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Sample records for non-ionic water-soluble contrast

  1. Diagnostic image quality of hysterosalpingography: ionic versus non ionic water soluble iodinated contrast media

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nor, H; Jayapragasam, KJ; Abdullah, BJJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic image quality between three different water soluble iodinated contrast media in hysterosalpingography (HSG). Material and method In a prospective randomised study of 204 patients, the diagnostic quality of images obtained after hysterosalpingography were evaluated using Iopramide (106 patients) and Ioxaglate (98 patients). 114 patients who had undergone HSG examination using Iodamide were analysed retrospectively. Image quality was assessed by three radiologists independently based on an objective set of criteria. The obtained results were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results Visualisation of fimbrial rugae was significantly better with Iopramide and Ioxaglate than Iodamide. All contrast media provided acceptable diagnostic image quality with regard to uterine, fallopian tubes outline and peritoneal spill. Uterine opacification was noted to be too dense in all three contrast media and not optimal for the assessment of intrauterine pathology. Higher incidence of contrast intravasation was noted in the Iodamide group. Similarly, the numbers of patients diagnosed with bilateral blocked fallopian tubes were also higher in the Iodamide group. Conclusion HSG using low osmolar contrast media (Iopramide and Ioxaglate) demonstrated diagnostic image qualities similar to HSG using conventional high osmolar contrast media (Iodamide). However, all three contrast media were found to be too dense for the detection of intrauterine pathology. Better visualisation of the fimbrial outline using Ioxaglate and Iopramide were attributed to their low contrast viscosity. The increased incidence of contrast media intravasation and bilateral tubal blockage using Iodamide are probably related to the high viscosity. PMID:21611058

  2. A non-ionic water-soluble seed gum from Ipomoea campanulata.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Pandey, M; Srivastava, A; Sethi, R

    2003-02-01

    A non-ionic water-soluble galactomannan, having galactose and mannose in 2:3 molar ratio was isolated from endosperm of the seeds of Ipomoea campanulata. The seed gum was found to have linear chain of beta (1-->4) linked mannopyranosyl units with D-galactose side chains attached through alpha (1-->6) linkage to the main chain. This structure is similar to many commercial gums like Guar, Carob and Locust bean gum. Various physical properties of the gum were studied in order to explore the possibility of commercial exploitation of the seed gum. PMID:12628393

  3. Torsten Almén (1931-2016): the father of non-ionic iodine contrast media.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Ulf; Ekberg, Olle; Aspelin, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The Swedish radiologist Torsten Almén is the first clinical radiologist ever to have made a fundamental contribution to intravascular contrast medium design, the development of non-ionic contrast media. He became emotionally triggered by the patients' severe pain each time he injected the ionic "high-osmolar" contrast media when performing peripheral arteriographies in the early 1960s. One day he got a flash of genius that combined the observation of pain, a pathophysiological theory and how to eliminate it with suitable contrast media chemistry. After self-studies in chemistry he developed the concept of iodine contrast media not dissociating into ions in solution to reduce their osmolality and even reach plasma isotonicity. He offered several pharmaceutical companies his concept of mono- and polymeric non-ionic agents but without response, since it was considered against the chemical laws of that time. Contrast media constructed as salts and dissociating into ions in solution was regarded an absolute necessity to achieve high enough water solubility and concentration for diagnostic purposes. Finally a small Norwegian company, Nyegaard & Co., took up his idea 1968 and together they developed the essentially painless "low-osmolar" monomeric non-ionic metrizamide (Amipaque) released in 1974 and iohexol (Omipaque) in 1982 followed by the "iso-osmolar" dimeric non-ionic iodixanol (Visipaque) released in 1993. This has implied a profound paradigm shift with regard to reduction of both hypertonic and chemotoxic side effects, which have been a prerequisite for the today's widespread use of contrast medium-enhanced CT and advanced endovascular interventional techniques even in fragile patients. PMID:27225455

  4. The size and shape of three water-soluble, non-ionic polysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dalheim, Marianne Øksnes; Arnfinnsdottir, Nina Bjørk; Widmalm, Göran; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2016-05-20

    Three water-soluble, non-ionic extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) obtained from lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus THS, L. helveticus K16 and S. thermophilus ST1) were subjected to a comparative study by means of multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, providing distributions and averages of molar masses, radii of gyration and intrinsic viscosities. All polysaccharides displayed random coil character. Further analysis of the data reveals differences in chain stiffness and extension that could be well correlated to structural features. The calculated persistence lengths ranged from 5 to 10nm and fall within the range typical for many single-stranded bacterial or plant polysaccharides. The ST1 polysaccharide had the highest molar mass but the lowest persistence length, which is attributed to the presence of the flexible (1→6)-linkage in the main chain. PMID:26917378

  5. Ex vivo micro-CT imaging of murine brain models using non-ionic iodinated contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Bautista, N.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Murrieta-Rodríguez, T.; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, J.; Franco-Pérez, J.; Calvillo-Velasco, M. E.

    2014-11-01

    Preclinical investigation of brain tumors is frequently carried out by means of intracranial implantation of brain tumor xenografts or allografts, with subsequent analysis of tumor growth using conventional histopathology. However, very little has been reported on the use contrast-enhanced techniques in micro-CT imaging for the study of malignant brain tumors in small animal models. The aim of this study has been to test a protocol for ex vivo imaging of murine brain models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) after treatment with non-ionic iodinated solution, using an in-house developed laboratory micro-CT. We have found that the best compromise between acquisition time and image quality is obtained using a 50 kVp, 0.5 mAs, 1° angular step on a 360 degree orbit acquisition protocol, with 70 μm reconstructed voxel size using the Feldkamp algorithm. With this parameters up to 4 murine brains can be scanned in tandem in less than 15 minutes. Image segmentation and analysis of three sample brains allowed identifying tumor volumes as small as 0.4 mm3.

  6. [General pharmacological study of iodixanol, a new non-ionic isotonic contrast medium].

    PubMed

    Takasuna, K; Kasai, Y; Kitano, Y; Mori, K; Kobayashi, R; Makino, M; Hagiwara, T; Hirohashi, M; Nomura, M; Algate, D R

    1995-10-01

    The general pharmacological study of iodixanol, a non-ionic isotonic contrast medium, was conducted. 1) Iodixanol administered intravenously over a dose range of 320 to 3,200 mgI/kg had little or no effect on the general behavior, spontaneous locomotor activity, hexobarbital sleeping time, pain response, electroshock- or pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion (mouse), EEG or body temperature (rabbit), gastrointestinal propulsion (mouse) or skeletal muscle contraction (rabbit). Iodixanol had no specific interaction with acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, nicotin, BaCl2 (ileum), methacholine (trachea), isoprenaline (atrium) or oxytocin (pregnant uterus), nor had any effect on spontaneous contractility (atrium and uterus), or transmural electrostimulation-induced contractility (vas deferens) at concentrations of < or = 3.2 x 10(-3) gI/ml in vitro. Iodixanol had no effect on the cardiovascular system of dog, except that it increased femoral blood flow and respiratory rate at doses of > or = 1,000 mgI/kg. Iodixanol at 3,200 mgI/kg i.v. reduced urine output with a decrease in Na+ and Cl- excretion, whereas at 320 mgI/kg i.v., it slightly increased urine output (rat). 2) Injections of iodixanol into the cerebroventricular (0.96, 9.6 mgI/mouse and 3.2, 32 mgI/rat), left ventricular (1,920, 6,400 mgI/dog) or coronary artery (640, 1,920 mgI/dog) had no conspicuous effect on the central nervous system or the cardiovascular system, respectively. There was no marked difference among iodixanol, iohexol and iopamidol in this respect. Vascular pain during injection into the femoral artery (300-320 mgI/guinea pig) appeared to be less intense with iodixanol, compared with the other contrast media iohexol and iopamidol. These results suggest that intravenous injection of iodixanol is relatively free from pharmacological activity, and effects of iodixanol on the central nervous system (intracerebroventricular injection) and cardiovascular system (intra-left ventricular and -coronary

  7. Ventriculography and cisternography with water-soluble contrast media in infants with myelomeningocele

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.; Nakamura, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tajima, M.; Kageyama, N.

    1982-04-01

    Fifty-four newborn infants with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus were studied by ventriculography using water-soluble contrast media; 20 were also studied by metrizamide myeloencephalography and computerized tomographic (CT) cisternography. Ventriculography suggested that the aqueduct was patent in all cases. Outflow of contrast medium from the fourth ventricle was slow in most cases, complete obstruction was seen in 15%, communication was delayed at the outlet in 54%, and rather free communication was observedin 31%. Metrizamide myeloencephalography and CT cisternography suggested a partial block at the level of the ambient cisterns in approximately one-third of infants. These findings support the concept that flow of cerebrospinal fluid is reduced in several areas. Aqueductal stenosis was not considered an important factor in hydrocephalus, while the most important site of obstruction was felt to be the lowest portion of the fourth ventricle.

  8. Water-Soluble Spinel Ferrites by a Modified Polyol Process as Contrast Agents in MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Basina, Georgia; Tzitzios, Vasilis; Niarchos, Dimitris; Li Wanfeng; Khurshid, Hafsa; Hadjipanayis, George; Mao Hui; Hadjipanayis, Costas

    2010-12-02

    Magnetic nanoparticles have recently been very attractive for biomedical applications. In this study, we have synthesized ferrite nanoparticles for application as contrast agents in MRI experiments. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrites with a mean size of 11-12 nm, were prepared by a modified polyol route in commercially available polyethylene glycol with molecular weight 600 (PEG-600). The reaction takes place in the presence of water soluble and non-toxic tri-block copolymer known as Pluronic registered F-127 (PEO{sub 100}-PPO{sub 65}-PEO{sub 100}). The nanoparticles have saturation magnetization values of 52 and 68 emu/g for MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, respectively. Both the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles make stable solutions in water known as ferrofluids. Preliminary data demonstrated the capability of these nanoparticles to induce imaging contrast in T{sub 2} weighted MRI experiments, making these materials suitable for biomedical applications such as medical MRI.

  9. Non-ionic contrast media induces oxidative stress and apoptosis through Ca²⁺ influx in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kayan, Mustafa; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Ovey, Ishak Suat; Aykur, Mehmet; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Yürekli, Vedat Ali

    2012-12-01

    Non-ionic contrast media (CM) can induce tissue kidney injury via activation of phagocytosis and oxidative stress, although the mechanisms of injury via neutrophils are not clear. We investigated the effects of CM on oxidative stress and Ca²⁺ concentrations in serum and neutrophils of humans. Ten migraine patients were used in the study. Serum and neutrophil samples from patients' peripheral blood were obtained before (control) and 30 min after non-ionic (iopromide) CM injection. The neutrophils were incubated with non specific transient receptor potential 2 (TRPM2) channel blocker, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), and voltage gated Ca²⁺ channel blockers, verapamil plus diltiazem. Serum and neutrophil lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations levels were higher in the CM group than in controls. The neutrophilic reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels as well as serum vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were lower in the CM group than in controls. Neutrophil lipid peroxidation levels were lower in the CM+2-APB and CM+verapamil-diltiazem groups than in the CM group, although GSH, GSH-Px and intracellular Ca²⁺ values increased in the CM+2-APB and CM+verapamil-diltiazem groups. However, caspase-3, caspase-9, vitamin A and vitamin C values were unaltered by CM treatment. In conclusion, we observed that CM induced oxidative stress and Ca²⁺ influx by decreasing vitamin E, β-carotene and Ca²⁺ release levels in human serum and neutrophils. However, we observed protective effects of Ca²⁺ channel blockers on Ca²⁺ influx in neutrophils. PMID:22903554

  10. Non-ionic Gd-based MRI contrast agents are optimal for encapsulation into phosphatidyldiglycerol-based thermosensitive liposomes.

    PubMed

    Hossann, Martin; Wang, Tungte; Syunyaeva, Zulfiya; Wiggenhorn, Michael; Zengerle, Anja; Issels, Rolf D; Reiser, Maximilian; Lindner, Lars H; Peller, Michael

    2013-02-28

    Thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) with encapsulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation time (T(1)) contrast agents (CAs) have been proposed for MRI assisted interventional thermotherapy in solid tumors. Here the feasibility of 6 clinically approved CAs (Gd-DTPA, Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DOTA, Gd-BT-DO3A, Gd-DTPA-BMA, and Gd-HP-DO3A) for formulation into TSL was investigated. CAs were passively encapsulated with 323 mOs kg(-1) into 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphodiglycerol 50/20/30 (mol/mol) TSL (DPPG(2)-TSL) to obtain stable formulations. T(1) relaxivity (r(1)) and diffusive permeability to water (P(d)) across the membrane were determined. Shelf life at 4°C was investigated by determining lysolipid content up to 10 weeks after preparation. All preparations were monodispersed with comparable small vesicle sizes (~135 nm). Neither zeta potential nor phase transition temperature (T(m)) was affected by the CA. The formulations showed an increase in r(1) in the temperature range between 38 and 44°C. This correlated with the phase transition. Change in r(1) (Δr(1)=r(1)(45.3°C)-r(1)(37.6°C)) and r(1) (Tnon-ionic Gd-BT-DO3A, Gd-DTPA-BMA, and Gd-HP-DO3A. All CAs except Gd-DTPA-BMA induced phospholipid hydrolysis, which resulted in unwanted CA leakage. The serum proteins HSA and IgG both contributed to the increase of MRI signal at 30°C by increasing P(d). A high concentration of encapsulated CA is a prerequisite to achieve a sufficiently high Δr(1) during heat triggered CA release combined with a low r(1) at 37°C. Hence, the optimal CA is characterized by a non-ionic structure and a low contribution to osmolality. PMID:23246469

  11. Efficient labeling in vitro with non-ionic gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent and fluorescent transfection agent in bone marrow stromal cells of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Qin; Tang, Ying; Fu, Rao; Meng, Qiu-Hua; Zhou, Xue; Ling, Ze-Min; Cheng, Xiao; Tian, Su-Wei; Wang, Guo-Jie; Liu, Xue-Guo; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Although studies have been undertaken on gadolinium labeling-based molecular imaging in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the use of non-ionic gadolinium in the tracking of stem cells remains uncommon. To investigate the efficiency in tracking of stem cells with non-ionic gadolinium as an MRI contrast agent, a rhodamine-conjugated fluorescent reagent was used to label bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of neonatal rats in vitro, and MRI scanning was undertaken. The fluorescent-conjugated cell uptake reagents were able to deliver gadodiamide into BMSCs, and cell uptake was verified using flow cytometry. In addition, the labeled stem cells with paramagnetic contrast medium remained detectable by an MRI monitor for a minimum of 28 days. The present study suggested that this method can be applied efficiently and safely for the labeling and tracking of bone marrow stromal cells in neonatal rats. PMID:25816076

  12. Efficient labeling in vitro with non-ionic gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent and fluorescent transfection agent in bone marrow stromal cells of neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    LI, YING-QIN; TANG, YING; FU, RAO; MENG, QIU-HUA; ZHOU, XUE; LING, ZE-MIN; CHENG, XIAO; TIAN, SU-WEI; WANG, GUO-JIE; LIU, XUE-GUO; ZHOU, LI-HUA

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have been undertaken on gadolinium labeling-based molecular imaging in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the use of non-ionic gadolinium in the tracking of stem cells remains uncommon. To investigate the efficiency in tracking of stem cells with non-ionic gadolinium as an MRI contrast agent, a rhodamine-conjugated fluorescent reagent was used to label bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of neonatal rats in vitro, and MRI scanning was undertaken. The fluorescent-conjugated cell uptake reagents were able to deliver gadodiamide into BMSCs, and cell uptake was verified using flow cytometry. In addition, the labeled stem cells with paramagnetic contrast medium remained detectable by an MRI monitor for a minimum of 28 days. The present study suggested that this method can be applied efficiently and safely for the labeling and tracking of bone marrow stromal cells in neonatal rats. PMID:25816076

  13. Use of computed tomography-lymphangiography with direct injection of water-soluble contrast medium to identify the origin of chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Otake, Kohei; Uchida, Keiichi; Inoue, Mikihiro; Koike, Yuhki; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Contrast lymphangiography is a useful technique to determine the site of lymphatic leakage in the patient with chylous ascites. Conventional lymphangiography with lipid-soluble contrast material carries the disadvantage of complications, such as oil emboli and lymphedema. The authors report a successful case of computed tomography (CT)-lymphangiography with direct injection of water-soluble contrast medium into a lower limb lymphatic vessel to determine the site of lymphatic leakage in a pediatric patient with refractory primary chylous ascites. The patient subsequently underwent laparoscopic ligation of the leaking site and recovered well. This novel technique offers superior potential for preoperative assessment and the planning of laparoscopic repair. PMID:26993687

  14. Clinical observation of the adverse drug reactions caused by non-ionic iodinated contrast media: results from 109,255 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, X; Chen, J; Zhang, L; Liu, H; Wang, S; Chen, X; Fang, J; Wang, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the pattern and factors that influence the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by non-ionic iodinated contrast media and to evaluate their safety profiles. Methods: Data from 109,255 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination from 1 January 2008 to 31 August 2013 were analysed. ADRs were classified according to the criteria issued by the American College of Radiology and the Chinese Society of Radiology. Results: A total of 375 (0.34%) patients had ADRs, including 281 mild (0.26%); 80 moderate (0.07%); and 14 severe (0.01%) ADRs; no death was found. 302 (80.53%) of the ADRs occurred within 15 min after examination. Patients aged 40–49 years (204 cases, 0.43%; p < 0.01) or who underwent coronary CT angiography (93 cases, 0.61%; p < 0.01) were at a higher risk of ADRs. Female patients (180 cases, 0.40%; p < 0.01) or outpatients had significantly higher incidence rates of ADRs. The symptoms and signs of most of the ADRs were resolved spontaneously within 24 h after appropriate treatment without sequelae. Conclusion: The occurrence of ADRs is caused by the combined effects of multiple factors. The ADRs induced by non-ionic iodinated contrast media are mainly mild ones, while moderate or severe ADRs are relatively rare, suggesting that enhanced CT examination with non-ionic iodinated contrast media is highly safe, and severe adverse events will seldom occur under appropriate care. Advances in knowledge: The study included 109,255 patients enrolled in various types of enhanced CT examinations, which could reflect ADR conditions and regulations in Chinese population accurately and reliably. PMID:25582519

  15. Water-soluble perylenediimides: design concepts and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; Müllen, Klaus; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-03-21

    Water-soluble perylenediimides (PDIs) with high fluorescence intensity, photostability and biocompatibility have been successfully prepared and applied in the biological field. In this tutorial review, we briefly focus on the synthetic strategies for the preparation of water-soluble PDIs by incorporating ionic or non-ionic substituents with multiple polar groups into the bay-region, imide- or ortho-positions of PDIs. These ionic/non-ionic substituents can suppress π-π aggregation and shield the inner perylene chromophores, thus contributing to the water solubility which is essential for biological applications. The optical properties, absorption and emission maxima above 500 nm, minimize the autofluorescence background of cells and provide access to imaging in living cells. The biological applications of water-soluble PDIs are discussed from simple (basic) to complex (advanced) processes, including biosensing in vitro studies, imaging and gene/drug delivering in living cells, tissues and the whole body. The promising future of designed multi-functional water-soluble PDIs will be highlighted in this review. PMID:26797049

  16. Developmental and growth controls of tillering and water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation in contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes: can we dissect them?

    PubMed Central

    Dreccer, M. Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    In wheat, tillering and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) in the stem are potential traits for adaptation to different environments and are of interest as targets for selective breeding. This study investigated the observation that a high stem WSC concentration (WSCc) is often related to low tillering. The proposition tested was that stem WSC accumulation is plant density dependent and could be an emergent property of tillering, whether driven by genotype or by environment. A small subset of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) contrasting for tillering was grown at different plant densities or on different sowing dates in multiple field experiments. Both tillering and WSCc were highly influenced by the environment, with a smaller, distinct genotypic component; the genotype×environment range covered 350–750 stems m–2 and 25–210mg g–1 WSCc. Stem WSCc was inversely related to stem number m–2, but genotypic rankings for stem WSCc persisted when RILs were compared at similar stem density. Low tillering–high WSCc RILs had similar leaf area index, larger individual leaves, and stems with larger internode cross-section and wall area when compared with high tillering–low WSCc RILs. The maximum number of stems per plant was positively associated with growth and relative growth rate per plant, tillering rate and duration, and also, in some treatments, with leaf appearance rate and final leaf number. A common threshold of the red:far red ratio (0.39–0.44; standard error of the difference=0.055) coincided with the maximum stem number per plant across genotypes and plant densities, and could be effectively used in crop simulation modelling as a ‘cut-off’ rule for tillering. The relationship between tillering, WSCc, and their component traits, as well as the possible implications for crop simulation and breeding, is discussed. PMID:23213136

  17. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited

  18. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  19. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  20. Oxidative potential of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 measured by Dithiothreitol (DTT) and Ascorbic Acid (AA) assays in the southeastern United States: contrasts in sources and health associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T.; Verma, V.; Bates, J. T.; Abrams, J.; Klein, M.; Strickland, M. J.; Sarnat, S. E.; Chang, H. H.; Mulholland, J. A.; Tolbert, P. E.; Russell, A. G.; Weber, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    The ability of certain components of particulate matter to induce oxidative stress through catalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo may be one mechanism accounting for observed linkages between ambient aerosols and adverse health outcomes. A variety of assays have been used to measure this so-called aerosol oxidative potential. We developed a semi-automated system to quantify oxidative potential of filter aqueous extracts utilizing the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and have recently developed a similar semi-automated system using the ascorbic acid (AA) assay. Approximately 500 PM2.5 filter samples collected in contrasting locations in the southeastern US were analyzed using both assays. We found that water-soluble DTT activity on a per air volume basis was more spatially uniform than water-soluble AA activity. DTT activity was higher in winter than in summer/fall, whereas AA activity was higher in summer/fall compared to winter, with highest levels near highly trafficked highways. DTT activity was correlated with organic and metal species, whereas AA activity was correlated with water-soluble metals (especially water-soluble Cu, r=0.70-0.91 at most sites). Source apportionment models, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and a Chemical Mass Balance Method with ensemble-averaged source impact profiles (CMB-E), suggest a strong contribution from secondary processes (e.g., organic aerosol oxidation or metal mobilization by formation of an aqueous particle with secondary acids) and traffic emissions to both DTT and AA activities in urban Atlanta. Biomass burning was a large source for DTT activity, but insignificant for AA. DTT activity was well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r=0.49-0.86 across sites/seasons), while AA activity did not co-vary strongly with mass. A linear model was developed to estimate DTT and AA activities for the central Atlanta Jefferson Street site, based on the CMB-E sources that are statistically significant with positive

  1. Non-ionic PAG behavior under high energy exposure sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Noga, David E.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2009-03-01

    A series of non-ionic PAGs were synthesized and their acid generation efficiency measured under deep ultraviolet and electron beam exposures. The acid generation efficiency was determined with an on-wafer method that uses spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the absorbance of an acid sensitive dye (Coumarin 6). Under DUV exposures, common ionic onium salt PAGs showed excellent photoacid generation efficiency, superior to most non-ionic PAGS tested in this work. In contrast, under 100 keV high energy e-beam exposures, almost all of the non-ionic PAGs showed significantly better acid generation performance than the ionic onium salt PAGs tested. In particular, one non-ionic PAG showed almost an order of magnitude improvement in the Dill C acid generation rate constant as compared to a triarylsulfonium PAG. The high energy acid generation efficiency was found to correlate well with the electron affinity of the PAGs, suggesting that improvements in PAG design can be predicted. Non-ionic PAGs merit further investigation as a means for producing higher sensitivity resists under high energy exposure sources.

  2. water-soluble fluorocarbon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

  3. Water-soluble l-cysteine-coated FePt nanoparticles as dual MRI/CT imaging contrast agent for glioma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuyan; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Min; Zhu, Yanhong; Wu, Qingzhi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are advantageous for the delivery of diagnosis agents to brain tumors. In this study, we attempted to develop an l-cysteine coated FePt (FePt-Cys) NP as MRI/CT imaging contrast agent for the diagnosis of malignant gliomas. FePt-Cys NPs were synthesized through a co-reduction route, which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The MRI and CT imaging ability of FePt-Cys NPs was evaluated using different gliomas cells (C6, SGH44, U251) as the model. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the as-synthesized FePt-Cys NPs was evaluated using three different cell lines (ECV304, L929, and HEK293) as the model. The results showed that FePt-Cys NPs displayed excellent biocompatibility and good MRI/CT imaging ability, thereby indicating promising potential as a dual MRI/CT contrast agent for the diagnosis of brain malignant gliomas. PMID:25848253

  4. Oxidative potential of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 in the southeastern United States: contrasts in sources and health associations between ascorbic acid (AA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ting; Verma, Vishal; Bates, Josephine T.; Abrams, Joseph; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J.; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Chang, Howard H.; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Russell, Armistead G.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2016-03-01

    The ability of certain components of particulate matter to induce oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo may be one mechanism accounting for observed linkages between ambient aerosols and adverse health outcomes. A variety of assays have been used to measure this so-called aerosol oxidative potential. We developed a semi-automated system to quantify oxidative potential of filter aqueous extracts utilizing the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and report here the development of a similar semi-automated system for the ascorbic acid (AA) assay. Approximately 500 PM2.5 filter samples collected in contrasting locations in the southeastern US were analyzed for a host of aerosol species, along with AA and DTT activities. We present a detailed contrast in findings from these two assays. Water-soluble AA activity was higher in summer and fall than in winter, with highest levels near heavily trafficked highways, whereas DTT activity was higher in winter compared to summer and fall and more spatially homogeneous. AA activity was nearly exclusively correlated with water-soluble Cu (r = 0.70-0.94 at most sites), whereas DTT activity was correlated with organic and metal species. Source apportionment models, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and a chemical mass balance method with ensemble-averaged source impact profiles (CMB-E), suggest a strong contribution from traffic emissions and secondary processes (e.g., organic aerosol oxidation or metals mobilization by secondary acids) to both AA and DTT activities in urban Atlanta. In contrast, biomass burning was a large source for DTT activity, but insignificant for AA. AA activity was not correlated with PM2.5 mass, while DTT activity co-varied strongly with mass (r = 0.49-0.86 across sites and seasons). Various linear models were developed to estimate AA and DTT activities for the central Atlanta Jefferson Street site, based on the CMB-E sources. The models were then used to estimate daily

  5. Ultrafiltration modeling of non-ionic microgels.

    PubMed

    Roa, Rafael; Zholkovskiy, Emiliy K; Nägele, Gerhard

    2015-05-28

    Membrane ultrafiltration (UF) is a pressure driven process allowing for the separation and enrichment of protein solutions and dispersions of nanosized microgel particles. The permeate flux and the near-membrane concentration-polarization (CP) layer in this process is determined by advective-diffusive dispersion transport and the interplay of applied and osmotic transmembrane pressure contributions. The UF performance is thus strongly dependent on the membrane properties, the hydrodynamic structure of the Brownian particles, their direct and hydrodynamic interactions, and the boundary conditions. We present a macroscopic description of cross-flow UF of non-ionic microgels modeled as solvent-permeable spheres. Our filtration model involves recently derived semi-analytic expressions for the concentration-dependent collective diffusion coefficient and viscosity of permeable particle dispersions [Riest et al., Soft Matter, 2015, 11, 2821]. These expressions have been well tested against computer simulation and experimental results. We analyze the CP layer properties and the permeate flux at different operating conditions and discuss various filtration process efficiency and cost indicators. Our results show that the proper specification of the concentration-dependent transport coefficients is important for reliable filtration process predictions. We also show that the solvent permeability of microgels is an essential ingredient to the UF modeling. The particle permeability lowers the particle concentration at the membrane surface, thus increasing the permeate flux. PMID:25921331

  6. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  7. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  8. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  9. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  10. Water-soluble derivatives of 1 -tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Zitko, B A; Howes, J F; Razdan, R K; Dalzell, B C; Dalzell, H C; Sheehan, J C; Pars, H G; Dewey, W L; Harris, L S

    1972-08-01

    Delta1-Tetrahydrocannabinol, which is resinous and insoluble in water and therefore difficult to study pharmacologically, can be converted to a watersoluble derivative without loss of its biological activity. This has been achieved by preparing esters bearing a nitrogen moiety with the use of carbodiimide as the condensing agent. The availability of such water-soluble derivatives will allow the evaluation of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol in self-administration studies in monkeys for its addiction liability potential in man. This technique of water solubilization is also applicable to other compounds of chemical and biological significance. PMID:5043146

  11. Water-soluble titanium alkoxide material

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2010-06-22

    A water soluble, water stable, titanium alkoxide composition represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.6N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.2(CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.2).sub- .3-2,4,6).sub.2 with a theoretical molecular weight of 792.8 and an elemental composition of 63.6% C, 8.1% H, 14.1% N, 8.1% O and 6.0% Ti.

  12. A Water-Soluble Polythiophene for Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Ming; He, Youjun; Hong, Kunlun; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of a non-ionic, water-soluble poly(thiophene) (PT) derivative, poly(3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy)ethoxy) methylthiophene) (P3TEGT) with a hydrophilic tri-ethylene glycol side group, is reported and thin films of the polymer suitable for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are characterized by combining analysis techniques that include UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. After thermal annealing, P3TEGT films exhibit a well-organized nanofibrillar lamellar nanostructure that originates from the strong - stacking of the thiophene backbones. P-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with hole mobilities of 10-5 cm2V-1s-1 were fabricated from this water-soluble poly(thiophene) derivative, demonstrating the possibility that environmentally-friendly solvents may be promising alternatives for the low-cost, green solution-based organic electronic device manufacturing of OFETs, organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and biosensors.

  13. Water solubility in pyrope at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, M.; Karato, S.-

    2006-12-01

    To address how much water is stored within the Earth's mantle, we need to understand the water solubility in the nominally anhydrous minerals. Much is known about olivine and pyroxene. Garnet is another important component, approaching 40% by volume in the transition zone. Only two studies on water solubility in pyrope at high-pressures exist which contradict each other. Lu and Keppler (1997) observed increase in water solubility in a natural pyrope up to 200 ppm wt of water, till 10 GPa. They concluded that the proton is located in the interstitial site. Withers et al. (1998) on the contrary, observed increasing water content in Mg-rich pyrope till 6 GPa, then sudden decrease of water, beyond detection, at 7 GPa. Based on infrared spectra, Withers et al. (1998), concluded hydrogarnet (Si^{4+} replaced by 4H+ to form O4H4) substitution in synthetic magnesium rich pyrope. They argued that at high pressure owing to larger volume, hydrogarnet substitution is unstable and water is expelled out of garnet. In transition zone conditions, however, majorite garnet seems to contain around 600-700 ppm wt of water (Bolfan-Casanova et al. 2000; Katayama et al. 2003). The cause for such discrepancy is not clear and whether garnet could store a significant amount of water at mantle condition is unconstrained. In order to understand the solubility mechanism of water in pyrope at high-pressure, we have conducted high- pressure experiments on naturally occurring single crystals of pyrope garnet (from Arizona, Aines and Rossman, 1984). To ascertain water-saturated conditions, we use olivine single-crystal as an internal standard. Preliminary results indicate that natural pyrope is capable of dissolving water at high-pressures, however, water preferentially enters olivine than in pyrope. We are undertaking systematic study to estimate the solubility of water in pyrope as a function of pressure. This will enable us to develop solubility models to understand the defect mechanisms

  14. Water soluble complexes of carotenoids with arabinogalactan.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, Nikolay E; Leshina, Tatyana V; Meteleva, Elizaveta S; Dushkin, Alexander V; Konovalova, Tatyana A; Kispert, Lowell D

    2009-01-01

    We present the first example of water soluble complexes of carotenoids. The stability and reactivity of carotenoids in the complexes with natural polysaccharide arabinogalactan were investigated by different physicochemical techniques: optical absorption, HPLC, and pulsed EPR spectroscopy. Compared to pure carotenoids, polysaccharide complexes of carotenoids showed enhanced photostability by a factor of 10 in water solutions. A significant decrease by a factor of 20 in the reactivity toward metal ions (Fe(3+)) and reactive oxygen species in solution was detected. On the other hand, the yield and stability of carotenoid radical cations photoproduced on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) were greatly increased. EPR measurements demonstrated efficient charge separation on complex-modified TiO(2) nanoparticles (7 nm). Canthaxanthin radical cations are stable for approximately 10 days at room temperature in this system. The results are important for a variety of carotenoid applications, in the design of artificial light-harvesting, photoredox, and catalytic devices. PMID:19061372

  15. A water-soluble gadolinium metallofullerenol: facile preparation, magnetic properties and magnetic resonance imaging application.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Wang, Taishan; Feng, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ying; Zhen, Mingming; Shu, Chunying; Jiang, Li; Wang, Yuqing; Wang, Chunru

    2016-06-01

    A new water-soluble gadolinium metallofullerenol was prepared through a solid-liquid reaction. It was characterized to have an enhanced effective magnetic moment, and improved T1-weighted relaxivity and magnetic resonance imaging performance in the liver. This material prepared by a facile method has wide application as a contrast agent and biological medicine. PMID:27064096

  16. A water-soluble luminescence oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Castellano, F N; Lakowicz, J R

    1998-02-01

    We developed a water-soluble luminescent probe for dissolved oxygen. This probe is based on (Ru[dpp(SO3Na)2]3) cl2, which is a sulfonated analogue of the well-known oxygen probe (Ru[dpp]3)cl2. The compound dpp is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and dpp(SO3Na)2 is a disulfonated derivative of the same ligand. In aqueous solution in the absence of oxygen (Ru[dpp(SO3Na)2]3)cl2 displays a lifetime of 3.7 microseconds that decreases to 930 ns on equilibrium with air and 227 ns on equilibrium with 100% oxygen. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant is 11,330 M-1. This high oxygen-quenching constant means that the photoluminescence of Ru(dpp[SO3Na]2)3cl2 is 10% quenched at an oxygen concentration of 8.8 x 10(-6) M, or equilibration with 5.4 torr of oxygen. The oxygen probe dissolved in water displays minimal interactions with lipid vesicles composed of dipalmityl-L-alpha-phosphatidyl glycerol but does appear to interact with human serum albumin. The absorption maximum near 480 nm, long lifetime and large Stokes' shift allow this probe to be used with simple instrumentation based on a light-emitting diode light source, allowing low-cost oxygen sensing in aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first practical water-soluble oxygen sensor. PMID:9487796

  17. Ice nucleation by water-soluble macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, B. G.; Budke, C.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Niedermeier, D.; Felgitsch, L.; Kampf, C. J.; Huber, R. G.; Liedl, K. R.; Loerting, T.; Moschen, T.; Schauperl, M.; Tollinger, M.; Morris, C. E.; Wex, H.; Grothe, H.; Pöschl, U.; Koop, T.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.

    2015-04-01

    Cloud glaciation is critically important for the global radiation budget (albedo) and for initiation of precipitation. But the freezing of pure water droplets requires cooling to temperatures as low as 235 K. Freezing at higher temperatures requires the presence of an ice nucleator, which serves as a template for arranging water molecules in an ice-like manner. It is often assumed that these ice nucleators have to be insoluble particles. We point out that also free macromolecules which are dissolved in water can efficiently induce ice nucleation: the size of such ice nucleating macromolecules (INMs) is in the range of nanometers, corresponding to the size of the critical ice embryo. As the latter is temperature-dependent, we see a correlation between the size of INMs and the ice nucleation temperature as predicted by classical nucleation theory. Different types of INMs have been found in a wide range of biological species and comprise a variety of chemical structures including proteins, saccharides, and lipids. Our investigation of the fungal species Acremonium implicatum, Isaria farinosa, and Mortierella alpina shows that their ice nucleation activity is caused by proteinaceous water-soluble INMs. We combine these new results and literature data on INMs from fungi, bacteria, and pollen with theoretical calculations to develop a chemical interpretation of ice nucleation and water-soluble INMs. This has atmospheric implications since many of these INMs can be released by fragmentation of the carrier cell and subsequently may be distributed independently. Up to now, this process has not been accounted for in atmospheric models.

  18. Teratogenicity and metabolism of water-soluble forms of vitamin A in the pregnant rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, D.B.; Barua, A.B.; Olson, J.A. )

    1990-02-26

    Retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, unlike retinoic acid, has been shown to be non-teratogenic when administered orally, even in large doses, to pregnant rats. The degree to which water-solubility is associated with low teratogenicity is not known. Other water-soluble forms of vitamin A have now been synthesized in our laboratory and are being evaluated for teratogenicity. New water-soluble forms of vitamin A were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a single dose of 0.35 mmole/kg bw on day 8 of gestation. On day 19, the dams were sacrificed and the litters were examined. Control animals received either vehicle only or an equivalent dose of all-trans retinoic acid. Maternal and fetal tissues were taken and analyzed by HPLC for vitamin A metabolites. In another experiment, a large single oral dose of the radiolabelled water-soluble compound was administered on day 10. At either 30 minutes or 1 hour after the dose, dams were sacrificed and the embryos analyzed both for radioactivity and for specific metabolites. In contrast to retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, retinoyl {beta}-glucose is highly teratogenic under identical conditions. Thus, water-solubility does not seem to be the determining factor in the teratogenicity of retinoic acid conjugates.

  19. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2008-05-23

    One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake. However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water-soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water-soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. It is estimated that for each additional gram of water-soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by -0.028 mmol/L and -0.029 mmol/L, respectively. Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water-soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water-soluble fibers lower the (re)absorption of in particular bile acids. As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water-soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water-soluble fiber intake. PMID:18302966

  20. New water soluble pyrroloquinoline derivatives as new potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ferlin, Maria Grazia; Marzano, Christine; Dalla Via, Lisa; Chilin, Adriana; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Guiotto, Adriano; Moro, Stefano

    2005-08-01

    A new class of water soluble 3H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinoline derivatives has been synthesized and investigated as potential anticancer drugs. Water solubility profiles have been used to select the most promising derivatives. The novel compound 10, having two (2-diethylamino-ethyl) side chains linked through positions 3N and 9O, presents a suitable water solubility profile, and it was shown to exhibit cell growth inhibitory properties when tested against the in-house panel of cell lines, in particular those obtained from melanoma. PMID:15936202

  1. Polyglycerol-Dendronized Perylenediimides as Stable, Water-Soluble Fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Si Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and photophysical properties of water-soluble, fluorescent polyglycerol-dendronized perylenediimides 1–4 are reported. The polyglycerol dendrons, which are known to be highly biocompatible, are found to confer high water-solubility on the perylenediimide in aqueous media while retaining its excellent fluorescent properties. Furthermore, intramolecular cross-linking of the polyglycerol dendrons using the ring-closing metathesis reaction not only enhances the photostability but also reduces the size of perylenediimide-cored dendrimers. The permeability of the various dendritic shells is probed using heavy metal ion quenchers and compared to non-dendritic but water-soluble perylenediimide 5. PMID:23459294

  2. Which Starch Fraction is Water-Soluble, Amylose or Amylopectin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A survey of 22 popular organic chemistry textbooks showed that only four correctly stated that of the two components of starch, amylopectin is the water-soluble, and amylose is the water-insoluble. (MLH)

  3. Water-soluble rhamnose-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lartigue, Lenaic; Oumzil, Khalid; Guari, Yannick; Larionova, Joulia; Guérin, Christian; Montero, Jean-Louis; Barragan-Montero, Veronique; Sangregorio, Claudio; Caneschi, Andrea; Innocenti, Claudia; Kalaivani, T; Arosio, P; Lascialfari, A

    2009-07-16

    Water-soluble biocompatible rhamnose-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles of 4.0 nm are obtained by covalent anchorage of rhamnose on the nanoparticles surface via a phosphate linker. These nanoparticles present superparamagnetic behavior and nuclear relaxivities in the same order of magnitude as Endorem that make them potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents of a second generation, where the saccharides represent also specific ligands able to target lectins on skin cells. PMID:19545163

  4. Screening of non-Ionic Surfactant for Enhancing Biobutanol Production.

    PubMed

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Mane, Ravindra G; Feng, Hao

    2015-11-01

    This work deals with finding a suitable non-ionic surfactant which has high butanol capturing capacity and can be separated at a temperature close to room temperature and does not extract any intermediates or substrate (i.e., glucose). Importantly, it should be biocompatible, and its separation from the aqueous phase is not affected by other fermentation products. Hence, a pool of non-ionic Pluronic surfactants (L31, L61, L62D, L62LF, L62, L81, L92, L101, L121, L64, P65, P84, P104, P105) were selected for the study. Screening of the surfactant was done based on its hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value, butanol capturing capacity (BCC), and cloud point temperature. Among the various surfactant investigated, L62D captured maximum amount of butanol (0.68 g/g of surfactant). Also, the cloud point temperature of L62D is close to room temperature (28.7 °C). Biocompatibility studies were carried out by conducting fermentation in presence of 3% L62D which resulted in 148% increase in butanol production as compared to control (without surfactant). Further, the fermentation products did not have strong influence on phase separation. PMID:26315133

  5. Self-microemulsifying smaller molecular volume oil (Capmul MCM) using non-ionic surfactants: a delivery system for poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Bandivadeka, Mithun Mohanraor; Pancholi, Shyam Sundar; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika; Choudhari, Amit; Koppikar, Soumya

    2012-07-01

    The main purpose of this work is to formulate self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) using smaller molecular oil with Atorvastatin calcium as a model drug. Solubility of the selected drug was accessed in oils and surfactants. Percent transmittance (%T) test study was performed to identify the efficient self-microemulsifying formulations. Those formulations which showed higher value for %T were evaluated for droplet size, polydispersity index, ζ potential, refractive index and cloud point measurement. Effect of drug loading on droplet size, increasing dilution in different media, thermodynamic stability and in vitro dissolution was performed to observe the performance of the selected formulation. Further cytotoxicity and permeation enhancement studies were carried out on Caco2 cell lines. Of all the oils accessed for drug solubility, Capmul MCM showed higher solubility capacity for Atorvastatin calcium. Capmul MCM was better microemulsified using combination of Tween 20 and Labrasol surfactant. Droplet size was as low as 86.93 nm with polydispersity index and ζ potential at 0.195 ± 0.011 and -7.27 ± 3.11 mV respectively. The selected undiluted formulation showed refractive index values ranging from 1.40 to 1.47 indicating the isotropicity of the formulation. The selected formulation was robust to dilution in different media and thermodynamically stable. Dissolution profile was enhanced for the selected drug as compared to marketed formulation with t85% and DE values at 10 min and 80.15 respectively. Also cytotoxicity measurement showed minimum effect with good permeation enhancing capacity. Thus our study demonstrates the use of smaller molecular oil (Capmul MCM) for developing self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for better in vitro and in vivo performance. PMID:22087760

  6. Non-ionic surfactant phase diagram prediction by recursive partitioning.

    PubMed

    Bell, Gordon

    2016-07-28

    A model has been designed to predict the phase which forms in water for a non-ionic surfactant, at a given concentration and temperature. The full phase diagram is generated by selecting enough data points to cover the region of interest. The model estimates the probability for each one of 10 possible phases and selects the one with the highest likelihood. The probabilities are based on the recursive partitioning of a dataset of 10 000 known observations. The model covers alkyl chain length and branching, ethoxylate head length and number, and end capping of one or more of the ethoxylate chains. The relationship between chemical structure, shape and phase behaviour is discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298439

  7. Water soluble cations and the fluvial history of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, M. P.; Munoz, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and water soluble Na, K, Ca, and Mg of aqueous solutions of terrestrial soils and finely divided igneous and metamorphic rocks were determined. Soils from dry terrestrial basins with a history of water accumulation as well as soils from the topographic lows of valleys accumulated water soluble cations, particularly Na and Ca. These soils as a group can be distinguished from the rocks or a second group of soils (leached upland soils and soils from sites other than the topographic lows of valleys) by significant differences in their mean electrical conductivity and water-soluble Na + Ca content. Similar measurements on multiple samples from the surface of Mars, collected by an automated long-range roving vehicle along a highlands-to-basin transect at sites with morphological features resembling dry riverlike channels, are suggested to determine the fluvial history of the planet.

  8. Potentiometric analysis of water soluble cutting fluid-metal combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, E.E.

    1991-12-01

    The results of corrosion studies conducted by the University of Kansas under Contract G257763 for Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), are given. These potentiometric studies evaluate the corrosivity of two water soluble cutting fluids at varying concentrations on samples of 304 stainless steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and beryllium copper. This testing serves two purposes: (1) to develop effective test procedures adaptable to existing KCD corrosion measurement equipment for corrosion analysis of cutting fluid-metals combinations, and (2) to understand the relative corrosiveness of the varying water soluble cutting fluids on different metals. The tests used were adapted from the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM). Future testing will identify polarization techniques for establishing corrosion rates which will be used in evaluating both water soluble cutting fluids and other aqueous solutions used at KCD.

  9. Water-soluble iridium phosphorescent complexes for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Min-Sik; Yoon, Heekoo; Kim, Tae Hyung

    2012-09-01

    Newly prepared water-soluble iridium phosphorescent complexes, trans-[Ir(ppy)(PAr3)2(H)L]0,+ (ppy = bidentate 2-phenylpyridinato anionic ligand; L= Cl (1), CO (2), CN- (3); H being trans to the nitrogen of ppy ligand; PAr3 (TPPTS) = P(m-C6H4SO3Na)3), have been synthesized and characterized. Those complexes containing water-soluble phosphine ligands can emit any color region as altering cyclometalated ligands in aqueous media with high quantum efficiencies. Even though these water-soluble phosphorescent iridium complexes can be the sensing probe for toxic CO gas and CN anion, they will be capable of promising materials in the solution processible OLED applications.

  10. Preparation of microspheres of water-soluble pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Huang, H P; Ghebre-Sellassie, I

    1989-01-01

    An emulsion-solvent evaporation procedure involving the dispersion of an alcoholic solution of an active in liquid paraffin was used to prepare microspheres of water-soluble pharmaceuticals using ethylcellulose as a carrier. The effects of surfactant, plasticizer, drug loading, and agitation speed on drug release rate from the microspheres were evaluated. The release rates of water-soluble drugs from microspheres, ranging from 100 and 500 microns in diameter, were sustained over an extended time and were found to be related to the ratio of drug to polymer in the final product. PMID:2723966

  11. New polymer improves water-soluble completion fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Mondshine, T.C. )

    1989-02-01

    Water-soluble suspended salt completion fluids were first introduced in early 1977. Since then, the system has been used worldwide for various applications including gravel packing, under reaming, perforating, controlling loss of brines, washing sands, workovers, horizontal drilling, and special coring operations. More recently, a newly developed polymer simplifies and improves the design of water-soluble completion fluids. This new polymer described in this paper, is synergistic with xanthan gum, contributes to suspension of salt particles, and controls filtration at temperatures up to 300 F without the need for calcium lignosulfonate.

  12. Preserving water soluble carbohydrate in hay and silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content of forage may be manipulated by harvest timing within a 24-hour period to take advantage of the diurnal cycle. However, increases in carbohydrate may be lost during the haymaking or ensiling process. Rapid drying and dry storage is necessary to prevent lo...

  13. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  14. Spectroscopic and Photochemical Properties of Water-Soluble Fullerenol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fullerenol, a hydroxylated form of C60-fullerene, is of potential environmental and biological significance due to its buckyball structure, hydroxyl groups and high water solubility. Although fullerenol is known to be an efficient triplet photosensitizer, little is known about it...

  15. Highly active water-soluble olefin metathesis catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H

    2006-03-22

    A novel water-soluble ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst supported by a poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated saturated 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene ligand is reported. The catalyst displays improved activity in ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing metathesis, and cross-metathesis reactions in aqueous media. PMID:16536510

  16. Transformation of acidic poorly water soluble drugs into ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Balk, Anja; Wiest, Johannes; Widmer, Toni; Galli, Bruno; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Meinel, Lorenz

    2015-08-01

    Poor water solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is a major challenge in drug development impairing bioavailability and therapeutic benefit. This study is addressing the possibility to tailor pharmaceutical and physical properties of APIs by transforming these into tetrabutylphosphonium (TBP) salts, including the generation of ionic liquids (IL). Therefore, poorly water soluble acidic APIs (Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Naproxen, Sulfadiazine, Sulfamethoxazole, and Tolbutamide) were converted into TBP ILs or low melting salts and compared to the corresponding sodium salts. Free acids and TBP salts were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, DSC and XRPD, DVS and dissolution rate measurements, release profiles, and saturation concentration measurements. TBP salts had lower melting points and glass transition temperatures and dissolution rates were improved up to a factor of 1000 as compared to the corresponding free acid. An increase in dissolution rates was at the expense of increased hygroscopicity. In conclusion, the creation of TBP ionic liquids or solid salts from APIs is a valuable concept addressing dissolution and solubility challenges of poorly water soluble acidic compounds. The data suggested that tailor-made counterions may substantially expand the formulation scientist's armamentarium to meet challenges of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:25976317

  17. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. PMID:27346329

  18. Antinociceptive activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol non-ionic microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, P; Fadda, P; Marchese, G; Casu, G L; Pani, L

    2010-06-30

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., has been widely studied for its potential pharmaceutical application in the treatment of various diseases and disturbs. This sparingly soluble terpeno-phenolic compound is not easy to handle and to be formulated in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this work was to develop a stable aqueous Delta(9)-THC formulation acceptable for different ways of administration, and to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the new Delta(9)-THC based preparation for pain treatment. Due to the thermodynamic stability and advantages of microemulsion based systems, the study was focused on the identification of aqueous microemulsion based systems containing Delta(9)-THC. Oil in water Delta(9)-THC microemulsions were individuated through phase diagrams construction, using the non-ionic surfactant Solutol HS15, being this surfactant acceptable for parenteral administration in human. A selected microemulsion samples containing 0.2 wt% of Delta(9)-THC, stable up to 52 degrees C, was successfully assayed on animal models of pain. Significant antinociceptive activity has been detected by both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the new Delta(9)-THC pharmaceutical preparation. The effect has been highlighted in shorter time if compared to a preparation of the same active principle based on previously reported conventional preparation. PMID:20399844

  19. Activated sludge acclimatisation kinetics to non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, G; Novais, J M; Pinheiro, H M

    2003-01-01

    The biodegradation of surfactants is a frequent and complex problem in domestic and industrial wastewater treatment processes. In addition to the resulting metabolites being sometimes refractory, the complete biodegradation of many of the most employed non-ionic surfactants requires long hydraulic retention times and the presence of specialised bacterial consortia. Preliminary acclimatisation tests highlighted the importance of the sludge acclimatisation state to a specific surfactant substrate for biotreatment efficiency. This paper reports on studies aimed at quantifying activated sludge acclimatisation and memory retention levels when subjected to changes in the type of surfactant included in the feed. Several transitions were tested, namely from an alkylphenol ethoxylate to a linear alkyl ethoxylate and the reverse, and between alkyl ethoxylates with different hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecular chain lengths. The kinetic results showed that sludge activation and memory loss were more dynamic for primary biodegradation It was found that the sludge was harder to adapt to alkylphenol ethoxylate than to alkyl ethoxylate. The former also apparently introduced an inhibitory effect, resulting in very slow degradation kinetics when imposed to alkyl ethoxylate acclimatised sludge. When replacing an alkyl ethoxylate with another surfactant of the same family, a longer ethoxylate chain reduced the degradation rates. This effect was further enhanced by simultaneously increasing the hydrophobic chain length of the substrate. The acclimatisation kinetic after the replacement of an alkyl ethoxylate by a longer counterpart was slower than the reverse case, and memory was also more easily lost. PMID:12641258

  20. Three bisphosphonate ligands improve the water solubility of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Abdul Ghani, Siti Fatimah; Wright, Michael; Paramo, Juan Gallo; Bottrill, Melanie; Green, Mark; Long, Nicholas; Thanou, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Synthesised Quantum Dots (QDs) require surface modification in order to improve their aqueous dispersion and biocompatibility. Here, we suggest bisphosphonate molecules as agents to modify the surface of QDs for improved water solubility and biocompatibility. QDs_TOPO (CdSe/ZnS-trioctylphosphine oxide) were synthesised following modification of the method of Bawendi et al. (J. Phys. Chem. B, 1997, 101, 9463-9475). QDs surface modification is performed using a ligand exchange reaction with structurally different bisphosphonates (BIPs). The BIPs used were ethylene diphosphonate (EDP), methylenediphosphonate (MDP) and imidodiphosphonate (IDP). After ligand exchange, the QDs were extensively purified using centrifugation, PD-10 desalting columns and mini dialysis filters. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescent spectroscopy have been used to characterise the size and optical properties of the QDs. Cell toxicity was investigated using MTT (tetrazolium salt) and glutathione assays and intracellular uptake was imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy and assessed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). QDs_TOPO and QDs-capped with BIPs (QDs_BIPs) were successfully synthesised. TEM showed the size and morphology of the QDs to be 5-7 nm with spherical shape. The stabilised QDs_BIPs showed significantly improved dispersion in aqueous solutions compared to QDs_TOPO. The cytotoxicity studies showed very rapid cell death for cells treated by QDs_TOPO and a minor effect on cell viability when QDs_BIPs were applied to the cells. Both EDP- and MDP-modified QDs did not significantly increase the intracellular levels of glutathione. In contrast, IDP-modified QDs substantially increased the intracellular glutathione levels, indicating potential cadmium leakage and inability of IDP to adequately cap and stabilise the QDs. EDP- and MDP-modified QDs were taken up by IGROV-1 (ovarian cancer) cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy, however, the

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Fullerene Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuerle, Florian; Lebovitz, Russell; Hirsch, Andreas

    Due to their inherent electronic properties, fullerenes are considered as radical sponges being capable of effectively quenching reactive oxygen species (ROS). The most promising candidates for potential pharmaceutical applications are therefore water-soluble fullerene derivatives, since they provide reasonable biological availability. In light of these considerations, we give an overview over the most recent concepts for designing and synthesizing real water-soluble fullerene compounds. Several studies concerning the quenching activities against ROS-like Superoxide radical anion of some of these novel compounds are reviewed. We finally present first promising investigations about cytoprotective and neuroprotective activities of several carboxyfullerenes in zebrafish embroys as a mammalian model system. By comparing the activities for different addition patterns and other structural changes some first conclusions concerning a structure-function relationship can be drawn.

  2. Minimalist design of water-soluble cross-[beta] architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2010-08-13

    Demonstrated successes of protein design and engineering suggest significant potential to produce diverse protein architectures and assemblies beyond those found in nature. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic protein architecture through the successful design and atomic structures of water-soluble cross-{beta} proteins. The cross-{beta} motif is formed from the lamination of successive {beta}-sheet layers, and it is abundantly observed in the core of insoluble amyloid fibrils associated with protein-misfolding diseases. Despite its prominence, cross-{beta} has been designed only in the context of insoluble aggregates of peptides or proteins. Cross-{beta}'s recalcitrance to protein engineering and conspicuous absence among the known atomic structures of natural proteins thus makes it a challenging target for design in a water-soluble form. Through comparative analysis of the cross-{beta} structures of fibril-forming peptides, we identified rows of hydrophobic residues ('ladders') running across {beta}-strands of each {beta}-sheet layer as a minimal component of the cross-{beta} motif. Grafting a single ladder of hydrophobic residues designed from the Alzheimer's amyloid-{beta} peptide onto a large {beta}-sheet protein formed a dimeric protein with a cross-{beta} architecture that remained water-soluble, as revealed by solution analysis and x-ray crystal structures. These results demonstrate that the cross-{beta} motif is a stable architecture in water-soluble polypeptides and can be readily designed. Our results provide a new route for accessing the cross-{beta} structure and expanding the scope of protein design.

  3. Compositional Analysis of Water-Soluble Materials in Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. F.; Mowery, R. A.; Scarlata, C. J.; Chambliss, C. K.

    2007-01-01

    Corn stover is one of the leading feedstock candidates for commodity-scale biomass-to-ethanol processing. The composition of water-soluble materials in corn stover has been determined with greater than 90% mass closure in four of five representative samples. The mass percentage of water-soluble materials in tested stover samples varied from 14 to 27% on a dry weight basis. Over 30 previously unknown constituents of aqueous extracts were identified and quantified using a variety of chromatographic techniques. Monomeric sugars (primarily glucose and fructose) were found to be the predominant water-soluble components of corn stover, accounting for 30-46% of the dry weight of extractives (4-12% of the dry weight of feedstocks). Additional constituents contributing to the mass balance for extractives included various alditols (3-7%), aliphatic acids (7-21%), inorganic ions (10-18%), oligomeric sugars (4-12%), and a distribution of oligomers tentatively identified as being derived from phenolic glycosides (10-18%).

  4. Possible sources of two size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon fractions at a roadway site during fall season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung-Shik; Kim, Ja-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    To examine the formation pathways of two size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fractions, a total of 16 sets of size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at a roadway site in Korea from September 29 to October 29, 2010. A XAD7HP (non-ionic aliphatic acrylic polymer) resin column was used to separate the filtered extracts into hydrophilic (WSOCHPI) and hydrophobic (WSOCHPO) WSOC fractions. Also the size distributions of water-soluble inorganic species and oxalate were examined to determine the formation pathways of size-resolved WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO fractions. The size distribution of WSOCHPI showed a dominant mode at 0.55 μm, while the WSOCHPO had dominant modes at both 0.17-0.32 μm and 0.55 μm. On the basis of the size distribution characteristics, it was found that the formation pathways of both WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO were dependent on the particle size; in the condensation mode (0.17-0.32 μm), both the WSOCHPI and WSOCHPO could be produced through atmospheric processes similar to those of SO42- and oxalate, which were derived from the gas-phase oxidations of organic compounds. In the droplet mode (0.55-1.8 μm), the cloud processing of both the organic compounds and biomass burning emissions could be a major pathway for the WSOCHPI formation. However, the droplet mode WSOCHPO was likely produced through cloud processing and heterogeneous reactions or aerosol-phase reactions. In the coarse mode (>3.1 μm), the WSOCHPI formation was more likely associated with soil-related particles (Ca(NO3)2 and CaSO4) than with sea-salt particles (NaNO3 and Na2SO4).

