an unrelated male as the alleged father, 99.95% (36,382) correctly excluded paternity and 0.05% (18) were indeterminate. There were no miscalls. Conclusion: A noninvasive paternity test using informatics-based analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism array measurements accurately determined paternity early in pregnancy. PMID:23258349

  10. Noninvasive prenatal screening or advanced diagnostic testing: caveat emptor.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Wapner, Ronald J; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The past few years have seen extraordinary advances in prenatal genetic practice led by 2 major technological advances; next-generation sequencing of cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma to noninvasively identify fetal chromosome abnormalities, and microarray analysis of chorionic villus sampling and amniotic fluid samples, resulting in increased cytogenetic resolution. Noninvasive prenatal screening of cell-free DNA has demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 superior to all previous screening approaches with slightly lower performance for other common aneuploidies. These tests have rapidly captured an increasing market share, with substantial reductions in the number of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis performed suggesting that physicians and patients regard such screening approaches as an equivalent replacement for diagnostic testing. Simultaneously, many clinical programs have noted significant decreases in patient counseling. In 2012 the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded a blinded comparison of karyotype with the emerging technology of array comparative genomic hybridization showing that in patients with a normal karyotype, 2.5% had a clinically relevant microdeletion or duplication identified. In pregnancies with an ultrasound-detected structural anomaly, 6% had an incremental finding, and of those with a normal scan, 1.6% had a copy number variant. For patients of any age with a normal ultrasound and karyotype, the chance of a pathogenic copy number variant is greater than 1%, similar to the age-related risk of aneuploidy in the fetus of a 38 year old. This risk is 4-fold higher than the risk of trisomy 21 in a woman younger than 30 years and 5- to 10-fold higher than the present accepted risk of a diagnostic procedure. Based on this, we contend that every patient, regardless of her age, be educated about these risks and offered the opportunity to have a diagnostic procedure with

  11. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance. PMID:26835653

  12. Prenatal Testing for Intellectual Disability: Misperceptions and Reality with Lessons from down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Kruti

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common cause of intellectual disability. In the United States, it is recommended that prenatal testing for Down syndrome be offered to all women. Because of this policy and consequent public perception, having Down syndrome has become a disadvantage in the prenatal period. However, in the postnatal period, there may be…

  13. Non-Invasive Neuromodulation for Headache Disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuhan; Marmura, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Migraine and other chronic headache disorders are common and if inadequately treated, can lead to significant disability. The effectiveness of medications can be limited by side effects, drug interactions, and comorbid diseases necessitating alternative methods. Technological developments in the past 5 years have made it possible to use non-invasive methods of neuromodulation to treat primary headache disorders. This field includes technologies such as supraorbital transcutaneous stimulation (STS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS). Existing trials show these modalities are safe and well tolerated and can be combined with standard pharmacotherapy. We review the technologies, biological rationales, and trials involving non-invasive neuromodulation for the treatment of primary headache disorders. PMID:26750126

  14. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care is the health care you get while you are pregnant. It includes your checkups and prenatal testing. Prenatal care can help keep you and your baby healthy. It lets your health care provider spot health problems early. Early treatment ...

  15. Non-invasive methods to establish the diagnosis of terra firma-forme dermatosis: The SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation and dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis may mimic a variety of hyper pigmented dermatoses.  The diagnosis can be characterized using dermoscopy and confirmed with the SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation.  When terra firma-forme dermatosis (Duncan's dirty dermatosis) is clinically suspected, clearance of the dermatosis follows rubbing the affected skin with 70% isopropyl alcohol. PMID:27617614

  16. Non-invasive Intratracheal Instillation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Muñoz, Guadalupe; Looney, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The intratracheal instillation technique is used to deliver a variety of agents to the lungs ranging from pathogens (bacteria, viruses), toxins, to therapeutic agents. To model lung inflammation and injury, LPS can be administrated via intranasal, intratracheal, or aerosol approaches. Each technique has its limitations. The intratracheal technique can involve the non-invasive instillation method (via the oro-tracheal route) or a direct injection into the trachea. Here, we describe an optimized method for direct visual instillation of LPS via the non-invasive oro-tracheal route.

  17. The fear-factor stress test: an ethical, non-invasive laboratory method that produces consistent and sustained cortisol responding in men and women.

    PubMed

    du Plooy, Christopher; Thomas, Kevin G F; Henry, Michelle; Human, Robyn; Jacobs, W Jake

    2014-06-01

    We describe a method to administer a controlled, effective stressor to humans in the laboratory. The method combines the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the Cold Pressor Test into a single, believable procedure called the Fear-Factor Stress Test (FFST). In the procedure, participants imagine auditioning for the reality television show Fear Factor. They stand before a video recorder and a panel of judges while (a) delivering a motivational speech, (b) performing a verbal arithmetic task, and (c) placing one hand into a bucket of ice water for up to 2 min. We measured subjective anxiety, heart rate, and salivary cortisol in three groups of young adults (n = 30 each, equal numbers of men and women): FFST, TSST, and Control (a placebo version of the FFST). Although the FFST and TSST groups were not distinguishable at the cortisol measure taken 5 min post-manipulation, at 35 min postmanipulation average cortisol levels in the TSST group had returned to baseline, whereas those in the FFST group continued to rise. The proportion of individual cortisol responders (≥ 2 nmol/l increase over baseline) in the TSST and FFST groups did not differ at the 5-min measure, but at the 35-min measure the FFST group contained significantly more responders. The findings indicate that the FFST induces a more robust and sustained cortisol response (which we assume is a marker of an HPA-axis response) than the TSST, and that it does so without increasing participant discomfort or incurring appreciably greater resource and time costs. PMID:24435939

  18. Non invasive assessment of the human tear film dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ring, M H; Rabensteiner, D F; Horwath-Winter, J; Boldin, I; Schrödl, F; Reitsamer, H; Haslwanter, T

    2015-11-01

    Dry eye disease, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is a multifactorial syndrome with altered tear film homeostasis leading to ocular irritations. These alterations cause discomfort and stress for the patient, but only a few objective parameters allow for proper differential diagnosis into different subtypes of this condition. The mostly invasively performed standard assessment procedures for tear film diagnosis are manifold, but often correlate quite poorly with the subjectively reported symptoms. Due to the inherent limitations, e.g. the subjectivity of the commonly performed invasive tests, a number of devices have been developed to assess the human tear film non-invasively. Since the production, delivery, distribution and drainage of the tear film is a dynamic process, we have focused our review on non-invasive methods which are capable of continuous or repetitive observations of the tear film during an inter-blink interval. These dynamic methods include (1) Interferometry, (2) Pattern Projection, (3) Aberrometry, (4) Thermography; and (5) Evaporimetry. These techniques are discussed with respect to their diagnostic value, both for screening and differential diagnostic of Dry Eye Disease. Many of the parameters obtained from these tests have been shown to have the potential to reliably discriminate patients from healthy subjects, especially when the tests are performed automatically and objectively. The differentiation into subtypes based solely on a single, dynamic parameter may not be feasible, but the combination of non-invasively performed procedures may provide good discrimination results. PMID:26406882

  19. Non-invasive assessment of intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Robba, C; Bacigaluppi, S; Cardim, D; Donnelly, J; Bertuccio, A; Czosnyka, M

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is invaluable in the management of neurosurgical and neurological critically ill patients. Invasive measurement of ventricular or parenchymal pressure is considered the gold standard for accurate measurement of ICP but is not always possible due to certain risks. Therefore, the availability of accurate methods to non-invasively estimate ICP has the potential to improve the management of these vulnerable patients. This review provides a comparative description of different methods for non-invasive ICP measurement. Current methods are based on changes associated with increased ICP, both morphological (assessed with magnetic resonance, computed tomography, ultrasound, and fundoscopy) and physiological (assessed with transcranial and ophthalmic Doppler, tympanometry, near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography, visual-evoked potentials, and otoacoustic emissions assessment). At present, none of the non-invasive techniques alone seem suitable as a substitute for invasive monitoring. However, following the present analysis and considerations upon each technique, we propose a possible flowchart based on the combination of non-invasive techniques including those characterizing morphologic changes (e.g., repetitive US measurements of ONSD) and those characterizing physiological changes (e.g., continuous TCD). Such an integrated approach, which still needs to be validated in clinical practice, could aid in deciding whether to place an invasive monitor, or how to titrate therapy when invasive ICP measurement is contraindicated or unavailable. PMID:26515159

  20. Non-invasive monitoring of spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Bastany, Zoya J R; Askari, Shahbaz; Dumont, Guy A; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Spreading depression (SD), a slow propagating depolarization wave, plays an important role in pathophysiology of different neurological disorders. Yet, research into SD-related disorders has been hampered by the lack of non-invasive recording techniques of SD. Here we compared the manifestations of SD in continuous non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings to invasive electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in order to obtain further insights into generator structures and electrogenic mechanisms of surface recording of SD. SD was induced by KCl application and simultaneous SD recordings were performed by scalp EEG as well as ECoG electrodes of somatosensory neocortex of rats using a novel homemade EEG amplifier, AgCl recording electrodes, and high chloride conductive gel. Different methods were used to analyze the data; including the spectrogram, bi-spectrogram, pattern distribution, relative spectrum power, and multivariable Gaussian fit analysis. The negative direct current (DC) shifts recorded by scalp electrodes exhibited a high homogeneity to those recorded by ECoG electrodes. Furthermore, this novel method of recording and analysis was able to separate SD recorded by scalp electrodes from non-neuronal DC shifts induced by other potential generators, such as the skin, muscles, arteries, dura, etc. These data suggest a novel application for continuous non-invasive monitoring of DC potential changes, such as SD. Non-invasive monitoring of SD would allow early intervention and improve outcome in SD-related neurological disorders. PMID:27397413

  1. [Pulmonary non invasive infection by Scedosporium apiospermum].

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rodrigo; Barros, Manuel; Reyes, Mirtha

    2015-08-01

    We reported a case of non-invasive pulmonary infection by Scedosporium apiospermum in 67 years old female with bronchiectasis and caverns secondary to tuberculosis. Diagnosis was made with lung CT and bronchial lavage cultures. The patient was initially treated with itraconazole for six weeks without success and then voriconazole for 16 weeks, with good clinical response. PMID:26436797

  2. Prenatal genetic testing: an investigation of determining factors affecting the decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Pivetti, Monica; Melotti, Giannino

    2013-02-01

    Despite the increase in popularity of prenatal genetic testing, relatively little is known about the role psychological factors play in the decision-making process. In this analogue study, a sample of Italian female university students was used to investigate determining factors that predict the intention of undergoing prenatal genetic testing. Structural Equation Modelling was used to describe the dynamic interplay between knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and health-related behaviour such as prenatal genetic testing. Following the Theory of Reasoned Action, three dimensions predicted the intention to undergo prenatal genetic testing: the need for more scientific information, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and the inclination to terminate pregnancy after receiving a positive test result. Results showed that less religious women tended to be more in favour of prenatal tests and in undertaking such tests. This preliminary study provides genetic counsellors and policy makers with a clearer picture of their clients' motives and attitudes behind the decision-making process of prenatal genetic testing, contributing to improving both the communication process between counsellors and their clients and the organization of genetic services. PMID:22477148

  3. Acceptability of prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jafri, H; Hewison, J; Sheridan, E; Ahmed, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess acceptability of prenatal testing (PNT) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) for a range of conditions in Pakistani parents with and without a child with a genetic condition. A structured questionnaire assessing acceptability of PNT and TOP for 30 conditions was completed by 400 Pakistani participants: 200 parents with a child with a genetic condition (100 fathers and 100 mothers) and 200 parents without an affected child (100 fathers and 100 mothers). There was a high level of interest in PNT, where over 80 % of parents in all four study groups would want PNT for the majority of the conditions. There was comparatively less interest in TOP for the same conditions (ranging from 5 to 70 % of parents, with mothers of an affected child being most interested). Parents were most likely to be interested in TOP for conditions at the serious end of the continuum. More than half of the participants in each group would consider TOP for anencephaly and quadriplegia. The interest in PNT and TOP for a range of conditions suggests that rapidly developing PNT technologies are likely to be acceptable in Pakistan, a low-middle income level and Muslim country. The comparatively lower level of interest in TOP for the same conditions highlights ethical dilemmas that such technologies are likely to raise. PMID:25081227

  4. Non-invasive diagnosis of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Khalili, Korosh; Nguyen, Geoffrey Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a common and growing public health problem globally. The diagnosis of cirrhosis portends an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of cirrhosis and staging of fibrosis. However, despite its universal use, liver biopsy is an invasive and inaccurate gold standard with numerous drawbacks. In order to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, a number of non-invasive techniques have been investigated for the assessment of cirrhosis. This review will focus on currently available non-invasive markers of cirrhosis. The evidence behind the use of these markers will be highlighted, along with an assessment of diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics of each test. Non-invasive markers of cirrhosis can be radiologic or serum-based. Radiologic techniques based on ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and elastography have been used to assess liver fibrosis. Serum-based biomarkers of cirrhosis have also been developed. These are broadly classified into indirect and direct markers. Indirect biomarkers reflect liver function, which may decline with the onset of cirrhosis. Direct biomarkers, reflect extracellular matrix turnover, and include molecules involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. On the whole, radiologic and serum markers of fibrosis correlate well with biopsy scores, especially when excluding cirrhosis or excluding fibrosis. This feature is certainly clinically useful, and avoids liver biopsy in many cases. PMID:25492996

  5. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio) as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test

    PubMed Central

    Hametner, Stephanie; Ferlitsch, Arnulf; Ferlitsch, Monika; Etschmaier, Alexandra; Schöfl, Rainer; Ziachehabi, Alexander; Maieron, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH), defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio) instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients. Aim This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement. Methods All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D’Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE). Results The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72%) were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2–76.3; 95% CI). Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%), HCV (23.4%), NASH (12.3%), other (8.1%) and unknown (11.9%). The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3%) with CPS A; 56 (23.7%) with CPS B; and 18 (7.6%) with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6%) had compensated and 100 (42.4%) had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001). ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI. Conclusion The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26895398

  6. Non-invasive Mapping of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Since more than 100 years, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard-of-care tool, which involves measuring electrical potentials from limited sites on the body surface to diagnose cardiac disorder, its possible mechanism, and the likely site of origin. Several decades of research has led to the development of a 252-lead ECG and computed tomography (CT) scan-based three-dimensional electro-imaging modality to non-invasively map abnormal cardiac rhythms including fibrillation. These maps provide guidance towards ablative therapy and thereby help advance the management of complex heart rhythm disorders. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using non-invasive technique in mapping the electrical disorder and guide the catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats), and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). PMID:26072438

  7. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  8. [Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2015-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases represent a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the amount of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy has long remained the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure with associated morbidity, it is rarely the cause for mortality, and has a few limitations. During the past two decades, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis have been developed, mainly in the field of viral hepatitis. This review will focus on different methods available for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis including a biological approach which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis and physical techniques which measure liver stiffness by transient elastography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance based elastography, their accuracy, advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25962254

  9. Disparities in prenatal HIV testing: evidence for improving implementation of CDC screening guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, Deborah N.; Averbach, Abigail R.; Zierler, Sally; Cranston, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the within-group and between-group variation in prenatal HIV testing in a sample of low-income pregnant and recently postpartum women. METHODS: Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate proportional differences in prenatal HIV testing for the total sample and stratified by race. RESULTS: In bivariate analyses, race and site of care jointly affected the probability of being tested. Hispanic women had the highest probability of being tested in public practice settings but relative to white women, black women had a higher probability of being tested in public and private practice settings. Predictors of prenatal HIV testing differed by race. Receiving prenatal care in a community health center or hospital outpatient clinic increased the probability of testing for Hispanics. Being a recent victim of intimate partner violence was associated with less frequent testing for blacks. Positive beliefs about HIV screening, while significant for blacks and Hispanics, was the only factor associated with testing for whites. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that racial biases may be influencing providers' approach to testing, rather than CDC's 2001 guidelines for HIV screening of pregnant women. Study findings are being used to modify social marketing campaigns and improve provider trainings regarding prenatal HIV testing. PMID:16080457

  10. Physiology of non-invasive respiratory support.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, Stamatia; Panitch, Howard B

    2016-06-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in neonates to treat extrathoracic and intrathoracic airway obstruction, parenchymal lung disease and disorders of control of breathing. Avoidance of airway intubation is associated with a reduction in the incidence of chronic lung disease among preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) may help establish and maintain functional residual capacity (FRC), decrease respiratory work, and improve gas exchange. Other modes of non-invasive ventilation, which include heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HHHFNC), nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (NIMV), non-invasive pressure support ventilation (NI-PSV), and bi-level CPAP (SiPAP™), have also been shown to provide additional benefit in improving breathing patterns, reducing work of breathing, and increasing gas exchange when compared with nCPAP. Newer modes, such as neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), hold the promise of improving patient-ventilator synchrony and so might ultimately improve outcomes for preterm infants with respiratory distress. PMID:26923501

  11. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    PubMed

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-01

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response. PMID:25819147

  12. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%), who self-reported as black (1.8%) or mixed (1.2%), those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%), and those attending public (1.37%) or mixed (0.93%) health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions. Regional

  13. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  14. Prenatal nutrition, epigenetics and schizophrenia risk: can we test causal effects?

    PubMed Central

    Kirkbride, James B; Susser, Ezra; Kundakovic, Marija; Kresovich, Jacob K; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    We posit that maternal prenatal nutrition can influence offspring schizophrenia risk via epigenetic effects. In this article, we consider evidence that prenatal nutrition is linked to epigenetic outcomes in offspring and schizophrenia in offspring, and that schizophrenia is associated with epigenetic changes. We focus upon one-carbon metabolism as a mediator of the pathway between perturbed prenatal nutrition and the subsequent risk of schizophrenia. Although post-mortem human studies demonstrate DNA methylation changes in brains of people with schizophrenia, such studies cannot establish causality. We suggest a testable hypothesis that utilizes a novel two-step Mendelian randomization approach, to test the component parts of the proposed causal pathway leading from prenatal nutritional exposure to schizophrenia. Applied here to a specific example, such an approach is applicable for wider use to strengthen causal inference of the mediating role of epigenetic factors linking exposures to health outcomes in population-based studies. PMID:22690666

  15. Practice Bulletin No. 162 Summary: Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal genetic diagnostic testing is intended to determine, with as much certainty as possible, whether a specific genetic disorder or condition is present in the fetus. In contrast, prenatal genetic screening is designed to assess whether a patient is at increased risk of having a fetus affected by a genetic disorder. Originally, prenatal genetic testing focused primarily on Down syndrome (trisomy 21), but now it is able to detect a broad range of genetic disorders. Although it is necessary to perform amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) to definitively diagnose most genetic disorders, in some circumstances, fetal imaging with ultrasonography, echocardiography, or magnetic resonance imaging may be diagnostic of a particular structural fetal abnormality that is suggestive of an underlying genetic condition.The objective of prenatal genetic testing is to detect health problems that could affect the woman, fetus, or newborn and provide the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider with enough information to allow a fully informed decision about pregnancy management. Prenatal genetic testing cannot identify all abnormalities or problems in a fetus, and any testing should be focused on the individual patient's risks, reproductive goals, and preferences. It is important that patients understand the benefits and limitations of all prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, including the conditions for which tests are available and the conditions that will not be detected by testing. It also is important that patients realize that there is a broad range of clinical presentations, or phenotypes, for many genetic disorders and that results of genetic testing cannot predict all outcomes. Prenatal genetic testing has many benefits, including reassuring patients when results are normal, identifying disorders for which prenatal treatment may provide benefit, optimizing neonatal outcomes by ensuring the appropriate location for

  16. Prenatal screening: an ethical agenda for the near future.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome differs from other forms of population screening in that the usual aim of achieving health gains through treatment or prevention does not seem to apply. This type of screening leads to no other options but the choice between continuing or terminating the pregnancy and can only be morally justified if its aim is to provide meaningful options for reproductive choice to pregnant women and their partners. However, this aim should not be understood as maximizing reproductive choice per se. Only if understood as allowing prospective parents to avoid suffering related to living with (a child with) serious disorders and handicaps can prenatal screening be a publicly or collectively funded programme. The alternative of moving prenatal testing outside the healthcare system into the private sector is problematic, as it makes these tests accessible only to those who can afford to pay for it. New developments in prenatal screening will have to be assessed in terms of whether and to what extent they either contribute to or undermine the stated aim of providing meaningful options for reproductive choice. In the light of this criterion, this article discusses the introduction of the new non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT), the tendency to widen the scope of follow-up testing, as well as the possible future scenarios of genome-wide screening and 'prenatal personalised medicine'. The article ends with recommendations for further debate, research and analysis. PMID:25521973

  17. [Non invasive ventilation in the emergency setting].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Laetitia; Della Santa, Vincent; Hanhart, Walter-Alexandre

    2015-08-12

    Before the development of non invasive ventilation (NIV), endotracheal intubation was the only ventilatory therapy available in case of severe respiratory distress and acute respiratory failure. NIV used to be employed in intensive care settings only. Nowadays, the use of NIV has been democratized to include the emergency room, and the pre-hospital care setting for treatment of acute respiratory failure. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema and acute exacerbation of COPD are indications of choice, since NIV improves mortality. The efficiency of the therapy depends on early treatment; however, endotracheal intubation should not be delayed when it becomes necessary. PMID:26449102

  18. Can the material properties of regenerate bone be predicted with non-invasive methods of assessment? Exploring the correlation between dual X-ray absorptiometry and compression testing to failure in an animal model of distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Monsell, Fergal; Hughes, Andrew William; Turner, James; Bellemore, Michael C; Bilston, Lynne

    2014-04-01

    Evaluation of the material properties of regenerate bone is of fundamental importance to a successful outcome following distraction osteogenesis using an external fixator. Plain radiographs are in widespread use for assessment of alignment and the distraction gap but are unable to detect bone formation in the early stages of distraction osteogenesis and do not quantify accurately the structural properties of the regenerate. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a widely available non-invasive imaging modality that, unlike X-ray, can be used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) and density quantitatively. In order to be useful as a clinical investigation; however, the structural two-dimensional geometry and density distributions assessed by DXA should reflect material properties such as modulus and also predict the structural mechanical properties of the regenerate bone formed. We explored the hypothesis that there is a relationship between DXA assessment of regenerate bone and structural mechanical properties in an animal model of distraction osteogenesis. Distraction osteogenesis was carried out on the tibial diaphysis of 41 male, 12 week old, New Zealand white rabbits as part of a larger study. Distraction started after a latent period of 24 h at a rate of 0.375 mm every 12 h and continued for 10-days, achieving average lengthening of 7.1 mm. Following an 18-day period of consolidation, the regenerate bone was subject to bone density measurements using a total body dual-energy X-ray densitometer. This produced measurement of BMC, bone mineral density (BMD) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). The tibiae were then disarticulated and cleaned of soft tissue before loading in compression to failure using an Instron mechanical testing machine (Instron Corporation, Massachusetts USA). Using Spearman rank correlation and linear regression, there was a significant correlation between vBMD and the Modulus of Elasticity, Yield Stress and Failure Stress of the

  19. Examination of postmortem retinal folds: A non-invasive study.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Toru; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-02-01

    The postmortem retinal fold has been previously documented, but its mechanism of formation is not known. All previous studies of the fold involved invasive techniques and the postmortem ocular fundus has yet to be non-invasively examined. Our study used the non-invasive techniques of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and ocular echography to examine 79 postmortem eyes of 42 bodies. We examined whether the postmortem retinal fold was associated with postmortem time, position, and/or age. Age was significantly associated with postmortem retinal fold formation (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.013), which led us to examine the effect of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on retinal folds. The absence of a PVD was statistically associated with the presence of a retinal fold (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Interestingly, the presence of a PVD was also significantly correlated with retinal fold height (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.0001). Therefore, we hypothesized that retinal folds result from postmortem vitreoretinal traction caused by eyeball flaccidity. We also believe that the loss of retinochoroidal hydrostatic pressure plays a role. It is important that forensic pathologists not confuse a postmortem retinal fold with traumatic retinal detachment or perimacular retinal folds caused by child abuse. When child abuse is suspected, forensic pathologists should perform enucleation and a subsequent histological examination for confirmation. PMID:25623189

  20. Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

    PubMed

    Minear, Mollie A; Alessi, Stephanie; Allyse, Megan; Michie, Marsha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) for chromosomal aneuploidy involving the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA became commercially available in 2011. The low false-positive rate of NIPT, which reduces unnecessary prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures, has led to broad clinician and patient adoption. We discuss the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by rapid and global dissemination of NIPT. The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision making. Ensuring that accurate and balanced information is available to all pregnant women and that access to NIPT is equitable will require policy guidance from regulators, professional societies, and payers. Empirical evidence about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences will continue to be essential in guiding policy development so that advances in NIPT can be used effectively and appropriately to improve prenatal care. PMID:26322648

  1. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar pregnancy? case report

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Yassa, Murat; Yavuz, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening tests are frequently requested for chromosomal abnormalities. Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to partial molar pregnancy. PMID:26175814

  2. Eugenics and Mandatory Informed Prenatal Genetic Testing: A Unique Perspective from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ng, Vincent H; Wang, Zhaochen; Zhai, Xiaomei; Lie, Reidar K

    2016-08-01

    The application of genetic technologies in China, especially in the area of prenatal genetic testing, is rapidly increasing in China. In the wealthy regions of China, prenatal genetic testing is already very widely adopted. We argue that the government should actively promote prenatal genetic testing to the poor areas of the country. In fact, the government should prioritize resources first to make prenatal genetic testing a standard routine care with an opt-out model in these area. Healthcare professions would be required to inform pregnant women about the availability of genetic testing and provide free testing on a routine basis unless the parents choose not to do so. We argue that this proposal will allow parents to make a more informed decision about their reproductive choices. Secondarily, this proposal will attract more healthcare professionals and other healthcare resources to improve the healthcare infrastructures in the less-developed regions of the country. This will help to reduce the inequity of accessing healthcare services between in different regions of China. We further argue that this policy proposal is not practicing eugenics. PMID:26222676

  3. The expressivist objection to prenatal testing: the experiences of families living with genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Felicity Kate

    2014-04-01

    The expressivist objection to prenatal testing is acknowledged as a significant critique of prenatal testing practices most commonly advanced by disability rights supporters. Such writers argue that prenatal testing and selective termination practices are objectionable as they express disvalue not only of the foetus being tested, but also of disabled people as a whole, by focusing exclusively on the disabling trait. While the objection has been widely critiqued on the basis of its theoretical incoherence, this paper highlights the way in which it, nevertheless, is a significant mediator in decisions around the use of reproductive genetic technologies. By drawing on 41 in-depth qualitative interviews (drawn from a sample of 61) conducted in the UK between 2007 and 2009 with families and individuals living with a genetic disease, Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), this paper highlights the ways in which expressivist objections feature prominently in the reproductive decisions of families living with SMA and the significant emotional burden they represent. While the literature on the expressivist objection has focused on the reproductive decisions of those undergoing prenatal testing for a condition of which they have little (or no) prior knowledge, the context of intimate familial relationships and extensive experience with the tested-for condition fundamentally alters the nature and impact of expressivist objections within families living with an inheritable condition. By focussing on the reproductive decisions of families living with SMA and their strategic management of the expressivist objection, this paper will address the call, made primarily by disability rights supporters, for 'experientially based' (as opposed to medical) information about the tested-for disability to be made available to would-be parents considering selective termination. It will be argued that parents' experiential knowledge of the tested-for disability can, in fact, amplify expressivist

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (CLAH) by Molecular Genetic Testing in Korean Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Lee, Seungok; Chae, Hyojin; Choi, Sae Kyung; Kim, Myungshin; Park, In Yang; Suh, Byung Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is caused by mutations to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene associated with the inability to synthesize all adrenal and gonadal steroids. Inadequate treatment in an infant with this condition may result in sudden death from an adrenal crisis. We report a case in which CLAH developed in Korean siblings; the second child was prenatally diagnosed because the first child was affected and low maternal serum estriol was detected in a prenatal screening test. To our knowledge, this is the first prenatal diagnosis of the Q258X StAR mutation, which is the only consistent genetic cluster identified to date in Japanese and Korean populations. PMID:22028173

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) by molecular genetic testing in Korean siblings.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Lee, Seungok; Chae, Hyojin; Choi, Sae Kyung; Kim, Myungshin; Park, In Yang; Suh, Byung Kyu; Shin, Jong Chul

    2011-11-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is caused by mutations to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene associated with the inability to synthesize all adrenal and gonadal steroids. Inadequate treatment in an infant with this condition may result in sudden death from an adrenal crisis. We report a case in which CLAH developed in Korean siblings; the second child was prenatally diagnosed because the first child was affected and low maternal serum estriol was detected in a prenatal screening test. To our knowledge, this is the first prenatal diagnosis of the Q258X StAR mutation, which is the only consistent genetic cluster identified to date in Japanese and Korean populations. PMID:22028173

  6. Validity and reliability testing of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile.

    PubMed

    Curry, M A; Campbell, R A; Christian, M

    1994-04-01

    Two studies of low-income pregnant women (N = 179) were done to examine the validity and reliability of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP). The PPP, a composite of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Support Behaviors Inventory, and a newly developed measure of stress, is a brief, comprehensive clinical assessment of psychosocial risk during pregnancy. Construct validity of the stress scale was supported by theoretically predicted negative correlations with self-esteem, partner support, and support from others (N = 91). Convergent validity of the stress scale was demonstrated by a correlation of .71 with the Difficult Life Circumstances Scale. Adequate levels of internal consistency were found. Interrelationships between the four subscales were consistent with the underlying conceptualization, and there was beginning evidence of the factorial independence of the subscales. PMID:8127993

  7. Prenatal Exposure to an Environmental Toxin: A Test of the Multiple Effects Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Joseph L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Tests 242 newborns exposed prenatally to low levels of polychlorinated biphenyls from maternal consumption of contaminated lake fish. The Brazelton Neonate Scale was used to assess behavioral outcomes. Contaminated fish consumption predicted motoric immaturity, poorer labeling of states, a greater amount of startle, and abnormally weak…

  8. Reactions to Prenatal Testing: Reflection of Religiosity and Attitudes toward Abortion and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2000-01-01

    A study asked 166 undergraduates what they would do if through prenatal testing they discovered that they (or their partner) were carrying a fetus with disabilities. Respondents were more uncertain about whether to continue the pregnancy when the fetus was diagnosed with Down syndrome than with spina bifida or hemophilia. (Contains references.)…

  9. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Desmond J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  10. AB109. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT): differences in testing indications between the US and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Fosler, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Cell-free DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been validated as a screening test for certain fetal aneuploidy in high-risk women. High-risk indications include advanced maternal age (AMA), positive serum screen result, abnormal fetal ultrasound findings, and a previous affected pregnancy. However, recent studies show the effectiveness of NIPT in all pregnant women, regardless of risk. Determine if there are global differences in NIPT implementation between centers in Southeast Asia and the United States (US). Methods We queried the Illumina laboratory database for NIPT samples originating from Southeast Asian countries and the United States. The ordering providers had the option of specifying clinical indications for testing on the test requisition form (TRF). Indications included: AMA, abnormal ultrasound, positive serum screen, history of increased risk, or other. Samples were reviewed and classified into one of the five indications listed above or classified as “multiple indications” if more than one indication was selected; samples without an indication selected were excluded. Test indications were compared between the Southeast Asian and US cohorts. Results There was a significant difference in the test indications of the two cohorts (P<0.001). The majority of samples from the US had AMA as the indication (70.1%) vs. 47.0% in Southeast Asia samples. A positive serum screen was a more common indication in Southeast Asia (31.5%) than in the US (8.4%). More US (11.6%) than Southeast Asian (3.7%) samples specified an abnormal ultrasound as a test indication. “Other”, indicated in 7.4% of Southeast Asian samples and 0.6% of US samples, covered a range of indications detailed by providers, including maternal anxiety, borderline risk on serum screening, and late entry to prenatal care. Interestingly, maternal anxiety was more commonly listed for Southeast Asia (4.6%) than US (0.1%) samples. Conclusions This study

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosome Abnormalities: A 13-Year Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Carmen; Echevarria, Mónica; Rodríguez, María Ángeles; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Serra, Bernat; Cirigliano, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze trends in screening and invasive prenatal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities (CA) over a 13-year period and correlate them to changes in the national prenatal screening policy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Down syndrome (DS) screening tests and fetal karyotypes obtained by prenatal invasive testing (IT) in our fetal medicine unit between January 1999 and December 2011. Results: A total of 24,226 prenatal screening tests for DS and 11,045 invasive procedures have been analyzed. Over a 13-year period, utilization of non-invasive screening methods has significantly increased from 57% to 89%. The percentage of invasive procedures has declined from 49% to 12%, although the percentage of IT performed for maternal anxiety has increased from 22% to 55%. The percentage of detected CA increased from 2.5% to 5.9%. Overall, 31 invasive procedures are needed to diagnose 1 abnormal case, being 23 procedures in medical indications and 241 procedures in non-medical indications. Conclusions: Our experience on screening and invasive prenatal diagnostic practice shows a decrease of the number of IT, with a parallel decline in medical indications. There is an increasing efficiency of prenatal screening program to detect CA. Despite the increasing screening policies, our population shows a growing request for prenatal IT. The a priori low risk population shows a not negligible residual risk for relevant CA. This observation challenges the current prenatal screening strategy focused on DS; showing that the residual risk is higher than the current cut-off used to indicate an invasive technique. PMID:26859399

  12. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  13. Non-invasive measurments of intense relativistic electron beam size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Carl; McCuistian, Trent; Moir, David; Rodriguez, Patrick; Broste, William; Johnson, Jeff

    2000-10-01

    To understand relativistic electron beam transport dynamics the size of the beam is often measured using invasive techniques such as imaging the Cerenkov or OTR light emitted from a screen inserted into the beam. These techniques would completely disrupt the DARHT 2 beam, so we are developing a non-invasive method using diamagnetic loops. We show that through conservation of canonical angular momentum the RMS radius of the beam can be found by measuring the magnetic flux excluded by the diamagnetic beam. Furthermore, this measurement is shown to be independent of the details of the beam radial current profile for DARHT 2 parameters. We present results from our test and calibration experiments, as well as results of beam radius measurements on the 20-MeV DARHT 1 accelerator.

  14. The Down Syndrome Information Act: Balancing the Advances of Prenatal Testing Through Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Leach, Mark W

    2016-04-01

    Since the dawn of prenatal testing in the 1970s, concerns have been raised over its administration to respect a mother's autonomy as well as the expressive critique against those with the tested-for condition. Advances in prenatal testing have made it such that more mothers than ever are given a test result of Down syndrome, yet are not provided the rest of the information recommended by professional guidelines. In response, first federal legislation and then, increasingly, state legislation is requiring that this information be provided to expectant mothers. Though receiving broad bipartisan support in passage, some of the statutes have received criticism. These public policy measures will be surveyed and evaluated as to their relative merits and limitations. PMID:27028250

  15. Non-invasive diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sebastian; Seitz, Helmut Karl; Rausch, Vanessa

    2014-10-28

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world. For many reasons, it is underestimated and underdiagnosed. An early diagnosis is absolutely essential since it (1) helps to identify patients at genetic risk for ALD; (2) can trigger efficient abstinence namely in non-addicted patients; and (3) initiate screening programs to prevent life-threatening complications such as bleeding from varices, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or hepatocellular cancer. The two major end points of ALD are alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the rare and clinically-defined alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The prediction and early diagnosis of both entities is still insufficiently solved and usually relies on a combination of laboratory, clinical and imaging findings. It is not widely conceived that conventional screening tools for ALD such as ultrasound imaging or routine laboratory testing can easily overlook ca. 40% of manifest alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Non-invasive methods such as transient elastography (Fibroscan), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging or shear wave elastography have significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Present algorithms allow either the exclusion or the exact definition of advanced fibrosis stages in ca. 95% of patients. The correct interpretation of liver stiffness requires a timely abdominal ultrasound and actual transaminase levels. Other non-invasive methods such as controlled attenuation parameter, serum levels of M30 or M65, susceptometry or breath tests are under current evaluation to assess the degree of steatosis, apoptosis and iron overload in these patients. Liver biopsy still remains an important option to rule out comorbidities and to confirm the prognosis namely for patients with AH. PMID:25356026

  16. Non-invasive diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sebastian; Seitz, Helmut Karl; Rausch, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world. For many reasons, it is underestimated and underdiagnosed. An early diagnosis is absolutely essential since it (1) helps to identify patients at genetic risk for ALD; (2) can trigger efficient abstinence namely in non-addicted patients; and (3) initiate screening programs to prevent life-threatening complications such as bleeding from varices, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or hepatocellular cancer. The two major end points of ALD are alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the rare and clinically-defined alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The prediction and early diagnosis of both entities is still insufficiently solved and usually relies on a combination of laboratory, clinical and imaging findings. It is not widely conceived that conventional screening tools for ALD such as ultrasound imaging or routine laboratory testing can easily overlook ca. 40% of manifest alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Non-invasive methods such as transient elastography (Fibroscan), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging or shear wave elastography have significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Present algorithms allow either the exclusion or the exact definition of advanced fibrosis stages in ca. 95% of patients. The correct interpretation of liver stiffness requires a timely abdominal ultrasound and actual transaminase levels. Other non-invasive methods such as controlled attenuation parameter, serum levels of M30 or M65, susceptometry or breath tests are under current evaluation to assess the degree of steatosis, apoptosis and iron overload in these patients. Liver biopsy still remains an important option to rule out comorbidities and to confirm the prognosis namely for patients with AH. PMID:25356026

  17. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test. PMID:23130898

  18. Criminality and the 2D:4D ratio: testing the prenatal androgen hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony W

    2015-03-01

    A decade old theory hypothesizes that brain exposure to androgens promotes involvement in criminal behavior. General support for this hypothesis has been provided by studies of postpubertal circulating levels of testosterone, at least among males. However, the theory also predicts that for both genders, prenatal androgens will be positively correlated with persistent offending, an idea for which no evidence currently exists. The present study used an indirect measure of prenatal androgen exposure-the relative length of the second and fourth fingers of the right hand (r2D:4D)-to test the hypothesis that elevated prenatal androgens promote criminal tendencies later in life for males and females. Questionnaires were administered to 2,059 college students in Malaysia and 1,291 college students in the United States. Respondents reported their r2D:4D relative finger lengths along with involvement in 13 categories of delinquent and criminal acts. Statistically significant correlations between the commission of most types of offenses and r2D:4D ratios were found for males and females even after controlling for age. It is concluded that high exposure to androgens during prenatal development contributes to most forms of offending following the onset of puberty. PMID:24013770

  19. Non invasive sensing technologies for cultural heritage management and fruition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The relevance of the information produced by science and technology for the knowledge of the cultural heritage depends on the quality of the feedback and, consequently, on the "cultural" distance between scientists and end-users. In particular, the solution to this problem mainly resides in the capability of end-users' capability to assess and transform the knowledge produced by diagnostics with regard to: information on both cultural objects and sites (decay patterns, vulnerability, presence of buried archaeological remains); decision making (management plan, conservation project, and excavation plan). From our experience in the field of the cultural heritage and namely the conservation, of monuments, there is a significant gap of information between technologists (geophysicists/physicists/engineers) and end-users (conservators/historians/architects). This cultural gap is due to the difficulty to interpret "indirect data" produced by non invasive diagnostics (i.e. radargrams/thermal images/seismic tomography etc..) in order to provide information useful to improve the historical knowledge (e.g. the chronology of the different phases of a building), to characterise the state of conservation (e.g. detection of cracks in the masonry) and to monitor in time cultural heritage artifacts and sites. The possible answer to this difficulty is in the set-up of a knowledge chain regarding the following steps: - Integrated application of novel and robust data processing methods; - Augmented reality as a tool for making easier the interpretation of non invasive - investigations for the analysis of decay pathologies of masonry and architectural surfaces; - The comparison between direct data (carrots, visual inspection) and results from non-invasive tests, including geophysics, aims to improve the interpretation and the rendering of the monuments and even of the archaeological landscapes; - The use of specimens or test beds for the detection of archaeological features and

  20. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our ePublications > Prenatal care fact sheet ePublications Prenatal care fact sheet Print this fact sheet Health Care ... More information on prenatal care What is prenatal care? Prenatal care is the health care you get ...