  5. Bioconjugatable Porphyrins Bearing a Compact Swallowtail Motif for Water Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Borbas, K. Eszter; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    A broad range of applications requires access to water-soluble, bioconjugatable porphyrins. Branched alkyl groups attached at the branching site to the porphyrin meso position are known to impart high organic solubility. Such “swallowtail” motifs bearing a polar group (hydroxy, dihydroxyphosphoryl, dihydroxyphosphoryloxy) at the terminus of each branch have now been incorporated at a meso site in trans-AB-porphyrins. The incorporation of the swallowtail motif relies on rational synthetic methods whereby a 1,9-bis(N-propylimino)dipyrromethane (bearing a bioconjugatable tether at the 5-position) is condensed with a dipyrromethane (bearing a protected 1,5-dihydroxypent-3-yl unit at the 5-position). The two hydroxy groups in the swallowtail motif of each of the resulting zinc porphyrins can be transformed to the corresponding diphosphate or diphosphonate product. A 4-(carboxymethyloxy)phenyl group provides the bioconjugatable tether. The six such porphyrins reported here are highly water-soluble (≥20 mM at room temperature in water at pH 7) as determined by visual inspection, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, or 1H NMR spectroscopy. Covalent attachment was carried out in aqueous solution with the unprotected porphyrin diphosphonate and a monoclonal antibody against the T-cell receptor CD3ε. The resulting conjugate performed comparably to a commercially available fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody with Jurkat cells in flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy assays. Taken together, this work enables preparation of useful quantities of water-soluble, bioconjugatable porphyrins in a compact architecture for applications in the life sciences. PMID:16704201

  6. Dithiocarbamates as capping ligands for water-soluble quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Schnoes, Allison M; Clapp, Aaron R

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the suitability of dithiocarbamate (DTC) species as capping ligands for colloidal CdSe-ZnS quantum dots (QDs). DTC ligands are generated by reacting carbon disulfide (CS(2)) with primary or secondary amines on appropriate precursor molecules. A biphasic exchange procedure efficiently replaces the existing hydrophobic capping ligands on the QD surface with the newly formed DTCs. The reaction conversion is conveniently monitored by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Due to their inherent water solubility and variety of side chain functional groups, we used several amino acids as precursors in this reaction/exchange procedure. The performance of DTC-ligands, as evaluated by the preservation of luminescence and colloidal stability, varied widely among amino precursors. For the best DTC-ligand and QD combinations, the quantum yield of the water-soluble QDs rivaled that of the original hydrophobic-capped QDs dispersed in organic solvents. The mean density of DTC-ligands per nanocrystal was estimated through a mass balance calculation which suggested nearly complete coverage of the available nanocrystal surface. The accessibility of the QD surface was evaluated by self-assembly of His-tagged dye-labeled proteins and peptides using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. DTC-capped QDs were also exposed to cell cultures to evaluate their stability and potential use for biological applications. In general, DTC-capped CdSe-ZnS QDs have many advantages over other water-soluble QD formulations and provide a flexible chemistry for controlling the QD surface functionalization. Despite previous literature reports of DTC-stabilized nanocrystals, this study is the first formal investigation of a biphasic exchange method for generating biocompatible core-shell QDs. PMID:21053924

  7. Correlation of octanol/water solubility ratios and partition coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsuwan, S.; Li, A.; Yalkowsky, S.H.

    1995-05-01

    The partition coefficient between octanol and water in an important physicochemical parameter for characterizing the lipophilicity or hydrophobicity of a compound and it is used in many fields, especially in the environmental and pharmaceutical sciences. The octanol/water solubility ratio (S{sub o}/S{sub W}) was found to be highly correlated with the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) of 82 pharmaceutically and environmentally relevant compounds. The solubility ratio gives comparable estimates to that of the group contribution (log P(calcd)) method for estimating the partition coefficient of the compounds used in this study.

  8. Water soluble fluorescence quantum dot probe labeling liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Baoxing; Yang, Xianjun; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yinsong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Baiqi

    2013-11-01

    Water soluble quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared by hydrothermal method and characterized by ultraviolet irradiation, XRD, TEM, UV-Vis absorption spectrometer and fluorescence spectrometer. Then the QD-antibody-AFP probes (QD-Ab-AFP) were synthesized by chemical process and specifically labeled AFP antigen in PLC/PRF/5 liver cancer cells. The results showed that the QDs were cubic structure and had excellent optical properties. Moreover, the QD-Ab-AFP with good stability could specifically label liver cancer cells. This work provides strong foundation for further studying and developing new approach to detect liver cancer at early stage. PMID:23888351

  9. Applications of water-soluble polymers in the oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterji, J.; Borchardt, J.K.

    1981-11-01

    Water-soluble polymers commonly used in the oil field are reviewed. The properties of guar, guar derivatives, cellulose derivatives, xanthan gum, locust bean gum, starches, and synthetic polymers, especially polyacrylamides, are discussed and related to chemical structures of the polymers. Original data comparing polymer solution viscosity properties under identical conditions are presented. These data include effect of polymer concentration on solution viscosity, temperature effect on solution viscosity, viscosity in acidic solution, and polymer solution viscosity in the presence of a hemicellulase enzyme. 105 refs.

  10. Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu

    1998-12-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described. Sulfur dioxide dissolved in water is detected using an acid-base indicator, decolorizing of anthocyanin, or reduction of permanganate. The SO2 is generated by addition of sulfite or bisulfite to a strong acid or by the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to sugars. Nitrogen dioxide is generated by mixing copper and nitric acid and detected using an acid-base indicator.

  11. Picosecond dynamics in water-soluble azobenzene-peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satzger, H.; Root, C.; Renner, C.; Behrendt, R.; Moroder, L.; Wachtveitl, J.; Zinth, W.

    2004-09-01

    Ultrafast absorption changes are recorded for water-soluble cyclic azobenzene peptides containing the photoswitch (4-aminomethyl)-phenyl-azobenzoic acid (AMPB) and a bioactive peptide motif. They can be separated into the fast reactions in the AMPB chromophore and the slower response of the peptide moiety. While the fastest reactions display similar time constants as observed for AMPB peptides dissolved in DMSO the slower reaction dynamics assigned to vibrational cooling and motions of the peptide moiety are faster in water by a factor of up to two. The changes in the reaction times are explained by solvent heat capacity and viscosity.

  12. New water-soluble carbamate ester derivatives of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Mattarei, Andrea; Carraro, Massimo; Azzolini, Michele; Paradisi, Cristina; Zoratti, Mario; Biasutto, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Low bioavailability severely hinders exploitation of the biomedical potential of resveratrol. Extensive phase-II metabolism and poor water solubility contribute to lowering the concentrations of resveratrol in the bloodstream after oral administration. Prodrugs may provide a solution-protection of the phenolic functions hinders conjugative metabolism and can be exploited to modulate the physicochemical properties of the compound. We report here the synthesis and characterization of carbamate ester derivatives of resveratrol bearing on each nitrogen atom a methyl group and either a methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-350 (mPEG-350) or a butyl-glucosyl promoiety conferring high water solubility. Ex vivo absorption studies revealed that the butyl-glucosyl conjugate, unlike the mPEG-350 one, is able to permeate the intestinal wall. In vivo pharmacokinetics confirmed absorption after oral administration and showed that no hydrolysis of the carbamate groups takes place. Thus, sugar groups can be attached to resveratrol to obtain soluble derivatives maintaining to some degree the ability to permeate biomembranes, perhaps by facilitated or active transport. PMID:25275336

  13. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M.; Meck, A.; Robinson, P.; Robison, T.

    1996-11-01

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

  14. Estrogenic profile on a water-soluble estrogen, estrazinol hydrobromide.

    PubMed

    Rassaert, C L; DiPasquale, G; Giannina, T; Manning, J P; Meli, A

    1973-01-01

    The estrogenic properties of estrazinol hydrobromide (EZ), a water-soluble estrogen, were compared with those of Premarin (PR), another water-soluble estrogen preparation consisting of conjugated equine estrogens. Estradiol-17beta, estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17beta-diol (E), and ethinyl estradiol, 17alpha-ethinyl-1,3,5 (10)-estratriene-3,17beta-diol (EE) were used as reference standards. Subcutaneous progesterone (400 mcg) given to rabbits primed with comparable subcutaneous doses of either E or EE produced full secretory changes of the endometrium, while such a transformation could not be elicited in orally primed animals regardless of the estrogen used. The biological profile or orally administered EZ was very similar to that of oral EE and different from oral PR. Howerver, the oral EZ-induced morphological changes of the rabbit endometrium appeared somewhat different from those produced by oral EE. The findings indicated that following oral administration, EZ-induced endometrial transformation is more "normal" and/or adequate than the changes produced by either EE or PR. PMID:4368700

  15. Adhesive evaluation of water-soluble LARC-TPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; Pike, Roscoe A.

    1987-01-01

    The water-soluble polyimide, identified as TPI(MTC)/H2O, was evaluated as a high temperature thermoplastic adhesive for bonding Ti-6Al-4V and comparing those results primarily with results reported in earlier work with the polyamic-acid/diglyme material. The lap shear strength test was the primary test performed to evaluate the adhesive before (controls) and after thermal exposure in air at 204 C for up to 5000 hours and after a 72 hour water-boil exposure. Lap shear strengths were determined at RT, 177, 204, and 232 C. The adhesive was also characterized after fracture by determining the glass transition temperature as well as defining the mode of failure by visual observation. In general, the results indicate that the TPI(MTC)/H2O retains high lap shear strengths after thermal exposure but had reduced strengths after the water-boil exposure. All failures were cohesive. The TPI(MTC)/H2O compared very well with previous data reported for the standard polyamic-acid/diglyme LARC-TPI results, and therefore, shows promise as a water-soluble adhesive for use in various applications.

  16. Novel Water-Soluble Mucoadhesive Carbosilane Dendrimers for Ocular Administration.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Osuna, I; Vicario-de-la-Torre, M; Andrés-Guerrero, V; Sánchez-Nieves, J; Guzmán-Navarro, M; de la Mata, F J; Gómez, R; de Las Heras, B; Argüeso, P; Ponchel, G; Herrero-Vanrell, R; Molina-Martínez, I T

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the potential use of water-soluble anionic and cationic carbosilane dendrimers (generations 1-3) as mucoadhesive polymers in eyedrop formulations. Cationic carbosilane dendrimers decorated with ammonium -NH3(+) groups were prepared by hydrosylilation of Boc-protected allylamine and followed by deprotection with HCl. Anionic carbosilane dendrimers with terminal carboxylate groups were also employed in this study. In vitro and in vivo tolerance studies were performed in human ocular epithelial cell lines and rabbit eyes respectively. The interaction of dendrimers with transmembrane ocular mucins was evaluated with a surface biosensor. As proof of concept, the hypotensive effect of a carbosilane dendrimer eyedrop formulation containing acetazolamide (ACZ), a poorly water-soluble drug with limited ocular penetration, was tested after instillation in normotensive rabbits. The methodology used to synthesize cationic dendrimers avoids the difficulty of obtaining neutral -NH2 dendrimers that require harsher reaction conditions and also present high aggregation tendency. Tolerance studies demonstrated that both prototypes of water-soluble anionic and cationic carbosilane dendrimers were well tolerated in a range of concentrations between 5 and 10 μM. Permanent interactions between cationic carbosilane dendrimers and ocular mucins were observed using biosensor assays, predominantly for the generation-three (G3) dendrimer. An eyedrop formulation containing G3 cationic carbosilane dendrimers (5 μM) and ACZ (0.07%) (289.4 mOsm; 5.6 pH; 41.7 mN/m) induced a rapid (onset time 1 h) and extended (up to 7 h) hypotensive effect, and led to a significant increment in the efficacy determined by AUC0(8h) and maximal intraocular pressure reduction. This work takes advantage of the high-affinity interaction between cationic carbosilane dendrimers and ocular transmembrane mucins, as well as the tensioactive behavior observed for these

  17. Biodegradable fibre scaffolds incorporating water-soluble drugs and proteins.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Meng, J; Simonet, M; Stingelin, N; Peijs, T; Sukhorukov, G B

    2015-07-01

    A new type of biodegradable drug-loaded fibre scaffold has been successfully produced for the benefit of water-soluble drugs and proteins. Model drug loaded calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles incorporated into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibres were manufactured by co-precipitation of CaCO3 and the drug molecules, followed by electrospinning of a suspension of such drug-loaded microparticles in a PLGA solution. Rhodamine 6G and bovine serum albumin were used as model drugs for our release study, representing small bioactive molecules and protein, respectively. A bead and string structure of fibres was achieved. The drug release was investigated with different drug loadings and in different pH release mediums. Results showed that a slow and sustained drug release was achieved in 40 days and the CaCO3 microparticles used as the second barrier restrained the initial burst release. PMID:26155976

  18. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; Mashino, T.

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C60-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C60-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC50 values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  19. Transfer molding of nanoscale oxides using water-soluble templates.

    PubMed

    Bass, John D; Schaper, Charles D; Rettner, Charles T; Arellano, Noel; Alharbi, Fahhad H; Miller, Robert D; Kim, Ho-Cheol

    2011-05-24

    We report a facile method for creating nanoscopic oxide structures over large areas that is capable of producing high aspect ratio nanoscale structures with feature sizes below 50 nm. A variety of nanostructured oxides including TiO(2), SnO(2) and organosilicates are formed using sol-gel and nanoparticle precursors by way of molding with water-soluble polymeric templates generated from silicon masters. Sequential stacking techniques are developed that generate unique 3-dimensional nanostructures with combinatorially mixed geometries, scales, and materials. Applicable to a variety of substrates, this scalable method allows access to a broad range of new thin film morphologies for applications in devices, catalysts, and functional surface coatings. PMID:21469708

  20. Self-assembly of water-soluble nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lopez, Gabriel P.

    2012-01-10

    A method for forming an ordered array of nanocrystals where a hydrophobic precursor solution with a hydrophobic core material in an organic solvent is added to a solution of a surfactant in water, followed by removal of a least a portion of the organic solvent to form a micellar solution of nanocrystals. A precursor co-assembling material, generally water-soluble, that can co-assemble with individual micelles formed in the micellar solution of nanocrystals can be added to this micellar solution under specified reaction conditions (for example, pH conditions) to form an ordered-array mesophase material. For example, basic conditions are used to precipitate an ordered nanocrystal/silica array material in bulk form and acidic conditions are used to form an ordered nanocrystal/silica array material as a thin film.

  1. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible. PMID:23244679

  2. Improved water-soluble polymers for enhanced recovery of oil

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.; Hatch, M.J.; Shepitka, J.S.; Ward, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two principal types of polymers have been used extensively for enhanced recovery of crude oil: partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and xanthan gum. Because of its lower cost, HPAM is being used in a majority of the field projects when water-soluble polymers are applied. However, HPAM does lose viscosity in brines, particularly when divalent ions are present, and is susceptible to mechanical degradation under high shear conditions. Although many different polymer structures were evaluated in the laboratory tests, the main focus consisted of modifying the structure of HPAM and observing the effects on brine and shear stability. Testing of these analogs provided a systematic correlation of polymer structure with polymer performance so that improved compounds could be developed. 33 references.

  3. Reactivity of Metal Ions Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkins, J.G.; Lin, M.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Robison, T.W.; Smith, B.F.; Gohdes, J.W.; McDonald, J.G.

    1999-06-29

    The intent of this work is to determine the effectiveness of catalysts covalently bound to polymers and to understand the consequences of supporting the catalysts on catalyst efficiency and selectivity. Rhodium phosphine complexes with functional groups for coupling to polymers were prepared. These catalyst precursors were characterized using standard techniques including IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. Studies on the modified catalysts showed that they were still active hydrogenation catalysts. However, tethering of the catalysts to polyamines gave systems with low hydrogenation activity. Analogous biphasic systems were also explored. Phosphine ligands with a surfactant-like structure have been synthesized and used to prepare catalytically active complexes of palladium. The palladium complexes were utilized in Heck-type coupling reactions (e.g. coupling of iodobenzene and ethyl acrylate to produce ethyl cinnamate) under vigorously stirred biphasic reaction conditions, and were found to offer superior performance over a standard water-soluble palladium catalyst under analogous conditions.

  4. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  5. Water-soluble polymers for recovery of metal ions from aqueous streams

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A process of selectively separating a target metal contained in an aqueous solution by contacting the aqueous solution containing a target metal with an aqueous solution including a water-soluble polymer capable of binding with the target metal for sufficient time whereby a water-soluble polymer-target metal complex is formed, and, separating the solution including the water-soluble polymer-target metal complex from the solution is disclosed.

  6. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane. PMID:26387296

  7. [Functionally-relevant conformational dynamics of water-soluble proteins].

    PubMed

    Novikov, G V; Sivozhelezov, V S; Shaĭtan, K V

    2013-01-01

    A study is reported of the functional-relevant dynamics of three typical water-soluble proteins: Calmodulin, Src-tyrosine kinase as well as repressor of Trp operon. Application of the state-of-art methods of structural bioinformatics allowed to identify dynamics seen in the X-ray structures of the investigated proteins associated with their specific biological functions. In addition, Normal Mode analysis technique revealed the most probable directions of the functionally-relevant motions for all that proteins were also predicted. Importantly, overall type of the motions observed on the lowest-frequency modes was very similar to the motions seen from the analysis of the X-ray data of the examined macromolecules. Thereby it was shown that the large-scale as well as local conformational motions of the proteins might be predetermined already at the level of their tertiary structures. In particular, the determining factor might be the specific fold of the alpha-helixes. Thus functionally-relevant in vivo dynamics of the investigated proteins might be evolutionally formed by means of natural selection at the level of the spatial topology. PMID:23705506

  8. Soft water-soluble microgel dispersions: structure and rheology.

    PubMed

    Omari, A; Tabary, R; Rousseau, D; Calderon, F Leal; Monteil, J; Chauveteau, G

    2006-10-15

    The size and structural characteristics of polyacrylamide-based water-soluble microgel dispersions were investigated by optical and rheological methods. Microgel hydrodynamic radii Rh were measured by light scattering and derived from intrinsic shear viscosity [eta]0. The variations of Rh3 and [eta]0 with the crosslink density Nx, follow the scaling law Rh3 congruent withNx(-alpha) with alpha close to 0.63, in good agreement with the simple structural model proposed in this paper showing how the exact value of alpha depends on inner structural details of the microgel. The plateau viscosity versus particle apparent volume fraction shows a monotonous change from hard sphere dispersions (high crosslink density of microgels) to flexible linear polymer solutions. Measurements of the first normal stress difference N1 show that increasing the microgel crosslink density affects the system viscosity more than its elasticity. Under oscillatory shear flow, loss and storage moduli undergo both qualitative and quantitative changes with crosslink density. At moderate concentrations, the elastic modulus is the most affected and its slope in low frequency regime decreases from two to less than one as Nx increases. We discuss the experimental results within the frame of knowledge on linear, branched polymer solutions and soft microgel suspensions. PMID:16928380

  9. Photochemical and biological degradation of water-soluble FWAs.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the photochemical and biological degradation of two water-soluble fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs): the disodium 4,4'-bis(2-sulfostyryl)-biphenyl (1) and the disodium 4,4-bis ([4-anilino-6-(N-methyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)amino 1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino)stilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (2). Each represents an important class of detergent fluorescent whitening agents. The photochemical degradation of (1) was studied by irradiating diluted aqueous solutions of this compound with a low intensity high pressure mercury vapor lamp. From the intermediate, as well as the ultimate photodegradation products isolated, it can be infered that photodegradation of (1) followed the proposed scheme. The biologica degradation of (1) and (2) by activated sludge under aerobic conditions was studied using equipment similar to that proposed by the OECD for determining the biodegradation of anionic synthetic surface active agents. Under the conditons applied, both FWAs were slowly biodegraded, within 30 days, whereas the photodegradation products of (1) were completely biodegraded within 14 days. PMID:6265

  10. Monosaccharides as Versatile Units for Water-Soluble Supramolecular Polymers.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Christianus M A; Jansen, Gijs; Frissen, Martijn M M; Lafleur, René P M; Voets, Ilja K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-03-18

    We introduce monosaccharides as versatile water-soluble units to compatibilise supramolecular polymers based on the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety with water. A library of monosaccharide-based BTAs is evaluated, varying the length of the alkyl chain (hexyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl) separating the BTA and saccharide units, as well as the saccharide units (α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose and α-galactose). In all cases, the monosaccharides impart excellent water compatibility. The length of the alkyl chain is the determining factor to obtain either long, one-dimensional supramolecular polymers (dodecyl spacer), small aggregates (decyl spacer) or molecularly dissolved (octyl and hexyl) BTAs in water. For the BTAs comprising a dodecyl spacer, our results suggest that a cooperative self-assembly process is operative and that the introduction of different monosaccharides does not significantly change the self- assembly behaviour. Finally, we investigate the potential of post-assembly functionalisation of the formed supramolecular polymers by taking advantage of dynamic covalent bond formation between the monosaccharides and benzoxaboroles. We observe that the supramolecular polymers readily react with a fluorescent benzoxaborole derivative permitting imaging of these dynamic complexes by confocal fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26890574

  11. Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

  12. Stability of water-soluble carbodiimides in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gilles, M A; Hudson, A Q; Borders, C L

    1990-02-01

    A dimethylbarbituric acid reagent has been used to follow the kinetics of loss of two water-soluble carbodiimides, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and the structurally related 1-ethyl-3-(4-azonia-4,4-dimethylpentyl) carbodiimide (EAC), in aqueous solution as a function of pH and added chemical reagents. In 50 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid at 25 degrees C, EDC has t1/2 values of 37, 20, and 3.9 h at pH 7.0, 6.0, and 5.0, respectively, while the corresponding values for EAC are 12, 2.9, and 0.32 h. Iodide, bromide, or chloride, at 0.1 M, has very little or no effect on carbodiimide stability. However, 0.1 M glycine methyl ester or 0.1 M ethylenediamine causes a significant increase in the rate of loss of EAC and EDC, while the presence of 0.1 M phosphate, 0.1 M hydroxylamine, or 0.01 M ATP decreases the half-lives to less than or equal to 0.4 h at all pH values. PMID:2158246

  13. Water soluble quantum dot nanoclusters: energy migration in artifical materials.

    PubMed

    Oh, Megan H J; Gentleman, Darcy J; Scholes, Gregory D

    2006-11-21

    Energy migration in self-assembled, water soluble, quantum dot (QD) nanoclusters is reported. These spherical nanoclusters are composed of CdSe QDs bound together by pepsin, a digestive enzyme found in mammals. A structural model for the clusters is suggested, based on scanning transmission electron microscopy, as well as dynamic light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering. Cluster sizes range from 100 to 400 nm in diameter and show a close-packed interior structure. Optical characterization of the absorption and emission spectra of the clusters is reported, finding photoluminescence quantum yields of up to approximately 60% in water for clusters made from core-shell CdSe-ZnS QDs. Clusters prepared from two different size populations of CdSe QD samples (3 and 4 nm in diameter) demonstrate energy migration and trapping. Resonance energy transfer (RET), from small to large dots within the QD-pepsin cluster, is observed by monitoring the quenching of the small donor dot fluorescence along with enhancement of the large acceptor dot fluorescence. PMID:17091158

  14. Preparation of biomaterials on the basis of a water-soluble cellulose acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmalova, G. Yu.; Gulyamova, N. S.; Zainutdinov, U. N.; Rakhmanberdiev, G. R.; Negmatova, K. S.; Negmatova, M. I.

    2012-07-01

    Biomaterials were obtained on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and diterpenoids group of plants Lagohulusa intoxicating having hemostatic properties. It is established that these biomaterials on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and lagohilina (or lagohirzina) had increased hemostatic activity and reduce parenchymal hemorrhage 5-6 times compared to control.

  15. Water-soluble fullerene materials for bioapplications: photoinduced reactive oxygen species generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The photoinduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from several water-soluble fullerenes was examined. Macromolecular or small molecular water-soluble fullerene complexes/derivatives were prepared and their 1O2 and O2•- generation abilities were evaluated by EPR spin-trapping methods. As a r...

  16. 40 CFR 799.6784 - TSCA water solubility: Column elution method; shake flask method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Column elution... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Product Properties Test Guidelines § 799.6784 TSCA water solubility... here may not yet be optimal. This method is intended for material with solubilities below...

  17. 40 CFR 799.6784 - TSCA water solubility: Column elution method; shake flask method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Column elution... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Product Properties Test Guidelines § 799.6784 TSCA water solubility... here may not yet be optimal. This method is intended for material with solubilities below...

  18. 40 CFR 799.6784 - TSCA water solubility: Column elution method; shake flask method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Column elution... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Product Properties Test Guidelines § 799.6784 TSCA water solubility... here may not yet be optimal. This method is intended for material with solubilities below...

  19. Vertical distribution and water solubility of phosphorus and heavy metals in sediments of the St. Lucie Estuary, South Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z. L.; Zhang, M.; Stoffella, P. J.; Yang, X. E.

    2006-05-01

    Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals and phosphorus in sediments impact water quality. There has been an increasing concern regarding fish health in the St. Lucie Estuary, which is related to increased inputs of nutrients and metals in recent decades. To investigate vertical changes of contaminants (P, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn) in sediments of the St. Lucie Estuary in South Florida, 117 layer samples from six of the 210 to 420 cm depth cores were analyzed for their total and water-soluble P and heavy metals, clay, total Fe, Al, K, Ca, Mg, Na, and pH. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in two sets of analytical data (total and water-soluble contaminant concentrations) to document changes of contaminants in each core of sediments. The PCA of total contaminants and minerals resulted in two factors (principal components). The first and second factors accounted for 61.7 and 17.2 % of the total variation in all variables, and contrast indicators associated with contaminants of P, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn and accumulation of Fe and Al oxides, respectively. The first factor could be used for overall assessment of P and heavy metal contamination, and was higher in the upper 45-90 cm than the lower depths of each core. The concentrations of P and heavy metals in the surface layers of sediments significantly increased, as compared with those in the sediments deeper than 45-90 cm. The PCA of water-soluble contaminants developed two factors. The second factor (Cu-P) was higher in the upper than the lower depths of the sediment, whereas the highest score of the first factor (Cd-Co-Cr-Ni-Pb-Zn-Mn) occurred below 100 cm. The water-soluble Cu and P concentrations were mainly dependent on their total concentrations in the sediments, whereas the water-soluble Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn concentrations were mainly controlled by pH.

  20. Photochemistry within a water-soluble organic capsule.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Vaidhyanathan

    2015-11-17

    Photochemistry along with life as we know it originated on earth billions of years ago. Supramolecular Photochemistry had its beginning when plants that sustain life began transforming water into oxygen by carrying out light initiated reactions within highly organized assemblies. Prompted by the efforts of J. Priestly (photosynthesis), F. Sestini, S. Cannizaro, and C. Liebermann (solid-state photochemistry of santonin, quinones, and cinnamic acid), orderly scientific investigations of the link between light absorption by matter and molecules and the chemical and physical consequences began in the mid-1700s. By 1970 when Molecular Photochemistry had matured, it was clear that controlling photochemical reactions by conventional methods of varying reaction parameters like temperature and pressure would be futile due to the photoreactions' very low activation energies and enthalpies. During the last 50 years, the excited state behavior of molecules has been successfully manipulated with the use of confining media and weak interactions between the medium and the reactant molecule. In this context, with our knowledge from experimentation with micelles, cyclodextrins (CD), cucurbitruils (CB), calixarenes (CA), Pd nanocage, crystals, and zeolites as media, we began about a decade ago to explore the use of a new water-soluble synthetic organic cavitand, octa acid (OA) as a reaction container. The uniqueness of OA as an organic cavitand lies in that two OA molecules form a closed hydrophobic capsule to encapsulate water-insoluble guest molecule(s). The ability to include a large number of guest molecules in OA has provided an opportunity to examine the excited state chemistry of organic molecules in a hydrophobic, confined environment. OA distinguishes itself from the well-known cavitands CD and CB by its active reaction cavity absorbing UV-radiation between 200 and 300 nm and serving as energy, electron, and hydrogen donor. The freedom of guest molecules in OA, between that

  1. Water-soluble ruthenium complexes bearing activity against protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Sarniguet, Cynthia; Toloza, Jeannette; Cipriani, Micaella; Lapier, Michel; Vieites, Marisol; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Moreno, Virtudes; Maya, Juan Diego; Azar, Claudio Olea; Gambino, Dinorah; Otero, Lucía

    2014-06-01

    Parasitic illnesses are major causes of human disease and misery worldwide. Among them, both amebiasis and Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Trypanosoma cruzi, are responsible for thousands of annual deaths. The lack of safe and effective chemotherapy and/or the appearance of current drug resistance make the development of novel pharmacological tools for their treatment relevant. In this sense, within the framework of the medicinal inorganic chemistry, metal-based drugs appear to be a good alternative to find a pharmacological answer to parasitic diseases. In this work, novel ruthenium complexes [RuCl2(HL)(HPTA)2]Cl2 with HL=bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones and PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane have been synthesized and fully characterized. PTA was included as co-ligand in order to modulate complexes aqueous solubility. In fact, obtained complexes were water soluble. Their activity against T. cruzi and E. histolytica was evaluated in vitro. [RuCl2(HL4)(HPTA)2]Cl2 complex, with HL4=N-phenyl-5-nitrofuryl-thiosemicarbazone, was the most active compound against both parasites. In particular, it showed an excellent activity against E. histolytica (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)=5.2 μM), even higher than that of the reference drug metronidazole. In addition, this complex turns out to be selective for E. histolytica (selectivity index (SI)>38). The potential mechanism of antiparasitic action of the obtained ruthenium complexes could involve oxidative stress for both parasites. Additionally, complexes could interact with DNA as second potential target by an intercalative-like mode. Obtained results could be considered a contribution in the search for metal compounds that could be active against multiple parasites. PMID:24740394

  2. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles in pulmonary glucocorticoid delivery: characterization and interaction with human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marianecci, Carlotta; Paolino, Donatella; Celia, Christian; Fresta, Massimo; Carafa, Maria; Alhaique, Franco

    2010-10-01

    Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs) were proposed for the pulmonary delivery of glucocorticoids such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various type of pulmonary fibrosis. The thin layer evaporation method followed by sonication was used to prepare small non-ionic surfactant vesicles containing beclomethasone dipropionate. Light scattering experiments showed that beclomethasone dipropionate-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles were larger than unloaded ones and showed a significant (P<0.001) decrease of the zeta potential. The morphological analysis, by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, showed the maintenance of a vesicular structure in the presence of the drug. The colloidal and storage stability were evaluated by Turbiscan Lab Expert, which evidenced the good stability of BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles, thus showing no significant variations of mean size and no colloidal phase segregation. Primary human lung fibroblast (HLF) cells were used for in vitro investigation of vesicle tolerability, carrier-cell interaction, intracellular drug uptake and drug-loaded vesicle anti-inflammatory activity. The investigated NSVs did not show a significant cytotoxic activity at all incubation times for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 μM. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed vesicular carrier localization at the level of the cytoplasm compartment, where the glucocorticoid receptor (target site) is localized. BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles elicited a significant improvement of the HLF intracellular uptake of the drug with respect to the free drug solution, drug/surfactant mixtures and empty vesicles used as references. The treatment of HLF cells with BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles determined a noticeable increase of the drug anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the secretion of both constitutive and interleukin-1

  3. Investigating water soluble organic aerosols: Sources and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, Arsineh N.

    Many studies are being conducted on the different properties of organic aerosols (OA-s) as it is first emitted into the atmosphere and the consequent changes in these characteristics as OA-s age and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is produced and in turn aged. This thesis attempts to address some of the significant and emerging issues that deal with the formation and transformation of water-soluble organic aerosols in the atmosphere. First, a proven method for the measurement of gaseous sulfuric acid, negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS), has been modified for fast and sensitive measurements of particulate phase sulfuric acid (i.e. sulfate). The modifications implemented on this system have also been the subject of preliminary verifications for measurements of aerosol phase oxalic acid (an organic acid). Second, chemical and physical characteristics of a wide range of biomass-burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the ARCTAS experiment are presented here. A statistical summary of the emission (or enhancement) ratios relative to carbon monoxide is presented for various gaseous and aerosol species. Extensive investigations of fire plume evolutions were undertaken during the second part of this field campaign. For four distinct Boreal fires, where plumes were intercepted by the aircraft over a wide range of down-wind distances, emissions of various compounds and the effect of aging on them were investigated in detail. No clear evidence of production of secondary compounds (e.g., WSOC and OA) was observed. High variability in emissions between the different plumes may have obscured any clear evidence of changes in the mass of various species with increasing plume age. Also, the lack if tropospheric oxidizing species (e.g., O3 and OH) may have contributed to the lack of SOA formation. Individual intercepts of smoke plumes in this study were segregated by source regions. The normalized excess mixing

  4. Thin liquid films from aqueous solutions of non-ionic polymeric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Exerowa, Dotchi; Platikanov, Dimo

    2009-01-01

    The conditions of formation and stability of foam, emulsion, and wetting films from aqueous solutions of non-ionic polymeric surfactants have been established. Two types of polymeric surfactants - PEO-PPO-PEO three-block copolymers (A-B-A type) and hydrophobically modified inulin graft polymer (AB(n) type) - have been explored. Information about surface forces and nanoscale phenomena in aqueous films containing polymeric surfactants was obtained using the micro-interferometric technique and the Thin Liquid Film-Pressure Balance Technique. Two types of surface forces, which determine the stability of the foam and emulsion films, have been distinguished, namely: DLVO-forces at low electrolyte concentrations and non-DLVO-forces at high electrolyte concentrations. Non-DLVO-forces are steric surface forces of the brush-to-brush and loop-to-loop interaction type according to De Gennes. A substantial difference in the behavior of these two film types has been established and in the case of O/W emulsion films transitions to Newton black film (NBF) have been observed. These films are very stable and so are the respective emulsions. In contrast the wetting films are relatively thicker compared to emulsion films, and their thickness depends on the concentration of the AB(n) polymeric surfactant. The steric repulsion of the loops and tails of the polymeric surfactant determine the film thickness of wetting films on a hydrophilic solid surface. For solid surfaces with different degrees of hydrophobicity the wetting films are stable only at high polymer concentrations and low degree of hydrophobicity. Otherwise the films are unstable and rupture. Two types of bilayer emulsion films have been distinguished for the first time. One type is related to the brush-to-brush or loop-to-loop interactions according to De Gennes. The other type is a NBF where the forces are also steric between strongly hydrated brush and loops but they are short-range forces acting in a two

  5. Efficiency of non-ionic surfactants - EDTA for treating TPH and heavy metals from contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of fuel hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds (heavy metals) into the soil, resulting in a change of the soil quality, which is likely to affect use of the soil or endangering public health and ground water. This study aimed to determine a series of parameters to remediation of TPH and heavy metals contaminated soil by non-ionic surfactants- chelating agents washing process. In this experimental study, the effects of soil washing time, agitation speed, concentration of surfactant, chelating agent and pH on the removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that TPH removal by nonionic surfactants (Tween 80, Brij 35) in optimal condition were 70–80% and 60–65%, respectively. Addition of chelating agent (EDTA) significantly increases Cd and Pb removal. The washing of soil by non- ionic surfactants and EDTA was effective in remediation of TPH and heavy metals from contaminated soil, thus it can be recommended for remediation of contaminated soil. PMID:24359927

  6. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-20

    A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays.

  7. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays. PMID:18671388

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Water-soluble Polysaccharides from Brasenia schreberi

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Huiwen; Cai, Xueru; Fan, Yijun; Luo, Aoxue

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides (BPL-1 and BPL-2), one of the most important functional constituents in Brasenia schreberi was isolated from the external mucilage of B. schreberi (BPL-1) and the plant in vivo (BPL-2). This paper examines the relationship between the content of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid in BPL and the antioxidant activity of BPL. Materials and Methods: The free radicals, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) and 1,1-diphnyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-), were used to determine the antioxidant activity of BPL. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of BPL-1 and BPL-2 revealed typical characteristics of polysaccharides. Results: The two sample types had different contents. This was proved by their different adsorption peak intensities. The IC50 values of BPL-1 (31.189 mg/ml) and BPL-2 (1.863 mg/ml) showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Based on the quantification of ABTS radical scavenging, the IC50 value of BPL-1 (5.460 mg/ml) was higher than that of BPL-2 (0.239 mg/ml). Therefore, in terms of the reducing power, the IC50 value of BPL-1 was too high to determine, and the IC50 value of BPL-2 was found to be 50.557 mg/ml. Hence, the antioxidant activity and total reducing power were high, and they were greater in BPL-2 than in BPL-1. In addition, BPL-2 was found to have more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid than BPL-1. Conclusion: The contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid are significantly correlated to the antioxidant activity and reducing power of BPL; the more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid, the more antioxidant activity and reducing power BPL has. SUMMARY The water-soluble crude polysaccharides obtained from the external mucilage and the Brasenia schreberi plant in vivo were confirmed to have high contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acidBoth BPL-1 and BPL-2 exhibited antioxidative activity and reducing power, and their antioxidative

  9. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

  10. Seasonal cycles of water-soluble organic nitrogen aerosols in a deciduous broadleaf forest in northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Fu, PingQing; Ono, Kaori; Tachibana, Eri; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2014-02-01

    The seasonal variations in aerosol water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) concentrations measured in a deciduous forest canopy over an approximately 30 month period were investigated for possible sources in the forest. The WSON concentrations (average 157 ± 127 ng N m-3) and WSON/water-soluble total nitrogen mass fractions (average 20 ± 11%) in the total suspended particulate matter exhibited a clear seasonal cycle with maxima in early summer. The WSON mass was found to reside mostly in the fine-mode size range (Dp < 1.9 µm) during the summer months. WSON was positively correlated with oxidation products of α-pinene and isoprene with similar size distributions, suggesting that secondary formation from biogenic hydrocarbon precursors is a plausible source for WSON in summer. In contrast, the majority of WSON in autumn was associated with coarse fraction (Dp > 1.9 µm), which was similar to the size distributions of sugar compounds, indicating that the major WSON sources in autumn are associated with primary biological emissions. The vertical differences in WSON concentrations suggest that the water-soluble organic aerosol is enriched with nitrogen below the canopy level relative to the forest floor. The WSON concentration increased with enhanced hydrogen ion concentrations in aerosol in the early summer, indicating that aerosol acidity associated with anthropogenic sources outside the forest likely plays an important role in the formation of WSON in that season. The study suggests that multiple sources of WSON within the forest canopy may dominate over others in specific seasons, providing insights into WSON formation processes in forest environments.

  11. Explaining Ionic Liquid Water Solubility in Terms of Cation and Anion Hydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    Ranke, Johannes; Othman, Alaa; Fan, Ping; Müller, Anja

    2009-01-01

    The water solubility of salts is ordinarily dictated by lattice energy and ion solvation. However, in the case of low melting salts also known as ionic liquids, lattice energy is immaterial and differences in hydrophobicity largely account for differences in their water solubility. In this contribution, the activity coefficients of ionic liquids in water are split into cation and anion contributions by regression against cation hydrophobicity parameters that are experimentally determined by reversed phase liquid chromatography. In this way, anion hydrophobicity parameters are derived, as well as an equation to estimate water solubilities for cation-anion combinations for which the water solubility has not been measured. Thus, a new pathway to the quantification of aqueous ion solvation is shown, making use of the relative weakness of interactions between ionic liquid ions as compared to their hydrophobicities. PMID:19399248

  12. Bidirectional Transformation of a Metamorphic Protein between the Water-Soluble and Transmembrane Native States.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Koji; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-11-24

    The bidirectional transformation of a protein between its native water-soluble and integral transmembrane conformations is demonstrated for FraC, a hemolytic protein of the family of pore-forming toxins. In the presence of biological membranes, the water-soluble conformation of FraC undergoes a remarkable structural reorganization generating cytolytic transmembrane nanopores conducive to cell death. So far, the reverse transformation from the native transmembrane conformation to the native water-soluble conformation has not been reported. We describe the use of detergents with different physicochemical properties to achieve the spontaneous conversion of transmembrane pores of FraC back into the initial water-soluble state. Thermodynamic and kinetic stability data suggest that specific detergents cause an asymmetric change in the energy landscape of the protein, allowing the bidirectional transformation of a membrane protein. PMID:26544760

  13. Water solubility in aluminous orthopyroxene and the origin of Earth's asthenosphere.

    PubMed

    Mierdel, Katrin; Keppler, Hans; Smyth, Joseph R; Langenhorst, Falko

    2007-01-19

    Plate tectonics is based on the concept of rigid lithosphere plates sliding on a mechanically weak asthenosphere. Many models assume that the weakness of the asthenosphere is related to the presence of small amounts of hydrous melts. However, the mechanism that may cause melting in the asthenosphere is not well understood. We show that the asthenosphere coincides with a zone where the water solubility in mantle minerals has a pronounced minimum. The minimum is due to a sharp decrease of water solubility in aluminous orthopyroxene with depth, whereas the water solubility in olivine continuously increases with pressure. Melting in the asthenosphere may therefore be related not to volatile enrichment but to a minimum in water solubility, which causes excess water to form a hydrous silicate melt. PMID:17234945

  14. Preparation, cytotoxicity and in vivo bioimaging of highly luminescent water-soluble silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing-Wun; Vankayala, Raviraj; Chang, Chien-Liang; Chang, Chia-Hua; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2015-05-01

    Designing various inorganic nanomaterials that are cost effective, water soluble, optically photostable, highly fluorescent and biocompatible for bioimaging applications is a challenging task. Similar to semiconducting quantum dots (QDs), silicon QDs are another alternative and are highly fluorescent, but non-water soluble. Several surface modification strategies were adopted to make them water soluble. However, the photoluminescence of Si QDs was seriously quenched in the aqueous environment. In this report, highly luminescent, water-dispersible, blue- and green-emitting Si QDs were prepared with good photostability. In vitro studies in monocytes reveal that Si QDs exhibit good biocompatibility and excellent distribution throughout the cytoplasm region, along with the significant fraction translocated into the nucleus. The in vivo zebrafish studies also reveal that Si QDs can be evenly distributed in the yolk-sac region. Overall, our results demonstrate the applicability of water-soluble and highly fluorescent Si QDs as excellent in vitro and in vivo bioimaging probes.

  15. Delivery of floxuridine derivatives to cancer cells by water-soluble organometallic cages.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jeong Wu; Barry, Nicolas P E; Furrer, Mona A; Zava, Olivier; Dyson, Paul J; Therrien, Bruno; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2012-03-21

    The self-assembly of 2,4,6-tris(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (tpt) triangular panels with p-cymene (pPr(i)C(6)H(4)Me) ruthenium building blocks and 2,5-dioxydo-1,4-benzoquinonato (dobq) or 5,8-dioxydo-1,4-naphthoquinonato (donq) bridges, in the presence of a pyrenyl-nucleoside derivatives (pyreneR), affords the triangular prismatic host-guest compounds [(pyrene-R)⊂Ru(6)(pPr(i)C(6)H(4)Me)(6)(tpt)(2)(dobq)(3)](6+) ([(pyrene-R)⊂1](6+)) and [(pyrene-R)⊂Ru(6)(pPr(i)C(6)H(4)Me)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+) ([(pyrene-R)⊂2](6+)), respectively. The inclusion of six monosubstitutedpyrenyl-nucleosides (pyrene-R1 = 5'-(1-pyrenyl butanoate)-2'-deoxyuridine, pyrene-R2 = 5-fluoro-5'-(1-pyrenyl butanoate)-2'-deoxyuridine, pyrene-R3 = 5'-{N-[1-oxo-4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-glycyl}-2'-deoxyuridine, pyrene-R4 = 5-fluoro-5'-{N-[1-oxo-4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-glycyl}-2'-deoxyuridine, pyrene-R5 = 5-fluoro-5'-{N-[1-oxo-4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-phenylalanyl}-2'-deoxyvuridine, pyrene-R6 = 5-fluoro-5'-{N-[1-oxo-4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-phenylalanyl}-2'-deoxyuridine) has been accomplished. The carceplex nature of [(pyrene-R)⊂1](6+) with the pyrenyl moiety firmly encapsulated in the hydrophobic cavity of the cage with the nucleoside groups pointing outward was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), while the host-guest nature of [(pyrene-R)⊂2](6+) was studied in solution by NMR techniques. In contrast to the floxuridine compounds used in the clinic, the host-guest complexes are highly water-soluble. Consequently, the cytotoxicities of these water-soluble compounds have been established using human ovarian A2780 and A2780cisR cancer cells. All the host-guest systems are more cytotoxic than the empty cages alone [1][CF(3)SO(3)](6) (IC(50) = 23 μM) and [2][CF(3)SO(3)](6) (IC(50) = 10 μM), the most active compound [pyrene-R4⊂1][CF(3)SO(3)](6)being 2 orders of magnitude more cytotoxic (IC(50) = 0.3 μM) on these human ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780 and A2780

  16. Selective Organic and Organometallic Reactions in Water-Soluble Host-Guest Supramolecular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-02-16

    Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of enzymes, synthetic chemists have designed and prepared a wide range of host molecules that can bind smaller molecules with their cavities; this area has become known as 'supramolecular' or 'host-guest' chemistry. Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, and followed up by a large number of more recent investigators, it has been found that the chemical environment in each assembly - defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability - greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics of these compounds. In contrast to the large number of binding studies that have been carried out in this area, the exploration of chemistry - especially catalytic chemistry - that can take place inside supramolecular host cavities is still in its infancy. For example, until the work described here was carried out, very few examples of organometallic reactivity inside supramolecular hosts were known, especially in water solution. For that reason, our group and the group directed by Kenneth Raymond decided to take advantage of our complementary expertise and attempt to carry out metal-mediated C-H bond activation reactions in water-soluble supramolecular systems. This article begins by providing background from the Raymond group in supramolecular coordination chemistry and the Bergman group in C-H bond activation. It goes on to report the results of our combined efforts in supramolecular C-H activation reactions, followed by extensions of this work into a wider range of intracavity transformations.

  17. Water-soluble polyelectrolyte complexes of Astramol poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers with poly(methacrylate) anion.

    PubMed

    Zhiryakova, Marina V; Izumrudov, Vladimir A

    2014-11-26

    Water-soluble complexes formed by pyrenyl-tagged poly(methacrylate) anion with cationic DAB-dendr-(NH2)x of five generations, x = 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 were prepared and studied. The ability of the dendrimers to quench the pyrenyl fluorescence was used to monitor formation/dissociation of the complexes by fluorescence quenching technique. In salt-free solutions, dissociation of the complexes occurred in highly acidic and highly alkaline media independently on the dendrimer generation, whereas stability of the complexes against destruction by added salt (NaCl) enhanced markedly with x increase. Phase separations were dependent on pH and charged ratio of the components, but independent of a dendrimer generation. By contrast, in water-salt solutions the generation had a profound impact on phase diagram manifested by a considerable extension of a heterogeneity region as x increased. These findings strongly suggest that the complexes obey the main regularities ascertained for polyelectrolyte complexes of oppositely charged polyions. The revealed possibility of preparing negatively charged and positively charged complexes with controllable stability and solubility demonstrates potentialities of Astramol dendrimers for design self-assembled and self-adjusted systems attractive for biotechnological and biomedical applications. PMID:25369241

  18. A highly sensitive colorimetric determination of serum zinc using water-soluble pyridylazo dye.

    PubMed

    Makino, T; Saito, M; Horiguchi, D; Kina, K

    1982-03-26

    A colorimetric method for precise and accurate determination of zinc in serum is presented. Only 0.3 ml of sample is necessary, because of the use of a new, highly sensitive reagent, 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-n-propyl-N-3-sulfopropylamino)-phenol (epsilon 554nm = 1.3 X 10(5) 1 . mol-1 . cm-1), which is water-soluble and has long-term stability. Interference of iron and copper in serum can be removed by co-precipitation of the iron fluoride complex with trichloroacetic acid precipitated proteins and the copper dithiocarboxy sarcosine complex, respectively. Within-run and day-to-day precision (CV) are in the range of 0.3-3.5% and 1.9-3.1%, respectively, depending on the serum zinc content. A good correlation (r = 0.98, p less than 0.05) was obtained between this method and atomic absorption spectrometry. In contrast to previous colorimetric methods, the present method does not involve heating, extraction with organic solvents, or a cyanide masking system. PMID:7067132

  19. The water-soluble extract of Illicium anisatum stimulates mouse vibrissae follicles in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Ikuyo; Ishimoto, Hiroko; Matsuo, Masaki; Ikeda, Norikazu; Minamino, Miki; Kato, Yoshiko

    2004-08-01

    It is well known that reduced blood flow in the scalp is a cause of alopecia. We have shown previously that the extract of Illicium anisatum increases subcutaneous blood flow in mice. In the present study, we used an organ culture system to examine whether this extract promoted hair follicle elongation. B6C3HF1 mouse vibrissae follicles were cultured in serum-free medium for 7 days at 31 degrees C. Follicles treated with water-soluble (WS) extracts of the leaves, fruits and roots of Illicium anisatum or shikimic acid grew significantly longer than controls. In contrast, ethyl acetate-soluble (AS) extracts and n-hexane-soluble (HS) extracts of the leaves, fruits and roots of the plant inhibited hair follicles and shaft growth. Fractionation of the WS fruit extract showed that the number 1 and number 2 fractions possessed hair follicle elongation activity. GC/MS analysis revealed that the number 1 fraction contained shikimic acid, and that the number 2 fraction was a mixture of many components including glycosides and polysaccharides. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that shikimic acid also induced mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, keratinocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the hair follicles. These results suggest that the WS extract of Illicium anisatum promotes hair growth and may be a useful additive in hair growth products. PMID:15265014

  20. Redispersible fast dissolving nanocomposite microparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Bhakay, Anagha; Azad, Mohammad; Bilgili, Ecevit; Dave, Rajesh

    2014-01-30

    Enhanced recovery/dissolution of two wet media-milled, poorly water-soluble drugs, Griseofulvin (GF) and Azodicarbonamide (AZD), incorporated into nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs) via fluidized bed drying (FBD) and spray-drying (SD) was investigated. The effects of drying method, drug loading, drug aqueous solubility/wettability as well as synergistic stabilization of the milled suspensions on nanoparticle recovery/dissolution were examined. Drug nanoparticle recovery from FBD and SD produced NCMPs having high drug loadings was evaluated upon gentle redispersion via optical microscopy and laser diffraction. During wet-milling, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) alone stabilized more wettable drug (AZD) nanoparticles with slight aggregation, but could not prevent aggregation of the GF nanoparticles. In contrast, well-dispersed, stable nanosuspensions of both drugs were produced when sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and HPC were combined. The FBD and SD NCMPs without SDS exhibited incomplete nanoparticle recovery, causing slower dissolution for GF, but not for AZD, likely due to higher aqueous solubility/wettability of AZD. For high active loaded NCMPs (FBD ∼50 wt%, SD ∼80 wt%) of either drug, HPC-SDS together owing to their synergistic stabilization led to fast redispersibility/dissolution, corroborated via optical microscopy and particle sizing. These positive attributes can help development of smaller, high drug-loaded dosage forms having enhanced bioavailability and better patient compliance. PMID:24333905

  1. Application of dry-polishing techniques to water-soluble glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, J.T.; McAllaster, M.E.

    1981-04-01

    A dry polishing technique is presented for the preparation of glass ceramics for microstructural characterization. The technique is shown to be applicable to water soluble phosphate based glass ceramics and also to a non-water soluble zinc silicate glass ceramic. Microstructural characterization is performed primarily with composition backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscopy. Some relief is observed on the polished surface utilizing topographical backscattered electron imaging.

  2. Synthesis, aggregation and spectroscopic studies of novel water soluble metal free, zinc, copper and magnesium phthalocyanines and investigation of their anti-bacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Rıza; Akçay, Hakkı Türker; Beriş, Fatih Şaban; Sahin, Ertan; Bayrak, Hacer; Demirbaş, Ümit

    2014-12-10

    In this study, novel phthalonitrile derivative (3) was synthesized by the reaction between 4-nitrophthalonitrile (2) and a triazole derivative (1) containing pyridine moiety. Crystal structure of compound (3) was characterized by X-ray diffraction. New metal free and metallo-phthalocyanine complexes (Zn, Cu, and Mg) were synthesized using the phthalonitrile derivative (3). Cationic derivatives of these phthalocyanines (5, 7, 9, and 11) were prepared from the non-ionic phthalocyanines (4, 6, 8, and 10). All proposed structures were supported by instrumental methods. The aggregation behaviors of the phthalocyanines (4-11) were investigated in different solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), chloroform and water. Water soluble cationic Pcs (5, 7, 9, and 11) aggregated in water and sodium dodecyl sulfate was used to prevent the aggregation. The second derivatives of the UV-Vis spectra of aggregated Pcs were used for analyzing the Q and B bands of aggregated species. Thermal behaviors of the phthalocyanines were also studied. In addition, anti-bacterial properties of the phthalocyanines were investigated. We used four gram negative and two gram positive bacteria to determine antibacterial activity of these compounds. Compound 7 has the best activity against the all bacteria with 125μg/mL of MIC value. Compounds 4, 6, and 10 have the similar effect on the bacteria with 250μg/mL of MIC value. PMID:24952089

  3. Synthesis, aggregation and spectroscopic studies of novel water soluble metal free, zinc, copper and magnesium phthalocyanines and investigation of their anti-bacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrak, Rıza; Akçay, Hakkı Türker; Beriş, Fatih Şaban; Şahin, Ertan; Bayrak, Hacer; Demirbaş, Ümit

    2014-12-01

    In this study, novel phthalonitrile derivative (3) was synthesized by the reaction between 4-nitrophthalonitrile (2) and a triazole derivative (1) containing pyridine moiety. Crystal structure of compound (3) was characterized by X-ray diffraction. New metal free and metallo-phthalocyanine complexes (Zn, Cu, and Mg) were synthesized using the phthalonitrile derivative (3). Cationic derivatives of these phthalocyanines (5, 7, 9, and 11) were prepared from the non-ionic phthalocyanines (4, 6, 8, and 10). All proposed structures were supported by instrumental methods. The aggregation behaviors of the phthalocyanines (4-11) were investigated in different solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), chloroform and water. Water soluble cationic Pcs (5, 7, 9, and 11) aggregated in water and sodium dodecyl sulfate was used to prevent the aggregation. The second derivatives of the UV-Vis spectra of aggregated Pcs were used for analyzing the Q and B bands of aggregated species. Thermal behaviors of the phthalocyanines were also studied. In addition, anti-bacterial properties of the phthalocyanines were investigated. We used four gram negative and two gram positive bacteria to determine antibacterial activity of these compounds. Compound 7 has the best activity against the all bacteria with 125 μg/mL of MIC value. Compounds 4, 6, and 10 have the similar effect on the bacteria with 250 μg/mL of MIC value.

  4. Impact of biochar amendment on soil water soluble carbon in the context of extreme hydrological events.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoyuan; Griffin, Deirdre E; Parikh, Sanjai J; Scow, Kate M

    2016-10-01

    Biochar amendments to soil have been promoted as a low cost carbon (C) sequestration strategy as well as a way to increase nutrient retention and remediate contaminants. If biochar is to become part of a long-term management strategy, it is important to consider its positive and negative impacts, and their trade-offs, on soil organic matter (SOM) and soluble C under different hydrological conditions such as prolonged drought or frequent wet-dry cycles. A 52-week incubation experiment measuring the influence of biochar on soil water soluble C under different soil moisture conditions (wet, dry, or wet-dry cycles) indicated that, in general, dry and wet-dry cycles increased water soluble C, and biochar addition further increased release of water soluble C from native SOM. Biochar amendment appeared to increase transformation of native SOM to water soluble C, based on specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) and C stable isotope composition; however, the increased amount of water soluble C from native SOM is less than 1% of total biochar C. The impacts of biochar on water soluble C need to be carefully considered when applying biochar to agricultural soil. PMID:27391051

  5. Water-soluble organic carbon, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in the tropical Indian aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Swaminathan, T.

    2010-06-01

    Tropical aerosol (PM10) samples (n = 49) collected from southeast coast of India were studied for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ketocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal), together with analyses of total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Their distributions were characterized by a predominance of oxalic acid followed by terephthalic (t-Ph), malonic, and succinic acids. Total concentrations of diacids (227-1030 ng m-3), ketoacids (16-105 ng m-3), and dicarbonyls (4-23 ng m-3) are comparative to those from other Asian megacities such as Tokyo and Hong Kong. t-Ph acid was found as the second most abundant diacid in the Chennai aerosols. This feature has not been reported previously in atmospheric aerosols. t-Ph acid is most likely derived from the field burning of plastics. Water-soluble diacids were found to contribute 0.4%-3% of TC and 4%-11% of WSOC. Based on molecular distributions and backward air mass trajectories, we found that diacids and related compounds in coastal South Indian aerosols are influenced by South Asian and Indian Ocean monsoons. Organic aerosols are also suggested to be significantly transported long distances from North India and the Middle East in early winter and from Southeast Asia in late winter, but some originate from photochemical reactions over the Bay of Bengal. In contrast, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and South Indian continent are suggested as major source regions in summer. We also found daytime maxima of most diacids, except for C9 and t-Ph acids, which showed nighttime maxima in summer. Emissions from marine and terrestrial plants, combined with land/sea breezes and in situ photochemical oxidation, are suggested especially in summer as an important factor that controls the composition of water-soluble organic aerosols over the southeast coast of India. Regional emissions from anthropogenic sources are also important in megacity Chennai, but their influence is

  6. Enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase Activity of Water-Soluble and Polyethylene Glycol-Supported Selenides, Related Spirodioxyselenuranes, and Pincer Selenuranes.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Nicole M R; Press, David J; Mayder, Don M; Garnica, Pablo; Doyle, Lisa M; Back, Thomas G

    2016-09-01

    Diaryl selenides containing o-hydroxymethylene substituents function as peroxide-destroying mimetics of the antioxidant selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx), via oxidation to the corresponding spirodioxyselenuranes with hydrogen peroxide and subsequent reduction back to the original selenides with glutathione. Parent selenides with 3-hydroxypropyl or 2,3-dihydroxypropyl groups produced the novel compounds 10 and 11, respectively, with greatly improved aqueous solubility and catalytic activity. The phenolic derivative 28 displayed similarly ameliorated properties and also modest radical-inhibiting antioxidant activity, as evidenced by an assay based on phenolic hydrogen atom transfer to the stable free radical DPPH. In contrast, several selenides that afford pincer selenuranes (e.g., 20 and 21) instead of spiroselenuranes upon oxidation showed inferior catalytic activity. Several selenide analogues were attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG) oligomers, as PEG substituents can improve water solubility and bioavailability, while retarding clearance. Again, the PEG derivatives afforded remarkable activity when oxidation generated spirodioxyselenuranes and diminished activity when pincer compounds were produced. Several such compounds proved to be ca. 10- to 100-fold catalytically superior to the diaryl selenides and their spirodioxyselenurane counterparts investigated previously. Finally, an NMR-based assay employing glutathione in D2O was designed to accommodate the faster reacting water-soluble mimetics and to more closely duplicate in vivo conditions. PMID:27525346

  7. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Chih-YU; CHUNG, Ying-CHIEN

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is still a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries. The development of dental caries primarily involves Lactobacilli spp. and Streptococcus mutans. Although antibacterial ingredients are used against oral bacteria to reduce dental caries, some reports that show partial antibacterial ingredients could result in side effects. Objectives The main objective is to test the antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan while the evaluation of the mouthwash appears as a secondary aim. Material and Methods The chitosan was obtained from the Application Chemistry Company (Taiwan). The authors investigated the antibacterial effects of water-soluble chitosan against oral bacteria at different temperatures (25-37ºC) and pH values (pH 5-8), and evaluated the antibacterial activities of a self-made water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and analyzed the acute toxicity of the mouthwashes. The acute toxicity was analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. The growth inhibition values against the logarithmic scale of the test concentrations produced a concentrationresponse curve. The IC50 value was calculated by interpolation from the data. Results The effect of the pH variation (5-8) on the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan against tested oral bacteria was not significant. The maximal antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan occurred at 37ºC. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of water-soluble chitosan on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis were 400 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, respectively. Only 5 s of contact between water-soluble chitosan and oral bacteria attained at least 99.60% antibacterial activity at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The water-soluble chitosan-containin g mouthwash significantly demonstrated antibacterial activity that was similar to that of commercial mouthwashes (>99.91%) in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition, the alcohol

  8. Comparison of the performance of non-ionic and anionic surfactants as mobile phase additives in the RPLC analysis of basic drugs.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ángel, María J; García-Álvarez-Coque, María C

    2011-03-01

    Surfactants added to the mobile phases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) give rise to a modified stationary phase, due to the adsorption of surfactant monomers. Depending on the surfactant nature (ionic or non-ionic), the coated stationary phase can exhibit a positive net charge, or just change its polarity remaining neutral. Also, micelles in the mobile phase introduce new sites for solute interaction. This affects the chromatographic behavior, especially in the case of basic compounds. Two surfactants of different nature, the non-ionic Brij-35 and the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) added to water or aqueous-organic mixtures, are here compared in the separation of basic compounds (β-blockers and tricyclic antidepressants). The reversible/irreversible adsorption of the monomers of both surfactants on the stationary phase was examined. The changes in the nature of the chromatographic system using different columns and chromatographic conditions were followed based on the changes in retention and peak shape. The study revealed that Brij-35 is suitable for analyzing basic compounds of intermediate polarity, using "green chemistry", since the addition of an organic solvent is not needed and Brij-35 is a biodegradable surfactant. In contrast, RPLC with hydro-organic mixtures or mobile phases containing SDS required high concentrations of organic solvents. PMID:21328695

  9. Stabilization of urinary THC solutions with a simple non-ionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Eric R; Snyder, J Jacob; Klette, Kevin L

    2009-01-01

    To stabilize urinary solutions against adsorptive loss of metabolites of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a non-ionic surfactant, Tergitol, was investigated to reduce the need for special handling and storage of such solutions. Addition of surfactant up to 20 times the critical micelle concentration (CMC) did not adversely affect the analytical process. Yet, at only two times CMC, surfactant was found to mitigate adsorptive loss of THC analytes under a variety of storage and handling conditions including exposure to glass and plastic surfaces, after storage in a refrigerator or freezer, and at reduced pH, where adsorptive losses were expected to be significant. On average, micellar solubilization of analyte increased the assayed concentration by 10% with a range of 3 to 20%, depending on condition, relative to solutions without surfactant. Solutions with surfactant did not fail (i.e., deviate in concentration by +/-20%) over a 49-week period, whereas those without surfactant failed by 21 weeks. These results indicate that addition of small amounts of non-ionic surfactant to solutions of urinary THC metabolites is a simple method to improve both the accuracy and precision of analyte concentrations, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in such solutions by mitigating adsorptive losses during storage and handling events. PMID:19161669

  10. Colloidal behavior of aqueous montmorillonite suspensions in the presence of non-ionic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareche, M.; Azri, N.; Allal, A.; Zeraibi, N.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we characterized at first, the rheological behavior of the bentonite suspensions and the aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO), then we were investigated the influence of this polymer in a water-based drilling fluid model (6% of bentonite suspension). The objective is to exhibit how the non ionic polymer with molecular weight 6×103 g/mol. of varying concentration mass (0.7%, 1%, 2% et 3%) significantly alter the rheological properties (yield stress, viscosity, loss and elastic modulus) of the bentonite suspensions. The rheological measurements made in simple shear and in dynamic on the mixture (water-bentonite-PEO), showed rheological properties of bentonite suspensions both in the presence and absence of non-ionic polymer. The PEO presents an affinity for the bentonite particles slowing down their kinetic aggregation. The analysis by X-rays diffraction also allowed understanding the structure of this mixture. It had revealed the intercalation between of the clay platelets on one hand, and the links bridges assured by the chains of polymer between bentonite particles beyond a critical concentration in PEO on the other hand. The Herschel- Bulkley rheological model is used for the correlation of our experimental results.