  1. Noninvasive prenatal testing by maternal plasma DNA analysis: current practice and future applications.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Rossa W K

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal screening of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies and some common genetic diseases is an integral part of antenatal care. Definitive prenatal diagnosis is conventionally achieved by the sampling of fetal genetic material by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Due to the invasiveness of those procedures, they are associated with a 1 in 200 chance of fetal miscarriage. Hence, researchers have been exploring noninvasive ways to sample fetal genetic material. The presence of cell-free DNA released by the fetus into the circulation of its mother was demonstrated in 1997. Circulating fetal DNA is therefore obtainable through the collection of a blood sample from the pregnant woman without posing any physical harm to the fetus. By analyzing this source of fetal genetic material, researchers have succeeded in developing DNA-based noninvasive tests for the assessment of Down syndrome and single gene diseases. Since the end of 2011, tests for the noninvasive assessment of chromosomal aneuploidies have become commercially available in parts of the world. Recommendations from professional groups have since been made regarding how these tests could be incorporated into the framework of existing prenatal screening programs. More recently, cell-free circulating fetal DNA analysis have been shown to be applicable to the deciphering of the fetal molecular karyotype, genome and methylome. It is envisioned that an increasing number of the noninvasive prenatal tests will become clinically available. The ethical, social and legal implications of the introduction of some of these tests would need to be discussed in the context of different cultures, societal values and the legal framework. PMID:25083893

  2. A re-examination of the use of ethnicity in prenatal carrier testing.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (formerly the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG]), updated its policy on carrier screening for cystic fibrosis and proposed that because of the increasing difficulty in assigning a single ethnicity to individuals, "It is reasonable, therefore to offer CF carrier screening to all patients." However, ACOG continues to use ethnicity in its guidelines about carrier testing for autosomal recessive disorders like sickle cell disease (SCD) and Tay-Sachs disease (TSD). This practice is in marked contrast with newborn screening (NBS) which is universally provided for all conditions. In this manuscript, I evaluate the discrepant role of ethnicity in NBS and carrier screening. I argue that ACOG needs to adopt the position it now takes for CF regarding prenatal carrier testing for all conditions. To promote equity in prenatal testing decision making, health care policies must acknowledge the diversity of the populations that we serve and empower all women and couples to make more fully informed reproductive decisions by offering prenatal carrier testing to all. PMID:22106058

  3. Non invasive monitoring in mechanically ventilated pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Subu, Awni M; Rehder, Kyle J; Cheifetz, Ira M; Turner, David A

    2014-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary monitoring is a key component in the evaluation and management of critically ill patients. Clinicians typically rely on a combination of invasive and non-invasive monitoring to assess cardiac output and adequacy of ventilation. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction: of continuous non-invasive monitors that allow for data to be obtained at the bedside of critically ill patients. These advances help to identify hemodynamic changes and allow for interventions before complications occur. In this manuscript, we highlight several important methods of non-invasive cardiopulmonary monitoring, including capnography, transcutaneous monitoring, pulse oximetry, and near infrared spectroscopy. PMID:25119483

  4. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series To use the sharing features on this ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  5. Obstetrician and Gynecologist Utilization of the Noninvasive Prenatal Testing Expanded Option.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Sarah; Hashmi, Syed; Turrentine, Mark A; Darilek, Sandra; Friel, Lara A; Czerwinski, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Objective Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) enables the detection of common fetal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and sex chromosome abnormalities via analysis of cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal serum. In October 2013, the option to screen for additional trisomies and select microdeletion syndromes became clinically available. The complex testing methods, oftentimes unclear clinical utility of results, and lack of professional guidelines renders it challenging for clinicians to keep abreast of evolving prenatal screening options. We undertook a survey to assess physicians' awareness of, utilization of, and attitudes toward the expanded NIPT option. Study Design Obstetricians attending hospital service meetings in the Houston Texas Medical Center completed an anonymous survey regarding the utilization patterns of expanded NIPT. Results Overall, 85 obstetricians were surveyed. While all respondents indicated awareness of NIPT in its traditional form, 75% (64/85) were aware of the expanded testing option, and 14% (12/85) reported having ordered the expanded NIPT option. A total of 91% (77/85) expressed that practitioners need more information regarding the screening. Conclusion Based on these findings and the fluid landscape of prenatal screening, education, and reeducation of health care professionals is imperative to ensure responsible patient counseling, informed consent, and appropriate posttest management. PMID:26929864

  6. Obstetrician and Gynecologist Utilization of the Noninvasive Prenatal Testing Expanded Option

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Sarah; Hashmi, Syed; Turrentine, Mark A.; Darilek, Sandra; Friel, Lara A.; Czerwinski, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) enables the detection of common fetal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and sex chromosome abnormalities via analysis of cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal serum. In October 2013, the option to screen for additional trisomies and select microdeletion syndromes became clinically available. The complex testing methods, oftentimes unclear clinical utility of results, and lack of professional guidelines renders it challenging for clinicians to keep abreast of evolving prenatal screening options. We undertook a survey to assess physicians' awareness of, utilization of, and attitudes toward the expanded NIPT option. Study Design Obstetricians attending hospital service meetings in the Houston Texas Medical Center completed an anonymous survey regarding the utilization patterns of expanded NIPT. Results Overall, 85 obstetricians were surveyed. While all respondents indicated awareness of NIPT in its traditional form, 75% (64/85) were aware of the expanded testing option, and 14% (12/85) reported having ordered the expanded NIPT option. A total of 91% (77/85) expressed that practitioners need more information regarding the screening. Conclusion Based on these findings and the fluid landscape of prenatal screening, education, and reeducation of health care professionals is imperative to ensure responsible patient counseling, informed consent, and appropriate posttest management. PMID:26929864

  7. Improving non-invasive ventilation documentation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew; Elkheir, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Record keeping for patients on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at St. Georges Hospital is poor. The initial NIV prescription is often not recorded, and changes to the NIV prescription or the rationale for the changes (ABG results) are also poorly documented. This leads to confusion for nurses/doctors as to what the correct settings are, meaning patients could receive ineffective ventilation. The use of NIV is also poorly recorded by nursing staff meaning that doctors are unsure if the prescribed NIV is being achieved. This can lead to treatment being escalated unnecessarily in the event of treatment failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the provision of ventilatory support in the form of positive pressure via the patient's upper airway using a mask or similar device. NIV is indicated for treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, of which there are many causes, though COPD is the indication in up to 70% of cases.[1] British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for NIV suggest that the rationale for commencing a patient on NIV and the proposed settings should be clearly documented.[2] Clinicians cannot effectively tailor changes to the patients NIV settings if this information is not clearly recorded, which could lead to increased time requiring NIV or NIV failure. Three main areas were considered important to measure for this project. The initial prescription of the NIV, changes to the NIV settings, and nursing documentation surrounding NIV. A baseline measurement of NIV documentation for two weeks found NIV documentation to globally very poor. NIV was formally prescribed 29% of the time, full detail of intended settings were documented 57% of the time, the decision to commence NIV was discussed with the respiratory consultant/SpR just 29% of the time and on no occasion was a decision regarding escalation of treatment recorded. Eighteen changes were made to the NIV settings. These were formally prescribed 22% of the time and detail of the intended

  8. Modern non-invasive mechanical ventilation turns 25.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario

    2013-11-01

    The history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation goes back more than 100 years, but it was not until 1987 when what we could call "modern" non-invasive mechanical ventilation was developed. The description of Delaubier and Rideau of a patient with Duchenne's disease who had been effectively ventilated through a nasal mask marked the start of a new era in the history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Over these last 25years, we have witnessed exponential growth in its use, field of activity and technological advances on an exciting fast-paced track. We believe that it is time to review the main milestones that have marked the development of non-invasive mechanical ventilation to date, while paying homage to this therapeutic method that has contributed so much to the advancement of respiratory medicine in the last 25years. PMID:23347549

  9. A computer controlled non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring system.

    PubMed

    McMenemin, I M; Kenny, G N

    1988-10-01

    A system for the non-invasive monitoring, recording and storing haemodynamic indices has been developed using an Apple II microcomputer, a Dinamap automatic arterial pressure monitor and a non-invasive cardiac output monitor based on bio-electrical impedance. This system was used during the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Numerical and graphical displays of heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance are available. A print-out of data can be produced for later analysis. PMID:3190976

  10. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue. PMID:25521968

  11. Serum Ferritin is a Reliable, Non-invasive Test for Iron Status in Pregnancy: Comparison of Ferritin with Other Iron Status Markers in a Longitudinal Study on Healthy Pregnant Women; Erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Byg, Keld-Erik; Milman, Nils; Hansen, Stig; Agger, Anders O.

    2000-01-01

    Background and Aims: To assess the true positive and false positive rates of the iron status markers (serum iron, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), erythrocyte count) in the diagnosis of depleted iron stores (iron depletion) during normal pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: Among 120 pregnant women, 58 were randomised to placebo-treatment and 62 to iron-treatment (66 mg ferrous iron daily from 14 weeks of gestation). Iron status markers were measured every 4th week during pregnancy and 8 weeks postpartum. Iron depletion was defined by a serum ferritin concentration < 16 &mgr;g/L. The 5th percentiles for the other iron status markers in the group of iron-treated women were used as cut-off values. Calculations were made in the 2nd and 3rd trimester, praepartum and postpartum. Results: In general, the true positive rates of other iron status markers in the diagnosis of iron depletion (serum ferritin < 16 &mgr;g/L) were low ranging from 0% to 52% during pregnancy and from 9% to 64% postpartum. Transferrin saturation and MCH displayed the highest true positive rates. The false positive rates ranged from 0% to 13% during pregnancy and from 4% to 17% postpartum. Haemoglobin and MCH displayed the highest false positive rates. Conclusions: The sensitivities of the other iron status markers were too low and the false positive rates too high to be of clinical value in the diagnosis of iron depletion. Despite physiologic variations due to haemodilution, the serum ferritin concentration is currently the most reliable non-invasive marker of iron status in pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:11399631

  12. Systolic time intervals: a review of the method in the non-invasive investigation of cardiac function in health, disease and clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, S.; Turner, P.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of systolic time intervals is a valuable, non-invasive procedure to assess left ventricular performance, particularly when influenced by drugs. In this review, we discuss various factors affecting systolic time intervals, the therapeutic implications of the technique and its place among other non-invasive tests of cardiac function. PMID:6353394

  13. Attitudes of Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome Towards Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Gregory; Slattery, Leah; Hudgins, Louanne; Ormond, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) allows for highly sensitive detection of Down syndrome early in pregnancy with no risk of miscarriage, therefore potentially increasing the number of pregnancies identified with Down syndrome. This study assesses how mothers of children with Down syndrome perceive NIPT, especially the impact they think it will have on their families and other families with children who have Down syndrome. Seventy-three self-reported mothers of children with Down syndrome responded to an anonymous online survey emailed to, and posted on, message boards of various Down syndrome support groups and networks. Data analysis included chi-square tests and thematic analysis. Fifty-nine percent of respondents indicated they would use NIPT in the future; respondents who had not used prenatal testing in the past were significantly less likely to report interest in using NIPT in the future than those who had prenatal testing previously (p<.001). Many respondents felt NIPT could lead to increased terminations (88%), increased social stigma (57%), and decreased availability of services for individuals with Down syndrome (64%). However, only 16% believed availability of new noninvasive tests would be the most important factor in determining the number of pregnancies with Down syndrome terminated in the future. Additionally, 48% believed health care providers give biased or incorrect information about Down syndrome at the time of diagnosis, and 24% felt this incorrect information leads to terminations of pregnancies affected with Down syndrome. Results suggest although mothers of children with Down syndrome believe new noninvasive testing will lead to an increase in termination of pregnancies with Down syndrome, they do not think it is the MOST important factor. They also highlight the need to provide a diagnosis of Down syndrome in a balanced and objective manner. PMID:24481673

  14. Tissue Damage Characterization Using Non-invasive Optical Modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, David

    The ability to determine the degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is essential for proper wound assessment and a significant factor for determining patient treatment and morbidity. Accurate characterization of tissue damage is critical for a number of medical applications including surgical removal of nonviable tissue, severity assessment of subcutaneous ulcers, and depth assessment of visually open wounds. The main objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method for identifying the extent of tissue damage underneath intact skin that is not apparent upon visual examination. This work investigated the relationship between tissue optical properties, blood flow, and tissue viability by testing the hypotheses that (a) changes in tissue oxygenation and/or microcirculatory blood flow measurable by Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) differ between healthy and damaged tissue and (b) the magnitude of those changes differs for different degrees of tissue damage. This was accomplished by developing and validating a procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation dynamics at multiple depths (up to 1 centimeter) using non-invasive DCS and DNIRS technologies. Due to the lack of pressure ulcer animal models that are compatible with our optical systems, a proof of concept was conducted in a porcine burn model prior to conducting clinical trials in order to assess the efficacy of the system in-vivo. A reduction in total hemoglobin was observed for superficial (5%) and deep burns (35%) along with a statistically significant difference between the optical properties of superficial and deep burns (p < 0.05). Burn depth and viable vessel density were estimated via histological samples. 42% of vessels in the dermal layer were viable for superficial burns, compared to 25% for deep burns. The differences detected in optical properties and hemoglobin content by optical measurements

  15. Non-invasive photo acoustic approach for human bone diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Helmy, Ahdy; Suryadevara, Vinay Kumar; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher

    2016-12-01

    The existing modalities of bone diagnosis including X-ray and ultrasound may cite drawback in some cases related to health issues and penetration depth, while the ultrasound modality may lack image quality. Photo acoustic approach however, provides light energy to the acoustic wave, enabling it to activate and respond according to the propagating media (which is type of bones in this case). At the same time, a differential temperature change may result in the bio heat response, resulting from the heat absorbed across the multiple materials under study. In this work, we have demonstrated the features of using photo acoustic modality in order to non-invasively diagnose the type of human bones based on their electrical, thermal, and acoustic properties that differentiate the output response of each type. COMSOL software was utilized to combine both acoustic equations and bio heat equations, in order to study both the thermal and acoustic responses through which the differential diagnosis can be obtained. In this study, we solved both the acoustic equation and bio heat equations for four types of bones, bone (cancellous), bone (cortical), bone marrow (red), and bone marrow (yellow). 1 MHz acoustic source frequency was chosen and 10(5) W/m(2) power source was used in the simulation. The simulation tested the dynamic response of the wave over a distance of 5 cm from each side for the source. Near 2.4 cm was detected from simulation from each side of the source with a temperature change of within 0.5 K for various types of bones, citing a promising technique for a practical model to detect the type of bones via the differential temperature as well as the acoustic was response via the multiple materials associated with the human bones (skin and blood). The simulation results suggest that the PA technique may be applied to non-invasive diagnosis for the different types of bones, including cancerous bones. A practical model for detecting both the temperature change via

  16. Prenatal diagnostic testing of the Noonan syndrome genes in fetuses with abnormal ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Croonen, Ellen A; Nillesen, Willy M; Stuurman, Kyra E; Oudesluijs, Gretel; van de Laar, Ingrid M B M; Martens, Liesbeth; Ockeloen, Charlotte; Mathijssen, Inge B; Schepens, Marga; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, Martina; Scheffer, Hans; Faas, Brigitte H W; van der Burgt, Ineke; Yntema, Helger G

    2013-09-01

    In recent studies on prenatal testing for Noonan syndrome (NS) in fetuses with an increased nuchal translucency (NT) and a normal karyotype, mutations have been reported in 9-16% of cases. In this study, DNA of 75 fetuses with a normal karyotype and abnormal ultrasound findings was tested in a diagnostic setting for mutations in (a subset of) the four most commonly mutated NS genes. A de novo mutation in either PTPN11, KRAS or RAF1 was detected in 13 fetuses (17.3%). Ultrasound findings were increased NT, distended jugular lymphatic sacs (JLS), hydrothorax, renal anomalies, polyhydramnios, cystic hygroma, cardiac anomalies, hydrops fetalis and ascites. A second group, consisting of anonymized DNA of 60 other fetuses with sonographic abnormalities, was tested for mutations in 10 NS genes. In this group, five possible pathogenic mutations have been identified (in PTPN11 (n=2), RAF1, BRAF and MAP2K1 (each n=1)). We recommend prenatal testing of PTPN11, KRAS and RAF1 in pregnancies with an increased NT and at least one of the following additional features: polyhydramnios, hydrops fetalis, renal anomalies, distended JLS, hydrothorax, cardiac anomalies, cystic hygroma and ascites. If possible, mutation analysis of BRAF and MAP2K1 should be considered. PMID:23321623

  17. Noninvasive prenatal testing for early sex identification: a few benefits and many concerns.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R; Benn, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    A new technology, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), can identify fetal sex early in pregnancy, five weeks after conception, with a high degree of accuracy through analysis of maternal blood plasma. This article considers the possibility that NIPT will encourage greater sex selection in developed countries and discusses the implications. Sex selection raises serious social and ethical issues unless it is done for medical reasons. The article also assesses options to discourage sex-selective abortions, including the effectiveness of potential legal measures. PMID:24769746

  18. Non-invasive subcutaneous fat reduction: a review.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J; Verne, S; Griffith, R; Falto-Aizpurua, L; Nouri, K

    2015-09-01

    The risks, financial costs and lengthy downtime associated with surgical procedures for fat reduction have led to the development of a number of non-invasive techniques. Non-invasive body contouring now represents the fastest growing area of aesthetic medicine. There are currently four leading non-invasive techniques for reducing localized subcutaneous adipose tissue: low-level laser therapy (LLLT), cryolipolysis, radio frequency (RF) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). To review and compare leading techniques and clinical outcomes of non-invasive subcutaneous fat reduction. The terms 'non-invasive', 'low-level laser', 'cryolipolysis', 'ultrasound' and 'radio frequency' were combined with 'lipolysis', 'fat reduction' or 'body contour' during separate searches in the PubMed database. We identified 31 studies (27 prospective clinical studies and four retrospective chart reviews) with a total of 2937 patients that had been treated with LLLT (n = 1114), cryolipolysis (n = 706), HIFU (n = 843) or RF (n = 116) or other techniques (n = 158) for fat reduction or body contouring. A majority of these patients experienced significant and satisfying results without any serious adverse effects. The studies investigating these devices have all varied in treatment regimen, body locations, follow-up times or outcome operationalization. Each technique differs in offered advantages and severity of adverse effects. However, multiple non-invasive devices are safe and effective for circumferential reduction in local fat tissue by 2 cm or more across the abdomen, hips and thighs. Results are consistent and reproducible for each device and none are associated with any serious or permanent adverse effects. PMID:25664493

  19. An Acetone Nanosensor For Non-invasive Diabetes Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yun, X.; Stanacevic, M.; Gouma, P. I.

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes is a most common disease worldwide. Acetone in exhaled breath is a known biomarker of Type- 1 diabetes. An exhaled breath analyzer has been developed with the potential to diagnose diabetes as a non-invasive alternative of the currently used blood-based diagnostics. This device utilizes a chemiresistor based on ferroelectric tungsten oxide nanoparticles and detects acetone selectively in breath-simulated media. Real-time monitoring of the acetone concentration is feasible, potentially making this detector a revolutionary, non- invasive, diabetes diagnostic tool.

  20. Non-invasive brain stimulation in early rehabilitation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Blesneag, A V; Popa, L; Stan, A D

    2015-01-01

    The new tendency in rehabilitation involves non-invasive tools that, if applied early after stroke, promote neurorecovery. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may correct the disruption of cortical excitability and effectively contribute to the restoration of movement and speech. The present paper analyses the results of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) trials, highlighting different aspects related to the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation frequency, transcranial direct current stimulation polarity, the period and stimulation places in acute and subacute ischemic strokes. The risk of adverse events, the association with motor or language recovery specific training, and the cumulative positive effect evaluation are also discussed. PMID:26361512

  1. Non-Invasive Assessment of Liver Function

    PubMed Central

    Helmke, Steve; Colmenero, Jordi; Everson, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review It is our opinion that there is an unmet need in Hepatology for a minimally- or noninvasive test of liver function and physiology. Quantitative liver function tests (QLFTs) define the severity and prognosis of liver disease by measuring the clearance of substrates whose uptake or metabolism is dependent upon liver perfusion or hepatocyte function. Substrates with high affinity hepatic transporters exhibit high “first-pass” hepatic extraction and their clearance measures hepatic perfusion. In contrast, substrates metabolized by the liver have low first-pass extraction and their clearance measures specific drug metabolizing pathways. Recent Findings We highlight one QLFT, the dual cholate test, and introduce the concept of a disease severity index (DSI) linked to clinical outcome that quantifies the simultaneous processes of hepatocyte uptake, clearance from the systemic circulation, clearance from the portal circulation, and portal-systemic shunting. Summary It is our opinion that dual cholate is a relevant test for defining disease severity, monitoring the natural course of disease progression, and quantifying the response to therapy. PMID:25714706

  2. Sexual prevention of HIV within the couple after prenatal HIV-testing in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Becquet, Renaud; Allou, Gérard; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Zanou, B.; Leroy, Valériane; Desgrees-Du-Loû, Annabel

    2008-01-01

    The resumption of sexual activity after delivery is a key moment in the management of the risk of sexual HIV transmission within the couple for women who had been prenatally tested for HIV. In this study, we have investigated consistent condom use during the resumption of sexual activity and its evolution over time among women tested for HIV infection during pregnancy. We tested for HIV during pregnancy 546 HIV-infected and 393 HIV-negative women within the DITRAME Plus ANRS project in Abidjan; these women were followed-up for two years after delivery. Most HIV-negative women (96.7%) disclosed their HIV-test result to their partners, whereas only 45.6% of HIV-infected women did it (p<0.001). Partners of HIV-infected women were more likely to be tested for HIV before resuming sexual activity than partners of HIV-negative women (11.7% versus 7.4% p=0.054). Less than one third of both HIV-infected and HIV-negative women reported having systematically used condoms during the resumption of sexual activity. The proportions of HIV-infected and HIV-negative women having consistently used condom were respectively 26.2% and 19.8% (p=0.193) at 3 months post-partum, 12.1% and 15.9% (p=0.139) at 12 months post-partum, 8.4% and 10.6%, (p=0.302) at 18 months post-partum. In our study, although women had been prenatally tested for HIV and properly counselled on the sexual risk of HIV transmission, male partners were not tested for HIV before the resumption of sexual activity after delivery, very few couples were using condoms systematically and condom use was decreasing over time. PMID:18449817

  3. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Burroughs, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    The presence and degree of hepatic fibrosis is crucial in order to make therapeutic decisions and predict clinical outcomes. Currently, the place of liver biopsy as the standard of reference for assessing liver fibrosis has been challenged by the increasing awareness of a number of drawbacks related to its use (invasiveness, sampling error, inter-/intraobserver variability). In parallel with this, noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis has experienced explosive growth in recent years and a wide spectrum of noninvasive methods ranging from serum assays to imaging techniques have been developed. Some are validated methods, such as the Fibrotest/ Fibrosure and transient elastography in Europe, and are gaining a growing role in routine clinical practice, especially in chronic hepatitis C. Large-scale validation is awaited in the setting of other chronic liver diseases. However, noninvasive tests used to detect significant fibrosis and cirrhosis, the two major clinical endpoints, are not yet at a level of performance suitable for routine diagnostic tests, and there is still no perfect surrogate or method able to completely replace an optimal liver biopsy. This article aims to review current noninvasive tests for the assessment of liver fibrosis and the perspectives for their rational use in clinical practice. PMID:24714123

  4. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2012-01-01

    The presence and degree of hepatic fibrosis is crucial in order to make therapeutic decisions and predict clinical outcomes. Currently, the place of liver biopsy as the standard of reference for assessing liver fibrosis has been challenged by the increasing awareness of a number of drawbacks related to its use (invasiveness, sampling error, inter-/intraobserver variability). In parallel with this, noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis has experienced explosive growth in recent years and a wide spectrum of noninvasive methods ranging from serum assays to imaging techniques have been developed. Some are validated methods, such as the Fibrotest/ Fibrosure and transient elastography in Europe, and are gaining a growing role in routine clinical practice, especially in chronic hepatitis C. Large-scale validation is awaited in the setting of other chronic liver diseases. However, noninvasive tests used to detect significant fibrosis and cirrhosis, the two major clinical endpoints, are not yet at a level of performance suitable for routine diagnostic tests, and there is still no perfect surrogate or method able to completely replace an optimal liver biopsy. This article aims to review current noninvasive tests for the assessment of liver fibrosis and the perspectives for their rational use in clinical practice. PMID:24714123

  5. Non-invasive investigation of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tibble, JA; Bjarnason, I

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of inflammatory activity in intestinal disease in man can be done using a variety of different techniques. These range from the use of non-invasive acute phase inflammatory markers measured in plasma such as C reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (both of which give an indirect assessment of disease activity) to the direct assessment of disease activity by intestinal biopsy performed during endoscopy in association with endoscopic scoring systems. Both radiology and endoscopy are conventional for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However these techniques have severe limitations when it comes to assessing functional components of the disease such as activity and prognosis. Here we briefly review the value of two emerging intestinal function tests. Intestinal permeability, although ideally suited for diagnostic screening for small bowel Crohn’s disease, appears to give reliable predictive data for imminent relapse of small bowel Crohn’s disease and it can be used to assess responses to treatment. More significantly it is now clear that single stool assay of neutrophil specific proteins (calprotectin, lactoferrin) give the same quantitative data on intestinal inflammation as the 4-day faecal excretion of 111Indium labelled white cells. Faecal calprotectin is shown to be increased in over 95% of patients with IBD and correlates with clinical disease activity. It reliably differentiates between patients with IBD and irritable bowel syndrome. More importantly, at a given faecal calprotectin concentration in patients with quiescent IBD, the test has a specificity and sensitivity in excess of 85% in predicting clinical relapse of disease. This suggests that relapse of IBD is closely related to the degree of intestinal inflammation and suggests that targeted treatment at an asymptomatic stage of the disease may be indicated. PMID:11819811

  6. Non-invasive, non-radiological quantification of anteroposterior knee joint ligamentous laxity

    PubMed Central

    Russell, D. F.; Deakin, A. H.; Fogg, Q. A.; Picard, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We performed in vitro validation of a non-invasive skin-mounted system that could allow quantification of anteroposterior (AP) laxity in the outpatient setting. Methods A total of 12 cadaveric lower limbs were tested with a commercial image-free navigation system using trackers secured by bone screws. We then tested a non-invasive fabric-strap system. The lower limb was secured at 10° intervals from 0° to 60° of knee flexion and 100 N of force was applied perpendicular to the tibia. Acceptable coefficient of repeatability (CR) and limits of agreement (LOA) of 3 mm were set based on diagnostic criteria for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency. Results Reliability and precision within the individual invasive and non-invasive systems was acceptable throughout the range of flexion tested (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.88, CR 1.6 mm). Agreement between the two systems was acceptable measuring AP laxity between full extension and 40° knee flexion (LOA 2.9 mm). Beyond 40° of flexion, agreement between the systems was unacceptable (LOA > 3 mm). Conclusions These results indicate that from full knee extension to 40° flexion, non-invasive navigation-based quantification of AP tibial translation is as accurate as the standard validated commercial system, particularly in the clinically and functionally important range of 20° to 30° knee flexion. This could be useful in diagnosis and post-operative evaluation of ACL pathology. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:233–7. PMID:24184443

  7. Reliable, Low Mass, Non-Invasive Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, F.; Tovey, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mass is a major driver for future spacecraft and missions exposed to high radiation levels (i.e. Europa Orbiter) present even more challenge. A variety of non-invasive measurement techniques are in development that enables determination of pressures within a propulsion network.

  8. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Packer, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    There is described an apparatus and method for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate which comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67.

  9. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Packer, S.

    1984-10-30

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate. The apparatus comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67. 2 figs.

  10. Non-invasive Prediction of Pork Loin Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to develop a non-invasive method to predict tenderness of pork loins. Boneless pork loins (n = 901) were evaluated either on line on the loin boning and trimming line of large-scale commercial plants (n = 465) or at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center abattoir ...

  11. NON-INVASIVE NEUROTOXICITY ASSAY USING LARVAL MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a method for non-invasive electrophysiological analysis of rapid escape responses in intact, freely behaving larval medaka (Oryzias latipes) before and after short-term exposure to environmental toxicants. ecordings are obtained as a larval medaka swims in a small cham...

  12. Non-invasive treatment options for focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, DONG

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) presents a strong clinical challenge especially for the treatment of the associated epilepsy. Epilepsy in FCD is often treatment-resistant and constitutes 50% of treatment-resistant cases. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been widely used in the treatment of FCD. However, evidence to suggest their specific effect on the treatment of FCD remains to be established. In view of this resistance, several alternative treatments have been suggested. Although treatment currently involves surgical management, non-invasive treatments have been identified. The aim of the present review, was to assess non-invasive management strategies including, i) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, ii) ketogenic diet (KD), and iii) vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). In addition, we discussed the literature available regarding the use of AEDs in FCD. Experiments conducted with mammals detailing rapamycin gene mutations in FCD have produced vital information for exploring treatment options using mTOR inhibitors. Of note is the importance of KD in children with FCD. This diet has been shown to modify disease progression by attenuating chromatin modification, a master regulator for gene expression and functional adaptation of the cell. FCD has also been studied widely with neurostimulation techniques. The outcomes of these techniques have been found to be variable. For widespread dysplasias, VNS has been shown to produce responder rates of >50%. Nevertheless, non-invasive cranial nerve stimulation techniques such as transcutaneous VNS and non-invasive VNS are gaining better patient compatibility, albeit their efficacy remains to be established. PMID:27168769

  13. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  14. Eyeblink Conditioning: A Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition,…

  15. Non-invasive method of measuring cerebral spinal fluid pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor); Lambert, James L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides a method of non-invasively determining intracranial pressure from measurements of an eye. A parameter of an optic nerve of the eye is determined, along with an intraocular pressure of the eye. The intracranial pressure may be determined from the intraocular pressure and the parameter.

  16. Strategies for non-invasive delivery of biologics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Woo; Hil-lal, Taslim A; Byun, Youngro

    2012-07-01

    Macromolecular therapeutics, in particular, many biologics, is the most advancing category of drugs over conventional chemical drugs. The potency and specificity of the biologics for curing certain disease made them to be a leading compound in the pharmaceutical industry. However, due to their intrinsic nature, including high molecular weight, hydrophilicity and instability, they are difficult to be administered via non-invasive route. This is a major quest especially in biologics, as they are frequently used clinically for chronic disorders, which requires long-term administration. Therefore, many efforts have been made to develop formulation for non-invasive administration, in attempt to improve patient compliance and convenience. In this review, strategies for non-invasive delivery, in particular, oral, pulmonary and nasal delivery, that are recently adopted for delivery of biologics are discussed. Insulin, calcitonin and heparin were mainly focused for the discussion as they could represent protein, polypeptide and polysaccharide drugs, respectively. Many recent attempts for non-invasive delivery of biologics are compared to provide an insight of developing successful delivery system. PMID:22632037

  17. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Kristie J.; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature’s most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured—leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson’s ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction.

  18. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks.

    PubMed

    Koski, Kristie J; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature's most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured-leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson's ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction. PMID:23353627

  19. Stress detection in bivalve mollusk using non-invasive bioelectric monitoring of myoneural behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.L.; Hardison, B.S.; Dawson, V.K.; Waller, D.; Waller, W.T.; Dickson, K.L.; Allen, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Few studies have demonstrated cause-and-effect linkages between extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic bioelectric action potentials of bivalve mollusk using non-invasive, non-destructive approaches. A non-invasive, external probe configuration and detection system, similar to one used previously with native unionids, was developed for continuously monitoring bioelectric activities of clams and mussels. Using remote probes and differential amplifiers, bioelectric activities were recorded for cardiac, adductor, siphon and foot responses using a computer equipped with integrating software. To test if remote, non-invasive probes would detect similar information to that recorded by invasive needle electrodes, two individuals of zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha), and Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) were each configured with two sets of probes. One set was inserted between the valves and along the inside surface of the shelf; the other set was positioned remotely about the outside margins of the valves. Signal validation was made by simultaneously recording bioelectric responses for the same animal from both sets of probes. In preliminary stress tests monitored bivalves were subjected to changes in temperatures over 2 to 3 hr intervals from ambient to potentially lethal levels (20 to 30 C for zebra, 25 C to 40 C for corbicula). Dramatic increases resulted in both number and amplitude of cardiac events as temperature increased. Planned studies will use this approach to evaluate bivalve myoneural behavior patterns in response to chemical and non-chemical stimuli.

  20. Choosing offspring: prenatal genetic testing for thalassaemia and the production of a 'saviour sibling' in China.

    PubMed

    Sui, Suli; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper focuses on the pre-natal genetic testing and reproductive decision-making around thalassaemia in China. Findings are based on fieldwork conducted in hospitals and research institutions, interviews with families with thalassaemia-affected children, interviews with geneticists and genetic researchers and a literature review conducted between September and November 2007. The paper aims to provide insight into the ways in which those who carry thalassaemia decide to have a test for the condition and the choices available to prospective parents. The paper also analyses factors affecting reproductive choices and the decision to produce a 'saviour sibling', including financial implications, state family planning policy, images and information conveyed through the media and propaganda, advice and counselling from doctors, psychological pressure from the community and social discrimination. The paper concludes with a discussion on the issues involved in the creation of saviour siblings, some of which are particular to China. PMID:19499399

  1. Changes within lipid fractions offer a new way to non-invasively monitor seed viability during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring seed viability using germination tests consumes large quantities of seeds and does not predict when seed viability will crash. Non-invasive tests that show the progress of seed aging would provide greater efficiency. This study investigates the changes in the chemical and physical propert...

  2. Why Do Parents Prefer to Know the Fetal Sex as Part of Invasive Prenatal Testing?

    PubMed Central

    Kooper, Angelique J. A.; Pieters, Jacqueline J. P. M.; Eggink, Alex J.; Feuth, Ton B.; Feenstra, Ilse; Wijnberger, Lia D. E.; Rijnders, Robbert J. P.; Quartero, Rik W. P.; Boekkooi, Peter F.; van Vugt, John M. G.; Smits, Arie P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine whether prospective parents, primarily referred for prenatal diagnosis to exclude Down syndrome, prefer to know the fetal sex as part of invasive testing. Methods. In this prospective study 400 pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis were invited to answer a questionnaire, including information about demographic factors, current pregnancy, and previous children. In two open-ended questions they were asked why they wanted to know the fetal sex after amniocentesis or ultrasound investigation. Scores were given for reasons that could have played a role in the wish whether or not to know the sex of their unborn child. Results. A total of 210 (52.5%) questionnaires were completed. Overall, 69.0% was interested to know the fetal sex as part of the diagnostic test result. The most important reasons were curiosity (77.8%), “just want to know” (68.0%), and “because it is possible” (66.8%). The overall knowledge of sex chromosomal disorders appeared low and did not seem to affect the parent's wish to know the fetal sex. Almost all women (96.6%) planned to have a 20-week ultrasound scan and 96.2% thought the scan to be reliable in detecting the fetal sex. A minority (28%) was willing to learn the fetal sex by ultrasound examination, whereas 65% preferred to learn the fetal sex only after the amniocentesis. Conclusion. Personal values affect the parental desire to know or not to know the fetal sex. This does not appear to be affected by invasive prenatal testing and/or genetic knowledge of sex chromosomal disorders. PMID:23304540

  3. The Feasibility Study of Non-Invasive Fetal Trisomy 18 and 21 Detection with Semiconductor Sequencing Platform

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiwei; Chen, Jinchun; Quan, Shengmao; Zhang, Ahong; Zheng, Hailing; Zhu, Xingqiang; Lin, Jin; Xu, Huan; Wu, Ayang; Park, Sin-Gi; Kim, Byung Chul; Joo, Hee Jae; Chen, Hongliang; Bhak, Jong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recent non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) technologies are based on next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS allows rapid and effective clinical diagnoses to be determined with two common sequencing systems: Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. The majority of NIPT technology is associated with Illumina platform. We investigated whether fetal trisomy 18 and 21 were sensitively and specifically detectable by semiconductor sequencer: Ion Proton. Methods From March 2012 to October 2013, we enrolled 155 pregnant women with fetuses who were diagnosed as high risk of fetal defects at Xiamen Maternal & Child Health Care Hospital (Xiamen, Fujian, China). Adapter-ligated DNA libraries were analyzed by the Ion Proton™ System (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA) with an average 0.3× sequencing coverage per nucleotide. Average total raw reads per sample was 6.5 million and mean rate of uniquely mapped reads was 59.0%. The results of this study were derived from BWA mapping. Z-score was used for fetal trisomy 18 and 21 detection. Results Interactive dot diagrams showed the minimal z-score values to discriminate negative versus positive cases of fetal trisomy 18 and 21. For fetal trisomy 18, the minimal z-score value of 2.459 showed 100% positive predictive and negative predictive values. The minimal z-score of 2.566 was used to classify negative versus positive cases of fetal trisomy 21. Conclusion These results provide the evidence that fetal trisomy 18 and 21 detection can be performed with semiconductor sequencer. Our data also suggest that a prospective study should be performed with a larger cohort of clinically diverse obstetrics patients. PMID:25329639

  4. Non-invasive prediction of hemoglobin levels by principal component and back propagation artificial neural network

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiquan; Lu, Qipeng; Gao, Hongzhi; Peng, Zhongqi

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate non-invasive diagnosis of anemia, specific equipment was developed, and non-invasive hemoglobin (HB) detection method based on back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was studied. In this paper, we combined a broadband light source composed of 9 LEDs with grating spectrograph and Si photodiode array, and then developed a high-performance spectrophotometric system. By using this equipment, fingertip spectra of 109 volunteers were measured. In order to deduct the interference of redundant data, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of collected spectra. Then the principal components of the spectra were taken as input of BP-ANN model. On this basis we obtained the optimal network structure, in which node numbers of input layer, hidden layer, and output layer was 9, 11, and 1. Calibration and correction sample sets were used for analyzing the accuracy of non-invasive hemoglobin measurement, and prediction sample set was used for testing the adaptability of the model. The correlation coefficient of network model established by this method is 0.94, standard error of calibration, correction, and prediction are 11.29g/L, 11.47g/L, and 11.01g/L respectively. The result proves that there exist good correlations between spectra of three sample sets and actual hemoglobin level, and the model has a good robustness. It is indicated that the developed spectrophotometric system has potential for the non-invasive detection of HB levels with the method of BP-ANN combined with PCA. PMID:24761296

  5. Effect of Enhanced Information, Values Clarification, and Removal of Financial Barriers on Use of Prenatal Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kuppermann, Miriam; Pena, Sherri; Bishop, Judith T.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E.; Sit, Anita; Vargas, Juan; Caughey, Aaron B.; Sykes, Susan; Pierce, Lasha; Norton, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Prenatal genetic testing guidelines recommend providing patients with detailed information to allow informed, preference-based screening and diagnostic testing decisions. The effect of implementing these guidelines is not well understood. Objective Toanalyze the effect of a decision support guide and elimination of financial barriers to testing on use of prenatal genetic testing and decision-making among women of varying literacy and numeracy levels. Design Randomized trial conducted from 2010-2013. Setting Prenatal clinics at three county hospitals, a community clinic, an academic center, and three medical centers of an integrated health care delivery system in the San Francisco Bay area. Participants English- or Spanish-speaking women who had not yet undergone screening and/or diagnostic testing and remained pregnant at 11 weeks gestation (n=710). Interventions A computerized, interactive decision support guide and access to prenatal testing with no out-of-pocket expense (n=357) or usual care as per current guidelines (n=353). Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was invasive diagnostic test use, obtained via medical record review. Secondary outcomes included testing strategy undergone, and knowledge, risk comprehension, decisional conflict and decision regret at 24-36 weeks' gestation. Results Women randomized to the intervention group, compared to those randomized to the control group, were less likely to have invasive testing [5.9% vs. 12.3%, odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.80] and more likely to forego testing altogether [25.6% vs. 20.4%, OR 3.30 (reference group screening followed by invasive testing), CI 1.43-7.64]. They also had higher knowledge scores (9.4 vs. 8.6 on a 15-point scale, mean group difference 0.82, CI 0.34-1.31), and were more likely to correctly estimate the amniocentesis-related miscarriage risk (73.8% vs. 59.0%, OR 1.95, CI 1.39-2.75) and their age-adjusted chance of carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 (58.7% vs. 46

  6. Non-invasive pressure difference estimation from PC-MRI using the work-energy equation

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Fabrizio; Figueroa, C. Alberto; Smith, Nicolas P.; Lamata, Pablo; Nordsletten, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure difference is an accepted clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease conditions such as aortic coarctation. Currently, measurements of pressure differences in the clinic rely on invasive techniques (catheterization), prompting development of non-invasive estimates based on blood flow. In this work, we propose a non-invasive estimation procedure deriving pressure difference from the work-energy equation for a Newtonian fluid. Spatial and temporal convergence is demonstrated on in silico Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Image (PC-MRI) phantoms with steady and transient flow fields. The method is also tested on an image dataset generated in silico from a 3D patient-specific Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and finally evaluated on a cohort of 9 subjects. The performance is compared to existing approaches based on steady and unsteady Bernoulli formulations as well as the pressure Poisson equation. The new technique shows good accuracy, robustness to noise, and robustness to the image segmentation process, illustrating the potential of this approach for non-invasive pressure difference estimation. PMID:26409245

  7. Non-invasive pressure difference estimation from PC-MRI using the work-energy equation.

    PubMed

    Donati, Fabrizio; Figueroa, C Alberto; Smith, Nicolas P; Lamata, Pablo; Nordsletten, David A

    2015-12-01

    Pressure difference is an accepted clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease conditions such as aortic coarctation. Currently, measurements of pressure differences in the clinic rely on invasive techniques (catheterization), prompting development of non-invasive estimates based on blood flow. In this work, we propose a non-invasive estimation procedure deriving pressure difference from the work-energy equation for a Newtonian fluid. Spatial and temporal convergence is demonstrated on in silico Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Image (PC-MRI) phantoms with steady and transient flow fields. The method is also tested on an image dataset generated in silico from a 3D patient-specific Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and finally evaluated on a cohort of 9 subjects. The performance is compared to existing approaches based on steady and unsteady Bernoulli formulations as well as the pressure Poisson equation. The new technique shows good accuracy, robustness to noise, and robustness to the image segmentation process, illustrating the potential of this approach for non-invasive pressure difference estimation. PMID:26409245

  8. Continuous non-invasive monitoring improves blood pressure stability in upright position: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Benes, Jan; Simanova, Alena; Tovarnicka, Tereza; Sevcikova, Silvie; Kletecka, Jakub; Zatloukal, Jan; Pradl, Richard; Chytra, Ivan; Kasal, Eduard

    2015-02-01

    Intermittent blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the standard-of-care during low and intermediate risk anaesthesia, yet it could lead to delayed recognition of BP fluctuations. Perioperative hypotension is known to be associated with postoperative complications. Continuous, non-invasive methods for BP monitoring have been developed recently. We have tested a novel non-invasive, continuous monitor (using the volume clamp method) to assist with maintaining BP in safe ranges for patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. Forty adult patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery in an upright position were included in this prospective randomised controlled trial. Patients were equally allocated to the group with continuous monitoring of BP using the CNAP® Monitor and to the control group managed using an intermittent oscillometric BP cuff. The absolute and proportional time spent outside the range of ±20% of the target BP along with other hemodynamic and clinical parameters were evaluated. The continuous monitoring decreased the anaesthesia time spent below -20% pressure range [absolute: 12 min (4-20) vs. 27 min (16-34); p=0.001; relative to procedure length: 14% (7-20) vs. 33.5% (17.5-53); p=0.003]. No significant differences were observed in postoperative morbidity or in hospital length of stay. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring via the CNAP® Monitor allows for better BP management in patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. In our randomised trial the time spent in hypotension was significantly shorter using continuous monitoring. PMID:24841333

  9. Non-invasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis: Adjuncts or Alternatives to Liver Biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jun L.; Pavlides, Michael; Moolla, Ahmad; Ryan, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis reflects sustained liver injury often from multiple, simultaneous factors. Whilst the presence of mild fibrosis on biopsy can be a reassuring finding, the identification of advanced fibrosis is critical to the management of patients with chronic liver disease. This necessity has lead to a reliance on liver biopsy which itself is an imperfect test and poorly accepted by patients. The development of robust tools to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis has dramatically enhanced clinical decision making in patients with chronic liver disease, allowing a rapid and informed judgment of disease stage and prognosis. Should a liver biopsy be required, the appropriateness is clearer and the diagnostic yield is greater with the use of these adjuncts. While a number of non-invasive liver fibrosis markers are now used in routine practice, a steady stream of innovative approaches exists. With improvement in the reliability, reproducibility and feasibility of these markers, their potential role in disease management is increasing. Moreover, their adoption into clinical trials as outcome measures reflects their validity and dynamic nature. This review will summarize and appraise the current and novel non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, both blood and imaging based, and look at their prospective application in everyday clinical care. PMID:27378924

  10. Prenatal molecular testing for Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes: a challenge for molecular analysis and genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Eggermann, Thomas; Brioude, Frédéric; Russo, Silvia; Lombardi, Maria P; Bliek, Jet; Maher, Eamonn R; Larizza, Lidia; Prawitt, Dirk; Netchine, Irène; Gonzales, Marie; Grønskov, Karen; Tümer, Zeynep; Monk, David; Mannens, Marcel; Chrzanowska, Krystyna; Walasek, Malgorzata K; Begemann, Matthias; Soellner, Lukas; Eggermann, Katja; Tenorio, Jair; Nevado, Julián; Moore, Gudrun E; Mackay, Deborah Jg; Temple, Karen; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Ogata, Tsutomu; Weksberg, Rosanna; Algar, Elizabeth; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (BWS/SRS) are two imprinting disorders (IDs) associated with disturbances of the 11p15.5 chromosomal region. In BWS, epimutations and genomic alterations within 11p15.5 are observed in >70% of patients, whereas in SRS they are observed in about 60% of the cases. In addition, 10% of the SRS patients carry a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 11p15.5. There is an increasing demand for prenatal testing of these disorders owing to family history, indicative prenatal ultrasound findings or aberrations involving chromosomes 7 and 11. The complex molecular findings underlying these disorders are a challenge not only for laboratories offering these tests but also for geneticists counseling affected families. The scope of counseling must consider the range of detectable disturbances and their origin, the lack of precise quantitative knowledge concerning the inheritance and recurrence risks for the epigenetic abnormalities, which are hallmarks of these developmental disorders. In this paper, experts in the field of BWS and SRS, including members of the European network of congenital IDs (EUCID.net; www.imprinting-disorders.eu), put together their experience and work in the field of 11p15.5-associated IDs with a focus on prenatal testing. Altogether, prenatal tests of 160 fetuses (122 referred for BWS, 38 for SRS testing) from 5 centers were analyzed and reviewed. We summarize the current knowledge on BWS and SRS with respect to diagnostic testing, the consequences for prenatal genetic testing and counseling and our cumulative experience in dealing with these disorders. PMID:26508573

  11. Difference and Choice: Exploring Prenatal Testing and the Use of Genetic Information with People with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Linda; Howarth, Joyce; Rodgers, Jackie

    2002-01-01

    This article describes two workshops that explained the use of prenatal testing and genetic information to inform choices in pregnancy to people with learning difficulties, explored the issues with them, and describe the contribution subsequently made by these people to a British national conference on this subject. (Contains references.)…

  12. Attitudes and Knowledge of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellows Regarding Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Swaney, Paul; Hardisty, Emily; Sayres, Lauren; Wiegand, Samantha; Vora, Neeta

    2016-02-01

    Using cell-free DNA in maternal serum to detect fetal aneuploidy has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes and knowledge of Maternal-Fetal Medicine (MFM) fellows regarding noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). A 13 question survey was sent via listserv to US-based MFM fellows. One hundred sixteen fellows responded, a 42.3% response rate, with >75% reporting they are comfortable ordering NIPT. Most (82%) preferred that a patient discuss options with a provider or genetic counselor. Three common methods used to learn about NIPT were: formal educational activities (n = 78, 69%), self-review of the literature (n = 76, 67%), and discussions with peers (n = 73, 65%). On questions related to trisomy 21, accuracy was >70%. However, accuracy was lower regarding use in twin pregnancies (42%) and monosomy X screening (50%). PMID:25925607

  13. Post-and prenatal testing for FSHD: Diagnostic approach for sporadic and familial cases

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, E.; Wielen, M.J.R. van der; Losekoot, M.

    1994-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder. A major locus for FSHD was localized at the distal part of chromosome 4q. More recently, a disease associated DNA rearrangement was detected with the polymorphic probe p13E-11 (D4F104S1). In most FSHD patients, a shortened (< 28 kb instead of 50-300 kb) allele was detected. In sporadic patients a de novo deletion was found to be associated with the occurrence of FSHD. Diagnostically there were a number of problems to overcome. (1) About 5% of families show no linkage to chromosome 4q35. (2) Some 10% normal individuals show a shortened p13E11 allele, which is located at chromosome 10q. Our diagnostic strategy is as follows: If in sporadic patients a shortened p13E-11 allele is detected and neither parent shows this allele, then a de novo deletion has occurred and FSHD is proven. If no shortened allele is detected FSHD is less likely. In case one of the parents shows a shortened allele then clinical investigations and linkage studies are performed for both chromosome 4 and 10 markers. In familial cases both p13E-11 and polymorphic markers are tested. A shortened p13E-11 allele and/or chromosome 4 haplotype segregating with FSHD can be used for presymptomatic and prenatal diagnosis. Up to now, 45 sporadic cases and 21 families were referred for diagnosis. In 22 sporadic cases a shortened allele was detected, 13 were proven de novo. The first prenatal test was recently performed. The index patient was a de novo case with a shortened allele; the fetus had inherited this allele.

  14. Skin rejuvenation with non-invasive pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G; Watkins, Michael T; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  15. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  16. Non-invasive microsensors for studying cell/tissue physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Taguchi, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Burrs, S.; McLamore, E. S.

    2013-05-01

    Non-invasive tools that allow real-time quantification of molecules relevant to metabolism, homeostasis, and cell signaling in cells and tissue are of great importance for studying physiology. Several microsensor technologies have been developed to monitor concentration of molecules such as ions, oxygen, electroactive molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide), and biomolecules (e.g., sugars, hormones). The major challenges for microsensors are overcoming relatively low sensitivity and low signal-to-noise ratio. Modern approaches for enhancing microsensor performance focus on the incorporation of catalytic nanomaterials to increase sensitivity, reduce response time, and increase operating range. To improve signal-to-noise ratio, a non-invasive microsensor modality called self-referencing (SR) is being applied. The SR technique allows measurement of temporal and spatial transport dynamics at the cell, tissue, organ, and organismal level.

  17. Non-invasive and invasive imaging of vulnerable coronary plaque.

    PubMed

    Celeng, Csilla; Takx, Richard A P; Ferencik, Maros; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2016-08-01

    Vulnerable plaque is characterized by a large necrotic core and an overlying thin fibrous cap. Non-invasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for the assessment of morphological plaque characteristics, while positron emission tomography (PET) enables the detection of metabolic activity within the atherosclerotic lesions. Invasive imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical-coherence tomography (OCT), and intravascular MRI (IV-MRI) display plaques at a high spatial resolution. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for the detection of chemical components of atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we describe state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities and stress the combination of their advantages to identify vulnerable plaque features. PMID:27079893

  18. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  19. Non invasive ventilation as an additional tool for exercise training.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Cigni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of non invasive ventilation (NIV) to increase exercise capacity. In individuals with COPD, NIV during exercise reduces dyspnoea and increases exercise tolerance. Different modalities of mechanical ventilation have been used non-invasively as a tool to increase exercise tolerance in COPD, heart failure and lung and thoracic restrictive diseases. Inspiratory support provides symptomatic benefit by unloading the ventilatory muscles, whereas Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) counterbalances the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure in COPD patients. Severe stable COPD patients undergoing home nocturnal NIV and daytime exercise training showed some benefits. Furthermore, it has been reported that in chronic hypercapnic COPD under long-term ventilatory support, NIV can also be administered during walking. Despite these results, the role of NIV as a routine component of pulmonary rehabilitation is still to be defined. PMID:25874110

  20. Non-invasive optical detection of glucose in cell culture nutrient medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin the development of a non-invasive optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration in the output medium of cell cultures grown in a unique NASA bioreactor referred to as an integrated rotating-wall vessel (IRWV). The input, a bovine serum based nutrient media, has a known glucose concentration. The cells within the bioreactor digest a portion of the glucose. Thus, the non-invasive optical sensor is needed to monitor the decrease in glucose due to cellular consumption since the critical parameters for sustained cellular productivity are glucose and pH. Previous glucose sensing techniques have used chemical reactions to quantify the glucose concentration. Chemical reactions, however, cannot provide for continuous, real time, non-invasive measurement as is required in this application. Our effort while in the fellowship program was focused on the design, optical setup, and testing of one bench top prototype non-invasive optical sensor using a mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy technique. Glucose has a fundamental vibrational absorption peak in the mid-infrared wavelength range at 9.6 micron. Preliminary absorption data using a CO2 laser were collected at this wavelength for water based glucose solutions at different concentrations and one bovine serum based nutrient medium (GTSF) with added glucose. The results showed near linear absorption responses for the glucose-in-water data with resolutions as high at 108 mg/dl and as low as 10 mg/dl. The nutrient medium had a resolution of 291 mg/dl. The variability of the results was due mainly to thermal and polarization drifts of the laser while the decrease in sensitivity to glucose in the nutrient medium was expected due to the increase in the number of confounders present in the nutrient medium. A multispectral approach needs to be used to compensate for these confounders. The CO2 laser used for these studies was wavelength tunable (9.2 to 10.8 micrometers), however

  1. The circulating transcriptome as a source of non-invasive cancer biomarkers: concepts and controversies of non-coding and coding RNA in body fluids

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mercado, Marta; Manterola, Lorea; Larrea, Erika; Goicoechea, Ibai; Arestin, María; Armesto, María; Otaegui, David; Lawrie, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for cancer diagnosis remains the histological examination of affected tissue, obtained either by surgical excision, or radiologically guided biopsy. Such procedures however are expensive, not without risk to the patient, and require consistent evaluation by expert pathologists. Consequently, the search for non-invasive tools for the diagnosis and management of cancer has led to great interest in the field of circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum. An additional benefit of blood-based testing is the ability to carry out screening and repeat sampling on patients undergoing therapy, or monitoring disease progression allowing for the development of a personalized approach to cancer patient management. Despite having been discovered over 60 years ago, the clear clinical potential of circulating nucleic acids, with the notable exception of prenatal diagnostic testing, has yet to translate into the clinic. The recent discovery of non-coding (nc) RNA (in particular micro(mi)RNAs) in the blood has provided fresh impetuous for the field. In this review, we discuss the potential of the circulating transcriptome (coding and ncRNA), as novel cancer biomarkers, the controversy surrounding their origin and biology, and most importantly the hurdles that remain to be overcome if they are really to become part of future clinical practice. PMID:26119132

  2. Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: Evaluation of Two Enzyme Immunoassays, Testing Serum IgG and IgA Response in the Anand District of Central Gujarat,India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jagdish Shantilal; Agravat, Harihar Hardas; Singh, Navneet kumar Ramdayal

    2014-01-01

    Context: Validation of an accurate and less cumbersome noninvasive method to detect current Helicobacter pylori infection is a requisite for any laboratory. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to corroborate the usefulness of two commercially available kits NovaTec ELISA-A and ELISA-G, in the detection of ongoing H.pylori infection. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty eight consecutive serum samples of symptomatic patients who attended the endoscopy unit of “Deep” surgical hospital, Anand, which were collected during the period from 27th February 2008 to 31st august 2011, were studied. The sera were processed and tested for the detection of the H.pylori IgG and IgA antibody by using a solid phase; capture micro well ELISA, procured from Nova Tec immunodiagnostica GmbH Germany. Results: IgG ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and Negative predictive value (NPV), while IgA ELISA was better in terms of specificity (61.4%) and accuracy (63%) as compared to IgG ELISA. We found 7% (16/228) of IgA positive cases with IgG negative response. IgG response was more common in reflux esophagitis patients (OR 1.451, 95%CI-0.850-2.477) and then in gastritis (OR 0.962, 95%CI-0.570-1.621) and duodenitis(OR-0.806, 95%CI-0.112-5.827), while IgA positive response was more common in duodenitis patients (OR-1.383, 95%CI-0.191-9.995) and reflux esophagitis patients (OR 1.289, 95% CI-0.756-2.197) and least in duodenal ulcer patients (OR 0.670, 95%CI-0.222-2.029). Conclusion: IgG update is reliable and accurate test and can be expedient as a screening test and thus serve as an alternative to endoscopy. For the purpose of excluding infection with H.pylori, the performance of IgG is moderate (low specificity) but can be improved by conjunctional IgA testing which will offer some additional diagnostic value. PMID:25120979

  3. SQUID magnetometry applied as non-invasive electroanalytic chemical technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, B.D.; MacVicar, M.L.A. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a SQUID magnetometer, employed as a highly sensitive ammeter, used to perform standard electroanalytic chemical measurements non- invasively. Specifically, the magnetic fields generated by the net ionic movement in the solution of a driven electrochemical system is detected by the gradiometer coils. The SQUID signal can then be compared to conventional current measurements. One such standard measurement investigated is Cyclic Voltametry (CV) which determines the I-V characteristics of an electrochemical system yielding critical kinetic parameters.

  4. Cellular phone enabled non-invasive tissue classifier.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Shlomi; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Cellular phone technology is emerging as an important tool in the effort to provide advanced medical care to the majority of the world population currently without access to such care. In this study, we show that non-invasive electrical measurements and the use of classifier software can be combined with cellular phone technology to produce inexpensive tissue characterization. This concept was demonstrated by the use of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to distinguish through the cellular phone between heart and kidney tissue via the non-invasive multi-frequency electrical measurements acquired around the tissues. After the measurements were performed at a remote site, the raw data were transmitted through the cellular phone to a central computational site and the classifier was applied to the raw data. The results of the tissue analysis were returned to the remote data measurement site. The classifiers correctly determined the tissue type with a specificity of over 90%. When used for the detection of malignant tumors, classifiers can be designed to produce false positives in order to ensure that no tumors will be missed. This mode of operation has applications in remote non-invasive tissue diagnostics in situ in the body, in combination with medical imaging, as well as in remote diagnostics of biopsy samples in vitro. PMID:19365554

  5. [Introduction of noninvasive prenatal testing for fetal trisomies: preliminary results and consequences on invasive samplings].

    PubMed

    Van Wymersch, D; Gilson, G

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has marked a revolution in aneuploidy screening because it allows a simple maternal blood test to detect trisomy 21, 18 and 13 in a foetus with a very high level of accuracy. After one year of NIPT utilisation with 683 samples, we analyzed retrospectively the performance of the test for 2014 : 3 positive samples (2 trisomies 21 and 1 trisomy 18) were correctly detected (100% sensitivity) and no foetal aneuploidy was missed for the pregnancies having already resulted in delivery by decembre 2014 (280 true negatif, 100% specificity). However, the additionnally available analysis of the sex chromosomes resulted in 2 erronous results: 1 uncorrect sex determination (1 male resulting in a female phenotype at birth) and 1 result suggesting a Turner syndrome was not confirmed by amniocentesis. The failure rate leading to a resampling was at 1.46% (10/683). The test used was the NIFTY of the BGI laboratory in Hong-Kong. By comparison to the year 2013, the utilisation of NIPT lead to a significant diminution of invasive samples performed by amniocentesis or choriocentesis 144 vs. 239 (- 63%). We confirmed that NIPT is a high-performance tool for the screening of the main foetal aneuploidies and report that during its first year of utilisation, 63% of invasive samples collected could be avoided. The test is expensive, not reimboursed by Luxembourg social security and therefore prohibitive for a number of women and their families. PMID:26946853

  6. Estimating Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties From Non-Invasive Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Harry A.; Webster, Laurie

    1997-01-01

    An important component in developing countermeasures for maintaining musculoskeletal integrity during long-term space flight is an effective and meaningful method of monitoring skeletal condition. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an attractive non-invasive approach because it avoids the exposure to radiation associated with X-ray based imaging and also provides measures related to bone microstructure rather than just density. The purpose of the research for the 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship period was to extend the usefulness of the MRI data to estimate the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. The main mechanical properties of interest are the elastic modulus and ultimate strength. Correlations are being investigated between these and fractal analysis parameters, MRI relaxation times, apparent densities, and bone mineral densities. Bone specimens from both human and equine donors have been studied initially to ensure high-quality MR images. Specimens were prepared and scanned from human proximal tibia bones as well as the equine distal radius. The quality of the images from the human bone appeared compromised due to freezing artifact, so only equine bone was included in subsequent procedures since these specimens could be acquired and imaged fresh before being frozen. MRI scans were made spanning a 3.6 cm length on each of 5 equine distal radius specimens. The images were then sent to Dr. Raj Acharya of the State University of New York at Buffalo for fractal analysis. Each piece was cut into 3 slabs approximately 1.2 cm thick and high-resolution contact radiographs were made to provide images for comparing fractal analysis with MR images. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were also made of each slab for subsequent bone mineral density determination. Slabs were cut into cubes for mechanical using a slow-speed diamond blade wafering saw (Buehler Isomet). The dimensions and wet weights of each cube specimen were measured and recorded. Wet weights

  7. Comparing genetic counselor’s and patient’s perceptions of needs in prenatal chromosomal microarray testing

    PubMed Central

    Walser, Sarah A.; Kellom, Katherine S.; Palmer, Steven C.; Bernhardt, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) is poised to take a significant place in the prenatal setting given its increased yield over standard karyotyping, but concerns regarding ethical and counseling challenges remain, especially associated with the risk of uncertain and incidental findings. Guidelines recommend patients receiving prenatal screening undergo genetic counseling prior to testing, but little is known about women’s specific pre- and post-testing informational needs, as well as their preference for return of various types of results. METHODS The present study surveys 199 prenatal genetic counselors who have counseled patients undergoing CMA testing and 152 women who have undergone testing on the importance of understanding pre-test information, return of various types of results, and resources made available following an abnormal finding. RESULTS Counselors and patients agree on many aspects, although findings indicate patients consider all available information very important, while genetic counselors give more varying ratings. CONCLUSION Counseling sessions would benefit from information personalized to a patient’s particular needs and a shared decision-making model, so as to reduce informational overload and avoid unnecessary anxiety. Additionally, policies regarding the return of various types of results are needed. PMID:25995037

  8. Pre- and post-test genetic counseling for chromosomal and Mendelian disorders.

    PubMed

    Fonda Allen, Jill; Stoll, Katie; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2016-02-01

    Genetic carrier screening, prenatal screening for aneuploidy, and prenatal diagnostic testing have expanded dramatically over the past 2 decades. Driven in part by powerful market forces, new complex testing modalities have become available after limited clinical research. The responsibility for offering these tests lies primarily on the obstetrical care provider and has become more burdensome as the number of testing options expands. Genetic testing in pregnancy is optional, and decisions about undergoing tests, as well as follow-up testing, should be informed and based on individual patients' values and needs. Careful pre- and post-test counseling is central to supporting informed decision-making. This article explores three areas of technical expansion in genetic testing: expanded carrier screening, non-invasive prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies using cell-free DNA, and diagnostic testing using fetal chromosomal microarray testing, and provides insights aimed at enabling the obstetrical practitioner to better support patients considering these tests. PMID:26718445

  9. [Prenatal screening: the example of Down's syndrome screening].

    PubMed

    Donner, C; Daelemans, C; Ceysens, G

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal screening for Down's syndrome initially targeted high-risk pregnant women (> 35 years old). However, the vast majority of babies with Down's syndrome are born to younger women (as the majority of babies are born in this age category). It was first discovered that some serum analytes were altered in pregnancies affected with Down's syndrome (triple test). In the nineties, the association between an increased nuchal translucency measurement and trisomy 21 was noted. The use of this measurement in combination with serum markers has enabled an increased detection rate but still at the cost of a false positive rate of around five percent (combined test). Recently, major advances in sequencing technologies have allowed reasearchers to make use of the cell free fetal DNA in maternal blood. This new test (named non invasive prenatal test) made it into clinical use as early as 2011 in some countries. Its sensitivity is above 99 % for trisomy 21 and the false positive rate is very low. It is risk-free and much more accurate than previous approaches. It is largely favored over an invasive test by high risk women (advanced maternal age or high-risk combined test). Its use is still restricted by a high cost which is for the moment still entirely beared by the patient. The availability of NIPT in our routine practice and the increased complexity of screening options have highlighted the need for a more dedicated counselling consultation before Down's syndrome screening is performed. PMID:26591302

  10. Instrumentation for Non-Invasive Assessment of Cardiovascular Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    It is critically important to be able to assess alterations in cardiovascular regulation during and after space flight. We propose to develop an instrument for the non-invasive assessment of such alterations that can be used on the ground and potentially during space flight. This instrumentation would be used by the Cardiovascular Alterations Team at multiple sites for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system and the evaluation of countermeasures. In particular, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team will use this instrumentation in conjunction with ground-based human bed-rest studies and during application of acute stresses e.g., tilt, lower body negative pressure, and exercise. In future studies, the Cardiovascular Alterations Team anticipates using this instrumentation to study astronauts before and after space flight and ultimately, during space flight. The instrumentation may also be used by the Bone Demineralization/Calcium Metabolism Team, the Neurovestibular Team and the Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team to measure changes in autonomic nervous function. The instrumentation will be based on a powerful new technology - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - which has been developed in our laboratory. CSI provides a non-invasive approach for the study of alterations in cardiovascular regulation. This approach involves the analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in physiologic signals such as heart rate and non-invasively measured arterial blood pressure in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of multiple physiologic mechanisms, CSI provides a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject.

  11. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist. PMID:25686913

  12. Non-Invasive Optical Biosensor for Probing Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ye

    2007-01-01

    Cell signaling mediated through a cellular target is encoded by spatial and temporal dynamics of downstream signaling networks. The coupling of temporal dynamics with spatial gradients of signaling activities guides cellular responses upon stimulation. Monitoring the integration of cell signaling in real time, if realized, would provide a new dimension for understanding cell biology and physiology. Optical biosensors including resonant waveguide grating (RWG) biosensor manifest a physiologically relevant and integrated cellular response related to dynamic redistribution of cellular matters, thus providing a non-invasive means for cell signaling study. This paper reviews recent progresses in biosensor instrumentation, and theoretical considerations and potential applications of optical biosensors for whole cell sensing.

  13. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights.

  14. A simple highly efficient non invasive EMG-based HMI.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, N; Olcese, U; Oddo, C M; Carpaneto, J; Micera, S; Carrozza, M C; Dario, P

    2006-01-01

    Muscle activity recorded non-invasively is sufficient to control a mobile robot if it is used in combination with an algorithm for its asynchronous analysis. In this paper, we show that several subjects successfully can control the movements of a robot in a structured environment made up of six rooms by contracting two different muscles using a simple algorithm. After a small training period, subjects were able to control the robot with performances comparable to those achieved manually controlling the robot. PMID:17945773

  15. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  16. Comparison of Non-Invasive Methods for the Detection of Coronary Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bampi, Angela Bacelar Albuquerque; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Favarato, Desiderio; Lemos, Pedro Alves; da Luz, Protásio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive detection of atherosclerosis is critical for its prevention. Objective: To correlate non-invasively detectable indicators of coronary atherosclerosis, or Coronary Artery Disease (i.e., classical risk factors, hs-CRP test results, carotid intima-media thickness, endothelial function, ankle-brachial index and calcium score by computed tomography) with the extent of coronary disease assessed by the Friesinger index from conventional coronary angiography. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 100 consecutive patients, mean age 55.1 ± 10.7 years, 55% men and 45% women. Patients with acute coronary syndrome, renal dialytic insufficiency, collagen disease and cancer were not included. All patients were subjected to clinical evaluation and laboratory tests. Endothelial function of the brachial artery and carotid artery were evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound; ankle-brachial index and computed tomography for coronary determination of calcium score were also performed, and non-HDL cholesterol and TG/HDL-c ratio were calculated. All patients were subjected to coronary angiography at the request of the assistant physician. We considered patients without an obstructive lesion (< 29% stenosis) demonstrated by coronary angiography to be normal. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that calcium score, HDL-c, TG/HDL ratio and IMT were significantly correlated with the Friesinger index. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only calcium score and low HDL-c levels correlated significantly with the extension of CAD. On the other hand, hs-CRP, LDL-c, flow-mediated dilation, and Framingham score did not correlate with the Friesinger index. ROC analysis showed that calcium score, HDL-c and TG-HDL ratio accurately predicted extensive CAD in a statistically significant manner. CONCLUSION: It is possible to approximately determine the presence and extent of CAD by non-invasive methods, especially by calcium score, HDL-c and TG/HDL-c ratio assays

  17. New Advances of Preimplantation and Prenatal Genetic Screening and Noninvasive Testing as a Potential Predictor of Health Status of Babies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The current morphologically based selection of human embryos for transfer cannot detect chromosome aneuploidies. So far, only biopsy techniques have been able to screen for chromosomal aneuploidies in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) involves the biopsy of oocyte polar bodies or embryonic cells and has become a routine clinical procedure in many IVF clinics worldwide, including recent development of comprehensive chromosome screening of all 23 pairs of chromosomes by microarrays for aneuploidy screening. The routine preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND) require testing in an aggressive manner. These procedures may be invasive to the growing embryo and fetus and potentially could compromise the clinical outcome. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarize not only the new knowledge on preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis in humans, but also on the development of potential noninvasive embryo and fetal testing that might play an important role in the future. PMID:24783200

  18. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Novel Non-Invasive Tool to Assess Spiny Lobster Nutritional Condition.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cedric J; Rodemann, Thomas; Carter, Chris G

    2016-01-01

    Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92) abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM) and carbon content (AMC) correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78), total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87) and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively). Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN) was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively), and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively). NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field. PMID:27442242

  19. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Novel Non-Invasive Tool to Assess Spiny Lobster Nutritional Condition

    PubMed Central

    Rodemann, Thomas; Carter, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92) abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM) and carbon content (AMC) correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78), total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87) and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively). Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN) was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively), and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively). NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field. PMID:27442242

  20. Unexplained False Negative Results in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: Two Cases Involving Trisomies 13 and 18

    PubMed Central

    Hochstenbach, R.; Page-Christiaens, G. C. M. L.; van Oppen, A. C. C.; Lichtenbelt, K. D.; van Harssel, J. J. T.; Brouwer, T.; Manten, G. T. R.; van Zon, P.; Elferink, M.; Kusters, K.; Akkermans, O.; Ploos van Amstel, J. K.; Schuring-Blom, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) validation studies show high sensitivity and specificity for detection of trisomies 13, 18, and 21. False negative cases have rarely been reported. We describe a false negative case of trisomy 13 and another of trisomy 18 in which NIPT was commercially marketed directly to the clinician. Both cases came to our attention because a fetal anatomy scan at 20 weeks of gestation revealed multiple anomalies. Karyotyping of cultured amniocytes showed nonmosaic trisomies 13 and 18, respectively. Cytogenetic investigation of cytotrophoblast cells from multiple placental biopsies showed a low proportion of nontrisomic cells in each case, but this was considered too small for explaining the false negative NIPT result. The discordant results also could not be explained by early gestational age, elevated maternal weight, a vanishing twin, or suboptimal storage or transport of samples. The root cause of the discrepancies could, therefore, not be identified. The couples involved experienced difficulties in accepting the unexpected and late-adverse outcome of their pregnancy. We recommend that all parties involved in caring for couples who choose NIPT should collaborate to clarify false negative results in order to unravel possible biological causes and to improve the process of patient care from initial counseling to communication of the result. PMID:26137330

  1. Non-invasive methodology for diagnostics of bearing impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, John N.

    2007-04-01

    Various events in reciprocating machinery, such as connecting rod or piston movement, and diesel combustion produce a series of highly transient forces within the machine. These events generate force transients of short duration and broad frequency content. Even though these events may be part of a machine cycle and therefore periodic, it is often more appropriate to treat them on an individual basis because more diagnostics information is available from a single waveform during a cycle than from averages over several cycles. However, it is very rare for one to have direct access to source waveforms because of the expense and reliability problems associated with the required instrumentation, and non-invasive techniques will have to be used. This paper explores the use of cepstral smoothing and minimum phase extraction technique for non-invasive diagnostics of bearing impacts in reciprocating machinery. The methodology is based on extracting diagnostic signals from vibration measurements taken at a "convenient" location such as the crankshaft casing or bearing end-cap, and consists of source identification, diagnostic signature recovery, and diagnostic system decision-making. A dynamic simulation with lumped mass model is developed to analyze bearing impacts for the big end bearings, experimental measurements from accelerometers, transfer functions of vibration, and the structural response are presented.

  2. Diagnosis and therapies for gastric non-invasive neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great discrepancy of pathological diagnosis for gastric non-invasive neoplasia/dysplasia between Japanese and western pathologists. In Japan, lesions that most western pathologists diagnose as dysplasia are often considered adenocarcinoma based on nuclear and structural atypia regardless of the presence of invasion. In the Vienna classification, gastric non-invasive intraepithelial neoplasia (NIN) were divided into low grade and high grade (including intra-mucosal cancer of Japanese criteria). The diagnosis by both endoscopy and pathology of biopsy specimen is difficult. Recent advances of diagnostic modality such as magnified endoscopy and imaged enhanced endoscopy is expected to improve the diagnostic yield for NIN. There are two treatment strategies for NIN, observation and diagnostic therapy by endoscopic resection (ER). ER is acceptable because of its less invasiveness and high local control rate, on the other hand, cancer-developing rate of low-grade NIN is reported to be low. Therefore there is controversy for the treatment of gastric NIN. Prospective study based on unified pathological definition is required in the future. PMID:26640329

  3. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  4. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hideo; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Uematsu, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Katsumi; Inoue, Miyabi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect) caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1) and the sphincteric urethra (V2) were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1), calculated by Qmax/V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR), which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS) will dramatically expand the information on voiding function. PMID:19468440

  5. Modulation of Untruthful Responses with Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Shirley; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether non-invasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience), as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses). Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying non-invasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts. PMID:23550273

  6. Non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Yoav; Webb, Muriel; Cytter-Kuint, Ruth; Shteingart, Shimon; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation and follow up of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis have been traditionally performed by liver biopsy. However, during the last 20 years, it has become evident that this “gold-standard” is imperfect; even according to its proponents, it is only “the best” among available methods. Attempts at uncovering non-invasive diagnostic tools have yielded multiple scores, formulae, and imaging modalities. All are better tolerated, safer, more acceptable to the patient, and can be repeated essentially as often as required. Most are much less expensive than liver biopsy. Consequently, their use is growing, and in some countries the number of biopsies performed, at least for routine evaluation of hepatitis B and C, has declined sharply. However, the accuracy and diagnostic value of most, if not all, of these methods remains controversial. In this review for the practicing physician, we analyze established and novel biomarkers and physical techniques. We may be witnessing in recent years the beginning of the end of the first phase for the development of non-invasive markers. Early evidence suggests that they might be at least as good as liver biopsy. Novel experimental markers and imaging techniques could produce a dramatic change in diagnosis in the near future. PMID:26556987

  7. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs. PMID:26217455

  8. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Rosa; Buzzetti, Elena; Roccarina, Davide; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) consists of a broad spectrum of disorders, ranging from simple steatosis to alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Fatty liver develops in more than 90% of heavy drinkers, however only 30%-35% of them develop more advanced forms of ALD. Therefore, even if the current “gold standard” for the assessment of the stage of alcohol-related liver injury is histology, liver biopsy is not reasonable in all patients who present with ALD. Currently, although several non-invasive fibrosis markers have been suggested as alternatives to liver biopsy in patients with ALD, none has been sufficiently validated. As described in other liver disease, the diagnostic accuracy of such tests in ALD is acceptable for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis or cirrhosis but not for lesser fibrosis stages. Existing data suggest that the use of non-invasive tests could be tailored to first tier screening of patients at risk, in order to diagnose early patients with progressive liver disease and offer targeted interventions for the prevention of decompensation. We review these tests and critically appraise the existing evidence. PMID:26494961

  9. Non-Invasive Prediction of Histologic Chorioamnionitis in Women with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Ah; Lee, Seung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a model based on non-invasive clinical and ultrasonographic parameters for predicting the likelihood of subsequent histologic chorioamnionitis in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and to determine whether the inclusion of invasive test results improves the predictive value of the model. Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included 146 consecutive women presenting with PPROM (20–33 weeks). Transvaginal ultrasonographic assessment of cervical length was performed. Maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured after amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid (AF) obtained by amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and WBC counts were determined. The primary outcome measure was histologic chorioamnionitis. Results Risk scores based on serum CRP concentrations and gestational age (model 1) were calculated for each patient. The model was shown to have adequate goodness of fit and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.742. When including AF test results (e.g., AF IL-6 levels) in model 1, serum CRP concentrations were found to be insignificant, and thus, were excluded from model 2, comprising AF IL-6 levels and gestational age. No significant difference in AUC was found between models 1 and 2. Conclusion For women with PPROM, the newly developed model incorporating non-invasive parameters (serum CRP and gestational age) was moderately predictive of histologic chorioamnionitis. The inclusion of invasive test results added no predictive information to the model in this setting. PMID:26847301

  10. The Legal Past, Present and Future of Prenatal Genetic Testing: Professional Liability and Other Legal Challenges Affecting Patient Access to Services

    PubMed Central

    Pergament, Deborah; Ilijic, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of the current status of the law in the United States regarding prenatal genetic testing with an emphasis on issues related to professional liability and other challenges affecting patient access to prenatal genetic testing. The chapter discusses the roles that federal regulations, promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), play in the regulation of prenatal genetic tests. The chapter discusses tort litigation based on allegations of malpractice in the provision of prenatal genetic testing and how courts have analyzed issues related to causation, damages and mitigation of damages. The chapter provides reference information regarding how individual states address causes of action under the tort theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future legal issues that may affect clinical prenatal genetic testing services arising from the continued expansion of prenatal genetic testing, legal restrictions on access to abortion and the potential development of embryonic treatments. PMID:26237611

  11. The Legal Past, Present and Future of Prenatal Genetic Testing: Professional Liability and Other Legal Challenges Affecting Patient Access to Services.

    PubMed

    Pergament, Deborah; Ilijic, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of the current status of the law in the United States regarding prenatal genetic testing with an emphasis on issues related to professional liability and other challenges affecting patient access to prenatal genetic testing. The chapter discusses the roles that federal regulations, promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), play in the regulation of prenatal genetic tests. The chapter discusses tort litigation based on allegations of malpractice in the provision of prenatal genetic testing and how courts have analyzed issues related to causation, damages and mitigation of damages. The chapter provides reference information regarding how individual states address causes of action under the tort theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future legal issues that may affect clinical prenatal genetic testing services arising from the continued expansion of prenatal genetic testing, legal restrictions on access to abortion and the potential development of embryonic treatments. PMID:26237611

  12. Future Imaging Alternatives: The Clinical Non-invasive Modalities in Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Esam

    2015-01-01

    Background : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a remarkably high incidence worldwide, and a fairly serious prognosis. This is encouraging further research into advanced technologies for non-invasive methods of making early diagnoses, ideally in primary care settings. Method : In this article, the available objective Non-imaging methods for diagnosing OSCC have been reviewed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL have been searched for advanced technologies of non-invasive methods in diagnosis of OSCC, including oral brush biopsy, optical biopsy, saliva-based oral cancer diagnosis and others. Results : Toluidine blue, one of the oldest non-invasive methods for diagnosing OSCC, is unreliable because of its subjectivity, as it is dependent on the experience of the examiner. The diagnosis of Oral carcinoma by Oral brush biopsy with exfoliative cytology based on nano-bio-chip sensor platform shows 97–100% sensitivity and 86% specificity. Another promising non-invasive technique for OSCC diagnosis is saliva-based oral cancer diagnosis, which is an alternative to serum testing. Optical biopsy, which uses the technology of spectroscopy, can be used to detect changes at a sub-cellular level; thus, it provides information that may not be available with conventional histology with reliable sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion : It is clearly evident that screening and early effective detection of cancer and pre-cancerous lesions have the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The imaging technologies are subjective procedures since all of them require interpretation and significantly affected by the examiner experience. These make further research for advanced objective procedures. Saliva-based oral cancer diagnosis and optical biopsy are promising objective non-invasive methods for diagnosing OSCC. They are easy to perform clinically at primary care set. They show promising pathways for future development of more effective

  13. Urine Exosomes for Non-Invasive Assessment of Gene Expression and Mutations of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Neda; Salazar, Guillermo; Shapiro, Edan; Ahn, Jennifer; Lipsky, Michael; Lin, James; Hruby, Greg W.; Badani, Ketan K.; Petrylak, Daniel P.; Benson, Mitchell C.; Donovan, Michael J.; Comper, Wayne D.; McKiernan, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The analysis of exosome/microvesicle (extracellular vesicles (EVs)) and the RNA packaged within them (exoRNA) has the potential to provide a non-invasive platform to detect and monitor disease related gene expression potentially in lieu of more invasive procedures such as biopsy. However, few studies have tested the diagnostic potential of EV analysis in humans. Experimental Design The ability of EV analysis to accurately reflect prostate tissue mRNA expression was examined by comparing urinary EV TMPRSS2:ERG exoRNA from pre-radical prostatectomy (RP) patients versus corresponding RP tissue in 21 patients. To examine the differential expression of TMPRSS2:ERG across patient groups a random urine sample was taken without prostate massage from a cohort of 207 men including prostate biopsy negative (Bx Neg, n = 39), prostate biopsy positive (Bx Pos, n = 47), post-radical prostatectomy (post-RP, n = 37), un-biopsied healthy age-matched men (No Bx, n = 44), and young male controls (Cont, n = 40). The use of EVs was also examined as a potential platform to non-invasively differentiate Bx Pos versus Bx Neg patients via the detection of known prostate cancer genes TMPRSS2:ERG, BIRC5, ERG, PCA3 and TMPRSS2. Results In this technical pilot study urinary EVs had a sensitivity: 81% (13/16), specificity: 80% (4/5) and an overall accuracy: 81% (17/21) for non-invasive detection of TMPRSS2:ERG versus RP tissue. The rate of TMPRSS2:ERG exoRNA detection was found to increase with age and the expression level correlated with Bx Pos status. Receiver operator characteristic analyses demonstrated that various cancer-related genes could differentiate Bx Pos from Bx Neg patients using exoRNA isolated from urinary EVs: BIRC5 (AUC 0.674 (CI:0.560–0.788), ERG (AUC 0.785 (CI:0.680–0.890), PCA3 (AUC 0.681 (CI:0.567–0.795), TMPRSS2:ERG (AUC 0.744 (CI:0.600–0.888), and TMPRSS2 (AUC 0.637 (CI:0.519–0.754). Conclusion This pilot study suggests that urinary EVs have the potential

  14. Non-invasive health status detection system using Gabor filters based on facial block texture features.

    PubMed

    Shu, Ting; Zhang, Bob

    2015-04-01

    Blood tests allow doctors to check for certain diseases and conditions. However, using a syringe to extract the blood can be deemed invasive, slightly painful, and its analysis time consuming. In this paper, we propose a new non-invasive system to detect the health status (Healthy or Diseased) of an individual based on facial block texture features extracted using the Gabor filter. Our system first uses a non-invasive capture device to collect facial images. Next, four facial blocks are located on these images to represent them. Afterwards, each facial block is convolved with a Gabor filter bank to calculate its texture value. Classification is finally performed using K-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Machines via a Library for Support Vector Machines (with four kernel functions). The system was tested on a dataset consisting of 100 Healthy and 100 Diseased (with 13 forms of illnesses) samples. Experimental results show that the proposed system can detect the health status with an accuracy of 93 %, a sensitivity of 94 %, a specificity of 92 %, using a combination of the Gabor filters and facial blocks. PMID:25722202

  15. Congenital coronary artery anomalies silent until geriatric age: non-invasive assessment, angiography tips, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Dell'Avvocata, Fabio; Van Tan, Nguyen; Daggubati, Rames; Nanijundappa, Aravinda

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) may be discovered more often as incidental findings during the normal diagnostic process for other cardiac diseases or less frequently on the basis of manifestations of myocardial ischemia. The cardiovascular professional may be involved in their angiographic diagnosis, functional assessment and eventual endovascular treatment. A complete angiographic definition is mandatory in order to understand the functional effects and plan any intervention in CAAs: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful non-invasive tools to detect three-dimensional morphology of the anomalies and its relationships with contiguous cardiac structures, whereas coronary arteriography remains the gold standard for a definitive anatomic picture. A practical idea of the possible functional significance is mandatory for deciding how to manage CAAs: non-invasive stress tests and in particular the invasive pharmacological stress tests with or without intravascular ultrasound monitoring can assess correctly the functional significance of the most CAAs. Finally, the knowledge of the particular endovascular techniques and material is of paramount importance for achieving technical and clinical success. CAAs represent a complex issue, which rarely involve the cardiovascular professional at different levels. A timely practical knowledge of the main issues regarding CAAs is important in the management of such entities. PMID:25678906

  16. A servo-mechanical load frame for in situ, non-invasive, imaging of damage development

    SciTech Connect

    Breunig, T.M.; Nichols, M.C.; Gruver, J.S.; Kinney, J.H.; Haupt, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    The X-ray tomographic microscope (XTM) is a non-invasive X-ray imaging instrument for characterizing a material`s structure three-dimensionally with microscopic spatial resolution. The authors have designed a servomechanical load frame for use with the XTM which will allow imaging of samples under load. The load frame is capable of generating tensile or compressive forces up to 15.6 kN with a design system stiffness of 8.76 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m. The test specimen can be rotated through 360{degree}, without induced bending or torque. Torqueless motion is accomplished by synchronously rotating the grips on precision bearings with an accuracy of 0.01{degree}. With this load frame it will be possible, for the first time, to image the initiation and accumulation of internal damage (0.5 {mu}m detectability) formed in a 6 mm diameter specimen during the application of a monotonic or low frequency cyclic load. This is accomplished by interrupting the test and maintaining a fixed load (or displacement) during the non-invasive XTM data collection procedure. This paper describes the in situ load frame design and experimental capabilities. This system can be used to enhance the understanding of failure in composite materials.