  11. Ternary phase diagrams of a thermoreversible chelating non-ionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Nave, S; Testard, F; Coulombeau, H; Baczko, K; Larpent, C; Zemb, Th

    2009-04-21

    The behaviour of a di-block molecule associating a diamide group and a non-ionic surfactant (C(i)E(j)) is determined in a ternary surfactant/water/oil/system. Its properties are compared to the ones of a parent non-ionic surfactant C(i)E(j) through the limits of boundaries in the phase prisms. The existence of a stable microemulsion single phase in a defined temperature and concentration range is demonstrated. The extension of the microemulsion domain is limited by the presence of a gel, containing lyotropic liquid crystals as gelling agents. Temperature dependence is observed for the curvature below the temperature of zero spontaneous curvature, but the ternary system cannot produce reverse microemulsion as observed with classical C(i)E(j). The decrease of the mean curvature with temperature is inhibited by the presence of the diamide as a grafted complexing group. Liquid-liquid extraction processes with this type of surfactant are possible, but will require the presence of at least a fourth component to enlarge the water in an oil microemulsion domain. PMID:19421528

  12. Effect of photochemical pre-treatment on COD fractionation of a non-ionic textile surfactant.

    PubMed

    Cokgor, E U; Arsian-Alaton, I; Erdinc, E; Insel, G; Orhon, D

    2007-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is focused on the effect of photochemical (H2O2/UV-C) pretreatment on COD fractionation and degradation kinetics of a non-ionic textile surfactant. In the first part of the study, the COD of non-ionic surfactant was adjusted to 1000 mg/L in order to simulate real effluent originating from the textile preparation stage featuring desizing, scouring, washing and rinsing operations. The surfactant was subjected to H2O2/UV-C pretreatment for up to 120 min at a dose of 30 mM (980 mg/L) H2O2. The biodegradability studies for untreated and photochemically treated samples were evaluated on the basis of modeling of oxygen uptake rate (OUR) profiles. Modelling of OUR profiles conducted for untreated sample showed that single complex substrate was subjected to enzymatic breakdown and disintegrated into one readily and two types of slowly biodegradable substrates. After modelling the biodegradation of photochemically pretreated sample, the readily biodegradable COD fraction was reduced, on the other hand, more slowly biodegradable organics were generated. A higher disintegration rate was obtained for chemically pretreated samples. However, other kinetic constants of growth and hydrolysis processes were not affected considerably. PMID:17564381

  13. Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Water-Soluble Resin-Coated Natural Fiber Green Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Ken-Ichi; Hayakawa, Tomoyuki

    In this study, water-soluble biodegradable resin was introduced as a coating agent to improve the interfacial strength and then to fabricate a high-performance green composite with polylactic acid (PLA) and hemp yarn. Dip coating was carried out for hemp yarn and the green composites were fabricated by hot processing. The coated green composite achieves a high tensile strength of 117 MPa even though the fiber volume fraction is less than 30%. Interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was measured by a single fiber pull-out test, and the effect of water-soluble resin on the tensile properties of the composites was evaluated. As a result, when using coated natural bundles, the IFSS value is smaller than when using noncoated natural bundles. On the basis of observations of the fractured surface of composites and initial yarns using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the effect of the impregnation of water-soluble resin into the natural bundles on the tensile strength is discussed in detail. It is found that water-soluble resin is effective in improving the mechanical properties of the composite, although the interfacial strength between PLA and water-soluble resin was decreased, and as a result, the tensile strength of green composites increases by almost 20%.

  14. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Soni, Love Kumar; Maheshwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug), by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant) of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide); water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000); and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600). Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends) ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml). The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol) was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555989

  15. Effects of PAH biodegradation in the presence of non-ionic surfactants on a bacterial community and its exoenzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Tang; Thirumavalavan, Munusamy; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu

    2010-01-01

    The influence of two non-ionic surfactants (TX-100 and Brij 35) on a bacterial community and its exoenzymatic activity during polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene) biodegradation was evaluated in this study. The result indicated the addition of the non-ionic surfactants altered the profiles of the microbial populations and produced exoenzymes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization found that, as PAH biodegradation progressed in the presence of non-ionic surfactant, the proportion of Bacteria presents increased significantly from the range 54.79%-57.00% to 64.17%-73.4% and there was parallel decrease in Archaea. The trends in five phyla/subclass of Bacteria, namely alpha -, beta -, or gamma -Proteobacteria, HGC bacteria and LGC bacteria, were influenced significantly by the addition of Brij 35 as either monomers or micelles. A change was ascribed to different cohesive energy density (CED) value between the PAH and surfactant. The percentage of genera Pseudomonas 4.76%-12.67%, which included two signals, namely most true Pseudomonas spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were dominant during biodegradation. For exoenzymaztic activities, trends were identified by principle component analysis of the API ZYM enzymatic activity dataset. The additions of non-ionic surfactant were identified strong activities of three esterase (esterase, esterase lipase and lipase), alpha -glucosidase, beta -glucosidase, leucine arylamidase and acid phosphatase during PAH biodegradation. These enzymes are selected as possible organic pollutant indicators when the in situ bioremediation was monitored in the presence of non-ionic surfactant additives. PMID:20390887

  16. Synthesis of water-soluble silicon-porphyrin: protolytic behaviour of axially coordinated hydroxy groups.

    PubMed

    Remello, Sebastian Nybin; Kuttassery, Fazalurahman; Hirano, Takehiro; Nabetani, Yu; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Onuki, Satomi; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Inoue, Haruo

    2015-12-14

    A new water-soluble silicon(IV)-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (SiTCPP) with silicon(iv), the second most abundant element on Earth, in the center of porphyrin was synthesized. Fundamental properties including protolytic behaviour of axially coordinating hydroxy groups, and electrochemical behaviour were characterized. The properties were compared with those of silicon(IV)-tetra(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)porphyrin (SiTMP) and silicon(IV)-tetra(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)porphyrin (SiTFMPP) and discussed in respect to the electron donating/withdrawing effect of the substituents. Two axially coordinating hydroxy groups of SiTCPP exhibit a four-step protolytic behaviour under the acidic conditions along with a single step protolysis of peripheral carboxyl groups. Though SiTCPP and SiTFMPP did not show any reactivity in the photochemical oxygenation of a substrate with K2PtCl6 as a sacrificial electron acceptor, the first oxidation wave in the electrochemical process of SiTCPP and SiTFMPP showed catalytic behaviour in aqueous acetonitrile solution at any pH condition, in contrast to SiTMP which has only a reversible oxidation wave under neutral and weakly acidic conditions. The criteria for the electrochemical oxidative activation of water and the photooxygenation of the substrate were obtained. The higher oxidation wave of Si-porphyrins than ∼0.86 volt vs. SHE is required for the electrochemical oxidation of water, while suitable protecting groups such as a methyl substituent is a requisite for the photochemical oxygenation with K2PtCl6 as a sacrificial electron acceptor. PMID:26526697

  17. Injectable polyanhydride granules provide controlled release of water-soluble drugs with a reduced initial burst.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Y; Domb, A; Langer, R

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing polyanhydride granules of an injectable size was developed. The resulting granules permitted a nearly constant release of low-molecular-weight, water-soluble drugs without an initial burst. The polyanhydrides used were poly(fatty acid dimer), poly(sebacic acid), and their copolymers. The dyes acid orange 63 and p-nitroaniline were used as model compounds for drugs. Polymer degradation and drug release for disks and variously sized granules of copolymers containing drugs, prepared by a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion method, were compared with those for devices prepared by the usual compression method. In the W/O emulsion method, a mixture of aqueous drug solution and polymer-chloroform solution was emulsified by probe sonication to prepare a very fine W/O emulsion. The powder obtained by freeze-drying of the W/O emulsion was pressed into circular disks. In the compression method, the drug was mechanically mixed with the polymer, and the mixture was compressed into circular disks. The resulting disks were ground to prepare granules of different sizes. The granules encapsulated more than 95% of the drug, irrespective of the preparation method. Both methods were effective in preparing polymer disks capable of controlled drug release without any initial burst. However, as the granule size decreased to an injectable size (diameter, < 150 microns), a large difference in the drug release profile was observed between the two preparation methods. The injectable granules obtained by the W/O emulsion method showed nearly constant drug release without any large initial burst, in contrast to those prepared by the compression method, irrespective of the drug type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8138910

  18. Coaxial electrospinning for encapsulation and controlled release of fragile water-soluble bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongliang; Wang, Liqun; Zhu, Kangjie

    2014-11-10

    Coaxial electrospinning is a robust technique for one-step encapsulation of fragile, water-soluble bioactive agents, including growth factors, DNA and even living organisms, into core-shell nanofibers. The coaxial electrospinning process eliminates the damaging effects due to direct contact of the agents with organic solvents or harsh conditions during emulsification. The shell layer serves as a barrier to prevent the premature release of the water-soluble core contents. By varying the structure and composition of the nanofibers, it is possible to precisely modulate the release of the encapsulated agents. Promising work has been done with coaxially electrospun non-woven mats integrated with bioactive agents for use in tissue engineering, in local delivery and in wound healing, etc. This paper reviews the origins of the coaxial electrospinning method, its updated status and potential future developments for controlled release of the class of fragile, water-soluble bioactive agents. PMID:24780265

  19. Effect of supplementation of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Talikoti, Prashanth; Bobby, Zachariah; Hamide, Abdoul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives. Sixty prehypertensives were recruited and randomized into 2 groups of 30 each. One group received water-soluble vitamins and the other placebo for 4 months. Further increase in blood pressure was not observed in the vitamin group which increased significantly in the placebo group at the end of 4 months. Malonedialdehyde and protein carbonylation were reduced during the course of treatment with vitamins whereas in the placebo group there was an increase in the level of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, supplementation of water-soluble vitamins in prehypertension reduces oxidative stress and its progression to hypertension. PMID:25588130

  20. [New conjugates of antitumor antibiotic doxorubicin with water-soluble galactomannan: synthesis and biological activity].

    PubMed

    Teviashova, A N; Olsuf'eva, E N; Preobrazhenskaia, M N; Klesov, A A; Zomer, E; Platt, D

    2007-01-01

    New water-soluble conjugates in the form of Schiff bases (DGM-1 and DGM-2) were prepared by the interaction of water-soluble periodate-oxidized galactomannan with doxorubicin or N-(L-lysyl)doxorubicin, respectively. The water-soluble galactomannan (DAVANAT a commercial product of Pro-Pharmaceuticals company) was obtained by partial acidic hydrolysis of high-molecular-mass galactomannan from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (guar gum) seeds. The conjugate stability was studied in aqueous solutions. The DGM-1 antiproliferative activity was comparable with that of doxorubicin on three models: cell lines of murine melanoma B 16-F1, human breast cancer MCF-7 (HTB-22), and human colon cancer HT-29 (HTB-38). DGM-2 was poorly active in all the three tests. DGM- 1 can thus be regarded as a high-molecular-mass depot form of doxorubicin. PMID:17375669

  1. Effect of addition of water-soluble chitin on amylose film.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiho; Shimahashi, Katsumasa; Takahara, Junichi; Sunako, Michihiro; Takaha, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kozo; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    Amylose films blended with chitosan, which were free from additives such as acid, salt, and plasticizer, were prepared by casting mixtures of an aqueous solution of an enzymatically synthesized amylose and that of water-soluble chitin (44.1% deacetylated). The presence of a small amount of chitin (less than 10%) increased significantly the permeability of gases (N2, O2, CO2, C2H4) and improved the mechanical parameters of amylose film; particularly, the elastic modulus and elongation of the blend films were larger than those of amylose or chitin films. No antibacterial activity was observed with either amylose or water-soluble chitin films. But amylose films having a small amount of chitin showed strong antibacterial action, suggesting a morphological change in water-soluble chitin on the film surface by blending with amylose molecule. These facts suggested the presence of a molecular complex of amylose and chitosan. PMID:16283751

  2. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescent properties of water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haisong; Yu, Meng; Zhang, Hailei; Bai, Libin; Wu, Yonggang; Wang, Sujuan; Ba, Xinwu

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin is a potential natural anticancer drug with low oral bioavailability because of poor water solubility. The aqueous solubility of curcumin is enhanced by means of modification with the carbohydrate units. Polymerization of the curcumin-containing monomer with carbohydrate-containing monomer gives the water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues. The obtained copolymers (P1 and P2) having desirable water solubility were well-characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The copolymer P2 with a molar ratio of 1:6 (curcumin/carbohydrate) calculated from the proton NMR results exhibits a similar anticancer activity compared to original curcumin, which may serve as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the field of anticancer medicine. PMID:27098211

  3. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hamid M.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current

  4. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    DOEpatents

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  5. Cryptic clues as to how water-soluble protein toxins form pores in membranes.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael W

    2003-07-01

    Pore-forming protein toxins possess the remarkable property that they can exist either in a stable water-soluble state or as an integral membrane pore. In order to convert from the water-soluble to the membrane state, the toxin must undergo large conformational changes. Recent work on a class of pore-forming toxins that are rich in beta-sheet content suggests a common mechanism of membrane insertion may exist despite these toxins possessing very different primary, tertiary and quaternary structures. PMID:12893054

  6. Determination of water-soluble ions in soils from the dry valleys of Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, R.

    1981-01-01

    The soil chemistry of the dry valleys of Antarctica was studied. These valleys furnish a terrestrial analog for the surface of Mars. The abundance of the water-soluble ions magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium chloride, and nitrate in soil samples was determined. All samples examined contained water-soluble salts reflecting the aridity of the area. Movement of salts to low-lying areas was verified. Upward ionic migration was evident in all core samples. Of all cations observed, sodium showed the greatest degree of migration.

  7. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot-micelles.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Bunge, Scott D.; Gabaldon, John; Fan, Hongyou; Scullin, Chessa; Leve, Erik W.; Wilson, Michael C.; Tallant, David Robert; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid approach to synthesize water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent quantum dot (QD) micelles by encapsulation of monodisperse, hydrophobic QDs within surfactant/lipid micelles. Analyses of UV-vis and photo luminescence spectra, along with transmission electron microscopy, indicate that the water-soluble semiconductor QD micelles are monodisperse and retain the optical properties of the original hydrophobic QDs. The QD micelles were shown to be biocompatible and exhibited little or no aggregation when taken up by cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  8. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% < V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr ≤ 50%; others ≤20%. Most metals, water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO42- , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals

  9. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO4 2 - and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% < V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr ≤ 50%; others ≤20%. Most metals, water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO4 2 - , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals

  10. Aqueous cationic, anionic and non-ionic multi-walled carbon nanotubes, functionalised with minimal framework damage, for biomedical application

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu; Hu, Sheng; Smith, Elizabeth F.; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Thorley, Andrew J.; Menzel, Robert; Goode, Angela E.; Ryan, Mary P.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Shaffer, Milo S. P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of a thermochemical grafting approach provides a versatile means to functionalise as-synthesised, bulk multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) without altering their inherent structure. The associated retention of properties is desirable for a wide range of commercial applications, including for drug delivery and medical purposes; it is also pertinent to studies of intrinsic toxicology. A systematic series of water-compatible MWNTs, with diameter around 12 nm have been prepared, to provide structurally-equivalent samples predominantly stabilised by anionic, cationic, or non-ionic groups. The surface charge of MWNTs was controlled by varying the grafting reagents and subsequent post-functionalisation modifications. The degree of grafting was established by thermal analysis (TGA). High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Raman measurements confirmed that the structural framework of the MWNTs was unaffected by the thermochemical treatment, in contrast to a conventional acid-oxidised control which was severely damaged. The effectiveness of the surface modification was demonstrated by significantly improved solubility and stability in both water and cell culture medium, and further quantified by zeta-potential analysis. The grafted MWNTs exhibited relatively low bioreactivity on human immortal alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells (TT1) following 24h exposure as demonstrated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) assays. The exposure of TT1 cells to MWNTs suppressed the release of the inflammatory mediators, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). TEM cell uptake studies indicated efficient cellular entry of MWNTs into TT1 cells, via a range of mechanisms. Cationic MWNTs showed a more substantial interaction with TT1 cell membranes than anionic MWNTs, demonstrating a surface charge effect on cell uptake. PMID:24631251

  11. Metformin loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles: optimization of formulation, effect of process variables and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metformin an oral hypoglycemic has been widely used as a fist line of treatment of Type II Diabetes but in a very high dose 2–3 times a day and moreover suffers from a number of side effects like lactic acidosis, gastric discomfort, chest pain, allergic reactions being some of them. The present work was conducted with the aim of sustaining the release of metformin so as to decrease its side effects and also reduce its dosing frequency using a novel delivery system niosomes (non-ionic surfactant vesicles). Non-ionic surfactant vesicles of different surfactants were prepared using thin film hydration technique and were investigated for morphology, entrapment, in-vitro release, TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and physical stability. Optimized formulation was further studied for the effect of Surfactant concentration, DCP (Dicetyl phosphate), Surfactant: cholesterol ratio and volume of hydration. The release studies data was subjected to release kinetics models. Results The prepared vesicles were uniform and spherical in size. Optimized formulation MN3 entrapped the drug with 84.50±0.184 efficiency in the vesicles of the size 487.60±2.646 and showed the most sustained release of 73.89±0.126. Also it was resulted that 100 molar concentration of cholesterol and surfactant, Presence of DCP, equimolar ratio of span 60: cholesterol and 15 ml of volume of hydration were found to be optimum for miosome preparation. Conclusions The present work concluded metformin loaded niosomes to be effective in sustaining the drug release leading to decreased side effects and increased patient compliance. PMID:23351604

  12. Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

  13. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (‘Ison’, purple and ‘Carlos’, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

  14. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement. PMID:26593554

  15. Polyoxometalate-directed assembly of water-soluble AgCl nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Alevtina; Wang, Yifeng; Sharet, Shelly; Varsano, Neta; Botar, Bogdan; Kögerler, Paul; Meshi, Louisa; Weinstock, Ira A

    2012-02-21

    "Out-of-pocket" association of Ag(+) to the tetradentate defect site of mono-vacant Keggin and Wells-Dawson polyoxometalate (POM) cluster-anions is used to direct the formation of water-soluble AgCl nanocubes. PMID:22252035

  16. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF WATER SOLUBLE STARCH, STARCH ACETATES AND STARCH ACETATES/ALKENYLSUCCINATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface and interfacial tensions with hexadecane were measured for starch and water soluble starch ester solutions in order to determine their potential as stabilizers or emulsifiers. The surface tension for an acid hydrolysed starch (maltodextrin) initially declined with concentration and then rea...

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Water Soluble Vitamins in Dietary Supplements and Fortified Foods by LC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work in our laboratory has focused on development of LC methods with diode array and/or mass spectrometry (ms) detection for the simultaneous determination in supplement tablets and fortified foods of several water-soluble vitamins (WSV) including: thiamin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic ac...

  18. Fabrication and multifunctional properties of ultrasmall water-soluble tungsten oxide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huaping; Liu, Pan; Lin, Danwei; Deng, Yani; Lei, Yun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yuanzhong; Lin, Xinhua; Xia, Xinghua; Liu, Ailin

    2016-07-21

    A facile and green method has been demonstrated to synthesize ultrasmall tungsten oxide quantum dots (WOx QDs). The water-soluble WOx QDs present high luminescence stability, strong peroxidase-like activity, and excellent electrochemiluminescence properties. This work provides an eco-friendly strategy to prepare multifunctional WOx QDs, and opens the door for bioapplications of the WOx QDs. PMID:27381501

  19. Photocatalytic hydrogen production from a simple water-soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase model system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bin; Feng, Ke; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2012-08-21

    Combined with a simple water soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimic 1, Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and ascorbic acid enable hydrogen production photocatalytically. More than 88 equivalents of H(2) were achieved in water, which is much better than that obtained in an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvent and water. PMID:22772838

  20. REMOVING WATER-SOLUBLE HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS FROM WATERWAYS WITH CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model for the removal of water-soluble organic materials from water by carbon-filled, buoyant packets and panels is described. Based on this model, equations are derived for the removal of dissolved organic compounds from waterways by buoyant packets that are either (a) cycled ...

  1. 40 CFR 799.6786 - TSCA water solubility: Generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Generator...: Generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended to meet the testing... the saturated solutions produced by the generator column. After extraction onto a...

  2. 40 CFR 799.6786 - TSCA water solubility: Generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Generator...: Generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended to meet the testing... the saturated solutions produced by the generator column. After extraction onto a...

  3. 40 CFR 799.6786 - TSCA water solubility: Generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Generator...: Generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended to meet the testing... the saturated solutions produced by the generator column. After extraction onto a...

  4. Water-soluble lead in cathode ray tube funnel glass melted in a reductive atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the reduction-melting process, lead can be recovered from cathode ray tube funnel glass (PbO=25wt%); however, resulting glass residues still contain approximately 1-2wt% of unrecovered lead. For environmental protection in the residue disposal or recycling, it is important to evaluate the quantities of water-soluble species among the unrecovered lead. This study examined water-soluble lead species generated in the reduction-melting process of the funnel glass and factors determining their generation. In the reduction-melting, metallic lead was generated by reducing lead oxides in the glass, and a part of the metallic lead remained in the glass residue. Such unrecovered metallic lead can dissolve in water depending on its pH level and was regarded as water-soluble lead. When 10g Na2CO3 was added to 20g funnel glass during reduction-melting, the resulting glass contained high concentrations of sodium. In a water leaching of the glass, the obtained leachate was alkalized by the sodium-rich glass (pH=12.7-13.0). The unrecovered metallic lead in the glass was extracted in the alkalized leachate. The quantity of the unrecovered metallic lead (water-soluble lead) in the glass decreased when the melting time, melting temperature, and carbon dosage were controlled during reduction-melting. PMID:27209518

  5. FATE OF WATER SOLUBLE AZO DYES IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the partitioning of water soluble azo dyes in the activated sludge process (ASP). Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precursors , and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurso...

  6. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  7. Nanoformulation and encapsulation approaches for poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wais, Ulrike; Jackson, Alexander W; He, Tao; Zhang, Haifei

    2016-01-28

    During the last few decades the nanomedicine sector has emerged as a feasible and effective solution to the problems faced by the high percentage of poorly water-soluble drugs. Decreasing the size of such drug compounds to the nanoscale can significantly change their physical properties, which lays the foundation for the use of nanomedicine for pharmaceutical applications. Various techniques have been developed to produce poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles, mainly to address the poor water-soluble issues but also for the efficient and targeted delivery of such drugs. These techniques can be generally categorized into top-down, bottom-up and encapsulation approaches. Among them, the top-down approaches have been the main choice for industrial preparation of drug nanoparticles while other methods are actively investigated by researchers. In this review, we aim to give a comprehensive overview and latest progress of the top-down, bottom-up, and encapsulation methods for the preparation of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles and how solvents and additives can be selected for these methods. In addition to the more industrially applied top-down approaches, the review is focused more on bottom-up and encapsulation methods, particularly covering supercritical fluid-related methods, cryogenic techniques, and encapsulation with dendrimers and responsive block copolymers. Some of the approved and mostly used nanodrug formulations on the market are also covered to demonstrate the applications of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. This review is complete with perspectives on the development and challenges of fabrication techniques for more effective nanomedicine. PMID:26731460

  8. Nanoformulation and encapsulation approaches for poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wais, Ulrike; Jackson, Alexander W.; He, Tao; Zhang, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    During the last few decades the nanomedicine sector has emerged as a feasible and effective solution to the problems faced by the high percentage of poorly water-soluble drugs. Decreasing the size of such drug compounds to the nanoscale can significantly change their physical properties, which lays the foundation for the use of nanomedicine for pharmaceutical applications. Various techniques have been developed to produce poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles, mainly to address the poor water-soluble issues but also for the efficient and targeted delivery of such drugs. These techniques can be generally categorized into top-down, bottom-up and encapsulation approaches. Among them, the top-down approaches have been the main choice for industrial preparation of drug nanoparticles while other methods are actively investigated by researchers. In this review, we aim to give a comprehensive overview and latest progress of the top-down, bottom-up, and encapsulation methods for the preparation of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles and how solvents and additives can be selected for these methods. In addition to the more industrially applied top-down approaches, the review is focused more on bottom-up and encapsulation methods, particularly covering supercritical fluid-related methods, cryogenic techniques, and encapsulation with dendrimers and responsive block copolymers. Some of the approved and mostly used nanodrug formulations on the market are also covered to demonstrate the applications of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. This review is complete with perspectives on the development and challenges of fabrication techniques for more effective nanomedicine.

  9. Structural Characterization and Reactivity of Pyrogenic Water-Soluble Organic Matter Derived from Biomass Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, M. J.; Louchouarn, P.; Kuo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Combustion processes, whether from natural or anthropogenic origin, are major sources of particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere as well as soils and aquatic environments. The ubiquitous presence of biomass combustion by-products in atmospheric particles and soils could potentially lead to a large transfer of pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Pyr-WSOM) to the surface of watersheds and aquatic systems. In spite of this, there is a dearth of studies that have characterized the sources, and particularly the fate, of Pyr-WSOM to aquatic systems. In the present study, Pyr-WSOM was extracted from plant-derived chars (feedstocks: honey mesquite, cordgrass, and loblolly pine) produced at a range of temperatures (150-850C), and were then characterized using elemental analyses and ATR-FTIR. Low temperature (250C) Pyr-WSOM, extracted from honey mesquite and cordgrass biochars, were then incubated with aliquots of filtered water from the Trinity River (TX) for one month under dark conditions. Consistent with prior studies on combustion molecular markers such as anhydrosugars and methoxylated phenols, the total amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from biochars peaks around 200-250C and then decreases with increasing temperature of combustion. Elemental and structural analyses of biochar-derived WSOM reflect the selective solubility of certain functional groups. For example, despite the predominance of aromatic units and soot structures in biochars formed at high temperatures, such functionalities are not as predominant in their respective Pyr-WSOM. In addition, the high proportion of O-containing functionalities suggests that Pyr-WSOM may be more biodegradable than the particulate residues of biomass combustion. Indeed, low temperature Pyr-WSOM decomposed rapidly with half-lives ranging ~30 days for total DOC to 4-5 days for specific molecular markers of biomass combustion. These rapid turnover rates are in

  10. Characterization of the size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions at eight Canadian rural sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Vet, R.; Wiebe, A.; Mihele, C.; Sukloff, B.; Chan, E.; Moran, M. D.; Iqbal, S.

    2008-12-01

    Size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions, including particulate sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), chloride (Cl-), and base cations (K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+), were measured using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) during fourteen short-term field campaigns at eight locations in both polluted and remote regions of eastern and central Canada. The size distributions of SO42- and NH4+ were unimodal, peaking at 0.3-0.6 µm in diameter, during most of the campaigns, although a bimodal distribution was found during one campaign and a trimodal distribution was found during another campaign made at a coastal site. SO42- peaked at slightly larger sizes in the cold seasons (0.5-0.6 µm) compared to the hot seasons (0.3-0.4 µm) due to the higher relative humidity in the cold seasons. The size distributions of NO3- were unimodal, peaking at 4.0-7.0 µm during the warm-season campaigns, and bimodal, with one peak at 0.3-0.6 µm and another at 4-7 µm during the cold-season campaigns. A unimodal size distribution, peaking at 4-6 µm, was found for Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ during approximately half of the campaigns and a bimodal distribution, with one peak at 2 µm and the other at 6 µm, was found during the rest of the campaigns. For K+, a bimodal distribution, with one peak at 0.3 µm and the other at 4 µm, was observed during most of the campaigns. Seasonal contrasts in the size-distribution profiles suggest that emission sources and air mass origins were the major factors controlling the size distributions of the primary aerosols while meteorological conditions were more important for the secondary aerosols. The dependence of the particle acidity on the particle size from the nucleation mode to the accumulation mode was not consistent from site to site or from season to season. Particles in the accumulation mode were more acidic than those in the nucleation mode when submicron particles were in the state of strong acidity; however, when

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Water-soluble Gold and Silver Nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh

    The term `nanotechnology' has emerged as a buzzword since the last few decades. It has found widespread applications across disciplines, from medicine to energy. The synthesis of gold and silver nanoclusters has found much excitement, due to their novel material properties. Seminal work by various groups, including ours, has shown that the size of these clusters can be controlled with atomic precision. This control gives access to tuning the optical and electronic properties. The majority of nanoclusters reported thus far are not water soluble, which limit their applications in biology that requires water-solubility. Going from organic to aqueous phase is by no means a simple task, as it is associated with many challenges. Their stability in the presence of oxygen, difficulty in characterization, and separation of pure nanoclusters are some of the major bottlenecks associated with the synthesis of water-soluble gold nanoclusters. Water-soluble gold nanoclusters hold great potential in biological labeling, bio-catalysis and nano-bioconjugates. To overcome this problem, a new ligand with structural rigidity is needed. After considering various possibilities, we chose Captopril as a candidate ligand. In my thesis research, the synthesis of Au25 nanocluster capped with captopril has been reported. Captopril-protected Au25 nanocluster showed significantly higher thermal stability and enhanced chiroptical properties than the Glutathione-capped cluster, which confirms our initial rationale, that the ligand is critical in protecting the nanocluster. The optical absorption properties of these Au25 nanoclusters are studied and compared to the plasmonic nanoparticles. The high thermal stability and solubility of Au25 cluster capped with Captopril motivated us to explore this ligand for the synthesis of other gold clusters. Captopril is a chiral molecule with two chiral centers. The chiral ligand can induce chirality to the overall cluster, even if the core is achiral

  12. Comparison of water solubilities by the flask and micro-column methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Y.; Tokura, K.; Ozaki, K.; Strachan, W.M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative examination of the two procedures of the ''OECD Test Guildeline: Water Solubility'' was undertaken using carbazole, fluoranthene, anthracene, hexachlorobenzene, p-nitroaniline and diphenylamine. The flask method was modified to provide for dissolution of the solute from the surface of glass beads. By the proposed flask method, one can accurately measure the water solubility down to the order of 10 ..mu..g/L as well as those of the order of %. The micro-column method, which requires a number of concentration determinations to ensure that a saturated solution has been obtained, is recommended for the solubility range of 10 mg/L through 10 ..mu..g/L. The flask method using the procedures described in this study, covers the range of solubility above 10 ..mu..g/L with only two determinations one being a simple preliminary test and the other a precise measurement.

  13. Preparation of starch macrocellular foam for increasing the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Wu, Chao; Zhao, Zongzhe; Hao, Yanna; Xu, Jie; Yu, Tong; Qiu, Yang; Jiang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Starch macrocellular foam (SMF), a novel natural bio-matrix material, was prepared by the hard template method in order to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Nitrendipine (NDP) was chosen as a model drug and was loaded into SMF by the solvent evaporation method. SMF and the loaded SMF samples (NDP-SMF) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro drug release studies showed that SMF significantly increased the dissolution rate of NDP. In vivo studies showed that the NDP-SMF tablets clearly increased the oral bioavailability of NDP in comparison with the reference commercial tablets. All the results obtained demonstrated that SMF was a promising carrier for the oral delivery of poor water-soluble drugs. PMID:26166407

  14. [Analysis and identification of water soluble components of water buffalo horn].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Duan, Jin-ao; Wu, Hao; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-05-01

    This study is to analyze and identify the water soluble components of water buffalo horn (Bubali Cornu, WBH), and also establish a method for investigating these components. Shotgun proteomic analysis identified proteins in WBH aqueous extraction: keratin, collagen, desmoglein, etc. Ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS were used to separate and identify the peptides in WBH aqueous extract, as a result, identified peptides were mainly derived from nonspecific degradation products of keratin and collagen, which including C-terminal peptides and non C-terminal peptides. Hypoxanthine, uridine, guanosine, and adenosine were identified by comparing with the standards. The strategy in present study could be used in analyzing water soluble components of animal horn derived TCM. It provides a reference for investigation of the material basis of animal horn derived TCM. PMID:26234143

  15. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Matthew B; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Voets, Ilja K; Leenders, Christianus M A; Palmans, Anja R A; Pavan, Giovanni M; Meijer, E W

    2015-01-01

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers: one with and one without a stereogenic methyl. Initially aiming simply to understand the molecular behaviour of these systems in water, we find that while the fibres may look identical, the introduction of homochirality imparts a higher level of internal order to the supramolecular polymer. Although this increased order does not seem to affect the basic dimensions of the supramolecular fibres, the equilibrium dynamics of the polymers differ by almost an order of magnitude. This report represents the first observation of a structure/property relationship with regard to equilibrium dynamics in water-soluble supramolecular polymers. PMID:25698667

  16. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew B.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Voets, Ilja K.; Leenders, Christianus M.A.; Palmans, Anja R.A.; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Meijer, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers: one with and one without a stereogenic methyl. Initially aiming simply to understand the molecular behaviour of these systems in water, we find that while the fibres may look identical, the introduction of homochirality imparts a higher level of internal order to the supramolecular polymer. Although this increased order does not seem to affect the basic dimensions of the supramolecular fibres, the equilibrium dynamics of the polymers differ by almost an order of magnitude. This report represents the first observation of a structure/property relationship with regard to equilibrium dynamics in water-soluble supramolecular polymers. PMID:25698667

  17. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Matthew B.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Voets, Ilja K.; Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Meijer, E. W.

    2015-02-01

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers: one with and one without a stereogenic methyl. Initially aiming simply to understand the molecular behaviour of these systems in water, we find that while the fibres may look identical, the introduction of homochirality imparts a higher level of internal order to the supramolecular polymer. Although this increased order does not seem to affect the basic dimensions of the supramolecular fibres, the equilibrium dynamics of the polymers differ by almost an order of magnitude. This report represents the first observation of a structure/property relationship with regard to equilibrium dynamics in water-soluble supramolecular polymers.

  18. Physico-chemical qualification of a universal portable sampler for aerosols and water-soluble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Jean-Maxime; Sarda-Estève, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Developing a universal portable air sampler based on electrostatic precipitation. The challenge is to collect micro and nanoparticles, microorganisms as well as toxic molecules with a portable device. Electrostatic precipitation is an efficient and gentle method to collect airborne microorganisms and preserve their cultivability. But the collection of toxic gases required is not possible in such a device. The collection of such gases requires a liquid into which they have to be solubilized. Two concepts are being evaluated. The first one is based on electrospray. The goal is to investigate the collection efficiency of water-soluble gases. The second concept is based on the semi-humid electrostatic precipitator. Their high collection efficiencies for particles were already demonstrated. In the present study they are both tested with water-soluble gases. Concentrations are measured in the liquid solution by Ion Chromatography and in the gas phase by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry.

  19. Photophysical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Generation Efficiencies of Water-Soluble Fullerene Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stasheuski, Alexander S; Galievsky, Victor A; Stupak, Alexander P; Dzhagarov, Boris M; Choi, Mi Jin; Chung, Bong Hyun; Jeong, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    As various fullerene derivatives have been developed, it is necessary to explore their photophysical properties for potential use in photoelectronics and medicine. Here, we address the photophysical properties of newly synthesized water-soluble fullerene-based nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene as a representative water-soluble fullerene derivative. They show broad emission band arising from a wide-range of excitation energies. It is attributed to the optical transitions from disorder-induced states, which decay in the nanosecond time range. We determine the kinetic properties of the singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence generated by the fullerene nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene to consider the potential as photodynamic agents. Triplet state decay of the nanoparticles was longer than 1O2 lifetime in water. Singlet oxygen quantum yield of a series of the fullerene nanoparticles is comparably higher ranging from 0.15 to 0.2 than that of polyhydroxylated fullerene, which is about 0.06. PMID:24893622

  20. Method of cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol and other water soluble resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self supporting sheet structure comprising a water soluble, noncrosslinked polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol which is capable of being crosslinked by reaction with hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals is contacted with an aqueous solution having a pH of less than 8 and containing a dissolved salt in an amount sufficient to prevent substantial dissolution of the noncrosslinked polymer in the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is then irradiated with ionizing radiation to form hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals and the irradiation is continued for a time sufficient to effect crosslinking of the water soluble polymer to produce a water insoluble polymer sheet structure. The method has particular application in the production of battery separators and electrode envelopes for alkaline batteries.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a hyper-branched water-soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Francesco; Caldera, Fabrizio; Cavalli, Roberta; Mele, Andrea; Punta, Carlo; Melone, Lucio; Castiglione, Franca; Rossi, Barbara; Ferro, Monica; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Venuti, Valentina; Scalarone, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    A new hyper-branched water-soluble polymer was synthesized by reacting β-cyclodextrin with pyromellitic dianhydride beyond the critical conditions that allow the phenomenon of gelation to occur. The molar ratio between the monomers is a crucial parameter that rules the gelation process. Nevertheless, the concentration of monomers in the solvent phase plays a key role as well. Hyper-branched β-cyclodextrin-based polymers were obtained performing the syntheses with excess of solvent and cross-linking agent, and the conditions for critical dilution were determined experimentally. A hyper-branched polymer with very high water solubility was obtained and fully characterized both as for its chemical structure and for its capability to encapsulate substances. Fluorescein was used as probe molecule to test the complexation properties of the new material. PMID:25550720

  2. Chemical synthesis of water-soluble, chiral conducting-polymer complexes

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; McCarthy, Patrick A.; Yang, Sze Cheng

    2003-01-01

    The template-guided synthesis of water-soluble, chiral conducting polymer complexes is described. Synthesis of water-soluble polyaniline complexes is achieved by carefully controlling the experimental parameters such as; acid concentration, ionic strength, monomer/template ratio, total reagent concentration, and order of reagent addition. Chiral (helical) polyaniline complexes can be synthesized by addition of a chiral inducing agent (chiral acid) prior to polymerization, and the polyaniline helix can be controlled by the addition of the (+) or (-) form of the chiral acid. Moreover the quantity of chiral acid and the salt content has a significant impact on the degree of chirality in the final polymer complexes. The polyaniline and the template have been found to be mixed at the molecular level which results in chiral complexes that are robust through repeated doping and dedoping cycles.

  3. Bioavailability of water-soluble CoQ10 in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Prosek, Mirko; Butinar, Janos; Lukanc, Barbara; Fir, Maja Milivojevic; Milivojevic, Luka; Krizman, Mitja; Smidovnik, Andrej

    2008-08-01

    The bioavailability of a novel water-soluble inclusion complex of CoQ10, prepared in our laboratory was determined and compared with the bioavailability of commercially available oil-based form of CoQ10. Experimental work consisted of single dose comparative bioavailability study on seven beagle dogs, with a 14-day washout period between treatments. Identification and quantification of CoQ10 was done with HPLC-MS method using positive APCI ionization and SIM mode, M+ m/z 863.4. The bioavailability results confirm that the water-soluble formulation has nearly three times higher AUC(0-48 h), two times higher Cmax, and Tmax is shortened from 6 to 4 h. PMID:18495407

  4. Water-soluble polymer exfoliated graphene: as catalyst support and sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Xia, Baoyu; Yan, Ya; Li, Nan; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Wang, Xin

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we obtained various water-soluble polymer functionalized graphene in dimethyl sulfoxide under ultrasonication. The atomic force microscope analysis and control experiment shows the water-soluble polymer is the crucial part to help solvent molecules separate interlayer. Such polymer/graphene exhibits high conductivity and tunable surface property, as confirmed by the selected area electron diffraction and Raman and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As a result, a catalyst based on polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/graphene shows better methanol oxidation performance than that based on PVP/reduced graphene oxide. By changing to another polymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine)/graphene shows a stable and reversible response to pH, and demonstrates its potential for sensor application. PMID:23574310

  5. Design of Chitosan and Its Water Soluble Derivatives-Based Drug Carriers with Polyelectrolyte Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, the cationic polysaccharide derived from the natural polysaccharide chitin, has been studied as a biomaterial for more than two decades. As a polycationic polymer with favorable properties, it has been widely used to form polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions for various applications in drug delivery fields. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been focused on the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes based on chitosan and its water soluble derivatives. They have been considered well-suited as biomaterials for a number of vital drug carriers with targeted/controlled release profiles, e.g., films, capsules, microcapsules. In this work, an overview highlights not only the favorable properties of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives but also the good performance of the polyelectrolyte complexes produced based on chitosan. Their various types of applications as drug carriers are reviewed in detail. PMID:25532565

  6. Water soluble nanocurcumin extracted from turmeric challenging the microflora from human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-11-15

    Water soluble nanocurcumin prepared from commercial turmeric powders was compared against ethanol extracted curcumin particles. The oral microflora from five different human volunteers was collected and the efficacy of solvent extracted curcumin versus water extracted nanocurcumin was demonstrated. Nanocurcumin activity against oral microflora confirms its antimicrobial potency. Confocal laser scanning microscopic results revealed the enhanced entry of nanocurcumin particles into microbial cells. The nanosized nature of nanocurcumin appears to have led to increased cellular interaction and thereby efficient destruction of microbial cells in the mouth. In addition, solubility of nanocurcumin is also believed to be a crucial factor behind its successful antimicrobial activity. This study proves that the bioactivity of a compound is greatly influenced by its solubility in water. This work recommends the use of water soluble nanocurcumin (extracted from turmeric) as potent substitute for curcumin in dental formulations. PMID:27283711

  7. Invisible Security Ink Based on Water-Soluble Graphitic Carbon Nitride Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiping; Lin, Tianran; Lin, Lihua; Lin, Sen; Fu, Fengfu; Wang, Xinchen; Guo, Liangqia

    2016-02-18

    Stimuli-responsive photoluminescent (PL) materials have been widely used as fluorescent ink for data security applications. However, traditional fluorescent inks are limited in maintaining the secrecy of information because the inks are usually visible by naked eyes either under ambient light or UV-light illumination. Here, we introduced metal-free water-soluble graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots (g-CNQDs) as invisible security ink for information coding, encryption, and decryption. The information written by the g-CNQDs is invisible in ambient light and UV light, but it can be readable by a fluorescence microplate reader. Moreover, the information can be encrypted and decrypted by using oxalic acid and sodium bicarbonate as encryption reagent and decryption reagent, respectively. Our findings provide new opportunities for high-level information coding and protection by using water-soluble g-CNQDs as invisible security ink. PMID:26797811

  8. Formation of water-soluble soybean polysaccharides from spent flakes by hydrogen peroxide treatment.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brian C; Wichmann, Jesper; Tran, Tam H; Cheetamun, Roshan; Bacic, Antony; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-06-25

    In this paper we propose a novel chemical process for the generation of water-soluble polysaccharides from soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry. This process entails treatment of spent flake with hydrogen peroxide at an elevated temperature, resulting in the release of more than 70% of the original insoluble material as high molar mass soluble polysaccharides. A design of experiment was used to quantify the effects of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the reaction yield, average molar mass, and free monosaccharides generated. The resulting product is low in protein, fat, and minerals and contains predominantly water-soluble polysaccharides of high molar mass, including arabinan, type I arabinogalactan, homogalacturonan, xyloglucan, rhamnogalacturonan, and (glucurono)arabinoxylan. This treatment provides a straightforward approach for generation of soluble soy polysaccharides and opens a new range of opportunities for this abundant and underutilized material in future research and industrial applications. PMID:27083842

  9. Photodegradation mechanism and rate improvement of chlorinated aromatic dye in non-ionic surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Ma, C W; Chu, W

    2001-07-01

    A typical insoluble chlorinated aromatic dye (CAD), disperse red (DR), was used to explore the reaction mechanism and kinetics of photodegradation in non-ionic surfactant solutions. The use of an additional hydrogen source and photosensitizer is also studied to improve the decay rates. The decay rate of dye in surfactants depends on the Km of surfactants and their ability to offering an effective hydrogen source. The photodegradation of CAD can be divided into three stages: the initial lag stage. the fast degradation stage and the final retardation stage. The lag stage will vanish and the decay rates of dye can be greatly improved by 2.5-3.6 times after adding an additional hydrogen source (NaBH4) or photosensitizer (acetone) to the surfactant micellar solution. However, the use of an additional hydrogen source or photosensitizer has dosage limitations in such applications. The photoreduction of DR is the main reaction mechanism, in which photodechlorination is observed first with the generation of HCI as the final product, then followed by photodecolorization by breaking the azo bond of the chromophore. PMID:11394780

  10. Investigation of colloidal properties of modified silicone polymers emulsified by non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Parag S; Kulkarni, Ravi; Somasundaran, P

    2012-10-01

    Functionalized silicones are a unique class of hybrid materials due to their simultaneous hydrophobic-oleophobic properties, which results in applications in a variety of surface modification techniques. Prior research has shown that changes in surface charge and turbidity of modified silicone emulsions as a function of pH have a marked effect on their performance in coating applications. The emulsion droplet size is also believed to play significant role in such coating applications. In this work, modified silicone polymer emulsions stabilized by non-ionic surfactants were studied using dynamic light scattering (dilute) and electroacoustic (concentrated) spectroscopy to monitor the emulsion droplet size. The dilute and concentrated regime studies showed the emulsion droplet to be in nanometer range with no appreciable change in size as a function of pH. Electroacoustic studies showed a small fraction of droplets to be present in the micron size range. The emulsions were examined using Cryo-TEM technique, and the effect of pH and dilution on hydrophobicity of nanodomains was studied by employing fluorescence spectroscopy. It is shown from pyrene excimer behavior that both the dilution and pH have an effect on emulsion stability with a presence of critical surfactant concentration after which the emulsion was destabilized. It is proposed that the emulsion stability characteristics and the particle size distribution both play a significant role in their ability to impart desired macro and nano surface properties to treated substrates through electrostatic interactions and selective binding. PMID:22796069

  11. Simulation of non-ionic surfactant micelle formation across a range of temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, Gregory; Das, Payel; Matysiak, Silvina

    Non-ionic surfactants can, at certain concentrations and thermodynamic conditions, aggregate into micelles due to their amphiphilic nature. Our work looks at the formation and behavior of micelles at extremes of temperature and pressure. Due to the large system size and simulation time required to study micelle formation, we have developed a coarse-grained (CG) model of our system. This CG model represents each heavy atom with a single CG bead. We use the multibody Stillinger-Weber potential, which adds a three-body angular penalty to a two-body potential, to emulate hydrogen bonds in the system. We simulate the linear surfactant C12E5 , which has a nonpolar domain of 12 carbons and a polar domain of 5 ethers. Our CG model has been parameterized to match structural properties from all-atom simulations of single and dimer surfactant systems. Simulations were performed using a concentration above the experimental critical micelle concentration at 300K and 1atm. We observe an expected region of stable micelle formation at intermediate temperature, with a breakdown at high and low temperature, as well as at high pressure. The driving forces behind the destabilization of micelles and the mechanism of micelle formation at different thermodynamic conditions will be discussed.

  12. Anomalous thickness variation of the foam films stabilized by weak non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xuan; Wang, Liguang; Karakashev, Stoyan I; Nguyen, Anh V

    2009-09-15

    The constant thickness (H) of metastable free films of various non-ionic surfactant solutions was measured at surfactant concentrations less than the critical micelle concentrations or solubility limits with fixed 5x10(-5) M sodium chloride (NaCl) serving as the background electrolyte. The surfactants include n-pentanol, n-octanol, methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), polypropylene glycol (PPG-400), tetraethylene glycol monooctyl ether (C(8)E(4)), and tetraethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C(10)E(4)). H was interferometrically measured. For each surfactant in this study, the H-versus-surfactant-concentration curve finds a peak at a concentration around 5x10(-6)-1x10(-5) M and a valley at a higher concentration. The measured H values were compared to those predicted from the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, which considers solely the contribution from electrostatic double-layer repulsion with van der Waals attraction being neglected in the present work. In determining the double-layer repulsion, the ionic strength was determined from the electrolytic conductivity measurement of the film-forming solutions and the surface potential was estimated from the zeta-potential measurement of air bubbles. It was found that the DLVO theory failed to explain the thickness variance with surfactant concentration, implying that additional non-DLVO attractive forces might be required to explain the experimental results. Finally, the possible origins of these attractive forces were discussed. PMID:19539299

  13. Ethanol enhanced in vivo gene delivery with non-ionic polymeric micelles inhalation.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yen-Chin; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Lu, Shao-Chun; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Hsieh, Wei-Hsien; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2007-03-12

    Modifications of both carriers and host barriers have been investigated for efficient inhalation gene delivery to lung. Here we used a biocompatible, non-ionic poly(ethyleneoxide)-poly(propyleneoxide)-poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) polymeric micelles (PM) as a carrier and combined it with ethanol to enhance membrane penetration of delivered DNA. The inhalation delivery with six 100 microg doses of pCMV-Lac Z with PM co-formulated with 10%-40% ethanol to nude mice in 2 days at 8 h interval was performed. The beta-galatosidase (beta-Gal) activity was assessed using chlorophenol red-beta-d galactopyranoside (CPRG) and X-gal staining for quantitative and qualitative analysis in tissues. The results showed that beta-Gal activity was significantly increased by 38% in lung around bronchioles when inhalation with PM and 10% ethanol was given. The 10% ethanol also increased the intracellular apparent permeability by 42% in stomach and by 141% in intestine at 48 h after the first dosage of delivery. Also delivery of DNA encoding a functional human cystic fibrosis transmembrane protein (CFTR) using the same inhalation delivery method co-formulated with 10% ethanol, an increased expression of CFTR in lung was detected by immunostaining. We concluded that 10% ethanol co-formulated with the PM system could enhance inhaled gene delivery to airway and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. PMID:17258837

  14. Immobilization of enzymes using non-ionic colloidal liquid aphrons (CLAs): Activity kinetics, conformation, and energetics.

    PubMed

    Ward, Keeran; Xi, Jingshu; Stuckey, David C

    2016-05-01

    This study seeks to examine the ability of non-ionic/non-polar Colloidial Liquid Aphrons (CLAs) to preserve enzyme functionality upon immobilization and release. CLAs consisting of micron-sized oil droplets surrounded by a thin aqueous layer stabilized by a mixture of surfactants, were formulated by direct addition (pre-manufacture addition) using 1% Tween 80/mineral oil and 1% Tween 20 and the enzymes lipase, aprotinin and α-chymotrypsin. The results of activity assays for both lipase and α-chymotrypsin showed that kinetic activity increased upon immobilization by factors of 7 and 5.5, respectively, while aprotinin retained approximately 85% of its native activity. The conformation of the enzymes released through desorption showed no significant alterations compared to their native state. Changes in pH and temperature showed that optimum conditions did not change after immobilization, while analysis of activation energy for the immobilized enzyme showed an increase in activity at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the effect of bound water within the aphron structure allowed for some degree of enzyme hydration, and this hydration was needed for an active conformation with results showing a decrease in ΔH* for the immobilized system compared to its native counterpart. PMID:26497856

  15. Effect of Non-ionic Surfactants and Its Role in K Intercalation in Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Avijit; Tripathy, B. C.; Subbaiah, T.; Meyrick, D.; Ionescu, Mihail; Minakshi, Manickam

    2014-09-01

    The effect of non-ionic surface active agents (surfactants) Triton X-100 (TX-100) and Tween-20 (Tw-20) and their role in potassium intercalation in electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) produced from manganese cake has been investigated. Electrosynthesis of MnO2 in the absence or presence of surfactant was carried out from acidic MnSO4 solution obtained from manganese cake under optimized conditions. A range of characterization techniques, including field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and BET surface area/porosity studies, was carried out to determine the structural and chemical characteristics of the EMD. Galvanostatic (discharge) and potentiostatic (cyclic voltammetric) studies were employed to evaluate the suitability of EMD in combination with KOH electrolyte for alkaline battery applications. The presence of surfactant played an important role in modifying the physicochemical properties of the EMD by increasing the surface area of the material and hence, enhancing its electrochemical performance. The TEM and RBS analyses of the discharged EMD (γ-MnO2) material showed clear evidence of potassium intercalation or at least the formation of a film on the MnO2 surface. The extent of intercalation was greater for EMD deposited in the presence of TX-100. Discharged MnO2 showed products of Mn2+ intermediates such as MnOOH and Mn3O4.

  16. Biosynthetic Studies on Water-Soluble Derivative 5c (DTX5c)

    PubMed Central

    Vilches, Tamara S.; Norte, Manuel; Daranas, Antonio Hernández; Fernández, José J.

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum is responsible for the production of several toxins involved in the red tide phenomenon known as Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP). In this paper we report on the biosynthetic origin of an okadaic acid water-soluble ester derivative, DTX5c, on the basis of the spectroscopical analysis of 13C enriched samples obtained by addition of labelled sodium [l-13C], [2-13C] acetate to artificial cultures of this dinoflagellate. PMID:23170080

  17. High Throughput Identification, Purification and Structural Characterization of Water Soluble Protein Complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Dong,, Ming; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Liu, Hui-Hai; Malik, J.; Geller, Jil; Yang, Li; Choi, M.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Arbelaez, Pablo; Sterling, H. J.; Typke, Dieter; Shatsky, Max; Brenner, Steve; Fisher, Susan; Williams, Evan; Szakal, Evelin; Allen, S.; Hall, S. C.; Hazen, Terry; Witkowska, H. E.; Jin, Jiming; Glaeser, Robert; Biggin, Mark

    2010-05-17

    Our scheme for the tagless purification of water soluble complexes. 10 g of protein from a crude bacterial extract is first fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and then by a series of chromatographic steps: anion exchange (IEX), hydrophobic interaction (HIC), and finally size exclusion (Gel Filtration). Fractions from the last chromatography step are trypsin digested and peptides labeled with iTRAQ reagents to allow multiplexing and quantitation during mass spectrometric analysis. Elution profiles of identified proteins are then subjected to clustering analysis.