  17. In vivo non-invasive multiphoton tomography of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Ehlers, Alexander; Le Harzic, Ronan

    2005-10-01

    High resolution non-invasive 3D imaging devices are required to detect pathogenic microorganisms such as Anthrax spores, bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical agents entering biological tissues such as the epidermis. Due to the low light penetration depth and the biodamage potential, ultraviolet light sources can not be employed to realize intratissue imaging of bio- and chemohazards. We report on the novel near infrared laser technology multiphoton tomography and the high resolution 4D imaging tool DermaInspect for non-invasive detection of intratissue agents and their influence on cellular metabolism based on multiphoton autofluorescence imaging (MAI) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Femtosecond laser pulses in the spectral range of 750 nm to 850 nm have been used to image in vivo human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. The non-linear induced autofluorescence of both, skin tissues and microorganisms, originates mainly from naturally endogenous fluorophores/protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, keratin, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and melanin. Bacteria emit in the blue/green spectral range due to NAD(P)H and flavoproteins and, in certain cases, in the red spectral range due to the biosynthesis of Zn-porphyrins, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin. Collagen and exogenous non-centrosymmetric molecules can be detected by SHG signals. The system DermaInspect consists of a wavelength-tunable compact 80/90 MHz Ti:sapphire laser, a scan module with galvo scan mirrors, piezo-driven objective, fast photon detector and time-resolved single photon counting unit. It can be used to perform optical sectioning and 3D autofluorescence lifetime imaging (τ-mapping) with 1 μm spatial resolution and 270 ps temporal resolution. The parameter fluorescence lifetime depends on the type of fluorophore and its microenvironment and can be used to distinguish bio- and chemohazards from cellular background and to gain information for pathogen

  18. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  19. Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatter, Cedric; Klein, Thomas; Grajciar, Branislav; Schmoll, Tilman; Wieser, Wolfgang; Andre, Raphael; Huber, Robert; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2012-07-01

    Retinal and choroidal vascular imaging is an important diagnostic benefit for ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The current gold standard for vessel visualization is fluorescence angiography. We present a potential non-invasive alternative to image blood vessels based on functional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). For OCT to compete with the field of view and resolution of angiography while maintaining motion artifacts to a minimum, ultrahigh-speed imaging has to be introduced. We employ Fourier domain mode locking swept source technology that offers high quality imaging at an A-scan rate of up to 1.68 MHz. We present retinal angiogram over ˜48 deg acquired in a few seconds in a single recording without the need of image stitching. OCT at 1060 nm allows for high penetration in the choroid and efficient separate characterization of the retinal and choroidal vascularization.

  20. Non-invasive imaging of microcirculation: a technology review

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Sam; Nilsson, Jan; Sturesson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Microcirculation plays a crucial role in physiological processes of tissue oxygenation and nutritional exchange. Measurement of microcirculation can be applied on many organs in various pathologies. In this paper we aim to review the technique of non-invasive methods for imaging of the microcirculation. Methods covered are: videomicroscopy techniques, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and laser speckle contrast imaging. Videomicroscopy techniques, such as orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and sidestream dark-field imaging, provide a plentitude of information and offer direct visualization of the microcirculation but have the major drawback that they may give pressure artifacts. Both laser Doppler perfusion imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging allow non-contact measurements but have the disadvantage of their sensitivity to motion artifacts and that they are confined to relative measurement comparisons. Ideal would be a non-contact videomicroscopy method with fully automatic analysis software. PMID:25525397

  1. [Non-invasive brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Gajo, Gianandrea; Pollak, Pierre; Lüscher, Christian; Benninger, David

    2015-04-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major socio-economic burden increasing with the aging population. In advanced PD, the emergence of symptoms refractory to conventional therapy poses a therapeutic challenge. The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD have raised interest in non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) as an alternative therapeutic tool. NIBS could offer an alternative approach for patients at risk who are excluded from surgery and/or to treat refractory symptoms. The treatment of the freezing of gait, a major cause of disability and falls in PD patients, could be enhanced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A therapeutic study is currently performed at the Department of Neurology at the CHUV. PMID:26062225

  2. [Elemental research on intelligent non-invasive temporary pacemakers].

    PubMed

    Nie, Bang-ji; Xu, Long; Xin, Xue-gang; Wang, Cheng-lai; Wu, Min-shan

    2005-01-01

    Some research on intelligent non-invasive temporary pacemakers is introduced in this paper. An industrial computer, some IC chips and other elements are used to construct its hardware, and its software is in C++ language. The experimental device has some intelligent functions of recognizing some arrhythmia. The system has a pacemaker module and an ECG monitor module. Its software includes a main program, a RS-232C communication program, a printer VxD, a pacing control VxD and ECG signal pretreatment and recognizing program and so on. The pacing-generating circuit is employed to make the precision control of pacing current. The communication between industrial-computer system and ECG module is completed through the DLL. The real time processing of ECG signals is based on filter method for a higher recognizing ratio. The system calculates several parameters to recognize certain arrhythmia and uses MIT/BIH database to validate the reliability of ECG recognition. PMID:15875682

  3. Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, Gary; Boas, David A.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews diffuse optical brain imaging, a technique that employs near-infrared light to non-invasively probe the brain for changes in parameters relating to brain function. We describe the general methodology, including types of measurements and instrumentation (including the tradeoffs inherent in the various instrument components), and the basic theory required to interpret the recorded data. A brief review of diffuse optical applications is included, with an emphasis on research that has been done with psychiatric populations. Finally, we discuss some practical issues and limitations that are relevant when conducting diffuse optical experiments. We find that, while diffuse optics can provide substantial advantages to the psychiatric researcher relative to the alternative brain imaging methods, the method remains substantially underutilized in this field.

  4. Non-invasive Respiratory Support and Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Rahul; Fisher, Marilyn; Cerone, Jennifer; Barry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe two premature infants who developed stage 3, zone I retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with plus disease in both eyes, despite limited exposure to supra-ambient oxygen. Both infants received noninvasive respiratory support for several weeks. Both cases are notable because the ROP was more posterior and aggressive than is typical for the gestational ages or birth weights. These cases are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the factors that cause ROP. Further investigation is required to determine if there is an association between the use of non-invasive respiratory support, even in the absence of supra-ambient oxygen, and severe ROP development. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e47-e50.]. PMID:27537495

  5. Eyeblink conditioning: a non-invasive biomarker for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-02-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition, abnormalities in the cerebellum, a region of the brain highly involved in EBC, have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the current paper, we review studies that have employed EBC as a biomarker for several neurodevelopmental disorders including fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, specific language impairment, and schizophrenia. In addition, we discuss the benefits of using such a tool in individuals with ASD. PMID:23942847

  6. Hybrid CARS for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Pestov, Dmitry; Zhang, Aihua; Murawski, Robert; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Laane, Jaan; Scully, Marlan

    2007-10-01

    We develop a spectroscopy technique that combines the advantages of both the frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the time-resolved CARS. We use broadband preparation pulses to get an instantaneous coherent excitation of multiplex molecular vibration levels and subsequent optically shaped time-delayed narrowband probing pulse to detect these vibrations. This technique can suppress the nonresonant background and retrieve the molecular fingerprint signal efficiently and rapidly. We employ this technique to glucose detection, the final goal of which is accurate, non-invasive (i.e. painless) and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration in the Diabetes diagnosis to replace the current glucose measurement process, which requires painful fingerpricks and therefore cannot be performed more than a few times a day. We have gotten the CARS spectra of glucose aqueous solution down to 2 mM.

  7. Non-invasive ventilation in exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Vagheggini, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the evidence and helped to define when and where non invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) should be the first line treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Noninvasive ventilation has its best indication in moderate-to-severe respiratory acidosis in patients with AECOPD. For this indication, studies conducted in ICU, in wards and in accident and emergency departments confirmed its effectiveness in preventing endotracheal intubation and reducing mortality. The skill of the health care team promotes proper NIV utilization and improves the patient outcome. Patients with severe acidosis or with altered levels of consciousness due to hypercapnic acute respiratory failure are exposed to high risk of NIV failure. In these patients a NIV trial may be attempted in closely monitored clinical settings where prompt endotracheal intubation may be assured. PMID:18268921

  8. Non-invasive Loading Model of Murine Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Poulet, Blandine

    2016-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is the commonest degenerative joint disease, leading to joint pain and disability. The mouse has been the primary animal used for research, due to its size, relatively short lifespan, and the availability of genetically modified animals. Importantly, they show pathogenesis similar to osteoarthritis in humans. Mechanical loading is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis, and various mouse models have been developed to study the role and effects of mechanics on health and disease in various joints. This review describes the main mouse models used to non-invasively apply mechanical loads on joints. Most of the mouse models of osteoarthritis target the knee, including repetitive loading and joint injury such as ligament rupture, but a few studies have also characterised models for elbow, temporomandibular joint, and whole-body vibration spinal loading. These models are a great opportunity to dissect the influences of various types of mechanical input on joint health and disease. PMID:27177901

  9. Non-invasive assessment of skeletal muscle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merletti, Roberto; Orizio, Claudio; di Prampero, Pietro E.; Tesch, Per

    2005-10-01

    After the first 3 years (2002-2005), the MAP project has made available: - systems fo electrodes, signal conditioning and digital processing for multichannel simultaneously-detected EMG and MMG as well as for simultaneous electrical stimulation and EMG detection with artifact cancellation. - innovative non-invasive techniques for the extraction of individual motor unit action potentials (MUAPS) and individual motor and MMG contributions from the surface EMG interference signal and the MMG signal. - processing techniques for extractions of indicators of progressive fatigue from the electrically-elicited (M-wave) EMG signal. - techniques for the analysis of dynamic multichannel EMG during cyclic or explosive exercise (in collaboration with project EXER/MAP-MED-027).

  10. Clinical non-invasive measurement of effective pulmonary capillary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Winter, S M

    1995-01-01

    Since traditional pulmonary function testing is centered on measurements of air flow and lung volume, a method to assess the pulmonary circulation might improve our ability to evaluate diseases that impact upon pulmonary hemodynamics. We have developed a PC based application that rapidly calculates pulmonary blood flow. Subjects rebreath a mixture of 10% argon and 3.5% freon for 20 seconds. Gas concentrations at the mouth are monitored by a clinical mass spectrometer and signals are acquired and processed with off-the-shelf hardware. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of this technique, patients with pulmonary artery catheters were assessed by standard thermodilution methods and the rebreathing test. Measurements using this non-invasive technology closely corelate with invasive thermodilution methods (r = 0.980) and show equivalent reproducibility (average standard error = 2.5%). This application of signal processing technology can extend the role of pulmonary function testing to include routine evaluation of the pulmonary circulation. PMID:8583166

  11. Prenatal testing: A method for early detection of genetic disorders among fetuses in Thailand, a data between the year 1990 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal screening is an effective way to prevent genetic disease in pediatric populations. The prenatal amniocentesis and chromosome study is a widely used screening test. Here, the author reports the data on this screening from Thailand as a national reference. The rate of detected disorders is equal to 3.88 percent and the most common disorder is Down syndrome. It can be seen that the implementation of screening can help successfully prevent a number of genetic disorders in Thai pediatric population.

  12. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  13. It Takes Two: Non Invasive Brain Stimulation Combined with Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephen J.; Cunningham, David A; Plow, Ela; Blazak, Brittani

    2015-01-01

    The goal of post-acute neurorehabilitation is to maximize patients' function, ideally by using surviving brain and central nervous system tissue when possible. Yet the structures incorporated into neurorehabilitative approaches often differ from this target, which may explain why efficacy of conventional clinical treatments targeting neurological impairments varies widely. Non-invasive brain stimulation such as with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) offers the possibility of directly targeting brain structures to facilitate or inhibit their activity so as to steer neural plasticity in recovery, and measure neuronal output and interactions for evaluating progress. Latest advances as stereotactic navigation and electric field modeling are enabling more precise targeting of patient's residual structures in diagnosis and therapy. Given its promise, this supplement illustrates the wide-ranging significance of TMS and tDCS in neurorehabilitation, including in stroke, pediatrics, traumatic brain injury, focal hand dystonia, neuropathic pain and spinal cord injury. TMS and tDCS are still not widely used and remain poorly understood in neurorehabilitation. Thus, the present supplement includes articles that highlight ready clinical application of these technologies, including their comparative diagnostic capabilities relative to neuroimaging, their therapeutic benefit, their optimal delivery, the stratification of likely responders, and the variable benefits associated with their clinical use due to interactions between pathophysiology and the innate reorganization of the patient's brain. Overall, the supplement concludes that whether provided in isolation or in combination, non-invasive brain stimulation with neuro-rehabilitation are synergistic in the potential to transform clinical practice. PMID:25813373

  14. Non-invasive assessment of microvascular and endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cynthia; Daskalakis, Constantine; Falkner, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    The authors have utilized capillaroscopy and forearm blood flow techniques to investigate the role of microvascular dysfunction in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive, relatively inexpensive methodology for directly visualizing the microcirculation. Percent capillary recruitment is assessed by dividing the increase in capillary density induced by postocclusive reactive hyperemia (postocclusive reactive hyperemia capillary density minus baseline capillary density), by the maximal capillary density (observed during passive venous occlusion). Percent perfused capillaries represents the proportion of all capillaries present that are perfused (functionally active), and is calculated by dividing postocclusive reactive hyperemia capillary density by the maximal capillary density. Both percent capillary recruitment and percent perfused capillaries reflect the number of functional capillaries. The forearm blood flow (FBF) technique provides accepted non-invasive measures of endothelial function: The ratio FBF(max)/FBF(base) is computed as an estimate of vasodilation, by dividing the mean of the four FBF(max) values by the mean of the four FBFbase values. Forearm vascular resistance at maximal vasodilation (FVR(max)) is calculated as the mean arterial pressure (MAP) divided by FBF(max). Both the capillaroscopy and forearm techniques are readily acceptable to patients and can be learned quickly. The microvascular and endothelial function measures obtained using the methodologies described in this paper may have future utility in clinical patient cardiovascular risk-reduction strategies. As we have published reports demonstrating that microvascular and endothelial dysfunction are found in initial stages of hypertension including prehypertension, microvascular and endothelial function measures may eventually aid in early identification, risk-stratification and prevention of end-stage vascular pathology, with its potentially fatal

  15. Non-invasive glucose determination in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Wolfgang; Meuer, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Kiefer, Wolfgang; Menzebach, Johannes-Ulrich; Schrader, Bernhard

    2005-02-01

    For non-invasive in vivo glucose determinations by means of near-infrared spectroscopy, the anterior chamber of the human eye is a promising site. An optical set-up for the non-invasive glucose determination in the human eye precisely in the anterior chamber with a beam reflected from the surface of the eye lens is presented here. As the anterior chamber has a depth of 3.13±0.50 mm, the beam follows an optical path of 5.3-7.3 mm depending on the angle of incidence, which is individually constant. We will show that it is possible to acquire good concentration predictions for physiological glucose concentrations with such a long optical path. A chemometric study of NIR glucose spectra with concentrations of glucose in water of 10-350 mg/dL (0.56-1.94 mmol/L) resulted in a calibration model which was able to predict physiological glucose concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction RMSEPTest=15.41 mg/dL. The Clarke error grid diagram shows that the model performs well according to medical impact. Using a first in vivo set-up, the precision is not sufficient for a reliable prediction of glucose concentration, especially due to the flickering of the patient's eye and the low reflectivity of the eye lens. Therefore, we have designed a new in vivo set-up: a prototype for a self-monitoring device with controlled geometry and laser radiation at several distinct wavelengths instead of the halogen lamp as light source. This allows a far higher signal/noise ratio under much better reproducible geometrical conditions and at the same time a much smaller necessary light flux.

  16. Novel non invasive diagnostic strategies in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    TRUTA, ANAMARIA; POPON, TUDOR ADRIAN HODOR; SARACI, GEORGE; GHERVAN, LIVIU; POP, IOAN VICTOR

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide, derived from the urothelium of the urinary bladder and defined by long asymptomatic and atypical clinical picture. Its complex etiopathogenesis is dependent on numerous risk factors that can be divided into three distinct categories: genetic and molecular abnormalities, chemical or environmental exposure and previous genitourinary disorders and family history of different malignancies. Various genetic polymorphisms and microRNA might represent useful diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Genetic and molecular abnormalities - risk factors are represented by miRNA or genetic polymorphisms proved to be part of bladder carcinogenesis such as: genetic mutations of oncogenes TP53, Ras, Rb1 or p21 oncoproteins, cyclin D or genetic polymorhisms of XPD,ERCC1, CYP1B1, NQO1C609T, MDM2SNP309, CHEK2, ERCC6, NRF2, NQO1Pro187Ser polymorphism and microRNA (miR-143, −145, −222, −210, −10b, 576-3p). The aim of our article is to highlight the most recent acquisitions via molecular biomarkers (miRNAs and genetic polymorphisms) involved in bladder cancer in order to provide early diagnosis, precise therapy according to the molecular profile of bladder tumors, as well as to improve clinical outcome, survival rates and life quality of oncological patients. These molecular biomarkers play a key role in bladder carcinogenesis, clinical evolution, prognosis and therapeutic response and explain the molecular mechanisms involved in bladder carcinogenesis; they can also be selected as therapeutic targets in developing novel therapeutic strategies in bladder malignancies. Moreover, the purpose in defining these molecular non invasive biomarkers is also to develop non invasive screening programs in bladder malignancies with the result of decreasing bladder cancer incidence in risk population. PMID:27152066

  17. Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Non-Invasive Diabetes Sensing Technologies.

    PubMed

    Makaram, Prashanth; Owens, Dawn; Aceros, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring is considered the gold standard for diabetes diagnostics and self-monitoring. However, the underlying process is invasive and highly uncomfortable for patients. Furthermore, the process must be completed several times a day to successfully manage the disease, which greatly contributes to the massive need for non-invasive monitoring options. Human serums, such as saliva, sweat, breath, urine and tears, contain traces of glucose and are easily accessible. Therefore, they allow minimal to non-invasive glucose monitoring, making them attractive alternatives to blood measurements. Numerous developments regarding noninvasive glucose detection techniques have taken place over the years, but recently, they have gained recognition as viable alternatives, due to the advent of nanotechnology-based sensors. Such sensors are optimal for testing the amount of glucose in serums other than blood thanks to their enhanced sensitivity and selectivity ranges, in addition to their size and compatibility with electronic circuitry. These nanotechnology approaches are rapidly evolving, and new techniques are constantly emerging. Hence, this manuscript aims to review current and future nanomaterial-based technologies utilizing saliva, sweat, breath and tears as a diagnostic medium for diabetes monitoring. PMID:26852676

  18. Non-invasive screening of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in children using a dipstick immunocapture assay.

    PubMed

    Rodinová, M; Trefilová, E; Honzík, T; Tesařová, M; Zeman, J; Hansíková, H

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CIV) deficiency is among the most common childhood mitochondrial disorders. The diagnosis of this deficiency is complex, and muscle biopsy is used as the gold standard of diagnosis. Our aim was to minimize the patient burden and to test the use of a dipstick immunocapture assay (DIA) to determine the amount of CIV in non-invasively obtained buccal epithelial cells. Buccal smears were obtained from five children with Leigh syndrome including three children exhibiting a previously confirmed CIV deficiency in muscle and fibroblasts and two children who were clinical suspects for CIV deficiency; the smear samples were analysed using CI and CIV human protein quantity dipstick assay kits. Samples from five children of similar age and five adults were used as controls. Analysis of the controls demonstrated that only samples of buccal cells that were frozen for a maximum of 4 h after collection provide accurate results. All three patients with confirmed CIV deficiency due to mutations in the SURF1 gene exhibited significantly lower amounts of CIV than the similarly aged controls; significantly lower amounts were also observed in two new patients, for whom later molecular analysis also confirmed pathologic mutations in the SURF1 gene. We conclude that DIA is a simple, fast and sensitive method for the determination of CIV in buccal cells and is suitable for the screening of CIV deficiency in non-invasively obtained material from children who are suspected of having mitochondrial disease. PMID:25629267

  19. Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Non-Invasive Diabetes Sensing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Makaram, Prashanth; Owens, Dawn; Aceros, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring is considered the gold standard for diabetes diagnostics and self-monitoring. However, the underlying process is invasive and highly uncomfortable for patients. Furthermore, the process must be completed several times a day to successfully manage the disease, which greatly contributes to the massive need for non-invasive monitoring options. Human serums, such as saliva, sweat, breath, urine and tears, contain traces of glucose and are easily accessible. Therefore, they allow minimal to non-invasive glucose monitoring, making them attractive alternatives to blood measurements. Numerous developments regarding noninvasive glucose detection techniques have taken place over the years, but recently, they have gained recognition as viable alternatives, due to the advent of nanotechnology-based sensors. Such sensors are optimal for testing the amount of glucose in serums other than blood thanks to their enhanced sensitivity and selectivity ranges, in addition to their size and compatibility with electronic circuitry. These nanotechnology approaches are rapidly evolving, and new techniques are constantly emerging. Hence, this manuscript aims to review current and future nanomaterial-based technologies utilizing saliva, sweat, breath and tears as a diagnostic medium for diabetes monitoring. PMID:26852676

  20. Quantitative non-invasive cell characterisation and discrimination based on multispectral autofluorescence features

    PubMed Central

    Gosnell, Martin E.; Anwer, Ayad G.; Mahbub, Saabah B.; Menon Perinchery, Sandeep; Inglis, David W.; Adhikary, Partho P.; Jazayeri, Jalal A.; Cahill, Michael A.; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol A.; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L.; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-01-01

    Automated and unbiased methods of non-invasive cell monitoring able to deal with complex biological heterogeneity are fundamentally important for biology and medicine. Label-free cell imaging provides information about endogenous autofluorescent metabolites, enzymes and cofactors in cells. However extracting high content information from autofluorescence imaging has been hitherto impossible. Here, we quantitatively characterise cell populations in different tissue types, live or fixed, by using novel image processing and a simple multispectral upgrade of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Our optimal discrimination approach enables statistical hypothesis testing and intuitive visualisations where previously undetectable differences become clearly apparent. Label-free classifications are validated by the analysis of Classification Determinant (CD) antigen expression. The versatility of our method is illustrated by detecting genetic mutations in cancer, non-invasive monitoring of CD90 expression, label-free tracking of stem cell differentiation, identifying stem cell subpopulations with varying functional characteristics, tissue diagnostics in diabetes, and assessing the condition of preimplantation embryos. PMID:27029742

  1. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Krishnamurthy, Durga; Stremnitzer, Caroline; Flaschberger, Ingo; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2016-01-01

    In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i) milk allergy, ii) peanut allergy and iii) egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour. PMID:26963393

  2. Non-Invasive Thrombolysis Using Pulsed Ultrasound Cavitation Therapy – Histotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Cain, Charles A.; Duryea, Alexander P.; Yuan, Lingqian; Gurm, Hitinder S.; Xu, Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Clinically available thrombolysis techniques are limited by either slow reperfusion (drugs) or invasiveness (catheters), and carry significant risks of bleeding. In this study, the feasibility of using histotripsy as an efficient and non-invasive thrombolysis technique was investigated. Histotripsy fractionates soft tissue through controlled cavitation using focused, short, high-intensity ultrasound pulses. In-vitro blood clots formed from fresh canine blood were treated by histotripsy. The treatment was applied using a focused 1-MHz transducer, with 5-cycle pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz. Acoustic pressures varying from 2 – 12 MPa peak negative pressure were tested. Our results show that histotripsy can perform effective thrombolysis with ultrasound energy alone. Histotripsy thrombolysis only occurred at peak negative pressure ≥6 MPa when initiation of a cavitating bubble cloud was detected using acoustic backscatter monitoring. Blood clots weighing 330 mg were completely broken down by histotripsy in 1.5 – 5 minutes. The clot was fractionated to debris with >96% weight smaller than 5 μm diameter. Histotripsy thrombolysis treatment remained effective under a fast, pulsating flow (a circulatory model) as well as in static saline. Additionally, we observed that fluid flow generated by a cavitation cloud can attract, trap, and further break down clot fragments. This phenomenon may provide a non-invasive method to filter and eliminate hazardous emboli during thrombolysis. PMID:19854563

  3. Electromyography data for non-invasive naturally-controlled robotic hand prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Castellini, Claudio; Caputo, Barbara; Hager, Anne-Gabrielle Mittaz; Elsig, Simone; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Bassetto, Franco; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in rehabilitation robotics suggest that it may be possible for hand-amputated subjects to recover at least a significant part of the lost hand functionality. The control of robotic prosthetic hands using non-invasive techniques is still a challenge in real life: myoelectric prostheses give limited control capabilities, the control is often unnatural and must be learned through long training times. Meanwhile, scientific literature results are promising but they are still far from fulfilling real-life needs. This work aims to close this gap by allowing worldwide research groups to develop and test movement recognition and force control algorithms on a benchmark scientific database. The database is targeted at studying the relationship between surface electromyography, hand kinematics and hand forces, with the final goal of developing non-invasive, naturally controlled, robotic hand prostheses. The validation section verifies that the data are similar to data acquired in real-life conditions, and that recognition of different hand tasks by applying state-of-the-art signal features and machine-learning algorithms is possible. PMID:25977804

  4. Development of a portable non-invasive swallowing and respiration assessment device.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Wang, Chin-Man; Chang, Chia-Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders. PMID:26024414

  5. Non-Invasive Gene Transfer by Iontophoresis for Therapy of an Inherited Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Souied, Eric H.; Reid, Silvia N. M.; Piri, Natik I.; Lerner, Leonid E.; Nusinowitz, Steven; Farber, Debora B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive research on many of the genes responsible for inherited retinal degenerations leading to blindness, no effective treatment is currently available for patients affected with these diseases. Among the therapeutic approaches tested on animal models of human retinal degeneration, gene therapy using different types of viral vectors as delivery agents has yielded promising results. We report here our results on a non-invasive, non-viral delivery approach using transscleral iontophoresis for transfer of plasmid DNA into mouse retina. Proof of principle experiments were carried out using plasmid containing GFP cDNA to demonstrate expression of the transferred gene in the retina after single applications of iontophoresis. Various parameters for multiple applications of iontophoresis were optimized to sustain GFP gene expression in mouse photoreceptors. Subsequently, repeated iontophoresis of plasmid containing normal β-phosphodiesterase (β-PDE) cDNA was performed in the rd1 mouse, an animal model of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa caused by a mutant β-PDE gene. In normal mice, transscleral iontophoresis of the GFP plasmid provided a significant increase in fluorescence of the retina in the treated versus non-treated eyes. In rd1 mice, repeated iontophoresis of β-PDE cDNA plasmid partially rescued photoreceptors morphologically, as observed by microscopy, and functionally, as recorded on ERG measurements, without adverse effects. Therefore, transscleral iontophoresis of plasmid DNA containing therapeutic genes may be an efficient, safe and non-invasive method for the treatment of retinal degenerations. PMID:18653181

  6. Quantitative non-invasive cell characterisation and discrimination based on multispectral autofluorescence features.

    PubMed

    Gosnell, Martin E; Anwer, Ayad G; Mahbub, Saabah B; Menon Perinchery, Sandeep; Inglis, David W; Adhikary, Partho P; Jazayeri, Jalal A; Cahill, Michael A; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol A; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L; Thompson, Jeremy G; Goldys, Ewa M

    2016-01-01

    Automated and unbiased methods of non-invasive cell monitoring able to deal with complex biological heterogeneity are fundamentally important for biology and medicine. Label-free cell imaging provides information about endogenous autofluorescent metabolites, enzymes and cofactors in cells. However extracting high content information from autofluorescence imaging has been hitherto impossible. Here, we quantitatively characterise cell populations in different tissue types, live or fixed, by using novel image processing and a simple multispectral upgrade of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Our optimal discrimination approach enables statistical hypothesis testing and intuitive visualisations where previously undetectable differences become clearly apparent. Label-free classifications are validated by the analysis of Classification Determinant (CD) antigen expression. The versatility of our method is illustrated by detecting genetic mutations in cancer, non-invasive monitoring of CD90 expression, label-free tracking of stem cell differentiation, identifying stem cell subpopulations with varying functional characteristics, tissue diagnostics in diabetes, and assessing the condition of preimplantation embryos. PMID:27029742

  7. Non-Invasive Health Diagnostics using Eye as a 'Window to the Body'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    As a 'window to the body', the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and help develop preventative/therapeutic countermeasures early. The effects of space travel on human body are similar to those of normal aging. For example, radiation exposure in space could lead to formation of cataracts and cancer by damaging the DNA and causing gene mutation. Additionally, the zero-gravity environment causes fluid shifts in the upper extremities of the body and changes the way blood flows and organ system performs. Here on Earth, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma are major eye diseases and are expected to double in next two decades. To detect, prevent, and treat untoward effects of prolonged space travel in real-time requires the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. We are developing fiber-optic sensors to evaluate the ocular tissues in health, aging, and disease employing the techniques of dynamic light scattering (cataract, uveitis, Alzheimer's, glaucoma, DR, radiation damage, refractive surgery outcomes), auto-fluorescence (aging, DR), laser-Doppler flowmetry (choroidal blood flow), Raman spectroscopy (AMD), polarimetry (diabetes), and retinal oximetry (occult blood loss). The non-invasive feature of these technologies integrated in a head-mounted/goggles-like device permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling evaluation of the results to therapy that may ultimately be useful in various telemedicine applications on Earth and in space.

  8. Development of a Portable Non-Invasive Swallowing and Respiration Assessment Device †

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Wang, Chin-Man; Chang, Chia-Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders. PMID:26024414

  9. Deconstructing autofluorescence: non-invasive detection and monitoring of biochemistry in cells and tissues (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldys, Ewa M.; Gosnell, Martin E.; Anwer, Ayad G.; Cassano, Juan C.; Sue, Carolyn M.; Mahbub, Saabah B.; Pernichery, Sandeep M.; Inglis, David W.; Adhikary, Partho P.; Jazayeri, Jalal A.; Cahill, Michael A.; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Sutton-Mcdowall, Melanie L.; Thompson, Jeremy G.

    2016-03-01

    Automated and unbiased methods of non-invasive cell monitoring able to deal with complex biological heterogeneity are fundamentally important for biology and medicine. Label-free cell imaging provides information about endogenous fluorescent metabolites, enzymes and cofactors in cells. However extracting high content information from imaging of native fluorescence has been hitherto impossible. Here, we quantitatively characterise cell populations in different tissue types, live or fixed, by using novel image processing and a simple multispectral upgrade of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Multispectral intrinsic fluorescence imaging was applied to patient olfactory neurosphere-derived cells, cell model of a human metabolic disease MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like syndrome). By using an endogenous source of contrast, subtle metabolic variations have been detected between living cells in their full morphological context which made it possible to distinguish healthy from diseased cells before and after therapy. Cellular maps of native fluorophores, flavins, bound and free NADH and retinoids unveiled subtle metabolic signatures and helped uncover significant cell subpopulations, in particular a subpopulation with compromised mitochondrial function. The versatility of our method is further illustrated by detecting genetic mutations in cancer, non-invasive monitoring of CD90 expression, label-free tracking of stem cell differentiation, identifying stem cell subpopulations with varying functional characteristics, tissue diagnostics in diabetes, and assessing the condition of preimplantation embryos. Our optimal discrimination approach enables statistical hypothesis testing and intuitive visualisations where previously undetectable differences become clearly apparent.

  10. Can Sibling Sex Ratios Be Used as a Valid Test for the Prenatal Androgen Hypothesis of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Susser, Ezra; Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sibling sex ratios have been applied as an indirect test of a hypothesized association between prenatal testosterone levels and risk for autism, a developmental disorder disproportionately affecting males. Differences in sibling sex ratios between those with and without autism would provide evidence of a shared risk factor for autism and offspring sex. Conclusions related to prenatal testosterone, however, require additional assumptions. Here, we used directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to clarify the elements required for a valid test of the hypothesis that sibling sex ratios differ between children with and without autism. We then conducted such a test using a large, population-based sample of children. Methods Over 1.1 million subjects, born in California from 1992–2007, and identified through birth records, were included. The association between autism diagnosis, determined using the administrative database of the California Department of Developmental Services, and the sex of the subsequent sibling was examined using generalized estimating equations. Sources of potential bias identified using DAGs were addressed. Results Among male children with autism, 52.2% of next-born siblings were brothers, versus 51.0% for unaffected males. For females with autism, 50.2% of following siblings were brothers versus 51.2% among control females. The relative risk of a subsequent male sibling associated with autism diagnosis was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.04). Conclusions In a large, population-based sample we failed to find evidence suggesting an excess of brothers among children with autism while controlling for several threats to validity. This test cannot rule out a role of any given exposure, including prenatal testosterone, in either risk of autism or offspring sex ratio, but suggests against a common cause of both. PMID:26495967

  11. [Opportunistic screening versus missed opportunities: non-adherence to Pap smear testing in women attending prenatal care].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luciane; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Vieira, Marcel de Toledo; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves

    2016-06-20

    The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of non-adherence to Pap smear testing in women attending prenatal care and to identify associated factors. This was a cross-sectional population-based study in 308 women from a rural municipality (county) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Complex stratified cluster sampling was used. Statistical analysis used the chi-square test and logistic regression model with the variables that presented p-value ≤ 0.05 in the bivariate model. Prevalence of lack of Pap smear test was 21.3%. Among women 25 years or older, prevalence was 15.1%. Non-adherence was more common in young, single women and those with low schooling. Low schooling remained associated with non-performance of Pap smear (OR = 0.41), indicating that women with more schooling enjoyed higher odds of testing. Contact with the prenatal clinic did not determine guaranteed access to the test, thus indicating missed opportunities when opportunistic screening is employed. PMID:27333137

  12. Historical and non-invasive samples: a study case of genotyping errors in newly isolated microsatellites for the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla L., Pilosa).

    PubMed

    Clozato, Camila L; Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Santos, Fabrício R; Morgante, João S

    2014-05-01

    Tamandua tetradactyla (Pilosa), the lesser anteater, is a medium-size mammal from South America. Its wide distribution through different landscapes, solitary and nocturnal habits, and the difficulty to capture and contain specimens limit the amount of individuals and populations sampled during fieldworks. These features along with the lack of specific molecular markers for the lesser anteater might be the causes for paucity in population genetic studies for the species. Historical samples from museum specimens, such as skins, and non-invasive samples, such as plucked hair, can be supplementary sources of DNA samples. However, the DNA quantity and quality of these samples may be limiting factors in molecular studies. In this study, we describe nine microsatellite loci for T. tetradactyla and test the amplification success, data reliability and estimate errors on both historical and non-invasive sample sets. We tested nine polymorphic microsatellites and applied the quality index approach to evaluate the relative performance in genotype analysis of 138 historical samples (study skin) and 19 non-invasive samples (plucked hair). The observed results show a much superior DNA quality of non-invasive over historical samples and support the quality index analysis as a practical tool to exclude samples with doubtful performance in genetic studies. We also found a relationship between the age of non-invasive samples and DNA quality, but lack of evidence of this pattern for historical samples. PMID:24345284

  13. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator.

  14. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  15. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis: Between prediction/prevention of outcomes and cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stasi, Cristina; Milani, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the fibrotic evolution of chronic hepatitis has always been a challenge for the clinical hepatologist. Over the past decade, various non-invasive methods have been proposed to detect the presence of fibrosis, including the elastometric measure of stiffness, panels of clinical and biochemical parameters, and combinations of both methods. The aim of this review is to analyse the most recent data on non-invasive techniques for the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis with particular attention to cost-effectiveness. We searched for relevant studies published in English using the PubMed database from 2009 to the present. A large number of studies have suggested that elastography and serum markers are useful techniques for diagnosing severe fibrosis and cirrhosis and for excluding significant fibrosis in hepatitis C virus patients. In addition, hepatic stiffness may also help to prognosticate treatment response to antiviral therapy. It has also been shown that magnetic resonance elastography has a high accuracy for staging and differentiating liver fibrosis. Finally, studies have shown that non-invasive methods are becoming increasingly precise in either positively identifying or excluding liver fibrosis, thus reducing the need for liver biopsy. However, both serum markers and transient elastography still have “grey area” values of lower accuracy. In this case, liver biopsy is still required to properly assess liver fibrosis. Recently, the guidelines produced by the World Health Organization have suggested that the AST-to-platelet ratio index or FIB-4 test could be utilised for the evaluation of liver fibrosis rather than other, more expensive non-invasive tests, such as elastography or FibroTest. PMID:26819535

  16. Non-invasive Optical Molecular Imaging for Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhen

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. Improved fundamental understanding of molecular processes and pathways resulting in cancer development has catalyzed a shift towards molecular analysis of cancer using imaging technologies. It is expected that the non-invasive or minimally invasive molecular imaging analysis of cancer can significantly aid in improving the early detection of cancer and will result in reduced mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. The central hypothesis of the proposed research is that non-invasive imaging of changes in metabolic activity of individual cells, and extracellular pH within a tissue will improve early stage detection of cancer. The specific goals of this research project were to: (a) develop novel optical imaging probes to image changes in choline metabolism and tissue pH as a function of progression of cancer using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (b) correlate changes in tissue extracellular pH and metabolic activity of tissues as a function of disease state using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (c) provide fundamental understanding of relationship between tumor hypoxia, acidification of the extracellular space and altered cellular metabolism with progression of cancer. Three novel molecular imaging probes were developed to detect changes in choline and glucose metabolism and extracellular pH in model systems and clinically isolated cells and biopsies. Glucose uptake and metabolism was measured using a fluorescence analog of glucose, 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose), while choline metabolism was measured using a click chemistry analog of choline, propargyl choline, which can be in-situ labeled with a fluorophore Alexa-488 azide via a click chemistry reaction. Extracellular pH in tissue were measured by Alexa-647 labeled pHLIP (pH low insertion peptide

  17. Monitoring the ingestion of anti-tuberculosis drugs by simple non-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Sirgel, F A; Maritz, J S; Venter, A; Langdon, G; Smith, P J; Donald, P R

    2006-01-13

    This investigation retrospectively assessed inexpensive non-invasive qualitative methods to monitor the ingestion of anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and rifapentine. Results showed that commercial test strips detected the isoniazid metabolites isonicotinic acid and isonicotinylglycine as efficiently as the isonicotinic acid method in 150 urine samples. The presence of rifamycins in urine samples (n=1085) was detected by microbiological assay techniques and the sensitivity compared to the n-butanol extraction colour test in 91 of these specimens. The proportions detected by the two methods were significantly different and the sensitivity of the n-butanol procedure was only 63.8% (95% CL 51.2-76.4%) as compared to that of the superior microbiological method. Final validation (n=691) showed that qualitative assays measure isoniazid and rifamycin ingestion with an efficiency similar to high-performance liquid chromatography. The qualitative procedures may therefore be valuable in clinical trials and in tuberculosis clinics to confirm drug ingestion. PMID:16303269

  18. Simple non-invasive analysis of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes beating in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radaszkiewicz, Katarzyna Anna; Sýkorová, Dominika; Karas, Pavel; Kudová, Jana; Kohút, Lukáš; Binó, Lucia; Večeřa, Josef; Víteček, Jan; Kubala, Lukáš; Pacherník, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of digital video output enables the non-invasive screening of various active biological processes. For the monitoring and computing of the beating parameters of cardiomyocytes in vitro, CB Analyser (cardiomyocyte beating analyser) software was developed. This software is based on image analysis of the video recording of beating cardiomyocytes. CB Analyser was tested using cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells at different stages of cardiomyogenesis. We observed that during differentiation (from day 18), the beat peak width decreased, which corresponded to the increased speed of an individual pulse. However, the beating frequency did not change. Further, the effects of epinephrine modulating mature cardiomyocyte functions were tested to validate the CB Analyser analysis. In conclusion, data show that CB Analyser is a useful tool for evaluating the functions of both developing and mature cardiomyocytes under various conditions in vitro.

  19. A novel magnetic plethysmograph for non-invasive evaluation of arterial compliance.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Anand; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of arterial compliance by measurement of Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) has proven utility in cardiovascular screening. We present the design of a novel Magnetic PlethysmoGraph (MPG) for non-invasive estimation of PWV. The system uses a Giant Magneto Resistance (GMR) sensor to detect the fluctuations caused by blood flow in an ambient magnetic field encompassing the blood vessel. The design of an Electro Magnet (EM) based MPG transducer is presented. The ability of the proposed transducer to detect the blood pulse waveform is verified by in-vivo tests and an occlusion test. The design is further validated by demonstrating in-vivo measurements of carotid to radial artery PWV. The design of a dual element transducer for evaluation of local PWV is also presented. The proposed dual element plethysmograph is capable of measuring PWV over sections of the arterial tree as small as 15 mm. PMID:23366105

  20. Speckle contrast optical spectroscopy, a non-invasive, diffuse optical method for measuring microvascular blood flow in tissue

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Claudia P.; Varma, Hari M.; Kristoffersen, Anna K.; Dragojevic, Tanja; Culver, Joseph P.; Durduran, Turgut

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new, non-invasive, diffuse optical technique, speckle contrast optical spectroscopy (SCOS), for probing deep tissue blood flow using the statistical properties of laser speckle contrast and the photon diffusion model for a point source. The feasibility of the method is tested using liquid phantoms which demonstrate that SCOS is capable of measuring the dynamic properties of turbid media non-invasively. We further present an in vivo measurement in a human forearm muscle using SCOS in two modalities: one with the dependence of the speckle contrast on the source-detector separation and another on the exposure time. In doing so, we also introduce crucial corrections to the speckle contrast that account for the variance of the shot and sensor dark noises. PMID:25136500

  1. Evaluation of an Improved Non-invasive Fetal Sex Determination in Haemophilia A Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mokari-Zadeh, Narmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Haemophilia A (HA) is the most severe sex-linked bleeding disorder that is characterized with non-controlled and often threatening Haemorrhage. Routine fetal sex determination in early pregnancy with Haemophilia is based on invasive procedures that can be dangerous to the mother and fetus. Aim The goal of this study is to present an improved assay for the non-invasive fetal sex determination using a Real-Time duplex PCR on the free fetal DNA (ffDNA) obtained from the maternal serum of the HA carriers. Materials and Methods Blood samples were eventually collected from 23 pregnant HA carriers between the 8th and 12th weeks of gestation, and after amplification by duplex-PCR of the single copy of Y chromosome-specific sequence (SRY), the product was then subjected to Real-Time PCR analysis. Results Data were compared with the outcome of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and indicated that the SRY sequence was detected in 6 of 6 serum samples from male pregnancies and that sequence was absent in 9 samples where the fetus was female. The remaining samples determined without having the CVS positive samples. Conclusion We tried to develop a Real-Time duplex PCR for accurate diagnosis of fetal gender early in the pregnancy of HA carriers. This study has brought up two remarkable points, the first is the method’s improvement with high specificity in sex determination, especially in screening of prenatal sex-linked disorders in male gender and the second is that fresh serum samples would be a good source for this purpose, advocated by similar studies carried out in this regard. PMID:26393142

  2. [Scientific and practical aspects of prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Baranov, V S

    2003-01-01

    Prenatal diagnostics (PD) is a relatively new branch of medical genetics enjoining presently a rapid practical and scientific progress. The key practical issues related with detecting the pregnant women at high risk of fetal congenital and inherited pathologies have already been solved, and a variety of fetal examinations by non-invasive (ultrasound) and invasive (cytogenetics, biochemistry and molecular tests) methods have been elaborated. Their practical application are totally dependant on the managerial and financial input in the discussed field of medicine. Further advancement in PD are tensely associated with early pregnancy stages (trimester 1), with the molecular diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of chromosomal diseases and with a comprehensive use of Pregnancy Genetic Form worked out and used already at our institute. DP opens up the promising opportunities for analyzing the human genome activity at the initial development stages, which comprises the revision of previously-obtained data on the cytogenetics of human embryo evolution, human chromosomes' functioning and of temporary embryonic organs as observed during the mentioned stages; it also comprises an analysis and application of umbilical and embryonic cells (embryonic cell therapy) and elaboration of scientific fundamentals for embryonic gene therapy. PD should not be referred to only as a set of diagnostic methods for it is also a good starting-ground for research of human embryo-genesis. PMID:14598504

  3. Noninvasive prenatal testing creates an opportunity for antenatal treatment of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guedj, Faycal; Bianchi, Diana W

    2013-06-01

    Trisomy 21 (T21) is the most common autosomal aneuploidy that is associated with intellectual disability. It is the focus of many prenatal screening programs across the globe. Pregnant women who receive a prenatal diagnosis of T21 in their fetus currently have the option of continuing or terminating their pregnancy, but no fetal treatment is available. In this paper, we review compelling morphogenetic, cellular, and molecular studies that, taken together, suggest that there is an important window of opportunity during fetal life to positively impact brain development to improve postnatal neurocognition and behavior. Although substantial progress has been made in understanding the basic neurobiology of Down syndrome (DS), the majority of pre-clinical trials is currently focused on adults. There are a number of challenges in the identification and development of novel antenatal therapies for DS, including the lack of toxicity and teratogenicity for the pregnant woman and the fetus, evidence that the compounds can cross the placenta and achieve therapeutic levels, and the demonstration of clinical improvement. Preliminary experiments in mouse models suggest that prenatal treatment of DS is an achievable goal. PMID:23595836

  4. Prenatal hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Fefer, Sergio; Ellsworth, Pamela

    2006-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is the most common genitourinary tract anomaly identified on prenatal ultrasound studies. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction accounts for approximately 50% of the cases of prenatally detected hydronephrosis. Postnatal evaluation allows for the identification of the cause and further management. Rarely, in utero intervention may be performed for severe oligohydramnios associated with hydronephrosis. Prenatal consultation with a pediatric urologist is useful in decreasing parental anxiety and facilitating postnatal management. PMID:16716789

  5. Noninvasive prenatal testing in the general obstetric population: clinical performance and counseling considerations in over 85 000 cases†

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Holly L.; de Feo, Eileen; Kruglyak, Kristina M.; Halks‐Miller, Meredith; Curnow, Kirsten J.; Bhatt, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The primary goal of this study was to provide clinically relevant information for appropriate patient counseling. Method Demographics and test metrics were reviewed for 86 658 clinical cases. Outcome information was requested for samples reported as aneuploidy detected or suspected for chromosomes 21, 18, or 13; voluntary outcome reporting was encouraged for all discordant outcomes. Results Of 86 658 cases, 85 298 (98.4%) met inclusion criteria for result reporting. Of the 1360 (1.6%) cancellations, only 101 (0.1%) were for technical reasons. Average time to result was 3.3 business days. Aneuploidy was detected or suspected in 2142 (2.5%) samples. For aneuploidy detected cases with known clinical outcomes, the overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 83.5% (608/728); observed PPVs for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 ranged from 50.0 to 92.8%. As individual PPVs are determined by a patient's prior risk, we developed a chart for counseling patients on positive predictive value based on maternal age. Conclusion This large‐scale report reinforces that noninvasive prenatal testing is a highly accurate screen for fetal aneuploidy in the general obstetric population. Test improvements have facilitated a reduction in failure rates, time to result, and borderline results/unclassifiable results. We have developed a positive predictive value counseling tool to ensure appropriate patient education, counseling, and clinical utilization. © 2015 Illumina. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26715197

  6. Non-invasive experimental determination of a CT source model.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Babak; Büermann, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive methods to determine equivalent X-ray source models of a CT scanner are presented. A high-precision technique called TRIC ("Time Resolved Integrated Charge") was developed and used to characterize the bow tie filters (BT) of the CT scanner installed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Aluminum (Al) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) equivalent thicknesses of the BT filters at all tube high voltages were evaluated, assuming that those consist of only one material. Thereby two different dose probes were used, a solid state detector and an ionization chamber, the former characterized by a significant and the latter by an almost negligible energy dependence of the air kerma response. A method was developed to correct for the energy dependence of the solid state dose probe. Next, a two-component material was assumed and equivalent BT filters were evaluated. The latter method was also applied using the known real BT filter materials and compared with the shape of the real BT filters. Finally, the results obtained by the TRIC method were compared with those obtained by using the so-called COBRA method ("Characterization Of Bow tie Relative Attenuation"), the latter being more suitable for measurements in a clinical environment. PMID:26602858

  7. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to. PMID:26834603

  8. Non-invasive Renal Denervation: Update on External Ultrasound Approaches.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Ott, Christian; Bramlage, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, intravenous renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as an alternative to pharmacological treatment in patients with resistant hypertension, but currently involves an invasive and technically challenging procedure. The Surround Sound™ system utilises externally delivered ultrasound to achieve RDN using a completely non-invasive, automated real-time tracking system coupled with a therapeutic delivery module thereby addressing these limitations. A brief history, technical overview and summary of preclinical and clinical studies of the KonaMedical Surround Sound™ system are presented. A literature search using the terms "renal denervation", "resistant hypertension" and "external ultrasound" was performed using PubMed, and references retrieved were selected based on relevancy and year of publication (date range 1991-2015). The Surround Sound™ system appears to be a promising approach to RDN which eliminates several of the factors currently limiting the intravenous approach. So far, it has demonstrated efficacy for reducing blood pressure in resistant hypertension patients with minimal adverse effects. Several double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trials are currently underway to confirm the validity of these findings. PMID:27137523

  9. Non-Invasive Gait Monitoring in a Ubiquitous Computing House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Yuji; Motooka, Nobuhisa; Siio, Itiro; Tsukada, Koji; Kambara, Keisuke

    Computers become smaller and cheaper from day to day, and the utilization, as daily life equipments, is now becoming ubiquitous. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the development of applications, as well as the installation of ubiquitous computing technologies into our daily living environments. Based on this idea, in order to investigate how ubiquitous computing can be used in the most efficient way, an experimental house, Ocha House, has been constructed in the campus of Ochanomizu university in 2009. In this study, we described the feature of the design of the experimental house and proposed a non-invasive gait monitoring technique as a healthcare application. Specifically, five wireless accelerometers were fixed on the floor of the house, and the floor vibration was measured when the subject walked along the accelerometers. As a result, the floor acceleration intensity was found to surge at the ground contact, and the gait cycle could be detected. By combining the simple acceleration sensors and the housing structures, human motion monitoring would become less invasive.

  10. Non-Invasive Measurement of Intracranial Pressure Pulsation using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, R. E.; Yost, W. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity causes a cephalad fluid shift which may elevate intracranial pressure (ICP). Elevation in ICP may affect cerebral hemodynamics in astronauts during space flight. ICP is, however, a difficult parameter to measure due to the invasiveness of currently available techniques. We already reported our development of a non-invasive ultrasound device for measurement of ICP. We recently modified the device so that we might reproducibly estimate ICP changes in association with cardiac cycles. In the first experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance with the ultrasound device in cadavera while changing ICP by infusing saline into the lateral ventricle. In the second experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance in five healthy volunteers while placing them in 60 deg, 30 deg head-up tilt, supine, and 10 deg head-down tilt position. In the cadaver study, fast Fourier transformation revealed that cranial pulsation is clearly associated with ICP pulsation. The ratio of cranial distance and ICP pulsation is 1.3microns/mmHg. In the tilting study, the magnitudes of cranial pulsation are linearly correlated to tilt angles (r=0.87). The ultrasound device has sufficient sensitivity to detect cranial pulsation in association with cardiac cycles. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsation, estimates of ICP during space flight are possible.

  11. Invasive and non-invasive modalities of imaging carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, T Y; U-King-Im, J M; Walsh, S R; Young, V E; Sadat, U; Li, Z Y; Patterson, A J; Varty, K; Gillard, J H

    2009-12-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, acute ischemic complications of atherosclerosis remain the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries, with carotid atherosclerotic disease one of the major preventable causes of stroke. As the impact of this disease challenges our healthcare systems, we are becoming aware that factors influencing this disease are more complex than previously realized. In current clinical practice, risk stratification relies primarily on evaluation of the degree of luminal stenosis and patient symptomatology. Adequate investigation and optimal imaging are important factors that affect the quality of a carotid endarterectomy (CEA) service and are fundamental to patient selection. Digital subtraction angiography is still perceived as the most accurate imaging modality for carotid stenosis and historically has been the cornerstone of most of the major CEA trials but concerns regarding potential neurological complications have generated substantial interest in non-invasive modalities, such as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. The purpose of this review is to give an overview to the vascular specialist of the current imaging modalities in clinical practice to identify patients with carotid stenosis. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique are outlined. Finally, limitations of assessing luminal stenosis in general are discussed. This article will not cover imaging of carotid atheroma morphology, function and other emerging imaging modalities of assessing plaque risk, which look beyond simple luminal measurements. PMID:19935602

  12. Non invasive tools for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Cervello, Melchiorre; Licata, Anna; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition, leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favour the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Defining the phase of the natural history is crucial for therapeutic choice and prognosis. Liver biopsy is currently considered the best available standard of reference but it has some limits, so alternative tools have been developed to substitute liver biopsy when assessing liver fibrosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound (US), US Doppler, contrast enhanced US and Elastography. US could be used for the diagnosis of advanced LC while is not able to evaluate progression of fibrosis, in this case Elastography is more reliable. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about non invasive methods useful in defining liver fibrosis. PMID:25561782

  13. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  14. Non-invasive biosensor and wilreless interrogating system for hypoglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Saukesi, K.

    2002-11-01

    Hypoglycemia - abnormal decrease in blood sugar - is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chiralit of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin.It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or laptop computer.

  15. Facilitate Insight by Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Richard P.; Snyder, Allan W.

    2011-01-01

    Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL). Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control), whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011) with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability) of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability) of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement. PMID:21311746

  16. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to. PMID:26834603

  17. A non-invasive method of tendon force measurement.

    PubMed

    Pourcelot, Philippe; Defontaine, Marielle; Ravary, Bérangère; Lemâtre, Mickaël; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2005-10-01

    The ability to measure the forces exerted in vivo on tendons and, consequently, the forces produced by muscles on tendons, offers a unique opportunity to investigate questions in disciplines as varied as physiology, biomechanics, orthopaedics and neuroscience. Until now, tendon loads could be assessed directly only by means of invasive sensors implanted within or attached to these collagenous structures. This study shows that the forces acting on tendons can be measured, in a non-invasive way, from the analysis of the propagation of an acoustic wave. Using the equine superficial digital flexor tendon as a model, it is demonstrated that the velocity of an ultrasonic wave propagating along the main axis of a tendon increases with the force applied to this tendon. Furthermore, we show that this velocity measurement can be performed even in the presence of skin overlying the tendon. To validate this measurement technique in vivo, the ultrasonic velocity plots obtained in the Achilles tendon at the walk were compared to the loads plots reported by other authors using invasive transducers. PMID:16084214

  18. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  19. Non-invasive fecal metabonomic detection of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Lee Cheng; Chue, Xiu Ping; Koh, Poh Koon; Cheah, Peh Yean; Ho, Han Kiat; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality in many developed countries. Effective screening strategies were called for to facilitate timely detection and to promote a better clinical outcome. In this study, the role of fecal metabonomics in the non-invasive detection of CRC was investigated. Gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS) was utilized for the metabolic profiling of feces obtained from 11 CRC patients and 10 healthy subjects. Concurrently, matched tumor and normal mucosae surgically excised from CRC patients were profiled. CRC patients were differentiated clearly from healthy subjects based on their fecal metabonomic profiles (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis [OPLS-DA], 1 predictive and 3 Y-orthogonal components, R2X = 0.373, R2Y = 0.995, Q2 [cumulative] = 0.215). The robustness of the OPLS-DA model was demonstrated by an area of 1 under the receiver operator characteristic curve. OPLS-DA revealed fecal marker metabolites (e.g., fructose, linoleic acid, and nicotinic acid) that provided novel insights into the tumorigenesis of CRC. Interestingly, a disparate set of CRC-related metabolic aberrations occurred at the tissue level, implying the contribution of processes beyond the direct shedding of tumor cells to the fecal metabotype. In summary, this work established proof-of-principle for GC/TOFMS-based fecal metabonomic detection of CRC and offered new perspectives on the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24424155

  20. Non-invasive instant genotyping of fluorescently labelled transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fink, Dieter; Yau, Tien Yin; Kolbe, Thomas; Rülicke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence proteins have been useful as genetic reporters for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and are frequently used for the analysis of transgene activity. Here, we show that expression levels of the ubiquitously expressed fluorescent proteins eGFP, mCherry, and tdTomato can be measured in transgenic mouse lines with random or targeted integrations. We identified the tail of the mouse as the tissue best suited for quantifying fluorescence intensity and show that expression levels in the tail correlate with gene dose. This allows for instant non-invasive determination of the genetic condition at the transgenic locus (hemizygous/heterozygous and homozygous), while simultaneously providing an objective comparison for transgene expression levels among different mouse lines. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that the gene dose of a ubiquitously expressed fluorescence reporter can be reliably quantified and directly linked to the genotype of transgenic mice. Based on this information, animals with the appropriate genotype can be instantly selected without laborious analysis for establishing and breeding of new transgenic lines, reducing the number of "waste" animals. Furthermore, no tissue sampling is necessary, which is a significant refinement of genotyping procedures. Both aspects are important improvements for the genotyping of transgenic mice that follow the principles of the 3 Rs (reduction and refinement). PMID:25981046

  1. Use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate non-invasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    DeMuro, Jonas P; Mongelli, Michael N; Hanna, Adel F

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure exacerbations, as well as pneumonia benefit from the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), due to increased patient comfort and a reduced incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, some patients do not tolerate NIV due to anxiety or agitation, and traditionally physicians have withheld sedation from these patients due to concerns of loss of airway protection and respiratory depression. We report our recent experience with a 91-year-old female who received NIV for acute respiratory distress secondary to pneumonia. The duration of NIV was a total time period of 86 h, using the bilevel positive airway pressure mode via a full face mask. The patient was initially agitated with the NIV, but with the addition of the dexmedetomidine, she tolerated it well. The dexmedetomidine was administered without a loading dose, as a continuous infusion ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mcg/kg/hr, titrated to a Ramsey score of three. This case illustrates the safe use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate NIV, and improve compliance, which may reduce ICU length of stay. PMID:24459626

  2. Novel non-invasive protein and peptide drug delivery approaches.

    PubMed

    Wallis, L; Kleynhans, E; Toit, T Du; Gouws, C; Steyn, D; Steenekamp, J; Viljoen, J; Hamman, J

    2014-01-01

    Protein and peptide based therapeutics are typically administered by injection due to their poor uptake when administered via enteral routes of drug administration. Unfortunately, chronic administration of these drugs through multiple injections presents certain patient related problems and it is difficult to mimic the normal physiological release patterns via this mode of drug administration. A need therefore exists to non-invasively deliver these drugs by means of alternative ways such as via the oral, pulmonary, nasal, transdermal and buccal administration routes. Although some attempts of needle free peptide and protein drug delivery have progressed to the clinical stage, relatively limited success has been achieved in terms of commercially available products. Despite the low frequency of clinical breakthroughs with noninvasive protein drug delivery this far, it remains an active research area with renewed interest not only due to its improved therapeutic potential, but also due to the attractive commercial outcomes it offers. It is the aim of this review article to reflect on the main strategies investigated to overcome the barriers against effective systemic protein drug delivery in different routes of drug administration. Approaches based on chemical modifications and pharmaceutical technologies are discussed with reference to examples of drugs and devices that have shown potential, while attempts that have failed are also briefly outlined. PMID:25106909

  3. Non-invasive shallow seismic source comparison for hazardous waste site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, W.E.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.

    1994-12-31

    Many commonly used shallow seismic sources are unacceptable for hazardous waste site investigations because they risk exhumation of contaminants in the soil, they add contaminants (e.g. lead) which are not allowed by regulations, or they add new migration paths for contaminants. Furthermore, recently developed high frequency vibrators for shallow investigations could be more effective at some sites than non-invasive impulsive sources because of their ability to tailor the source spectrum and reduce interference. The authors show preliminary results of a comparison test of eight non-invasive impulsive and swept sources in preparation for seismic reflection profiling on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Well log data are used to determine geologic contacts and to generate synthetic seismograms for the site. Common midpoint (CMP) seismic data for each source were collected at 95 geophone groups from 125 shot points along a 400m test line. Hydrophone data were obtained at 1.5m spacing between 61m and 133m depth in a hole near the center of the CMP line. As of March, 1994, brute stacks have been completed for three of the eight sources. Depth penetration is demonstrated in brute stacks and shot gathers, which show a 200ms reflector for all of the sources tested along portions of the line. Source effectiveness will also be evaluated by comparing images of several shallower reflectors (40--150ms) which are apparent in many of the records. Imaging of these reflectors appears to depend upon the ability of the source to generate sufficient high frequency energy (>100 Hz).

  4. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. PMID:27591472

  5. Fibre optic sensor for non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure during MRI scanning.

    PubMed

    Myllylä, Teemu S; Elseoud, Ahmed Abou; Sorvoja, Hannu S S; Myllylä, Risto A; Harja, Juha M; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2011-01-01

    This report focuses on designing and implementing a non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measuring device capable of being used during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Based on measuring pulse wave velocity in arterial blood, the device uses the obtained result to estimate diastolic blood pressure. Pulse transit times are measured by two fibre optical accelerometers placed over the chest and carotid artery. The fabricated accelerometer contains two static fibres and a cantilever beam, whose free end is angled at 90 degrees to act as a reflecting surface. Optical fibres are used for both illuminating the surface and receiving the reflected light. When acceleration is applied to the sensor, it causes a deflection in the beam, thereby changing the amount of reflected light. The sensor's output voltage is proportional to the intensity of the reflected light. Tests conducted on the electronics and sensors inside an MRI room during scanning proved that the device is MR- compatible. No artifacts or distortions were detected. PMID:20401906

  6. Optimization of an advanced non-invasive light activated disinfection strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, S.; Kishen, A.

    2007-07-01

    A photosensitizer formulation and strategy was developed based on the photophysical, photochemical and photobiological characteristics of methylene blue (MB) for the disinfection of root canal using light activated therapy. Disinfection of matured E. faecalis biofilms on root canal dentine was tried with the newly developed 'Advanced Non- Invasive Light Activated Disinfection' (ANILAD), conventional photodynamic therapy, and conventional root canal therapy alone or in combination with ANILAD. The results showed that, although complete disinfection of nonmatured biofilm is possible by ANILAD alone, a combination of conventional root canal treatment (RCT) with ANILAD could achieve significantly higher bacterial killing (6log 10-7log 10 bacterial reduction) compared to any other tested treatment in matured biofilm (p<0.001).

  7. Quantification of the Impaired Cardiac Output Response to Exercise in Heart Failure: Application of a Non-Invasive Device

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonathan; Gujja, Pradeep; Neelagaru, Suresh; Hsu, Leon; Burkhoff, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An impaired cardiac output (CO) response to exercise is a hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF), and the degree to which CO is impaired is related to the severity of CHF and prognosis. However, practical methods for obtaining cardiac output during exercise are lacking, and what constitutes and impaired response is unclear. Forty six CHF patients and 13 normal subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) while CO and other hemodynamic measurements at rest and during exercise were obtained using a novel, non-invasive, bioreactance device based on assessment of relative phase shifts of electric currents injected across the thorax, heart rate and ventricular ejection time. An abnormal cardiac output response to exercise was defined as achieving ≤ 95% of the confidence limits of the slope of the relationship between CO and oxygen uptake (VO2). An impaired CO slope identified patients with more severe CHF as evidenced by a lower peak VO2, lower peak CO, heightened VE/VCO2 slope, and lower oxygen uptake efficiency slope. CO can be estimated during exercise using a novel bioreactance technique; patients with an impaired response to exercise exhibit reduced exercise capacity and inefficient ventilation typical of more severe CHF. Non- invasive measurement of cardiac performance in response to exercise provides a simple method of identifying patients with more severe CHF and may complement the CPX in identifying CHF patients at high risk. Key points Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output during exercise is feasible in patients with heart failure. Impairment in the CO response to exercise identifies heart failure patients with more severe disease, lower exercise capacity and inefficient ventilation. Non-invasive measurement of cardiac performance during exercise has potentially important applications for the functional and prognostic assessment of patients with heart failure. PMID:24149996

  8. A pilot study using laser-based technique for non-invasive diagnostics of hypertensive conditions in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Karina S.; Ahmad, Shakil; Wang, Keqing; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Zhang, Lin; Rafailov, Edik U.; Ahmed, Asif

    2016-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is directly linked to preeclampsia, a maternal hypertensive condition that is life threating for both the mother and the baby. Epidemiological studies show that women with a history of pre-eclampsia have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Here we report a new non-invasive diagnostic test for preeclampsia in mice that allows us to non-invasively assess the condition of the animals during the experiment and treatment in established models of preeclampsia. A laser-based multifunctional diagnostics system (LAKK-M) was chosen to carry out non-invasive analysis of multiple parameters. The device was used to simultaneously record the microcirculatory blood flow and oxygen saturation, as well as fluorescence levels of endogenous fluorophores. Preliminary experiments were conducted on adenoviral (Ad-)- mediated overexpression of sFlt-1 (Ad-sFlt-1) to mimic preeclampsialike symptoms in mice. The recorded data displayed the ability of the LAKK-M diagnostics device to detect significant differences in perfusion measurements between the control and Ad-sFlt-1 treatment. Preliminary results provide a potential avenue to employ these diagnostics technology to monitor and aid in maintaining control of live animal conditions throughout the experiment and treatment.

  9. 1H NMR- based metabolomics approaches as non- invasive tools for diagnosis of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghazi, Negar; Arjmand, Mohammad; Akbari, Ziba; Mellati, Ali Owsat; Saheb-Kashaf, Hamid; Zamani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: So far, non-invasive diagnostic approaches such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or blood tests do not have sufficient diagnostic power for endometriosis disease. Lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test contributes to the long delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of endometriosis. Objective: The present study focuses on the identification of predictive biomarkers in serum by pattern recognition techniques and uses partial least square discriminant analysis, multi-layer feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) modeling tools for the early diagnosis of endometriosis in a minimally invasive manner by 1H- NMR based metabolomics. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was done in Pasteur Institute, Iran in June 2013. Serum samples of 31 infertile women with endometriosis (stage II and III) who confirmed by diagnostic laparoscopy and 15 normal women were collected and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The model was built by using partial least square discriminant analysis, QDA, and ANNs to determine classifier metabolites for early prediction risk of disease. Results: The levels of 2- methoxyestron, 2-methoxy estradiol, dehydroepiandrostion androstendione, aldosterone, and deoxy corticosterone were enhanced significantly in infertile group. While cholesterol and primary bile acids levels were decreased. QDA model showed significant difference between two study groups. Positive and negative predict value levels obtained about 71% and 78%, respectively. ANNs provided also criteria for detection of endometriosis. Conclusion: The QDA and ANNs modeling can be used as computational tools in noninvasive diagnose of endometriosis. However, the model designed by QDA methods is more efficient compared to ANNs in diagnosis of endometriosis patients. PMID:27141542

  10. NON-INVASIVE RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION OF CANCER TARGETED BY GOLD NANOPARTICLES

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, Jon; Klune, John Robert; Chory, Eamon; Jeyabalan, Geetha; Kanzius, John S.; Nalesnik, Michael; Geller, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Current radiofrequency ablation (RFA) techniques require invasive needle placement and are limited by accuracy of targeting. The purpose of this study was to test a novel non-invasive radiowave machine that uses RF energy to thermally destroy tissue. Gold nanoparticles were designed and produced to facilitate tissue heating by the radiowaves. Methods A solid state radiowave machine consisting of a power generator and transmitting/receiving couplers which transmit radiowaves at 13.56 MHz was used. Gold nanoparticles were produced by citrate reduction and exposed to the RF field either in solutions testing or after incubation with HepG2 cells. A rat hepatoma model using JM-1 cells and Fisher rats was employed using direct injection of nanoparticles into the tumor to focus the radiowaves for select heating. Temperatures were measured using a fiber-optic thermometer for real-time data. Results Solutions containing gold nanoparticles heated in a time- and power-dependent manner. HepG2 liver cancer cells cultured in the presence of gold nanoparticles achieved adequate heating to cause cell death upon exposure to the RF field with no cytotoxicity attributable to the gold nanoparticles themselves. In vivo rat exposures at 35W using gold nanoparticles for tissue injection resulted in significant temperature increases and thermal injury at subcutaneous injection sites as compared to vehicle (water) injected controls. Discussion These data show that non-invasive radiowave thermal ablation of cancer cells is feasible when facilitated by gold nanoparticles. Future studies will focus on tumor selective targeting of nanoparticles for in vivo tumor destruction. PMID:18656617

  11. Skin Hydration Assessment through Modern Non-Invasive Bioengineering Technologies

    PubMed Central

    CONSTANTIN, Maria-Magdalena; POENARU, Elena; POENARU, Calin; CONSTANTIN, Traian

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive bioengineering technologies continuously discovered and developed in recent decades provide a significant input to research development and remarkably contribute to the improvement of medical education and care to our patients. Aim: Assessing skin hydration by using the capacitance method for a group of patients with allergic contact dermatitis versus healthy subjects, before and after applying a moisturiser (assessing the immediate and long-term effectiveness of hydration). Results: For both groups, but especially for the patients with dry skin, there was a clear improvement of hydration, statistically significant after applying the moisturiser. In the case of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, hydration was at a maximum immediately after the first application, and then maintained an increased level after 7 and 28 days, respectively. In the healthy subjects, the increase in hydration was lower, but progressive. The moisturiser determined an increase in hydration for all age groups, but those who showed the most obvious effect were the young adults (18-29 years old) with an increase of 19.9%. The maintenance effect of hydration lasted for 28 days, while the improvement was important for allergic skin (17.1%) and significant for healthy skin (10.9%). Conclusion: The assessment of epidermal hydration performed by using the corneometer showed very good hydration of the stratum corneum for both groups studied, with immediate and long-term effect. This study also showed that the degree of skin hydration was inversely proportional with age. The corneometer is easy to use, efficient and widely utilised in international studies for measurements in healthy or pathological conditions, for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of various preparations intended for application to the skin surface, under well-controlled and standardised conditions. PMID:25553123

  12. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for severe influenza pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Pérez, M; Almirall, J; Lorente, L; Marqués, A; Socias, L; Vidaur, L; Rello, J

    2013-03-01

    The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure caused by viral pneumonia remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the use of NIV in a cohort of (H1N1)v pneumonia. Usefulness and success of NIV were assessed in a prospective, observational registry of patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus pneumonia in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) in 2009-10. Significant variables for NIV success were included in a multivariate analysis. In all, 685 patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia were admitted to participating ICUs; 489 were ventilated, 177 with NIV. The NIV was successful in 72 patients (40.7%), the rest required intubation. Low Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, low Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and absence of renal failure were associated with NIV success. Success of NIV was independently associated with fewer than two chest X-ray quadrant opacities (OR 3.5) and no vasopressor requirement (OR 8.1). However, among patients with two or more quadrant opacities, a SOFA score ≤7 presented a higher success rate than those with SOFA score >7 (OR 10.7). Patients in whom NIV was successful required shorter ventilation time, shorter ICU stay and hospital stay than NIV failure. In patients in whom NIV failed, the delay in intubation did not increase mortality (26.5% versus 24.2%). Clinicians used NIV in 25.8% of influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia admitted to ICU, and treatment was effective in 40.6% of them. NIV success was associated with shorter hospital stay and mortality similar to non-ventilated patients. NIV failure was associated with a mortality similar to those who were intubated from the start. PMID:22404211

  13. Non-invasive Thrombolysis using Microtripsy: A Parameter Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Jin, Lifang; Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Owens, Gabe E.; Gurm, Hitinder S.; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Histotripsy fractionates soft tissue by well-controlled acoustic cavitation using microsecond-long, high-intensity ultrasound pulses. The feasibility of using histotripsy as a non-invasive, drug-free, and image-guided thrombolysis method has been shown previously. A new histotripsy approach, termed Microtripsy, has recently been investigated for the thrombolysis application to improve treatment accuracy and avoid potential vessel damage. In this study, we investigated the effects of pulse repetition frequency (PRF) on microtripsy thrombolysis. Microtripsy thrombolysis treatments using different PRFs (5, 50, and 100 Hz) and doses (20, 50, and 100 pulses) were performed on blood clots in an in vitro vessel flow model. To quantitatively evaluate the microtripsy thrombolysis effect, the location of focal cavitation, the incident rate of pre-focal cavitation on the vessel wall, the size and location of the resulting flow channel, and the generated clot debris particles were measured. The results demonstrated that focal cavitation was always well-confined in the vessel lumen without contacting the vessel wall for all PRFs. Pre-focal cavitation on the front vessel wall was never observed at 5Hz PRF, but occasionally observed at PRFs of 50 Hz (1.2%) and 100 Hz (5.4%). However, the observed pre-focal cavitation was weak and didn’t significantly impact the focal cavitation. Results further demonstrated that, although the extent of clot fractionation per pulse was the highest at 5 Hz PRF at the beginning of treatment (<20 pulses), 100 Hz PRF generated the largest flow channels with a much shorter treatment time. Finally, results showed fewer large debris particles were generated at a higher PRF. Overall, the results of this study suggest that a higher PRF (50 or 100 Hz) may be a better choice for microtripsy thrombolysis to use clinically due to the larger resulting flow channel, shorter treatment time, and smaller debris particles. PMID:26670850

  14. Non-invasive optical characterization of biomaterial mineralization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sharad; Hunter, Martin; Cebe, Peggy; Levitt, Jonathan M; Kaplan, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2008-05-01

    Current approaches to study biomaterial mineralization are invasive and prevent dynamic characterization of this process within the same sample. Polarized light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) may offer a non-invasive alternative for assessing the levels of mineralization as well as some aspects of the organization of the mineral deposits. Specifically, we used LSS to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite deposits on three types of silk films (water-annealed, methanol-treated and polyaspartic acid (PAA)-mixed) following 1, 3, 5 and 7 cycles of mineralization. We found that the total light scattering intensity provided a quantitative measure of the degree of mineralization as confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The PAA-mixed silk films yielded the highest level of mineral deposition and the water-annealed ones the least, consistent with the beta sheet content of the films prior to the onset of mineralization. The wavelength dependence of the singly backscattered light was consistent with a self-affine fractal morphology of the deposited films within scales in the range of 150-300nm; this was confirmed by Fourier analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the corresponding films. The deposits of minerals in the water-annealed films were predominantly flake-like, with positively correlated density fluctuations (Hurst parameter, H>0.5), whereas methanol-treated and PAA-mixed silk films resulted in densely-packed, bulk mineral deposits with negatively correlated density fluctuations (H<0.5). Therefore, LSS could serve as a valuable tool for understanding the role of biomaterial properties in mineral formation, and, ultimately, for optimizing biomaterial designs that yield mineral deposits with the desired organization. PMID:18313137

  15. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, "sausage-like" pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, “sausage-like” pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  17. Non-invasive quantification of lower limb mechanical alignment in flexion

    PubMed Central

    Deakin, Angela; Fogg, Quentin A.; Picard, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Objective Non-invasive navigation techniques have recently been developed to determine mechanical femorotibial alignment (MFTA) in extension. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of an image-free navigation system with new software designed to provide multiple kinematic measurements of the knee. The secondary aim was to test two types of strap material used to attach optical trackers to the lower limb. Methods Seventy-two registrations were carried out on 6 intact embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age: 77.8 ± 12 years). A validated fabric strap, bone screws and novel rubber strap were used to secure the passive tracker baseplate for four full experiments with each knee. The MFTA angle was measured under the conditions of no applied stress, valgus stress, and varus stress. These measurements were carried out at full extension and at 30°, 40°, 50° and 60° of flexion. Intraclass correlation coefficients, repeatability coefficients, and limits of agreement (LOA) were used to convey precision and agreement in measuring MFTA with respect to each of the independent variables, i.e., degree of flexion, applied coronal stress, and method of tracker fixation. Based on the current literature, a repeatability coefficient and LOA of ≤3° were deemed acceptable. Results The mean fixed flexion for the 6 specimens was 12.8° (range: 6–20°). The mean repeatability coefficient measuring MFTA in extension with screws or fabric strapping of the baseplate was ≤2°, compared to 2.3° using rubber strapping. When flexing the knee, MFTA measurements taken using screws or fabric straps remained precise (repeatability coefficient ≤3°) throughout the tested range of flexion (12.8–60°); however, using rubber straps, the repeatability coefficient was >3° beyond 50° flexion. In general, applying a varus/valgus stress while measuring MFTA decreased precision beyond 40° flexion. Using fabric strapping, excellent repeatability

  18. Fetal Cell Based Prenatal Diagnosis: Perspectives on the Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Fiddler, Morris

    2014-01-01

    The ability to capture and analyze fetal cells from maternal circulation or other sources during pregnancy has been a goal of prenatal diagnostics for over thirty years. The vision of replacing invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures with the prospect of having the entire fetal genome in hand non-invasively for chromosomal and molecular studies for both clinical and research use has brought many investigators and innovations into the effort. While the object of this desire, however, has remained elusive, the aspiration for this approach to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis remains and the inquiry has continued. With the advent of screening by cell-free DNA analysis, the standards for fetal cell based prenatal diagnostics have been sharpened. Relevant aspects of the history and the current status of investigations to meet the goal of having an accessible and reliable strategy for capturing and analyzing fetal cells during pregnancy are reviewed. PMID:26237488

  19. [An automatic non-invasive method for the measurement of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Morel, D; Suter, P

    1981-01-01

    A new automatic apparatus for the measurement of arterial pressure by a non-invasive technique was compared with direct intra-arterial measurement in 20 adult patients in a surgical intensive care unit. The apparatus works on the basis of the principle of oscillometry. Blood pressure is determined with a microprocessor by analysis of the amplitude of the oscillations produced by a cuff which is inflated then deflated automatically. Thus mean arterial pressure corresponds to the maximum amplitude. Systolic and diastolic pressures are deduced by extrapolation to zero of the amplitudes on either side of the maximum reading. Mean arterial pressure (AP) proved to be very reliable within the limits studied: 8.0 - 14.7 kPa (60 - 110 mmHg) with a difference in mean direct AP and indirect AP of 0,09 +/- 0.9 kPa SD (0.71 +/- 7 mmHg) and a coefficient of linear correlation between the two methods of r = 0.82. This non-invasive technique determined systolic arterial pressure (sAP) in a less reliable fashion than AP when compared with the invasive technique, with a tendency to flatten the extreme values. The correlation coefficient here was 0.68. Finally, diastolic arterial pressure (dAP) showed a better degree of agreement through with a difference in mean indirect AP and mean direct AP of 1.0 +/- 0.8 kPa (7.6 +/- 6.0 mmHg). These results indicate a good degree of agreement for measurements of mean arterial pressure, clinically the most important, between the two methods used. Measurements of diastolic pressure and above all of diastolic pressure seemed to be less in agreement. This difference could be due to an error in determination of the automatic apparatus tested or to the peripheral site (radial artery) of the intra-arterial catheter used, itself falsifying the humeral arterial pressure. PMID:6113805

  20. Non-Invasive Detection of Anaemia Using Digital Photographs of the Conjunctiva

    PubMed Central

    Collings, Shaun; Thompson, Oliver; Hirst, Evan; Goossens, Louise; George, Anup; Weinkove, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Anaemia is a major health burden worldwide. Although the finding of conjunctival pallor on clinical examination is associated with anaemia, inter-observer variability is high, and definitive diagnosis of anaemia requires a blood sample. We aimed to detect anaemia by quantifying conjunctival pallor using digital photographs taken with a consumer camera and a popular smartphone. Our goal was to develop a non-invasive screening test for anaemia. Patients and Methods The conjunctivae of haemato-oncology in- and outpatients were photographed in ambient lighting using a digital camera (Panasonic DMC-LX5), and the internal rear-facing camera of a smartphone (Apple iPhone 5S) alongside an in-frame calibration card. Following image calibration, conjunctival erythema index (EI) was calculated and correlated with laboratory-measured haemoglobin concentration. Three clinicians independently evaluated each image for conjunctival pallor. Results Conjunctival EI was reproducible between images (average coefficient of variation 2.96%). EI of the palpebral conjunctiva correlated more strongly with haemoglobin concentration than that of the forniceal conjunctiva. Using the compact camera, palpebral conjunctival EI had a sensitivity of 93% and 57% and specificity of 78% and 83% for detection of anaemia (haemoglobin < 110 g/L) in training and internal validation sets, respectively. Similar results were found using the iPhone camera, though the EI cut-off value differed. Conjunctival EI analysis compared favourably with clinician assessment, with a higher positive likelihood ratio for prediction of anaemia. Conclusions Erythema index of the palpebral conjunctiva calculated from images taken with a compact camera or mobile phone correlates with haemoglobin and compares favourably to clinician assessment for prediction of anaemia. If confirmed in further series, this technique may be useful for the non-invasive screening for anaemia. PMID:27070544

  1. Microwave radiometry for non-invasive detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) following bladder warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; De Luca, Valeria; Salahi, Sara; Boico, Alina; Klemetsen, Oystein; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein K.; Bardati, Fernando; Tognolotti, Piero; Snow, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a serious health problem leading to renal scarring in children. Current VUR detection involves traumatic x-ray imaging of kidneys following injection of contrast agent into bladder via invasive Foley catheter. We present an alternative non-invasive approach for detecting VUR by radiometric monitoring of kidney temperature while gently warming the bladder. Methods: We report the design and testing of: i) 915MHz square slot antenna array for heating bladder, ii) EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip receive antenna, iii) high-sensitivity 1.375GHz total power radiometer, iv) power modulation approach to increase urine temperature relative to overlying perfused tissues, and v) invivo porcine experiments characterizing bladder heating and radiometric temperature of aaline filled 30mL balloon "kidney" implanted 3-4cm deep in thorax and varied 2-6°C from core temperature. Results: SAR distributions are presented for two novel antennas designed to heat bladder and monitor deep kidney temperatures radiometrically. We demonstrate the ability to heat 180mL saline in in vivo porcine bladder to 40-44°C while maintaining overlying tissues <38°C using time-modulated square slot antennas coupled to the abdomen with room temperature water pad. Pathologic evaluations confirmed lack of acute thermal damage in pelvic tissues for up to three 20min bladder heat exposures. The radiometer clearly recorded 2-6°C changes of 30mL "kidney" targets at depth in 34°C invivo pig thorax. Conclusion: A 915MHz antenna array can gently warm in vivo pig bladder without toxicity while a 1.375GHz radiometer with log spiral receive antenna detects >=2°C rise in 30mL "urine" located 3-4cm deep in thorax, demonstrating more than sufficient sensitivity to detect Grade 4-5 reflux of warmed urine for non-invasive detection of VUR.