  18. Synthesis of Water-Soluble, Thiolate-Protected Gold Nanoparticles Uniform in Size.

    PubMed

    Azubel, Maia; Kornberg, Roger D

    2016-05-11

    By a modification of the method of Brust et al., water-soluble, thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles that are uniform in size were synthesized with no requirement for purification. The modification of the method was equilibration in the first step, which proved crucial for achieving size homogeneity. The thiol-to-gold ratio controlled the size of the particles, and the choice of thiol controlled the reactivity of the particles toward thiol exchange. PMID:27042759

  19. The removal of kaolinite suspensions by acid-soluble and water-soluble chitosans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien; Wu, Li-Chun; Chen, Chih-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This research compared the coagulant performance of acid-soluble chitosan with water-soluble chitosan and with coagulant mixtures of chitosan and aluminium sulfate (alum). We also assessed the coagulant performance of chitosan and poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) to remove kaolinite from turbid water. In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies under different coagulant concentrations, degrees of turbidity (NTU) and pH levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants in order to illustrate major factors affecting kaolinite coagulation. The optimal concentrations of acid- versus water- soluble chitosan required to remove kaolinite from a 300 NTU suspension were 4.0 and 10.0 mg/l, respectively-with individual efficiencies of 79.3 and 92.4%, in that order. Optimum concentrations ofwater-soluble chitosan demonstrated a broader range than that of acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it is of note that chitosan/alum and chitosan/PAC water-soluble coagulant mixtures demonstrated much wider ranges of optimal concentrations for turbidity reduction than either alum or PAC alone. Moreover, our water-soluble chitosan coagulant mixtures produced denser floc with elevated settling velocities that favour cost savings relevant to both installation and operational expenses. Based on our observations of these noteworthy performances, we confidently propose that a coagulant mixture with a 1:1 mass ratio of chitosan and alum presents a remarkably more cost-effective alternative to the use of chitosan alone in water treatment systems. PMID:23530342

  20. NASA Workmanship Hot Topics: Water Soluble Flux and ESD Charge Device Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews two topics of interest to NASA Workmanship: (1) Water Soluble Flux (WSF) and Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) safety. In the first topic, WSF, the presentation reviews voiding and the importance of cleanliness in using WSF for welding and soldering operations. The second topic reviews the NASA-HDBK-8739.21 for Human Body Model, and Machine Model safety methods, and challenges associated with the Charged Device Model (CDM)

  1. Quinlobelane: A water-soluble lobelane analogue and inhibitor of VMAT2

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Ashish P.; Deaciuc, A. Gabriela; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Replacing the phenyl groups in the structure of the VMAT2 inhibitor, lobelane with either pyridyl, quinolyl or indolyl groups affords novel analogues with improved water solubility. The synthetic methodologies reported herein also underscore the paucity of hydrogenation methods that offer selectivity in the synthesis of the different classes of heteroaromatic lobelane analogues. The quinolyl group was the only replacement for the phenyl group in lobelane that retained VMAT2 inhibition. PMID:20494575

  2. Enhanced water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility upon introducing sulfobetaine and quaternary ammonium to chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Li, Jianna; Li, Qingqing; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ge, Zaochuan; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) has attracted much attention due to its good antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. However, CS is insoluble in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution, limiting its biomedical application to some extent. To circumvent this drawback, we have synthesized a novel N-quaternary ammonium-O-sulfobetaine-chitosan (Q3BCS) by introducing quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and sulfobetaine, and its water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility were evaluated compare to N-quaternary ammonium chitosan and native CS. The results showed that by introducing QAC, antibacterial activities and water-solubilities increase with degrees of substitution. The largest diameter zone of inhibition (DIZ) was improved from 0 (CS) to 15mm (N-Q3CS). And the water solution became completely transparent from pH 6.5 to pH 11; the maximal waters-solubility was improved from almost 0% (CS) to 113% at pH 7 (N-Q3CS). More importantly, by further introducing sulfobetaine, cell survival rate of Q3BCS increased from 30% (N-Q3CS) to 85% at 2000μg/ml, which is even greater than that of native CS. Furthermore, hemolysis of Q3BCS was dropped sharply from 4.07% (N-Q3CS) to 0.06%, while the water-solution and antibacterial activity were further improved significantly. This work proposes an efficient strategy to prepare CS derivatives with enhanced antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and water-solubility. Additionally, these properties can be finely tailored by changing the feed ratio of CS, glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride and NCO-sulfobetaine. PMID:27083366

  3. Formamide: an efficient solvent to synthesize water-soluble and sub-ten-nanometer nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Biao; Zhang, Zhicheng; Wang, Xun

    2013-05-01

    Nanocrystals have drawn lots of attention in many fields. The main-stream synthetic routes usually produced hydrophobic nanocrystals (NCs). Organometallic precursors and long-alkyl-chain ligands are adopted and for further use surface modification to render them water-soluble is needed. A direct protocol to synthesize water-soluble NCs in an environmental-friendly and convenient way is still quite deficient, especially for sub-10 nm NCs. We report here a formamide solvent-system to prepare high-quality metal, metal alloy, metal sulfide, metal selenide and ternary sulfide NCs in the sub-10 nm region, with simple inorganic metal salts as precursors. The as-obtained NCs exhibit monodisperse size and can be dispersed in aqueous solution for further applications.Nanocrystals have drawn lots of attention in many fields. The main-stream synthetic routes usually produced hydrophobic nanocrystals (NCs). Organometallic precursors and long-alkyl-chain ligands are adopted and for further use surface modification to render them water-soluble is needed. A direct protocol to synthesize water-soluble NCs in an environmental-friendly and convenient way is still quite deficient, especially for sub-10 nm NCs. We report here a formamide solvent-system to prepare high-quality metal, metal alloy, metal sulfide, metal selenide and ternary sulfide NCs in the sub-10 nm region, with simple inorganic metal salts as precursors. The as-obtained NCs exhibit monodisperse size and can be dispersed in aqueous solution for further applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00643c

  4. Biosorption of water-soluble dyes on magnetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum cells.

    PubMed

    Safaríková, M; Ptácková, L; Kibriková, I; Safarík, I

    2005-05-01

    Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water based magnetic fluid stabilized with perchloric acid. Magnetically modified yeast cells efficiently adsorbed various water soluble dyes. The dyes adsorption can be described by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the magnetic cells differed substantially for individual dyes; the highest value was found for aniline blue (approx. 220 mg per g of dried magnetic adsorbent). PMID:15811411

  5. Water Solubility Studies in Lower Mantle Perovskite by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amulele, G.; Otsuka, K.; Sanchez, C.; Lee, K. K.; Karato, S.; Liu, Z.; Chen, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Although the water solubility in lower mantle minerals is critical for understanding of global water circulation, the water solubility in lower mantle minerals is poorly constrained. The water solubility in MgSiO3-perovskite as well as Al-bearing MgSiO3-perovskite synthesized at 1500 - 1600 K and 24 - 25 GPa under SiO2 or MgO saturated conditions have been investigated by FTIR spectroscopy both at ambient as well as modest pressures of up to 10 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell using KBr as a pressure medium. The FTIR spectra show one dominant band at 3440 cm-1 in MgSiO3-perovskite corresponding to about 50 - 70 ppm wt water in the perovskite. This is consistent with the results by Litasov et al. (2003) who obtained solubility of about 100 ppm wt water in MgSiO3-perovskite, but much larger than the values reported by Bolfan-Casanova et al. (2000). Based on the in-situ FTIR in a diamond-anvil cell using KCl as a pressure medium, Reid et al. (2006) reported infrared absorption peaks at 3160 and 3066 cm-1 at high pressures that broaden and weaken at low (<3 GPa) pressures. They interpreted that these peak are caused by unquenchable hydroxyl-related species. However, we did not find these peaks but instead we found these peaks from the FTIR spectroscopy of KCl. We conclude that 3160 and 3060 cm-1 peaks are due to KCl, and MgSiO3 perovskite has small but finite water solubility (~50-70 ppm wt) that is expected to increase with Al content. We also present corresponding high-pressure x-ray diffraction measurements on the nominally hydrous MgSiO3-perovskite carried out up to 30 GPa.

  6. Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media: a primer for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Saravanan; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Torres, William E; Small, William C

    2006-07-01

    Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media may be classified as general and organ-specific, such as contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. General adverse reactions may be subclassified into acute and delayed types. Acute general adverse reactions can range from transient minor reactions to life-threatening severe reactions. Non-ionic contrast media have lower risk of mild and moderate adverse reactions. However, the risk of fatal reactions is similar for ionic and non-ionic contrast media. Adequate preprocedure evaluation should be performed to identify predisposing risk factors. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute adverse reactions is crucial. Risk of contrast induced nephrotoxicity can be reduced by use of non-ionic contrast media, less volume of contrast, and adequate hydration. The radiologist can play a pivotal role by being aware of predisposing factors, clinical presentation, and management of adverse reactions to contrast media. PMID:16688432

  7. Water-soluble and biocompatible MnO@PVP nanoparticles for MR imaging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Ji, Yuxuan; Wang, Mingliang; Miao, Fei; Ma, Hongmei; Shen, Hebai; Jia, Nengqin

    2013-06-01

    The uniform-sized manganese oxide nanoparticles (the oleic-capped MnO NPs) were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of Mn-oleate complex and were transferred into water with the help of cationic surfactant of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), then the poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) membrane was further coated on to them with the aid of anionic dispersant of poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) by layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly to render them water soluble and biocompatible. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and MTT assay. In vitro cellular uptake test revealed the MnO@PVP NPs were low cytotoxic, biocompatible and could be used as a T,-positive contrast agent for passive targeting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Interestingly, signal enhancement in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in vivo experiment suggested that the MnO@PVP NPs can pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB). These results show that MnO@PVP NPs are good candidates as MRI contrast agents with the lack of cytotoxicity and have great potential applications in magnetic nano-device and biomagnetic field. PMID:23858961

  8. Water solubility measurements in supercritical fluids and high-pressure liquids using near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.; Bowman, L.E.; Fulton, J.L.

    1995-07-15

    A small amount of water added to a supercritical fluid can greatly increase the solubility of polar species in nonpolar fluids. These modified supercritical solutions significantly expand the use of the fluids in separations and reactions. In order to successfully utilize these systems, information on the miscibility or solubility of water in the fluid is required. Often solubility data are not available for water in a supercritical fluid under a given set of temperature and pressure conditions, and a costly set of equipment must be assembled in order to make these measurements. A relatively fast and inexpensive technique to measure water solubilities using a simple long path length optical cell in an FT-IR spectrometer is described. This technique is also applicable to common and newly developed refrigerants where water solubilities are often unknown at temperatures much above ambient. In this paper, water solubility data in carbon dioxide and two types of refrigerants (chlorodifluoromethane, R22; 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, R134a) are presented for temperatures from approximately 40 to 110{degree}C and pressures from approximately 10 to 344.8 bar. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Synthesis of Water Soluble Camptothecin-Polyoxetane Conjugates via Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zolotarskaya, Olga Yu.; Wagner, Alison F.; Beckta, Jason M.; Valerie, Kristoffer; Wynne, Kenneth J.; Yang, Hu

    2012-01-01

    Water soluble camptothecin (CPT)-polyoxetane conjugates were synthesized using a clickable polymeric platform P(EAMO) that was made by polymerization of acetylene-functionalized 3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethyl oxetane (i.e., EAMO). CPT was first modified with a linker 6-azidohexanoic acid via an ester linkage to yield CPT-azide. CPT-azide was then click coupled to P(EAMO) in dichloromethane using bromotris(triphenylphosphine) copper(I)/N,N-diisopropylethylamine. For water solubility and cytocompatibility improvement, methoxypolyethylene glycol azide (mPEG-azide) was synthesized from mPEG 750 gmol−1 and click grafted using copper(II) sulfate and sodium ascorbate to P(EAMO)-g-CPT. 1H NMR spectroscopy confirmed synthesis of all intermediates and the final product P(EAMO)-g-CPT/PEG. CPT was found to retain its therapeutically active lactone form. The resulting P(EAMO)-g-CPT/PEG conjugates were water soluble and produced dose-dependent cytotoxicity to human glioma cells and increased γ-H2AX foci formation, indicating extensive cell cycle-dependent DNA damage. Altogether, we have synthesized CPT-polymer conjugates able to induce controlled toxicity to human cancer cells. PMID:23051100

  10. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility.

  11. Synthesis of water soluble glycosides of pentacyclic dihydroxytriterpene carboxylic acids as inhibitors of α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiancong; Nie, Xuliang; Hong, Yanping; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Guoqiang; Yin, Xiaoli; Wang, Chunrong; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-04-01

    A series of compounds were synthesized by glycosylation of maslinic acid (MA) and corosolic acid (CA) with monosaccharides and disaccharides, and the structures of the derivatives were elucidated by standard spectroscopic methods including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of all the novel compounds were evaluated in vitro. The solubility and inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase assays showed that the bis-disaccharide glycosides of triterpene acids possessed higher water solubility and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the bis-monosaccharide glycosides. Among these compounds, maslinic acid bis-lactoside (8e, IC50 = 684 µM) and corosolic acid bis-lactoside (9e, IC50 = 428 µM) had the best water solubility, and 9e exhibited a better inhibitory activity than acarbose (IC50 = 478 µM). However, most of glycosylated derivatives possessed lower inhibitory activities than the parent compounds, although their water solubility was enhanced obviously. Moreover, the kinetic inhibition studies indicated that 9e was a non-competitive inhibitor, and structure-activity relationships of the derivatives are also discussed. PMID:26974355

  12. Chlorin p6-Based Water-Soluble Amino Acid Derivatives as Potent Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhi; Yu, Bin; Han, Guiyan; Liu, Minghui; Shan, Bin; Dong, Guoqiang; Miao, Zhenyuan; Jia, Ningyang; Tan, Zou; Li, Buhong; Zhang, Wannian; Zhu, Haiying; Sheng, Chunquan; Yao, Jianzhong

    2016-05-26

    The development of novel photosensitizer with high phototoxicity, low dark toxicity, and good water solubility is a challenging task for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A series of chlorin p6-based water-soluble amino acid conjugates were synthesized and investigated for antitumor activity. Among them, aspartylchlorin p6 dimethylester (7b) showed highest phototoxicity against melanoma cells with weakest dark toxicity, which was more phototoxic than verteporfin while with less dark toxicity. It also exhibited better in vivo PDT antitumor efficacy on mice bearing B16-F10 tumor than verteporfin. The biological assays revealed that 7b was localized in multiple subcellular organelles and could cause both cell necrosis and apoptosis after PDT in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in more effective cell destruction. As a result, 7b represents a promising photosensitizer for PDT applications because of its strong absorption in the phototherapeutic window, relatively high singlet oxygen quantum yield, highest dark toxicity/phototoxicity ratio, good water solubility, and excellent in vivo PDT antitumor efficacy. PMID:27136389

  13. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. PMID:27287112

  14. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  15. Biodesulfurization of water-soluble coal-derived material by Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II; Jackowski, K.

    1991-01-01

    Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 was previously isolated because of its ability to use coal as its sole source of sulfur for growth. Subsequent growth studies have revealed that IGTS8 is capable of using a variety of organosulfur compounds as sources of sulfur but not carbon. In this paper, the ability of IGTS8 to selectively remove organic sulfur from water-soluble coal-derived material is investigated. The microbial removal of organic sulfur from coal requires microorganisms capable of cleaving carbonsulfur bonds and the accessibility of these bonds to microorganisms. The use of water-soluble coal-derived material effectively overcomes the problem of accessibility and allows the ability of microorganisms to cleave carbonsulfur bonds present in coal-derived material to be assessed directly. Three coals, two coal solubilization procedures, and two methods of biodesulfurization were examined. The results of these experiments reveal that the microbial removal of significant amounts of organic sulfur from watersoluble coal-derived material with treatment times as brief as 24 hours is possible. Moreover, the carbon content and calorific value of biotreated products are largely unaffected. Biotreatment does, however, result in increases in the hydrogen and nitrogen content and a decreased oxygen content of the coal-derived material. The aqueous supernatant obtained from biodesulfurization experiments does not contain sulfate, sulfite, or other forms of soluble sulfur at increased concentrations in comparison with control samples. Sulfur removed from water-soluble coal-derived material appears to be incorporated into biomass.

  16. Dendrimer-curcumin conjugate: a water soluble and effective cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Shawon; Saloum, Darin; Dolai, Sukanta; Sun, Chong; Averick, Saadyah; Raja, Krishnaswami; Fata, Jimmie E

    2013-12-01

    Curcumin, which is derived from the plant Curcuma longa, has received considerable attention as a possible anti-cancer agent. In cell culture, curcumin is capable of inducing apoptosis in cancer cells at concentrations that do not affect normal cells. One draw-back holding curcumin back from being an effective anti-cancer agent in humans is that it is almost completely insoluble in water and therefore has poor absorption and subsequently poor bioavailability. Here we have generated a number of curcumin derivatives (tetrahydro-curcumin, curcumin mono-carboxylic acid, curcumin mono-galactose, curcumin mono-alkyne and dendrimer-curcumin conjugate) to test whether any of them display both cytotoxicity and water solubility. Of those tested only dendrimer-curcumin conjugate exhibited both water solubility and cytotoxicity against SKBr3 and BT549 breast cancer cells. When compared to curcumin dissolved in DMSO, dendrimer-curcumin conjugate dissolved in water was significantly more effective in inducing cytotoxicity, as measured by the MTT assay and effectively induced cellular apoptosis measured by caspase-3 activation. Since dendrimer-curcumin conjugate is water soluble and capable of inducing potent cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cell lines, it may prove to be an effective anti-cancer therapy to be used in humans. PMID:23387971

  17. The water-soluble fraction of carbon, sulfur, and crustal elements in Asian aerosols and Asian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, R. M.; Majestic, B. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Simoneit, B. R. T.; Schauer, J. J.

    We quantified the water-soluble species in 24 h average TSP (Dunhuang and Gosan) and PM1.0 (Gosan only) samples associated with the Spring 2001 Asian Dust season. Samples were analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon, water-soluble sulfur, and water-soluble crustal elements, as well as their bulk chemical composition. Water-soluble organic carbon in Gosan accounted for 28-83% (average=63%) of the particle-phase TSP total organic carbon, and 1-69% (average=23%) of the particle-phase PM1.0 organic carbon. Water-soluble sulfur, primarily in the form of sulfate, accounted for 2-22% of the TSP mass in Gosan, and 0.9-11% of the TSP mass in Dunhuang. The absolute concentrations and the soluble fraction of crustal elements in TSP samples collected at Gosan were found to correlate with the air mass source region as determined by back-trajectory analysis. For example, elevated levels of water-soluble sodium, potassium, and calcium were observed during dust events. These observations are likely the result of differences in anthropogenic sources, mineralogical composition of resuspended crustal materials, and atmospheric processing of the aerosols. Experiments were conducted using Asian soil samples to study the impact of acidification by nitric acid vapor on the solubility of crustal elements present in Asian desert and non-desert dusts. These experiments demonstrated that gaseous nitric acid attack leads to significant increases (>100% increase) in water-soluble calcium, magnesium, aluminum, manganese, and iron, while little or no increases in water-soluble sodium and potassium were observed in the soils.

  18. Silica gel as a particulate carrier of poorly water-soluble substances in aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Breitholtz, Magnus; Ricklund, Niklas; Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik; Persson, N Johan

    2007-05-31

    Aquatic toxicity tests were originally developed for water-soluble substances. However, many substances are hydrophobic and thus poorly water-soluble, resulting in at least two major implications. Firstly, toxicity may not be reached within the range of water solubility of the tested compound(s), which may result in the formation of solids or droplets of the tested substance and consequently an uneven exposure. Secondly, because of multi-phase distribution of the tested substance it may be complicated to keep exposure concentrations constant. To overcome such problems, we have introduced silica gel as a particulate carrier in a toxicity test with the benthic copepod Nitocra spinipes. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether a controlled exposure could be achieved with the help of silica gel for testing single poorly water-soluble substances. A secondary objective was to evaluate whether an equilibrium mass balance model could predict internal concentrations that were consistent with the toxicity data and measured internal concentrations of two model hydrophobic substances, i.e., the polybrominated diphenyl ethers BDE-47 and BDE-99. Larval N. spinipes were exposed for 6 days to BDE-47 and BDE-99, respectively, in the silica gel test system and, for comparative reasons, in a similar and more traditional semi-static water test system. Via single initial amounts of the model substances administered on the silica gel, effects on both larval development and mortality resulted in higher and more concentration-related toxicity than in the water test system. We conclude that the silica gel test system enables a more controlled exposure of poorly water-soluble substances than the traditional water test system since the concentration-response relationship becomes distinct and there is no carrier solvent present during testing. Also, the single amount of added substance given in the silica gel test system limits the artefacts (e.g., increased chemical

  19. Effects of some non-ionic surfactants on transepithelial permeability in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijevic, D; Shaw, A J; Florence, A T

    2000-02-01

    The effects of the non-ionic surfactants polysorbate 20, polysorbate 60, polysorbate 85, cholesteryl poly (24) oxyethylene ether (Solulan C24) and the lanolin-based poly (16) oxyethylene ether (Solulan 16) on the epithelial integrity of monolayers of human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells has been studied using metformin as a model drug. The aim was to identify the surfactants and their optimal concentrations capable of enhancing drug transport while causing no, or only minor, cellular damage. Effects on cell permeability were assessed by measurements of the transport of metformin, a hydrophilic drug, by monitoring transepithelial electrical resistance. Cell viability was determined by the diphenyltetrazolium bromide test (the MTT test). All the surfactants studied demonstrated concentration-dependent effects on cell permeability and cell viability. The effects on transepithelial electrical resistance correlated with cell viability, i.e. increased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased cell-monolayer permeability for metformin corresponded to decreased cell viability. The results indicate that the Solulan and polysorbate surfactants were active as absorption enhancers, Solulan C24 and 16 being more effective than polysorbates 20, 60 or 85, causing an increase in metformin transport at lower concentrations than the polysorbates. Polysorbate 20 exerted its greatest effect at a concentration of 5%-increasing the flux of metformin after 3 h by a factor of around 20 over the control. Large increases in the transport of metformin, especially at surfactant levels of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5%, were related to the effect of Solulan C24 and Solulan 16 on the cell permeability. The Caco-2 cell monolayer experiments confirmed the ability, especially of polysorbate 20, Solulan C24 and Solulan 16, to increase the absorption of metformin. The polysorbates increased permeability as a result of solubilisation of membrane components, while Solulans did so by penetrating

  20. Structure, thermodynamics and dynamics of the isotropic phase of spherical non-ionic surfactant micelles.

    PubMed

    Tse-Ve-Koon, Kévin; Tremblay, Nicolas; Constantin, Doru; Freyssingeas, Éric

    2013-03-01

    We investigate a non-ionic surfactant (C(12)E(8))/water binary mixture, over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures (i.e. 1-35 wt.% of C(12)E(8) and 10-60 °C in temperature) by means of different experimental techniques: Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Quasi Elastic Light Scattering (QELS) and High Frequency Rheology. The aims of this work are to provide information on structure, thermodynamics and dynamics of the isotropic phase of such a micellar system and, by combining these different types of information, to obtain a comprehensive image of the behaviour of this phase. Our results demonstrate that structural, thermodynamic and dynamic properties of these solutions are fully monitored by the temperature-induced changes in the ethylene-glycol chain hydration. They confirm that C(12)E(8) micelles are spherical and do not grow in the investigated range of concentrations and temperatures. They demonstrate that the interaction potential between C(12)E(8) micelles is more complicated than what was previously described, with an additional repulsive interaction. They allow us to put forward explanations for the Isotropic-Ordered phase transition as well as for the temperature behaviour of the viscosity of C(12)E(8) micellar solutions. Our investigation provides new and valuable information on the dynamics of these mixtures that reflect the complexity of the interaction potential between the C(12)E(8) micelles. It shows that concentrated solutions exhibit a viscoelastic behaviour that can be described by a simple Maxwell model. PMID:23201065

  1. Self-assembly in aqueous solutions of a non-ionic hydrotrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Deepa

    Hydrotropes are amphiphilic molecules, too small to cause spontaneous self-assembly towards equilibrium mesoscale structures in aqueous solutions, but they form dynamic, noncovalent assemblies, which may create microscopic regions of lowered polarity. This enhances the solubilization of hydrophobic compounds, also known as solubilizates, in aqueous solutions and may cause further aggregation to larger structures. In this work, unusual mesoscopic properties of aqueous solutions of a non-ionic hydrotrope, namely tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) have been investigated by light scattering, microscopy, and chromatography. Aqueous TBA solutions show anomalous thermodynamic and structural properties in the range of concentrations 3-8 mol % TBA and temperatures 0-25 °C. These anomalies appear to be associated with short-lived, short-ranged micelle-like structural fluctuations, distinctly different from usual concentration fluctuations in non-ideal solutions. Molecular dynamics simulations and neutron-scattering experiments show clustering of TBA molecules on a nanometer scale, interacting through hydrogen bonds with a shell of water molecules. In this concentration range, TBA aqueous solutions, although macroscopically homogeneous, occasionally show the presence of "mysterious" inhomogeneities on a 100 nm scale. We have found that the emergence of such inhomogeneities strongly correlates with impurities present in commercial TBA samples. Experiments with controlled addition of a third component, such as propylene oxide, isobutyl alcohol, or cyclohexane, reveal the mechanism of formation of these inhomogeneities through stabilization of micelle-like fluctuations by a solubilizate. These structures are long-lived, i.e., stable from a few days up to many months. We have confirmed that mesoscale structures in aqueous solutions can be generated from self-assembly of small molecules, without involvement of surfactants or polymers. This kind of self-assembly may potentially result

  2. Characterization of the size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions in the Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration: Spatial/temporal variability, size distribution and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingru; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Wen, Tianxue; Pan, Yuepeng; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yuesi

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the characteristics of aerosols in north China, the samples of water-soluble ions, including anions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-) and cations (NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) in 8 size-segregated particle fractions, are collected using a sampler from Sep. 2009 to Aug. 2010 at four sites in urban areas (Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan) and a background region (Xinglong) in the Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration. High spatial variability is observed between the urban areas and the background region. The results of chemical composition analysis showed that secondary water soluble ions (SO42- + NO3- + NH4+) (SWSI) composed more than half the total ions, and are mainly found in fine particles (aerodynamic diameters less than 2.1 μm), while Mg2+ and Ca2+ contributed to a large fraction of the total water-soluble ions in coarse particles (aerodynamic diameters greater than 2.1 μm and less than 9.0 μm). The concentrations of SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ are higher in summer and winter and lower in spring and autumn. Mg2+ and Ca2+ are obviously abundant in winter in Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan. In contrast, Mg2+ and Ca2+ are abundant in autumn in Xinglong. The SWSI showed a bimodal size distribution with the fine mode at 0.43-1.1 μm and the coarse mode at 4.7-5.8 μm, and had different seasonal variations and bimodal shapes. NH4+ played an important role in the size distributions and the formations of SO42- and NO3-. Heterogeneous reaction is the main formation mechanism of SO42- and NO3-, which tended to be enriched in the coarse mode of aerosol. The sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) indicated high photochemical oxidation property over the whole Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration.

  3. Water-soluble noncovalent adducts of the heterometallic copper subgroup complexes and human serum albumin with remarkable luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Chelushkin, P S; Krupenya, D V; Tseng, Yu-Jui; Kuo, Ting-Yi; Chou, Pi-Tai; Koshevoy, I O; Burov, S V; Tunik, S P

    2014-01-25

    Novel water-soluble noncovalent adducts of the heterometallic copper subgroup complexes and human serum albumin (HSA) display strong phosphorescence, internalize into HeLa cells and can be used in time-resolved fluorescent imaging. PMID:24296768

  4. Microautoradiography of Water-Soluble Compounds in Plant Tissue after Freeze-Drying and Pressure Infiltration with Epoxy Resin

    PubMed Central

    Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Dickson, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    It is difficult to retain and localize radioactive, water-soluble compounds within plant cells. Existing techniques retain water-soluble compounds with varying rates of efficiency and are limited to processing only a few samples at one time. We developed a modified pressure infiltration technique for the preparation of microautoradiographs of 14C-labeled, water-soluble compounds in plant tissue. Samples from cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) labeled with 14C were excised, quick frozen in liquid N2, freeze-dried at −50°C, and pressure-infiltrated with epoxy resin without intermediate solvents or prolonged incubation times. The technique facilitates the mass processing of samples for microautoradiography, gives good cellular retention of labeled water-soluble compounds, and is highly reproducible. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662542

  5. Water-soluble LYNX1 Residues Important for Interaction with Muscle-type and/or Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Buldakova, Svetlana L.; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Filkin, Sergey Y.; Kudryavtsev, Denis S.; Ojomoko, Lucy O.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Bregestovski, Piotr D.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

    2013-01-01

    Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618–10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the α7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of α1 glycine receptor (α7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at α7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its “non-classical” binding sites on α7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for α-bungarotoxin and

  6. DNA binding and topoisomerase II inhibitory activity of water-soluble ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Joshi, Shweta; Singh, Alok Ranjan; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2007-12-10

    Water-soluble piano-stool arene ruthenium complexes based on 1-(4-cyanophenyl)imidazole (CPI) and 4-cyanopyridine (CNPy) with the formulas [(eta6-arene)RuCl2(L)] (L = CPI, eta6-arene = benzene (1), p-cymene (2), hexamethylbenzene (3); L = CNPy, eta6-arene = benzene (4), p-cymene (5), hexamethylbenzene (6)) have been prepared by our earlier methods. The molecular structure of [(eta6-C6Me6)RuCl2(CNPy)] (6) has been determined crystallographically. Analogous rhodium(III) complex [(eta5-C5Me5)RhCl2(CPI)] (7) has also been prepared and characterized. DNA interaction with the arene ruthenium complexes and the rhodium complex has been examined by spectroscopic and gel mobility shift assay; condensation of DNA and B-->Z transition have also been described. Arene ruthenium(II) and EPh3 (E = P, As)-containing arene ruthenium(II) complexes exhibited strong binding behavior, however, rhodium(III) complexes were found to be Topo II inhibitors with an inhibition percentage of 70% (7) and 30% (7a). Furthermore, arene ruthenium complexes containing polypyridyl ligands also act as mild Topo II inhibitors (10%, 3c and 40%, 3d) in contrast to their precursor complexes. Complexes 4-6 also show significant inhibition of beta-hematin/hemozoin formation activity. PMID:18001110

  7. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WOCs) and their single components, i.e. low-molecular organic acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates, attain a great deal of attention among soil scientists. WOCs are an important component of soil organic matter (SOM) and form as a results of different biological and chemical processes in soils. These processes are mainly responsible for formation and development of soils in aboveground ecosystems. The purpose of the work was identifying qualitative and quantitative composition of low-molecular organic substances which form in podzolic loamy soils against natural reforestation after spruce forest cutting. The studies were conducted on the territory of the European North-East of Russia, in the middle taiga subzone (Komi Republic, Ust-Kulom region). The study materials were soil of undisturbed bilberry spruce forest (Sample Plot 1 (SP1)) and soils of different-aged tree stands where cutting activities took place in winter 2001/2002 (SP2) and 1969/1970 (SP3). Description of soils and vegetation cover on the plots is given in [1]. Low-molecular organic compounds in soil water extracts were identified by the method of gas chromatography mass-spectrometry [2, 3]. Finally, reforestationafterspruceforestcutting was found to be accompanied by different changes in soil chemical composition. In contrast with soils under undisturbed spruce forest, organic soil horizons under different-aged cuts decreased in organic carbon reserves and production of low-molecular organic compounds, changed in soil acidity. Within the soil series of SP1→SP2→SP3, the highest content of WOCs was identified for undisturbed spruce forest (738 mg kg-1 soil). In soils of coniferous-deciduous forests on SP1 and SP3, WOC content was 294 and 441 mg kg-1 soil, correspondingly. Soils at cuts decreased in concentration of any water-soluble low-molecular SOM components as low-molecular acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Structure of low-molecular WOCs in the study podzolic

  8. Preparations and properties of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This short review describes various types of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups; silicone compounds, carboxylic acids and dibasic acids, esters, Diels-Alder adducts, various polymers, nitrogen compounds, phosphoric esters, phosphonic acids, and others. Testing methods for water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials are described for a practical application in a laboratory. PMID:18075217

  9. Water solubility of selected C9-C18 alkanes using a slow-stir technique: Comparison to structure - property models.

    PubMed

    Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Connelly, Martin J; Peterson, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous solubility is a fundamental physical-chemical substance property that strongly influences the distribution, fate and effects of chemicals upon release into the environment. Experimental water solubility was determined for 18 selected C9-C18 normal, branched and cyclic alkanes. A slow-stir technique was applied to obviate emulsion formation, which historically has resulted in significant overestimation of the aqueous solubility of such hydrophobic liquid compounds. Sensitive GC-MS based methods coupled with contemporary sample extraction techniques were employed to enable reproducible analysis of low parts-per billion aqueous concentrations. Water solubility measurements for most of the compounds investigated, are reported for the first time expanding available data for branched and cyclic alkanes. Measured water solubilities spanned four orders of magnitude ranging from 0.3 μg/L to 250 μg/L. Good agreement was observed for selected alkanes tested in this work and reported in earlier literature demonstrating the robustness of the slow-stir water solubility technique. Comparisons of measured alkane water solubilities were also made with those predicted by commonly used quantitative structure-property relationship models (e.g. SPARC, EPIWIN, ACD/Labs). Correlations are also presented between alkane measured water solubilities and molecular size parameters (e.g. molar volume, solvent accessible molar volume) affirming a mechanistic description of empirical aqueous solubility results and prediction previously reported for a more limited set of alkanes. PMID:26924078

  10. Water-soluble and solid-state speciation of phosphorus in stabilized sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Shenker, Moshe

    2004-01-01

    Three chemicals, ferrous sulfate (Fe-sul), calcium oxide (CaO), and aluminum sulfate (alum), were used to stabilize phosphorus (P) in fresh, anaerobically digested sewage sludge (FSS). The chemically stabilized sludge materials and biosolids compost (BSC) were compared with the FSS with respect to water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) content in its inorganic (WSP(i)) and organic (WSP(o)) forms as well as water-soluble organic carbon (DOC). Solid-state P speciation was further probed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray elemental spectrometry (EDXS). Water-soluble P was effectively controlled by a wide range of Fe-sul or CaO additions to the sludge (Ca to P ratio = 3.47-17.72, Fe to P ratio = 1.01-16.53), but by only a narrow range (Al to P ratio = 1.04-2.87) of alum addition. The WSP content in the BSC was also depressed, but to a lesser extent. The pH in the treated sludge ranged from 3.0 to 12.5 and served as a key factor to control P chemistry. No correlation was observed between DOC and WSP(o). No crystallized Ca-P minerals were detected in the CaO-stabilized sludge, but brushite crystallization seemed to be obtained by low addition of Fe-sul and alum. Variscite and strengite crystallization was obtained following high addition of Fe-sul or alum, as detected by XRD and SEM-EDXS. Adsorption of P by newly formed Fe-hydroxide seems to play an important role in the Fe-sul-stabilized sludge. We concluded that administration of the tested chemicals at the proper rate can effectively reduce the hazard of P release and leaching from sludge. PMID:15356251

  11. Water-soluble germanium(0) nanocrystals: cell recognition and near-infrared photothermal conversion properties.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Timothy N; Andrews, Nicholas L; Gerung, Henry; Boyle, Timothy J; Oliver, Janet M; Wilson, Bridget S; Han, Sang M

    2007-04-01

    Surfactant-passivated germanium nanocrystals (Ge(0) NCs) 3-5 nm in diameter were synthesized and encapsulated with functionalized phospholipids to yield water-soluble Ge(0) NCs. Upon encapsulation, the NCs retained their cubic crystalline phase and displayed good resistance to oxidation, as determined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a test of their cell compatibility, the ability of carboxyfluorescein (CF)-labeled dinitrophenyl (DNP)-functionalized Ge(0) NCs to crosslink dinitrophenol-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies on the surface of mast cells (RBL-2H3) was examined in vitro. Treatment with a multivalent DNP antigen (i.e., DNP-Ge(0) NCs or CF-DNP-Ge(0) NCs) caused crosslinking of FcepsilonRI receptors and cellular responses, which were evaluated with morphological and colorimetric assays and live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Incubation of RBL-2H3 cells with Ge(0) NCs for approximately 24 h gave less than a 2 % increase in cell death as compared to DNP-functionalized bovine serum albumin. When irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) radiation (lambda(exc)=770 nm, 1.1 W cm(-2)) from a continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser, the bulk-solution temperature of a toluene solution containing 20 mg mL(-1) Ge(0) NCs increased by approximately 35 degrees C within 5 min. Phospholipid-encapsulated water-soluble Ge(0) NCs at concentrations of 1.0 mg mL(-1) also displayed stable photothermal behavior under repetitive and prolonged NIR laser exposures in water, to yield a temperature increase of approximately 20 degrees C within 5 min (lambda(exc)=770 nm, 0.9 W cm(-2)). The photothermal efficiency of water-soluble Ge(0) NCs compares favorably with a recent report for Au nanoshells. PMID:17299826

  12. Characterization of water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric fine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Gyula; Varga, BáLint; Galambos, IstváN.; Ganszky, Ildikó

    2002-11-01

    Atmospheric fine aerosol (dp < 1.5 μm) was collected at a rural site in Hungary from January to September 2000. The total carbon concentration ranged from 5 to 13 μg m-3 and from 3 to 6 μg m-3 in the first three months and the rest of the sampling period, respectively. On average, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) accounted for 66% of the total carbon concentration independent of the season. A variable fraction of the water-soluble organic constituents (38-72% of WSOC depending on the sample) was separated from inorganic ions and isolated in pure organic form by using solid phase extraction on a copolymer sorbent. This fraction was experimentally characterized by an organic matter to organic carbon mass ratio of 1.9, and this value did not change with the seasons. Furthermore, the average elemental composition (molar ratio) of C:H:N:O ≈ 24:34:1:14 of the isolated fraction indicated the predominance of oxygenated functional groups, and the low hydrogen to carbon ratio implied the presence of unsaturated or polyconjugated structures. These conclusions were confirmed by UV, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies. On the basis of theoretical considerations, the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratio was estimated to be 2.3 for the nonisolated water-soluble organic fraction, resulting in an overall ratio of 2.1 for the WSOC. In order to extend the scope of this estimation to the total organic carbon, which is usually required in mass closure calculations, the aqueous extraction was followed by sequential extraction with acetone and 0.01 M NaOH solution. As a result, a total organic matter to total organic carbon mass ratio of 1.9-2.0 was estimated, but largely on the basis of experimental data.

  13. Design of multicomponent photocatalysts for hydrogen production under visible light using water-soluble titanate nanodisks.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Cao-Thang; Pham, Minh-Hao; Seo, Yongbeom; Kleitz, Freddy; Do, Trong-On

    2014-05-01

    We report the design of efficient multicomponent photocatalysts (MPs) for H2 production under visible light by using water-soluble ultrathin titanate nanodisks (TNDs) stabilized by tetraethylammonium cations (TEA(+)) as building blocks. The photocatalysts are designed in such a way to significantly enhance simultaneously the efficiency of the three main steps in the photocatalytic process i.e., light absorption, charge separation and catalytic reaction. We show, as an example, the construction of water-soluble CdS-TND-Ni MPs. The designed CdS-TND-Ni MPs, in which CdS nanoparticles and TNDs are intimately assembled to enhance the charge transfer and surface area, are controlled in composition to optimize visible light absorption. The conception of the MPs allows them to be highly dispersed in water which markedly improves the photocatalytic H2 production process. Most importantly, a Ni co-catalyst is selectively located on the surface of TNDs, enabling vectorial electron transfer from CdS to TND and to Ni, which drastically improves the charge separation. Consequently, under visible light illumination (λ ≥ 420 nm), the optimally designed CdS-TND-Ni MPs could generate H2 from ethanol-water solution with rate as high as 15.326 mmol g(-1) h(-1) during a reaction course of 15 h and with an apparent quantum yield of 24% at 420 nm. Moreover, we also demonstrate that TNDs can be combined with other single or mixed metal sulfide to form water-soluble metal sulfide-TNDs composites which could also be of great interest for photocatalytic H2 production. PMID:24664235

  14. Efficient Route to Highly Water-Soluble Aromatic Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-06

    2-Hydroxyisoquinolin-1-one (1,2-HOIQO) is a new member of the important class of aromatic cyclic hydroxamic acid ligands which are widely used in metal sequestering applications and metal chelating therapy. The first general approach for the introduction of substituents at the aromatic ring of the chelating moiety is presented. As a useful derivative, the highly water-soluble sulfonic acid has been synthesized by an efficient route that allows general access to 1,2-HOQIO 3-carboxlic acid amides, which are the most relevant for applications.

  15. A property-matched water-soluble analogue of the benchmark ligand PPh3.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Michel; Bricout, Hervé; Hapiot, Frédéric; Sayede, Adlane; Tilloy, Sébastien; Monflier, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A series of sulfonated biphenylphosphanes were readily prepared from commercially available, inexpensive, and air-stable organic compounds. Of these, the trisulfonated trisbiphenylphosphane can be considered as a true water-soluble analogue of PPh(3) as the cone angle and basicity of both phosphanes are very close and result in a similar coordination mode on palladium and rhodium complexes. The catalytic performance of the trisulfonated trisbiphenylphosphane was evaluated in the aqueous hydroformylation of 1-decene and the Tsuji-Trost reaction. PMID:18702165

  16. Induction of classical activation of macrophage in vitro by water soluble chitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Dong-Won; Ahn, Woong Shick; You, Su Jung; Chae, Gue Tae; Shim, Young Bock; Chun, Heung Jae

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of chitin on macrophage mediated immunity, which is a significant factor to wound healing and tissue regeneration. In this work, water soluble chitin (WSC) was prepared by re-acetylation of chitosan and was treated with the murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines (ATCC TIB-71). WSC induced classical activation in the RAW 264.7 cells, accompanied by the induction of associated genes. The results suggest that WSC is one of the functional chitin molecules that are responsible for the immune response, especially present in macrophage classical activation.

  17. Embryotoxicity and biotransformation responses in zebrafish exposed to water-soluble fraction of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Pauka, Luciana M; Maceno, Marcell; Rossi, Stefani C; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2011-04-01

    The toxic effects of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil (API27, Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil) were evaluated during the early life stages of zebrafish, as well as its biotransformation in juvenile fish. Embryonic development was studied during 96 h. Reduced heartbeat rate, weak pigmentation, tail defects, and embryo mortality were observed for all of the tested concentrations of the WSF. Activities of the biotransformation enzymes were induced at the highest concentrations, showing that these enzymes played a role in its elimination. As shown in this study the crude oil WSF altered the normal embryonic development of fish. PMID:21404046

  18. Nanometer-Scale Water-Soluble Macrocycles from Nanometer-Sized Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gothard, Chris M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the unnatural amino acids m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K as nanometersized building blocks for the creation of water-soluble macrocycles with well-defined shapes. m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K are homologues of the nanometer-sized amino acid Abc2K, which we recently introduced for the synthesis of water-soluble molecular rods of precise length. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 7272]. Abc2K is linear (180°), m-Abc2K creates a 120° angle, and o-Abc2K creates a 60° angle. m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K are derivatives of 3’-amino-[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid and 2’-amino-[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid, with two propyloxyammonium side chains for water solubility. m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K are prepared as Fmoc-protected derivatives Fmoc-m-Abc2K(Boc)-OH (1a) and Fmoc-o-Abc2K(Boc)-OH (1b). These derivatives can be used alone or in conjunction with Fmoc-Abc2K(Boc)-OH (1c) as ordinary amino acids in Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis. Building blocks 1a–c were used to synthesize macrocyclic “triangles” 9a–c, “parallelograms” 10a,b, and hexagonal “rings” 11a–d. The macrocycles range from a trimer to a dodecamer, with ring sizes from 24 to 114 atoms, and are 1–4 nm in size. Molecular modeling studies suggest that all the macrocycles except 10b should have well-defined triangle, parallelogram, and ring shapes if all of the amide linkages are trans and the ortho-alkoxy substituents are intramolecularly hydrogen bonded to the amide NH groups. The macrocycles have good water solubility and are readily characterized by standard analytical techniques, such as RP-HPLC, ESI-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. 1H and 13C NMR studies suggest that the macrocycles adopt conformations with all trans-amide linkages in CD3OD, that the “triangles” and “parallelograms” maintain these conformations in D2O, and that the “rings” collapse to form conformations with cis-amide linkages in D2O. PMID:20020731

  19. Formation of water soluble complexes of ?: solid-state reaction between tertiary amines and ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, H.; Priyadarsini, K. I.; Tyagi, A. K.; Mittal, J. P.

    1996-11-01

    Water soluble complexes of 0953-4075/29/21/015/img3 have been prepared on solid-state mechano-chemical reaction between 0953-4075/29/21/015/img3 and tertiary amines (hexamine, DABCO) at room temperature 0953-4075/29/21/015/img5. The product is characterized by x-ray diffraction and FTIR methods. It is presumably due to the charge transfer interactions between electron affinic 0953-4075/29/21/015/img3 and electron rich tertiary amines.

  20. Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Daniel R.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Clark, Stephen W.; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Wise, Frank W.; Webb, Watt W.

    2003-05-01

    The use of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) as fluorescent labels for multiphoton microscopy enables multicolor imaging in demanding biological environments such as living tissue. We characterized water-soluble cadmium selenide-zinc sulfide quantum dots for multiphoton imaging in live animals. These fluorescent probes have two-photon action cross sections as high as 47,000 Goeppert-Mayer units, by far the largest of any label used in multiphoton microscopy. We visualized quantum dots dynamically through the skin of living mice, in capillaries hundreds of micrometers deep. We found no evidence of blinking (fluorescence intermittency) in solution on nanosecond to millisecond time scales.

  1. Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larson, Daniel R; Zipfel, Warren R; Williams, Rebecca M; Clark, Stephen W; Bruchez, Marcel P; Wise, Frank W; Webb, Watt W

    2003-05-30

    The use of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) as fluorescent labels for multiphoton microscopy enables multicolor imaging in demanding biological environments such as living tissue. We characterized water-soluble cadmium selenide-zinc sulfide quantum dots for multiphoton imaging in live animals. These fluorescent probes have two-photon action cross sections as high as 47,000 Goeppert-Mayer units, by far the largest of any label used in multiphoton microscopy. We visualized quantum dots dynamically through the skin of living mice, in capillaries hundreds of micrometers deep. We found no evidence of blinking (fluorescence intermittency) in solution on nanosecond to millisecond time scales. PMID:12775841

  2. Evaluation of hydration in a water-soluble polymer by terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Shunsuke; Seki, Munetoshi; Tabata, Hitoshi

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the hydration properties of water-soluble polymers by terahertz spectroscopy. In particular, we focused on polyvinylpyrrolidone which has potential use for a wide range of applications as a biomaterial. The dielectric loss of samples obtained by the terahertz spectroscopy was found to strongly depend on the molecular weight of the polymers and the density of the solution. We revealed that the hydration number per monomer depends on the molecular weight of the polymer. It is also deduced that the hydration number is affected by the conformation of the polymer in the solution.

  3. Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Prozorova, Galina F; Pozdnyakov, Alexsandr S; Kuznetsova, Nadezhda P; Korzhova, Svetlana A; Emel’yanov, Artem I; Ermakova, Tamara G; Fadeeva, Tat’yana V; Sosedova, Larisa M

    2014-01-01

    New water-soluble nontoxic nanocomposites of nanosized silver particles in a polymer matrix were synthesized by a green chemistry method. Nontoxic poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) was used as a stabilizing precursor agent in aqueous medium. Glucose and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as the silver ion-reducing agents to yield silver nanoparticles 2–26 nm and 2–8 nm in size, respectively. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption, and thermogravimetric data analysis. The nanocomposites showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24790430

  4. Characteristics of new particle formation events in Nanjing, China: Effect of water-soluble ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Junlin; Wang, Honglei; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Bin; Zou, Jianan; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing

    2015-05-01

    New particle formation (NPF) events and water-soluble ions were studied at the meteorological building on the campus of the Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST), which is located in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). A wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) provided particle number size distributions between 10 nm and 10 μm, whereas water-soluble ions for particles with diameters between 10 nm and 18 μm were measured using a 13-stage Nano-MOUDI aerosol sampler and 850 professional Ion Chromatography (IC). Additionally, meteorological data, trace gas concentrations and mass concentration were recorded. Ten NPF days were captured during the measurement period from 08 July to 02 August 2012. The mean aerosol number concentration, which was primarily composed of Aitken-mode particles, i.e., with diameters of 20-100 nm, was 13,664 cm-3, which was 1.9 times larger than that on non-NPF days. The results suggest that the NPF events were only slightly affected by O3, SO2, and NO2; the primary factors affecting NPF events were meteorological factors and air mass directions. NPF events were found to be favorable during the summer in the presence of high temperatures, strong radiation, low humidity, strong winds and clean air masses originating from the southeastern coast. The mean growth rate (GR), formation rate (J10), condensational sink (CS), condensing vapor rate (Q), and condensation vapor (C) were determined to be 7.6 nm h-1, 3.7 cm-3 s-1, 2.8 × 10-2 s-1, 2.9 × 106 cm-3 s-1, and 10.5 × 107 cm-3, respectively, on NPF days. The largest effects of the studied NPF events were on the mass and water-soluble ion concentrations of Aitken-mode particles, followed by nuclei-mode particles; few contributions to accumulation- and coarse-mode particles were observed. Different water-soluble ions were observed to have distinct interactions with the NPF events. The proportions of NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, K+ and Mg2+ in nuclei- and Aitken

  5. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from watewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.

    1996-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology being developed to recover valuable or regulated metal ions selectively from process or wastewaters. Water-soluble chelating polymers are specially designed to bind selectively with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers molecular weight is large enough so they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration technology. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the ultrafiltration membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions, which are recovered in concentrated form, for recycle or disposal.

  6. Sulfur speciation and stable isotope trends of water-soluble sulfates in mine tailings profiles.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard; Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2005-08-01

    Sulfur speciation and the sources of water-soluble sulfate in three oxidizing sulfidic mine tailings impoundments were investigated by selective dissolution and stable isotopes. The studied tailings impoundments--Piuquenes, Cauquenes, and Salvador No. 1--formed from the exploitation of the Rio Blanco/La Andina, El Teniente, and El Salvador Chilean porphyry copper deposits, which are located in Alpine, Mediterranean, and hyperarid climates, respectively. The water-soluble sulfate may originate from dissolution of primary ore sulfates (e.g., gypsum, anhydrite, jarosite) or from oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed to aerobic conditions during mining activity. With increasing aridity and decreasing pyrite content of the tailings, the sulfur speciation in the unsaturated oxidation zones showed a trend from dominantly Fe(III) oxyhydroxide fixed sulfate (e.g., jarosite and schwertmannite) in Piuquenes toward increasing presence of water-soluble sulfate at Cauquenes and Salvador No. 1. In the saturated primary zones, sulfate is predominantly present in water-soluble form (mainly as anhydrite and/or gypsum). In the unsaturated zone at Piuquenes and Cauquenes, the delta34S(SO4)values ranged from +0.5 per thousand to +2.0 per thousand and from -0.4 per thousand to +1.4 per thousand Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT), respectively, indicating a major sulfate source from pyrite oxidation (delta34S(pyrite) = -1.1 per thousand and -0.9 per thousand). In the saturated zone at Piuquenes and Cauquenes, the values ranged from -0.8 per thousand to +0.3 per thousand and from +2.2 per thousand to +3.9 per thousand, respectively. At Cauquenes the 34S enrichment in the saturated zone toward depth indicates the increasing contribution of isotopically heavy dissolved sulfate from primary anhydrite (approximately +10.9 per thousand). At El Salvador No. 1, the delta34S(SO4) average value is -0.9 per thousand, suggesting dissolution of supergene sulfate minerals (jarosite, alunite, gypsum

  7. Application of water-soluble polymer in dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Xingyong, W.

    1999-07-01

    The addition of water-soluble polymer to fine coal slurry to enhance dewatering process of fine coal is considered to be one of the most effective ways of solving the problems of dewatering of fine coal. A series of tests are conducted with a vacuum dewatering apparatus to study the effects of various factors such as the species of polymer, polymer dosage and its ways of addition, and the pH of fine coal slurry on filtrating and dewatering of fine coal.

  8. Synthesis of a novel water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine and its CT DNA-damaging studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianhui; Wang, Ao; Zhou, Lin; Lu, Shan; Jiang, Weiwei; Lin, Yun; Zhou, Jiahong; Wei, Shaohua

    2013-11-01

    A novel 3-(4-methoxybenzylamino) propanoic acid substituted water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine (CNPcZn) was synthesized. The interaction between CNPcZn with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) was studied using spectroscopic methods. The studies indicated that CNPcZn has strong affinity to CT DNA, and furthermore, CNZnPc showed excellent photodamaging activity to CT DNA. Above results indicated that such CNPcZn has great potential to be used as an effective photosensitizer in the field of photodynamic therapy.

  9. First water-soluble backbone Ru-Ru-Ni heterometallic organometallic polymer.

    PubMed

    Scalambra, Franco; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Romerosa, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The water-soluble backbone heterometallic polymer {[(PTA)2 CpRu-μ-CN-RuCp(PTA)2 -μ-NiCl3 ]}n (2) is synthesized using a reproducible and robust method and fully characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The Ru-Ru-Ni polymer is found to be stable in the solid state and soluble in water. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and light scattering studies show that the polymer is stable in water for several days in air. PMID:25739739

  10. Fluorescence quenching of water-soluble conjugated polymer by metal cations and its application in sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Guo; Zhao, Dan; He, Zhi-Ke; Ai, Xin-Ping

    2007-02-01

    The effects of different metal cations on the fluorescence of water-soluble conjugated polymer (CP) and their quenching mechanism have been explored. Most transition metal cations, especially noble metal cations, such as Pd 2+, Ru 3+, and Pt 2+ possessed higher quenching efficiency to CP fluorescence than that of the main group metal cations and other transition metal cations, which have filled or half-full outmost electron layer configurations. Base on this, rapid, sensitive detection of noble metal cations can be realized and a novel quencher-tether-ligand (QTL) probe was developed to detect avidin and streptavidin.

  11. Droplet-based microreactor for synthesis of water-soluble Ag₂S quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yun; Jiang, Peng; Pang, Dai-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-07-10

    A droplet-based microreactor was used for synthesis of water-soluble Ag2S quantum dots (QDs). Monodispersed Ag2S nanoparticles with a surface of carboxylic acid-terminated were synthesized in the droplet microreactor. The x-ray powder diffraction results indicated products were monoclinic Ag2S nanocrystals. Furthermore, different-sized Ag2S QDs that were near-infrared-emitting or visible-emitting were continuously stably synthesized in droplet microreactors at different temperatures. We believe we offer a new method for obtaining different-sized Ag2S nanoparticles. PMID:26067160

  12. Droplet-based microreactor for synthesis of water-soluble Ag2S quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yun; Jiang, Peng; Pang, Dai-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-07-01

    A droplet-based microreactor was used for synthesis of water-soluble Ag2S quantum dots (QDs). Monodispersed Ag2S nanoparticles with a surface of carboxylic acid-terminated were synthesized in the droplet microreactor. The x-ray powder diffraction results indicated products were monoclinic Ag2S nanocrystals. Furthermore, different-sized Ag2S QDs that were near-infrared-emitting or visible-emitting were continuously stably synthesized in droplet microreactors at different temperatures. We believe we offer a new method for obtaining different-sized Ag2S nanoparticles.

  13. Encapsulation of Polythiophene by Glycopolymer for Water Soluble Nano-wire

    SciTech Connect

    T Fukuda; Y Inoue; T Koga; M Matsuoka; Y Miura

    2011-12-31

    A water-soluble polythiophene (PT) was prepared by the self-assembling complex with a glycopolymer. The glycopolymer of poly(N-p-vinylbenzyl-D-lactonamide) (PVLA) formed self-assembling cylindrical structure based on the amphiphilicity even after the complexation with PT. We confirmed the improved optical functionality of PT due to the longer conjugated {pi}-orbital. It suggested that PT behaved like molecular nanowire with the self-assembled structure in the hydrophobic core of PVLA. PVLA-PT also showed specific biorecognition against corresponding lectin. These results suggested that the bioactive nanowire formation of PT with the glycopolymer was developed.

  14. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from dendrobium denneanum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, A.; Ge, Z.; Fan, Y.; Chun, Z.; Jin, He X.

    2011-01-01

    The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant. ?? 2011.

  15. Water-soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds ( Fuego, Pacaya, Santiaguito, Guatamala).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Zielinski, R.A.; Rose, W.I., Jr.; Huebert, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    In Feb. and March of 1978, filter samplers mounted on an aircraft were used to collect the aerosol fraction of the eruption clouds from three active Guatemalan volcanoes (Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito). The elements dissolved in the aqueous extracts represent components of water-soluble material either formed directly in the eruption cloud or derived from interaction of ash particles and aerosol components of the plume. Calculations of enrichment factors, based upon concentration ratios, showed the elements most enriched in the extracts relative to bulk ash composition were Cd, Cu, V, F, Cl, Zn, and Pb.-from Authors

  16. Effect of water-soluble oxalates in Amaranthus spp. leaves on the absorption of milk calcium.

    PubMed

    Pingle, U; Ramasastri, B V

    1978-11-01

    1. Amaranthus spp. leaves contain high amounts of oxalates which affect the calcium absorption. This study was done to determine whether removal of the water-soluble oxalates from the leaves by cooking would reduce this deleterious effect. 2. Experimental work done with two types of basal diets on six adult male subjects has shown that the milk Ca absorption was low when leaves cooked without draining away the water were included in the diet. However when the soluble oxalates were removed by throwing away the water after cooking the leaves, the absorption of milk Ca was unaffected. PMID:568935

  17. Relationship between water solubility of chlorobenzenes and their effects on a freshwater green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.T.S.; Chau, Y.K.; Rhamey, J.S.; Docker, M.

    1984-01-01

    The effective concentrations of benzene and 12 chlorobenzenes that reduced 50% of the primary productivity (EC/sub 50/) of a freshwater green alga, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, were determined. Benzene was the least toxic chemical and the toxicity increased as the degree of chlorine substitution in the aromatic ring increased. No EC/sub 50/ value could be obtained for HCB. A quantitative relationship was found to exist between water solubility, lipophilicity and the EC/sub 50/. A good correlation was also observed between the EC/sub 50/ for this alga and other toxicity data for various aquatic biota.