  2. MRI model-based non-invasive differential diagnosis in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lungu, A; Wild, J M; Capener, D; Kiely, D G; Swift, A J; Hose, D R

    2014-09-22

    Pulmonary hypertension(PH) is a disorder characterised by increased mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Currently, the diagnosis of PH relies upon measurements taken during invasive right heart catheterisation (RHC). This paper describes a process to derive diagnostic parameters using only non-invasive methods based upon MRI imaging alone. Simultaneous measurements of main pulmonary artery (MPA) anatomy and flow are interpreted by 0D and 1D mathematical models, in order to infer the physiological status of the pulmonary circulation. Results are reported for 35 subjects, 27 of whom were patients clinically investigated for PH and eight of whom were healthy volunteers. The patients were divided into 3 sub-groups according to the severity of the disease state, one of which represented a negative diagnosis (NoPH), depending on the results of the clinical investigation, which included RHC and complementary MR imaging. Diagnostic indices are derived from two independent mathematical models, one based on the 1D wave equation and one based on an RCR Windkessel model. Using the first model it is shown that there is an increase in the ratio of the power in the reflected wave to that in the incident wave (Wpb/Wptotal) according to the classification of the disease state. Similarly, the second model shows an increase in the distal resistance with the disease status. The results of this pilot study demonstrate that there are statistically significant differences in the parameters derived from the proposed models depending on disease status, and thus suggest the potential for development of a non-invasive, image-based diagnostic test for pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25145313

  3. Bacterial Thymidine Kinase as a Non-Invasive Imaging Reporter for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Live Animals

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie L.; Be, Nicholas A.; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Pomper, Martin G.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacteria can be selectively imaged in experimentally-infected animals using exogenously administered 1-(2′deoxy-2′-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-[125I]-iodouracil ([125I]-FIAU), a nucleoside analog substrate for bacterial thymidine kinase (TK). Our goal was to use this reporter and develop non-invasive methods to detect and localize Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We engineered a M. tuberculosis strain with chromosomally integrated bacterial TK under the control of hsp60 - a strong constitutive mycobacterial promoter. [125I]FIAU uptake, antimicrobial susceptibilities and in vivo growth characteristics were evaluated for this strain. Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), M. tuberculosis Phsp60 TK strain was evaluated in experimentally-infected BALB/c and C3HeB/FeJ mice using the thigh inoculation or low-dose aerosol infection models. M. tuberculosis Phsp60 TK strain actively accumulated [125I]FIAU in vitro. Growth characteristics of the TK strain and susceptibility to common anti-tuberculous drugs were similar to the wild-type parent strain. M. tuberculosis Phsp60 TK strain was stable in vivo and SPECT imaging could detect and localize this strain in both animal models tested. Conclusion We have developed a novel tool for non-invasive assessment of M. tuberculosis in live experimentally-infected animals. This tool will allow real-time pathogenesis studies in animal models of TB and has the potential to simplify preclinical studies and accelerate TB research. PMID:19606217

  4. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprised of sensors, related hardware and software for multimodal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in twenty one volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of 5 subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews, and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines, and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior. PMID:18427161

  5. Blow collection as a non-invasive method for measuring cortisol in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Laura A; Spoon, Tracey R; Goertz, Caroline E C; Hobbs, Roderick C; Romano, Tracy A

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive sampling techniques are increasingly being used to monitor glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, as indicators of stressor load and fitness in zoo and wildlife conservation, research and medicine. For cetaceans, exhaled breath condensate (blow) provides a unique sampling matrix for such purposes. The purpose of this work was to develop an appropriate collection methodology and validate the use of a commercially available EIA for measuring cortisol in blow samples collected from belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). Nitex membrane stretched over a petri dish provided the optimal method for collecting blow. A commercially available cortisol EIA for measuring human cortisol (detection limit 35 pg ml-1) was adapted and validated for beluga cortisol using tests of parallelism, accuracy and recovery. Blow samples were collected from aquarium belugas during monthly health checks and during out of water examination, as well as from wild belugas. Two aquarium belugas showed increased blow cortisol between baseline samples and 30 minutes out of water (Baseline, 0.21 and 0.04 µg dl-1; 30 minutes, 0.95 and 0.14 µg dl-1). Six wild belugas also showed increases in blow cortisol between pre and post 1.5 hour examination (Pre 0.03, 0.23, 0.13, 0.19, 0.13, 0.04 µg dl-1, Post 0.60, 0.31, 0.36, 0.24, 0.14, 0.16 µg dl-1). Though this methodology needs further investigation, this study suggests that blow sampling is a good candidate for non-invasive monitoring of cortisol in belugas. It can be collected from both wild and aquarium animals efficiently for the purposes of health monitoring and research, and may ultimately be useful in obtaining data on wild populations, including endangered species, which are difficult to handle directly. PMID:25464121

  6. Corticospinal activity evoked and modulated by non-invasive stimulation of the intact human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John C

    2014-10-01

    A number of methods have been developed recently that stimulate the human brain non-invasively through the intact scalp. The most common are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial electric stimulation (TES) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS). They are widely used to probe function and connectivity of brain areas as well as therapeutically in a variety of conditions such as depression or stroke. They are much less focal than conventional invasive methods which use small electrodes placed on or in the brain and are often thought to activate all classes of neurones in the stimulated area. However, this is not true. A large body of evidence from experiments on the motor cortex shows that non-invasive methods of brain stimulation can be surprisingly selective and that adjusting the intensity and direction of stimulation can activate different classes of inhibitory and excitatory inputs to the corticospinal output cells. Here we review data that have elucidated the action of TMS and TES, concentrating mainly on the most direct evidence available from spinal epidural recordings of the descending corticospinal volleys. The results show that it is potentially possible to test and condition specific neural circuits in motor cortex that could be affected differentially by disease, or be used in different forms of natural behaviour. However, there is substantial interindividual variability in the specificity of these protocols. Perhaps in the future it will be possible, with the advances currently being made to model the electrical fields induced in individual brains, to develop forms of stimulation that can reliably target more specific populations of neurones, and open up the internal circuitry of the motor cortex for study in behaving humans. PMID:25172954

  7. Peripheral venous blood oxygen saturation can be non-invasively estimated using photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Khan, Musabbir; Pretty, Christopher G; Amies, Alexander C; Elliott, Rodney B; Suhaimi, Fatanah M; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of peripheral venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) is currently performed using invasive catheters or direct blood draw. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively determine SvO2 using a variation of pulse oximetry techniques. Artificial respiration-like modulations applied to the peripheral vascular system were used to infer regional SvO2 using photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors. To achieve this modulation, an artificial pulse generating system (APG) was developed to generate controlled, superficial perturbations on the finger using a pneumatic digit cuff. These low pressure and low frequency modulations affect blood volumes in veins to a much greater extent than arteries due to significant arterial-venous compliance differences. Ten healthy human volunteers were recruited for proof-ofconcept testing. The APG was set at a modulation frequency of 0.2 Hz (12 bpm) and 45-50 mmHg compression pressure. Initial analysis showed that induced blood volume changes in the venous compartment could be detected by PPG. Estimated arterial oxygen saturation (97% [IQR=96.1%-97.4%]) matches published values (95%-99%). Estimated venous oxygen saturation (93.2% [IQR=91.-93.9%]) agrees with reported ranges (92%-95%) measured in peripheral regions. The median difference between the two saturations was 3.6%, while the difference between paired measurements in each subject was statistically significant (p=0.002). These results demonstrate the feasibility of this method for real-time, low cost, non-invasive estimation of SvO2. Further validation of this method is warranted. PMID:26737758

  8. Two kinds of common prenatal screening tests for Down’s syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Liao, Yang; Han, Mei; Li, Sheng-Lan; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    As the chromosomal examination of foetal cells for the prenatal diagnosis of Down’s syndrome (DS) carries a risk of inducing miscarriage, serum screening tests are commonly used before invasive procedures. In this study, a total of 374 records from PubMed, EMBASE, and the ISI Science Citation Index databases were reviewed. As a result of duplication, insufficient data, and inappropriate article types, 18 independent articles containing 183,998 samples were used in the final systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the serum triple screening test (STS) and the integrated screening test (INS). Data extracted from the selected studies were statistically analysed, and the presence of heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed using specific software. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, and the area under the curve for the STS were 0.77 (95% confidence interval = 0.73–0.81), 0.94 (0.94–0.94), 9.78 (6.87–13.93), 0.26 (0.22–0.31), 44.72 (30.77–65.01), and 0.9064, respectively. For the INS, these values were 0.93 (0.90–0.95), 0.93 (0.93–0.93), 22.38 (12.47–40.14), 0.08 (0.05–0.11), 289.81 (169.08–496.76), and 0.9781, respectively. These results indicate that the INS exhibits better diagnostic value for DS. However, further research is needed to identify other biomarkers to improve prenatal screening tests. PMID:26732706

  9. Two kinds of common prenatal screening tests for Down's syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Liao, Yang; Han, Mei; Li, Sheng-Lan; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    As the chromosomal examination of foetal cells for the prenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome (DS) carries a risk of inducing miscarriage, serum screening tests are commonly used before invasive procedures. In this study, a total of 374 records from PubMed, EMBASE, and the ISI Science Citation Index databases were reviewed. As a result of duplication, insufficient data, and inappropriate article types, 18 independent articles containing 183,998 samples were used in the final systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the serum triple screening test (STS) and the integrated screening test (INS). Data extracted from the selected studies were statistically analysed, and the presence of heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed using specific software. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, and the area under the curve for the STS were 0.77 (95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.81), 0.94 (0.94-0.94), 9.78 (6.87-13.93), 0.26 (0.22-0.31), 44.72 (30.77-65.01), and 0.9064, respectively. For the INS, these values were 0.93 (0.90-0.95), 0.93 (0.93-0.93), 22.38 (12.47-40.14), 0.08 (0.05-0.11), 289.81 (169.08-496.76), and 0.9781, respectively. These results indicate that the INS exhibits better diagnostic value for DS. However, further research is needed to identify other biomarkers to improve prenatal screening tests. PMID:26732706

  10. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in children

    PubMed Central

    Abadesso, Clara; Nunes, Pedro; Silvestre, Catarina; Matias, Ester; Loureiro, Helena; Almeida, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the clinical efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in avoiding endotracheal intubation (ETI), to demonstrate clinical and gasometric improvement and to identify predictive risk factors associated with NIV failure. An observational prospective clinical study was carried out. Included Patients with acute respiratory disease (ARD) treated with NIV, from November 2006 to January 2010 in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). NIV was used in 151 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Patients were divided in two groups: NIV success and NIV failure, if ETI was required. Mean age was 7.2±20.3 months (median: 1 min: 0,3 max.: 156). Main diagnoses were bronchiolitis in 102 (67.5%), and pneumonia in 44 (29%) patients. There was a significant improvement in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), pH, and pCO2 at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset (P<0.05) in both groups. Improvement in pulse oximetric saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) was verified at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset in the success group (P<0.001). In the failure group, significant SpO2/FiO2 improvement was only observed in the first 4 hours. NIV failure occurred in 34 patients (22.5%). Risk factors for NIV failure were apnea, prematurity, pneumonia, and bacterial co-infection (P<0.05). Independent risk factors for NIV failure were apneia (P<0.001; odds ratio 15.8; 95% confidence interval: 3.42–71.4) and pneumonia (P<0.001, odds ratio 31.25; 95% confidence interval: 8.33–111.11). There were no major complications related with NIV. In conclusion this study demonstrates the efficacy of NIV as a form of respiratory support for children and infants with ARF, preventing clinical deterioration and avoiding ETI in most of the patients. Risk factors for failure were related with immaturity and severe infection. PMID:22802994

  11. Integration of Noninvasive DNA Testing for Aneuploidy into Prenatal Care: What Has Happened Since the Rubber Met the Road?

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Diana W.; Wilkins-Haug, Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 2 years, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), which uses massively parallel sequencing to align and count DNA fragments floating in the plasma of pregnant women, has become integrated into prenatal care. Professional societies currently recommend offering NIPT as an advanced screen to pregnant women at high risk for fetal aneuploidy, reserving invasive diagnostic procedures for those at the very highest risk. CONTENT In this review, we summarize the available information on autosomal and sex chromosome aneuploidy detection. Clinical performance in CLIA-certified, College of American Pathology–accredited laboratories appears to be equivalent to prior clinical validation studies, with high sensitivities and specificities and very high negative predictive values. The main impact on clinical care has been a reduction in invasive procedures. Test accuracy is affected by the fetal fraction, the percentage of fetal DNA in the total amount of circulating cell-free DNA. Fetal fraction is in turn affected by maternal body mass index, gestational age, type of aneuploidy, singleton vs multiples, and mosaicism. Three studies comparing NIPT to serum or combined screening for autosomal aneuploidy all show that NIPT has significantly lower false-positive rates (approximately 0.1%), even in all-risk populations. A significant number of the discordant positive cases have underlying biological reasons, including confined placental mosaicism, maternal mosaicism, cotwin demise, or maternal malignancy. SUMMARY NIPT performs well as an advanced screen for whole chromosome aneuploidy. Economic considerations will likely dictate whether its use can be expanded to all risk populations and whether it can be applied routinely for the detection of subchromosome abnormalities. PMID:24255077

  12. Non-invasive Foetal ECG – a Comparable Alternative to the Doppler CTG?

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, J.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the alternative of using the non-invasive foetal ECG compared with the conventionally used Doppler CTG. Non-invasive abdominal electrocardiograms (ECG) have been approved for clinical routine since 2008; subsequently they were also approved for antepartum and subpartum procedures. The first study results have been published. Non-invasive foetal ECG is especially indicated during early pregnancy, while the Doppler CTG is recommended for the vernix period. Beyond the vernix period no difference has been recorded in the success rate of either approach. The foetal ECG signal quality is independent of the BMI, whereas the success rate of the Doppler CTG is diminished with an increased BMI. During the first stage of labour, non-invasive foetal ECG demonstrates better signal quality; however during the second stage of labour no difference has been identified between the methods. PMID:25308981

  13. [Options for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis based on clinical data].

    PubMed

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-01-11

    Liver cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Studies have focused on non-invasive markers for liver fibrosis because of the dangers and complications of liver biopsy. The authors review the non-invasive direct as well as indirect methods for liver fibrosis assessment and present the positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of those. Clinical utilities of transient elastography (Fibrsocan) is also reviewed. Non-invasive methods are useful in the assessment of liver fibrosis, monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response. Their accuracy can be increased by the combined or sequential use of non-invasive markers. PMID:25563681

  14. AB048. A urinary-metabolomics-based panel for non-invasive detection of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bladder cancer (BCa) is a common malignancy worldwide and has a high probability of recurrence. Early detection is vital to improve the overall survival rate. The common diagnostic modalities, such as cystoscopy and urinary cytology, have their limitations. In this study, potential metabolic biomarkers have been discovered through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on distinct metabolomics of urine between BCa patients and healthy people, we forged a non-invasive BCa diagnostic model and investigated its performance. Methods This study includes Training Phase, Modeling Phase and Test Phase. During the Training Phase, urine samples were collected from 32 patients diagnosed of bladder cancer and 21 healthy controls. We applied unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model used as a diagnostic model to distinguish two groups. We further constructed logistic regression model using combinations of the metabolites to improve the sensitivity and specificity for early BCa determination. In addition, we screened metabolites which AUC was more than 0.75 for establishing the model of diagnostic panel using logistic regressive analysis. In Test Phase, urine samples from 79 BCa patients and 51 non-BCa controls were subjected to test the diagnostic model. Moreover, by subgroup analysis of BCa, some metabolites were indentified to associate with tumor grade and stage. Results In Training phase, a set of 22 candidate differential metabolites was based on statistical significance and fold difference. Logistic diagnostic model has been established as below: Y=1.3333-8.891X(Glycine)×10-8-4.811X(3-Phosphoglycericacid)×10-5-5.625X(Cytosine)×10-5, with Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) =0.88, sensitivity =78.1% and specificity =95.2%. In Test phase, the efficiency of our diagnostic model shown AUC =0.705, sensitivity =62.0% and specificity =72.5%, better than that of urinary cytology. Besides

  15. Transcranial MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Non-Invasive Functional Neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Beat; Morel, Anne; Zadicario, Eyal; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Martin, Ernst

    2010-03-01

    While the development of transcranial MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound has been driven mainly by applications for tumor ablation this new intervention method is also very attractive for functional neurosurgery due to its non-invasiveness, the absence of ionizing radiation and the closed-loop intervention control by MRI. Here we provide preliminary data to demonstrate the clinical feasibility, safety and precision of non-invasive functional neurosurgery by transcranial MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound.

  16. Non-invasive estimation of thermal tissue properties by high-intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appanaboyina, Sunil; Partanen, Ari; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic Resonance guided High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) can be used to locally heat tissue while non-invasively monitoring tissue temperature via MR-based thermometry. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a computational technique based on inverse heat-transfer modeling for the non-invasive measurement of thermal tissue properties from data collected using an MR-HIFU system.

  17. Towards non-invasive characterization of breast cancer and cancer metabolism with diffuse optics

    PubMed Central

    Busch, David R.; Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in diffuse optical imaging and monitoring of breast cancer, i.e. optical mammography. Optical mammography permits non-invasive, safe and frequent measurement of tissue hemodynamics oxygen metabolism and components (lipids, water, etc.), the development of new compound indices indicative of the risk and malignancy, and holds potential for frequent non-invasive longitudinal monitoring of therapy progression. PMID:24244206

  18. A new direction for prenatal chromosome microarray testing: software-targeting for detection of clinically significant chromosome imbalance without equivocal findings

    PubMed Central

    Bint, Susan; Irving, Melita D.; Kyle, Phillipa M.; Akolekar, Ranjit; Mohammed, Shehla N.; Mackie Ogilvie, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To design and validate a prenatal chromosomal microarray testing strategy that moves away from size-based detection thresholds, towards a more clinically relevant analysis, providing higher resolution than G-banded chromosomes but avoiding the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) of unclear prognosis that cause parental anxiety. Methods. All prenatal samples fulfilling our criteria for karyotype analysis (n = 342) were tested by chromosomal microarray and only CNVs of established deletion/duplication syndrome regions and any other CNV >3 Mb were detected and reported. A retrospective full-resolution analysis of 249 of these samples was carried out to ascertain the performance of this testing strategy. Results. Using our prenatal analysis, 23/342 (6.7%) samples were found to be abnormal. Of the remaining samples, 249 were anonymized and reanalyzed at full-resolution; a further 46 CNVs were detected in 44 of these cases (17.7%). None of these additional CNVs were of clear clinical significance. Conclusion. This prenatal chromosomal microarray strategy detected all CNVs of clear prognostic value and did not miss any CNVs of clear clinical significance. This strategy avoided both the problems associated with interpreting CNVs of uncertain prognosis and the parental anxiety that are a result of such findings. PMID:24795849

  19. Costs and clinical outcomes for non-invasive versus invasive diagnostic approaches to patients with suspected in-stent restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, James T.; Machacz, Susanne F.; O’Day, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This study compared costs and clinical outcomes of invasive versus non-invasive diagnostic evaluations for patients with suspected in-stent restenosis (ISR) after percutaneous coronary intervention. We developed a decision model to compare 2 year diagnosis-related costs for patients who presented with suspected ISR and were evaluated by: (1) invasive coronary angiography (ICA); (2) non-invasive stress testing strategy of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with referral to ICA based on MPI; (3) coronary CT angiography-based testing strategy with referral to ICA based on CCTA. Costs were modeled from the payer’s perspective using 2014 Medicare rates. 56 % of patients underwent follow-up diagnostic testing over 2 years. Compared to ICA, MPI (98.6 %) and CCTA (98.1 %) exhibited lower rates of correct diagnoses. Non-invasive strategies were associated with reduced referrals to ICA and costs compared to an ICA-based strategy, with diagnostic costs lower for CCTA than MPI. Overall 2-year costs were highest for ICA for both metallic as well as BVS stents ($1656 and $1656, respectively) when compared to MPI ($1444 and $1411) and CCTA. CCTA costs differed based upon stent size and type, and were highest for metallic stents >3.0 mm followed by metallic stents <3.0 mm, BVS < 3.0 mm and BVS > 3.0 mm ($1466 vs. $1242 vs. $855 vs. $490, respectively). MPI for suspected ISR results in lower costs and rates of complications than invasive strategies using ICA while maintaining high diagnostic performance. Depending upon stent size and type, CCTA results in lower costs than MPI. PMID:26335370

  20. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  1. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis in a fetus at risk for methylmalonic acidemia

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei; Koh, Winston; Blumenfeld, Yair J.; El-Sayed, Yasser Y.; Hudgins, Louanne; Hintz, Susan R.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prenatal diagnosis of fetal Mendelian disorders can benefit from non-invasive approaches using fetal cell-free DNA in maternal plasma. Detecting metabolic disorders before birth can result in immediate treatment post partum in order to optimize outcome. Methods We developed a mathematical model and an experimental methodology to analyze the case of a fetus with a 25% risk of inheriting two known mutations in MUT which cause methylmalonic acidemia. To accomplish this, we measured allelic counts from the mutation sites and the fetal fraction from high minor allele frequency SNP positions. Results By counting linked alleles, the test was able to distinguish 11 positive markers from the negative controls and thereby determine whether or not the mutations carried by the parents were inherited by the fetus. For a homozygous fetus, the Z-score of the mutation site was 5.97 whereas the median Z-score of all the linked alleles was 4.56 when all negative (heterozygous) controls had a Z-score of <2.5. Conclusions The application of this methodology for diagnosing of methlymalonic acidemia shows that this approach is a cost-effective and non-invasive manner in diagnosing known mutations related to Mendelian disorders in the fetus. PMID:24406457

  2. Human prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Filkins, K.; Russo, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Advances in the field of prenatal diagnosis have been rapid during the past decade. Moreover, liberal use of birth control methods and restriction of family size have placed greater emphasis on optimum outcome of each pregnancy. There are many prenatal diagnostic techniques of proven value; the risks, including false negatives and false positives, are known. With the rapid proliferation of new and experimental techniques, many disorders are potential diagnosable or even treatable; however, risk factors are unknown and issues relating to quality control have not been resolved. These problems are readily appreciated in the dramatic new techniques involving recombinant DNA, chorion villus sampling, and fetal surgery. Unfortunately, clinicians may not appreciate the difficulties that may also be encountered in the more mundane prenatal diagnostic tests such as ultrasonography or enzymatic testing. The aim of this volume is to clarify and rationalize certain aspects of diagnosis, genetic counseling, and intervention. New and experimental techniques are presented in the light of current knowledge.

  3. A review on the non-invasive evaluation of skeletal muscle oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, A. A. A.; Laili, M. H.; Aziz, N. A.; Laili, A. R.; Salikin, M. S.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review is to conduct a feasibility study of non-invasive evaluation in skeletal muscle oxygenation. This non-invasive evaluation could extract many information using a safe non-invasive method regarding to the oxygenation and microcirculation status in human blood muscle. This brief review highlights the progress of the application of NIRS to evaluate skeletal muscle oxygenation in various activity of human nature from the historical point of view to the present advancement. Since the discovery of non-invasive optical method during 1992, there are many non-invasive techniques uses optical properties on human subject such as near infrared spectroscopy NIRS, optical topography, functional near infrared spectroscopy fNIRS and imaging fNIRI. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the light absorption potential (LAP) towards chromophores content inside human muscle. Modified beer lambert law was studied in order to build a better understanding toward LAP between chromophores under tissue multilayers in human muscle. This paper will describe the NIRS principle and the basis for its proposed used in skeletal muscle oxygenation. This will cover the advantages and limitation of such application. Thus, these non-invasive techniques could open other possibilities to study muscle performance diagnosis.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – a non-invasive method in evaluating focal and diffuse central nervous system disease

    PubMed Central

    Scheau, C; Preda, EM; Popa, GA; Ghergus, AE; Capsa, RA; Lupescu, IG

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is a non-invasive method, which can be performed following a routine Magnetic Resonance investigation within the same examination, and can provide very useful molecular information related to the metabolism and function of the normal and pathological structures of the brain. Its role is increasing in the establishment of a clear diagnosis, in both focal and diffuse central nervous system diseases, and the tendency is to replace the histopathology test, in certain cases, with similar or sometimes better diagnostic accuracy. This paper summarizes the principle, method, and main clinical applications, standing as a guide to procedure performing and results interpretation. PMID:23346244

  5. Non-invasive blood sampling from primates using laboratory-bred blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus; Reduviidae, Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Ruth; Voigt, Christian C

    2006-10-01

    Primates are easily stressed by the conventional veterinary blood sampling routine and consequently, measured blood parameters may be biased. In this study, we tested blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus) on one lemur and two ape species (Microcebus murinus, Pongo abelii, Pan paniscus) as an alternative, non-invasive technique for bleeding primates. Within time periods of between 6 and 62 min we obtained blood volumes of 0.01-2.4 ml in 11 out of 12 trials from all three species. Therefore, we conclude that these bugs represent a new, gentle and effective tool for bleeding captive primates without stress. PMID:16741605

  6. A novel LabVIEW-based multi-channel non-invasive abdominal maternal-fetal electrocardiogram signal generator.

    PubMed

    Martinek, Radek; Kelnar, Michal; Koudelka, Petr; Vanus, Jan; Bilik, Petr; Janku, Petr; Nazeran, Homer; Zidek, Jan

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of a multi-channel fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) signal generator based on LabVIEW. Special attention is paid to the fetal heart development in relation to the fetus' anatomy, physiology, and pathology. The non-invasive signal generator enables many parameters to be set, including fetal heart rate (FHR), maternal heart rate (MHR), gestational age (GA), fECG interferences (biological and technical artifacts), as well as other fECG signal characteristics. Furthermore, based on the change in the FHR and in the T wave-to-QRS complex ratio (T/QRS), the generator enables manifestations of hypoxic states (hypoxemia, hypoxia, and asphyxia) to be monitored while complying with clinical recommendations for classifications in cardiotocography (CTG) and fECG ST segment analysis (STAN). The generator can also produce synthetic signals with defined properties for 6 input leads (4 abdominal and 2 thoracic). Such signals are well suited to the testing of new and existing methods of fECG processing and are effective in suppressing maternal ECG while non-invasively monitoring abdominal fECG. They may also contribute to the development of a new diagnostic method, which may be referred to as non-invasive trans-abdominal CTG +  STAN. The functional prototype is based on virtual instrumentation using the LabVIEW developmental environment and its associated data acquisition measurement cards (DAQmx). The generator also makes it possible to create synthetic signals and measure actual fetal and maternal ECGs by means of bioelectrodes. PMID:26799770

  7. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: Prenatal Testing for Embryos Finally Achieving Its Potential

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was developed nearly a quarter-century ago as an alternative form of prenatal diagnosis that is carried out on embryos. Initially offered for diagnosis in couples at-risk for single gene genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, spinal muscular atrophy and Huntington disease, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has most frequently been employed in assisted reproduction for detection of chromosome aneuploidy from advancing maternal age or structural chromosome rearrangements. Major improvements have been seen in PGD analysis with movement away from older, less effective technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to newer molecular tools, such as DNA microarrays and next generation sequencing. Improved results have also started to be seen with decreasing use of Day 3 blastomere biopsy in favor of polar body or Day 5 trophectoderm biopsy. Discussions regarding the scientific, ethical, legal and social issues surrounding the use of sequence data from embryo biopsy have begun and must continue to avoid concern regarding eugenic or inappropriate use of this technology. PMID:26237262

  8. Do Native Parasitic Plants Cause More Damage to Exotic Invasive Hosts Than Native Non-Invasive Hosts? An Implication for Biocontrol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community. PMID:22493703

  9. Combining non-invasive techniques for delimitation and monitoring of chlorinated solvents in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Åkesson, Sofia; Hagerberg, David; Dahlin, Torleif; Holmstrand, Henry; Johansson, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Large numbers of polluted areas cause leakage of hazardous pollutants into our groundwater. Remediated actions are needed in a vast number of areas to prevent degradation of the quality of our water resources. As excavation of polluted masses is problematic as it often moves the pollutants from one site to another (in best case off site treatment is carried out), in-situ remediation and monitoring thereof needs further development. In general, we need to further develop and improve how we retrieve information on the status of the underground system. This is needed to avoid costly and hazardous shipments associated with excavations and to avoid unnecessary exposure when handling polluted masses. Easier, cheaper, more comprehensive and nondestructive monitoring techniques are needed for evaluation of remediation degree, degradation status of the contaminants and the remaining groundwater contaminant plume. We investigate the possibility to combine two investigation techniques, which are invasive to a very low degree and can give a very good visualization and evaluation of pollutant status underground and changes therein in time. The two methods we have combined are Direct Current resistivity and time-domain Induced Polarization tomography (DCIP) and Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) and their use within the context of DNAPL contaminated sites. DCIP is a non-invasive and non-destructive geoelectrical measurement method with emerging new techniques for 4D mapping for promising visualization of underground hydrogeochemical structures and spatial distribution of contaminants. The strength of CSIA is that inherent degradation-relatable isotopic information of contaminant molecules remains unaffected as opposed to the commonly used concentration-based studies. Our aim is to evaluate the possibilities of gas sampling on the ground surface for this technique to become non-invasive and usable without interfering ground conditions.Drillings together with soil and

  10. Non-invasive mechanical properties estimation of embedded objects using tactile imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleheen, Firdous; Oleksyuk, Vira; Sahu, Amrita; Won, Chang-Hee

    2013-05-01

    Non-invasive mechanical property estimation of an embedded object (tumor) can be used in medicine for characterization between malignant and benign lesions. We developed a tactile imaging sensor which is capable of detecting mechanical properties of inclusions. Studies show that stiffness of tumor is a key physiological discerning parameter for malignancy. As our sensor compresses the tumor from the surface, the sensing probe deforms, and the light scatters. This forms the tactile image. Using the features of the image, we can estimate the mechanical properties such as size, depth, and elasticity of the embedded object. To test the performance of the method, a phantom study was performed. Silicone rubber balls were used as embedded objects inside the tissue mimicking substrate made of Polydimethylsiloxane. The average relative errors for size, depth, and elasticity were found to be 67.5%, 48.2%, and 69.1%, respectively. To test the feasibility of the sensor in estimating the elasticity of tumor, a pilot clinical study was performed on twenty breast cancer patients. The estimated elasticity was correlated with the biopsy results. Preliminary results show that the sensitivity of 67% and the specificity of 91.7% for elasticity. Results from the clinical study suggest that the tactile imaging sensor may be used as a tumor malignancy characterization tool.

  11. Feasibility of Using Wideband Microwave System for Non-Invasive Detection and Monitoring of Pulmonary Oedema

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeieh, S. Ahdi; Zamani, A.; Bialkowski, K. S.; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a common manifestation of various fatal diseases that can be caused by cardiac or non-cardiac syndromes. The accumulated fluid has a considerably higher dielectric constant compared to lungs’ tissues, and can thus be detected using microwave techniques. Therefore, a non-invasive microwave system for the early detection of pulmonary oedema is presented. It employs a platform in the form of foam-based bed that contains two linear arrays of wideband antennas covering the band 0.7–1 GHz. The platform is designed such that during the tests, the subject lays on the bed with the back of the torso facing the antenna arrays. The antennas are controlled using a switching network that is connected to a compact network analyzer. A novel frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the torso showing any accumulated fluids in the lungs. The system is verified on an artificial torso phantom, and animal organs. As a feasibility study, preclinical tests are conducted on healthy subjects to determinate the type of obtained images, the statistics and threshold levels of their intensity to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy subjects. PMID:26365299

  12. Feasibility of Using Wideband Microwave System for Non-Invasive Detection and Monitoring of Pulmonary Oedema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeieh, S. Ahdi; Zamani, A.; Bialkowski, K. S.; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a common manifestation of various fatal diseases that can be caused by cardiac or non-cardiac syndromes. The accumulated fluid has a considerably higher dielectric constant compared to lungs’ tissues, and can thus be detected using microwave techniques. Therefore, a non-invasive microwave system for the early detection of pulmonary oedema is presented. It employs a platform in the form of foam-based bed that contains two linear arrays of wideband antennas covering the band 0.7-1 GHz. The platform is designed such that during the tests, the subject lays on the bed with the back of the torso facing the antenna arrays. The antennas are controlled using a switching network that is connected to a compact network analyzer. A novel frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the torso showing any accumulated fluids in the lungs. The system is verified on an artificial torso phantom, and animal organs. As a feasibility study, preclinical tests are conducted on healthy subjects to determinate the type of obtained images, the statistics and threshold levels of their intensity to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy subjects.

  13. Non-invasive diagnostic methods for investigating the quality of Žilina airport's runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabej, Martin; Grinč, Michal; Kováč, Matúš; Decký, Martin; Šedivý, Štefan

    2015-09-01

    The Žilina airport was after almost 50 years of use measured by non-invasive methods including GPR and Profilograph GE in order to investigate the quality of the runway pavement at the chosen spots. Since it was just a pilot action, a sample of survey was carried out. The testing spots were placed where the geologic drill core J02 have been drilled out. The measurements performed by Profilograph GE were used to verify the quality of the pavement surface in term longitudinal unevenness by means of index IRI and C. The GPR survey was performed in 3D geometry, hence in the x- and y-direction. A horn type antenna with central frequency of 2 GHz was used on the test field in order to verify the thicknesses of pavement construction layers. Here, the result of a 3D survey is presented. The investigation confirms two sub-horizontal construction layers of the runway pavement. In some areas the GPR interpretation was not possible due to the signal attenuation. This significant signal attenuation is found mainly in the areas where the linear cracks are situated.

  14. Development of low cost instrumentation for non-invasive detection of Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannath, A.; Rutt, H. N.

    2007-02-01

    A new clinical diagnostic instrument for urea breath test (UBT) based non-invasive detection of Helicobacter Pylori is presented here. Its compact and low cost design makes it an economical and commercial alternative for the more expensive Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS). The instrument is essentially a two channel non-dispersive IR spectrometer that performs high precision ratio measurements of the two carbon isotopomers ( 12CO II and 13CO II) present in exhaled breath. A balanced absorption system configuration was designed where the two channel path lengths would roughly be in the ratio of their concentrations. Equilibrium between the transmitted channel intensities was maintained by using a novel feedback servo mechanism to adjust the length of the 13C channel cell. Extensive computational simulations were performed to study the effect of various possible interferents and their results were considered in the design of the instrument so as to achieve the desired measurement precision of 1%. Specially designed gas cells and a custom made gas filling rig were also developed. A complete virtual interface for both instrument control and data acquisition was implemented in LABVIEW. Initial tests were used to validate the theory and a basic working device was demonstrated.

  15. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

  16. Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

    2014-01-01

    Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

  17. Feasibility of Using Wideband Microwave System for Non-Invasive Detection and Monitoring of Pulmonary Oedema.

    PubMed

    Rezaeieh, S Ahdi; Zamani, A; Bialkowski, K S; Mahmoud, A; Abbosh, A M

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a common manifestation of various fatal diseases that can be caused by cardiac or non-cardiac syndromes. The accumulated fluid has a considerably higher dielectric constant compared to lungs' tissues, and can thus be detected using microwave techniques. Therefore, a non-invasive microwave system for the early detection of pulmonary oedema is presented. It employs a platform in the form of foam-based bed that contains two linear arrays of wideband antennas covering the band 0.7-1 GHz. The platform is designed such that during the tests, the subject lays on the bed with the back of the torso facing the antenna arrays. The antennas are controlled using a switching network that is connected to a compact network analyzer. A novel frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the torso showing any accumulated fluids in the lungs. The system is verified on an artificial torso phantom, and animal organs. As a feasibility study, preclinical tests are conducted on healthy subjects to determinate the type of obtained images, the statistics and threshold levels of their intensity to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy subjects. PMID:26365299

  18. Activity of the human visual cortex measured non-invasively by diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaillon, Franck; Li, Jun; Dietsche, Gregor; Elbert, Thomas; Gisler, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    Activity of the human visual cortex, elicited by steady-state flickering at 8Hz, is non-invasively probed by multi-speckle diffusingwave spectroscopy (DWS). Parallel detection of the intensity fluctuations of statistically equivalent, but independent speckles allows to resolve stimulation-induced changes in the field autocorrelation of multiply scattered light of less than 2%. In a group of 9 healthy subjects we find a faster decay of the field autocorrelation function during the stimulation periods for data measured with a long-distance probe (30mm source-receiver distance) at 2 positions over the occipital cortex (t-test: t(8) = -2.672, p = 0.028 < 0.05 for position 1, t(8) = -2.874, p = 0.021 < 0.05 for position 2). In contrast, no statistically significant change is seen when a short-distance probe (16mm source-receiver distance) is used (t-test: t(8) = -2.043, p = 0.075 > 0.05 for position 1, t(8) = -2.146, p = 0.064 > 0.05 for position 2). The enhanced dynamics observed with DWS is positively correlated with the functional increase of blood volume in the visual cortex, while the heartbeat rate is not affected by stimulation. Our results indicate that the DWS signal from the visual cortex is governed by the regional cerebral blood flow velocity.

  19. Autism spectrum disorders: a qualitative study of attitudes toward prenatal genetic testing and termination decisions of affected pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Chen, L S; Xu, L; Dhar, S U; Li, M; Talwar, D; Jung, E

    2015-08-01

    In the United States, prenatal genetic testing (PGT) for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is currently available via clinical genetic services. Such testing may inform parents about their unborn child's risk for ASD, prepare parents for the birth of an affected infant, and allow them to arrange for early interventions. Although PGT for autism has potential benefits, the associated ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) should be considered. This first qualitative study employed a hypothetical scenario to explore the attitudes toward PGT and termination decisions of 42 parents of children with ASD. Over half of the participants expressed willingness to undergo PGT for autism. Reasons included better preparation for birth, early and better treatment, termination of affected pregnancy, contribution to research, and curiosity. Of the 31 parents who were either willing or unsure about undergoing the PGT, approximately three-fourths would continue their hypothetical affected pregnancies. Explanations included preparation for birth of the child, bonding or acceptance of existing ASD-affected children, apprehensions about test limitations, and religious concerns. Parents who reported they would terminate the affected pregnancy in this hypothetical situation were primarily Asians. This study contributes to the growing understanding of the ELSI aspects of PGT in clinical practice. PMID:25251361

  20. Prenatal Care Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Michael

    Described is the development and evaluation of a prenatal instructional program designed to prevent birth defects. It is explained that the program, composed of five slide tape units on such topics as nutrition and environmental factors, was field tested and found effective with 97 participants (pregnant high school students, nursing students, and…

  1. Characterization and profiling of immunomodulatory genes of equine mesenchymal stromal cells from non-invasive sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied for their promising capabilities in regenerative medicine. Although bone marrow is the best-known source for isolating equine MSCs, non-invasive alternative sources such as umbilical cord blood (UCB), umbilical cord matrix (UCM), and peripheral blood (PB) have also been reported. Methods Equine MSCs from three non-invasive alternative sources were isolated from six individual mares (PB) and their foals (UCB and UCM) at parturition. To minimize inter-horse variability, the samples from the three sources were matched within the same mare and for UCB and UCM even within the same foal from that specific mare. The following parameters were analyzed: (i) success rate of isolation, (ii) proliferation capacity, (iii) tri-lineage differentiation ability, (iv) immunophenotypical protein, and (v) immunomodulatory mRNA profiles. Linear regression models were fit to determine the association between the source of MSCs (UCB, UCM, PB) and (i) the moment of first observation, (ii) the moment of first passage, (iii) cell proliferation data, (iv) the expression of markers related to cell immunogenicity, and (v) the mRNA profile of immunomodulatory factors, except for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as no normal distribution could be obtained for the latter variable. To evaluate the association between the source of MSCs and the mRNA expression of HGF, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed instead. Results While equine MSCs could be isolated from all the UCB and PB samples, isolation from UCM was successful in only two samples because of contamination issues. Proliferation data showed that equine MSCs from all three sources could be easily expanded, although UCB-derived MSCs appeared significantly faster in culture than PB- or UCM-derived MSCs. Equine MSCs from both UCB and PB could be differentiated toward the osteo-, chondro-, and adipogenic lineage, in contrast to UCM-derived MSCs in which

  2. Non-invasive Technology to Study Local Passivity Breakdown of Metal Alloys in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Alan M. Shipley

    2005-03-09

    Little is known about the basic mechanisms of passive oxide breakdown, repair, and localized corrosion of metals. A non-invasive instrument and methods have been developed to study local events and mechanisms that initiate passivity breakdown and subsequent corrosion of metals in aqueous media. The ''difference viewer imaging technique'' (DVIT) is a rapid, real time, non-invasive assay to study metal surfaces in corrosive solutions. It has a spatial resolution of less than 10.0 ?m (1cm x 1cm sample, 1000 x 1000 pixel CCD) to observe initial corrosion processes of the order of seconds. DVIT is a software-controlled video microscopy system and methods to collect and analyze pixel changes in video images. These images are recorded from a digital CCD video camera and frame grabber package using visible light for illumination. The DVIT system detects changes in video images that represent initial corrosive events that lead to passivity breakdown and re-passivation on metal surfaces in situ. This visual technique is easy to use and apply. It compliments other metal surface measurement techniques and can be used simultaneously with them. DVIT has proven to be more sensitive in detecting changes than scanning microelectrode techniques. DVIT is also much easier than other methods to apply and operate. It has the further advantage of providing a real time image of the entire metal surface under study instead of waiting for a microelectrode to scan a number of data points over a sample then plot the results. This project has fulfilled all specifications as outlined in the Department of Energy solicitation responsible for this grant application and award and exceeded a number of the specifications. Applicable Electronics, Inc. now has a marketable instrument and software package available for sale now. Further development of the system will be ongoing as driven by customer needs and discoveries. This technology has immediate applications in corrosion labs to further study

  3. Microwave Radiometry for Non-Invasive Detection of Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Following Bladder Warming.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Paul R; Maccarini, Paolo F; Arunachalam, Kavitha; De Luca, Valeria; Salahi, Sara; Boico, Alina; Klemetsen, Oystein; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein K; Bardati, Fernando; Tognolatti, Piero; Snow, Brent

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a serious health problem leading to renal scarring in children. Current VUR detection involves traumatic x-ray imaging of kidneys following injection of contrast agent into bladder via invasive Foley catheter. We present an alternative non-invasive approach for detecting VUR by radiometric monitoring of kidney temperature while gently warming the bladder. METHODS: We report the design and testing of: i) 915MHz square slot antenna array for heating bladder, ii) EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip receive antenna, iii) high-sensitivity 1.375GHz total power radiometer, iv) power modulation approach to increase urine temperature relative to overlying perfused tissues, and v) invivo porcine experiments characterizing bladder heating and radiometric temperature of aaline filled 30mL balloon "kidney" implanted 3-4cm deep in thorax and varied 2-6°C from core temperature. RESULTS: SAR distributions are presented for two novel antennas designed to heat bladder and monitor deep kidney temperatures radiometrically. We demonstrate the ability to heat 180mL saline in in vivo porcine bladder to 40-44°C while maintaining overlying tissues <38°C using time-modulated square slot antennas coupled to the abdomen with room temperature water pad. Pathologic evaluations confirmed lack of acute thermal damage in pelvic tissues for up to three 20min bladder heat exposures. The radiometer clearly recorded 2-6°C changes of 30mL "kidney" targets at depth in 34°C invivo pig thorax. CONCLUSION: A 915MHz antenna array can gently warm in vivo pig bladder without toxicity while a 1.375GHz radiometer with log spiral receive antenna detects ≥2°C rise in 30mL "urine" located 3-4cm deep in thorax, demonstrating more than sufficient sensitivity to detect Grade 4-5 reflux of warmed urine for non-invasive detection of VUR. PMID:22866211

  4. Microwave Radiometry for Non-Invasive Detection of Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Following Bladder Warming

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; De Luca, Valeria; Salahi, Sara; Boico, Alina; Klemetsen, Oystein; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein K.; Bardati, Fernando; Tognolatti, Piero; Snow, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Background Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a serious health problem leading to renal scarring in children. Current VUR detection involves traumatic x-ray imaging of kidneys following injection of contrast agent into bladder via invasive Foley catheter. We present an alternative non-invasive approach for detecting VUR by radiometric monitoring of kidney temperature while gently warming the bladder. Methods We report the design and testing of: i) 915MHz square slot antenna array for heating bladder, ii) EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip receive antenna, iii) high-sensitivity 1.375GHz total power radiometer, iv) power modulation approach to increase urine temperature relative to overlying perfused tissues, and v) invivo porcine experiments characterizing bladder heating and radiometric temperature of aaline filled 30mL balloon “kidney” implanted 3–4cm deep in thorax and varied 2–6°C from core temperature. Results SAR distributions are presented for two novel antennas designed to heat bladder and monitor deep kidney temperatures radiometrically. We demonstrate the ability to heat 180mL saline in in vivo porcine bladder to 40–44°C while maintaining overlying tissues <38°C using time-modulated square slot antennas coupled to the abdomen with room temperature water pad. Pathologic evaluations confirmed lack of acute thermal damage in pelvic tissues for up to three 20min bladder heat exposures. The radiometer clearly recorded 2–6°C changes of 30mL “kidney” targets at depth in 34°C invivo pig thorax. Conclusion A 915MHz antenna array can gently warm in vivo pig bladder without toxicity while a 1.375GHz radiometer with log spiral receive antenna detects ≥2°C rise in 30mL “urine” located 3–4cm deep in thorax, demonstrating more than sufficient sensitivity to detect Grade 4–5 reflux of warmed urine for non-invasive detection of VUR. PMID:22866211