  18. Harnessing medically relevant metals onto water-soluble subphthalocyanines: towards bimodal imaging and theranostics.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Yann; Winckler, Pascale; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Decréau, Richard A

    2015-02-21

    Subphthalocyanine (SubPc), a putative fluorophore for optical imaging (OI), was conjugated to chelating ligands (DOTA, DTPA) affording water-soluble conjugates complexed with (non-radioactive) metals relevant to the following medical imaging techniques/therapies: MRI (Gd), PET (Cu, Ga), SPECT (In, Ga, Lu), RIT (Cu, Lu, Y), and NCT (Gd). Magneto-optical properties of ditopic gadolinium species (and optical properties of other metal containing species) were examined (brightness (ε × ΦF) and relaxivity R1) and fluorescence confocal/biphoton microscopy studies were conducted. PMID:25581854

  19. Direct Solvent-Derived Polymer-Coated Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanodots with High Water Solubility for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Glioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Meng, Ying; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Chengyi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Jianxin; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-08-01

    Cancer imaging requires biocompatible and bright contrast-agents with selective and high accumulation in the tumor region but low uptake in normal tissues. Herein, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)-derived polymer-coated nitrogen-doped carbon nanodots (pN-CNDs) with a particle size in the range of 5-15 nm are prepared by a facile direct solvothermal reaction. The as-prepared pN-CNDs exhibit stable and adjustable fluorescence and excellent water solubility. Results of a cell viability test (CCK-8) and histology analysis both demonstrate that the pN-CNDs have no obvious cytotoxicity. Most importantly, the pN-CNDs can expediently enter glioma cells in vitro and also mediate glioma fluorescence imaging in vivo with good contrast via elevated passive targeting. PMID:25808813

  20. Reverse aqueous emulsions and microemulsions in HFA227 propellant stabilized by non-ionic ethoxylated amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Udayan; Selvam, Parthiban; Porcar, Lionel; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2009-03-18

    In this work we use in situ high-pressure tensiometry to screen non-ionic ethoxylated surfactants at the 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFA227) propellant|Water (HFA227|W) interface. The EO(n)PO( approximately )(30)EO(n) series, where EO stands for ethylene oxide and PO for propylene oxide, and n the number of repeat EO units, was selected for this study based on the favorable interactions reported between HFA propellants and the PO moiety. The surfactants used in FDA-approved pressurized metered-dose inhaler formulations were also investigated. Tension measurements provide not only information on the relative activity of the different surfactants in the series, but they also serve as a guide for selecting an appropriate candidate for the formation of reverse aggregates based on the surfactant natural curvature. Moreover, the effect of ethanol and the chemistry of the surfactant tail group on the surfactant activity were also investigated. Surfactants with hydrogenated tails are not capable of forming stable water-in-HFA227 microemulsions. This is true even at very low tensions observed when in the presence of ethanol, indicating the lack of affinity between HFA227 and hydrogenated moieties-the surfactant does not tend to curve about water. On the other hand, PO-based amphiphiles can significantly reduce the tension of the HFA227|W interface. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and UV-vis spectroscopy results also reveal that a selected ethoxylated amphiphile (EO(13)PO(30)EO(13) at 1mM concentration), when in the presence of ethanol, is capable of forming stable cylindrical reverse aqueous microemulsions. EO(13)PO(30)EO(13) is also capable of forming emulsions of water-in-HFA227 that are fairly stable against coalescence. Such dispersions are potential candidates for the delivery of small polar solutes and larger therapeutic biomolecules to and through the lungs in the form of pMDI formulations, and in other medical sprays. PMID:19028557

  1. Comparative study on the different techniques for the preparation of sustained-release hydrophobic matrices of a highly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Halim, S M; Amin, M M; El-Gazayerly, O N; Abd El-Gawad, N A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to control the release of freely water-soluble salbutamol sulphate (SS) over a prolonged period of time by embedding the drug into slowly eroding waxy matrix materials such as Precirol® ATO5, Compritol® 888 ATO, beeswax, paraffin wax, carnauba wax, and stearyl alcohol. The matrices were prepared by either direct compression or hot fusion techniques. The compatibility of the drug with the various excipients was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A factorial design was employed to study the effect of polymer type, polymer concentration (15% and 35%), and filler type (Avicel® PH101 and dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate (DCP) on the in vitro drug release at 6 h. Results of DSC confirmed drugexcipient compatibility. Increasing the polymer ratio resulted in a significant retardation of drug release. The use of DCP resulted in significant retardation and incomplete drug release while the use of Avicel did not. The hot fusion method was found to be more effective than the direct compression method in retarding SS release. A Precirol formulation, prepared using the hot fusion technique, had the slowest drug release, releasing about 31.3% of SS over 6 h. In contrast, Compritol, prepared using the direct compression technique, had the greatest retardation, providing sustained release of 59.3% within 6 h. A hydrophobic matrix system is thus a useful technique for prolonging the release of freely water-soluble drugs such as salbutamol sulphate. PMID:22491314

  2. Transition metal-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of water-soluble dendritic molecular nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanghui; Guan, Zhibin

    2004-03-10

    Here, we report the first example of transition metal-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of water-soluble dendritic molecular nanocarriers behaving like unimolecular micelles. Using the palladium-alpha-diimine chain walking catalyst, copolymerization of ethylene and comonomer 3 afforded, in one step, amphiphilic copolymer 1 having a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell. A much larger amphiphilic core-shell copolymer 2 was synthesized by a two-step approach: a copolymer having many free hydroxyl groups was first prepared, which was subsequently coupled to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to afford the copolymer 2. Light-scattering, fluorescence, and UV/vis spectroscopic studies with Nile Red in aqueous solution showed unimolecular micellar properties for both copolymers 1 and 2. The dye encapsulation capacity for the core-shell copolymers is nearly proportional to the molecular weight of the hydrophobic core. The unimolecular micellar properties coupled with the good water solubility and biocompatibility of the PEG moieties make these molecular nanocarriers promising candidates for many applications including drug delivery and controlled drug release. PMID:14995158

  3. New water-soluble ruthenium(II) cytotoxic complex: biological activity and cellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Morais, Tânia S; Santos, Filipa C; Jorge, Tiago F; Côrte-Real, Leonor; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Marques, Fernanda; Robalo, M Paula; Matos, António; Santos, Isabel; Garcia, M Helena

    2014-01-01

    A novel water soluble organometallic compound, [RuCp(mTPPMSNa)(2,2'-bipy)][CF3SO3] (TM85, where Cp=η(5)-cyclopentadienyl, mTPPMS=diphenylphosphane-benzene-3-sulfonate and 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) is presented herein. Studies of interactions with relevant proteins were performed to understand the behavior and mode of action of this complex in the biological environment. Electrochemical and fluorescence studies showed that TM85 strongly binds to albumin. Studies carried out to study the formation of TM85 which adducts with ubiquitin and cytochrome c were performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antitumor activity was evaluated against a variety of human cancer cell lines, namely A2780, A2780cisR, MCF7, MDAMB231, HT29, PC3 and V79 non-tumorigenic cells and compared with the reference drug cisplatin. TM85 cytotoxic effect was reduced in the presence of endocytosis modulators at low temperatures, suggesting an energy-dependent mechanism consistent with endocytosis. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that TM85 targets the endomembranar system disrupting the Golgi and also affects the mitochondria. Disruption of plasma membrane observed by flow cytometry could lead to cellular damage and cell death. On the whole, the biological activity evaluated herein combined with the water solubility property suggests that complex TM85 could be a promising anticancer agent. PMID:24145065

  4. Preparation of water-soluble nanographite and its application in water-based cutting fluid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble nanographite was prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization using methacrylate as polymeric monomer. The dispersion stability and dispersion state of graphite particles were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The water-soluble nanographite was then added into the water-based cutting fluid as lubricant additive. The lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid with the nanographite additive was studied on four-ball friction tester and surface tensiometer. Results indicate that the modification method of in situ emulsion polymerization realizes the uniform and stabilized dispersion of nanographite in aqueous environment. The optimal polymerization condition is 70°C (polymerization temperature) and 5 h (polymerization time). The addition of nanographite decreases the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 44% and 49%. Meanwhile, the maximum non-seizure load (PB) increases from 784 to 883 N, and the value of surface tension (32.76 × 10−3 N/m) is at low level. Nanographite additive improves apparently the lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid. PMID:23351483

  5. Preparative scale and convenient synthesis of a water-soluble, deep cavitand.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Simone; Yu, Yang; Rebek, Julius

    2016-08-01

    Cavitands are established tools of supramolecular chemistry and molecular recognition, and they are finding increasing application in sensing and sequestration of physiologically relevant molecules in aqueous solution. The synthesis of a water-soluble, deep cavitand is described. The route comprises six (linear) steps from commercially available precursors, and it relies on the fourfold oligomeric cyclization reaction of resorcinol with 2,3-dihydrofuran that leads to the formation of a shallow resorcinarene framework; condensation with aromatic panels, which deepens the hydrophobic binding cavity; construction of rigid urea functionalities on the upper rim; and the introduction of the water-solubilizing methylimidazolium groups on the lower rim. Late intermediates of the synthesis can be used in the preparation of congener cavitands with different properties and applications, and a sample of such a synthetic procedure is included in this protocol. Emphasis is placed on scaled-up reactions and on purification procedures that afford materials in high yield and avoid chromatographic purification. This protocol provides improvements over previously described procedures, and it enables the preparation of sizable amounts of deep cavitands: 7 g of a water-soluble cavitand can be prepared from resorcinol in 13 working days. PMID:27388554

  6. Chemical composition of water-soluble fraction in soils on glaciolacustrine deposits of the Russian Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, E. G.; Oleinikova, G. A.; Matinyan, N. N.; Bakhmatova, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of some chemical elements was studied in soils and their liquid phase. Two reference soil profiles on glaciolacustrine clays (soddy-eluvial-metamorphic soil) and sands (soddy podzol) were investigated on the Russian Plain. A colloidal fraction (particles <1 μm) was isolated with deionized hot water from a soil sample of 30 g at the soil: water ratio of 1: 10. The suspension was mixed for 6 h, settled for 24 h, and filtrated using a membrane filter (<1 μm). The soil sample and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) were analyzed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The chemical characteristics of the extracted liquid phase of the soil reflect its water-soluble component properties. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of the analysis for the whole soil allows assessment of a share of easily mobile and difficultly mobile forms of chemical compounds. This is the necessary basis for the development of a model describing the transport of metals in soil.

  7. Direct encapsulation of water-soluble drug into silica microcapsules for sustained release applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jiexin; Wang Zhihui; Chen Jianfeng Yun, Jimmy

    2008-12-01

    Direct encapsulation of water-soluble drug into silica microcapsules was facilely achieved by a sol-gel process of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in W/O emulsion with hydrochloric acid (HCl) aqueous solution containing Tween 80 and drug as well as cyclohexane solution containing Span 80. Two water-soluble drugs of gentamicin sulphate (GS) and salbutamol sulphate (SS) were chosen as model drugs. The characterization of drug encapsulated silica microcapsules by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FTIR, thermogravimetry (TG) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analyses indicated that drug was successfully entrapped into silica microcapsules. The as-prepared silica microcapsules were uniform spherical particles with hollow structure, good dispersion and a size of 5-10 {mu}m, and had a specific surface area of about 306 m{sup 2}/g. UV-vis and thermogravimetry (TG) analyses were performed to determine the amount of drug encapsulated in the microcapsules. The BJH pore size distribution (PSD) of silica microcapsules before and after removing drug was examined. In vitro release behavior of drug in simulated body fluid (SBF) revealed that such system exhibited excellent sustained release properties.

  8. Size-controlled synthesis of highly water-soluble silver nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yongxing; Ge Jianping; Lim, Donna; Zhang Tierui; Yin Yadong

    2008-07-15

    We describe a modified polyol process for the synthesis of silver nanocrystals with uniform sizes ranging from several nanometers to {approx}20 nm. The use of polyacrylic acid, in place of polyvinylpyrrolidone in the conventional polyol process, significantly limits the growth of silver nanocrystals, prevents the interparticle aggregation and fusion, and leads to a uniform population of samples with high water solubility. The size of nanocrystals can be conveniently tuned by controlling the reaction time, the concentration and chain length of the polymeric surfactants, and the reaction temperature. Uniform silver nanocrystals within sizes below 20 nm are preferred candidates over larger particles for applications where high density of optical absorption is required, for example, for photothermal conversion in cancer therapy. - Graphical abstract: Silver nanocrystals with uniform and controllable sizes (<20 nm) have been synthesized using a modified polyol process. The use of polyacrylic acid as the surfactant significantly limits the nanocrystal growth, prevents the interparticle aggregation and fusion, and leads to a uniform population of samples with high water solubility.

  9. Lightsticks content toxicity: effects of the water soluble fraction on the oyster embryonic development.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Menezes Filho, Adalberto; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Pedro Afonso P

    2015-11-01

    Lightsticks are artifacts used as attractors in a type of commercial fishery, known as surface longline gear. Despite the excessive use, the contamination risks of these devices have not yet been properly investigated. This research aimed to fill up this gap by determining the chemical composition and the toxicity of lightsticks recently activated, compared to those one year after activation and to the ones collected on the beaches. The analyzes were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the variations in composition and the toxicity of their sea Water Soluble Fractions (WSF) were evaluated based on the WSF-effects of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development. The GC-MS analysis made possible the identification of nineteen substances in the water soluble fraction of the lightsticks, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The value of the WSF-effective concentration (EC50) was in an average of 0.35%. After one year of the lightsticks activation, the toxicity was even higher (0.65%). Furthermore, other substances, also present in the lightsticks-WSF caused persistent toxicity even more dangerous to the environment than DBP and DMP. This essay discusses their toxicity effects and possible environment damages. PMID:26070145

  10. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins. PMID:25899288

  11. Water-soluble polysaccharides from agro-industrial by-products: functional and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Sila, Assaâd; Bayar, Nadia; Ghazala, Imen; Bougatef, Ali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia

    2014-08-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from almond (AWSP) and pistachio (PWSP) juice processing by-products. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using NMR and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. The complexities of the spectra reflected the heterogeneity of these polysaccharides. The ACE inhibitory activities (IC50 AWSP=2.81mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=2.59mgmL(-1)) and antioxidant properties of AWSP and PWSP were investigated based on the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay (IC50 AWSP=2.87mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=1.61mgmL(-1)). Reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50AWSP=4.46mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=3.39mgmL(-1)), and ferrous chelating assays (IC50 AWSP=0.22mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=0.19mgmL(-1)) were also performed. The findings revealed that water-soluble polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. AWSP and PWSP showed excellent interfacial concentration-dependent properties. Overall, the results suggested that both AWSP and PWSP are promising sources of natural antioxidants and ACE inhibitory agents and could, therefore, be used as alternative additives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:24875325

  12. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields. PMID:25169839

  13. Interlaboratory Validation of Small-Scale Solubility and Dissolution Measurements of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sara B E; Alvebratt, Caroline; Bevernage, Jan; Bonneau, Damien; da Costa Mathews, Claudia; Dattani, Rikesh; Edueng, Khadijah; He, Yan; Holm, René; Madsen, Cecilie; Müller, Thomas; Muenster, Uwe; Müllertz, Anette; Ojala, Krista; Rades, Thomas; Sieger, Peter; Bergström, Christel A S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interlaboratory variability in determination of apparent solubility (Sapp) and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) using a miniaturized dissolution instrument. Three poorly water-soluble compounds were selected as reference compounds and measured at multiple laboratories using the same experimental protocol. Dissolution was studied in fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid and phosphate buffer (pH 6.5). An additional 6 compounds were used for the development of an IDR measurement guide, which was then validated with 5 compounds. The results clearly showed a need for a standardized protocol including both the experimental assay and the data analysis. Standardization at both these levels decreased the interlaboratory variability. The results also illustrated the difficulties in performing disc IDR on poorly water-soluble drugs because the concentrations reached are typically below the limit of detection. The following guidelines were established: for compounds with Sapp >1 mg/mL, the disc method is recommended. For compounds with Sapp <100 μg/mL, IDR is recommended to be performed using powder dissolution. Compounds in the interval 100 μg/mL to 1 mg/mL can be analyzed with either of these methods. PMID:27112289

  14. Synthesis and characterization of self-assembling water-soluble polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hogen-Esch, T.E.; Amis, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The synthesis is proposed of water-soluble vinyl and other polymers capable of self-assembly through hydrophobic bonding of pendent fluorocarbon and other hydrophobic groups. The self-assembly process will be studied by viscometry and dynamic viscoelasticity, and by static and dynamic light scattering. These investigations are aimed at identifying the structural features of polymers that are important in enhancing the viscosity of aqueous polymer solutions at very low polymer concentrations (< 1,000 ppm). The authors also initiate small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements aimed at the determination of the size of the fluorocarbon-containing hydrophobic aggregates. They will be interested in the degree of self assembly as a function of the type and length of the hydrophobic groups and of the type and length of the flexible spacer group linking the hydrophobic to the polymer backbone. The nature of the hydrophilic chain will also be of interest. Thus, they investigate a number of hydrophilic comonomers such as acrylamide, N-vinylpyrrolidone and anionic or cationic vinyl monomers. Surface interactions of these interesting copolymers will be studied by adsorption onto appropriate modified latex spheres. Finally, they propose to explore the synthesis of water-soluble polymers capable of self assembly through interactions of pendent polyanions and polycations.

  15. Identification of polar, ionic, and highly water soluble organic pollutants in untreated industrial wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, M.; Alonso, M.C.; Riu, J.; Barcelo, D.

    1999-04-15

    This paper presents a generic protocol for the determination of polar, ionic, and highly water soluble organic pollutants on untreated industrial wastewaters involving the use of two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methodologies followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Untreated industrial wastewaters might contain natural and synthetic dissolved organic compounds with total organic carbon (TOC) values varying between 100 and 3000 mg/L. All polar, ionic and highly water soluble compounds comprising more than 95% of the organic content and with major contribution to the total toxicity of the sample cannot be analyzed by conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and LC-MS is a good alternative. In this work two extraction procedures were used to obtain fractionated extracts of the nonionic polar compounds: a polymeric Isolute ENV + SPE cartridge for the preconcentration of anionic analytes and a sequential solid-phase extraction (SSPE) method percolating the samples first in octadecylsilica cartridge in series with the polymeric Lichrolut EN cartridge. Average recoveries ranging from 72% to 103% were obtained for a variety of 23 different analytes. Determination of nonionic pollutants was accomplished by reverse-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS), while anionic compounds were analyzed by ion pair chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (IP-ESI-MS) and LC-ESI-MS. This protocol was applied to a pilot survey of textile and tannery wastewaters leading to the identification and quantification of 33 organic pollutants.

  16. Targeted delivery of a poorly water-soluble compound to hair follicles using polymeric nanoparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Morgen, Michael; Lu, Guang Wei; Du, Daniel; Stehle, Randall; Lembke, Franz; Cervantes, Jessica; Ciotti, Susan; Haskell, Roy; Smithey, Dan; Haley, Kevin; Fan, Conglin

    2011-09-15

    This study explored the utility of topically applied polymeric nanoparticle suspensions to target delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs to hair follicles. Several formulations of amorphous drug/polymer nanoparticles were prepared from ethyl cellulose and UK-157,147 (systematic name (3S,4R)-[6-(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-(2-methyl-3-oxo-2,3-dihydropyridazin-6-yloxy)-3-chromanol), a potassium channel opener, using sodium glycocholate (NaGC) as a surface stabilizer. Nanoparticle suspensions were evaluated to determine if targeted drug delivery to sebaceous glands and hair follicles could be achieved. In in vitro testing with rabbit ear tissue, delivery of UK-157,147 to the follicles was demonstrated with limited distribution to the surrounding dermis. Delivery to hair follicles was also demonstrated in vivo, based on stimulation of hair growth in tests of 100-nm nanoparticles with a C3H mouse model. The nanoparticles were well-tolerated, with no visible skin irritation. In vivo tests of smaller nanoparticles with a hamster ear model also indicated targeted delivery to sebaceous glands. The nanoparticles released drug rapidly in in vitro nonsink dissolution tests and were stable in suspension for 3 months. The present results show selective drug delivery to the follicle by follicular transport of nanoparticles and rapid release of a poorly water-soluble drug. Thus, nanoparticles represent a promising approach for targeted topical delivery of low-solubility compounds to hair follicles. PMID:21722722

  17. Binding interactions of water-soluble camptothecin derivatives with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingyong; Zhu, Qiaochu; Deng, Xiaoqiu; He, Wuna; Zhao, Tengfei; Zhang, Baoyou

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the binding interactions of the water-soluble camptothecin derivatives hydroxycamptothecin (10-HCPT), topotecan (TPT), and camptothecin quaternary salt (CPT8), to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were determined using fluorescence spectra and UV-vis spectra. The results revealed that the fluorescence of BSA was strongly quenched by the binding of camptothecin derivatives to BSA. The quenching mechanism of the camptothecin derivatives was found to be static according to the Stern-Volmer equation. The binding constant and binding sites were confirmed by fluorescence quenching spectra. The thermodynamic parameters Gibbs free energy change (Δ G < 0), enthalpy change (Δ H > 0), and entropy change (Δ S > 0) implied that the interaction process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the interaction forces between camptothecin compounds and BSA were found to be hydrophobic. According to Föster non-radioactive energy transfer, the binding distances between 10-HCPT, TPT, and CPT8, and BSA were determined to be 1.73 nm, 1.63 nm, and 1.61 nm, respectively. The synchronous fluorescence spectra confirmed that the camptothecin compounds cannot cause conformational changes in BSA. A rapid and sensitive method for determining the binding interaction between water-soluble camptothecin derivatives and BSA was established based on these principles of fluorescence quenching.

  18. A review of water-soluble polymers used in high temperature oil recovery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi-Araghi, A.

    1993-12-31

    In most oil bearing formations, hydrocarbons are trapped under pressure in the pores of rock matrix. This pressure which is the driving force in Production of hydrocarbons is gradually depleted as oil or gas is produced. Water is commonly injected into such reservoirs to maintain the pressure and produce an additional 10-20% of the original oil in place. However, water tends to pass through the higher permeability zones, fractures or channels, leaving a substantial amount of oil behind. Water-soluble polymers which increase the viscosity of water and thereby, reduce its mobility, are used to recover additional oil. The polymers can also be crosslinked to produce gels which are used to block the high permeability channels or fractures so subsequent water injection can produce additional oil. Both synthetic and natural water-soluble polymers have been used to recover more oil from shallower reservoirs. The hotter (< 90{degrees}C) reservoirs limit the type of polymers which can be used for polymer flooding and gelation. Neither polyacrylamides, nor xanthan gums commonly used for lower temperature reservoirs can tolerate the harsh conditions of the higher temperatures, salinity and hardness encountered in deeper reservoirs. This paper reviews the polymers and gels suitable for use in high temperature reservoirs.

  19. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    PubMed

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients. PMID:26635049

  20. Water Soluble Bioactives of Nacre Mediate Antioxidant Activity and Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Ratna; Singha, Prajjal Kanti; Dey, Satyahari

    2013-01-01

    The water soluble matrix of nacre is a proven osteoinductive material. In spite of the differences in the biomolecular compositions of nacre obtained from multiple species of oysters, the common biochemical properties of those principles substantiate their biological activity. However, the mechanism by which nacre stimulates bone differentiation remains largely unknown. Since the positive impact of antioxidants on bone metabolism is well acknowledged, in this study we investigated the antioxidant potential of a water soluble matrix (WSM) obtained from the nacre of the marine oyster Pinctada fucata, which could regulate its osteoblast differentiation activity. Enhanced levels of ALP activity observed in pre-osteoblast cells upon treatment with WSM, suggested the induction of bone differentiation events. Furthermore, bone nodule formation and up-regulation of bone differentiation marker transcripts, i.e. collagen type-1 and osteocalcin by WSM confirmed its ability to induce differentiation of the pre-osteoblasts into mature osteoblasts. Remarkably, same WSM fraction upon pre-treatment lowered the H2O2 and UV-B induced oxidative damages in keratinocytes, thus indicating the antioxidant potential of WSM. This was further confirmed from the in vitro scavenging of ABTS and DPPH free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by WSM. Together, these results indicate that WSM poses both antioxidant potential and osteoblast differentiation property. Thus, bioactivities associated with nacre holds potential in the development of therapeutics for bone regeneration and against oxidative stress induced damages in cells. PMID:24367677

  1. Self-assembled hydrophobin for producing water-soluble and membrane permeable fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunpeng; Xiao, Yunjie; Wang, Yanyan; Feng, Yaqing; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Shuxian; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Low water solubility and poor membrane permeability are major disadvantages that compromise applications of most fluorescent dyes. To resolve these problems, herein, using Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) as a model fluorescent dye, for the first time, we provide a new strategy for the rapid and efficient production of a water-soluble and membrane-permeable dye by mixing with an amphiphilic protein named hydrophobin. Data shows BODIPY could be effectively solubilized and dispersed in 200 μg/mL hydrophobin by simple mixing and sonication. Subsequent experiments indicated that hydrophobin self-assembled into a protein film on the surface of BODIPY forming stable hydrophobin-BODIPY complexes with a size range of 10-30 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated hydrophobin-functionalized BODIPY are toxicity free to cells. The hydrophobin-BODIPY complex could pass through both the cell plasma membrane and nuclear membrane efficiently. Our work opens a novel route to modify and functionalize fluorescent dyes and may be developed as a general strategy for broadening their applications. PMID:26976627

  2. The ultrafast reactions in the photochromic cycle of water-soluble fulgimide photoswitches.

    PubMed

    Slavov, C; Boumrifak, C; Hammer, C A; Trojanowski, P; Chen, X; Lees, W J; Wachtveitl, J; Braun, M

    2016-04-21

    Photochromic switches are essential for the control and manipulation of nanoscale reactions and processes. The expansion of their application to aqueous environments depends strongly on the development of optimized water-soluble photoswitches. Here we present a femtosecond time-resolved investigation of the photochromic reactions (transition between the open and the closed form) of a water-soluble indolylfulgimide. We observe a pronounced effect of the protic nature of water as a solvent on the ultrafast ring-opening reaction. Typically, the excited state of the closed form has a larger dipole moment than the ground state, which leads to stabilization of the excited state in polar solvents and hence a lifetime (3 ps) longer than in non-polar solvents (2 ps). However, in water, despite the increased solvent polarity and the increased excited state dipole moment, the opposite trend for the excited state lifetime is observed (1.8 ps). This effect is caused by the opening of a new excited state deactivation pathway involving proton transfer reactions. PMID:27020260

  3. Collection and analysis of inorganic and water soluble organic aerosols over Maryland and Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, L. C.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Phinney, K.; Conny, J.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols aloft have slower removal than those near the ground, in part, because dry and wet deposition rates result in longer lifetimes and greater range of influence. Knowledge of deposition rates and range of transport for different species are important for developing local and regional air quality policy. Currently, the vertical distribution of organic aerosols (OA's) and their polar, oxidized fraction is largely unknown. Comprehensive methods to analyze aerosol composition collected in the boundary layer and the lower free troposphere are lacking. During DISCOVER AQ 2011, both the NASA P3 and Cessna 402B collected aerosols, through shrouded aerosol inlets, onto Teflon and quartz fiber filters. Collection occurred in both the boundary layer and lower free troposphere over Maryland and Virginia, USA. After extraction with water and optimizing separation via ion chromatography, commonly identified secondary organic aerosols can be separated based on their functionality as mono-, di-, or polycarboxylic acids. Inorganic aerosol components can simultaneously be separated and identified with the same method. Individual organic acid compound analysis with detection limits in the low ppb range can be achieved when conductivity/ultraviolet/ and mass spectrometric detectors are placed in tandem. Additionally, thermo optical analysis can be used to determine the mass fraction of water soluble organic carbon versus the total collected mass. This research is designed to provide information on the vertical distribution of particulate organic carbon in the atmosphere, its optical properties, information on aerosol transport in the lower free troposphere, and to provide water soluble organic aerosol structural characterization.

  4. [Characterization of Water-soluble Ions in PM₂.₅ of Beijing During 2014 APEC].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-yan; Liu, Bao-xian; Zhang, Da-wei; Shi, Ai-jun; Zhou, Jian-nan; Jing, Kuan; Fu, Jia-ming

    2015-12-01

    The mass concentration of PM₂.₅ associated with its online and off-line water-soluble ions were obtained during 2014- 10- 2014-11. Secondary inorganic species NO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻ and NH₄⁺ were the major components of PM₂.₅ during different observation periods. The total concentration of NO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻ and NH₄⁺ was (26.8 ± 22.5) µg · m⁻³, which contributed (41.7 ± 8.5)% to PM₂.₅. The concentration of NO₃⁻ was higher than those of others and contributed most to PM₂.₅. The ions of NO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻ NH₄⁺ and Cl⁻ all showed three different periods during 2014 Beijing APEC, besides the different meteorological condition, the cumulative effect caused by local emissions and regional pollution could also not be ignored. Although the characteristics of water-soluble ions was different during different observation periods, there was no obvious acidification of PM₂.₅ in Beijing at the end of autumn and beginning of winter. PMID:27011964

  5. Formation of water-soluble metal cyanide complexes from solid minerals by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    A few Pseudomonas species are able to form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), particularly when grown under glycine-rich conditions. In the presence of metals, cyanide can form water-soluble metal complexes of high chemical stability. We studied the possibility to mobilize metals as cyanide complexes from solid minerals using HCN-forming microorganisms. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was cultivated in the presence of copper- and nickel-containing solid minerals. On powdered elemental nickel, fast HCN generation within the first 12 h of incubation was observed and water-soluble tetracyanaonickelate was formed. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, bornite, turquoise, millerite, pentlandite as well as shredded electronic scrap was also subjected to a biological treatment. Maximum concentrations of cyanide-complexed copper corresponded to a solubilization of 42% and 27% when P. plecoglossicida was grown in the presence of cuprite or tenorite, respectively. Crystal system, metal oxidation state and mineral hydrophobicity might have a significant influence on metal mobilization. However, it was not possible to allocate metal mobilization to a single mineral property. Cyanide-complexed gold was detected during growth on manually cut circuit boards. Maximum dicyanoaurate concentration corresponded to a 68.5% dissolution of the total gold added. These findings represent a novel type of microbial mobilization of nickel and copper from solid minerals based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN. PMID:16684101

  6. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    PubMed

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25643994

  7. Highly selective binding of methyl orange dye by cationic water-soluble pillar[5]arenes.

    PubMed

    Yakimova, L S; Shurpik, D N; Gilmanova, L H; Makhmutova, A R; Rakhimbekova, A; Stoikov, I I

    2016-05-01

    A new water-soluble pillar[5]arene with an amide fragment and triethylammonium groups was synthesized by our original method of aminolysis of the ester groups. Using UV-spectroscopy, it is shown that cationic pillar[5]arenes are able to selectively form 1 : 1 complexes with some hydrophobic anions: the guests with bulky uncharged or negatively charged substituents hindering entry into the macrocycle cavity. Highly selective binding of the most lipophilic guest, methyl orange dye, in the form of organic anion salts by positively charged water-soluble pillar[5]arenes was detected. In the case of the azo dye the appropriate Kass values were 10-100-fold higher than those calculated for the other sulfonic acid derivatives studied. The 2D NMR NOESY (1)H-(1)H spectroscopy confirms the formation of the inclusion complex: negative charge sulfonate head is outside the cavity of pillar[5]arenes and the hydrophobic fragment of the guest is located in the cavity. PMID:27074630

  8. Self-assembled hydrophobin for producing water-soluble and membrane permeable fluorescent dye

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kunpeng; Xiao, Yunjie; Wang, Yanyan; Feng, Yaqing; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Shuxian; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Low water solubility and poor membrane permeability are major disadvantages that compromise applications of most fluorescent dyes. To resolve these problems, herein, using Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) as a model fluorescent dye, for the first time, we provide a new strategy for the rapid and efficient production of a water-soluble and membrane-permeable dye by mixing with an amphiphilic protein named hydrophobin. Data shows BODIPY could be effectively solubilized and dispersed in 200 μg/mL hydrophobin by simple mixing and sonication. Subsequent experiments indicated that hydrophobin self-assembled into a protein film on the surface of BODIPY forming stable hydrophobin-BODIPY complexes with a size range of 10–30 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated hydrophobin-functionalized BODIPY are toxicity free to cells. The hydrophobin-BODIPY complex could pass through both the cell plasma membrane and nuclear membrane efficiently. Our work opens a novel route to modify and functionalize fluorescent dyes and may be developed as a general strategy for broadening their applications. PMID:26976627

  9. [Water-soluble anions of atmosphere on Tianwan nuclear power station].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng-Qiang; He, Ying; Zheng, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Fa-Rong; Pang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Cai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2010-11-01

    Three major water-soluble anions (Cl-, SO4(2-) and NO3-) in the atmosphere of the Tianwan nuclear power station in Lianyungang were determined by ion chromatography from June 2005 to May 2006. The results showed that the annual average concentration of Cl-, SO4(2-) and NO3- in the atmosphere of Tianwan nuclear power station was (33.12 +/- 53.63) microg x m(-3), (53.34 +/- 30.34) microg x m(-3) and (8.34 +/- 4.47) microg x m(-3), respectively. The concentrations of the three water-soluble anions showed evident trend of seasonal variation. The concentrations of Cl-, SO4(2-) reached the highest level in summer and the lowest level in winter, while the concentration of NO3- in autumn and winter was higher than those in summer and spring. Meteorological parameters such as wind direction, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity were studied and showed definite influence to the anions concentration of the atmosphere. This is the first simultaneous monitoring of corrosive anions in the atmosphere of Chinese coastal nuclear power plant, and it will provide basis for the prevention of marine atmospheric corrosion, which will ensure the safely operating of our nuclear power industry. PMID:21250433

  10. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WOCs) and their single components, i.e. low-molecular organic acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates, attain a great deal of attention among soil scientists. WOCs are an important component of soil organic matter (SOM) and form as a results of different biological and chemical processes in soils. These processes are mainly responsible for formation and development of soils in aboveground ecosystems. The purpose of the work was identifying qualitative and quantitative composition of low-molecular organic substances which form in podzolic loamy soils against natural reforestation after spruce forest cutting. The studies were conducted on the territory of the European North-East of Russia, in the middle taiga subzone (Komi Republic, Ust-Kulom region). The study materials were soil of undisturbed bilberry spruce forest (Sample Plot 1 (SP1)) and soils of different-aged tree stands where cutting activities took place in winter 2001/2002 (SP2) and 1969/1970 (SP3). Description of soils and vegetation cover on the plots is given in [1]. Low-molecular organic compounds in soil water extracts were identified by the method of gas chromatography mass-spectrometry [2, 3]. Finally, reforestationafterspruceforestcutting was found to be accompanied by different changes in soil chemical composition. In contrast with soils under undisturbed spruce forest, organic soil horizons under different-aged cuts decreased in organic carbon reserves and production of low-molecular organic compounds, changed in soil acidity. Within the soil series of SP1→SP2→SP3, the highest content of WOCs was identified for undisturbed spruce forest (738 mg kg-1 soil). In soils of coniferous-deciduous forests on SP1 and SP3, WOC content was 294 and 441 mg kg-1 soil, correspondingly. Soils at cuts decreased in concentration of any water-soluble low-molecular SOM components as low-molecular acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Structure of low-molecular WOCs in the study podzolic

  11. Water soluble fraction of Tinospora cordifolia leaves enhanced the non-specific immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Catherine P; Kirubakaran, C John Wesly; Michael, R Dinakaran

    2010-11-01

    The present paper describes the effect of water-soluble fraction of the leaves of the Indian medicinal plant, Tinospora cordifolia (Miers) on the non-specific immunity and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). Fish were intraperitoneally injected with 0, 6, 60 or 600 mg kg(-1) body weight, of the water soluble fraction. The non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase) responses and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila were tested. All the doses of water-soluble fraction tested, significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme, antiprotease and natural haemolytic complement activities on most of the days tested. Similarly, all the doses of water-soluble fraction used, enhanced the cellular myeloperoxidase activity on all the days tested. The enhancement in the ROS and RNI production by peripheral blood leucocytes was observed on almost all the days tested, in most of the treated groups. All the doses of water-soluble fraction when administered as a single or double dose gave protection in terms of reduced percent mortality which is reflected in the increased Relative Percent Survival (RPS) values. The results clearly indicate the immunostimulatory and disease resistance properties of T. cordifolia leaf fraction and so its potential to be used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish aquaculture. PMID:20624469

  12. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans. PMID:25210461

  13. Improved intestinal absorption of a poorly water-soluble oral drug using mannitol microparticles containing a nanosolid drug dispersion.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Yukiko; Kubota, Aya; Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    A nozzle for a spray dryer that can prepare microparticles of water-soluble carriers containing various nanoparticles in a single step was previously developed in our laboratory. To enhance the solubility and intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, we used probucol (PBL) as a poorly water-soluble drug, mannitol (MAN) as a water-soluble carrier for the microparticles, and EUDRAGIT (EUD) as a polymer vehicle for the solid dispersion. PBL-EUD-acetone-methanol and aqueous MAN solutions were simultaneously supplied through different liquid passages of the spray nozzle and dried together. PBL-EUD solid dispersion was nanoprecipitated in the MAN solution using an antisolvent mechanism and rapidly dried by surrounding it with MAN. PBL in the dispersion vehicle was amorphous and had higher physical stability according to powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The bioavailability of PBL in PBL-EUD S-100-MAN microparticles after oral administration in rats was markedly higher (14- and 6.2-fold, respectively) than that of the original PBL powder and PBL-MAN microparticles. These results demonstrate that the composite microparticles containing a nanosized solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug prepared using the spray nozzle developed by us should be useful to increase the solubility and bioavailability of drugs after oral administration. PMID:22864998

  14. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans. PMID:25210461

  15. The coagulation characteristics of humic acid by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and chitosan coagulant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wu, Chung-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This study compared the characteristics of humic acid (HA) removal by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and coagulant mixtures of chitosan with aluminium sulphate (alum) or polyaluminium chloride (PACl). In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies at various coagulant concentrations, pH values, turbidities, and hardness levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants to identify the major factors affecting HA coagulation. The coagulation efficiency of acid- and water-soluble chitosan for 15 mg/l of HA was 74.4% and 87.5%, respectively. The optimal coagulation range of water-soluble chitosan (9-20 mg/l) was broader than that of acid-soluble chitosan (4-8 mg/l). Notably, acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum coagulant mixtures exhibited a higher coagulation efficiency for HA than for PACl or alum alone. Furthermore, these coagulant mixtures yielded an acceptable floc settling velocity and savings in both installation and operational expenses. Based on these results, we confidently assert that coagulant mixtures with a 1:1 mass ratio of acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum provide a substantially more cost-effective alternative to using chitosan alone for removing HA from water. PMID:25362971

  16. Electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers as a potential oromucosal delivery system for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Potrč, Tanja; Baumgartner, Saša; Roškar, Robert; Planinšek, Odon; Lavrič, Zoran; Kristl, Julijana; Kocbek, Petra

    2015-07-30

    The number of poorly water-soluble drug candidates is rapidly increasing; this represents a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. As a consequence, novel formulation approaches are required. Furthermore, if such a drug candidate is intended for the therapy of a specific group of the population, such as geriatric or pediatric, the formulation challenge is even greater, with the need to produce a dosage form that is acceptable for specific patients. Therefore, the goal of our study was to explore electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers as a novel nanodelivery system adopted for the oromucosal administration of poorly water-soluble drugs. The nanofibers were evaluated in comparison with polymer films loaded with ibuprofen or carvedilol as the model drugs. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the amount of incorporated drug affects the diameter and the morphology of the nanofibers. The average fiber diameter increased with a higher drug loading, whereas the morphology of the nanofibers was noticeably changed in the case of nanofibers with 50% and 60% ibuprofen. The incorporation of drugs into the electrospun PCL nanofibers was observed to reduce their crystallinity. Based on the morphology of the nanofibers and the films, and the differential scanning calorimetry results obtained in this study, it can be assumed that the drugs incorporated into the nanofibers were partially molecularly dispersed in the PCL matrix and partially in the form of dispersed nanocrystals. The incorporation of both model drugs into the PCL nanofibers significantly improved their dissolution rates. The PCL nanofibers released almost 100% of the incorporated ibuprofen in 4h, whereas only up to 77% of the incorporated carvedilol was released during the same time period, indicating the influence of the drug's properties, such as molecular weight and solubility, on its release from the PCL matrix. The obtained results clearly demonstrated the advantages of the new

  17. Phase transfer of hydrophobic QDs for water-soluble and biocompatible nature through silanization

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping; Zhou, Guangjun

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile and novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm) via silanization. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile and novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of ligand exchange plays an important role to retain high fluorescence quantum yields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs were conjugated with immunoglobin G antibody by using biotin-streptavidin as linkers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The QD phase transfer by silanization is a well-established method for generating biocompatible QDs. -- Abstract: A novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm). The silanization of the QDs was carried out by using partially hydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to replace organic ammine or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide on the surface of the QDs. The partially hydrolyzed 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane attached to the hydrolyzed TEOS layer on the QDs prevented the QDs from agglomeration when the QDs were transferred into water. The functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs were conjugated with immunoglobin G antibody by using biotin-streptavidin as linkers. The SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs exhibited the same absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as those of initial QDs in organic solvents. The SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs preserved PL intensities, is colloidally stable over a wide pH range (pH 6-11). Because the mean diameter of amphiphilic polymer-coated QDs was almost 2 times of that of functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs, the QD phase transfer by silanization is a well-established method for generating biocompatible QDs.

  18. Characteristics of the water-soluble components of aerosol particles in Hefei, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xue-liang; Shi, Chun-e; Wu, Bi-wen; Yang, Yuan-jian; Jin, Qi; Wang, Hong-lei; Zhu, Song; Yu, Caixia

    2016-04-01

    Size-classified daily aerosol mass concentrations and concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were measured in Hefei, China, in four representative months between September 2012 and August 2013. An annual average mass concentration of 169.09 μg/m(3) for total suspended particulate (TSP) was measured using an Andersen Mark-II cascade impactor. The seasonal average mass concentration was highest in winter (234.73 μg/m(3)) and lowest in summer (91.71 μg/m(3)). Water-soluble ions accounted for 59.49%, 32.90%, 48.62% and 37.08% of the aerosol mass concentration in winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively, which indicated that ionic species were the primary constituents of the atmospheric aerosols. The four most abundant ions were NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+) and NH4(+). With the exception of Ca(2+), the mass concentrations of water-soluble ions were in an intermediate range compared with the levels for other Chinese cities. Sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the dominant fine-particle species, which were bimodally distributed in spring, summer and fall; however, the size distribution became unimodal in winter, with a peak at 1.1-2.1 μm. The Ca(2+) peak occurred at approximately 4.7-5.8 μm in all seasons. The cation to anion ratio was close to 1.4, which suggested that the aerosol particles were alkalescent in Hefei. The average NO3(-)/SO4(2-) mass ratio was 1.10 in Hefei, which indicated that mobile source emissions were predominant. Significant positive correlation coefficients between the concentrations of NH4(+) and SO4(2-), NH4(+) and NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-), and Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were also indicated, suggesting that aerosol particles may be present as (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, and NH4NO3. PMID:27090692

  19. Water soluble cyclosporine monomethoxy poly(ethyleneglycol) conjugates as potential prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hoon; Chung, Yongseog

    2004-06-01

    The highly water-soluble monomethoxypoly(ethyleneglycol) (mPEG) prodrugs of cyclosporin A (CsA) were synthesized. These prodrugs were prepared by initially preparing intermediate in the form of carbonate at the 3'-positions of CsA with chloromethyl chloroformate, in the presence of a base to provide a 3'-carbonated CsA intermediate. Reaction of the CsA intermediate with mPEG derivative in the presence of a base provides the desired water-soluble prodrugs. As a model, we chose molecular weight 5 kDa mPEG in the reaction with CsA to give water soluble prodrugs. To prove that the prodrug is decomposed in the body to produce CsA, the enzymatic hydrolysis test was conducted using human liver homogenate at 37 degrees C. The prodrug was decomposed in human liver homogenate to produce the active material, CsA, and the hydrolysis half-life (t(1/2)) of the prodrug, KI-306 was 2.2 minutes at 37 degrees C. However, a demonstration of non-enzymatic conversion in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer was provided by the fact that the half-life (t(1/2)) is 21 hours at 37 degrees C. The hydrolysis test in rat whole blood was also conducted. The hydrolysis was seen with half-life (t(1/2)) of about 9.9, 65.0, 14.2, 3.4, 2.1 9.5, and 1.6 minutes for KI-306, 309, 312, 313, 315, 316, and 317, respectively. This is the ideal for CsA prodrug. The pharmacokinetic study of the prodrug, KI-306, in comparison to the commercial product (Sandimmune Neoral Solution) was also carried out after single oral dose. Each rat received 7 mg/kg of CsA equivalent dose. Especially, the prodrug KI-306 exhibits higher AUC and Cmax than the conventional Neoral. The AUC and Cmax were increased nearly 1.5 fold. The kinetic value was also seen with Tmax of about 1.43 and 2.44 hours for KI-306 and Neoral, respectively. PMID:15283470

  20. Determination of the design space of the HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Wagdy, Hebatallah A; Hanafi, Rasha S; El-Nashar, Rasha M; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-06-01

    Analysis of water-soluble vitamins has been tremendously approached through the last decades. A multitude of HPLC methods have been reported with a variety of advantages/shortcomings, yet, the design space of HPLC analysis of these vitamins was not defined in any of these reports. As per the food and drug administration (FDA), implementing the quality by design approach for the analysis of commercially available mixtures is hypothesized to enhance the pharmaceutical industry via facilitating the process of analytical method development and approval. This work illustrates a multifactorial optimization of three measured plus seven calculated influential HPLC parameters on the analysis of a mixture containing seven common water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12, C, PABA, and PP). These three measured parameters are gradient time, temperature, and ternary eluent composition (B1/B2) and the seven calculated parameters are flow rate, column length, column internal diameter, dwell volume, extracolumn volume, %B (start), and %B (end). The design is based on 12 experiments in which, examining of the multifactorial effects of these 3 + 7 parameters on the critical resolution and selectivity, was carried out by systematical variation of all these parameters simultaneously. The 12 basic runs were based on two different gradient time each at two different temperatures, repeated at three different ternary eluent compositions (methanol or acetonitrile or a mixture of both). Multidimensional robust regions of high critical R(s) were defined and graphically verified. The optimum method was selected based on the best resolution separation in the shortest run time for a synthetic mixture, followed by application on two pharmaceutical preparations available in the market. The predicted retention times of all peaks were found to be in good match with the virtual ones. In conclusion, the presented report offers an accurate determination of the design space for critical resolution in the

  1. Novel branched poly(ethylenimine)-cholesterol water-soluble lipopolymers for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-an; Narang, Ajit S; Kotb, Malak; Gaber, A Osama; Miller, Duane D; Kim, Sung Wan; Mahato, Ram I

    2002-01-01

    A novel water-soluble lipopolymer was synthesized by linking cholesteryl chloroformate to the secondary amino groups of branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) of 1,800 and 10,000 Da. Conjugation through PEI secondary amines gives this newly synthesized lipopolymer (abbreviated as PEI-Chol) special advantage over our previously synthesized lipopolymers, which utilized the primary amino groups for conjugation, as the primary amino groups have a significant role in DNA condensation. Also, significantly, only one cholesterol molecule was grafted onto each PEI molecule (confirmed by (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry), leaving enough space for the steric interactions of the PEI's primary amines with the DNA. The PEI-Chol lipopolymer was characterized for the critical micellar concentration (cmc), buffer capacity, DNA condensation (by band retardation and circular dichroism), in vitro transfection efficiency, and cell viability. The cmcs of PEI-Chol 1,800 and PEI-Chol 10,000 were 496.6 and 1,330.5 microg/mL, respectively. The acid-base titration indicated high buffering capacity of the polymers around the pH range of 5-7, which indicated their potential for buffering in the acidic pH environment of the endosomes. The band retardation studies indicated that efficient condensation of the plasmid DNA could be achieved using these lipopolymers. The circular dichroism spectra indicated a change in DNA conformation and adoption of lower energy state upon condensation with these lipopolymers when an N/P ratio of 2.5/1 or above was formulated. The mean particle size of these complexes was in the range 110-205 nm, except for the complexes prepared using PEI of 1,800 Da, which had a mean particle size of 384 +/- 300 nm. The zeta potential of DNA complexes prepared using PEI-Chol 1,800, PEI-Chol 10,000 and PEI of 1,800, 10,000, and 25,000 Da at an N/P ratio of 15/1 was in the range 23-30 mV and was dependent on the N/P ratios. The in vitro transfection of PEI

  2. Synthesis of water-soluble, nonimmunogenic polyamide cross-linking agents.

    PubMed

    Hai, T T; Pereira, D E; Nelson, D J

    1998-01-01

    Novel polyamides were developed that can be used as cross-linking agents for proteins such as hemoglobin. Water-soluble, nonimmunogenic polyamides containing oxygen and sulfur atoms in the backbone were prepared by the polycondensation of the diacids bis(carboxymethyloxyacetyl)-1,4-diaminobutane (1a) or 3, 3'-thiodipropionic acid (1b) with diethylene glycol bis(3-aminopropyl) ether (2). The resulting alpha,omega-diacids were converted to the corresponding activated esters using any of a variety of carboxylic acid activating reagents including the novel reagent diphenyl(1-methylimidazol-2-thiyl)phosphonate (9). The resulting polyamides could be activated with a broad spectrum of groups that allow for the cross-linking and surface modification of proteins. PMID:9815156

  3. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of water-soluble polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liuping; Ding, Shaodong; Ai, Lianzhong; Deng, Kequan

    2012-10-01

    The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been used as a folk remedy for a long time in Russia and East-European countries to treat gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (ISP2a) was successfully purified from I. obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. In vivo ISP2a had not only shown antitumor activity, but also could significantly enhance the immune response of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, ISP2a significantly enhanced the lymphocyte proliferation and increased the production of TNF-α. Results of these studies demonstrated that ISP2a had a potential application as natural antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22840014

  4. Water-soluble Pd nanoparticles capped with glutathione: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sachil; Kim, Bit; Lee, Dongil

    2012-11-13

    The synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties of water-soluble Pd nanoparticles capped with glutathione are described. The glutathione-capped Pd nanoparticles were synthesized under argon and air atmospheres at room temperature. Whereas the former exhibits a bulklike lattice parameter, the lattice parameter of the latter is found to be considerably greater, indicating anomalous lattice expansion. Comparative structural and compositional studies of these nanoparticles suggest the presence of oxygen in the core lattice when Pd nanoparticles are prepared under an air atmosphere. Both Pd nanoparticles prepared under argon and air show ferromagnetism at 5 K, but the latter exhibits significantly greater coercivity (88 Oe) and magnetization (0.09 emu/g at 50 kOe). The enhanced ferromagnetic properties are explained by the electronic effect of the incorporated oxygen that increases the 4d density of holes at the Pd site and localizes magnetic moments. PMID:23092154

  5. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug☆

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Results Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Conclusions Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. PMID:25172764

  6. Benzothiazole Sulfinate: a Water-Soluble and Slow-Releasing Sulfur Dioxide Donor.

    PubMed

    Day, Jacob J; Yang, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei; Pacheco, Armando; Xian, Ming

    2016-06-17

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has long been considered a toxic environmental pollutant and byproduct of industrial processing. Recently it has become evident that SO2 may also have regulatory functions in mammalian pulmonary systems. However, the study of these effects has proven to be challenging due to the difficulty in administering SO2 in a reliable manner. In this work, we report the discovery of a new pH-dependent and water-soluble SO2 donor, benzothiazole sulfinate (BTS). We have found BTS to have slow and sustained SO2 release at physiological pH. Additionally, we have explored its vasorelaxation properties as compared to the authentic SO2 gas solutions. The slow release of BTS should make it a useful tool for the study of endogenously generated SO2. PMID:27031093

  7. [Water-soluble glucans from true cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum White at Maton) seeds].

    PubMed

    Olennikov, D N; Rokhin, A V

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from seeds of true cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum White at Maton, family Zingiberaceae) have been studied. The study has shown the presence of neutral and acidic components in these polysaccharides. Three polysaccharides (380, 166, and 27 kDa) have been isolated from the neutral fraction. According to the structural analysis data, they represent alpha-glucans with different degrees of branching (7.1-46.1%); alpha-(1-->4)-D-glucopyranose residues of their backbone chains are substituted at the C6 position with single a-D-glucopyranose residues. Polysaccharides with such structures have a wide range of biological activity. The presence of branched alpha-glucans in E. cardamomum seeds has been demonstrated. PMID:23795480

  8. Detection of a Water Soluble Component of the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirick, S.; Cody, G.; Flynn, G. J.; Jacobsen, C.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura, K.; Zolensky, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Tagish Lake meteorite is a highly carbonaceous meteorite, with a carbon content of approximately 5% by weight [1]. Its composition and mineralogy suggest it lies between a CI1 and CM2 chondrite [2]. Part of the meteorite [the pristine fraction] was collected from the ice on Tagish Lake within one week of its landfall on Jan. 18, 2000 and this sample is considered to be the most pristine meteorite samples collected to date with regard to organic terrestrial contamination. It has been reported that only 100 ppm of the organic matter in the Tagish Lake meteorite is water soluble [3]. greater absorbance in the sigma bonding region between 290-300 eV suggesting that the soluble material contains more CH/CH2/CH3 bonds than the microtomed piece.

  9. Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-06-25

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  10. Outerwall-selectively oxidized, water soluble double-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Brozena, Alexandra H.; Moskovits, Martin; Shao, Beiyue; Deng, Shunliu; Liao, Hongwei; Gaskell, Karen L.; Wang, YuHuang

    2010-02-23

    The outer walls of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) were selectively oxidized using a combination of oleum and nitric acid. Intercalation of oleum between bundled DWNTs enabled a homogeneous reaction by equally exposing all outer wall surfaces to the oxidants. At optimized reaction conditions, this double-wall chemistry enabled high water solubility through carboxylic acid functional groups introduced to the outer wall, while leaving the inner tube intact, as shown by Raman scattering and high resolution TEM. These outer wall selectively oxidized DWNTs retained electrical conductivity up to 65% better than thin films of similarly functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes, which can be attributed to enhanced electrical percolation via the nonoxidized inner tubes.

  11. Highly water-soluble, porous, and biocompatible boron nitrides for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qunhong; Wang, Binju; Wang, Xuebin; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Li, Xia; Liu, Dequan; Wang, Xi; Jiang, Xiangfen; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-06-24

    Developing materials for "Nano-vehicles" with clinically approved drugs encapsulated is envisaged to enhance drug therapeutic effects and reduce the adverse effects. However, design and preparation of the biomaterials that are porous, nontoxic, soluble, and stable in physiological solutions and could be easily functionalized for effective drug deliveries are still challenging. Here, we report an original and simple thermal substitution method to fabricate perfectly water-soluble and porous boron nitride (BN) materials featuring unprecedentedly high hydroxylation degrees. These hydroxylated BNs are biocompatible and can effectively load anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, DOX) up to contents three times exceeding their own weight. The same or even fewer drugs that are loaded on such BN carriers exhibit much higher potency for reducing the viability of LNCaP cancer cells than free drugs. PMID:24797563

  12. Water-Soluble NIR-Absorbing Rylene Chromophores for Selective Staining of Cellular Organelles.

    PubMed

    Kaloyanova, Stefka; Zagranyarski, Yulian; Ritz, Sandra; Hanulová, Mária; Koynov, Kaloian; Vonderheit, Andreas; Müllen, Klaus; Peneva, Kalina

    2016-03-01

    Biocompatible organic dyes emitting in the near-infrared are highly desirable in fluorescence imaging techniques. Herein we report a synthetic approach for building novel small peri-guanidine-fused naphthalene monoimide and perylene monoimide chromophores. The presented structures possess near-infrared absorption and emission, high photostability, and good water solubility. After a fast cellular uptake, they selectively stain mitochondria with a low background in live and fixed cells. They can be additionally modified in a one-step reaction with functional groups for covalent labeling of proteins. The low cytotoxicity allows a long time exposure of live cells to the dyes without the necessity of washing. Successful application in localization super-resolution microscopy was demonstrated in phosphate-buffered saline without any reducing or oxidizing additives. PMID:26891229

  13. Water-soluble NHC-Cu catalysts: applications in click chemistry, bioconjugation and mechanistic analysis.

    PubMed

    Díaz Velázquez, Heriberto; Ruiz García, Yara; Vandichel, Matthias; Madder, Annemieke; Verpoort, Francis

    2014-12-14

    Copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes (CuAAC), better known as "click" reaction, has triggered the use of 1,2,3-triazoles in bioconjugation, drug discovery, materials science and combinatorial chemistry. Here we report a new series of water-soluble catalysts based on N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-Cu complexes which are additionally functionalized with a sulfonate group. The complexes show superior activity towards CuAAC reactions and display a high versatility, enabling the production of triazoles with different substitution patterns. Additionally, successful application of these complexes in bioconjugation using unprotected peptides acting as DNA binding domains was achieved for the first time. Mechanistic insight into the reaction mechanism is obtained by means of state-of-the-art first principles calculations. PMID:25251642

  14. Water-soluble Hantzsch ester as switch-on fluorescent probe for efficiently detecting nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Li; Liu, Fu-Tao; Ding, Ai-Xiang; Ma, Su-Fang; He, Lan; Lin, Lan; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2016-12-01

    A water soluble Hantzsch ester derivative of coumarin, DHPS, was synthesized and successfully applied in the fluorescent sensing nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous solution. The fluorescence of probe DHPS is extremely weak, while its fluorescence was greatly switched on upon the addition of NO solution and showed high selectivity and sensitivity to NO. The limitation of the detection was calculated to be 18nM. The NO-induced aromatization of dihydropyridine in DHPS to pyridine derivative (PYS) proved to be the switching mechanism for the fluorescent sensing process, which was confirmed through spectra characterization and computation study. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated both DHPS and PYS are biocompatible, the DHPS was successfully applied to track the endogenously produced NO in the RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27299481

  15. Investigation of Water-Soluble X-ray Luminescence Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanfang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shaopeng; Joly, Alan G.

    2008-01-28

    In this letter, we report the synthesis of LaF3:Tb3+-MTCP (meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphine) nanoparticle conjugates and investigate the energy transfer as well as singlet oxygen generation following X-ray irradiation. Our observations indicate that LaF3:Tb3+-MTCP nanoparticle conjugates are efficient photodynamic agents that can be initiated by X-rays at a reasonably low dose. The addition of folic acid to facilitate targeting to folate receptors on tumor cells has no effect on the quantum yield of singlet oxygen in the nanoparticle-MTCP conjugates. Our pilot studies indicate that water-soluble scintillation nanoparticles can be potentially used to activate photodynamic therapy as a promising deep cancer treatment.

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Poorly Water Soluble Drug Rosiglitazone Using Hydrotropic Solubilization technique

    PubMed Central

    Sherje, A. P.; Desai, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, hydrotropic solution of urea was employed as a solubilizing agent for spectrophotometric determination of poorly water-soluble drug rosiglitazone maleate. In solubility determination study, it was found that there was more than 14-folds enhancement in solubility of rosiglitazone maleate in a 6M solution of urea. Rosiglitazone maleate obeys Beer's law in concentration range of 5-300 μg/ml. Linearity of rosiglitazone maleate was found in the range of 80-120% of the label claim. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of the cited drug in pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy and precision. The method herein described is new, simple, eco-friendly, economic, and accurate and can be utilized in routine analysis of rosiglitazone maleate in bulk drug and tablet dosage form. PMID:22923874

  17. Conformation and dynamics of the ligand shell of a water-soluble Au102 nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salorinne, Kirsi; Malola, Sami; Wong, O. Andrea; Rithner, Christopher D.; Chen, Xi; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles, stabilized by a passivating layer of organic molecules, form a versatile class of nanostructured materials with potential applications in material chemistry, nanoscale physics, nanomedicine and structural biology. While the structure of the nanoparticle core is often known to atomic precision, gaining precise structural and dynamical information on the organic layer poses a major challenge. Here we report a full assignment of 1H and 13C NMR shifts to all ligands of a water-soluble, atomically precise, 102-atom gold nanoparticle stabilized by 44 para-mercaptobenzoic acid ligands in solution, by using a combination of multidimensional NMR methods, density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations augment the data by giving information about the ligand disorder and visualization of possible distinct ligand conformations of the most dynamic ligands. The method demonstrated here opens a way to controllable strategies for functionalization of ligated nanoparticles for applications.

  18. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  19. Selectivity of water-soluble proteins in single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Koji; Saito, Takeshi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ohshima, Satoshi; Yumura, Motoo; Iijima, Sumio

    2006-10-01

    Proteins were screened by preparing dispersions of SWNTs to investigate the driving force of the interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) of mean diameter 1 nm and water-soluble proteins. Egg white lysozyme (LYS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) dispersed SWNTs, whereas papain and pepsin could not. Far-UV circular dichroism spectra indicated that the LYS and BSA molecules that coat SWNT surfaces were partially denatured. From the amino acid composition, we ascribed the main driving force to the hydrophobic interactions between the side-wall of the SWNT and the inner hydrophobic domain exposed to the solvent during the three-dimensional change of the protein induced by sonication.

  20. Photopolymerized water-soluble chitosan-based hydrogel as potential use in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingshan; Ma, Guiping; Shi, Suqing; Yang, Dongzhi; Nie, Jun

    2011-04-01

    Novel biodegradable hydrogels by photocrosslinking macromers based on chitosan derivative are reported. Photocrosslinkable macromers, a water-soluble (methacryloyloxy) ethyl carboxyethyl chitosan were prepared by Michael-addition reaction between chitosan and ethylene glycol acrylate methacrylate. The macromers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Hydrogels were fabricated by exposing aqueous solutions of macromers with 0.1% (w/v) photoinitiator to UV light irradiation, and their swelling kinetics as well as degradation behaviors was evaluated. The results demonstrated that the degradation rates were affected strongly by crosslinking density. The hydrogel was compatible to Vero cells, not exhibiting significant cytotoxicity. Cell culture assay also demonstrated that the hydrogels were good in promoting the cell attachment and proliferation, showing their potential as tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:21215773

  1. Levels of water-soluble vitamins in methanogenic and non-methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The levels of seven water-soluble vitamins in Methanobacterium thermoautotropicum, Methanococcus voltae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were compared by using a vitamin-requiring Leuconostoc strain. Both methanogens contained levels of folic acid and pantothenic acid which were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum contained levels of thiamine, biotin, nicotinic acid, and pyridoxine which were approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. The thiamine level in Methanococcus voltae was approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Only the levels of riboflavin (and nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in Methanococcus voltae) were approximately equal in the methanogens and nonmethanogens. Folic acid may have been present in extracts of methanogens merely as a precursor, by-product, or hydrolysis product of methanopterin.

  2. Adsorption of a water soluble cationic dye into a cationic Langmuir monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shil, Ashis; Hussain, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2015-05-01

    This communication reports the successful adsorption of a water soluble cationic fluorescent dye Rhodamine B (RhB) into a cationic Langmuir monolayer of Octadecylamine (ODA). Anionic nano clay platelets Hectorite played an important role in the process of adsorption. Surface pressure vs. area per molecule (π-A) isotherms were studied to monitor the adsorption process. In-situ fluorescence Imaging Microscopic (FIM) technique was employed to visualize the domain structures formed at the air-water interface. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) image of the monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films were taken to study the morphology and ultrastructure of the film. Detailed spectroscopic investigations were carried out on the mono- and multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films.