  5. Pulmonary infiltrates in non-HIV immunocompromised patients: a diagnostic approach using non-invasive and bronchoscopic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rano, A; Agusti, C; Jimenez, P; Angrill, J; Benito, N; Danes, C; Gonzalez, J; Rovira, M; Pumarola, T; Moreno, A; Torres, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of pulmonary infiltrates is a frequent life threatening complication in immunocompromised patients, requiring early diagnosis and specific treatment. In the present study non-invasive and bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques were applied in patients with different non-HIV immunocompromised conditions to determine the aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates and to evaluate the impact of these methods on therapeutic decisions and outcome in this population.
METHODS—The non-invasive diagnostic methods included serological tests, blood antigen detection, and blood, nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), sputum and tracheobronchial aspirate (TBAS) cultures. Bronchoscopic techniques included fibrobronchial aspirate (FBAS), protected specimen brush (PSB), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Two hundred consecutive episodes of pulmonary infiltrates were prospectively evaluated during a 30 month period in 52 solid organ transplant recipients, 53 haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, 68 patients with haematological malignancies, and 27 patients requiring chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs.
RESULTS—An aetiological diagnosis was obtained in 162 (81%) of the 200 patients. The aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates was infectious in 125 (77%) and non-infectious in 37 (23%); 38 (19%) remained undiagnosed. The main infectious aetiologies were bacterial (48/125, 24%), fungal (33/125, 17%), and viral (20/125, 10%), and the most frequent pathogens were Aspergillus fumigatus (n=29), Staphylococcus aureus (n=17), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=12). Among the non-infectious aetiologies, pulmonary oedema (16/37, 43%) and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (10/37, 27%) were the most common causes. Non-invasive techniques led to the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in 41% of the cases in which they were used; specifically, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures was 30/191 (16%); sputum cultures 27/88 (31%); NPW 9/50 (18

  6. Detecting Lung Diseases from Exhaled Aerosols: Non-Invasive Lung Diagnosis Using Fractal Analysis and SVM Classification

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Zhao, Weizhong; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua; Xu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Background Each lung structure exhales a unique pattern of aerosols, which can be used to detect and monitor lung diseases non-invasively. The challenges are accurately interpreting the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and quantitatively correlating them to the lung diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, we presented a paradigm of an exhaled aerosol test that addresses the above two challenges and is promising to detect the site and severity of lung diseases. This paradigm consists of two steps: image feature extraction using sub-regional fractal analysis and data classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the breath test in four asthmatic lung models. A high-fidelity image-CFD approach was employed to compute the exhaled aerosol patterns under different disease conditions. Findings By employing the 10-fold cross-validation method, we achieved 100% classification accuracy among four asthmatic models using an ideal 108-sample dataset and 99.1% accuracy using a more realistic 324-sample dataset. The fractal-SVM classifier has been shown to be robust, highly sensitive to structural variations, and inherently suitable for investigating aerosol-disease correlations. Conclusion For the first time, this study quantitatively linked the exhaled aerosol patterns with their underlying diseases and set the stage for the development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for non-invasive detection of obstructive respiratory diseases. PMID:26422016

  7. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz, M; Schmidt, E; Kim, D J; Haubrich, C; Czosnyka, Z; Smielewski, P; Czosnyka, M

    2010-09-01

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland-Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (R(Spearman) = 0.92, p < 0.001; bias = -0.04; lower and upper limits of agreement: -0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity. PMID:20664157

  8. Non-invasive detection of fasting blood glucose level via electrochemical measurement of saliva.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sarul; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Anand, Sneh; Gupta, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning techniques such as logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to detect fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL) in a mixed population of healthy and diseased individuals in an Indian population. The occurrence of elevated FBGL was estimated in a non-invasive manner from the status of an individual's salivary electrochemical parameters such as pH, redox potential, conductivity and concentration of sodium, potassium and calcium ions. The samples were obtained from 175 randomly selected volunteers comprising half healthy and half diabetic patients. The models were trained using 70 % of the total data, and tested upon the remaining set. For each algorithm, data points were cross-validated by randomly shuffling them three times prior to implementing the model. The performance of the machine learning technique was reported in terms of four statistically significant parameters-accuracy, precision, sensitivity and F1 score. SVM using RBF kernel showed the best performance for classifying high FBGLs with approximately 85 % accuracy, 84 % precision, 85 % sensitivity and 85 % F1 score. This study has been approved by the ethical committee of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India with the reference number: IEC/NP-278/01-08-2014, RP-29/2014. PMID:27350930

  9. Seasonal acclimatization determined by non-invasive measurements of coat insulation.

    PubMed

    Langman, Vaughan A; Langman, Sarah L; Ellifrit, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal acclimatization in terrestrial mammals in the Northern Hemisphere involves changes in coat insulation. It is more economical to provide increased insulation than increased heat production for protection against the cold. This study was done to test a technique for the non-invasive measurement of mammal coat insulation and to measure coat insulation over several seasons on captive exotics. The working hypothesis was that species that have no coat or have a coat that does not change seasonally do not acclimatize seasonally. Three surface temperature readings were measured from the torso area. The insulation was calculated using measured metabolic rates and body temperature when possible. The African elephants, giraffe and okapi did not acclimatize with average maximum insulation values of 0.256°Cm(2)  W(-1) . The Amur tigers and mountain goats acclimatized to seasonal ambient conditions by increasing the insulation values of the hair coats in the cold with an average maximum insulation values of 0.811°Cm(2)  W(-1) . The cold adapted species are more than three times more insulated in the cold than the equatorial species. The husbandry implications of exotics that have no ability to acclimatize to Northern Hemisphere seasonal ambient changes are profound. Giraffe, African elephants, and okapi when exposed to cold conditions with ambient air temperatures below 21°C will use body energy reserves to maintain a heat balance and will require housing that provides ambient conditions of 21°C. PMID:26087320

  10. A hemisphere array for non-invasive ultrasound brain therapy and surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, G. T.; Sun, Jie; Giesecke, Tonia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2000-12-01

    Ultrasound phased arrays may offer a method for non-invasive deep brain surgery through the skull. In this study a hemispherical phased array system is developed to test the feasibility of trans-skull surgery. The hemispherical shape is incorporated to maximize the penetration area on the skull surface, thus minimizing unwanted heating. Simulations of a 15 cm radius hemisphere divided into 11, 64, 228 and 512 elements are presented. It is determined that 64 elements are sufficient for correcting scattering and reflection caused by trans-skull propagation. An optimal operating frequency near 0.7 MHz is chosen for the array from numerical and experimental thermal gain measurements comparing the power between the transducer focus and the skull surface. A 0.665 MHz air-backed PZT array is constructed and evaluated. The array is used to focus ultrasound through an ex vivo human skull and the resulting fields are measured before and after phase correction of the transducer elements. Finally, to demonstrate the feasibility of trans-skull therapy, thermally induced lesions are produced through a human skull in fresh tissue placed at the ultrasound focus inside the skull.

  11. Preliminary methods for wearable neuro-vascular assessment with non-invasive, active sensing.

    PubMed

    Carek, Andrew M; Töreyin, Hakan; Hersek, Sinan; Inan, Omer T

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a non-invasive and active sensing scheme that is ultimately aimed to be integrated in a wearable system for neuro-vascular health assessment is presented with preliminary results. With this system, vascular tone is modulated by local heating and cooling of the palm, and the resulting changes in local hemodynamics are monitored via impedance plethysmography (IPG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors interfaced with custom analog electronics. Proof-of-concept measurements were conducted on three subjects using hot packs/ice bags to modulate the palmar skin temperature. From ensemble averaged and smoothed versions of pulsatile IPG and PPG signals, the effects of local changes in skin temperature on a series of parameters associated with neuro-vascular mechanisms (heart rate, blood volume, blood flow rate, blood volume pulse inflection point area ratio, and local pulse transit time) have been observed. The promising experimental results suggest that, with different active temperature modulation schemes (consisting of heating/cooling cycles covering different temperature ranges at different rates), it would be possible to enhance the depth and specificity of the information associated with neuro-vascular health by using biosensors that can fit inside a wearable device (such as a sleeve). This study sets the foundation for future studies on designing and testing such a wearable neuro-vascular health assessment system employing active sensing. PMID:26736951

  12. A Novel Long-term, Multi-Channel and Non-invasive Electrophysiology Platform for Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hong, SoonGweon; Lee, Philip; Baraban, Scott C; Lee, Luke P

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish are a popular vertebrate model for human neurological disorders and drug discovery. Although fecundity, breeding convenience, genetic homology and optical transparency have been key advantages, laborious and invasive procedures are required for electrophysiological studies. Using an electrode-integrated microfluidic system, here we demonstrate a novel multichannel electrophysiology unit to record multiple zebrafish. This platform allows spontaneous alignment of zebrafish and maintains, over days, close contact between head and multiple surface electrodes, enabling non-invasive long-term electroencephalographic recording. First, we demonstrate that electrographic seizure events, induced by pentylenetetrazole, can be reliably distinguished from eye or tail movement artifacts, and quantifiably identified with our unique algorithm. Second, we show long-term monitoring during epileptogenic progression in a scn1lab mutant recapitulating human Dravet syndrome. Third, we provide an example of cross-over pharmacology antiepileptic drug testing. Such promising features of this integrated microfluidic platform will greatly facilitate high-throughput drug screening and electrophysiological characterization of epileptic zebrafish. PMID:27305978

  13. Chemical sensor platform for non-invasive monitoring of activity and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Solovei, Dmitry; Žák, Jaromír; Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive solution for monitoring of the activity and dehydration of organisms is proposed in the work. For this purpose, a wireless standalone chemical sensor platform using two separate measurement techniques has been developed. The first approach for activity monitoring is based on humidity measurement. Our solution uses new humidity sensor based on a nanostructured TiO2 surface for sweat rate monitoring. The second technique is based on monitoring of potassium concentration in urine. High level of potassium concentration denotes clear occurrence of dehydration. Furthermore, a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) was developed for this sensor platform to manage data transfer among devices and the internet. The WBAN coordinator controls the sensor devices and collects and stores the measured data. The collected data is particular to individuals and can be shared with physicians, emergency systems or athletes' coaches. Long-time monitoring of activity and potassium concentration in urine can help maintain the appropriate water intake of elderly people or athletes and to send warning signals in the case of near dehydration. The created sensor system was calibrated and tested in laboratory and real conditions as well. The measurement results are discussed. PMID:25594591

  14. Non-invasive muscle contraction assay to study rodent models of sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related sarcopenia is a disease state of loss of muscle mass and strength that affects physical function and mobility leading to falls, fractures, and disability. The need for therapies to treat age-related sarcopenia has attracted intensive preclinical research. To facilitate the discovery of these therapies, we have developed a non-invasive rat muscle functional assay system to efficiently measure muscle force and evaluate the efficacy of drug candidates. Methods The lower leg muscles of anesthetized rats are artificially stimulated with surface electrodes on the knee holders and the heel support, causing the lower leg muscles to push isometric pedals that are attached to force transducers. We developed a stimulation protocol to perform a fatigability test that reveals functional muscle parameters like maximal force, the rate of fatigue, fatigue-resistant force, as well as a fatigable muscle force index. The system is evaluated in a rat aging model and a rat glucocorticoid-induced muscle loss model Results The aged rats were generally weaker than adult rats and showed a greater reduction in their fatigable force when compared to their fatigue-resistant force. Glucocorticoid treated rats mostly lost fatigable force and fatigued at a higher rate, indicating reduced force from glycolytic fibers with reduced energy reserves. Conclusions The involuntary contraction assay is a reliable system to assess muscle function in rodents and can be applied in preclinical research, including age-related sarcopenia and other myopathy. PMID:22035016

  15. Epidermal tattoo potentiometric sodium sensors with wireless signal transduction for continuous non-invasive sweat monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Molinnus, Denise; Mirza, Omar; Guinovart, Tomás; Windmiller, Joshua R; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Andrade, Francisco J; Schöning, Michael J; Wang, Joseph

    2014-04-15

    This article describes the fabrication, characterization and application of an epidermal temporary-transfer tattoo-based potentiometric sensor, coupled with a miniaturized wearable wireless transceiver, for real-time monitoring of sodium in the human perspiration. Sodium excreted during perspiration is an excellent marker for electrolyte imbalance and provides valuable information regarding an individual's physical and mental wellbeing. The realization of the new skin-worn non-invasive tattoo-like sensing device has been realized by amalgamating several state-of-the-art thick film, laser printing, solid-state potentiometry, fluidics and wireless technologies. The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sodium sensor displays a rapid near-Nernstian response with negligible carryover effects, and good resiliency against various mechanical deformations experienced by the human epidermis. On-body testing of the tattoo sensor coupled to a wireless transceiver during exercise activity demonstrated its ability to continuously monitor sweat sodium dynamics. The real-time sweat sodium concentration was transmitted wirelessly via a body-worn transceiver from the sodium tattoo sensor to a notebook while the subjects perspired on a stationary cycle. The favorable analytical performance along with the wearable nature of the wireless transceiver makes the new epidermal potentiometric sensing system attractive for continuous monitoring the sodium dynamics in human perspiration during diverse activities relevant to the healthcare, fitness, military, healthcare and skin-care domains. PMID:24333582

  16. Non-invasive single-cell biomechanical analysis using live-imaging datasets.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Yanthe E; Lund, Amanda W; Lin, Alex W H; Ng, Chee P; Alsuwaidi, Aysha; Azzeh, Sara; Gater, Deborah L; Teo, Jeremy C M

    2016-09-01

    The physiological state of a cell is governed by a multitude of processes and can be described by a combination of mechanical, spatial and temporal properties. Quantifying cell dynamics at multiple scales is essential for comprehensive studies of cellular function, and remains a challenge for traditional end-point assays. We introduce an efficient, non-invasive computational tool that takes time-lapse images as input to automatically detect, segment and analyze unlabeled live cells; the program then outputs kinematic cellular shape and migration parameters, while simultaneously measuring cellular stiffness and viscosity. We demonstrate the capabilities of the program by testing it on human mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) induced to differentiate towards the osteoblastic (huOB) lineage, and T-lymphocyte cells (T cells) of naïve and stimulated phenotypes. The program detected relative cellular stiffness differences in huMSCs and huOBs that were comparable to those obtained with studies that utilize atomic force microscopy; it further distinguished naïve from stimulated T cells, based on characteristics necessary to invoke an immune response. In summary, we introduce an integrated tool to decipher spatiotemporal and intracellular dynamics of cells, providing a new and alternative approach for cell characterization. PMID:27422102

  17. A Novel Long-term, Multi-Channel and Non-invasive Electrophysiology Platform for Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hong, SoonGweon; Lee, Philip; Baraban, Scott C.; Lee, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish are a popular vertebrate model for human neurological disorders and drug discovery. Although fecundity, breeding convenience, genetic homology and optical transparency have been key advantages, laborious and invasive procedures are required for electrophysiological studies. Using an electrode-integrated microfluidic system, here we demonstrate a novel multichannel electrophysiology unit to record multiple zebrafish. This platform allows spontaneous alignment of zebrafish and maintains, over days, close contact between head and multiple surface electrodes, enabling non-invasive long-term electroencephalographic recording. First, we demonstrate that electrographic seizure events, induced by pentylenetetrazole, can be reliably distinguished from eye or tail movement artifacts, and quantifiably identified with our unique algorithm. Second, we show long-term monitoring during epileptogenic progression in a scn1lab mutant recapitulating human Dravet syndrome. Third, we provide an example of cross-over pharmacology antiepileptic drug testing. Such promising features of this integrated microfluidic platform will greatly facilitate high-throughput drug screening and electrophysiological characterization of epileptic zebrafish. PMID:27305978

  18. Calibration of oscillometric non-invasive devices for monitoring blood pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Il; Lim, Hyun Kyoon; Ahn, Bongyoung

    2015-04-01

    Blood pressure is one of the most important vital signs used to monitor a patient’s medical condition and is widely measured in hospitals and at home. Automatic, non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitoring devices measure systolic and diastolic blood pressures from the analysis of cuff pressure oscillations caused by periodic variations of blood pressure in an artery. Currently, clinical validation by comparing them to the auscultatory reference has been used to verify the performance of NIBP devices. However, there are presently no calibration methods for NIBP devices. Here, we propose an SI-traceable calibration method for oscillometric NIBP devices. The calibration system generates pressure-pulses at pre-determined cuff pressures, and with pre-determined amplitude, to the device-under-test. The uncertainty of each pulse is analyzed and used for the calculation of blood pressure (BP) uncertainty. The maximum uncertainty for systolic and diastolic BP using the newly developed calibration system is (0.74 and 0.60) mmHg (k = 2) depending on the pressure and amplitude of each pulse, as well as the number of pulses applied. The present method can be used for calibration of oscillometric NIBP devices.

  19. New Horizons in the Etiopathogenesis and Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zubrzycka, A; Zubrzycki, M; Janecka, A; Zubrzycka, M

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological inflammatory diseases, occurring in adolescents and women in the reproductive age group and leading to infertility. The precise etiopathogenesis of endometriosis is unknown, but several theories concerning the phenomena involved in its development have been proposed. Beside classic retrograde menstruation, these include lymphatic and vascular metastases, iatrogenic direct implantation, coelomic metaplasia, embryonic remnants and mesenchymal cell differentiation or induction; the persistence of a form of embryonic endometriosis may also be involved, as well as the theory of the possible role of endometrial stem/progenitor cells. This paper deals with other risk factors which may be potentially involved in the etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, including the immune, inflammatory, endocrine, genetic, anatomical and environmental factors. At present, endometriosis can only be diagnosed with surgery, where laparoscopy is considered a gold standard. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a test allowing to detect non-invasive molecular biomarkers to identify the symptoms of endometriosis early on in disease development. A thorough understanding of the etiopathogenesis of endometriosis is essential toward the development of novel diagnostic assays and effective treatments of the disease. PMID:26391550

  20. Application of transition radiation to non-invasive angiography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piestrup, M.A.

    1985-08-01

    The investigators studied the use of transition radiation from high-density foils as a method for the production of hard x rays for the non-invasive assessment of coronary artery disease in humans. The high brightness and laser-like collimation of transition radiation make it an ideal source of x rays for medical applications. Two successful experiments were performed that demonstrated feasibility of x-ray production from high-density foils. In the first experiment, ten 1-micrometer gold foils were used at the Naval Postgraduate School 105-MeV linac to generate x-rays from 10 to 35 KeV. In the second experiment, both 400- and 500-MeV electrons from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's (SLAC) test beamline were used to produce x rays of 20 to 60 KeV. Two foilstacks were used in the experiment: 40 foils of 8.5 micrometer stainless steel and 20 foils of 7.8-micrometer copper. Theoretical calculations, which include photon attenuation in the foil material, agree well with these data.

  1. Invasive Insects Differ from Non-Invasive in Their Thermal Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kenis, Marc; Honěk, Alois; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether two basic thermal requirements for insect development, lower developmental thresholds, i.e. temperatures at which development ceases, and sums of effective temperatures, i.e. numbers of day degrees above the lower developmental thresholds necessary to complete development, differ among insect species that proved to be successful invaders in regions outside their native range and those that did not. Focusing on species traits underlying invasiveness that are related to temperature provides insights into the mechanisms of insect invasions. The screening of thermal requirements thus could improve risk-assessment schemes by incorporating these traits in predictions of potentially invasive insect species. We compared 100 pairs of taxonomically-related species originating from the same continent, one invasive and the other not reported as invasive. Invasive species have higher lower developmental thresholds than those never recorded outside their native ranges. Invasive species also have a lower sum of effective temperatures, though not significantly. However, the differences between invasive and non-invasive species in the two physiological measures were significantly inversely correlated. This result suggests that many species are currently prevented from invading by low temperatures in some parts of the world. Those species that will overcome current climatic constraints in regions outside their native distribution due to climate change could become even more serious future invaders than present-day species, due to their potentially faster development. PMID:26090826

  2. Use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for non-invasive multimodal cell tracking of human pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Brad P.; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus; Hota, Partha; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Shamblott, Michael J.; Lauzon, Cal; Walczak, Piotr; Gilson, Wesley D.; Chacko, Vadappuram P.; Kraitchman, Dara L.; Arepally, Aravind; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo imaging of engraftment and immunorejection of transplanted islets is critical for further clinical development, with 1H MR imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled cells being the current premier modality. Using perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, we present here a strategy for non-invasive imaging of cells using other modalities. To this end, human cadaveric islets were labeled with rhodamine-perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) nanoparticles, rhodamine-perfluoropolyether (PFPE) nanoparticles or Feridex® as control and tested in vitro for cell viability and c-peptide secretion for 1 week. 19F MRI, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) imaging was performed on labeled cell phantoms and on cells following transplantation beneath the kidney capsule of mice and rabbits. PFOB and PFPE-labeling did not reduce human islet viability or glucose responsiveness as compared with unlabeled cells or SPIO-labeled cells. PFOB- and PFPE-labeled islets were effectively fluorinated for visualization by 19F MRI. PFOB-labeled islets were acoustically reflective for detection by US imaging and became sufficiently brominated to become radiopaque allowing visualization with CT. Thus, perfluorocarbon nanoparticles are multimodal cellular contrast agents that may find applications in real-time targeted delivery and imaging of transplanted human islets or other cells in a clinically applicable manner using MRI, US or CT imaging. PMID:21861285

  3. Non-invasive method for the aortic blood pressure waveform estimation using the measured radial EBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoshei, Andrei; Lamp, Jürgen; Min, Mart; Uuetoa, Tiina; Uuetoa, Hasso; Annus, Paul

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a method for the Central Aortic Pressure (CAP) waveform estimation from the measured radial Electrical Bio-Impedance (EBI). The method proposed here is a non-invasive and health-safe approach to estimate the cardiovascular system parameters, such as the Augmentation Index (AI). Reconstruction of the CAP curve from the EBI data is provided by spectral domain transfer functions (TF), found on the bases of data analysis. Clinical experiments were carried out on 30 patients in the Center of Cardiology of East-Tallinn Central Hospital during coronary angiography on patients in age of 43 to 80 years. The quality and reliability of the method was tested by comparing the evaluated augmentation indices obtained from the invasively measured CAP data and from the reconstructed curve. The correlation coefficient r = 0.89 was calculated in the range of AICAP values from 5 to 28. Comparing to the traditional tonometry based method, the developed one is more convenient to use and it allows long-term monitoring of the AI, what is not possible with tonometry probes.

  4. Fiber-based hybrid probe for non-invasive cerebral monitoring in neonatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehberger, Matthias; Giovannella, Martina; Pagliazzi, Marco; Weigel, Udo; Durduran, Turgut; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Pifferi, Antonio; Torricelli, Alessandro; Schmitt, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Improved cerebral monitoring systems are needed to prevent preterm infants from long-term cognitive and motor restrictions. Combining advanced near-infrared diffuse spectroscopy measurement technologies, time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) will introduce novel indicators of cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow for neonatology. For non-invasive sensing a fiber-optical probe is used to send and receive light from the infant head. In this study we introduce a new fiber-based hybrid probe that is designed for volume production. The probe supports TRS and DCS measurements in a cross geometry, thus both technologies gain information on the same region inside the tissue. The probe is highly miniaturized to perform cerebral measurements on heads of extreme preterm infants down to head diameters of 6cm. Considerations concerning probe production focus on a reproducible accuracy in shape and precise optical alignment. In this way deviations in measurement data within a series of probes should be minimized. In addition to that, requirements for clinical use like robustness and hygiene are considered. An additional soft-touching sleeve made of FDA compatible silicone allows for a flexible attachment with respect to the individual anatomy of each patient. We present the technical concept of the hybrid probe and corresponding manufacturing methods. A prototype of the probe is shown and tested on tissue phantoms as well as in vivo to verify its operational reliability.

  5. Non-invasive characterization of motor unit behaviour in pathological tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holobar, A.; Glaser, V.; Gallego, J. A.; Dideriksen, J. L.; Farina, D.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the fully automatic identification of motor unit spike trains from high-density surface electromyograms (EMG) in pathological tremor. First, a mathematical derivation is provided to theoretically prove the possibility of decomposing noise-free high-density surface EMG signals into motor unit spike trains with high correlation, which are typical of tremor contractions. Further, the proposed decomposition method is tested on simulated signals with different levels of noise and on experimental signals from 14 tremor-affected patients. In the case of simulated tremor with central frequency ranging from 5 Hz to 11 Hz and signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB, the method identified ˜8 motor units per contraction with sensitivity in spike timing identification ≥95% and false alarm and miss rates ≤5%. In experimental signals, the number of identified motor units varied substantially (range 0-21) across patients and contraction types, as expected. The behaviour of the identified motor units was consistent with previous data obtained by intramuscular EMG decomposition. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility of a fully non-invasive investigation of motor unit behaviour in tremor-affected patients. The method provides a new means for physiological investigations of pathological tremor.

  6. Chemical Sensor Platform for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Activity and Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Solovei, Dmitry; Žák, Jaromír; Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive solution for monitoring of the activity and dehydration of organisms is proposed in the work. For this purpose, a wireless standalone chemical sensor platform using two separate measurement techniques has been developed. The first approach for activity monitoring is based on humidity measurement. Our solution uses new humidity sensor based on a nanostructured TiO2 surface for sweat rate monitoring. The second technique is based on monitoring of potassium concentration in urine. High level of potassium concentration denotes clear occurrence of dehydration. Furthermore, a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) was developed for this sensor platform to manage data transfer among devices and the internet. The WBAN coordinator controls the sensor devices and collects and stores the measured data. The collected data is particular to individuals and can be shared with physicians, emergency systems or athletes' coaches. Long-time monitoring of activity and potassium concentration in urine can help maintain the appropriate water intake of elderly people or athletes and to send warning signals in the case of near dehydration. The created sensor system was calibrated and tested in laboratory and real conditions as well. The measurement results are discussed. PMID:25594591

  7. Non-invasive prognostic protein biomarker signatures associated with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Surinova, Silvia; Radová, Lenka; Choi, Meena; Srovnal, Josef; Brenner, Hermann; Vitek, Olga; Hajdúch, Marián; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    The current management of colorectal cancer (CRC) would greatly benefit from non-invasive prognostic biomarkers indicative of clinicopathological tumor characteristics. Here, we employed targeted proteomic profiling of 80 glycoprotein biomarker candidates across plasma samples of a well-annotated patient cohort with comprehensive CRC characteristics. Clinical data included 8-year overall survival, tumor staging, histological grading, regional localization, and molecular tumor characteristics. The acquired quantitative proteomic dataset was subjected to the development of biomarker signatures predicting prognostic clinical endpoints. Protein candidates were selected into the signatures based on significance testing and a stepwise protein selection, each within 10-fold cross-validation. A six-protein biomarker signature of patient outcome could predict survival beyond clinical stage and was able to stratify patients into groups of better and worse prognosis. We further evaluated the performance of the signature on the mRNA level and assessed its prognostic value in the context of previously published transcriptional signatures. Additional signatures predicting regional tumor localization and disease dissemination were also identified. The integration of rich clinical data, quantitative proteomic technologies, and tailored computational modeling facilitated the characterization of these signatures in patient circulation. These findings highlight the value of a simultaneous assessment of important prognostic disease characteristics within a single measurement. PMID:26253080

  8. Non-Invasive Investigation of Bone Adaptation in Humans to Mechanical Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified peak cyclic forces, number of loading cycles, and loading rate as contributors to the regulation of bone metabolism. We have proposed a theoretical model that relates bone density to a mechanical stimulus derived from average daily cumulative peak cyclic 'effective' tissue stresses. In order to develop a non-invasive experimental model to test the theoretical model we need to: (1) monitor daily cumulative loading on a bone, (2) compute the internal stress state(s) resulting from the imposed loading, and (3) image volumetric bone density accurately, precisely, and reproducibly within small contiguous volumes throughout the bone. We have chosen the calcaneus (heel) as an experimental model bone site because it is loaded by ligament, tendon and joint contact forces in equilibrium with daily ground reaction forces that we can measure; it is a peripheral bone site and therefore more easily and accurately imaged with computed tomography; it is composed primarily of cancellous bone; and it is a relevant site for monitoring bone loss and adaptation in astronauts and the general population. This paper presents an overview of our recent advances in the areas of monitoring daily ground reaction forces, biomechanical modeling of the forces on the calcaneus during gait, mathematical modeling of calcaneal bone adaptation in response to cumulative daily activity, accurate and precise imaging of the calcaneus with quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and application to long duration space flight.

  9. Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies with cell-free DNA in the general pregnancy population: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fairbrother, Genevieve; Burigo, John; Sharon, Thomas; Song, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fetal aneuploidy screening in the general pregnancy population using non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as compared to first trimester combined screening (FTS) with serum markers and NT ultrasound. Methods: Using a decision-analytic model, we estimated the number of fetal T21, T18, and T13 cases identified prenatally, the number of invasive procedures performed, corresponding normal fetus losses, and costs of screening using FTS or NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Modeling was based on a 4 million pregnant women cohort, which represents annual births in the U.S. Results: For the general pregnancy population, NIPT identified 15% more trisomy cases, reduced invasive procedures by 88%, and reduced iatrogenic fetal loss by 94% as compared to FTS. The cost per trisomy case identified with FTS was $497 909. At a NIPT unit, cost of $453 and below, there were cost savings as compared to FTS. Accounting for additional trisomy cases identified by NIPT, a NIPT unit cost of $665 provided the same per trisomy cost as that of FTS. Conclusions: NIPT in the general pregnancy population leads to more prenatal identification of fetal trisomy cases as compared to FTS and is more economical at a NIPT unit cost of $453. PMID:26000626

  10. Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Initially published by the Children's Bureau in 1913, this pamphlet has been revised frequently. Its purpose is to point out the importance of medical care during pregnancy. Comfortable pregnancies, easy labor, and better care for their new infants are the usual concerns of prospective mothers. Consequently, this 1962 edition of "Prenatal Care"…

  11. Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  12. Dynamic characterization of satellite components through non-invasive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Joshua G; Wiest, Heather K; Mascarenas, David D. L.; Macknelly, David

    2010-10-21

    The rapid deployment of satellites is hindered by the need to flight-qualify their components and the resulting mechanical assembly. Conventional methods for qualification testing of satellite components are costly and time consuming. Furthermore, full-scale vehicles must be subjected to launch loads during testing. This harsh testing environment increases the risk of component damage during qualification. The focus of this research effort was to assess the performance of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques as a replacement for traditional vibration testing. SHM techniques were applied on a small-scale structure representative of a responsive satellite. The test structure consisted of an extruded aluminum space-frame covered with aluminum shear plates, which was assembled using bolted joints. Multiple piezoelectric patches were bonded to the test structure and acted as combined actuators and sensors. Various methods of SHM were explored including impedance-based health monitoring, wave propagation, and conventional frequency response functions. Using these methods in conjunction with finite element modelling, the dynamic properties of the test structure were established and areas of potential damage were identified and localized. The adequacy of the results from each SHM method was validated by comparison to results from conventional vibration testing.

  13. Dynamic characterization of satellite components through non-invasive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mullens, Joshua G; Wiest, Heather K; Mascarenas, David D; Park, Gyuhae

    2011-01-24

    The rapid deployment of satellites is hindered by the need to flight-qualify their components and the resulting mechanical assembly. Conventional methods for qualification testing of satellite components are costly and time consuming. Furthermore, full-scale vehicles must be subjected to launch loads during testing. The harsh testing environment increases the risk of component damage during qualification. The focus of this research effort was to assess the performance of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques as replacement for traditional vibration testing. SHM techniques were applied on a small-scale structure representative of a responsive satellite. The test structure consisted of an extruded aluminum space-frame covered with aluminum shear plates, which was assembled using bolted joints. Multiple piezoelectric patches were bonded to the test structure and acted as combined actuators and sensors. Various methods of SHM were explored including impedance-based health monitoring, wave propagation, and conventional frequency response functions. Using these methods in conjunction with finite element modeling, the dynamic properties of the test structure were established and areas of potential damage were identified and localized. The adequacy of the results from each SHM method was validated by comparison to results from conventional vibration testing.

  14. MALDI-TOF MS in Prenatal Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prenatal diagnosis aims either to provide the reassurance to the couples at risk of having an affected child by timely appropriate therapy or to give the parents a chance to decide the fate of the unborn babies with health problems. Invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD) is accurate, however, carrying a risk of miscarriage. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been developed based on the existing of fetal genetic materials in maternal circulation; however, a minority fetal DNA in majority maternal background DNA hinders the detections of fetal traits. Different protocols and assays, such as homogenous MassEXTEND (hME), single allele base extension reaction (SABER), precise measuring copy number variation of each allele, and quantitative methylation and expression analysis using the high-throughput sensitive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), allow NIPD for single gene disorders, fetal blood group genotyping and fetal aneuploidies as well as the development of fetal gender-independent biomarkers in maternal circulation for management of pathological pregnancies. In this review, we summarise the use of MALDI-TOF MS in prenatal genomics. PMID:21049077

  15. Tissue-Informative Mechanism for Wearable Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-10-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring.

  16. Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-01-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring. PMID:25331013

  17. Imaging human brain networks to improve the clinical efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sale, Martin V; Mattingley, Jason B; Zalesky, Andrew; Cocchi, Luca

    2015-10-01

    The flexible integration of segregated neural processes is essential to healthy brain function. Advances in neuroimaging techniques have revealed that psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by anomalies in the dynamic integration of widespread neural populations. Re-establishing optimal neural activity is an important component of the treatment of such disorders. Non-invasive brain stimulation is emerging as a viable tool to selectively restore both local and widespread neural activity in patients affected by psychiatric and neurological disorders. Importantly, the different forms of non-invasive brain stimulation affect neural activity in distinct ways, which has important ramifications for their clinical efficacy. In this review, we discuss how non-invasive brain stimulation techniques influence widespread neural integration across brain regions. We suggest that the efficacy of such techniques in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological conditions is contingent on applying the appropriate stimulation paradigm to restore specific aspects of altered neural integration. PMID:26409343

  18. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period and difficult airway].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is a method of ventilatory assistance aimed at increasing alveolar ventilation, thus achieving, in selected subjects, the avoidance of endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation, with the consequent improvement in survival. There has been a systematic review and study of the technical, clinical experiences, and recommendations concerning the application of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period. The use of prophylactic non-invasive mechanical ventilation before surgery that involves significant alterations in the ventilatory function may decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. Its intraoperative use will mainly depend on the type of surgery, type of anaesthetic technique, and the clinical status of the patient. Its use allows greater anaesthetic depth without deterioration of oxygenation and ventilation of patients. PMID:25702198

  19. Non-invasive Central and Peripheral Stimulation: New Hope for Essential Tremor?

    PubMed Central

    Chalah, Moussa A.; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Ayache, Samar S.

    2015-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is among the most frequent movement disorders. It usually manifests as a postural and kinematic tremor of the arms, but may also involve the head, voice, lower limbs, and trunk. An oscillatory network has been proposed as a neural correlate of ET, and is mainly composed of the olivocerebellar system, thalamus, and motor cortex. Since pharmacological agents have limited benefits, surgical interventions like deep brain stimulation are the last-line treatment options for the most severe cases. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation, are used to ameliorate ET. Their non-invasiveness, along with their side effects profile, makes them an appealing treatment option. In addition, peripheral stimulation has been applied in the same perspective. Hence, the aim of the present review is to shed light on the emergent use of non-invasive central and peripheral stimulation techniques in this interesting context. PMID:26635516

  20. Comparison of non-invasive and invasive blood pressure in aeromedical care.

    PubMed

    McMahon, N; Hogg, L A; Corfield, A R; Exton, A D

    2012-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement is an essential physiological measurement for all critically ill patients. Previous work has shown that non-invasive blood pressure is not an accurate reflection of invasive blood pressure measurement. In a transport environment, the effects of motion and vibration may make non-invasive blood pressure less accurate. Consecutive critically ill patients transported by a dedicated aeromedical retrieval and critical care transfer service with simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure measurements were analysed. Two sets of measurements were recorded, first in a hospital environment before departure (pre-flight) and a second during aeromedical transport (in-flight). A total of 56 complete sets of data were analysed. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement (precision) for pre-flight systolic blood pressure were -37.3 mmHg to 30.0 mmHg, and for pre-flight mean arterial pressure -20.5 mmHg to 25.0 mmHg. The limits of agreement for in-flight systolic blood pressure were -40.6 mmHg to 33.1 mmHg, while those for in-flight mean blood pressure in-flight were -23.6 mmHg to 24.6 mmHg. The bias for the four conditions ranged from 0.5 to -3.8 mmHg. There were no significant differences in values between pre-flight and in-flight blood pressure measurements for all categories of blood pressure measurement. Thus, our data show that non-invasive blood pressure is not a precise reflection of invasive intra-arterial blood pressure. Mean blood pressure measured non-invasively may be a better marker of invasive blood pressure than systolic blood pressure. Our data show no evidence of non-invasive blood pressures being less accurate in an aeromedical transport environment. PMID:23033983

  1. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology

  2. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology.

    PubMed

    Narayan, E J

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology for

  3. Urinary neopterin, a non-invasive marker of mammalian cellular immune activation, is highly stable under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Heistermann, Michael; Higham, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Studying immunity and immune function in ecology and evolution requires field studies, but there has been a dearth of non-invasive markers of immune activation available for studying large wild mammals. Recently, we analytically and biologically validated the measurement of urinary neopterin (NEO), a biomarker of cellular immune activation, in captive macaques. However, applying this to free-ranging settings is complicated by issues involving sample collection, processing, storage, and transport. Here, we collected urine samples from captive macaques and undertook experiments simulating common field issues. We tested the effects on urinary NEO sample measurements following: dirt and faecal contamination; storage at room temperature; differences in processing and long-term storage methods (freezing, lyophilising, blotting onto filter paper); and freeze-thaw cycles. Our results show that concentrations of urinary NEO are highly stable – they are not affected by soil or faecal contamination, can be collected on filter paper and stored for many months frozen or lyophilised with minimal effect, and are resistant to multiple 24 hr freeze-thaws. With the addition of a biocidal preservative, concentrations are even stable at room temperature for long periods. Urinary NEO is remarkably resilient, and is highly suitable for non-invasive field studies of cellular immune responses in wild large mammals. PMID:26549509

  4. Optimization of a Novel Non-invasive Oral Sampling Technique for Zoonotic Pathogen Surveillance in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Smiley Evans, Tierra; Barry, Peter A.; Gilardi, Kirsten V.; Goldstein, Tracey; Deere, Jesse D.; Fike, Joseph; Yee, JoAnn; Ssebide, Benard J; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Cranfield, Michael R.; Wolking, David; Smith, Brett; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Free-ranging nonhuman primates are frequent sources of zoonotic pathogens due to their physiologic similarity and in many tropical regions, close contact with humans. Many high-risk disease transmission interfaces have not been monitored for zoonotic pathogens due to difficulties inherent to invasive sampling of free-ranging wildlife. Non-invasive surveillance of nonhuman primates for pathogens with high potential for spillover into humans is therefore critical for understanding disease ecology of existing zoonotic pathogen burdens and identifying communities where zoonotic diseases are likely to emerge in the future. We developed a non-invasive oral sampling technique using ropes distributed to nonhuman primates to target viruses shed in the oral cavity, which through bite wounds and discarded food, could be transmitted to people. Optimization was performed by testing paired rope and oral swabs from laboratory colony rhesus macaques for rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) and simian foamy virus (SFV) and implementing the technique with free-ranging terrestrial and arboreal nonhuman primate species in Uganda and Nepal. Both ubiquitous DNA and RNA viruses, RhCMV and SFV, were detected in oral samples collected from ropes distributed to laboratory colony macaques and SFV was detected in free-ranging macaques and olive baboons. Our study describes a technique that can be used for disease surveillance in free-ranging nonhuman primates and, potentially, other wildlife species when invasive sampling techniques may not be feasible. PMID:26046911

  5. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H.K.; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

  6. Chemical analysis of whale breath volatiles: a case study for non-invasive field health diagnostics of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H K; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

  7. Non-invasive Ventilation in Premature Infants: Based on Evidence or Habit

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shalabh; Sinha, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Despite surfactant and mechanical ventilation being the standard of care for preterm infants with respiratory failure, non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly being employed in neonatal units. The latter can be accomplished in a variety of ways but none of them have been proven so far to be superior to intubation and mechanical ventilation. Nonetheless, they appear to be safe and effective in experienced hands. This article relates to the use of non-invasive forms of respiratory support and evidence is reviewed from the clinical trials which have evaluated the use of these techniques. PMID:24404523

  8. Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, Kaori; Hosako, I.

    2010-08-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for carrying out the non-invasive analysis of artworks. THz waves can penetrate opaque materials and they can perform three-dimensional material mapping non-destructively by spectroscopic imaging. Several attempts have been made to analyse artworks. Clear results, such as imaging of hidden art by using model paintings, have been obtained by many institutions. We succeeded to observe the first ever non-invasive cross-sectional image of a tempera masterpiece by Giotto. These results prove that THz technology can yield useful information in art conservation science.

  9. Wireless network system based multi-non-invasive sensors for smart home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa Ahmed, Rudhwan

    There are several techniques that have been implemented for smart homes usage; however, most of these techniques are limited to a few sensors. Many of these methods neither meet the needs of the user nor are cost-effective. This thesis discusses the design, development, and implementation of a wireless network system, based on multi-non-invasive sensors for smart home environments. This system has the potential to be used as a means to accurately, and remotely, determine the activities of daily living by continuously monitoring relatively simple parameters that measure the interaction between users and their surrounding environment. We designed and developed a prototype system to meet the specific needs of the elderly population. Unlike audio-video based health monitoring systems (which have associated problems such as the encroachment of privacy), the developed system's distinct features ensure privacy and are almost invisible to the occupants, thus increasing the acceptance levels of this system in household environments. The developed system not only achieved high levels of accuracy, but it is also portable, easy to use, cost-effective, and requires low data rates and less power compared to other wireless devices such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, wireless USB, Ultra wideband (UWB), or Infrared (IR) wireless. Field testing of the prototype system was conducted at different locations inside and outside of the Minto Building (Centre for Advanced Studies in Engineering at Carleton University) as well as other locations, such as the washroom, kitchen, and living room of a prototype apartment. The main goal of the testing was to determine the range of the prototype system and the functionality of each sensor in different environments. After it was verified that the system operated well in all of the tested environments, data were then collected at the different locations for analysis and interpretation in order to identify the activities of daily living of an occupant.