  3. Detection of water soluble lectin and antioxidant component from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, A F S; Argolo, A C C; Coelho, L C B B; Paiva, P M G

    2005-03-01

    Seed flour from Moringa oleifera is widely used as a natural coagulant for water treatment in developing countries. Extracts obtained by water soaking of M. oleifera intact seeds were investigated for the presence of lectin, trypsin inhibitor, tannin as well as antioxidant activity. A water soluble M. oleifera lectin (WSMoL) detected was mainly active with rabbit cells at pH 4.5; heat treatment, pH 7.0, fructose and porcine thyroglobulin abolished HA of WSMoL. Trypsin inhibitor or tannins were not detected; the antioxidant component (WSMoAC) reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) was slower than catechin and was thermostable. The extracts showed a primary glycopolypeptide band of Mw 20,000; the main native acidic protein showed hemagglutinating activity. WSMoL may be involved in seed coagulant properties. PMID:15766952

  4. Water soluble sodium sulfate nanorods as a versatile template for the designing of copper sulfide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Das, Gautam; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Karak, Niranjan; Yoon, Young Soo

    2014-06-01

    The present study reports the use of water soluble sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) nanorods as a versatile template for generation of tubular copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures. The Na2SO4 nanorods were synthesized from ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), under refluxing condition. The shape and morphology control of the Na2SO4 nanorods were studied with respect to nature of surfactant used and reactant mole ratio. While, PVP mole ratio was important to obtain homogeneous nanorods. Uniform and stable nanotubes of CuS were than obtained by the dissolution of the nanorods in water. The use of simple chemicals for synthesis of such nanotube templates opens the prospect for wide scale downstream applications. PMID:24738412

  5. Improvement in solubility of poor water-soluble drugs by solid dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Swati; Mathew, George; Joseph, Lincy

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to combine recent literature on solid dispersion technology for solubility enhancement with special emphasis on mechanism responsible for the same by solid dispersion, various preparation methods, and evaluation parameters. Solubility behavior is the most challenging aspect for various new chemical entities as 60% of the new potential products possess solubility problems. This is the biggest reason for new drug molecules not reaching to the market or not reaches to full potential. There are various techniques to enhance the drug solubility such as particle size reduction, nanosuspension, use of surfactants, salt formation, solid dispersion, etc. From this article it may be concluded that solid dispersion is an important approach for improvement of bioavailability of poor water-soluble drugs. PMID:23071955

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of water soluble polysaccharide from Arachis hypogaea seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Ma, Yuhan; Yan, Dazhuang

    2014-10-01

    The water soluble crude polysaccharide (AHP) was obtained from the aqueous extracts of the Arachis hypogaea seeds through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against the bacteria of AHP were investigated. AHP at 2 mg/mL was found to inhibit the formation of superoxide anion (55.33 %) and hydroxyl radicals (30.85 %), to scavenge the DPPH radical (57.43 %) and to chelate iron ion (27.83 %) in in vitro systems. AHP also exhibited the antibacterial activities. AHP at 12.5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to AHP than the Gram-negative bacteria. Polysaccharide with antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the "Chang Sheng Guo" further increased the nutritive values of peanuts as well as the natural health product potential. PMID:25328235

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Poorly Water Soluble Drug Rosiglitazone Using Hydrotropic Solubilization technique.

    PubMed

    Sherje, A P; Desai, K J

    2011-09-01

    In the present investigation, hydrotropic solution of urea was employed as a solubilizing agent for spectrophotometric determination of poorly water-soluble drug rosiglitazone maleate. In solubility determination study, it was found that there was more than 14-folds enhancement in solubility of rosiglitazone maleate in a 6M solution of urea. Rosiglitazone maleate obeys Beer's law in concentration range of 5-300 μg/ml. Linearity of rosiglitazone maleate was found in the range of 80-120% of the label claim. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of the cited drug in pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy and precision. The method herein described is new, simple, eco-friendly, economic, and accurate and can be utilized in routine analysis of rosiglitazone maleate in bulk drug and tablet dosage form. PMID:22923874

  8. Water-soluble adsorbent β-cyclodextrin-grafted polyethyleneimine for removing bilirubin from plasma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Wei, Houliang; Jia, Lingyun; Xu, Li; Zou, Chunyi; Xie, Jian

    2012-10-01

    A water-soluble adsorbent was developed for removing bilirubin from the plasma of hyperbilirubinemia patient. The adsorbent was synthesized by grafting β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) matrix. The resulting β-CD-PEI polymer had an average molecular weight of 163.7 kD, and it contained 56.3 β-CD functional groups. In β-CD-PEI-spiked dialysis, 35.8% of plasma bilirubin was removed, which was higher than that removed by the same concentration of bovine serum albumin. β-CD-PEI also removed aromatic amino acids and bile acids. The results indicated that β-CD-PEI could be an effective adsorbent for blood purification application aiming at the removal of toxins. PMID:22836125

  9. Conformation and dynamics of the ligand shell of a water-soluble Au102 nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Salorinne, Kirsi; Malola, Sami; Wong, O. Andrea; Rithner, Christopher D.; Chen, Xi; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles, stabilized by a passivating layer of organic molecules, form a versatile class of nanostructured materials with potential applications in material chemistry, nanoscale physics, nanomedicine and structural biology. While the structure of the nanoparticle core is often known to atomic precision, gaining precise structural and dynamical information on the organic layer poses a major challenge. Here we report a full assignment of 1H and 13C NMR shifts to all ligands of a water-soluble, atomically precise, 102-atom gold nanoparticle stabilized by 44 para-mercaptobenzoic acid ligands in solution, by using a combination of multidimensional NMR methods, density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations augment the data by giving information about the ligand disorder and visualization of possible distinct ligand conformations of the most dynamic ligands. The method demonstrated here opens a way to controllable strategies for functionalization of ligated nanoparticles for applications. PMID:26791253

  10. Interaction of Globular Plasma Proteins with Water-Soluble CdSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Jyotsana; Rawat, Kamla; Sanwlani, Shilpa; Bohidar, H B

    2015-06-01

    The interactions between water-soluble semiconductor quantum dots [hydrophilic 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-coated CdSe] and three globular plasma proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and human serum albumin (HSA), are investigated. Acidic residues of protein molecules form electrostatic interactions with these quantum dots (QDs). To determine the stoichiometry of proteins bound to QDs, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential techniques. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments revealed energy transfer from tryptophan residues in the proteins to the QD particles. Quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of protein molecules was noticed during this binding process (hierarchy HSA<β-Lg

  11. Sugar-Based Arylsulfonamide Carboxylates as Selective and Water-Soluble Matrix Metalloproteinase-12 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Elisa; Cuffaro, Doretta; D'Andrea, Felicia; Rosalia, Lea; Tepshi, Livia; Fabbi, Marina; Carbotti, Grazia; Ferrini, Silvano; Santamaria, Salvatore; Camodeca, Caterina; Ciccone, Lidia; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Nencetti, Susanna; Stura, Enrico A; Dive, Vincent; Rossello, Armando

    2016-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) can be considered an attractive target to study selective inhibitors useful in the development of new therapies for lung and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, a new series of arylsulfonamide carboxylates, with increased hydrophilicity resulting from conjugation with a β-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine moiety, were designed and synthesized as MMP-12 selective inhibitors. Their inhibitory activity was evaluated on human MMPs by using the fluorimetric assay, and a crystallographic analysis was performed to characterize their binding mode. Among these glycoconjugates, a nanomolar MMP-12 inhibitor with improved water solubility, compound 3 [(R)-2-(N-(2-(3-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl)thioureido)ethyl)biphenyl-4-ylsulfonamido)-3-methylbutanoic acid], was identified. PMID:27356908

  12. Probing the Mucoadhesive Interactions Between Porcine Gastric Mucin and Some Water-Soluble Polymers.

    PubMed

    Albarkah, Yasser A; Green, Rebecca J; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the structural features of porcine gastric mucin (PGM) in aqueous dispersions and its interactions with water-soluble polymers (poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), poly(ethylene oxide), and poly(ethylene glycol)) using isothermal titration calorimetry, turbidimetric titration, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. It is established that PAA (450 kDa) and PMAA (100 kDa) exhibit strong specific interactions with PGM causing further aggregation of its particles, while PAA (2 kDa), poly(ethylene oxide) (1 000 kDa), and poly(ethylene glycol) (10 kDa) do not show any detectable effects on mucin. Sonication of mucin dispersions prior to their mixing with PAA (450 kDa) and PMAA (100 kDa) leads to more pronounced intensity of interactions. PMID:26102520

  13. Materials and fabrication sequences for water soluble silicon integrated circuits at the 90 nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lan; Bozler, Carl; Harburg, Daniel V.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Rogers, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten interconnects in silicon integrated circuits built at the 90 nm node with releasable configurations on silicon on insulator wafers serve as the basis for advanced forms of water-soluble electronics. These physically transient systems have potential uses in applications that range from temporary biomedical implants to zero-waste environmental sensors. Systematic experimental studies and modeling efforts reveal essential aspects of electrical performance in field effect transistors and complementary ring oscillators with as many as 499 stages. Accelerated tests reveal timescales for dissolution of the various constituent materials, including tungsten, silicon, and silicon dioxide. The results demonstrate that silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits formed with tungsten interconnects in foundry-compatible fabrication processes can serve as a path to high performance, mass-produced transient electronic systems.

  14. In Vitro Selection of Optimal DNA Substrates for Ligation by a Water-Soluble Carbodiimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection to investigate the sequence requirements for efficient template-directed ligation of oligonucleotides at 0 deg C using a water-soluble carbodiimide as condensing agent. We find that only 2 bp at each side of the ligation junction are needed. We also studied chemical ligation of substrate ensembles that we have previously selected as optimal by RNA ligase or by DNA ligase. As anticipated, we find that substrates selected with DNA ligase ligate efficiently with a chemical ligating agent, and vice versa. Substrates selected using RNA ligase are not ligated by the chemical condensing agent and vice versa. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry are discussed.

  15. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins by over-pressure layer chromatography and photodensitometric detection.

    PubMed

    Postaire, E; Cisse, M; Le Hoang, M D; Pradeau, D

    1991-04-01

    An over-pressure layer chromatographic procedure with photodensitometric detection for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations was developed and evaluated. The method uses high-performance TLC (HPTLC) plates with silica gel as the thin-layer, and an n-butanol:pyridine:water mixture (50:35:15, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a rate of 0.25 mL/min for baseline separation. The quantitation was carried out without derivatization (vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, folic acid, nicotinamide, vitamin C) or after spraying ninhydrin reagent (calcium pantothenate) or 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (vitamin B12, biotin). This was applied to the analysis of multivitamin solutions. Satisfactory relative standard deviations and good recovery were obtained for all the vitamins examined. It was concluded that this method is fast, accurate, specific, and suitable for routine quality control use. PMID:1865338

  16. Application of hot melt extrusion for poorly water-soluble drugs: limitations, advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Guo, Zhefei; Li, Yongcheng; Pang, Huishi; Lin, Ling; Liu, Xu; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2014-01-01

    Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a powerful technology to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by producing amorphous solid dispersions. Although the number of articles and patents about HME increased dramatically in the past twenty years, there are very few commercial products by far. The three main obstacles limiting the commercial application of HME are summarized as thermal degradation of heat-sensitive drugs at high process temperature, recrystallization of amorphous drugs during storage and dissolving process, and difficulty to obtain products with reproducible physicochemical properties. Many efforts have been taken in recent years to understand the basic mechanism underlying these obstacles and then to overcome them. This article reviewed and summarized the limitations, recent advances, and future prospects of HME. PMID:23651401

  17. Application of water-soluble nanofilters for collection of airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in hospital wards.

    PubMed

    Vladimirsky, M A; Shipina, L K; Makeeva, E S; Alyapkina, Y S; Mikheev, A Y; Morozov, V N

    2016-05-01

    A simple inexpensive technique for collection of airborne biomarkers of nosocomial infections is described. Biomarkers were collected on water-soluble electrospun nanofilters attached to a household vacuum cleaner from 6-10m(3) of air in 10-15min within several wards of a tuberculosis clinic. Filters were then dissolved in water and tested for the presence of the IS6110 and regX3 genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. It was demonstrated that trace amounts of airborne MTB DNA (>3gene copies/m(3)) were always present in the air and on the surfaces in the wards occupied with tuberculosis patients having positive smear tests. PMID:27021397

  18. Role of additives in wood plastic composite of water soluble monomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. M. Idriss; Khan, Mubarak A.; Husain, M. M.

    1994-10-01

    Wood plastic composites are prepared under radiation of 60Co gamma source with simul, a low grade wood of Bangladesh using a water soluble monomer acrylamide (AM) mixed with a swelling solvent methanol, water or methanol/water (1:1) at different compositions in the presence of a number of additives and co-additives such as NVP ( N-vinylpyrrolidone), TPGDA (tripropylene glycol diacrylate), TMPTA (trimethylol propane triacrylate), sulfuric acid, urea and copper sulfate. Polymer loading (PL) and tensile strength (TS) of the composites are measured. The role of these additives on the composites is also discussed. It is observed that nitrogen-atom containing-materials like urea, NVP and AM produce composites with the highest mechanical strength, and incorporation of copper into this system provides additional property of protection and preservation of the composites against attacks by insects and microbes.

  19. Super fast detection of latent fingerprints with water soluble CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kaiyang; Yang, Ruiqin; Wang, Yanji; Yu, Xuejiao; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-03-10

    A new method based on the use of highly fluorescent water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) capped with mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) was explored to develop latent fingerprints. After optimized the effectiveness of QDs method contains pH value and developing time, super fast detection was achieved. Excellent fingerprint images were obtained in 1-3s after immersed the latent fingerprints into quantum dots solution on various non-porous surfaces, i.e. adhesive tape, transparent tape, aluminum foil and stainless steel. High sensitivity of the new latent fingerprints develop method was obtained by developing the fingerprints pressed on aluminum foil successively with the same finger. Compared with methyl violet and rhodamine 6G, the MSA-CdTe QDs showed the higher develop speed and fingerprint image quality. Clear image can be maintained for months by extending exposure time of CCD camera, storing fingerprints in a low temperature condition and secondary development. PMID:23428349

  20. Au nanorods modulated NIR fluorescence and singlet oxygen generation of water soluble dendritic zinc phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefei; He, Xiaohong; Wei, Shiliang; Jia, Kun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2016-11-15

    A novel cyano-terminated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-CN) exhibiting visible near infrared (vis-NIR) emitting around 690nm in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent has been synthesized. Furthermore, the peripheral cyano groups of newly synthesized zinc phthalocyanine were hydrolyzed in strong basic solution, leading to water soluble carboxylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-COOH) with completely quenched fluorescence in aqueous solution. Interestingly, we found that the NIR fluorescence of aqueous ZnPc-COOH was dramatically recovered in the presence of gold nanorods (Au NR), which was due to the alternation of ZnPc-COOH molecules self-assembling via electrostatic interaction between cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the surface of Au NR and peripheral carboxyl of ZnPc-COOH. In addition, ZnPc-COOH/Au NR conjugates demonstrated an improved singlet oxygen generation, which could be served as potential bioimaging probe and photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy. PMID:27505278

  1. Membranotropic properties of the water soluble amino acid and peptide derivatives of fullerene C60.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, R A; Kotelnikov, A I; Bogdanov, G N; Romanova, V S; Kuleshova, E F; Parnes, Z N; Vol'pin, M E

    1996-07-01

    The modifying effects of the products of the equimolar addition Of DL-alanine and DL-alanyl-DL-alanine to fullerene C60 on the structure and permeability of the lipid bilayer of phosphatidylcholine liposomes has been studied using the luminescence probe technique. It is shown that these water soluble amino acid and dipeptide derivatives of fullerene (C60-AD) are quenchers of pyrene fluorescence and erythrosine phosphorescence of in both a water solution and liposomes. To study the permeability of the lipid bilayer a procedure based on the triplet probe technique has been developed. It has been found that the C60-AD derivatives under study are able to localize inside the artificial membrane, to penetrate into the liposomes through the lipid bilayer and to perform activated transmembrane transport of bivalent metal ions. PMID:8766810

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of a water-solubility glycosyl-rhodamine fluorescent probe detecting Hg(2.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengjun; Hu, Wei; Wang, Mian; Wang, Lisheng; Su, Guifa; Wang, Jianyi

    2016-06-24

    A glycosyl-rhodamine fluorescent probe with good water-solubility has been designed and synthesized through click reaction. Compared with control compound 1, the obtained target compound (RBGlc-3) could be independently applied for the detection of Hg(2+) in water medium, and not disturbed by Ce(3+), Eu(3+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), Fe(2+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), Mg(2+), Ni(2+), K(+), Ag(+), Na(+), NH4(+), CH3COO(-), S2O4(2-), SO4(2-), SO3(2-) and Cl(-). 1:1 Stoichiometry is the most likely recognition mode of RBGlc-3 toward Hg(2+) ion, and the OFF-ON fluorescent mechanism of RBGlc-3 is proposed. PMID:27059003

  3. Dimethylformamide-mediated synthesis of water-soluble platinum nanodendrites for ethanol oxidation electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Chirea, Mariana; Altantzis, Thomas; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Silva, Fernando; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2013-06-01

    Herein we describe the synthesis of water-soluble platinum nanodendrites in dimethylformamide (DMF), in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a stabilizing agent. The average size of the dendrites is in the range of 20-25 nm while their porosity can be tuned by modifying the concentration of the metal precursor. Electron tomography revealed different crystalline orientations of nanocrystallites in the nanodendrites and allowed a better understanding of their peculiar branching and porosity. The high surface area of the dendrites (up to 22 m(2) g(-1)) was confirmed by BET measurements, while X-ray diffraction confirmed the abundance of high-index facets in the face-centered-cubic crystal structure of Pt. The prepared nanodendrites exhibit excellent performance in the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol in alkaline solution. Sensing, selectivity, cycleability and great tolerance toward poisoning were demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry measurements. PMID:23613112

  4. Lysosomal ATP imaging in living cells by a water-soluble cationic polythiophene derivative.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing-Huan; Geng, Zhi-Rong; Ma, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Zhi-Yang; Wang, Zhi-Lin

    2016-09-15

    Lysosomes in astrocytes and microglia can release ATP as the signaling molecule for the cells through ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in response to various stimuli. At present, fluorescent probes that can detect ATP in lysosomes have not been reported. In this work, we have developed a new water-soluble cationic polythiophene derivative that can be specifically localized in lysosomes and can be utilized as a fluorescent probe to sense ATP in cells. PEMTEI exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity to ATP at physiological pH values and the detection limit of ATP is as low as 10(-11)M. The probe has low cytotoxicity, good permeability and high photostability in living cells and has been applied successfully to real-time monitoring of the change in concentrations of ATP in lysosomes though fluorescence microscopy. We also demonstrated that lysosomes in Hela cells can release ATP through Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in response to drug stimuli. PMID:27131993

  5. Water-soluble noncovalently engineered graphene-neutral red nanocomposite with photocurrent generating capacity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Li, Zhi; Ge, Xueping; Yang, Cunzhong; Fang, Bin; Wei, Jianjun; Xie, Haifen; Zhang, Kunlong; An, Xingcai; Qin, Chuan

    2012-03-01

    We report a graphene-based nanocomposite prepared by noncovalently engineering reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with neutral red (NR). The water-soluble reduced graphene nanocomposite (rGO-NR) was well characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy, and 1HNMR spectroscopy; the results suggest a strong pi-pi interaction between the rGO and NR molecules. Fluorescence spectroscopy and electrochemistry studies indicate a direct electron transfer interaction among the graphene-NR hybrid, in which NR is electron donor and graphene is electron acceptor. The photocurrent generating property of this nanocomposite was confirmed from the photoelectrochemical measurements. The graphene-NR coated electrodes are capable of generating photocurrent under visible excitation. Such photocurrent generating nanocomposite provides potential application in optoelectronic devices. PMID:22754982

  6. Development and characterization of nanoparticulate formulation of a water soluble prodrug of dexamethasone by HIP complexation

    PubMed Central

    Gaudana, Ripal; Parenky, Ashwin; Vaishya, Ravi; Samanta, Swapan K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a nanoparticulate-based sustained release formulation of a water soluble dipeptide prodrug of dexamethasone, valine–valine-dexamethasone (VVD). Being hydrophilic in nature, it readily leaches out in the external aqueous medium and hence partitions poorly into the polymeric matrix resulting in minimal entrapment in nanoparticles. Hence, hydrophobic ion pairing (HIP) complexation of the prodrug was employed with dextran sulphate as a complexing polymer. A novel, solid in oil in water emulsion method was employed to encapsulate the prodrug in HIP complex form in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) matrix. Nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, crystallinity of entrapped drug and surface morphology. A significant enhancement in the entrapment of the prodrug in nanoparticles was achieved. Finally, a simple yet novel method was developed which can also be applicable to encapsulate other charged hydrophilic molecules, such as peptides and proteins. PMID:20939702

  7. Bio-functionalized water-soluble ZnS quantum dots using carboxymethylchitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, A. A. P.; Mansur, H. S.; Borsagli, F. G. L. M.; Ramanery, F. P.

    2015-03-01

    The major goal of this study was to develop an innovative green route for synthesizing biocompatible water-soluble luminescent QDs using chemically modified chitosan as the ligand in aqueous media. The preparation of ZnS QDs bio-functionalized by carboxymethylchitosan (CMC) was performed using a single-step aqueous colloidal process at room temperature. The results showed that water-dispersible ZnS nanocrystals capped by CMC were produced within the quantum-size confinement regime. Moreover, the luminescent properties of ZnS QDs were significantly affected by the pH during the synthesis due to the size distribution of the nanoparticles and their density of surface states.

  8. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2015-06-02

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  9. Luminescent, water-soluble silicon quantum dots via micro-plasma surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jeslin J.; Kondeti, Vighneswara Siva Santosh Kumar; Bruggeman, Peter J.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2016-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots (SiQDs), with their broad absorption, narrow and size-tunable emission, and potential biocompatibility are highly attractive materials in biological imaging applications. The inherent hydrophobicity and instability of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs are obstacles to their widespread implementation. In this work, we successfully produced highly luminescent, hydrophilic SiQDs with long-term stability in water using non-thermal plasma techniques. Hydrogen-terminated SiQDs were produced in a low-pressure plasma and subsequently treated in water using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for surface modification. Preliminary assessments of the chemical mechanism(s) involved in the creation of water-soluble SiQDs were performed using Fenton’s reaction and various plasma chemistries, suggesting both OH and O species play a key role in the oxidation of the SiQDs.

  10. Association of candidate genes with flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate content in Lolium perenne (L.).

    PubMed

    Skøt, Leif; Humphreys, Jan; Humphreys, Mervyn O; Thorogood, Danny; Gallagher, Joe; Sanderson, Ruth; Armstead, Ian P; Thomas, Ian D

    2007-09-01

    We describe a candidate gene approach for associating SNPs with variation in flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content and other quality traits in the temperate forage grass species Lolium perenne. Three analysis methods were used, which took the significant population structure into account. First, a linear mixed model was used enabling a structured association analysis to be incorporated with the nine populations identified in the structure analysis as random variables. Second, a within-population analysis of variance was performed. Third, a tree-scanning method was used, in which haplotype trees were associated with phenotypes on the basis of inferred haplotypes. Analysis of variance within populations identified several associations between WSC, nitrogen (N), and dry matter digestibility with allelic variants within an alkaline invertase candidate gene LpcAI. These associations were only detected in material harvested in one of the two years. By contrast, consistent associations between the L. perenne homolog (LpHD1) of the rice photoperiod control gene HD1 and flowering time were identified. One SNP, in the immediate upstream region of the LpHD1 coding sequence (C-4443-A), was significant in the linear mixed model. Within-population analysis of variance and tree-scanning analysis confirmed and extended this result to the 2118 polymorphisms in some of the populations. The merits of the tree-scanning method are compared to the single SNP analysis. The potential usefulness of the 4443 SNP in marker-assisted selection is currently being evaluated in test crosses of genotypes from this work with turf-grass varieties. PMID:17660575

  11. Association of Candidate Genes With Flowering Time and Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Content in Lolium perenne (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Skøt, Leif; Humphreys, Jan; Humphreys, Mervyn O.; Thorogood, Danny; Gallagher, Joe; Sanderson, Ruth; Armstead, Ian P.; Thomas, Ian D.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a candidate gene approach for associating SNPs with variation in flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content and other quality traits in the temperate forage grass species Lolium perenne. Three analysis methods were used, which took the significant population structure into account. First, a linear mixed model was used enabling a structured association analysis to be incorporated with the nine populations identified in the structure analysis as random variables. Second, a within-population analysis of variance was performed. Third, a tree-scanning method was used, in which haplotype trees were associated with phenotypes on the basis of inferred haplotypes. Analysis of variance within populations identified several associations between WSC, nitrogen (N), and dry matter digestibility with allelic variants within an alkaline invertase candidate gene LpcAI. These associations were only detected in material harvested in one of the two years. By contrast, consistent associations between the L. perenne homolog (LpHD1) of the rice photoperiod control gene HD1 and flowering time were identified. One SNP, in the immediate upstream region of the LpHD1 coding sequence (C-4443-A), was significant in the linear mixed model. Within-population analysis of variance and tree-scanning analysis confirmed and extended this result to the 2118 polymorphisms in some of the populations. The merits of the tree-scanning method are compared to the single SNP analysis. The potential usefulness of the 4443 SNP in marker-assisted selection is currently being evaluated in test crosses of genotypes from this work with turf-grass varieties. PMID:17660575

  12. (212)Pb@C(60) and its water-soluble derivatives: synthesis, stability, and suitability for radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Diener, Michael D; Alford, John M; Kennel, Stephen J; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2007-04-25

    Fullerenes could potentially play a valuable role in radioimmunotherapy by more stably encapsulating radionuclides, especially where conventional chelation chemistry is inadequate due to the physical and/or chemical properties of the radionuclide. One of the therapeutically useful radionuclides that requires improved containment in vivo is 212Pb (tau1/2 = 10.6 h), the beta-emitting parent to alpha-emitting 212Bi (tau1/2 = 60.6 min). Myelotoxicity resulting from the accumulation of 212Pb in the bone marrow has limited the use of this radionuclide despite its favorable decay characteristics. In this work, 212Pb@C60 and its malonic ester derivatives were prepared for the first time by allowing the 212Pb to recoil into C60 following alpha-decay from its parent, 0.15-s 216Po, generated in situ from the decay of 224Ra (tau1/2 = 15 days). Repeated washing of the organic phase containing the 212Pb@C60 malonic esters with challenge solutions containing cold Pb2+ ions demonstrated that some of the 212Pb could not be exchanged and was apparently inside of the fullerenes. Malonic esters of endohedral alpha-emitting 213Bi (tau1/2 = 45 min) fullerenes were prepared by an analogous procedure. Following acidification of the esters, a preliminary biodistribution study in mice was performed with the untargeted water-soluble radiofullerenes. It was found that 212Pb did not accumulate in bone after being administered as an endohedral fullerene, in contrast to results with polyhydroxylated radiofullerenes and conventional polyaminocarboxylate chelators for 212Pb. The results indicate that 212Pb is held more tightly in the fullerene than in other methods and suggest that fullerenes may have an important role in the targeted delivery of 212Pb. PMID:17394315

  13. Streptavidin sensor and its sensing mechanism based on water-soluble fluorescence conjugated polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanguo; Hong, Peng; Xu, Baoming; He, Zhike; Zhou, Baohan

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching effect of water-soluble anionic conjugated polymer (CP) (poly[5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MPS-PPV)) by [Re(N-N)(CO)3(py-CH2-NH-biotin)](PF6) [N-N=2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; py-CH2-NH-biotin=N-[(4-pyridyl) methyl] biotinamide] (Re-Biotin) and fluorescence recovery in the presence of streptavidin (or avidin) were investigated using Re-Biotin as quencher tether ligand (QTL) probe. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of fluorescence quenching and recovery were discussed to provide new thoughts to design biosensor based on water-soluble CPs. The results indicate that the sensing mechanisms of streptavidin sensor or avidin sensor, using Re-Biotin as QTL probe, are the same and stable, whether in non-buffer system (aqueous solution) or different buffer systems [0.01 mol·L-1 phosphate buffered solution (pH = 7.4), 0.1 mol·L-1 ammonium carbonate buffered solution (pH = 8.9)]. There exists specific interactions between streptavidin (or avidin) and biotin of Re-Biotin. Fluorescence quenching and recovery processes of MPS-PPV are reversible. Mechanisms of Re-Biotin quenching MPS-PPV fluorescence can be interpreted as strong electrostatic interactions and charge transferences between Re-Biotin and MPS-PPV. Fluorescence recovery mechanisms of Re-Biotin-MPS-PPV system can be interpreted as specific interactions between streptavidin (or avidin) and biotin of Re-Biotin making Re-Biotin far away from MPS-PPV. Avidin or strptavidin as re-Biotin probe can not only be quantitatively determinated, but also be identified.

  14. Streptavidin sensor and its sensing mechanism based on water-soluble fluorescence conjugated polymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanguo; Hong, Peng; Xu, Baoming; He, Zhike; Zhou, Baohan

    2014-03-25

    Fluorescence quenching effect of water-soluble anionic conjugated polymer (CP) (poly[5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MPS-PPV)) by [Re(N-N)(CO)3(py-CH2-NH-biotin)](PF6) [N-N=2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; py-CH2-NH-biotin=N-[(4-pyridyl) methyl] biotinamide] (Re-Biotin) and fluorescence recovery in the presence of streptavidin (or avidin) were investigated using Re-Biotin as quencher tether ligand (QTL) probe. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of fluorescence quenching and recovery were discussed to provide new thoughts to design biosensor based on water-soluble CPs. The results indicate that the sensing mechanisms of streptavidin sensor or avidin sensor, using Re-Biotin as QTL probe, are the same and stable, whether in non-buffer system (aqueous solution) or different buffer systems [0.01 mol·L(-1) phosphate buffered solution (pH=7.4), 0.1 mol·L(-1) ammonium carbonate buffered solution (pH=8.9)]. There exists specific interactions between streptavidin (or avidin) and biotin of Re-Biotin. Fluorescence quenching and recovery processes of MPS-PPV are reversible. Mechanisms of Re-Biotin quenching MPS-PPV fluorescence can be interpreted as strong electrostatic interactions and charge transferences between Re-Biotin and MPS-PPV. Fluorescence recovery mechanisms of Re-Biotin-MPS-PPV system can be interpreted as specific interactions between streptavidin (or avidin) and biotin of Re-Biotin making Re-Biotin far away from MPS-PPV. Avidin or strptavidin as re-Biotin probe can not only be quantitatively determinated, but also be identified. PMID:24322760

  15. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Chen, Huan; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-09-15

    In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid-liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O5), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O2). Higher-order oxygen classes (O5-O9) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N1) concurrent with an increased abundance of N1Ox classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher-order oxygen classes indicates that multiple photochemical pathways exist that result in oxidation of petroleum compounds. PMID:25222929

  16. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Methods Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. Results All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of <200 nm with the drug present in the amorphous state. It demonstrated the highest solubility (32.51±2.41 μg/mL), an excellent dissolution (~85% in 10 minutes), and an oral bioavailability ~2.5-fold better than that of the free drug. It showed similar oral bioavailability compared to the conventional solid dispersion. Conclusion Electrosprayed nanospherules, which provide improved solubility and bioavailability, are promising drug delivery tools for oral administration of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. PMID:26834471

  17. Metabolic behaviour of water-soluble fluorescent whitening agents in the rat and bean plant.

    PubMed

    Muecke, W; Dupuis, G; Esser, H O

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour of three representative water-soluble fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) was studied in rats and bean plants using 14C-labelled compounds. Following oral doses of 5 mg/kg of each of the FWAs to rats, rapid and complete excretion of radioactive material was observed, with an excretion half life ranging from 7-13 hours. Faeces were practically the only route of excretion, indicating, in combination with the short half life times, that no significant amounts of whitener were absorbed from the digestive tract. No radioactive residues were found in blood, liver, kidney, brain, muscle, or fat 96 hours after dosing (limit of quantitative determination 0.005-0.01 ppm Fwa equivalents). Whereas, after application of compound (1) and compound (3), radioactive material was completely extractable from faeces in the form of unchanged parent compounds, that in the compound (2) experiments was not extractable. When bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were grown in the presence of 14C-labelled compound (3) in nutrient solution (11.5 ppm) and in soil (,7.5 ppm), approximately 55% and 2% of the applied radioactive material, respectively, was absorbed by the plants. More than 90% of thie material was bound to the roots in both experiments 40 days after the application. Eight percent of the radioactive material absorbed in the soil experiment was translocated mainly into the stems whereas only trace amounts of the order of less than 0.1 ppm reached the leaves and bean pods. It is concluded from these experiments with extremely high concentrations of compound (3) that under the conditions which may occur in practice residues of water-soluble FWAs do not appear in substantial amounts in edible parts of crops. PMID:1064534

  18. A recipe for designing water-soluble, beta-sheet-forming peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, K. H.; Ilyina, E.; Park, H.

    1996-01-01

    Based on observations of solubility and folding properties of peptide 33-mers derived from the beta-sheet domains of platelet factor-4 (PF4), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and growth related protein (Gro-alpha), as well as other beta-sheet-forming peptides, general guidelines have been developed to aid in the design of water soluble, self-association-induced beta-sheet-forming peptides. CD, 1H-NMR, and pulsed field gradient NMR self-diffusion measurements have been used to assess the degree of folding and state of aggregation. PF4 peptide forms native-like beta-sheet tetramers and is sparingly soluble above pH 6. IL-8 peptide is insoluble between pH 4.5 and pH 7.5, yet forms stable, native-like beta-sheet dimers at higher pH. Gro-alpha peptide is soluble at all pH values, yet displays no discernable beta-sheet structure even when diffusion data indicate dimer-tetramer aggregation. A recipe used in the de novo design of water-soluble beta-sheet-forming peptides calls for the peptide to contain 40-50% hydrophobic residues, usually aliphatic ones (I, L, V, A, M) (appropriately paired and mostly but not always alternating with polar residues in the sheet sequence), a positively charged (K, R) to negatively charged (E, D) residue ratio between 4/2 and 6/2, and a noncharged polar residue (N, Q, T, S) composition of about 20% or less. Results on four de novo designed, 33-residue peptides are presented supporting this approach. Under near physiologic conditions, all four peptides are soluble, form beta-sheet structures to varying degrees, and self-associate. One peptide folds as a stable, compact beta-sheet tetramer, whereas the others are transient beta-sheet-containing aggregates. PMID:8819163

  19. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonen, H.; Saarikoski, S.; Tolonen-Kivimäki, O.; Aurela, M.; Saarnio, K.; Petäjä, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.; Pakkanen, T.; Hillamo, R.

    2008-04-01

    This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III) by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC) and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples. During the measurements gravimetric mass in the MOUDI collections varied between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m-3 and the WSOC concentration was between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m-3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6) comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1-10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1-10 aerosol mass. Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas). Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely to have an impact on the measured aerosol composition. Using the source categories, it was identified that especially the oxidation products of biogenic VOCs in summer had a clear effect on WSOC concentrations.

  20. High Expression of Water-Soluble Recombinant Antigenic Domains of Toxoplasma gondii Secretory Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant antigenic proteins of Toxoplasma gondii are alternative source of antigens which are easily obtainable for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, highly antigenic secretory organellar proteins, dense granular GRA2 and GRA3, rhoptrial ROP2, and micronemal MIC2, were analyzed by bioinformatics approach to express as water-soluble forms of antigenic domains. The transmembrane region and disorder tendency of 4 secretory proteins were predicted to clone the genes into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS E. coli, and GST fusion proteins were expressed with IPTG. As a result, GST fusion proteins with GRA225-105, GRA339-138, ROP2324-561, and MIC21-284 domains had respectively higher value of IgG avidity. The rGST-GRA225-105 and rGST-GRA339-138 were soluble, while rGST-ROP2324-561 and rGST-MIC21-284 were not. GRA231-71, intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of GRA2, was used as a linker to enhance the solubility. The rGST-GRA231-71-ROP2324-561, a chimeric protein, appeared to be soluble. Moreover, rGST-GRA231-71-MIC21-284 was also soluble and had higher IgG avidity comparing to rGST-MIC21-284. These 4 highly expressed and water-soluble recombinant antigenic proteins may be promising candidates to improve the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in addition to the major surface antigen of SAG1. PMID:25246715

  1. New cytotoxic and water-soluble bis(2-phenylazopyridine)ruthenium(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Hotze, Anna C G; Bacac, Marina; Velders, Aldrik H; Jansen, Bart A J; Kooijman, Huub; Spek, Anthony L; Haasnoot, Jaap G; Reedijk, Jan

    2003-04-24

    New water-soluble bis(2-phenylazopyridine)ruthenium(II) complexes, all derivatives of the highly cytotoxic alpha-[Ru(azpy)(2)Cl(2)] (alpha denoting the coordinating pairs Cl, N(py), and N(azo) as cis, trans, cis, respectively) have been developed. The compounds 1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylatobis(2-phenylazopyridine)ruthenium(II), alpha-[Ru(azpy)(2)(cbdca-O,O')] (1), oxalatobis(2-phenylazopyridine)ruthenium(II), alpha-[Ru(azpy)(2)(ox)] (2), and malonatobis(2-phenylazopyridine)ruthenium(II), alpha-[Ru(azpy)(2)(mal)] (3), have been synthesized and fully characterized. X-ray analyses of 1 and 2 are reported, and compound 1 is the first example in which the cbdca ligand is coordinated to a ruthenium center. The cytotoxicity of this series of water-soluble bis(2-phenylazopyridine) complexes has been determined in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma and A2780cisR, the corresponding cisplatin-resistant cell line. For comparison reasons, the cytotoxicity of the complexes alpha-[Ru(azpy)(2)Cl(2)], alpha-[Ru(azpy)(2)(NO(3))(2)], beta-[Ru(azpy)(2)Cl(2)] (beta indicating the coordinating pairs Cl, N(py), and N(azo) as cis, cis, cis, respectively), and beta-[Ru(azpy)(2)(NO(3))(2)] have been determined in this cell line. All the bis(2-phenylazopyridine)ruthenium(II) compounds display a promising cytotoxicity in the A2780 cell line (IC(50) = 0.9-10 microM), with an activity comparable to that of cisplatin and even higher than the activity of carboplatin. Interestingly, the IC(50) values of this series of ruthenium compounds (except the beta isomeric compounds) are similar in the cisplatin-resistant A2780cisR cell line compared to the normal cell line A2780, suggesting that the activity of these compounds might not be influenced by the multifactorial resistance mechanism that affect platinum anticancer agents. PMID:12699392

  2. Vasoactive properties of CORM-3, a novel water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Roberta; Hammad, Jehad; Clark, James E; Johnson, Tony R; Mann, Brian E; Friebe, Andreas; Green, Colin J; Motterlini, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    1 Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the end products of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase, possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory characteristics. We have recently discovered that certain transition metal carbonyls are capable of releasing CO in biological fluids and modulate physiological functions via the delivery of CO. Because the initial compounds identified were not water soluble, we have synthesized new CO-releasing molecules that are chemically modified to allow solubility in water. The aim of this study was to assess the vasoactive properties of tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3) in vitro and in vivo. 2 CORM-3 produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine, exerting significant vasodilatation starting at concentrations of 25-50 microm. Inactive CORM-3, which does not release CO, did not affect vascular tone. 3 Blockers of ATP-dependent potassium channels (glibenclamide) or guanylate cyclase activity (ODQ) considerably reduced CORM-3-dependent relaxation, confirming that potassium channels activation and cGMP partly mediate the vasoactive properties of CO. In fact, increased levels of cGMP were detected in aortas following CORM-3 stimulation. 4 The in vitro and in vivo vasorelaxant activities of CORM-3 were further enhanced in the presence of YC-1, a benzylindazole derivative which is known to sensitize guanylate cyclase to activation by CO. Interestingly, inhibiting nitric oxide production or removing the endothelium significantly decreased vasodilatation by CORM-3, suggesting that factors produced by the endothelium influence CORM-3 vascular activities. 5 These results, together with our previous findings on the cardioprotective functions of CORM-3, indicate that this molecule is an excellent prototype of water-soluble CO carriers for studying the pharmacological and biological features of CO. PMID:15148243

  3. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin. PMID:23798775

  4. Water Soluble Vitamin E Administration in Wistar Rats with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tzanetakou, Irene P; Doulamis, Ilias P; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Agrogiannis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Pantopoulou, Alkisti; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Patsouris, Efstratios; Vlachos, Ioannis; Perrea, Despina N

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A diet rich in fat is associated with hepatic fat deposition [steatosis; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)]. The exact cause of NAFLD however, is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a water-soluble formulation of vitamin E on a dietary-induced-NAFLD animal model. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=20) were allocated to 2 groups: Controls (Group A, n=6), which received a standard chow diet for 24 weeks and a High Cholesterol group (HC: n=14), which received a standard chow diet enriched with cholesterol for the first 14 weeks of the experiment (t1). At t1, the HC group was divided into: Group HC(B), which received a high-saturated-fat/high-cholesterol (HSF/HCH) diet and Group HC(C), which followed the same HSF/HCH diet but was also administered water soluble vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight/day), for 10 more weeks. Results: At the end of the study, group HC(C) exhibited significantly lower mean total cholesterol (T-CHOL) than group HC(B) (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed between HC(C) and Control groups in blood glucose and serum lipid concentrations. Liver Function Tests did not vary between all groups at the end of the study. Animals in group HC(B) exhibited higher SGOT at the end of the study compared with the beginning of the study (p<0.05). Group HC(B) exhibited the highest scores in steatosis, and grading (according to the NAFLD scoring system) in the histopathological analysis (p≤0.001 in all cases). Conclusions: Vitamin E seems to exert a hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective role in the presence of a HSF/HCH atherogenic diet in a rat model. PMID:22930662

  5. High expression of water-soluble recombinant antigenic domains of Toxoplasma gondii secretory organelles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant antigenic proteins of Toxoplasma gondii are alternative source of antigens which are easily obtainable for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, highly antigenic secretory organellar proteins, dense granular GRA2 and GRA3, rhoptrial ROP2, and micronemal MIC2, were analyzed by bioinformatics approach to express as water-soluble forms of antigenic domains. The transmembrane region and disorder tendency of 4 secretory proteins were predicted to clone the genes into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS E. coli, and GST fusion proteins were expressed with IPTG. As a result, GST fusion proteins with GRA225-105, GRA339-138, ROP2324-561, and MIC21-284 domains had respectively higher value of IgG avidity. The rGST-GRA225-105 and rGST-GRA339-138 were soluble, while rGST-ROP2324-561 and rGST-MIC21-284 were not. GRA231-71, intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of GRA2, was used as a linker to enhance the solubility. The rGST-GRA231-71-ROP2324-561, a chimeric protein, appeared to be soluble. Moreover, rGST-GRA231-71-MIC21-284 was also soluble and had higher IgG avidity comparing to rGST-MIC21-284. These 4 highly expressed and water-soluble recombinant antigenic proteins may be promising candidates to improve the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in addition to the major surface antigen of SAG1. PMID:25246715

  6. Vasoactive properties of CORM-3, a novel water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Roberta; Hammad, Jehad; Clark, James E; Johnson, Tony R; Mann, Brian E; Friebe, Andreas; Green, Colin J; Motterlini, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the end products of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase, possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory characteristics. We have recently discovered that certain transition metal carbonyls are capable of releasing CO in biological fluids and modulate physiological functions via the delivery of CO. Because the initial compounds identified were not water soluble, we have synthesized new CO-releasing molecules that are chemically modified to allow solubility in water. The aim of this study was to assess the vasoactive properties of tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3) in vitro and in vivo. CORM-3 produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine, exerting significant vasodilatation starting at concentrations of 25–50 μM. Inactive CORM-3, which does not release CO, did not affect vascular tone. Blockers of ATP-dependent potassium channels (glibenclamide) or guanylate cyclase activity (ODQ) considerably reduced CORM-3-dependent relaxation, confirming that potassium channels activation and cGMP partly mediate the vasoactive properties of CO. In fact, increased levels of cGMP were detected in aortas following CORM-3 stimulation. The in vitro and in vivo vasorelaxant activities of CORM-3 were further enhanced in the presence of YC-1, a benzylindazole derivative which is known to sensitize guanylate cyclase to activation by CO. Interestingly, inhibiting nitric oxide production or removing the endothelium significantly decreased vasodilatation by CORM-3, suggesting that factors produced by the endothelium influence CORM-3 vascular activities. These results, together with our previous findings on the cardioprotective functions of CORM-3, indicate that this molecule is an excellent prototype of water-soluble CO carriers for studying the pharmacological and biological features of CO. PMID:15148243

  7. The water cycles of water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Changgeng; Chan, Chak K.

    In this study, the water cycles of nine water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric interest were studied using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) at 25°C. Sodium formate, sodium acetate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and sodium methanesulfonate (Na-MSA) particles crystallize as the relative humidity (RH) decreases and they deliquesce as the RH increases. Sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate form supersaturated particles at low RH before crystallization but they do not deliquesce even at RH=90%. Sodium malonate and sodium maleate particles neither crystallize nor deliquesce. These two salts absorb and evaporate water reversibly without hysteresis. In most cases, the solid states of single particles resulting from the crystallization of supersaturated droplets do not form the most thermodynamically stable state found in bulk studies. Sodium formate, sodium oxalate, ammonium oxalate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and Na-MSA form anhydrous particles after crystallization. Sodium acetate forms particles with a water/salt molar ratio of 0.5 after crystallization. In salts with several hydrated states including sodium formate and sodium acetate, the particles deliquesce at the lowest deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the hydrates. Except sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate, all the salts studied here are as hygroscopic as typical inorganic hygroscopic aerosols. The hygroscopic organic salts have a growth factor of 1.76-2.18 from RH=10-90%, comparable to that of typical hygroscopic inorganic salts such as NaCl and (NH 4) 2SO 4. Further study of other atmospheric water-soluble organic compounds and their mixtures with inorganic salts is needed to explain the field observations of the hygroscopic growth of ambient aerosols.

  8. Water soluble drug releasing soft contact lens in response to pH of tears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G.; Noh, H.

    2016-06-01

    Human tear characteristics including pH and compositions can vary significantly depending on physical and environmental factors. Contact lenses directly contact with human tears can be swelled or de-swelled depending on the pH of the solution due to the nature of the hydrogel. For examples, anionic hydrogels, when the solution's pH is low, is shrunken due to the electric attraction force within the hydrogel network; the opposite phenomenon appears when the solution is basic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of water soluble drug, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose, released from contact lens according to the pH of the artificial tears. Artificial tears are prepared by mixing lysozyme, albumin, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride following physiological concentrations. Hydrogel contact lens was thermally polymerized using HEMA, EGDMA, and AIBN. The prepared hydrogel lens was immersed in drug for 3 hours and the eluted drug mass was measured as a function of the time. As a result, the drug was released from the lens for 12 hours in all the pH of artificial tears. At the lower pH of artificial tears (pH 5.8), the total amount of dye emitted from the lens was increased than the total amount of dye emitted at the basic tear (pH 8.4). Also, initial burst at acidic tears was increased within 1 hour. Release pattern of water-soluble drug from hydrogel lens turned out to be different depending on the pH of the artificial tears. When designing drug releasing contact lens, physiological pH of tears should be considered.

  9. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.

    1997-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent.

  10. Chemical Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Particulate Matter in Three Metropolitan Areas in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Lv, Yibing; Teng, Enjiang; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected simultaneously in each season in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang to identify the characteristics of water-soluble ion compositions in the North China Plain. The water-soluble ions displayed significant seasonal variation. The dominant ions were NO3−, SO42−, NH4+ and Cl−, accounting for more than 90% and 86% to the mass of total water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The anion/cation ratio indicated that the ion acidity of each city varied both between sites and seasonally. Over 50% of the ion species were enriched in small particles ≤1 µm in diameter. The [NO3−]/[SO42−] ratio indicated that vehicles accounted for the majority of the particulate pollution in Beijing. Shijiazhuang, a city highly reliant on coal combustion, had a higher SO42− concentration. PMID:25437210

  11. Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

  12. Novel nanosized water soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimide fluorophores for potential biomedical applications: cell permeability, localization and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Georgiev, Nikolai I; Dimov, Stefan M; Tzoneva, Rumiana; Detrembleur, Christophe; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Bojinov, Vladimir B

    2015-06-01

    Novel biocompatible water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVA-b-PAN) copolymers in the presence of synthesized fluorophores. Amphiphilic PVA-b-PAN copolymers were obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVAc-b-PAN) copolymer. The preparation of the novel fluorescence micelles consisting of PVA hydrophilic shell and PAN hydrophobic core with incorporated PDI fluorophores has been confirmed by DLS and TEM analysis. The cytotoxicity of the water-soluble fluorophores and their internalization into living cells depending on the micellar concentration have been tested. It was shown that they could successfully enter in living cells without destroying their morphology. The results obtained indicate that the novel water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded PDI fluorophores would be suitable for potential intracellular biomedical applications. PMID:25842102

  13. Evaluation of HLB values of mixed non-ionic surfactants on the stability of oil-in-water emulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nursakinah, I.; Ismail, A. R.; Rahimi, M. Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    Emulsion oil-in-water was prepared with combination of emulsifiers (non-ionic surfactants) following the HLB (hydrophylic-lipophylic balance) method developed by Griffin. The emulsions were prepared at HLB 10, 11, 12, 13 and 13.6 consisting blend of non-ionic emulsifiers fatty acid ethoxylate with 20 moles bound ethylene oxide and Dehydol LS 1 with 1 mole bound ethylene oxide. A mixture of palm-based methyl ester consisting of C6-10 and C12-18 fatty acid composition was used as palm-based solvent. The physicochemical parameters of the emulsion were characterized by accelerate stability tested at 45°C for two months, measurement of particle size and viscosity test. The result of accelerate test showed that all the emulsion at different HLB were found to be stable in the 2 months observation which assumed to be stable in 1 year of storage. Meanwhile, the particle size measurement data showed that the optimum stable particle size of the emulsion was HLB 12±1. The viscosity test of the emulsion tends to support the data from the particle size and have maximum viscosity 189.89 cP at HLB 12. The obtained results indicate that the optimum stable emulsions can be formulated by a combination of emulsifiers with HLB 12±1 which is compatible with that of required HLB of the oil phase.

  14. Fluorophotometric determination of critical micelle concentration (CMC) of ionic and non-ionic surfactants with carbon dots via Stokes shift.

    PubMed

    Lavkush Bhaisare, Mukesh; Pandey, Sunil; Shahnawaz Khan, M; Talib, Abou; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2015-01-01

    A new and facile method for the determination of critical micelle concentration (CMC) of ionic and non-ionic surfactants is proposed in this article. Carbon dots exhibited substantial fluorescence and therefore enhanced the sensitivity of this evaluation. Understanding the formation of surfactant micelles is vital for the applications of biomedicine such as drug fabrication and smart molecular vehicles in delivering therapeutic dosage to various molecular sites. The fluorescence property of carbon dots was utilized for the first time to estimate the critical micelle concentration of surfactants. The central concept of the approach is based on the Stokes shift determination of a system composed of constant amount of carbon dots with varying concentrations of ionic and non-ionic surfactants. The synthesized carbon dots were characterized by FTIR, TEM, XRD, Raman, UV, and fluorescence spectroscope. The carbon dots were excited at 280 nm so as to obtain maximum emission for the Stokes shift measurement. The CMC value of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X-100, dodecyldimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide (SB-12) evaluated by this approach was found to be 0.98, 7.3, 0.19, and 3.5mM, respectively. The signals of spectra were assigned and explained in terms of both electron transitions between specific molecular orbital and the interaction with solvent. PMID:25476346

  15. Immunoenzyme assay of nonylphenol: study of selectivity and detection of alkylphenolic non-ionic surfactants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mart'ianov, Andrey A; Dzantiev, Boris B; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Eremin, Sergei A; Cespedes, Raquel; Petrovic, Mira; Barcelo, Damia

    2005-01-30

    Immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) is proposed and characterized for determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates, a primary class of manufactured non-ionic surfactants. The assay is based on the obtained polyclonal antibodies against nonylphenol (NP), the main stable intermediate of the decomposition of nonylphenol ethoxylates. A mixture of non-modified branched isomers of NP was applied as hapten coupled to protein carriers by Mannich reaction with the use of formaldehyde. The proposed ELISA format is based on immobilized NP-(soybean trypsin inhibitor) conjugate as a competitor of antigen molecules contained in the tested sample for binding with specific antibodies indirectly labeled via an anti-species immunoperoxidase conjugate. The developed ELISA allows to reveal NP with the limit of detection about 10ngml(-1) and NP-related compounds such as octylphenol, alkylphenoletoxylates, alkylphenolcarboxylates and their halogenated derivatives. The ELISA was applied for assaying polluted water samples, namely influents and effluents from different wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and tap water. ELISA and chromatographic data demonstrate good correlation (r = 0.94), while ELISA gives higher values. Due to endocrine disrupting and other toxic activities of some metabolites of alkylphenolic non-ionic surfactants, the developed assay may be effectively used in ecological monitoring and sanitary control. PMID:18969808

  16. Organic aerosols associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by water-soluble PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vishal; Fang, Ting; Xu, Lu; Peltier, Richard E; Russell, Armistead G; Ng, Nga Lee; Weber, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    We compare the relative toxicity of various organic aerosol (OA) components identified by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) based on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ambient fine aerosols were collected from urban (three in Atlanta, GA and one in Birmingham, AL) and rural (Yorkville, GA and Centerville, AL) sites in the Southeastern United States. The ROS generating capability of the water-soluble fraction of the particles was measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Water-soluble PM extracts were further separated into the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions using a C-18 column, and both fractions were analyzed for DTT activity and water-soluble metals. Organic aerosol composition was measured at selected sites using a high-resolution time-of-flight AMS. Positive matrix factorization of the AMS spectra resolved the organic aerosol into isoprene-derived OA (Isop_OA), hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), less-oxidized oxygenated OA, (LO-OOA), more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA), cooking OA (COA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA). The association of the DTT activity of water-soluble PM2.5 (WS_DTT) with these factors was investigated by linear regression techniques. BBOA and MO-OOA were most consistently linked with WS_DTT, with intrinsic water-soluble activities of 151 ± 20 and 36 ± 22 pmol/min/μg, respectively. Although less toxic, MO-OOA was most widespread, contributing to WS_DTT activity at all sites and during all seasons. WS_DTT activity was least associated with biogenic secondary organic aerosol. The OA components contributing to WS_DTT were humic-like substances (HULIS), which are abundantly emitted in biomass burning (BBOA) and include highly oxidized OA from multiple sources (MO-OOA). Overall, OA contributed approximately 60% to the WS_DTT activity, with the remaining probably from water-soluble metals, which were mostly associated with the hydrophilic WS_DTT fraction. PMID:25748105

  17. Dish-like drying patterns of the water-soluble gelatin sheet wetted by an aqueous droplet.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Akira; Okubo, Tsuneo

    2016-04-01

    Drying dissipative patterns of the water-soluble gelatin sheet wetted by an aqueous droplet were observed as a function of time elapsed. The arrayed clusters of dishes formed at the broad ring area and grew outward toward multiple arrays with time. The drying patterns formed by the cooperative contribution of wetting, swelling, dissolving, evaporative, convectional, sedimentary and solidifying processes. Drying patterns were studied also for aqueous ethanol, aqueous NaCl solutions and dispersions of colloidal silica and poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres. The dish patterns were observed for the water-soluble substrates, for the first time, in this work. PMID:26812635

  18. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of water-soluble morpholino-decorated paclitaxel prodrugs with remarkably decreased toxicity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Siliang; Chen, Kuncheng; Wang, Chenhong; Jiang, Xifeng; Dong, Huajin; Gong, Zehui; Liu, Keliang

    2016-08-01

    Novel water-soluble paclitaxel prodrugs were designed and synthesized by introducing morpholino groups through different linkers. These derivatives showed 400-20,000-times greater water solubility than paclitaxel as well as comparable activity in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines. The prodrug PM4 was tested in the S-180 tumor mouse model, with paclitaxel as the positive control. The results showed that PM4 had comparable antitumor activity as paclitaxel, with tumor inhibition of 54% versus 56%, and remarkably decreased toxicity. The survival rate of treated mice was 8/8 in the PM4 group, compared to 3/8 in the paclitaxel group. PMID:27311893

  19. Size distribution of water-soluble components in particulate matter emitted from biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung-Shik; Sim, Soo Young; Bae, Min-Suk; Schauer, James J.

    2013-07-01

    Size-resolved measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from 10 biomass materials (rice straw, soybean stem, green perilla stem, red pepper stem, pine needles, cherry leaves, cherry stem, maple leaves, gingko leaves and gingko stem) were conducted in a laboratory hood chamber environment using a 10-stage MOUDI. Samples were analyzed to determine the mass, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and water soluble inorganic species. This study examines how particle emissions and size distributions of chemical components vary with biomass materials. Mass fractions of water soluble organic mass (WSOM) (=1.6 × WSOC) and ionic species to the PM1.8 emissions varied significantly depending on the biomass type burned. The percent mass of WSOM in PM1.8 emissions ranged from 19.8% (green perilla stem) to 41.9% (red pepper stem) for agricultural crop residues, while the tree category accounted for 9.6% (gingko leaves) to 44.0% (gingko stem) of the PM1.8 emissions. Total ionic species contents in the PM1.8 mass ranged from 7.4% (rice straw) to 26.9% (green perilla stem) for the agricultural waste category, and 5.8% (maple leaves) to 23.5% (gingko stem) for the tree category. The ionic species fraction of the PM1.8 emission was dominated by K+, Cl-, and SO, while Ca2+ was important in the coarse mode particles (>3.1 μm). PM1.8 emissions of K+, Cl-, and SO were as high as 16.9%, 9.0%, and 5.8%, respectively, and were from the green perilla stem, red pepper stem, and gingko stem emissions. Normalized size distributions of mass, WSOC, K+, Cl-, SO, and oxalate in the biomass burning emissions showed a unimodal size distribution, peaking in the size ranges of 0.32-0.55 μm and 0.55-1.0 μm. Size-resolved PM mass fractions of WSOM, K+, Cl-, and SO showed fairly consistent distributions for each biomass type, with higher fractions in the ultrafine mode (<0.10 μm) and lower fractions in the accumulation mode of 0.32-1.0 μm. The size distributions of WSOC were strongly

  20. Effect of alumina on water solubility in lower mantle ferropericlase: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litasov, K. D.; Ohtani, E.

    2003-04-01

    Recent results of high-pressure studies on H_2O solubility in the lower mantle magnesiowustite (ferropericlase, Mg#>50) are very controversial. Murakami et al. (2002) reported SIMS and FTIR data for ferropericlase, synthesized at 25-27 GPa from peridotite composition, and found about 0.2 wt% (2000 ppm) H_2O. However, Bolfan-Casanova et al. (2000; 2002) measured only 20-25 ppm H_2O in MgO and ferropericlase (Mg0.93Fe0.07)O by FTIR. It was suggested by many authors that water solubility may increase with incorporation of trivalent cations to the structure of lower mantle ferropericlase and perovskite. Ferropericlase obtained from natural compositions at high pressures contains up to 2-3 wt% of Al_2O_3. Here we present preliminary FTIR results on water solubility in Al-bearing ferropericlase. The experiments were carried out at 25 GPa and 1400-1800^oC. 3 wt% of Al_2O_3 and 10 wt% of H_2O as brucite were added to periclase and ferropericlase (Mg#=88) and used as the starting materials. FTIR spectra were obtained from double polished thin section of the samples with 0.05-0.11 mm thickness. IR spectra of periclase show weak bands at 3299, 3308, and 3404 cm-1. Ferropericlase has major bands at 3299 and 3474 cm-1. The H_2O contents were calculated from height of the major peak at 3299 cm-1. Calculated H_2O content in periclase is 14±6 ppm at 1400^oC (Al_2O_3 in periclase is 0.7 wt%) and 30±11 ppm at 1800^oC (Al_2O_3=1.2 wt%). Water content in ferropericlase is 15±7 ppm at 1400^oC (Al_2O_3=1.0 wt%) and 63±12 ppm at 1800^oC (Al_2O_3=2.2 wt%). These data indicate that (1) ferropericlase (Mg#=88) contains more water and Al_2O_3 relative to periclase and (2) water contents in periclase and ferropericlase increase with increasing temperature and Al_2O_3. The present results indicate that water solubility in ferropericlase related to natural fertile peridotite is restricted. This is consistent with the data by Bolfan-Casanova et al. (2002). Ferropericlase can not be

  1. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  2. Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods

    PubMed Central

    Boaz, Segal M.; Champagne, Cory D.; Fowler, Melinda A.; Houser, Dorian H.; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of water-soluble vitamins to metabolism, there is limited knowledge of their serum availability in fasting wildlife. We evaluated changes in water-soluble vitamins in northern elephant seals, a species with an exceptional ability to withstand nutrient deprivation. We used a metabolomics approach to measure vitamins and associated metabolites under extended natural fasts for up to seven weeks in free-ranging lactating or developing seals. Water-soluble vitamins were not detected with this metabolomics platform, but could be measured with standard assays. Concentrations of measured vitamins varied independently, but all were maintained at detectable levels over extended fasts, suggesting that defense of vitamin levels is a component of fasting adaptation in the seals. Metabolomics was not ideal for generating complete vitamin profiles in this species, but gave novel insights into vitamin metabolism by detecting key related metabolites. For example, niacin level reductions in lactating females were associated with significant reductions in precursors suggesting downregulation of the niacin synthetic pathway. The ability to detect individual vitamins using metabolomics may be impacted by the large number of novel compounds detected. Modifications to the analysis platforms and compound detection algorithms used in this study may be required for improving water-soluble vitamin detection in this and other novel wildlife systems. PMID:21983145

  3. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE SEMI-CONTINUOUS DETERMINATION OF WATER-SOLUBLE PARTICULATE COMPONENTS AND GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies conducted at the EPA facility in Research Triangle Park, NC and at a field study in Southern California have demonstrated the capability for the semi-continuous determination of water-soluble particulate components and gases. First, two instruments, a R&P 8400N particula...

  4. Simultaneous quantification of 21 water soluble vitamin circulating forms in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meisser Redeuil, Karine; Longet, Karin; Bénet, Sylvie; Munari, Caroline; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2015-11-27

    This manuscript reports a validated analytical approach for the quantification of 21 water soluble vitamins and their main circulating forms in human plasma. Isotope dilution-based sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation using acidic methanol enriched with stable isotope labelled internal standards. Separation was achieved by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and detection performed by tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. Instrumental lower limits of detection and quantification reached <0.1-10nM and 0.2-25nM, respectively. Commercially available pooled human plasma was used to build matrix-matched calibration curves ranging 2-500, 5-1250, 20-5000 or 150-37500nM depending on the analyte. The overall performance of the method was considered adequate, with 2.8-20.9% and 5.2-20.0% intra and inter-day precision, respectively and averaged accuracy reaching 91-108%. Recovery experiments were also performed and reached in average 82%. This analytical approach was then applied for the quantification of circulating water soluble vitamins in human plasma single donor samples. The present report provides a sensitive and reliable approach for the quantification of water soluble vitamins and main circulating forms in human plasma. In the future, the application of this analytical approach will give more confidence to provide a comprehensive assessment of water soluble vitamins nutritional status and bioavailability studies in humans. PMID:26522745

  5. Water-soluble cellulose acetate from waste cotton fabrics and the aqueous processing of all-cellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Zhou, Zehang; Zhang, Xinxing; Yuan, Guiping

    2016-09-20

    The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using waste cotton fabrics (WCFs) as low cost feedstock for the production of value-added products. Our previous study (Tian et al., 2014) demonstrated that acidic ionic liquids (ILs) can be highly efficient catalysts for controllable synthesis of cellulose acetate (CA) due to their dual function of swelling and catalyzing. In this study, an optimized "quasi-homogeneous" process which required a small amount of acidic ILs as catalyst was developed to synthesize water-soluble CA from WCFs. The process was optimized by varying the amounts of ILs and the reaction time. The highest conversion of water-soluble CA from WCFs reached 90.8%. The structure of the obtained water-soluble CA was characterized and compared with the original WCFs. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that fully bio-based and transparent all-cellulose composites can be fabricated by simple aqueous blending of the obtained water-soluble CA and two kinds of nanocelluloses (cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibrils), which is attractive for the applications in disposable packaging materials, sheet coating and binders, etc. PMID:27261730

  6. Evaluating the ready biodegradability of two poorly water-soluble substances: comparative approach of bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs).

    PubMed

    Sweetlove, Cyril; Chenèble, Jean-Charles; Barthel, Yves; Boualam, Marc; L'Haridon, Jacques; Thouand, Gérald

    2016-09-01

    Difficulties encountered in estimating the biodegradation of poorly water-soluble substances are often linked to their limited bioavailability to microorganisms. Many original bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs) have been described, but no global approach was proposed for a standardized comparison of these. The latter would be a valuable tool as part of a wider strategy for evaluating poorly water-soluble substances. The purpose of this study was to define an evaluation strategy following the assessment of different BIMs adapted to poorly water-soluble substances with ready biodegradability tests. The study was performed with two poorly water-soluble chemicals-a solid, anthraquinone, and a liquid, isodecyl neopentanoate-and five BIMs were compared to the direct addition method (reference method), i.e., (i) ultrasonic dispersion, (ii) adsorption onto silica gel, (iii) dispersion using an emulsifier, (iv) dispersion with silicone oil, and (v) dispersion with emulsifier and silicone oil. A two-phase evaluation strategy of solid and liquid chemicals was developed involving the selection of the most relevant BIMs for enhancing the biodegradability of tested substances. A description is given of a BIM classification ratio (R BIM), which enables a comparison to be made between the different test chemical sample preparation methods used in the various tests. Thereby, using this comparison, the BIMs giving rise to the greatest biodegradability were ultrasonic dispersion and dispersion with silicone oil or with silicone oil and emulsifier for the tested solid chemical, adsorption onto silica gel, and ultrasonic dispersion for the liquid one. PMID:27234835

  7. Transporting and shielding photosensitisers by using water-soluble organometallic cages: a new strategy in drug delivery and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Bruno

    2013-06-24

    Skin photosensitivity remains one of the main limitations in photodynamic therapy. In this Concept article a strategy to overcome this limitation is described, in which the photosensitizer is hidden inside the hydrophobic cavity of a water-soluble organometallic cage. The metallacage not only protects the photosensitizer from light, it also facilitates its delivery to cancer cells. PMID:23737435

  8. Analytically useful blue chemiluminescence from a water-soluble iridium(III) complex containing a tetraethylene glycol functionalised triazolylpyridine ligand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zoe M; Kerr, Emily; Doeven, Egan H; Connell, Timothy U; Barnett, Neil W; Donnelly, Paul S; Haswell, Stephen J; Francis, Paul S

    2016-04-01

    We examine [Ir(df-ppy)2(pt-TEG)](+) as the first highly water soluble, blue-luminescent iridium(III) complex for chemiluminescence detection. Marked differences in selectivity were observed between the new complex and the conventional [Ru(bpy)3](2+) reagent, which will enable this mode of detection to be extended to new areas of application. PMID:26915962

  9. Water-soluble luminescent quantum dots and biomolecular conjugates thereof and related compositions and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Nie, Shuming; Chan, Warren C. W.; Emory, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a water-soluble luminescent quantum dot, a biomolecular conjugate thereof and a composition comprising such a quantum dot or conjugate. Additionally, the present invention provides a method of obtaining a luminescent quantum dot, a method of making a biomolecular conjugate thereof, and methods of using a biomolecular conjugate for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Water-soluble luminescent quantum dots and biomolecular conjugates thereof and related compositions and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Nie, Shuming; Chan, Warren C. W.; Emory, Stephen

    2007-03-20

    The present invention provides a water-soluble luminescent quantum dot, a biomolecular conjugate thereof and a composition comprising such a quantum dot or conjugate. Additionally, the present invention provides a method of obtaining a luminescent quantum dot, a method of making a biomolecular conjugate thereof, and methods of using a biomolecular conjugate for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection in vitro and in vivo.

  11. [Fast separation and analysis of water-soluble vitamins in spinach by capillary electrophoresis with high voltage].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqin; You, Huiyan

    2009-11-01

    In capillary electrophoresis, 0-40 kV (even higher) voltage can be reached by a connecting double-model high voltage power supply. In the article, water-soluble vitamins, VB1, VB2, VB6, VC, calcium D-pantothenate, D-biotin, nicotinic acid and folic acid in vegetable, were separated by using the high voltage power supply under the condition of electrolyte water solution as running buffer. The separation conditions, such as voltage, the concentration of buffer and pH value etc. , were optimized during the experiments. The results showed that eight water-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated in 2.2 min at 40 kV applied voltage, 25 mmol/L sodium tetraborate buffer solution (pH 8.8). The water-soluble vitamins in spinach were quantified and the results were satisfied. The linear correlation coefficients of the water-soluble vitamins ranged from 0.9981 to 0.9999. The detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 100.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) range of 1.15%-4.13% for the spinach samples. PMID:20352941

  12. A kinetic study of a poorly water soluble drug released from pectin microcapsules using diffusion/dissolution model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new microcapsular system for controlled drug delivery was developed from pectins obtained from various sources, with different molecular weight and degree of esterification. The release kinetics of a poorly water-soluble drug from the pectin microcapsules was investigated in simulated gastrointes...

  13. Sources and light absorption of water-soluble organic carbon aerosols in the outflow from northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2014-02-01

    High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over one billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17-80%) of this aerosol carbon is water-soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that water-soluble carbonaceous aerosols also absorb sunlight, bringing additional direct and indirect climate warming effects, yet the extent and nature of light absorption by this water-soluble "brown carbon" and its relation to sources is poorly understood. Here, we combine source estimates constrained by dual carbon isotopes with light-absorption measurements of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for a March 2011 campaign at the Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan (KCOG), a receptor station in SE Yellow Sea for the outflow from northern China. The mass absorption cross section at 365 nm (MAC365) of WSOC for air masses from N. China were in general higher (0.8-1.1 m2 g-1), than from other source regions (0.3-0.8 m2 g-1). However, this effect corresponds to only 2-10% of the radiative forcing caused by light absorption by elemental carbon. Radiocarbon constraints show that the WSOC in Chinese outflow had significantly higher fraction fossil sources (30-50%) compared to previous findings in S. Asia, N. America and Europe. Stable carbon (δ13C) measurements were consistent with aging during long-range air mass transport for this large fraction of carbonaceous aerosols.

  14. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  15. Subphthalocyanines: addressing water-solubility, nano-encapsulation, and activation for optical imaging of B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Yann; Winckler, Pascale; Chassagnon, Remi; Richard, Philippe; Gigot, Élodie; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Decréau, Richard A

    2014-11-21

    Water-soluble disulfonato-subphthalocyanines (SubPcs) or hydrophobic nano-encapsulated SubPcs are efficient probes for the fluorescence imaging of cells. 20 nm large liposomes (TEM and DLS) incorporated about 13% SubPc. Moreover, some of these fluorophores were found to be pH activatable. PMID:25266256

  16. Carbon turnover in the water-soluble protein of the adult human lens

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Daniel N.; Lango, Jozsef; Nambiar, Krishnan P.; Falso, Miranda J. S.; FitzGerald, Paul G.; Rocke, David M.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Human eye lenses contain cells that persist from embryonic development. These unique, highly specialized fiber cells located at the core (nucleus) of the lens undergo pseudo-apoptosis to become devoid of cell nuclei and most organelles. Ostensibly lacking in protein transcriptional capabilities, it is currently believed that these nuclear fiber cells owe their extreme longevity to the perseverance of highly stable and densely packed crystallin proteins. Maintaining the structural and functional integrity of lenticular proteins is necessary to sustain cellular transparency and proper vision, yet the means by which the lens actually copes with a lifetime of oxidative stress, seemingly without any capacity for protein turnover and repair, is not completely understood. Although many years of research have been predicated upon the assumption that there is no protein turnover or renewal in nuclear fiber cells, we investigated whether or not different protein fractions possess protein of different ages by using the 14C bomb pulse. Methods Adult human lenses were concentrically dissected by gently removing the cell layers in water or shaving to the nucleus with a curved micrometer-controlled blade. The cells were lysed, and the proteins were separated into water-soluble and water-insoluble fractions. The small molecules were removed using 3 kDa spin filters. The 14C/C was measured in paired protein fractions by accelerator mass spectrometry, and an average age for the material within the sample was assigned using the 14C bomb pulse. Results The water-insoluble fractions possessed 14C/C ratios consistent with the age of the cells. In all cases, the water-soluble fractions contained carbon that was younger than the paired water-insoluble fraction. Conclusions As the first direct evidence of carbon turnover in protein from adult human nuclear fiber cells, this discovery supports the emerging view of the lens nucleus as a dynamic system capable of maintaining

  17. Organometallic Palladium Complexes with a Water-Soluble Iminophosphorane Ligand as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Monica; Calvo-Sanjuán, Rubén; Sanaú, Mercedes; Marzo, Isabel; Contel, María

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new water-soluble iminophosphorane ligand TPA=N-C(O)-2BrC6H4 (C,N-IM; TPA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) 1 is reported. Oxidative addition of 1 to Pd2(dba)3 affords the orthopalladated dimer [Pd(μ-Br){C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}]2 (2) as a mixture of cis and trans isomers (1:1 molar ratio) where the iminophosphorane moeity behaves as a C,N-pincer ligand. By addition of different neutral or monoanionic ligands to 2, the bridging bromide can be cleaved and a variety of hydrophilic or water-soluble mononuclear organometallic palladium(II) complexes of the type [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(L-L)] (L-L = acac (3); S2CNMe2 (4); 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid disodium salt C12H6N2(C6H4SO3Na)2 (5)); [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(L)Br] (L = P(mC6H4SO3Na)3 (6); P(3-Pyridyl)3 (7)) and, [Pd(C6H4(C(O)N=TPA)-2}(TPA)2Br] (8) are obtained as single isomers. All new complexes were tested as potential anticancer agents and their cytotoxicity properties were evaluated in vitro against human Jurkat-T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, normal T-lymphocytes (PBMC) and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. Compounds [Pd(μ-Br){C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}]2 (2) and [Pd{C6H4(C(O)N=TPA-kC,N)-2}(acac)] 3 (which has been crystallographically characterized) display the higher cytotoxicity against the above mentioned cancer cell lines while being less toxic to normal T-lymphocytes (peripheral blood mononuclear cells: PBMC). In addition, 3 is very toxic to cisplatin resistant Jurkat shBak indicating a cell death pathway that may be different to that of cisplatin. The interaction of 2 and 3 with plasmid (pBR322) DNA is much weaker than that of cisplatin pointing to an alternative biomolecular target for these cytotoxic compounds. All the compounds show an interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) faster than that of cisplatin. PMID:23066172

  18. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonen, H.; Saarikoski, S.; Tolonen-Kivimäki, O.; Aurela, M.; Saarnio, K.; Petäjä, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.; Pakkanen, T.; Hillamo, R.

    2008-09-01

    This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III) by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC) and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples (particle aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm, PM1). Gravimetric mass concentration varied during the MOUDI samplings between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m-3 and the WSOC concentrations were between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m-3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 to convert the analyzed carbon mass to organic matter mass) comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1-10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1-10 aerosol mass. Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas). Categories were identified mainly using levoglucosan concentration level for wood combustion and air mass backward trajectories for other groups. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely to have an impact on the measured aerosol composition. Using the source categories, it was identified that

  19. CO2-induced small water solubility in olivine and implications for properties of the shallow mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhi; Liu, Dingding; Xia, Qunke

    2014-10-01

    H2O and CO2 are important components of fluids in the mantle at ∼30-150 km depth, and may affect strongly water dissolution in nominally anhydrous olivine; however, available experimental hydrogenation of olivine has been nearly exclusively carried out in coexistence with H2O (CO2-free). In this study, the effect of CO2 on water solubility in olivine has been investigated by H-annealing natural olivine under peridotite- and fluid-saturated conditions. Experiments were conducted at 1.5-5 GPa and 1100-1300 °C, with oxygen fugacity controlled by Ni-NiO and with either H2O or H2O-CO2 as buffering fluid. The olivine shows no change in composition during the experiments. The infrared spectra of the hydrated olivine are characterized by prominent OH bands from ∼3650 to 3000 cm in all the runs, at both high frequency (>3450 cm) and low frequency (<3450 cm), and the H2O solubility is ∼120-370 ppm for the olivine in coexisting with H2O, and ∼65-180 ppm for the olivine in coexisting with H2O-CO2. When CO2 is present in the buffering fluid, the H2O solubility of olivine is reduced by a factor of ∼2, due to effect on the partitioning of water between minerals and coexisting fluid, and the measured H2O solubility shows independence on fluid composition (the molar ratio of CO2 to CO2 + H2O at ∼0.2-0.5) given pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity. Olivine equilibrated in the shallow mantle is probably dominated by OH groups in the wavenumber ∼3650-3000 cm, and the intensity of OH bands at low frequency may be higher than or comparable to those at higher frequencies. The storage capacity of water in the shallow mantle in previous estimates may have been overestimated by a factor of at least ∼4 if the observed effect of CO2 on water solubility is correct. Our results have profound influence on understanding partial melting, electrical conductivity anomalies and metasomatism in the shallow mantle.

  20. Membrane solubilization by the non-ionic detergent triton X-100. A comparative study including model and cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Macarulla, J M; Alonso, A; Arrondo, J L; González-Mañas, J M; Goñi, F M; Gurtubay, J I; Prado, A; Urbaneja, M A

    1989-01-01

    The solubilizing effects of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 have been examined on three membranous systems, namely rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum, Halobacterium purple membrane and gramicidin A-phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The loss of membrane structure has been assessed through changes in suspension turbidity, while chemical analysis has revealed the differential solubilization of proteins and lipids. Solubilization data obtained on the above three systems are compared with previously published values concerning other membrane preparations. Also, solubilization of sarcoplasmic reticulum by Triton X-100 is monitored by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and, similarly, purple membrane-surfactant interaction is studied using visible spectroscopy. The biochemical and spectroscopic data may be rationalized assuming a three-stage model of membrane-detergent interaction, incorporation of surfactant monomers into the membrane; disruption of the bilayer into mixed micelles, and separation of lipid and protein. PMID:2641811

  1. The advantage of polymer addition to a non-ionic oil in water microemulsion for the dermal delivery of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Biruss, Babette; Valenta, Claudia

    2008-02-12

    The influence of progesterone on the physicochemical behaviour of the o/w microemulsion consisting of the non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-10-dodecyl ether, tributyrin and water was investigated. Thereby no significant influence could be detected in terms of droplet size, zeta potential, conductivity and pH by progesterone. However the chemical stability of progesterone was insufficient during the storage of 6 months. Therefore, two different polymeric agents, named silicon dioxide and polymeric emulsifier, were added to the progesterone containing microemulsions. These polymers increased the chemical stability of progesterone significantly. Moreover the polymeric additives improved the skin permeation 1.24- and 1.63-fold and decreased the skin retention in relation to the pure microemulsion. The polymer-stabilized progesterone microemulsions are interesting vehicles for skin application of progesterone. PMID:17869457

  2. Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-01-21

    Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH3CONH2) and urea (NH2CONH2) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH3CONH2 + (1 - f)NH2CONH2] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ∼120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (∼207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (∼70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (α2) and new non-Gaussian (γ) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems. PMID:25612718

  3. Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): Time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH3CONH2) and urea (NH2CONH2) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH3CONH2 + (1 - f)NH2CONH2] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ˜120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (˜207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (˜70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (α2) and new non-Gaussian (γ) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems.

  4. Structure and rheology of semisolid o/w creams containing cetyl alcohol/non-ionic surfactant mixed emulsifier and different polymers.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, H M; Morais, J A; Eccleston, G M

    2004-04-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions for cosmetic use, such as lotions and creams, are complex multiple-phase systems, which may contain a number of interacting surfactants, fatty amphiphiles, polymers and other excipients. This study investigates the influence of two synthetic cationic polymers, Polyquaternium-7 and Polyquaternium-11, and the natural anionic polymer, gum of acacia, on the rheology and microstructure of creams prepared with a non-ionic mixed emulsifier (cetyl stearyl alcohol-12EO/cetyl alcohol) using rheology (continuous shear, and viscoelastic creep and oscillation), microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A control cream containing no polymer was also investigated. The semisolid control cream was structured by a swollen lamellar gel network phase formed from the interaction of cetyl alcohol and the POE surfactant, in excess of that required to stabilize oil droplets, with continuous phase water. Endothermic transitions between 25 and 100 degrees C were identified as components of this phase. Incorporation of cationic polymer into the formulation caused significant loss of structure to produce a mobile semisolid containing larger oil droplets. The microscopical and thermal data implied that the cationic polymer caused the swollen lamellar gel network phase to transform into non-swollen crystals of cetyl alcohol. In contrast, incorporation of gum of acacia produced a thicker cream than the control, with smaller droplet sizes and little evidence of the gel network. Microscopical and thermal data implied that although there were also interactions between gum of acacia and both the surfactant and the swollen gel network phase, the semisolid properties were probably because of the ability of the gum of acacia to stabilize and thicken the emulsion in the absence of the swollen lamellar network. PMID:18494913

  5. Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): Time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-01-21

    Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2}) and urea (NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2} + (1 − f)NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ∼120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (∼207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (∼70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (α{sub 2}) and new non-Gaussian (γ) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems.

  6. Seasonal and longitudinal distributions of atmospheric water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls over the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Imanishi, Katsuya; Boreddy, S. K. R.; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2015-05-01

    In order to assess the seasonal variability of atmospheric abundances of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls over the North Pacific and Sea of Japan, aerosol samples were collected along the longitudinal transacts during six cruises between Canada and Japan. The back trajectory analyses indicate that aerosol samples collected in winter and spring are influenced by the East Asian outflow, whereas summer and fall samples are associated with the pristine maritime air masses. Molecular distributions of water-soluble organics in winter and spring samples show the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by succinic (C4) and malonic acids (C3). In contrast, summer and fall marine aerosols are characterized by the predominance of C3 over C4. Concentrations of dicarboxylic acids were higher over the Sea of Japan than the North Pacific. With a lack of continental outflow, higher concentrations during early summer are ascribed to atmospheric oxidation of organic precursors associated with high biological activity in the North Pacific. This interpretation is further supported by the high abundances of azelaic acid, which is a photochemical oxidation product of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids, over the Bering Sea in early summer when surface waters are characterized by high biological productivity. We found higher ratios of oxalic acid to pyruvic and glyoxylic acids (C2/Pyr and C2/ωC2) and glyoxal and methylglyoxal (C2/Gly and C2/MeGly) in summer and fall than in winter and spring, suggesting a production of C2 from the aqueous-phase oxidation of oceanic isoprene. In this study, dicarboxylic acids account for 0.7-38% of water-soluble organic carbon.

  7. Water-soluble organic compounds in PM2.5 and size-segregated aerosols over Mount Tai in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Umemoto, Nobuhiko; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Wang, Zifa

    2009-10-01

    Daytime and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (1534 m) located in North China Plain during a week in 2006 summer. Size-segregated aerosol particles were also collected using an eight-stage impactor during the same period. Samples were analyzed for various water-soluble organic compounds using GC/FID and GC/MS techniques. Among the species identified in PM2.5 samples, dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11) were found as the most abundant compound class, followed by ketocarboxylic acids, saccharides, polyols and polyacids, and dicarbonyls. Daytime concentrations of most compounds were found to be 2-3 times higher than in nighttime. Such a diurnal variation was first interpreted by the depressed transport of pollutants in nighttime from the lowlands to the mountaintop owing to the decreased heights of planetary boundary layer, and second by the photochemical production in daytime. The diurnal variation trends of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) such as diacids at the mountain site are the same as those on lowlands, but the diurnal patterns of primary organic aerosols (POA) on the mountaintop are in contrast to those on lowlands, where POA such as saccharides and polyols are usually higher in nighttime owing to the accumulation within inversion layer developed. The eight-stage impactor samples showed bimodal distributions of diacids and related compounds peaking at size ranges of 0.70-1.1 μm and 5.8-9.0 μm. In the present study, water-soluble organics in the fine mode are largely originated from biomass burning and/or photooxidation of gaseous precursors and the subsequent adsorption on the preexisting particles, whereas those in the coarse mode are mainly derived from suspended soil particles and pollens and in part via the hygroscopic growth of fine particles and formation of cloud/fog droplets.

  8. Water-soluble ionic species of coarse and fine particulate matter and gas precursor characteristics at urban and rural sites of central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Tsai, Su-Mei; Wang, Wei-Chi; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2016-08-01

    Coarse and fine particulate matter (PM) were taken by a dichotomous sampler, and gas precursors were determined by a denuder sampler at two stations in central Taiwan. Water-soluble ionic constituents of PM and their precursor gases were analyzed by ionic chromatograph. In summer, the daytime/nighttime PM10 concentrations were 37 ± 10/41 ± 18 μg m(-3) and 36 ± 14/34 ± 18 μg m(-3) for Xitun and Jhushan, respectively. Average PM10 concentration in winter was 1.55 and 1.76 times that of summer for Xitun and Jhushan, respectively. PM mass concentrations were similar for both stations, although one station is located in the downtown area of Taichung, and the other is in a rural area with no heavy pollution sources. Water-soluble ionic species content was 38-53 % of PM2.5 and 43-48 % of PM10 mass concentration. HNO3, HCl, and SO2 were high in the daytime; the daytime-to-nighttime concentration ratio was 3.75-6.88 for HNO3,1.7-7.8 for HCl, and 1.45-2.77 for SO2. High NH3 levels were determined in the area, especially in winter, which could be a precursor of NH4 (+) to form particulate matter. In Xitun, motor vehicles downtown and in the industrial district could be sources of air pollution. In contrast, there are few industrial sources at Jhushan; therefore, the transport of air pollutants from upwind of other regions and the accumulation of pollutants could be important PM sources at Jhushan. PMID:27184148

  9. Novel in situ self-assembly nanoparticles for formulating a poorly water-soluble drug in oral solid granules, improving stability, palatability, and bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shujie; Pham, Kevin; Li, Diana; Penzak, Scott R; Dong, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a novel lipid-based nanotechnology to formulate poorly water-soluble drugs in oral solid granules to improve stability, palatability, and bioavailability. Materials and methods In one method, we prepared ritonavir (RTV) nanoparticles (NPs) by a microemulsion-precursor method and then converted the RTV NPs to solid granules by wet granulation to produce RTV NP-containing granules. In the other innovative method, we did not use water in the formulation preparation, and discovered novel in situ self-assembly nanoparticles (ISNPs). We prepared RTV ISNP granules that did not initially contain NPs, but spontaneously produced RTV ISNPs when the granules were introduced to water with gentle agitation. We fully characterized these RTV nanoformulations. We also used rats to test the bioavailability of RTV ISNP granules. Finally, an Astree electronic tongue was used to assess the taste of the RTV ISNP granules. Results RTV NP-containing granules only had about 1% drug loading of RTV in the solid granules. In contrast, RTV ISNP granules achieved over 16% drug loading and were stable at room temperature over 24 weeks. RTV ISNPs had particle size between 160 nm and 300 nm with narrow size distribution. RTV ISNPs were stable in simulated gastric fluid for 2 hours and in simulated intestinal fluid for another 6 hours. The data from the electronic tongue showed that the RTV ISNP granules were similar in taste to blank ISNP granules, but were much different from RTV solution. RTV ISNP granules increased RTV bioavailability over 2.5-fold compared to RTV solution. Conclusion We successfully discovered and developed novel ISNPs to manufacture RTV ISNP granules that were reconstitutable, stable, and palatable, and improved RTV bioavailability. The novel ISNP nanotechnology is a platform to manufacture oral solid dosage forms for poorly water-soluble drugs, especially for pediatric formulation development. PMID:27103803

  10. A prospective analysis of co-processed non-ionic surfactants in enhancing permeability of a model hydrophilic drug.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Mohammed M; Chatterjee, Parnali

    2014-04-01

    Paracellular route is a natural pathway for the transport of many hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the ability of novel co-processed non-ionic surfactants to enhance the paracellular permeability of a model hydrophilic drug metformin using Caco-2 (human colonic adenocarcinoma) cell model. A three-tier screen was undertaken to evaluate the co-processed blends based on cytotoxicity, cellular integrity, and permeability coefficient. The relative contribution of the paracellular and the transcellular route in overall transport of metformin by co-processed blends was determined. Immunocytochemistry was conducted to determine the distribution of tight-junction protein claudin-1 after incubation with the co-processed blends. It was found that novel blends of Labrasol and Transcutol-P enhanced metformin permeability by approximately twofold with transient reduction in the transepithelia electrical resistance (TEER) and minimal cytotoxicity compared with the control, with the paracellular pathway as the major route of metformin transport. Maximum permeability of metformin (∼10-fold) was mediated by Tween-20 blends along with >75% reduction in the TEER which was irreversible over 24-h period. A shift in metformin transport from the paracellular to the transcellular route was observed with some Tween-20 blends. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed rearrangement of the cellular borders and fragmentation on treatment with Tween-20 blends. In conclusion, cytotoxicity, cellular integrity, and permeability of the hydrophilic drugs can be greatly influenced by the polyoxyethylene residues and medium chain fatty acids in the non-ionic surfactants at clinically relevant concentrations and therefore should be thoroughly investigated prior to their inclusion in formulations. PMID:24357111

  11. Novel pH-sensitive non-ionic surfactant vesicles: comparison between Tween 21 and Tween 20.

    PubMed

    Di Marzio, Luisa; Marianecci, Carlotta; Petrone, Mariadea; Rinaldi, Federica; Carafa, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Drug delivery systems using vesicular carriers such as liposomes or niosomes, have distinct advantages over conventional dosage forms because the vesicles can act as drug containing reservoirs and the modification of the vesicular compositions or surface properties can adjust the drug release rate and/or the affinity for the target site. In recent years, niosomes have been the object of growing scientific attention as an alternative potential drug delivery system to conventional liposomes. The aim of present work was firstly to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and then to analyze the capability of polysorbate 21 (Tween 21) to form niosomal formulations. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles were prepared using Tween 21 and cholesterol (CHOL) at equimolar ratio (15 mM:15 mM) by employing the "film" technique. Cholesterol was used to complete the hydrophobic moiety of single alkyl chain non-ionic surfactant for vesicle formation. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine the size, zeta (ζ)-potential, polydispersity index and colloidal stability of the niosomal formulation. The vesicles were also characterized for their microviscosity and pH-sensitivity using fluorescent probes. The present work led to a simple, but positive result in pharmaceutical technology area. In particular, we have shown that the Tween 21:CHOL vesicles (i) are a homogenous and monodisperse vesicular population; (ii) are characterized by dimension compatible with the transport of drugs across biological barriers especially those whose diameter is about 100nm; (iii) shows a good stability at least 90 days at 4°C and (iv) are pH-sensitive systems. In conclusion, this niosomal formulation could be used as pH-sensitive nanodevices for delivery of drugs to pathological tissues, which exhibit an acidic environment as compared to normal tissues. PMID:20832262

  12. Initiation efficiency and cytotoxicity of a series of water-soluble benzylidene cyclopentanone for two-photon polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaopu; Fang, Yanyan; Zou, Qianli; Zhao, Yuxia; Wu, Feipeng

    2014-11-01

    The 3D fabrication of bio-compatible materials under an aqueous environment is a fundamental requirement for tissue engineering. In this work, a series of polyethylene glycol- (PEG-), carboxylate anionic group- or pyridyl cationic groupfunctionalized benzylidene cyclopentanone photo-initiators (B2, B3, X2, X3, Y1 and P1) were synthesized. Their water-solubility, photophysical properties and cytotoxicity were investigated. Using eosin as reference, their initiation efficiencies in water-soluble photoactive formulation (SR610 with 20% of DI water) excited by one- or two-photon were studied. The results showed that there were no significant differences on partial linear photophysical properties of these initiators, such as [see manuscript] and [see manuscript], but differences on their (see manuscript), Φ, and σmax are clear. In addition, their cytotoxicity is different. Two PEG-functionalized initiators (B3 and X3) with two PEG groups on one side of benzylidene cyclopentanone cores have obvious toxicity, while other four intiators are safety to HepG2 cells at the concentration of 20 μM. Moreover, the water-solubility of X2 and X3 (containing two longer PEG) were much better than those of other four initiators. Using these initiators, 3D micro-structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization of water-soluble acrylate all could be achieved. In addition, their threshold energies were all lower than 0.5 mW. However, the stiffness of 3D micro-structures was affected by the water-solubility of these photo-initiators. Those structures built by formulations containing X2 and X3 would collapse easily. Conversely, other structures could sustain very well. This work proves that B2,Y1,and P1 have extensive application prospects in 3D fabrication for tissue engineering.

  13. Novel third-generation water-soluble noscapine analogs as superior microtubule-interfering agents with enhanced antiproliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Henary, Maged; Narayana, Lakshminarayana; Ahad, Shazia; Gundala, Sushma R.; Mukkavilli, Rao; Sharma, Vibhuti; Owens, Eric A.; Yadav, Yogesh; Nagaraju, Mulpuri; Hamelberg, Donald; Tandon, Vibha; Panda, Dulal; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine, an opium-derived ‘kinder-gentler’ microtubule-modulating drug is in Phase I/II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. However, its limited water solubility encumbers its development into an oral anticancer drug with clinical promise. Here we report the synthesis of 9 third-generation, water-soluble noscapine analogs with negatively charged sulfonato and positively charged quaternary ammonium groups using noscapine, 9-bromonoscapine and 9-aminonoscapine as scaffolds. The predictive free energy of solvation was found to be lower for sulfonates (6a–c;8a–c) compared to the quaternary ammonium-substituted counterparts, explaining their higher water solubility. In addition, sulfonates showed higher charge dispersability, which may effectively shield the hydrophobicity of isoquinoline nucleus as indicated by hydrophobicity mapping methods. These in silico data underscore efficient net charge balancing, which may explain higher water solubility and thus enhanced antiproliferative efficacy and improved bioavailability. We observed that 6b, 8b and 8c strongly inhibited tubulin polymerization and demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against four cancer cell lines compared to noscapine. Molecular simulation and docking studies of tubulin-drug complexes revealed that the brominated compound with a four-carbon chain (4b, 6b, 8b) showed optimal binding with tubulin heterodimers. Interestingly, 6b, 8b and 8c treated PC-3 cells resulted in preponderance of mitotic cells with multipolar spindle morphology, suggesting that they stall the cell cycle. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of 6b, 8b and 8c revealed at least 1–2 fold improvement in their bioavailability compared to noscapine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate novel water-soluble noscapine analogs that may pave the way for future pre-clinical drug development. PMID:25124704

  14. Novel third-generation water-soluble noscapine analogs as superior microtubule-interfering agents with enhanced antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Henary, Maged; Narayana, Lakshminarayana; Ahad, Shazia; Gundala, Sushma R; Mukkavilli, Rao; Sharma, Vibhuti; Owens, Eric A; Yadav, Yogesh; Nagaraju, Mulpuri; Hamelberg, Donald; Tandon, Vibha; Panda, Dulal; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-11-15

    Noscapine, an opium-derived 'kinder-gentler' microtubule-modulating drug is in Phase I/II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. However, its limited water solubility encumbers its development into an oral anticancer drug with clinical promise. Here we report the synthesis of 9 third-generation, water-soluble noscapine analogs with negatively charged sulfonato and positively charged quaternary ammonium groups using noscapine, 9-bromonoscapine and 9-aminonoscapine as scaffolds. The predictive free energy of solvation was found to be lower for sulfonates (6a-c; 8a-c) compared to the quaternary ammonium-substituted counterparts, explaining their higher water solubility. In addition, sulfonates showed higher charge dispersability, which may effectively shield the hydrophobicity of isoquinoline nucleus as indicated by hydrophobicity mapping methods. These in silico data underscore efficient net charge balancing, which may explain higher water solubility and thus enhanced antiproliferative efficacy and improved bioavailability. We observed that 6b, 8b and 8c strongly inhibited tubulin polymerization and demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against four cancer cell lines compared to noscapine. Molecular simulation and docking studies of tubulin-drug complexes revealed that the brominated compound with a four-carbon chain (4b, 6b, and 8b) showed optimal binding with tubulin heterodimers. Interestingly, 6b, 8b and 8c treated PC-3 cells resulted in preponderance of mitotic cells with multipolar spindle morphology, suggesting that they stall the cell cycle. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of 6b, 8b and 8c revealed at least 1-2-fold improvement in their bioavailability compared to noscapine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate novel water-soluble noscapine analogs that may pave the way for future pre-clinical drug development. PMID:25124704

  15. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Daishi; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Azechi, Sotaro; Nakaema, Fumiya; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Tanahara, Akira

    2010-05-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia spread air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. The study of the long-range transported air pollution from Asian continent has gained a special attention in Japan because of increase in photochemical oxidants in relatively remote islands. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the bulk aerosols collected at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. We will report water-soluble chemical components data of anions, cations and DOC in bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS during August, 2005 to April, 2010. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components showed that the concentrations were relatively low in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian Continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components were much higher compared to the other directions. In addition, we calculated background concentration of water-soluble chemical components at Okinawa

  16. New Insight into the Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-Binding Protein from Lepidium virginicum.

    PubMed

    Kell, Adam; Bednarczyk, Dominika; Acharya, Khem; Chen, Jinhai; Noy, Dror; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2016-05-01

    This study describes new recombinant water-soluble chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins (WSCP) from Lepidium virginicum (LvWSCP). This complex binds four Chls (i.e. two dimers of Chls) per protein tetramer. We show that absorption, emission, hole-burned (HB) spectra and the shape of the zero-phonon hole (ZPH) action spectrum are consistent with the presence of uncorrelated excitation energy transfer between two Chl dimers. Thus, there is no need to include slow protein relaxation within the lowest excited state (as suggested in a previous analysis of cauliflower WSCP [Schmitt, F.-J. et al. (2008) J. Phys. Chem. B, 112, 13951; Pieper, J. et al. (2011) J. Phys. Chem. B, 115, 4053]) in order to explain the large shift observed between the maxima of the ZPH action and emission spectra. Experimental evidence is provided which shows that electron exchange between lowest energy Chls and the protein may occur, i.e. electrons can be trapped at low temperature by nearby aromatic amino acids. The latter explains the shape of nonresonant HB spectra (i.e. the absence of antihole), demonstrating that the hole-burning process in LvWSCP is largely photochemical in nature, though a small contribution from nonphotochemical hole burning (in resonant holes) is also observed. PMID:26914599

  17. Source attribution of water-soluble organic aerosol by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Decesari, Stefano; Mircea, Mihaiela; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Fuzzi, Sandro; Moretti, Fabio; Tagliavini, Emilio; Facchini, Maria Cristina

    2007-04-01

    The functional group compositions of atmospheric aerosol water-soluble organic compoundswere obtained employing proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy in a series of recent experiments in several areas of the world characterized by different aerosol sources and pollution levels. Here, we discuss the possibility of using 1H NMR functional group distributions to identifythe sources of aerosol in the different areas. Despite the limited variability of functional group compositions of atmospheric aerosol samples, characteristic 1H NMR fingerprints were derived for three major aerosol sources: biomass burning, secondary formation from anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs, and emission from the ocean. The functional group patterns obtained in areas characterized by one of the above dominant source processes were then compared to identify the dominant sources for samples coming from mixed sources. This analysis shows that H NMR spectroscopy can profitably be used as a valuable tool for aerosol source identification. In addition, compared to other existing methodologies, it is able to relate the source fingerprints to integral chemical properties of the organic mixtures, which determine their reactivity and their physicochemical properties and ultimately the fate of the organic particles in the atmosphere. PMID:17438803

  18. Novel isolation of water-soluble polysaccharides from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Irene; García-Lafuente, Ana; Guillamón, Eva; Villares, Ana

    2012-09-01

    Novel water-soluble polysaccharides have been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Three polysaccharide fractions were obtained by ethanol precipitation from cold water, hot water and hot aqueous NaOH extracts. The fractions were purified by size exclusion chromatography showing a unique carbohydrate occurring in each fraction: PC from the cold fraction, PH from the hot fraction and PB from the hot aqueous NaOH fraction. The analysis of the methylated alditol acetates and the NMR studies revealed that all the polysaccharides displayed a linear backbone. PC was formed by α-(1→3),(1→6)-linked galactopyranosyl residues whereas PH and PB consisted of glucose-linked units. PH was exclusively composed of glucopyranosyl units bound by α-(1→4) linkages whereas PB was a β-linked glucan showing (1→3) and (1→6) glycosidic bonds. The analysis of molecular arrangement by complexation with Congo red showed that only the β-linked polysaccharide (PB) displayed a triple helix conformation. PMID:22824506

  19. Tartrate/tripolyphosphate as co-crosslinker for water soluble chitosan used in protein antigens encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Gopal; Walke, Shilratna; Dhavale, Dilip; Gade, Wasudeo; Doshi, Jignesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Ravetkar, Satish; Doshi, Pooja

    2016-10-01

    In drug delivery research, several toxic chemical crosslinkers and non-toxic ionic crosslinkers have been exploited for the synthesis of microparticles from acetic acid soluble chitosan. This paper hypothesized the implementation of sodium potassium tartrate (SPT) as an alternative crosslinker for sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and SPT/TPP co-crosslinkers for synthesis of the microparticles using water soluble chitosan (WSC) for encapsulation of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, and Tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model vaccine. The crosslinking was confirmed by FT-IR, SEM with EDS. The XRD entailed molecular dispersion of proteins and thermal analysis confirmed the higher stability of STP/TPP co-crosslinked formulations. The resultant microparticles were exhibiting crosslinking degree (52-67%), entrapment efficiency (72-80%), particle size (0.3-1.7μm), zeta potential (+24 to 46mV) and mucoadhesion (41-68%). The superiority of SPT over TPP was confirmed by higher crosslinking degree and entrapment efficiency. However, co-crosslinking were advantageous in higher regression values for Langmuir adsorption isotherm, slower swelling tendency and extended 30days controlled in-vitro release study. TT release obeyed the Quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism for single and cocrosslinked formulations. Overall, in crosslinking of chitosan as biological macromolecules, STP/TPP may be alternative for single ionic crosslinked formulations for protein antigen delivery. PMID:27246374

  20. The fluorescent interactions between amphiphilic chitosan derivatives and water-soluble quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xuening; Yu, Miaozhuo; Zhang, Baolian; Cao, Lingyun; Yu, Lu; Jia, Guozhi; Zhou, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The LCC-CdTe quantum dots (QDs) hybrid was fabricated by mixing the N-lauryl-N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan (LCC) micelle with water-soluble CdTe QDs in an aqueous solution via hydrophobic forces and the electronic attraction. The structures of LCC and LCC-CdTe QDs hybrid were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the lauryl and carboxymethyl were successfully grafted to chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO), and a number of CdTe QDs were encapsulated by LCC micelle to form a core/shell structure. The tested results of the fluorescent characteristics of LCC, CdTe QDs and LCC-CdTe QDs hybrid showed that there were some obvious fluorescent interactions between LCC and CdTe QDs. Meanwhile, with the change in LCC space structure, the fluorescent interactions between LCC and QDs showed different fluorescent characteristics. The QDs fluorescent (FL) intensity increased first and then decreased to almost quenching, while LCC FL intensity decreased continually. PMID:26232578

  1. Effect of particle size on the dissolution behaviors of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kyung Rok; Lee, Eunhee; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Park, Eun-Seok

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the particle size of various poorly water-soluble drugs on their dissolution behavior through physicochemical and mathematical analysis. As model drugs, hydrochlorothiazide, aceclofenac, ibuprofen and a discovery candidate were selected. The materials were crystallized using an evaporation method and milled without transformation behavior of crystal forms. The particles were sieved and divided into four size groups (< 45 μm, 45∼150 μm, 150∼250 μm, and 250∼600 μm). The specific surface area with regard to the particle size was measured using a BET surface area measurement. The specific surface area increased with decreasing particle size of the drug, resulting in an increase in dissolution rate. During the initial period of the dissolution study, significant differences in dissolution rate were observed according to the particle size and specific surface areas. On the other hand, in the later stages, the surface-specific dissolution rate was almost consistent regardless of the particle size. These observations were evaluated mathematically and the results suggested that the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs is strongly related to the particle size distribution. Moreover, physicochemical analysis helped explain the effect of particle size on the dissolution profiles. PMID:22864741

  2. Method for production of polymer and carbon nanofibers from water-soluble polymers.

    PubMed

    Spender, Jonathan; Demers, Alexander L; Xie, Xinfeng; Cline, Amos E; Earle, M Alden; Ellis, Lucas D; Neivandt, David J

    2012-07-11

    Nanometer scale carbon fibers (carbon nanofibers) are of great interest to scientists and engineers in fields such as materials science, composite production, and energy storage due to their unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. Precursors currently used for production of carbon nanofibers are primarily from nonrenewable resources. Lignin is a renewable natural polymer existing in all high-level plants that is a byproduct of the papermaking process and a potential feedstock for carbon nanofiber production. The work presented here demonstrates a process involving the rapid freezing of an aqueous lignin solution, followed by sublimation of the resultant ice, to form a uniform network comprised of individual interconnected lignin nanofibers. Carbonization of the lignin nanofibers yields a similarly structured carbon nanofiber network. The methodology is not specific to lignin; nanofibers of other water-soluble polymers have been successfully produced. This nanoscale fibrous morphology has not been observed in traditional cryogel processes, due to the relatively slower freezing rates employed compared to those achieved in this study. PMID:22716198

  3. Water-soluble benzylidene cyclopentanone based photosensitizers for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yanyan; Liu, Tianlong; Zou, Qianli; Zhao, Yuxia; Wu, Feipeng

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed to cope with the increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogens. As versatile pharmacophores, benzylidene cyclopentanone based photosensitizers (PSs) have been used in various bioactive materials. However, their reports as aPDT agents are very limited, and relationships between their chemical structures and antibacterial abilities have not been systematically discussed. Here, nine water-soluble benzylidene cyclopentanone PSs modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG), carboxylate anionic or pyridyl cationic agents are studied for aPDT. It is found that the binding/uptake abilities and aPDT effects of these PSs toward bacterial cells vary significantly when adjusting the number and position of their terminal charged groups. Though the comparable (also best) binding/uptake amounts are achieved by both cationic PS P3 and anionic PS Y1, only Y1 exhibits much more excellent aPDT activities than other PSs. Antibacterial mechanisms reveal that, relative to the favorable cell wall-binding of cationic PS P3, the anionic PS Y1 can accumulate more in the spheroplast/protoplast of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which ensures its high efficient aPDT abilities both in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests the great clinical application potential of Y1 in inactivation of MRSA. PMID:27323899

  4. Tunable core-shell particles generated from smart water-soluble chitosan seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Congming; You, Rongrui; Dong, Yanrui; Zhang, Zhongxin

    2016-05-20

    A chain-like route was presented to create various core-shell particles with soft, aqueous or inorganic cores respectively. Water-soluble chitosan (WSC) gel particles were obtained through gelating the aqueous WSC solution of 0.02g/mL at its isoelectric point. Then, polyelectrolyte complexes were formed and surrounded on the outer surfaces of WSC gel particles by immersing the particles in 2wt% aqueous sodium alginate. Soft WSC cores in these core-shell particles disappeared after maintaining the particles in 1M HCl for 6h. The cores of obtained particles at this step became aqueous, and could be further transformed into inorganic ones via contacting the particles with copper sulfate and sodium sulfide aqueous solutions successively. The composition of the shell was verified with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The formation of various core-shell particles was confirmed with digital photographic observation, thermogravimetric and fluorescence analyses. The whole process was a chain-like one and was able to stop at any stage to harvest a corresponding target. PMID:26917373

  5. Previous illumination of a water soluble chlorine photosensitizer increases its cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, J. C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Imasato, H.; Perussi, J. R.

    2012-09-01

    Photodithazine (PDZ) is an N-methyl-D-glucosamine derivative of chlorine e6 that is water soluble and has an intense absorption in the range of 650-680 nm. PDZ photobleaching and photoproduct formation were induced by illumination with laser at two wavelengths: 514 nm (ion argon laser) as well as in 630 nm (dye laser). The time constants of PDZ photobleaching were: 18 min for 630 nm irradiation and 50 min for 514 nm irradiation, suggesting that degradation after irradiation with red light is faster than with green light. Photoproducts formation was evidenced by the appearance of a new absorption band at 668 nm with slight broaden of the Soret band, suggesting that there was no break of the macrocycle. The cytotoxicity of the photodegradated PDZ was investigated and showed to be lower in the dark and higher than non irradiated PDZ. These results may have important clinical implications for PDT such as the possibility to use the previously irradiated PDZ just before clinical application in order to get increased efficiency.

  6. Fluorescent water-soluble organic aerosols in the High Arctic atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Qin, Mingyue; Ren, Lujie; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Barrie, Leonard A.; Tachibana, Eri; Ding, Aijun; Yamashita, Youhei

    2015-01-01

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the earth’s atmosphere. They have been extensively studied in urban, rural and marine environments. However, little is known about the fluorescence properties of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or their transport to and distribution in the polar regions. Here, we present evidence that fluorescent WSOC is a substantial component of High Arctic aerosols. The ratios of fluorescence intensity of protein-like peak to humic-like peak generally increased from dark winter to early summer, indicating an enhanced contribution of protein-like organics from the ocean to Arctic aerosols after the polar sunrise. Such a seasonal pattern is in agreement with an increase of stable carbon isotope ratios of total carbon (δ13CTC) from −26.8‰ to −22.5‰. Our results suggest that Arctic aerosols are derived from a combination of the long-range transport of terrestrial organics and local sea-to-air emission of marine organics, with an estimated contribution from the latter of 8.7–77% (mean 45%). PMID:25920042

  7. Water-Soluble Electrospun Nanofibers as a Method for On-Chip Reagent Storage

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Minhui; Jin, Shengquan; Nugen, Sam R.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates the ability to electrospin reagents into water-soluble nanofibers resulting in a stable on-chip enzyme storage format. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers were spun with incorporation of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the spun nanofibers was used to confirm the non-woven structure which had an average diameter of 155 ± 34 nm. The HRP containing fibers were tested for their change in activity following electrospinning and during storage. A colorimetric assay was used to characterize the activity of HRP by reaction with the nanofiber mats in a microtiter plate and monitoring the change in absorption over time. Immediately following electrospinning, the activity peak for the HRP decreased by approximately 20%. After a storage study over 280 days, 40% of the activity remained. In addition to activity, the fibers were observed to solubilize in the microfluidic chamber. The chromogenic 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine solution reacted immediately with the fibers as they passed through a microfluidic channel. The ability to store enzymes and other reagents on-chip in a rapidly dispersible format could reduce the assay steps required of an operator to perform. PMID:25586029

  8. Water Soluble Organic Compounds over the Eastern Mediterranean: Study of their occurrence and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziaras, T.; Spyros, A.; Mandalakis, M.; Apostolaki, M.; Stephanou, E. G.

    2010-05-01

    Fine marine aerosols influence the climate system by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. The organic chemical composition and origin of the marine fine particulate matter are still largely unknown, because of the insufficient reports on in situ studies, the large variability in the emission from the sea, from the complex transfer of gases and particles at the air-sea interface, and the transport of aerosol particles from very distant sources. As important processes of formation of marine organic aerosol production we consider: transport of terrestrial particles, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the oxidation of biogenic dimethyl-sulfide (DMS), and biogenic particle emissions through sea spray. Specific compounds related to the above-mentioned processes have been proposed as molecular markers: e.g. n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanes (terrestrial particles), levoglucosan (biomass burning aerosol), aminoacids (biological terrestrial or marine particles), methanesulphonate (MSA) (DMS oxidation), C8 and C9 dicarboxylic acids and oxo-carboxylic acids (marine SOA) and other short-chain dicarboxylic acids (marine or terrestrial SOA), and humic-like compounds (emission of marine organic carbon). In our study, we made an effort to characterize the water-soluble organic fraction of marine aerosols collected at a background sampling site of Eastern Mediterranean (Finokalia, N35o20', E25o40', Island of Crete, Greece). The sampling period was 2007-2008. In order to identify and quantify the water-soluble organic compounds of marine aerosols determined in the present study we have used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and ion chromatography (IC). The origin of air masses arriving in the study area was studied by using backward trajectories calculation (NOAA HYSPLIT Model). In addition, we have used the "MODIS fire products" for fire

  9. Characterization of the water soluble component of inedible residue from candidate CELSS crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Jay

    1992-01-01

    Recycling of inorganic nutrients required for plant growth will be a necessary component of a fully closed, bioregenerative life support system. This research characterized the recovery of plant nutrients from the inedible fraction of three crop types (wheat, potato, and soybean) by soaking, or leaching, in water. A considerable portion of the dry weight of the inedible biomass was readily soluble (29 percent for soybean, 43 percent for wheat, and 52 percent for potato). Greater weight loss from potato was a result of higher tissue concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate. Approximately 25 percent of the organic content of the biomass was water soluble, while the majority of most inorganic nutrients, except for calcium and iron, were recovered in the leachate. Direct use of the leachates in hydroponic media could provide between 40-90 percent of plant nutrient demands for wheat, and 20-50 percent of demand for soybean and potato. Further evaluation of leaching as a component of resource recovery scheme in a bioregenerative system requires study of (1) utilization of plant leachates in hydroponic plant culture; and (2) conversion of organic material (both soluble and insoluble) into edible, or other useful, products.

  10. Synthesis of water-soluble dinuclear mn-porphyrin with multiple antioxidative activities.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Riku; Imamura, Shinya; Shimizu, Takahiko; Asayama, Shoichiro; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2014-06-12

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities of a drug are of great importance for its effective protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced injury. Achievement of catalase activity of a synthetic compound remains a challenge. Water-soluble Mn-porphyrins have high SOD and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) reducing activities, but not catalase-like activity. Herein, we are able to retain the fair SOD-like activity of a mononuclear Mn-5-(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)-10,15,20-triphenyl porphyrin (MnM4PyP3P), while gaining in catalase-like activity with its dinuclear complex, 1,3-di[5-(N-methylene-pyridinium-4-yl)-10,15,20-triphenyl porphynato manganese] benzene tetrachloride (MnPD). Mechanistic study indicates that catalase-like activity of MnPD is due to synergism of two Mn active sites, where hydroxo-Mn(IV) complex is formed as an intermediate. The in vivo experiments demonstrate that MnPD significantly restores the treadmill-running ability of SOD-deficient mouse and thus indicates the therapeutic potential of MnPD. Furthermore, MnPD may serve as a mechanistic tool and indicate the new directions in the synthesis of catalase-like mimics. PMID:24944735

  11. An immunoreactive, water-soluble conidial wall fraction of Coccidioides immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, G T; Kirkland, T N; Sun, S H

    1987-01-01

    Arthroconidia stripped of their outer, hydrophobic wall layer release an immunoreactive, water-soluble fraction (SCWF), the composition of which is examined in this paper. The immunogenicity of SCWF was determined by its reactivity with anti-Coccidioides immitis complement-fixing antibody and tube precipitin antibody in a standardized immunodiffusion assay as well as reactivity in a lymphocyte proliferation assay. SCWF was shown to be more immunoreactive for immune lymphocytes than selected cytosol and culture supernatant fractions of C. immitis. Rabbit antisera raised against SCWF were used in immunoelectron-microscopic and immunofluorescence studies to confirm that the immunoreactive components of SCWF are primarily associated with the inner conidial wall. The antigenic composition of the conidial wall fraction was characterized by advancing-line immunoelectrophoresis with the previously established coccidioidin reference system. Protein composition was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chromatographic fractionation of SCWF was performed on a Sephacryl S-300 preparative column. Selected fractions which showed significantly higher immunoreactivity and less complex antigenic composition than whole SCWF were characterized. Two heat-sensitive antigens of Sephacryl fraction 3a were identified. One or both of these antigens may correspond to the complement-fixing antigen, which is potentially important as an immunodiagnostic antigen. Fraction 4 contained a previously described wall-associated antigen (AgCS) which may also be of immunodiagnostic value. We conclude that the conidial envelope is a reservoir of immunoreactive macromolecules which may play significant roles in early stages of infection. Images PMID:3102379

  12. Water-soluble thin film transistors and circuits based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cho, In-Tak; Han, Sang Youn; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dong Joon; Shin, Jongmin; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Ho; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring oscillators (ROs), constructed with them, show field effect mobilities (∼10 cm2/Vs), on/off ratios (∼2×10(6)), subthreshold slopes (∼220 mV/dec), Ohmic contact properties, and oscillation frequency of 5.67 kHz at supply voltages of 19 V, all comparable to otherwise similar devices constructed in conventional ways with standard, nontransient materials. Studies of dissolution kinetics for a-IGZO films in deionized water, bovine serum, and phosphate buffer saline solution provide data of relevance for the potential use of these materials and this technology in temporary biomedical implants. PMID:25805699

  13. Characterization of water-soluble organic matter in urban aerosol by 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Pollock, Erik; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2016-03-01

    The functional and 13C isotopic compositions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in atmospheric aerosol were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in an urban location in the Southern Mississippi Valley. The origin of WSOC was resolved using the functional distribution of organic hydrogen, δ13C ratio, and positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three factors were retained based on NMR spectral bins loadings. Two factors (factors 1 and 3) demonstrated strong associations with the aliphatic region in the NMR spectra and levoglucosan resonances. Differences between the two factors included the abundance of the aromatic functional group for factor 1, indicating fresh emissions and, for factor 3, the presence of resonances attributed to secondary ammonium nitrate and low δ13C ratio values that are indicative of secondary organic aerosol. Factors 1 and 3 added 0.89 and 1.08 μgC m-3, respectively, with the highest contribution in the summer and fall. Factor 2 retained resonances consistent with saccharides and was attributed to pollen particles. Its contribution to WSOC varied from 0.22 μgC m-3 in winter to 1.04 μgC m-3 in spring.

  14. Water-soluble pesticides in finished water of community water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, R.H.; Blomquist, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Although considerable data have been published on the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in surface water, there is little information from full-scale studies on how pesticides in source water are affected by the treatment process. In this pilot study, source water and finished (treated) water samples were collected from 12 community water systems (CWSs) across the United States and analyzed for water-soluble pesticides. The facilities were selected in part because they relied on surface water as their source water and their supplies were considered vulnerable to pesticide contamination. A treatment plant's, ability to remove or degrade a pesticide has been shown to be dependent on numerous variables, including surface water characteristics, pH, oxidant type, contact time, and operational procedures. Among the 12 CWSs tracked by this research, the treatment processes effectiveness varied significantly. Although some pesticides in the source water were removed by treatment, others passed through the treatment process and into the distribution system. Future study is needed to examine exactly how the treatment process within each of the participating systems affected pesticide concentration. None of the pesticides, analyzed in this research were found at concentrations above standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency for treated water. However, this work should serve as a wake-up call for treatment personnel and facility managers: If their source water is contaminated with pesticides, then the treatment process may not be completely effective at removing these pesticides from the water. - MPM.