  10. Multiplex PCR and Next Generation Sequencing for the Non-Invasive Detection of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Douglas G.; Baxter, Laura; Gordon, Naheema S.; Ott, Sascha; Savage, Richard S.; Beggs, Andrew D.; James, Jonathan D.; Lickiss, Jennifer; Green, Shaun; Wallis, Yvonne; Wei, Wenbin; James, Nicholas D.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Cheng, KK; Mathews, Glenn M.; Patel, Prashant; Griffiths, Michael; Bryan, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Highly sensitive and specific urine-based tests to detect either primary or recurrent bladder cancer have proved elusive to date. Our ever increasing knowledge of the genomic aberrations in bladder cancer should enable the development of such tests based on urinary DNA. Methods DNA was extracted from urine cell pellets and PCR used to amplify the regions of the TERT promoter and coding regions of FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, HRAS, KDM6A and RXRA which are frequently mutated in bladder cancer. The PCR products were barcoded, pooled and paired-end 2 x 250 bp sequencing performed on an Illumina MiSeq. Urinary DNA was analysed from 20 non-cancer controls, 120 primary bladder cancer patients (41 pTa, 40 pT1, 39 pT2+) and 91 bladder cancer patients post-TURBT (89 cancer-free). Results Despite the small quantities of DNA extracted from some urine cell pellets, 96% of the samples yielded mean read depths >500. Analysing only previously reported point mutations, TERT mutations were found in 55% of patients with bladder cancer (independent of stage), FGFR3 mutations in 30% of patients with bladder cancer, PIK3CA in 14% and TP53 mutations in 12% of patients with bladder cancer. Overall, these previously reported bladder cancer mutations were detected in 86 out of 122 bladder cancer patients (70% sensitivity) and in only 3 out of 109 patients with no detectable bladder cancer (97% specificity). Conclusion This simple, cost-effective approach could be used for the non-invasive surveillance of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers harbouring these mutations. The method has a low DNA input requirement and can detect low levels of mutant DNA in a large excess of normal DNA. These genes represent a minimal biomarker panel to which extra markers could be added to develop a highly sensitive diagnostic test for bladder cancer. PMID:26901314

  11. A Non-Invasive Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) Assay to Detect Paternal CFTR Mutations in the Cell-Free Fetal DNA (cffDNA) of Three Pregnancies at Risk of Cystic Fibrosis via Compound Heterozygosity

    PubMed Central

    Debrand, Emmanuel; Lykoudi, Alexandra; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Allen, Stephanie K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) makes use of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in the mother’s bloodstream as an alternative to invasive sampling methods such as amniocentesis or CVS, which carry a 0.5–1% risk of fetal loss. We describe a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay designed to inform the testing options for couples whose offspring are at risk of suffering from cystic fibrosis via compound heterozygosity. By detecting the presence or absence of the paternal mutation in the cffDNA, it is possible to predict whether the fetus will be an unaffected carrier (absence) or whether further invasive testing is indicated (presence). Methods We selected a family in which the parents were known to carry different mutated CFTR alleles as our test system. NIPD was performed for three of their pregnancies during the first trimester (at around 11–12 weeks of gestation). Taqman probes were designed against an amplicon in exon 11 of the CFTR gene, to quantify the proportion of mutant (ΔF508-MUT; FAM) and normal (ΔF508-NOR; VIC) alleles at position c.1521_1523 of the CFTR gene. Discussion The assay correctly and unambiguously recognized the ΔF508-MUT CFTR allele in the cffDNA of all three proband fetuses and none of the six unaffected control fetuses. In conclusion, the Bio-Rad QX100 was found to be a cost-effective and technically undemanding platform for designing bespoke NIPD assays. PMID:26561302

  12. Effects of non-invasive brain stimulation on associative memory.

    PubMed

    Matzen, Laura E; Trumbo, Michael C; Leach, Ryan C; Leshikar, Eric D

    2015-10-22

    Associative memory refers to remembering the association between two items, such as a face and a name. It is a crucial part of daily life, but it is also one of the first aspects of memory performance that is impacted by aging and by Alzheimer's disease. Evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve memory performance, but few tDCS studies have investigated its impact on associative memory. In addition, no prior study of the effects of tDCS on memory performance has systematically evaluated the impact of tDCS on different types of memory assessments, such as recognition and recall tests. In this study, we measured the effects of tDCS on associative memory performance in healthy adults, using both recognition and recall tests. Participants studied face-name pairs while receiving either active (30 min, 2 mA) or sham (30 min, 0.1 mA) stimulation with the anode placed at F9 and the cathode placed on the contralateral upper arm. Participants in the active stimulation group performed significantly better on the recall test than participants in the sham group, recalling 50% more names, on average, and making fewer recall errors. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of their performance on the recognition memory test. This investigation provides evidence that stimulation at the time of study improves associative memory encoding, but that this memory benefit is evident only under certain retrieval conditions. PMID:26236022

  13. [Prenatal care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness. PMID:24337130

  14. Non-invasive biomarkers of pulmonary damage and inflammation: Application to children exposed to ozone and trichloramine

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Alfred . E-mail: bernard@toxi.ucl.ac.be; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Nickmilder, Marc; Burbure, Claire de

    2005-08-07

    To date, airways injury or inflammation caused by air pollutants has been evaluated mainly by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage, an invasive technique totally unsuitable to children. The assessment of respiratory risks in this particularly vulnerable population has thus for a long time relied on spirometric tests and self-reported symptoms which are relatively late and inaccurate indicators of lung damage. Research in the field of biomarkers is now opening new perspectives with the development of non-invasive tests allowing to monitor inflammation and damage in the deep lung. Blood tests measuring lung-specific proteins (pneumoproteins) such as Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated proteins (A, B or D) are now available to evaluate the permeability and/or the cellular integrity of the pulmonary epithelium. The application of these tests to children has recently led to the discovery of a lung epithelium hyperpermeability caused by trichloramine (nitrogen trichloride), an irritant gas contaminating the air of indoor-chlorinated pools. Serum CC16 can also serve to detect increases of airway permeability during short-term exposures to ambient ozone. Indicators measurable in exhaled air such as nitric oxide (NO) appear more useful to detect airway inflammation. By applying the exhaled NO test to children attending summer camps, we recently found that ambient ozone produces an acute inflammatory response in children from levels slightly lower than current air quality guidelines. In a study exploring the links between atopy, asthma, and exposure to chlorination products in indoor pools, we also found that the exhaled NO test can serve to detect the chronic airway inflammation associated with excessive exposure to trichloramine. Lung-specific proteins measurable in serum and markers in exhaled air represent sensitive tools that can be used to assess non-invasively the effects of air pollutants on the respiratory tract of children.

  15. Non-invasive biomarkers of pulmonary damage and inflammation: Application to children exposed to ozone and trichloramine.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Alfred; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Nickmilder, Marc; de Burbure, Claire

    2005-08-01

    To date, airways injury or inflammation caused by air pollutants has been evaluated mainly by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage, an invasive technique totally unsuitable to children. The assessment of respiratory risks in this particularly vulnerable population has thus for a long time relied on spirometric tests and self-reported symptoms which are relatively late and inaccurate indicators of lung damage. Research in the field of biomarkers is now opening new perspectives with the development of non-invasive tests allowing to monitor inflammation and damage in the deep lung. Blood tests measuring lung-specific proteins (pneumoproteins) such as Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated proteins (A, B or D) are now available to evaluate the permeability and/or the cellular integrity of the pulmonary epithelium. The application of these tests to children has recently led to the discovery of a lung epithelium hyperpermeability caused by trichloramine (nitrogen trichloride), an irritant gas contaminating the air of indoor-chlorinated pools. Serum CC16 can also serve to detect increases of airway permeability during short-term exposures to ambient ozone. Indicators measurable in exhaled air such as nitric oxide (NO) appear more useful to detect airway inflammation. By applying the exhaled NO test to children attending summer camps, we recently found that ambient ozone produces an acute inflammatory response in children from levels slightly lower than current air quality guidelines. In a study exploring the links between atopy, asthma, and exposure to chlorination products in indoor pools, we also found that the exhaled NO test can serve to detect the chronic airway inflammation associated with excessive exposure to trichloramine. Lung-specific proteins measurable in serum and markers in exhaled air represent sensitive tools that can be used to assess non-invasively the effects of air pollutants on the respiratory tract of children. PMID:15967207

  16. Optical systems for non-invasive cardiovascular biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erts, R.; Spigulis, J., Sr.; Ozols, M.

    2005-09-01

    Three portable prototype devices for cardiovascular biosensing based on reflection-type photoplethysmography (PPG) principle have been designed and clinically tested. The single-channel PPG finger sensor provides real-time measurements with fast calculation of the mean single-period PPG signal shape ("cardiovascular fingerprint", potentially useful for recognition). The dual-channel PPG system gives additional possibility to monitor on-line the arterial pulse wave transit time and its responses to physical exercises. The four-channel PPG system proved to be applicable for fast detection of cardiovascular pathologies, e.g. arterial occlusions in extremities. Design principles and software algorithms of the regarded devices will be discussed, as well as the results of recent clinical tests.

  17. A Resonant Cavity Approach to Non-Invasive, Pulse-to-Pulse EmittanceMeasurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.; Nantista, C.D.; Miller, R.H.; Weidemann, A.W.; /FARTECH, San Diego /SLAC

    2010-06-15

    We present a resonant cavity approach for non-invasive, pulse-to-pulse, beam emittance measurements of non-circular multi-bunch beams. In a resonant cavity, desired field components can be enhanced up to Q{sub L{lambda}}/{pi}, where Q{sub L{lambda}} is the loaded quality factor of the resonant mode {lambda}, when the cavity resonant mode matches the bunch frequency of a bunch-train beam pulse. In particular, a quad-cavity, with its quadrupole mode (TM{sub 220} for rectangular cavities) at beam operating frequency, rotated 45{sup o} with respect to the beamline, extracts the beam quadrupole moment exclusively, utilizing the symmetry of the cavity and some simple networks to suppress common modes. Six successive beam quadrupole moment measurements, performed at different betatron phases in a linear transport system determine the beam emittance, i.e. the beam size and shape in the beam's phase space, if the beam current and position at these points are known. In the presence of x-y beam coupling, ten measurements are required. One measurement alone provides the rms-beam size of a large aspect ratio beam. The resolution for such a measurement of rms-beam size with the rectangular quad-cavity monitor presented in this article is estimated to be on the order of ten microns. A prototype quad-cavity was fabricated and preliminary beam tests were performed at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Results were mainly limited by beam jitter and uncertainty in the beam position measurement at the cavity location. This motivated the development of a position-emittance integrated monitor.

  18. Quick, non-invasive and quantitative assessment of small fiber neuropathy in patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saad, Mehdi; Psimaras, Dimitri; Tafani, Camille; Sallansonnet-Froment, Magali; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Vilier, Alice; Tigaud, Jean-Marie; Bompaire, Flavie; Lebouteux, Marie; de Greslan, Thierry; Ceccaldi, Bernard; Poirier, Jean-Michel; Ferrand, François-Régis; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Huillard, Olivier; Goldwasser, François; Taillia, Hervé; Maisonobe, Thierry; Ricard, Damien

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a common, potentially severe and dose-limiting adverse effect; however, it is poorly investigated at an early stage due to the lack of a simple assessment tool. As sweat glands are innervated by small autonomic C-fibers, sudomotor function testing has been suggested for early screening of peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed to evaluate Sudoscan, a non-invasive and quantitative method to assess sudomotor function, in the detection and follow-up of CIPN. Eighty-eight patients receiving at least two infusions of Oxaliplatin only (45.4%), Paclitaxel only (14.8%), another drug only (28.4%) or two drugs (11.4%) were enrolled in the study. At each chemotherapy infusion the accumulated dose of chemotherapy was calculated and the Total Neuropathy Score clinical version (TNSc) was carried out. Small fiber neuropathy was assessed using Sudoscan (a 3-min test). The device measures the Electrochemical Skin Conductance (ESC) of the hands and feet expressed in microSiemens (µS). For patients receiving Oxaliplatin mean hands ESC changed from 73 ± 2 to 63 ± 2 and feet ESC from 77 ± 2 to 66 ± 3 µS (p < 0.001) while TNSc changed from 2.9 ± 0.5 to 4.3 ± 0.4. Similar results were observed in patients receiving Paclitaxel or another neurotoxic chemotherapy. During the follow-up, ESC values of both hands and feet with a corresponding TNSc < 2 were 70 ± 2 and 73 ± 2 µS respectively while they were 59 ± 1.4 and 64 ± 1.5 µS with a corresponding TNSc ≥ 6 (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003 respectively). This preliminary study suggests that small fiber neuropathy could be screened and followed using Sudoscan in patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:26749101

  19. A new method of non-invasive blood pressure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Liangling; Yang, Yongming; Yu, Chengbo; Guo, Qiaohui; Zhu, Gang

    2005-12-01

    Blood pressure reflects a person's health.It is proposed here that the method of detecting blood pressure may be the key to improving the precision of blood pressure measurements. The oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique is widely used in automatic blood pressure measurement instruments correctly. A method of blood pressure measurement by oscillometric method is first presented. In the oscillometric method, the basic principle of the "feature point" method and the "amplitude characteristic ratios" method is also explained and discussed here. A new method of blood pressure measurement, namely the coefficient difference comparative method, is proposed here,which is based on the feature point method and amplitude characteristic ratios method. The method is proved both effective and reliable through the analysis of many cases and clinical tests. Utilizing Visual C++, software for this new and novel method was developed and passed criterion simulation apparatus test. When applied in hospital situation, its error was +/-5%. It is concluded that the oscillometric blood pressure measurement method can provide better means of blood pressure measurements reference for doctors.

  20. Crown Preservation of the Mandibular First Molar Tooth Impacts the Strength and Stiffness of Three Non-Invasive Jaw Fracture Repair Constructs in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lothamer, Charles; Snyder, Christopher John; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Kloke, John; McCabe, Ronald P.; Vanderby, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Repairing mandibular body fractures presents unique challenges not encountered when repairing long bones. Large tooth roots and the presence of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle limit safe placement for many types of orthopedic implants. Use of non-invasive fracture repair methods have increasingly become popular and have proven safe and effective at achieving bone healing. Non-invasive fixation constructs have not been tested in dogs using cantilevered bending. Furthermore, non-invasive fracture repair constructs have not been tested at the location of a common fracture location – the mandibular first molar tooth (M1). The objectives of this study were to test the strength and stiffness of three non-invasive mandibular fracture repair constructs and to characterize the impact that tooth crown preservation has on fixation strength for fractures occurring at the M1 location. Specimens were assigned to three treatment groups: (1) composite only, (2) interdental wiring and composite (IWC), and (3) transmucosal fixation screw and composite. For each pair of mandibles, one mandible received crown amputation at the alveolar margin to simulate the effect of crown loss on fixation strength and stiffness. Regardless of the status of crown presence, IWC demonstrated the greatest bending stiffness and load to failure. With the crown removed, IWC was significantly stronger compared to other treatments. All fixation constructs were stiffer when the tooth crown was preserved. In fractures at this location, retaining the tooth crown of M1 significantly increases stiffness of interdental wiring with composite and transmucosal screw with composite constructs. If the crown of M1 was removed, IWC was significantly stronger than the other two forms of fixation. PMID:26664947

  1. Invasive versus Non Invasive Methods Applied to Mummy Research: Will This Controversy Ever Be Solved?

    PubMed Central

    Moissidou, Despina; Day, Jasmine; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification). Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry), although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts. PMID:26345295

  2. The roadmap for estimation of cell-type-specific neuronal activity from non-invasive measurements.

    PubMed

    Uhlirova, Hana; Kılıç, Kıvılcım; Tian, Peifang; Sakadžić, Sava; Gagnon, Louis; Thunemann, Martin; Desjardins, Michèle; Saisan, Payam A; Nizar, Krystal; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Hagler, Donald J; Vandenberghe, Matthieu; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Silva, Gabriel A; Masliah, Eliezer; Kleinfeld, David; Vinogradov, Sergei; Buxton, Richard B; Einevoll, Gaute T; Boas, David A; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The computational properties of the human brain arise from an intricate interplay between billions of neurons connected in complex networks. However, our ability to study these networks in healthy human brain is limited by the necessity to use non-invasive technologies. This is in contrast to animal models where a rich, detailed view of cellular-level brain function with cell-type-specific molecular identity has become available due to recent advances in microscopic optical imaging and genetics. Thus, a central challenge facing neuroscience today is leveraging these mechanistic insights from animal studies to accurately draw physiological inferences from non-invasive signals in humans. On the essential path towards this goal is the development of a detailed 'bottom-up' forward model bridging neuronal activity at the level of cell-type-specific populations to non-invasive imaging signals. The general idea is that specific neuronal cell types have identifiable signatures in the way they drive changes in cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (measurable with quantitative functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), and electrical currents/potentials (measurable with magneto/electroencephalography). This forward model would then provide the 'ground truth' for the development of new tools for tackling the inverse problem-estimation of neuronal activity from multimodal non-invasive imaging data.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574309

  3. Differential radioactivity monitor for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Packer, S.

    1982-09-23

    There is described an apparatus and method for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate which comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67.

  4. Can non-invasive measurement of gut oxygenation predict necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that contribute to the development of NEC include hypoperfusion or decreased oxygenation of splanchnic tissue. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) will be used to assess gut oxygenation non-invasively. Typically NIRS is primarily used for cerebral hemodynamic monitoring; we intend to apply it ...

  5. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  6. Non-Invasive Management of Madura Foot with Oral Posaconazole and Ciprofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit M.; Sharma, Namita; Nat, Amritpal; Rane, Meghan; Endy, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Madura foot is a chronic infection caused by fungus and/or bacteria. Traditionally, treatment has been surgical debridement or amputation. Non-invasive management with long-term antimicrobials alone has been reported as successful. We report a case of Madura foot in a Somali refugee successfully managed with oral posaconazole and ciprofloxacin. PMID:25349373

  7. Aortic stenosis in adults. Non-invasive estimation of pressure differences by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Hegrenaes, L; Hatle, L

    1985-01-01

    The peak and mean aortic transvalvar pressure differences measured invasively and non-invasively by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography were compared in 87 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis. The mean values were calculated from the maximal velocities of the aortic jet recorded with a spectral display of the Doppler frequency shifts and by applying a modified Bernoulli equation. Technically satisfactory velocity curves for estimating the mean pressure differences could not be obtained in three patients and invasive measurements were not obtained in two. In all patients the peak transvalvar pressure difference was calculated since the aortic jet was identified non-invasively. The peak and mean pressure differences measured invasively and non-invasively correlated well--with only minor underestimation of the pressure differences measured with the Doppler technique--regardless of age, sex, and the presence or absence of aortic valvar regurgitation, or other valvar lesions. With a systematic search for the highest velocities in the aortic jet and with on line spectral analysis of the Doppler frequencies the peak and the mean aortic pressure differences can be determined non-invasively with a high degree of precision in almost all patients. Images PMID:4052281

  8. Application of quantum dot nanoparticles for potential non-invasive bio-imaging of mammalian spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various obstacles are encountered by mammalian spermatozoa during their journey through the female genital tract, and only few or none will reach the site of fertilization. Currently, there are limited technical approaches for non-invasive investigation of spermatozoa migration after insemination. A...

  9. Who is Who? Non-invasive Methods to Individually Sex and Mark Altricial Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance; Honarmand, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments require early determination of offspring's sex as well as early marking of newborns for individual recognition. According to animal welfare guidelines, non-invasive techniques should be preferred whenever applicable. In our group, we work on different species of song birds in the lab and in the field, and we successfully apply non-invasive methods to sex and individually mark chicks. This paper presents a comprehensive non-invasive tool-box. Sexing birds prior to the expression of secondary sexual traits requires the collection of DNA-bearing material for PCR. We established a quick and easy method to sex birds of any age (post hatching) by extracting DNA from buccal swabs. Results can be obtained within 3 hours. For individual marking chick's down feathers are trimmed in specific patterns allowing fast identification within the hatching order. This set of methods is easily applicable in a standard equipped lab and especially suitable for working in the field as no special equipment is required for sampling and storage. Handling of chicks is minimized and marking and sexing techniques are non-invasive thereby supporting the RRR-principle of animal welfare guidelines. PMID:24893585

  10. Who is who? Non-invasive methods to individually sex and mark altricial chicks.

    PubMed

    Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance; Honarmand, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments require early determination of offspring's sex as well as early marking of newborns for individual recognition. According to animal welfare guidelines, non-invasive techniques should be preferred whenever applicable. In our group, we work on different species of song birds in the lab and in the field, and we successfully apply non-invasive methods to sex and individually mark chicks. This paper presents a comprehensive non-invasive tool-box. Sexing birds prior to the expression of secondary sexual traits requires the collection of DNA-bearing material for PCR. We established a quick and easy method to sex birds of any age (post hatching) by extracting DNA from buccal swabs. Results can be obtained within 3 hours. For individual marking chick's down feathers are trimmed in specific patterns allowing fast identification within the hatching order. This set of methods is easily applicable in a standard equipped lab and especially suitable for working in the field as no special equipment is required for sampling and storage. Handling of chicks is minimized and marking and sexing techniques are non-invasive thereby supporting the RRR-principle of animal welfare guidelines. PMID:24893585

  11. Non-invasive cardiac investigations in patients awaiting renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Langford, E J; de Belder, A J; Cairns, H; Hendry, B M; Wainwright, R J

    1997-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal transplantation have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Invasive investigation may identify those at risk of cardiac death during or after renal transplantation, but which patients should undergo cardiac catheterization is currently not clear. In 95 patients awaiting renal transplantation we assessed the ability of echocardiography and exercise electrocardiography to identify patients at risk of cardiac death. Echocardiography identified impaired left ventricular (LV) systolic function in 20%, severe in 8%. Of the patients with severe LV dysfunction, 25% died before transplantation. Of those undergoing exercise electrocardiography, 44% did not achieve 85% of maximum predicted heart rate. No coronary artery disease requiring intervention was identified by exercise testing. These findings indicate that echocardiography, but not exercise electrocardiography, should be part of the assessment for renal transplantation. PMID:9135610

  12. Optical non-invasive monitoring of skin blood pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spīgulis, Jānis

    2005-08-01

    Time resolved detection and analysis of the skin backscattered optical signals (remission photoplethysmography or PPG) provide rich information on skin blood volume pulsations and can serve for reliable cardiovascular assessment. The single- and multi-channel PPG concepts are discussed in this work. Simultaneous data flow from several body locations allows one to study the heartbeat pulse wave propagation in real time and evaluate the vascular resistance. Portable single-, dual- and four-channel PPG monitoring devices with special software have been designed for real-time data acquisition and processing. The clinical studies confirmed their potential in the monitoring of heart arrhythmias, drug tests, steady-state cardiovascular assessment, body fitness control, and express diagnostics of the arterial occlusions.

  13. Differential ion mobility spectroscopy: non-invasive real-time diagnostics and therapy control in metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last few years, differential ion mobility spectroscopy (DMS) has become an important tool in medical research. There are attempts to find markers for specific diseases in exhaled air, using this technology as a non-invasive early diagnosis. Objective In the present research, exhaled air from 78 patients with known diagnosis and 39 control persons were tested with a DMS system from Sionex. Results Bronchial asthma showed a pattern of 6 characteristic points in a discriminant analysis. Patients with diagnosed hypertension showed a characteristic pattern with 4 points, hypothyroidism 2 points; increased LDL cholesterol 3 points, and type II diabetics treated with insulin 4 spots. No significant differences with respect to the control group were found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The DMS pattern in the tested asthmatics showed a partial change depending on different medications used. Conclusion Differential ion mobility spectroscopy offers promise as a helpful diagnostic tool. PMID:20156741

  14. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    González-Sánchez, Carlos; Fraile, Juan-Carlos; Pérez-Turiel, Javier; Damm, Ellen; Schneider, Jochen G.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Schmitt, Daniel; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC) sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram). First experimental results are shown. PMID:27399713

  15. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Carlos; Fraile, Juan-Carlos; Pérez-Turiel, Javier; Damm, Ellen; Schneider, Jochen G; Zimmermann, Heiko; Schmitt, Daniel; Ihmig, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC) sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram). First experimental results are shown. PMID:27399713

  16. Carrier testing for Ashkenazi Jewish disorders in the prenatal setting: navigating the genetic maze.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jose Carlos P; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; Carter, Suzanne M; Klugman, Susan; Gregg, Anthony R; Gross, Susan J

    2014-09-01

    Exciting developments in the fields of genetics and genomics have facilitated the identification of the etiological basis of many Mendelian disorders. Several of the methods used in gene discovery have focused initially on homogeneous populations, including the Ashkenazi Jewish population. The founder effect is well recognized in this community, in which historical events and cultural behaviors have resulted in a limited number of mutations underlying genetic disorders with substantial health impact. New technologies have made it possible to rapidly expand the test panels, changing testing paradigms, and thereby creating challenges for the physician in deciphering the appropriate approach to genetic screening in this population. The goal of this review is to help primary obstetric health care providers navigate through this quickly moving field so as to better counsel and support their patients of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. PMID:24508465

  17. Mortality Prediction in Patients Undergoing Non-Invasive Ventilation in Intermediate Care

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Urbistondo, Diego; Alegre, Félix; Carmona-Torre, Francisco; Huerta, Ana; Fernandez-Ros, Nerea; Landecho, Manuel Fortún; García-Mouriz, Alberto; Núñez-Córdoba, Jorge M.; García, Nicolás; Quiroga, Jorge; Lucena, Juan Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Background Intermediate Care Units (ImCU) have become an alternative scenario to perform Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV). The limited number of prognostic studies in this population support the need of mortality prediction evaluation in this context. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze the performance of Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and 3 in patients undergoing NIV in an ImCU. Additionally, we searched for new variables that could be useful to customize these scores, in order to improve mortality prediction. Design Cohort study with prospectively collected data from all patients admitted to a single center ImCU who received NIV. The SAPS II and 3 scores with their respective predicted mortality rates were calculated. Discrimination and calibration were evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test for the models, respectively. Binary logistic regression was used to identify new variables to customize the scores for mortality prediction in this setting. Patients The study included 241 patients consecutively admitted to an ImCU staffed by hospitalists from April 2006 to December 2013. Key Results The observed in-hospital mortality was 32.4% resulting in a Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) of 1.35 for SAPS II and 0.68 for SAPS 3. Mortality discrimination based on the AUC was 0.73 for SAPS II and 0.69 for SAPS 3. Customized models including immunosuppression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute pulmonary edema (APE), lactic acid, pCO2 and haemoglobin levels showed better discrimination than old scores with similar calibration power. Conclusions These results suggest that SAPS II and 3 should be customized with additional patient-risk factors to improve mortality prediction in patients undergoing NIV in intermediate care. PMID:26436420

  18. Non-invasive measurement of local pulse pressure by pulse wave-based ultrasound manometry (PWUM)

    PubMed Central

    Vappou, J; Luo, J; Okajima, K; Di Tullio, M; Konofagou, E E

    2014-01-01

    The central Blood Pressure (CBP) has been established as a relevant indicator of cardiovascular disease. Despite its significance, CBP remains particularly challenging to measure in standard clinical practice. The objective of this study is to introduce Pulse Wave-based Ultrasound Manometry (PWUM) as a simple-touse, non-invasive ultrasound-based method for quantitative measurement of the central pulse pressure. Arterial wall displacements are estimated using radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound signals acquired at high frame rates and the pulse pressure waveform is estimated using both the distension waveform and the local Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV). The method was tested on the abdominal aorta of 11 healthy subjects (age 35.7± 16 y.o.). PWUM pulse pressure measurements were compared to those obtained by radial applanation tonometry using a commercial system. The average intra-subject variability of the pulse pressure amplitude was found to be equal to 4.2 mmHg, demonstrating good reproducibility of the method. Excellent correlation was found between the waveforms obtained by PWUM and those obtained by tonometry in all subjects (0.94

  19. TH-C-17A-11: Hyperthermia-Driven Immunotherapy Using Non-Invasive Radiowaves

    SciTech Connect

    Serda, R; Savage, D; Corr, S; Curley, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The sad truth is that cancer is blamed for the death of nearly one in four people in the US. Immunotherapy offers hope for stimulating cancer immunity leading to targeted killing of cancer cells and a preventative measure for cancer recurrence. Unfortunately, the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy has not yet been established, however novel approaches are being developed, including combining immunotherapy with traditional chemotherapy, radiotherapy or thermal therapy. Therapeutics such as radiofrequency (RF) ablation and select chemotherapeutics induce mild anticancer immune responses. This project seeks to enhance the immune responses stimulated by these agents by co-delivery of nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics and immune modulators in the presence of RF induced hyperthermia. Methods: A 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer is used to test the ability of RF waves to enhance accumulation of nanoparticles in tumor tissue by increasing blood flow and extravation of nanoparticles from hyperpermeable vessels. Images of particle and cell trafficking in the tumor are captured using an integrated RF and confocal imaging system, and tumor growth is monitored by tumor bioluminescence and caliper measurements. Results: Here we demonstrate enhanced intratumoral blood flow induced by non-invasive RF waves and an increase in nanoparticle accumulation in the tumor. IL-12 is shown to have powerful anti-tumor effects leading to tumor regression and the release of Th1-biased cytokines. Doxorubicin nanoparticles combined with adjuvant nanoparticles exhibited superior antitumor effects to single agent therapy. Conclusion: RF therapy combined with nanotherapeutics is a promising approach to enhance the delivery of therapeutics to the tumor and to stimulate a tumor microenvironment that supports the development of cancer-specific immune responses. This research was supported by the National Institute of Health grant numbers U54 CA143837 and U54 CA151668, and the Kanzius

  20. Chronic non-invasive corticosterone administration abolishes the diurnal pattern of tph2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Nina C.; Montoya, Christian D.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Both hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and serotonergic systems are commonly dysregulated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We describe here a non-invasive rat model for hypercortisolism, as observed in major depression, and its effects on physiology, behavior, and the expression of tph2, the gene encoding tryptophan hydroxylase 2, the rate-limiting enzyme for brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) synthesis. We delivered corticosterone (40 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml or 400 µg/ml) or vehicle to adrenal-intact adult, male rats via the drinking water for three weeks. On days 15, 16, 17 and 18, respectively, the rats’ emotionality was assessed in the open-field (OF), social interaction (SI), elevated plus-maze (EPM), and forced swim tests (FST). On day 21, half of the rats in each group were killed 2 h into the dark phase of a 12/12 h reversed light/dark cycle; the other half were killed 2 h into the light phase. We then measured indices of HPA axis activity, plasma glucose and interleukin-6 (IL-6) availability, and neuronal tph2 expression at each time point. Chronic corticosterone intake was sufficient to cause increased anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in a dose-dependent manner. It also disrupted the diurnal pattern of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), corticosterone, and glucose concentrations, caused adrenal atrophy, and prevented regular weight gain. No diurnal or treatment-dependent changes were found for plasma levels of IL-6. Remarkably, all doses of corticosterone treatment abolished the diurnal variation of tph2 mRNA expression in the brainstem dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) by elevating the gene’s expression during the animals’ inactive (light) phase. Our data demonstrate that chronic elevation of corticosterone creates a vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome that is associated with increased tph2 expression, similar to that observed in depressed patients. PMID:21924839

  1. Non-invasive quantification of brain glycogen absolute concentration

    PubMed Central

    van Heeswijk, Ruud B.; Xin, Lijing; Laus, Sabrina; Frenkel, Hanne; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The only currently available method to measure brain glycogen in vivo is 13C NMR spectroscopy. Incorporation of 13C-labeled glucose (Glc) is necessary to allow glycogen measurement, but might be affected by turnover changes. Our aim was to measure glycogen absolute concentration in the rat brain by eliminating label turnover as variable. The approach is based on establishing an increased, constant 13C isotopic enrichment (IE). 13C-Glc infusion is then performed at the IE of brain glycogen. As glycogen IE cannot be assessed in vivo, we validated that it can be inferred from that of N-acetyl-aspartate IE in vivo: After [1-13C]-Glc ingestion, glycogen IE was 2.2 ± 0.1 fold that of N-acetyl-aspartate (n = 11, R2 = 0.77). After subsequent Glc infusion, glycogen IE equaled brain Glc IE (n = 6, paired t-test, p = 0.37), implying isotopic steady-state achievement and complete turnover of the glycogen molecule. Glycogen concentration measured in vivo by 13C NMR (mean ± SD: 5.8 ± 0.7 μmol/g) was in excellent agreement with that in vitro (6.4 ± 0.6 μmol/g, n = 5). When insulin was administered, the stability of glycogen concentration was analogous to previous biochemical measurements implying that glycogen turnover is activated by insulin. We conclude that the entire glycogen molecule is turned over and that insulin activates glycogen turnover. PMID:19013831

  2. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  3. Behavioural Outcomes of Four-Year-Old Children Prenatally Exposed to Methadone or Buprenorphine: A Test of Three Risk Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    It is still under debate whether the reported effects of opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) on child behaviour are a direct effect of prenatal exposure, or whether other factors are involved. This prospective cohort study investigated three models: the teratogenic risk model, the maternal risk model, and a combined risk model in a group of 35…

  4. Prenatal diagnosis after ART success: the role of early combined screening tests in counselling pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    Ghisoni, L; Ferrazzi, E; Castagna, C; Levi Setti, P E; Masini, A C; Pigni, A

    2003-10-01

    First-trimester Down syndrome screening may cause a higher false positive rate in pregnant patients who have undergone ART (assisted reproductive technologies). The aim of this paper is to contribute to this analysis with the second largest series of combined biophysical and biochemical tests in the first trimester of pregnancy after ART. One hundred and forty-two singleton successful ART pregnancies were selected for this study: 50 pregnancies induced by using in-vitro fertilization (IVF), and 92 using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Each patient was matched with three naturally conceived pregnancies based on maternal age and gestational age. Free beta-HCG and PAPP-A were measured on dried blood spots and converted to MoMs. Nuchal translucency (NT) was measured by certified operators. Mean maternal age was 33 +/- 4. NT, free beta-HCG and PAPP-A values of the control cases were not significantly different from local standards evaluated on 3043 cases. NT between ART pregnancies and matched controls was not significantly different. PAPP-A was reduced but not significantly lower in ART pregnancies. Free beta-HCG was the only analyte that resulted in significantly higher values in ART pregnancies (1.12 MoM) versus controls (0.99 MoM). No significant differences were found for biochemical values observed between ICSI and IVF patients. The screen positive rates observed in ART and control pregnancies were 5.5 per cent and 4.6 per cent respectively. NT measurements were not affected by ART pregnancies. Our results (non-significant lower values of PAPP-A and significantly higher free beta-HCG values) were consistent with other reported series. The increase in the screen positive rate determined by these biological variations was not greater than 0.9 per cent. This higher false positive rate has a negligible impact on counselling ART patients. The algorithm used to calculate the relative risk after the combined tests should not be changed until the detection rate

  5. A real-time, non-invasive, micro-optrode technique for detecting seed viability by using oxygen influx.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xia; Wan, Yinglang; Wang, Wenjun; Yin, Guangkun; McLamore, Eric S; Lu, Xinxiong

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying seed viability is required for seed bank maintenance. The classical methods for detecting seed viability are time consuming and frequently cause seed damage and unwanted germination. We have established a novel micro-optrode technique (MOT) to measure seed viability in a quick and non-invasive manner by measuring the oxygen influxes of intact seeds, approximately 10 seconds to screen one seed. Here, we used soybean, wheat, and oilseed rape as models to test our method. After 3-hour imbibition, oxygen influxes were recorded in real-time with the total measurement taking less than 5 minutes. The results indicated a significantly positive correlation between oxygen influxes and viability in all 3 seed types. We also established a linear equation between oxygen influxes and seed viability for each seed type. For measurements, seeds were kept in the early imbibition stage without germination. Thus, MOT is a reliable, quick, and low-cost seed viability detecting technique. PMID:24162185

  6. A potential method for non-invasive acute myocardial infarction detection based on saliva Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Huang, Zufang; Lin, Jinyong; Lin, Jia; Xu, Zhihong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Weng, Guoxing; Chen, Guannan

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was employed for human saliva biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a rapidly non-invasive test for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. High-quality Raman spectra were obtained from human saliva samples of 46 AMI patients and 43 healthy controls. Significant differences in Raman intensities of prominent bands were observed between AMI and normal saliva. The tentative assignment of the observed Raman bands indicated constituent and conformational differences between the two groups. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and classify the Raman spectra acquired from AMI and healthy saliva, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 81.4%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility and potential for developing RS analysis of human saliva into a clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  7. Non-invasive, MRI-compatible fibreoptic device for functional near-IR reflectometry of human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sorvoja, H.S.S.; Myllylae, T S; Myllylae, Risto A; Kirillin, M Yu; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A; Elseoud, A A; Nikkinen, J; Tervonen, O; Kiviniemi, V

    2011-01-24

    A non-invasive device for measuring blood oxygen variations in human brain is designed, implemented, and tested for MRI compatibility. The device is based on principles of near-IR reflectometry; power LEDs serve as sources of probing radiation delivered to patient skin surface through optical fibres. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations of probing radiation propagation in a multilayer brain model are performed to evaluate signal levels at different source - detector separations at three operation wavelengths and an additional wavelength of 915 nm. It is shown that the device can be applied for brain activity studies using power LEDs operating at 830 and 915 nm, while employment of wavelength of 660 nm requires an increased probing power. Employment of the wavelength of 592 nm in the current configuration is unreasonable. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  8. Non-Invasive in vivo Mapping and Long-Term Monitoring of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Different Organs of Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Maxim; Yuriev, Mikhail; Brusentsov, Nikolai; Vetoshko, Petr; Nikitin, Petr

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative detection of magnetic nanoparticles (MP) in vivo is very important for various biomedical applications. Our original detection method based on non-linear MP magnetization has been modified for non-invasive in vivo mapping of the MP distribution among different organs of rats. A novel highly sensitive room-temperature device equipped with an external probe has been designed and tested for quantification of MP within 20-mm depth from the animal skin. Results obtained by external in vivo scanning of rats by the probe and ex vivo MP quantification in different organs of rats well correlated. The method allows long-term in vivo study of MP evolution, clearance and redistribution among different organs of the animal. Experiments showed that dynamics in vivo strongly depend on MP characteristics (size, material, coatings, etc.), site of injection and dose. The developed detection method combined with the magnetic nanolabels can substitute the radioactive labeling in many applications.

  9. Prenatal SNP array testing in 1000 fetuses with ultrasound anomalies: causative, unexpected and susceptibility CNVs.

    PubMed

    Srebniak, Malgorzata I; Diderich, Karin Em; Joosten, Marieke; Govaerts, Lutgarde Cp; Knijnenburg, Jeroen; de Vries, Femke At; Boter, Marjan; Lont, Debora; Knapen, Maarten Fcm; de Wit, Merel C; Go, Attie Tji; Galjaard, Robert-Jan H; Van Opstal, Diane

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array testing in 1033 fetuses with ultrasound anomalies we investigated the prevalence and genetic nature of pathogenic findings. We reclassified all pathogenic findings into three categories: causative findings; unexpected diagnoses (UD); and susceptibility loci (SL) for neurodevelopmental disorders. After exclusion of trisomy 13, 18, 21, sex-chromosomal aneuploidy and triploidies, in 76/1033 (7.4%) fetuses a pathogenic chromosome abnormality was detected by genomic SNP array: in 19/1033 cases (1.8%) a microscopically detectable abnormality was found and in 57/1033 (5.5%) fetuses a pathogenic submicroscopic chromosome abnormality was detected. 58% (n=44) of all these pathogenic chromosome abnormalities involved a causative finding, 35% (n=27) a SL for neurodevelopmental disorder, and 6% (n=5) a UD of an early-onset untreatable disease. In 0.3% of parental samples an incidental pathogenic finding was encountered. Our results confirm that a genomic array should be the preferred first-tier technique in fetuses with ultrasound anomalies. All UDs involved early-onset diseases, which is beneficial for the patients to know. It also seems that UDs occur at a comparable frequency among microscopic and submicroscopic pathogenic findings. SL were more often detected than in pregnancies without ultrasound anomalies. PMID:26328504

  10. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and infant stress response: Test of a prenatal programming hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Rodriguez, Daniel; McCallum, Meaghan; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Lester, Barry; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is associated with early and long-term neurobehavioral deficits; however mechanisms remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that MSDP programs the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis of the offspring leading to adverse outcomes. In an intensive, prospective study, we investigated associations between MSDP and infant cortisol stress response and explored whether alterations in cortisol response were mediated by epigenetic modulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1). Methods Participants were 100 healthy mother-infant pairs (53% MSDP-exposed; 42% female) from a low income, racially/ethnically diverse sample (55% minorities). MSDP was assessed by timeline followback interview verified by saliva and meconium cotinine. Infant cortisol responses to a neurobehavioral exam were assessed 7 times over the first postnatal month. Methylation of placental NR3C1 promoter exon 1F was assessed using bisulfite pyrosequencing in a subsample (n=45). Results MSDP-exposed infants showed significantly and persistently attenuated basal and reactive cortisol levels over the first postnatal month vs. unexposed infants. Exploratory analyses revealed that MSDP was associated with altered methylation of the placental NR3C1 promoter; degree of methylation of the placental NR3C1 was associated with infant basal and reactive cortisol over the first postnatal month and mediated effects of MSDP on infant basal cortisol. Conclusions Results provide initial support for our hypothesis that MSDP programs offspring HPA (dys) regulation. Epigenetic regulation of placental GR may serve as a novel underlying mechanism. Results may have implications for delineating pathways to adverse outcomes from MSDP. PMID:24999830

  11. Near-infrared oxymeter biosensor prototype for non-invasive in vivo analysis of rat brain oxygenation: effects of drugs of abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespi, F.; Donini, M.; Bandera, A.; Congestri, F.; Formenti, F.; Sonntag, V.; Heidbreder, C.; Rovati, L.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive analysis of brain activities was studied in the attempt to overcome the major limitation of actual in vivo methodologies, i.e. invasiveness. Optic fibre probes were used as the optical head of a novel, highly sensitive near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (CW-NIR) instrument. This prototype was designed for non-invasive analysis of the two main forms of haemoglobin: oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-haemoglobin (Hb), chromophores present in