  15. Water-soluble BODIPY-based fluorescent probe for mitochondrial imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Binglin; Tang, Simon; Woodward, Adam W.; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D.

    2016-03-01

    A new mitochondrial targeting fluorescent probe is designed, synthesized, characterized, and investigated. The probe is composed of three moieties, a BODIPY platform working as the fluorophore, two triphenylphosphonium (TPP) groups serving as mitochondrial targeting moiety, and two long highly hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains to increase its water solubility and reduce its cytotoxicity. As a mitochondria-selective fluorescent probe, the probe exhibits a series of desirable advantages compared with other reported fluorescent mitochondrial probes. It is readily soluble in aqueous media and emits very strong fluorescence. Photophysical determination experiments show that the photophysical properties of the probe are independent of solvent polarity and it has high quantum yield in various solvents examined. The probe also has good photostability and pH insensitivity over a broad pH range. Results obtained from cell viability tests indicate that the cytotoxicity of the probe is very low. Confocal fluorescence microscopy colocalization experiments reveal that this probe possesses excellent mitochondrial targeting ability and it is suitable for imaging mitochondria in living cells.

  16. Aqueous Speciation and Electrochemical Properties of a Water-Soluble Manganese Phthalocyanine Complex#

    PubMed Central

    Blakemore, James D.; Hull, Jonathan F.

    2012-01-01

    The speciation behavior of a water-soluble manganese(III) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine complex was investigated with UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies, as well as cyclic voltammetry. Parallel-mode EPR (in dimethylformamide:pyridine solvent mix) reveals a six-line hyperfine signal, centered at a g-value of 8.8, for the manganese(III) monomer, characteristic of the d4 S=2 system. The color of an aqueous solution containing the complex is dependent upon the pH of the solution; the phthalocyanine complex can exist as a water-bound monomer, a hydroxide-bound monomer, or an oxo-bridged dimer. Addition of coordinating bases such as borate or pyridine changes the speciation behavior by coordinating the manganese center. From the UV-visible spectra, complete speciation diagrams are plotted by global analysis of the pH-dependent UV-visible spectra, and a complete set of pKa values is obtained by fitting the data to a standard pKa model. Electrochemical studies reveal a pH-independent quasi-reversible oxidation event for the monomeric species, which likely involves oxidation of the organic ligand to the radical cation species. Adsorption of the phthalocyanine complex on the carbon working electrode was sometimes observed. The pKa values and electrochemistry data are discussed in the context of the development of mononuclear water-oxidation catalysts. PMID:22585306

  17. Irreversible Catalyst Activation Enables Hyperpolarization and Water Solubility for NMR Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activation of a catalyst [IrCl(COD)(IMes)] (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; COD = cyclooctadiene)] for signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) was monitored by in situ hyperpolarized proton NMR at 9.4 T. During the catalyst-activation process, the COD moiety undergoes hydrogenation that leads to its complete removal from the Ir complex. A transient hydride intermediate of the catalyst is observed via its hyperpolarized signatures, which could not be detected using conventional nonhyperpolarized solution NMR. SABRE enhancement of the pyridine substrate can be fully rendered only after removal of the COD moiety; failure to properly activate the catalyst in the presence of sufficient substrate can lead to irreversible deactivation consistent with oligomerization of the catalyst molecules. Following catalyst activation, results from selective RF-saturation studies support the hypothesis that substrate polarization at high field arises from nuclear cross-relaxation with hyperpolarized 1H spins of the hydride/orthohydrogen spin bath. Importantly, the chemical changes that accompanied the catalyst’s full activation were also found to endow the catalyst with water solubility, here used to demonstrate SABRE hyperpolarization of nicotinamide in water without the need for any organic cosolvent—paving the way to various biomedical applications of SABRE hyperpolarization methods. PMID:25372972

  18. Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage.

  19. Testing water-soluble carbohydrate QTL effects in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) by marker selection.

    PubMed

    Turner, L B; Farrell, M; Humphreys, M O; Dolstra, O

    2010-11-01

    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) are an important factor determining the nutritional value of grass forage and development of genetic markers for selection of WSC traits in perennial ryegrass would benefit future breeding programmes. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for WSC have been published for an F(2) ryegrass mapping family. Markers showing significant associations with these QTLs were used to design narrow-based populations with homozygosity for target QTLs. Founders were selected from within the mapping family. The divergent populations produced were analysed for WSC content in the glasshouse and the field. There was evidence of complex interactions between WSC content and other factors and traits, including the scale of assessment, time/degree of sward establishment and other forage quality parameters. Differences between the divergent pairs of the various populations were small. However, differences observed between the founder selection groups were maintained and the roles of the QTL regions in regulating forage WSC content were confirmed. In general, the individual divergent populations exploited only a limited extent of the large phenotypic variation available within the mapping family. However, this study sets the scene for exploring the opportunities for marker-assisted breeding strategies for complex traits in obligate out-breeding species, and the challenges of doing this are discussed. PMID:20617301

  20. Variability of organic and elemental carbon, water soluble organic carbon, and isotopes in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Cao, J. J.; Li, Y. S.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Fung, K.

    2006-10-01

    To determine the levels and variations of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected by high volume (Hi-vol) samplers at three monitoring stations (representing middle-scale roadside, urban-, and regional-scale environments) during winter (November 2000 to February 2001) and summer (June 2001 to August 2001) periods. The highest concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were found at the middle-scale roadside site with the lowest at the regional-scale site. The percentages of WSOC in total carbon at these sites were inversely correlated with their concentrations (i.e., the highest percentages of WSOC were observed at the regional-scale site). A high WSOC fraction may be associated with aged aerosol because of the secondary formation by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors of anthropogenic pollutants during transport. The annual average of isotope abundances (δ13C) of OC and EC were -26.9±0.5‰ and -25.6±0.1‰, respectively. There were no notable differences for seasonal distributions of carbon isotopic composition, consistent with motor vehicle emissions being the main source contributors of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong. OC 13C abundances at the regional-scale site were higher than those at the middle-scale roadside and urban sites, consistent with secondary organic aerosols of biogenic origin.

  1. Variability of organic and elemental carbon, water soluble organic carbon, and isotopes in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Cao, J. J.; Li, Y. S.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Fung, K.

    2006-06-01

    To determine the levels and variations of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected by high volume (Hi-vol) samplers at three monitoring stations (representing middle-scale roadside, urban-, and regional-scale environments) during winter (November 2000 to February 2001) and summer (June 2001 to August 2001) periods. The highest concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were found at the middle-scale roadside site with the lowest at the regional-scale site. The percentages of WSOC in total carbon at these sites were inversely correlated with their concentrations (i.e., the highest percentages of WSOC were observed at the regional-scale site). A high WSOC fraction may be associated with aged aerosol because of the secondary formation by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors of anthropogenic pollutants during transport. The annual average of isotope abundances (δ13C) of OC and EC were -26.9±0.5 and -25.6±0.1, respectively. There were no notable differences for seasonal distributions of carbon isotopic composition, consistent with motor vehicle emissions being the main source contributors of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong. OC 13C abundances at the regional-scale site were higher than those at the middle-scale roadside and urban sites, consistent with secondary organic aerosols of biogenic origin.

  2. Formulation and particle size reduction improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble compounds with antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxing; Li, Qigui; Reyes, Sean; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Lisa; Melendez, Victor; Hickman, Mark; Kozar, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Decoquinate (DQ) is highly effective at killing malaria parasites in vitro; however, it is extremely insoluble in water. In this study, solid dispersion method was used for DQ formulation which created a suitable physical form of DQ in aqueous phase for particle manipulation. Among many polymers and surfactants tested, polyvinylpyrrolidone 10, a polymer, and L- α -phosphatidylcholine or polysorbate, two surfactants, were chosen as DQ formulation components. The formulation particles were reduced to a mean size between 200 to 400 nm, which was stable in aqueous medium for at least three weeks. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies showed that compared to DQ microparticle suspension, a nanoparticle formulation orally dosed to mice showed a 14.47-fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) of DQ plasma concentration and a 4.53-fold increase in AUC of DQ liver distribution. WR 299666, a poorly water-soluble compound with antimalarial activity, was also tested and successfully made into nanoparticle formulation without undergoing solid dispersion procedure. We concluded that nanoparticles generated by using appropriate formulation components and sufficient particle size reduction significantly increased the bioavailability of DQ and could potentially turn this antimalarial agent to a therapeutic drug. PMID:23766925

  3. Fluorescent polystyrene photonic crystals self-assembled with water-soluble conjugated polyrotaxanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stasio, Francesco; Berti, Luca; McDonnell, Shane O.; Robbiano, Valentina; Anderson, Harry L.; Comoretto, Davide; Cacialli, Franco

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate control of the photoluminescence spectra and decay rates of water-soluble green-emitting conjugated polyrotaxanes by incorporating them in polystyrene opals with a stop-band spectrally tuned on the rotaxane emission (405-650 nm). We observe a suppression of the luminescence within the photonic stop-band and a corresponding enhancement of the high-energy edge (405-447 nm). Time-resolved measurements reveal a wavelength-dependent modification of the emission lifetime, which is shortened at the high-energy edge (by ˜11%, in the range 405-447 nm), but elongated within the stop-band (by ˜13%, in the range 448-482 nm). We assign both effects to the modification of the density of photonic states induced by the photonic crystal band structure. We propose the growth of fluorescent composite photonic crystals from blends of "solvent-compatible" non-covalently bonded nanosphere-polymer systems as a general method for achieving a uniform distribution of polymeric dopants in three-dimensional self-assembling photonic structures.

  4. Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Manas; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2012-11-01

    Water-soluble carbon nano-onions (wsCNOs) isolated from wood wool--a wood-based pyrolysis waste product of wood, can enhance the overall growth rate of gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treatment of plants with upto 30 μg mL-1 of wsCNOs for an initial 10 day period in laboratory conditions led to an increase in the overall growth of the plant biomass. In order to examine the growth stimulating effects of wsCNOs under natural conditions, 10 day-old plants treated with and without wsCNOs were transplanted into soil of standard carbon and nitrogen composition. We observed an enhanced growth rate of the wsCNOs pre-treated plants in soil, which finally led to an increased productivity of plants in terms of a larger number of grams. On analyzing the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) content for the shoot and fruit sections of the plants treated with and without wsCNOs, only a minor difference in the composition was noticed. However, a slight increase in the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in shoots reflects the synthesis of more organic biomass in the case of treated plants. This work shows that wsCNOs are non-toxic to plant cells and can act as efficient growth stimulants which can be used as benign growth promoters.

  5. Structural, functional, and antioxidant properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from potatoes peels.

    PubMed

    Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Chaari, Fatma; Maktouf, Sameh; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouz

    2016-08-15

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from potato peel waste (PPW). The structure of the polysaccharides from PPW (PPPW) was examined by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the extracted polysaccharides form a semi-crystalline polymer constituted essentially of the functional groups CO, CH and OH. Acid hydrolysis of this polymer yielded glucose (76.25%) as the dominant sugar functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) of this polymer were studied. The PPPW showed interesting water-holding and fat-binding capacities which were 4.097 ± 0.537 g/g and 4.398 ± 0.04 g/g, respectively. In addition, it presented good foaming and emulsion properties. The antioxidant activity of this polymer was also studied and revealed that the polysaccharides showed interesting 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 PPPW=11.578 mg/mL), reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition activities, and also a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 PPPW=2mg/mL). Overall, the results suggest that the polysaccharide is a promising source of natural antioxidants and can be used as additive in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:27006219

  6. Miktoarm star polymer based multifunctional traceable nanocarriers for efficient delivery of poorly water soluble pharmacological agents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ghareb M; Redon, Rocio; Sharma, Anjali; Mejía, Diana; Maysinger, Dusica; Kakkar, Ashok

    2014-09-01

    A versatile methodology to develop an inherently fluorescent and thus traceable multifunctional nanodelivery platform based on miktoarm polymers is reported. Miktoarm stars containing covalently linked tetraiodofluorescein dye, polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone self-assemble into micelles, and integrate multiple functions including fluorescent tags for imaging, a hydrophobic core for drug incorporation, and a hydrophilic corona for micelle stabilization. Curcumin, a pleiotropic but very poorly water-soluble drug, is loaded into these micelles with an efficiency of 25-60 wt%. It leads to a 25 000-fold increase in its aqueous solubility, and a sustained release over a period of 7 d. These micelles are rapidly internalized into murine J774A.1 macrophages, and accumulated into discrete cellular compartments, whereas the free and physically encapsulated dye is diffused in the cytoplasm. Curcumin-loaded micelles reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide release. The studies establish miktoarm star based nanocarriers as highly efficient in tracking their fate and expanding the scope of pharmacological agents with limited utility in experimental medicine. PMID:24903981

  7. Hyperbranched polymer mediated fabrication of water soluble carbon nanotube-metal nanoparticle hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiqing; Cooper-White, Justin J.

    2013-03-01

    1-Pyrenemethanol initiated hyperbranched polyglycerol (PiHP) has been synthesized and utilized to non-covalently functionalize pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through π-π stacking interactions. Mediated with the PiHP coating, a variety of metal nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Pd and Pt) were in situ generated and randomly tethered on the CNT sidewalls, producing various water-soluble CNT/PiHP/metal hybrids. Particularly, the resulting CNT/PiHP/Pt hybrids possess improved metal coverage in comparison to the reported CNT/Pt nanohybrids obtained by the use of conventional non-covalent CNT surface-modifiers. Depending on the using concentration of Pt2+ precursor, Pt coverage in CNT/PiHP/Pt hybrids can be effectively controlled. In the meanwhile, Pt component on the CNT sidewalls can be either well isolated nanoparticles or loose ``nanoclusters''. To test the promising catalytic application of these obtained CNT/PiHP/Pt hybrids, a systematic investigation on their catalytic performance towards the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to produce 4-aminophenol was performed. Surprisingly, these hybrids exhibited significantly enhanced catalytic activity compared with the conventionally utilized Au and Ag nanoparticles. Moreover, they can be easily recovered and reused without significant loss in catalytic activity after running 6 circles.

  8. New water soluble phosphonate and polycarboxylate complexants for enhanced f element separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Rickert, P.G.; Lessmann, E.P.; Mendoza, M.D.; Feil, J.F.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    While lipophilic extractant molecules and ion exchange polymeric materials are clearly essential to efficient separation of metal ions by solvent extraction or ion exchange, the most difficult separations often could not be accomplished without the use of water soluble complexants. This report focuses on recent developments in design, synthesis and characterization of phosphonic acid and polycarboxylic acid ligands for enhanced f element separations. Emphasis is on the basic solution chemistry and crystal structures of complexes of the f elements with selected amino-derivatives of methanediphosphonic acid and with tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid. The former series of compounds exhibit high affinity for lanthanides and actinides in acidic solutions. The latter ligand exhibits an unusual (and very useful) ``anti-selectivity`` for uranyl ion in a solvent extraction process, which permits efficient separation of uranyl from more radioactive components of nuclear wastes. Most of the observed effects can be explained through examination of the structure of the ligand, and comparison of the spectroscopic and thermodynamic parameters for complexation of various metal ions.

  9. Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen (WSON) over marine environments: a global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violaki, K.; Sciare, J.; Williams, J.; Baker, A. R.; Martino, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2014-07-01

    To obtain a comprehensive picture on the spatial distribution of water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) in marine aerosols, samples were collected during research cruises in the tropical and south Atlantic Ocean and during a one year period (2005) over the southern Indian Ocean (Amsterdam island). Samples have been analyzed for both organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen and the factors controlling their levels have been examined. Fine mode WSON was found to play a significant role in the remote marine atmosphere with enhanced biogenic activity, with concentrations of WSON (11.3 ± 3.3 nmol N m-3) accounting for about 84% of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). Such levels are similar to those observed in the polluted marine atmosphere of the eastern Mediterranean (11.6 ± 14.0 nmol N m-3). Anthropogenic activities were found to be an important source of atmospheric WSON as evidenced by the ten times higher levels in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than in the remote Southern Hemisphere (SH). Furthermore, the higher contribution of WSON to TDN (40%) in the SH, compared to the NH (20%), underlines the important role of organic nitrogen in remote marine areas. Finally, Sahara dust was also identified as a significant source of WSON in the coarse mode aerosols of the NH.

  10. Atmospheric water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) over marine environments: a global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violaki, K.; Sciare, J.; Williams, J.; Baker, A. R.; Martino, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2015-05-01

    To obtain a comprehensive picture of the spatial distribution of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) in marine aerosols, samples were collected during research cruises in the tropical and southern Atlantic Ocean and also in the southern Indian Ocean (Amsterdam Island) for a 1-year period (2005). Samples were analyzed for both organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen, and the factors controlling their levels were examined. Fine-mode WSON was found to play a significant role in the remote marine atmosphere with enhanced biogenic activity, with concentrations of WSON (11.3 ± 3.3 nmol N m-3) accounting for about 84 % of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). Such concentrations are similar to those observed in the polluted marine atmosphere of the eastern Mediterranean (11.6 ± 14.0 nmol N m-3). Anthropogenic activities were found to be an important source of atmospheric WSON as evidenced by the levels in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) being 10 times higher than in the remote Southern Hemisphere (SH). Furthermore, the higher contribution of fine-mode WSON to TDN (51%) in the SH, compared to the NH (13%), underlines the important role of organic nitrogen in remote marine areas. Finally, there was a strong association of WSON with dust in coarse-mode aerosols in the NH.

  11. Analysis of water-soluble ions and their precursor gases over diurnal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Song, Sang-Keun; Jung, Kweon; Kim, Nam-Jin

    2013-10-01

    A detailed description of an interactive relationship is made between water-soluble ionic components in PM2.5 and their precursor gases using the hourly resolution data measured at an urban monitoring site in Seoul during the year of 2010. Their diurnal variability was found to be correlated with their precursor gases (HNO3 and NH3). In the case of NO3- and NH4+, a close similarity was seen in their diurnal trends, especially during spring. There were no noticeable differences in the formation pathway of NO3-, SO42- , and NH4+ aerosols between day and night. For NO3- formation, heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 might play a significant role in the nighttime enhancement of the oxidation rate. In addition, the concentrations of major anions (e.g. NO3-, SO42- , and Cl-) exhibited highly diverse seasonal patterns with their maximum values occurring in spring, summer, and winter, respectively. The overall results of this study suggest that the formation pathway of NO3- and SO42- aerosols should be regulated by a competing relationship between the NH3-lean (spring and winter) and NH3-rich conditions (summer and fall).

  12. Hybrid aerogel preparations as drug delivery matrices for low water-solubility drugs.

    PubMed

    Veres, Peter; López-Periago, Ana M; Lázár, István; Saurina, Javier; Domingo, Concepción

    2015-12-30

    A comprehensive study of 14 hybrid aerogels of different composition with applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The overall objective was to modulate the release behavior of drug-impregnated aerogels, from an almost instantaneous release to a semi-retarded delivery prolonged during several hours, through internal surface functionalization. The designed hybrid aerogels were composed of silica and gelatin and functionalized with either phenyl, long (16) hydrocarbon chain or methyl moiety. As model systems, three class II active agents (pKa<5.5), ibuprofen, ketoprofen and triflusal, were chosen to impregnate the aerogels. The work relied on the use of supercritical fluid technology for both the synthesis and functionalization of the hybrid aerogels, as well as for the impregnation with an active agent using supercritical CO2 as a solvent. For the impregnated aerogels, in vitro release profiles were recorded under gastric and intestinal pH-conditions using HPLC techniques. The release behavior observed for the three studied drugs was explained considering the measured dissolution profiles of the crystalline drugs, the aerogel composition and its functionalization. Such features are considered of great interest to tailor the bioavailability of drugs with low water solubility. PMID:26484894

  13. Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles’ heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP. PMID:26016527

  14. Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-06-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (responsive to desiccation 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles' heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP. PMID:26016527

  15. Reduction reactions of water soluble cyano-cobalt(III)-porphyrins: Metal versus ligand centered processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mosseri, S.; Neta, P.; Harriman, A.; Hambright, P. )

    1990-06-01

    Reduction reactions of dicyano-cobalt(III)-porphyrins (potential in vivo cyanide scavenger drugs) were studied by radiolytic and electrochemical methods using the water soluble tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) and tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP). For ((CN)2CoIIITPPS)-, reduction occurs stepwise to the CoII, CoI, and finally to the phlorin anion. This behavior is similar to that of the cobalt porphyrins in the absence of cyanide, except that the cyanide ligand shifts the reduction potentials to much more negative values. On the other hand, under radiolytic conditions, ((CN)2CoIIITMPyP)- is reduced on the porphyrin macrocycle by one electron to give the CoIII pi-radical anion, which disproportionates into the initial complex and the two-electron ring reduced CoIII phlorin. The radical anion is also formed by intramolecular electron transfer subsequent to the reaction of CoIITMPyP and cyanide. The results are compared with the chemistry of Vitamin B-12.

  16. The effects of water-soluble fractions of oil on reproduction in the female Atlantic croaker

    SciTech Connect

    Budiantara, L.; Thomas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Female Atlantic croaker were exposed to 2.5% and 5% water-soluble fractions (WSFs) of diesel fuel during gonadal recrudescence. Dosing with freshly prepared WSFs was repeated every two days. Exposure was terminated after 5 or 1 0 weeks when control fish were either at early or late gonadal recrudescence. Chronic oil exposure did not affect the condition factor; however, reproductive function was clearly impaired. Puberty was delayed or prevented with oil exposure. ovarian growth as indicated by gonadosomatic index was also decreased. Incubation of endocrine tissue in vitro revealed decreases in the secretion of gonadotropin and ovarian steroids, which were associated with decreases in plasma steroid and vitellogenin levels. In addition, there was a decrease in the ability of the fully grown oocytes from exposed fish to undergo final oocyte maturation (FOM). Exposure to a WSF with low concentration of aromatics impaired reproduction to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate that oil exposure causes impairment of reproduction in croaker at various stages of the reproductive life history cycle which is at least partially mediated by effects on the endocrine system.

  17. Water-soluble benzylidene cyclopentanone based photosensitizers for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanyan; Liu, Tianlong; Zou, Qianli; Zhao, Yuxia; Wu, Feipeng

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed to cope with the increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogens. As versatile pharmacophores, benzylidene cyclopentanone based photosensitizers (PSs) have been used in various bioactive materials. However, their reports as aPDT agents are very limited, and relationships between their chemical structures and antibacterial abilities have not been systematically discussed. Here, nine water-soluble benzylidene cyclopentanone PSs modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG), carboxylate anionic or pyridyl cationic agents are studied for aPDT. It is found that the binding/uptake abilities and aPDT effects of these PSs toward bacterial cells vary significantly when adjusting the number and position of their terminal charged groups. Though the comparable (also best) binding/uptake amounts are achieved by both cationic PS P3 and anionic PS Y1, only Y1 exhibits much more excellent aPDT activities than other PSs. Antibacterial mechanisms reveal that, relative to the favorable cell wall-binding of cationic PS P3, the anionic PS Y1 can accumulate more in the spheroplast/protoplast of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which ensures its high efficient aPDT abilities both in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests the great clinical application potential of Y1 in inactivation of MRSA. PMID:27323899

  18. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianfei; Zou, Guolin; Li, Chenghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (CSP) was successfully purified from Chaenomeles speciosa by DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. CSP had a weight-average molecular weight of about 6.3 × 10(4)Da and was composed of glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), rhamnose (Rha) and arabinose (Ara) with a relative molar ratio of 4.6:1.3:0.8:0.5. CSP could not only inhibit the growth of S180 tumor transplanted in mice, but also increase the relative spleen index and body weight of tumor bearing mice. Moreover, concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced splenocyte proliferation and peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis were also enhanced after CSP administration. Furthermore, CSP treatment could improve delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and promote the secretion of IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ in serum. The overall findings suggest that the antitumor effect of CSP is might be associated with its potent immunostimulatory activity. PMID:26256355

  19. A novel dismantling process of waste printed circuit boards using water-soluble ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Xie, Henghua; Liu, Lili

    2013-10-01

    Recycling processes for waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) have been well established in terms of scientific research and field pilots. However, current dismantling procedures for WPCBs have restricted the recycling process, due to their low efficiency and negative impacts on environmental and human health. This work aimed to seek an environmental-friendly dismantling process through heating with water-soluble ionic liquid to separate electronic components and tin solder from two main types of WPCBs-cathode ray tubes and computer mainframes. The work systematically investigates the influence factors, heating mechanism, and optimal parameters for opening solder connections on WPCBs during the dismantling process, and addresses its environmental performance and economic assessment. The results obtained demonstrate that the optimal temperature, retention time, and turbulence resulting from impeller rotation during the dismantling process, were 250 °C, 12 min, and 45 rpm, respectively. Nearly 90% of the electronic components were separated from the WPCBs under the optimal experimental conditions. This novel process offers the possibility of large industrial-scale operations for separating electronic components and recovering tin solder, and for a more efficient and environmentally sound process for WPCBs recycling. PMID:23910241

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Water-Soluble Polythiophene Derivatives for Cell Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyan; Li, Meng; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Jiangyan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, four water-soluble polythiophene derivatives (PT, PT-DDA, PT-ADA, and PT-ADA-PPR) with different pendant moieties were synthesized via oxidative copolymerization by FeCl3. By increasing the hydrophobic ability of side chain moieties, there is a gradually blue shift for the maximum absorption wavelength and red shift for the maximum emission wavelength, a reducing trend for fluorescence quantum yields, a growing trend for Stokes shift, and an increasing trend for the mean sizes in the order of PT, PT-ADA, and PT-DDA. All the synthesized polymers show low toxicity and good photostability and accumulate in the lysosomes of A549 cells. Furthermore, the introduction of porphyrin group to PT-ADA side chain (PT-ADA-PPR) broadens the absorption and emission ranges of PT-ADA. PT-ADA-PPR could be excited at two different excitation wavelengths (488 nm and 559 nm) and exhibits two emission pathways, and dual-color fluorescence images (orange and red) of PT-ADA-PPR accumulated in A549 cells are observed. Thus, PT-ADA-PPR could be used as an excellent dual-color fluorescent and lysosome-specific imaging material.

  1. Extraction of uranium from soil using selective chelators with secondary concentration using water soluble polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, B.L.; Ehler, D.S.; Sauer, N.N.

    1997-12-31

    Studies have investigated the extraction and recovery of uranium from contaminated soil containing both sorbed and metallic uranium. Our goal was to selectively bind and recover uranium from this soil and minimize secondary waste generation. Our approach was to determine optimal chelators for uranium extraction using contaminated soil taken from an area at LANL where open air testing of explosives containing depleted uranium was conducted. Uranium concentrations range in the soil from 1000-5000ppm. We have found that equimolar carbonate/bicarbonate solution in conjunction with an oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, is an excellent extractant for uranium from this soil, removing 90+% of the uranium. Our present focus is on the recovery and concentration of uranium from the extractant solution using a large water soluble polymer (>10,000 MW) as a secondary chelator for complexing the extracted uranium:carbonate complex. Using ultrafiltration, the volume of waste can be reduced 100+ fold. These commercially available polymers can then be regenerated and re-used. Using this approach, we are able to recover 90+% of the uranium in a minimal volume.

  2. Structural investigation of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharide material, extracted from the stipes of the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus by hot water, was fractionated by sequential weak anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The relevant fractions were subjected to structural analysis, including (d/l) monosaccharide/methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. Besides the disaccharide α,α-trehalose [α-D-Glcp-(1↔1)-α-D-Glcp], high-molecular-mass α-D-glucans (the most abundant component) consisting of [→4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→](n) backbones with ~10% branching at C-6 by terminal α-D-Glcp-(1→6)- or α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→6)- units, lower-molecular-mass linear β-D-glucans consisting of [→6)-β-D-Glcp-(1→](m) sequences, and a lower-molecular-mass pentasaccharide-repeating α-L-fuco-α-D-galactan, {→6)-α-D-Galp-(1→6)-[α-L-Fucp-(1→2)-]α-D-Galp-(1→6)-α-D-Galp-(1→6)-α-D-Galp-(1→}(p), were found to be present. PMID:23044138

  3. Effect of glycosylation with xylose on the mechanical properties and water solubility of peanut protein films.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Jing; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Shi, Ai-Min; Liu, Li; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at improving the mechanical properties and water solubility of peanut protein isolate (PPI) films by glycosylating with xylose (X). The modification process of glycosylation was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of pH, temperature and time on degrees of glycosylation (DG), tensile strength (TS), elongation (E), solubility and microstructure of xylose glycosylated PPI films (PPI-XF) were determined. The changes of DG in different conditions indicated that crosslinking should occur between PPI and xylose during the modification. Optimum glycosylation conditions were found to be pH 9.5, 91.5 °C and 95 min. Under these conditions, TS and E values of PPI-XF were 10.37 MPa and 96.47 %, respectively. Due to glycosylation, solubility of PPI-XF decreased from 96.64 to 35.94 % and these films remained intact in water for 24 h. The microstructure of PPI-XF was denser and more compact than the unmodified PPI films. These results suggest that the xylose glycosylated PPI films have potentiality of being used as biodegradable films in food packaging application. PMID:26396370

  4. Antioxidant property of water-soluble polysaccharides from Poria cocos Wolf using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nani; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Fei, Ying; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Poria cocos Wolf is a popular traditional medicinal plant that has invigorating activity. Water-soluble polysaccharides (PCPs) are its main active components. In this study, four different methods were used to extract PCPs, which include hot water extraction (PCP-H), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (PCP-U), enzyme-assisted extraction (PCP-E) and microwave-assisted extraction (PCP-M). Their chemical compositions and structure characterizations were compared. In vitro antioxidant activities were studied on the basis of DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and metal chelating ability. The results showed that PCPs were composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, and had typical IR spectra characteristics of polysaccharides. Compared with other PCPs, PCP-M had lower neutral sugar content, higher mannose content and higher uronic acid content. The molecular weight were determined as PCP-E

  5. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiu-Lian; Tang, Zhuan-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhong, Yong-Hong; Yao, Su-Zhi; Wang, Li-Sheng; Lin, Cui-Wu; Luo, Xuan

    2016-08-01

    In this report, a water-soluble polysaccharide was obtained from the dried stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo by hot-water (70-75°C) extraction and 85% ethanol precipitation, and successively purification by DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. The D. officinale polysaccharide (DOP) has a molecular weight of 8500Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis reveals that DOP is composed of mannose, glucose, and arabinose with a trace of galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 6.2:2.3:2.1:0.1. Periodate oxidation-smith degradation and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy analysis suggest the predominance of mannose and glucose, and it contains a 2-O-acetylglucomannan and (1→4)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl and (1→4)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. Atomic force microscope shows that DOP mainly exists as rod-shaped chains, supporting high degrees of polymerization. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide in vitro assay indicate that DOP has good scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, higher scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical, and metal chelating activities. PMID:27131730

  6. Water-soluble Co(III) complexes of substituted phenanthrolines with cell selective anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, Sivaraman; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Baumann, Patric; Neuburger, Markus; Häussinger, Daniel; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2013-11-01

    Transition metal complexes with substituted phenanthrolines as ligands represent potential anticancer products without the drawbacks of platinum complexes that are currently marketed. Here, we report the synthesis and cell selective anticancer activity of five new water-soluble Co(III) complexes with methyl substituted phenanthroline ligands. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, FAB-mass spectrometry, FTIR, electronic spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Possible interaction of these complexes with DNA was assessed by a combination of circular dichroism, UV-vis spectroscopy titration, and ethidium bromide displacement assay, and the results indicated that DNA interaction is weak for these complexes. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of complexes at low concentrations were assessed by flow cytometry on PC-3 cells, while their effect on intracellular mitochondrial function was measured by MTS assay on HeLa and PC-3 cell lines. These complexes showed selective cytotoxicity with a significantly higher effect on intracellular mitochondrial function in PC-3 cells than in HeLa cells. At low concentrations, complex 2 had the highest cytotoxic effect on PC-3 cells, inducing around 38% cell death, and the correlation of cytotoxicity of these complexes to their hydrophobicity indicates that an appropriate value of the hydrophobicity is essential for high antitumor activity. PMID:24127683

  7. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water. PMID:23554360

  8. Organic compounds in hot-water-soluble fractions from water repellent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency (WR) is a soil property providing hydrophobic protection and preventing rapid microbial decomposition of organic matter entering the soil with litter or plant residues. Global warming can cause changes in WR, thus influencing water storage and plant productivity. Here we assess two different approaches for analysis of organic compounds composition in hot water extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of water repellent soils. Extracts were lyophilized, fractionated on SiO2 (sand) and SPE cartridge, and measured by GC/MS. Dominant compounds were aromatic acids, short chain dicarboxylic acids (C4-C9), sugars, short chain fatty acids (C8-C18), and esters of stearic and palmitic acids. Polar compounds (mainly sugars) were adsorbed on applying SPE clean-up procedure, while esters were highly abundant. In addition to the removal of polar compounds, hydrophobic esters and hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes < C20) were extracted through desorption of complex colloids stabilized as micelles in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water repellency was completely eliminated by hot water under high pressure. The molecular composition of HWSC can play a critical role in stabilization and destabilization of soil organic matter (SOM), particle wettability and C dynamics in soils. Key words: soil water repellency, hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), GC/MS, hydrophobic compounds

  9. A water soluble β-glucan of an edible mushroom Termitomyces heimii: Structural and biological investigation.

    PubMed

    Manna, Dilip K; Nandi, Ashis K; Pattanayak, Manabendra; Maity, Prasenjit; Tripathy, Satyajit; Mandal, Amit K; Roy, Somenath; Tripathy, Sushri S; Gupta, Nibha; Islam, Syed S

    2015-12-10

    A water soluble β-glucan (PS-I) with an average molecular weight ∼ 1.48 × 10(5)Da was isolated from the alkaline extract of an edible mushroom Termitomyces heimii. PS-I contained (1 → 3)-, (1 → 6)-, (1 → 3, 6)-linked and terminal β-d-glucopyranosyl moieties in a ratio of nearly 2:1:1:1. Based on the total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, partial hydrolysis and 1D/2D NMR experiments the structure of the PS-I was elucidated. On the basis of these experiments, the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was found to consist of a backbone chain of two (1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl residues, one of which was branched at O-3 position with the side chain consisting of two (1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl and a terminal β-D-glucopyranosyl residue. Cytotoxic effect of PS-I on human blood lymphocytes at varied concentrations was studied. Moreover, it also exhibited potent antioxidant activities by diminishing the ROS and NO in the nicotine stimulated lymphocytes up to 200 μg/ml. PMID:26428137

  10. Interactions between soy protein from water-soluble soy extract and polysaccharides in solutions with polydextrose.

    PubMed

    Spada, Jordana C; Marczak, Ligia D F; Tessaro, Isabel C; Cardozo, Nilo S M

    2015-12-10

    This study focuses on the investigation of the interactions between polysaccharides (carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose--CMC) and soy proteins from the water-soluble soy extract. The influence of pH (2-7) and protein-polysaccharide ratio (5:1-40:1) on the interaction between these polyelectrolytes was investigated in aqueous solutions with 10% of polydextrose and without polydextrose. The studied systems were analyzed in terms of pH-solubility profile of protein, ζ-potential, methylene blue-polysaccharide interactions, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the mixtures of soy extract with both carrageenan and CMC showed dependency on the pH and protein-polysaccharide ratio, they did not present the same behavior. Both polysaccharides modified the pH-solubility profile of the soy protein, shifting the pH range in which the coacervate is formed to a lower pH region with the decrease of the soy extract-polysaccharide ratio. The samples also presented detectable differences regarding to ζ-potential, DSC, FTIR and microscopy analyses. The complex formation was also detected even in a pH range where both biopolymers were net-negatively charged. The changes promoted by the presence of polydextrose were mainly detected by blue-polysaccharide interactions measures and confocal microscopy. PMID:26428107

  11. Physicochemical properties of a water soluble extracellular homopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus reuteri SK24.003.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming; Ma, Yajun; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Bo; Cui, Steve W; Zhang, Tao

    2015-10-20

    A water soluble exopolysaccharide was obtained from Lactobacillus reuteri SK24.003 and its rheological and structural properties were investigated. The polysaccharide yield reached around 40.8g/L for 48h of fermentation. The purified exopolysaccharide was an α-d-glucan with the molecular weight of 2.50×10(7)g/mol. Thermal analysis showed the exopolysaccharide broke down above 200°C, the weight dramatically lost (around 53.0%) from 230 to 340°C and the melting point was 147.7°C with the enthalpy value of 78.4J/g. The glucan solution (3.0-9.0%, v/w) has an opalescent, milky-white color and the concentration affected the depth of color. The viscosity increased rapidly with concentration in the range of 3.0-20% (w/v) with relatively high viscosity as well as poor solubility at a concentration higher than 20% (w/v). The solution also exhibited the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior with increasing shear rate from 0.01 to 100l/s. This glucan had a high viscosity in solution and this could make it suitable for usage as gum substitute in some processing food. PMID:26256197

  12. Water soluble sulfated-fucans with immune-enhancing properties from Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rong-An; Lee, YongJin; You, SangGuan

    2014-06-01

    Water-soluble sulfated fucans isolated from Ecklonia cava were fractionated using an anion-exchange chromatography to investigate their molecular characteristics and immunomodulating activities. The crude fucoidan extract and purified fractions (EF1, EF2, and EF3) consisted mostly of different ratios of neutral sugars, proteins, sulfates, uronic acids, and their monosaccharide compositions were also significantly different. The backbone of the most immunoenhancing fraction, EF2, was mainly linked by (1→3)-linked fucopyranosyl and (1→4)-linked mannopyranosyl residues with sulfates at C-4 of fucopyranosyl units. The molecular weights of the crude fucoidan extract and purified fractions ranged from 8.3×10(3) to 442.6×10(3)g/mol. The crude extract, EF1 and EF2 stimulated RAW264.7 cells to produce considerable amounts of nitric oxide and cytokines. The treatment of cells with the sulfated fucans induced the degradation of Iκ-B and the phosphorylation of MAPK in RAW264.7 cells, implying that they might stimulate RAW264.7 cells through the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways. PMID:24661888

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Water-Soluble Poly-(ethylene glycol)-10-hydroxycamptothecin Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Na; Jiang, Du; Wang, Luyao; You, Xing; Teng, Yu-Ou; Yu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the antitumor activity and water solubility of 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), a series of novel HCPT conjugates were designed and synthesized by conjugating polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the 10-hydroxyl group of HCPT via a valine spacer. The in vitro stability of these synthesized compounds was determined in pH 7.4 buffer at 37 °C, and the results showed that they released HCPT at different rates. All the compounds demonstrated significant antitumor activity in vitro against K562, HepG2 and HT-29 cells. Among them, compounds, 4a, 4d, 4e and 4f, exhibited 2-5 times higher potency than HCPT. The stability and antitumor activity of these conjugates were found to be closely related to the length of PEG and the linker type, conjugates with a relatively short PEG chain and carbamate linkages (compounds 4a and 4f) exhibited controlled release of HCPT and excellent antitumor in vitro activity. PMID:26007190

  14. Preparation, characterization, cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetics of liposomes containing water-soluble prodrugs of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Ceruti, M; Crosasso, P; Brusa, P; Arpicco, S; Dosio, F; Cattel, L

    2000-01-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a diterpenoid isolated from Taxus brevifolia, used clinically for the treatment of ovarian and breast cancer. Due to its aqueous insolubility it is administered dissolved in ethanol and Cremophor EL (polyethoxylated castor oil), which has serious side effects. In order to eliminate this vehicle, in previous work we entrapped paclitaxel in conventional and in polyethylene glycol coated liposomes. However, in neither formulation did we obtain satisfactory entrapment efficiency. In this study we increased the paclitaxel concentration entrapped in liposomes by incorporating different water-soluble prodrugs, such as the 2'-succinyl, 2'-methylpyridinium acetate and 2'-mPEG ester paclitaxel derivatives, in the lipid vesicles. Liposomes containing 2'-mPEG (5000)-paclitaxel showed the best performance in terms of stability, entrapment efficiency and drug concentration (6.5 mgml(-1)). The in vitro cytotoxic activity of this liposomal prodrug was similar to that of the parent drug. The pharmacokinetic parameters for the free and for the liposomal prodrugs fitted a bi-exponential plasma disposition. The most important change in pharmacokinetic values of the prodrug vs. the free drug liposomal formulations was t(1/2)beta, plasma lifetime, which was longer in liposomes containing 2'-mPEG (5000)-paclitaxel. PMID:10640588

  15. Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Water-Soluble Glycidyltrimethylammonium-Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Rwei, Syang-Peng; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lin, Wen-Yan; Chiang, Whe-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, chitosan (CS) grafted by glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) to form GTMAC-CS was synthesized, chemically identified, and rheologically characterized. The Maxwell Model can be applied to closely simulate the dynamic rheological performance of the chitosan and the GTMAC-CS solutions, revealing a single relaxation time pertains to both systems. The crossover point of G′ and Gʺ shifted toward lower frequencies as the CS concentration increased but remained almost constant frequencies as the GTMAC-CS concentration increased, indicating the solubility of GTMAC-CS in water is good enough to diminish influence from the interaction among polymer chains so as to ensure the relaxation time is independent of the concentration. A frequency–concentration superposition master curve of the CS and GTMAC-CS solutions was subsequently proposed and well fitted with the experimental results. Finally, the sol-gel transition of CS is 8.5 weight % (wt %), while that of GTMAC-CS is 20 wt %, reconfirming the excellent water solubility of the latter. PMID:25419996

  16. Flow characteristics and injectivity behavior of water-soluble polymers: Final report. [144 references

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.

    1987-04-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the key properties of water-soluble polymers that affect injectivity of polymer solutions used in enhanced recovery processes. The project consisted of performing a thorough literature survey on this subject, followed by laboratory tests to assess various properties of polymer solutions. In the literature survey, laboratory and field projects were reviewed. Information from the literature survey on field projects and from experiments performed as part of this study points out that water quality is very important in the injectivity of polymer solutions. Specifically, if iron is introduced as a corrosion byproduct, the polymers can be crosslinked which can lead to severe plugging when the polymer solution is injected. For some polymers, procedures used for mixing solutions can be important. Higher solution viscosities may be obtained if emulsion polymers are inverted in a very fresh water prior to mixing with a brine water. Filterability and injectivity of some emulsion polymers are better when the polymers are dissolved in a fresher water. As expected, injectivity of xanthan gum polymers was better than for polyacrylamide polymers. For polyacrylamides, adsorption was higher on dolomite than on sandstone, but the adsorption on either media was not affected greatly by anionic charge of the polymers. Injectivity of polymer solutions may be improved by pretreatment with certain solvents or chemicals. After a loss of injectivity caused by plugging from a polymer solution, selected chemicals can provide improvement in injectivity. 155 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Tunable functional hydrogels formed from a versatile water-soluble chitosan.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Congming; You, Rongrui; Fan, Ying; Zhang, Yue

    2016-04-01

    A versatile water-soluble chitosan (WSC) was applied to construct two kinds of controllable functional hydrogels. Magnetic beads were prepared by physical cross-linking WSC with sodium alginate, soaking particles with ferrous chloride and being subjected to self-oxidation. Magnetic character of the beads was tunable by simply changing the initial concentration of ferrous ions. The beads could bind compounds that contained different charges. Their adsorption capacities for coomassie brilliant blue, rhodamine and hemoglobin were 1, 0.5 and 2.3mg/g respectively. Another kind of functional hydrogel was prepared through radical cross-linking reaction between WSC and a macromonomer (PVAM) derived from well-defined polyvinyl alcohol. The dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis results revealed that the mechanical strength and thermal stability of this hydrogel depended on the structure of PVAM. The capability to bind heavy metal ions of the hydrogel also relied on the structure of PVAM. The adsorption capacities of the hydrogels for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) could reach 20.3 and 60.1mg/g respectively. PMID:26772916

  18. Continuous twin-screw granulation for enhancing the dissolution of poorly water soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Nair, Arun; Renault, Maxcene; Nandi, Uttom; Scoutaris, Nicholaos; Farnish, Richard; Bradley, Michael S A; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-12-30

    The article describes the application of a twin-screw granulation process to enhance the dissolution rate of the poorly water soluble drug, ibuprofen (IBU). A quality-by-design (QbD) approach was used to manufacture IBU loaded granules via hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing. For the purpose of the study, a design of experiment (DoE) was implemented to assess the effect of the formulation compositions and the processing parameters. This novel approach allowed the use of, polymer/inorganic excipients such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin(®)-MAS) with polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG) as the binder without requiring a further drying step. IBU loaded batches were processed using a twin screw extruder to investigate the effect of MAS/polymer ratio, PEG amount (binder) and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios on the dissolution rates, mean particle size and the loss on drying (LoD) of the extruded granules. The DoE analysis showed that the defined independent variables of the twin screw granulation process have a complex effect on the measured outcomes. The solid state analysis showed the existence of partially amorphous IBU state which had a significant effect on the dissolution enhancement in acidic media. Furthermore, the analysis obtained from the surface mapping by Raman proved the homogenous distribution of the IBU in the extruded granulation formulations. PMID:26387621

  19. SOA Precursors: A Comparison of Semi-Volatile and Water Soluble Organic Gases During SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, A. M. G.; Sareen, N.; Turpin, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    It is well-established that a major pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is via the partitioning of semi-volatile products of gas-phase photochemical reactions into preexisting organic particulate matter. Semi-volatile partitioning theory is widely used while modeling SOA. Despite its significance, parameterizations based solely on this formation pathway are unable to reproduce trends in SOA mass, particularly high atmospheric O/C ratios and enrichment of organic aerosol aloft. Recent studies have also highlighted the importance of formation of SOA through reactions of water-soluble organic gases (WSOG) in atmospheric waters (clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols). In order to understand the relative magnitude of potential precursors to SOA via both formation pathways, we modeled semi-volatile and WSOG concentrations during the Secondary Organic and Aerosol Study (SOAS) conducted in Brent, Alabama during June-July 2013. CMAQ 5.0.1 is used to predict mixing ratios of semi-volatile gases and WSOG over the continental US for a 10 day time period during SOAS. Our modeling results indicate that WSOG concentrations are an order of magnitude greater, on average, than the sum of semi-volatile gases. Interestingly, concentrations of semi-volatile gases increase aloft, unlike concentrations of WSOG. These results suggest that the potential for SOA formation from WSOG was high, and provide support for efforts to accurately model that multiphase chemistry in order to develop more effective air quality management strategies.

  20. Evaluation of kinetic parameters for water soluble crystals by thermo gravimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, S.; Surendra Dilip, C.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2015-01-01

    This work elevates the relevance of kinetic parameters of nucleation and thermal decomposition for water soluble crystals. The positive soluble Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) and negative soluble Lithium Sulfate Monohydrate (LSMH) materials were chosen for the kinetic evaluation. The results obtained from the classical nucleation theory are verified with the kinetic parameters which are evaluated from thermo gravimetric analysis. Nucleation parameters of a crystallization process such as interfacial energy (σ), volume free energy (ΔGv), critical energy barrier for nucleation (ΔG*), radius of the critical nucleus (r*) and nucleation rate (J) of the positive (KDP) and negative solubility (LSMH) crystals are determined from the classical nucleation theory of solubility-enthalpy relation. The kinetic parameters viz. the order of reaction, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy of activation, frequency factor, and entropy of activation are obtained from the TG based models viz. Horowitz-Metzger, Coats-Redfern and Piloyan-Novikova. The effect of varying temperature with relative variation on Gibbs free energy for both positive and negative solubility crystals is also discussed. The developed model holds good for both positive and negative solubility crystals.

  1. Luminescence temperature antiquenching of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots: role of the solvent.

    PubMed

    Wuister, Sander F; de Mello Donegá, Celso; Meijerink, Andries

    2004-08-25

    Luminescence temperature antiquenching (LTAQ) is observed for water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped with aminoethanethiol (AET). The efficient exciton emission (quantum efficiency of approximately 40% at 300 K) is quenched almost completely as the QD solutions are cooled to below 230 K and is fully recovered around 270 K upon warming up to room temperature (LTAQ). Temperature-dependent lifetime measurements show that the quenching rate is high, resulting in an on/off behavior. No LTAQ is observed for CdTe QDs capped with aminoundecanethiol (AUT). The LTAQ is explained by the influence of solvent freezing on the surface of the QD core. Freezing of the solvation water molecules surrounding the QD will induce strain in the capping shell, due to the interaction between water and the charged heads of the capping molecules. Short carbon chains (AET) will propagate the strain to the QD surface, creating surface quenching states, whereas long and flexible chains (AUT) will dissipate the strain, thus avoiding surface distortion. Freezing-point depression by the addition of methanol results in a lowering of the transition temperature. Additional support is provided by the size dependence of the LTAQ: smaller particles, with higher local ionic strength due to a higher density of charged NH(3)(+) surface groups, experience a lower transition temperature due to stronger local freezing-point depression. PMID:15315455

  2. Quantitative oral dosing of water soluble and lipophilic contaminants in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irv; Reed, Stacey M.; Pratt, Amanda V.; Skillman, Ann D.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative oral dosing in fish can be challenging, particularly with water soluble contaminants, which can leach into the aquarium water prior to ingestion. We applied a method of bioencapsulation using newly hatched brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii to study the toxicokinetics of five chlorinated and brominated halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), which are drinking water disinfection by-products. These results are compared to those obtained in a previous study using a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47), a highly lipophilic chemical. The HAAs and PBDE-47 were bioencapsulated using freshly hatched A. franciscana nauplii after incubation in concentrated solutions of the study chemicals for 18 h. Aliquots of the brine shrimp were quantitatively removed for chemical analysis and fed to individual fish that were able to consume 400–500 nauplii in less than 5min. At select times after feeding, fish were euthanized and the HAA or PBDE-47 content determined. The absorption of HAAs was quantitatively similar to previous studies in rodents: rapid absorptionwith peak body levels occurringwithin 1–2 h, then rapidly declining with elimination half-life of 0.3–3 h depending on HAA. PBDE-47 was more slowly absorbed with peak levels occurring by 18 h and very slowly eliminated with an elimination half-life of 281 h.

  3. Light-triggered CO delivery by a water-soluble and biocompatible manganese photoCORM.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jorge; Chakraborty, Indranil; Carrington, Samantha J; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2016-08-16

    The discovery of salutary effects of low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) has spurred interest in designing exogenous molecules that can deliver CO to biological targets under controlled conditions. Herein we report a water-soluble photosensitive manganese carbonyl complex [MnBr(CO)3(pyTAm)] (2) (pyTAm = 2-(pyridyl)imino-triazaadamantane) that can be triggered to release CO upon exposure to visible light. Inclusion of a triazaadamantyl pharmacophore into the coligand of 2 improves its stability and solubility in water. Change in the coligand from 2-(pyridyl)imino-triazaadamantane to 2-(pyridyl)iminoadamantane (pyAm) or 2-(quinonyl)imino-triazaadamantane (qyTAm) dramatically alters these desired properties of the photoCORM. In addition to structures and CO-releasing properties of the three analogous complexes 1-3 from these three α-diimine ligands, theoretical calculations have been performed to determine the origin of Mn-CO bond labilization upon illumination. Rapid delivery of CO to myoglobin under physiological conditions attests the potential of 2 as a biocompatible photoCORM. PMID:27417419

  4. Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Malcolm, R.L.; Brinton, T.I.; Kile, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p???-DDT, 2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB, 2,4,4???-PCB, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. With a given DOM sample, the solute partition coefficient (Kdom) increases with a decrease of solute solubility (Sw) or with an increase of the solute's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The Kdom values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment.

  5. Phototoxic Activity and DNA Interactions of Water-Soluble Porphyrins and Their Rhenium(I) Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Mion, Giuliana; Gianferrara, Teresa; Bergamo, Alberta; Gasser, Gilles; Pierroz, Vanessa; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Vilar, Ramon; Leczkowska, Anna; Alessio, Enzo

    2015-11-01

    In the search for alternative photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT), herein we describe two new water-soluble porphyrins, a neutral fourfold-symmetric compound and a +3-charged tris-methylpyridinium derivative, in which either four or one [1,4,7]-triazacyclononane (TACN) units are connected to the porphyrin macrocycle through a hydrophilic linker; we also report their corresponding tetracationic Re(I) conjugates. The in vitro (photo)toxic effects of the compounds toward the human cell lines HeLa (cervical cancer), H460M2 (non-small-cell lung carcinoma), and HBL-100 (non-tumorigenic epithelial cells) are reported. Three of the compounds are not cytotoxic in the dark up to 100 μm, and the fourfold-symmetric couple revealed very good phototoxic indexes (PIs). The intracellular localization of all derivatives was studied in HeLa cells by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Although low nuclear localization was observed for some of them, it still prompted us to investigate their capacity to bind both quadruplex and duplex DNA; we observed significant selectivity in the tris-methylpyridinium derivatives for G-quadruplex interactions. PMID:26332425

  6. Electrospun water-soluble polymer nanofibers for the dehydration and storage of sensitive reagents.

    PubMed

    Dai, Minhui; Senecal, Andre; Nugen, Sam R

    2014-06-01

    The ability to preserve and deliver reagents remains an obstacle for the successful deployment of self-contained diagnostic microdevices. In this study we investigated the ability of bacteriophage T7 to be encapsulated and preserved in water soluble nanofibers. The bacteriophage T7 was added to mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone and water and electrospun onto a grounded plate. Trehalose and magnesium salts were added to the mixtures to determine their effect on the infectivity of the bacteriophage following electrospinning and during storage. The loss of T7 infectivity was determined immediately following electrospinning and during storage using agar overlay plating and plaque counting. The results indicate that the addition of magnesium salts protects the bacteriophage during the relatively violent and high voltage electrospinning process, but is not as effective as a protectant during storage of the dried T7. Conversely, the addition of trehalose into the electrospinning mix has little effect on the electrospinning, but a more significant role as a protectant during storage. PMID:24815520

  7. Characterization and biodegradation of water-soluble biomarkers and organic carbon extracted from low temperature chars

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, Matt J.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Harvey, Omar

    2013-03-16

    This study demonstrates that wildfires/biomass combustion may be an important source of labile pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Py-WSOM) to aquatic systems. Spectroscopic analysis (of the solid char and Py-WSOM) with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the Py-WSOM extracted from two low temperature chars (one wood, one grass) was dominated by polar moieties (-OH and C-O) derived from depolymerization and fragmentation of lignocellulose. Incubation experiments under aerobic conditions with unsterilized river water suggested that Py-WSOM and associated biomarkers may have turnover rates on the order of weeks to months, consistent with mixing and transport conditions of riverine systems. For example, pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon (Py-DOC) had a half-life of 30-40 days. Turnover rate for the combustion biomarkers was shorter, with levoglucosan and free lignin phenols having a half-life around 3-4 days and polymeric lignin components 13-14 days. The latter observations contradict earlier studies on the biodegradation of dissolved lignin and point to the need for re-assessment of lignin degradation kinetics in well-mixed riverine systems, particularly when such lignin components are derived from thermally altered plant material that may exist in a form more labile than that in highly processed riverine DOM.

  8. DELIVERY OF WATER-SOLUBLE DRUGS USING ACOUSTICALLY-TRIGGERED, PERFLUOROCARBON DOUBLE EMULSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Lee, James A.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Ultrasound can be used to release a therapeutic payload encapsulated within a perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion via acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), a process whereby the PFC phase is vaporized and the agent is released. ADV-generated microbubbles have been previously used to selectively occlude blood vessels in vivo. The coupling of ADV-generated drug delivery and occlusion has therapeutically, synergistic potentials. Methods Micron-sized, water-in-PFC-in-water (W1/PFC/W2) emulsions were prepared in a two-step process using perfluoropentane (PFP) or perfluorohexane (PFH) as the PFC phase. Fluorescein or thrombin was contained in the W1 phase. Results Double emulsions containing fluorescein in the W1 phase displayed a 5.7±1.4 fold and 8.2±1.3 fold increase in fluorescein mass flux, as measured using a Franz diffusion cell, after ADV for the PFP and PFH emulsions, respectively. Thrombin was stably retained in four out of five double emulsions. For three out of five formulations tested, the clotting time of whole blood decreased, in a statistically significant manner (p < 0.01), when incubated with thrombin-loaded emulsions exposed to ultrasound compared to emulsions not exposed to ultrasound. Conclusions ADV can be used to spatially and temporally control the delivery of water-soluble compounds formulated in PFC double emulsions. Thrombin release could extend the duration of ADV-generated, microbubble occlusions. PMID:20872050

  9. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV dependent water-soluble prodrugs of highly lipophilic bicyclic nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Diez-Torrubia, Alberto; Balzarini, Jan; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; De Meester, Ingrid; Camarasa, María-José; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2011-03-24

    We present the first report of the application of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) based prodrug approach to hydroxy-containing drug derivatives. In particular, we applied this strategy to the highly lipophilic antiviral drug family of bicyclic furanopyrimidine nucleoside analogues (BCNA) in order to improve their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Our stability data demonstrated that the prodrugs efficiently release the parent BCNA drug upon selective conversion by purified DPPIV/CD26 and by soluble DPPIV/CD26 present in bovine, murine, and human serum. Vildagliptin, a specific inhibitor of DPPIV/CD26, was able to completely block the hydrolysis of the prodrugs in the presence of purified DPPIV/CD26 human, murine, and bovine serum. Several novel prodrugs showed remarkable increases in water solubility (up to more than 3 orders of magnitude) compared to the poorly soluble parent drug. We also demonstrated a markedly enhanced oral bioavailability of the prodrugs versus the parent drug in mice. PMID:21332170

  10. Edible oleogels based on water soluble food polymers: preparation, characterization and potential application.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Cludts, Nick; Sintang, Mohd Dona Bin; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-11-01

    Oil structuring using food-approved polymers is an emerging strategy and holds significant promise in the area of food and nutrition. In the current study, edible oleogels (containing >97 wt% of sunflower oil) were prepared using a combination of water soluble food polymers (methylcellulose and xanthan gum) and further evaluated for potential application as a shortening alternative. Microstructure studies (including cryo-SEM) and rheology measurements were conducted to gain more insights into the properties of these new types of oleogels. In addition, the functionality of oleogel as a shortening alternative was studied in terms of batter properties and the texture analysis of cakes and compared to the reference batches made using either oil, commercial shortening or cake margarine. Interestingly, while the batter properties (air incorporation, rheology and microstructure) of the oleogel batch were more close to the oil batch, the textural properties of cakes were significantly better than oil and resembled more to the cakes prepared using shortening and margarine. PMID:25214474

  11. Water-soluble yellow mustard mucilage: A novel ingredient with potent antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Hui, D; Eskin, N A M; Cui, S W

    2016-10-01

    The antioxidant properties of the water-soluble yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) mucilage (WSM) were compared with citrus pectin and xanthan gum using in vitro methods. The antioxidants ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were used as controls. The antioxidant activity, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, and reducing power on Fe were measured. Molecular weight (MW), uronic acid content, and viscosity for the three polysaccharides were obtained to investigate the relationships between the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of the three different polysaccharides. The results showed that the overall antioxidant activity of polysaccharides was lower than that for ascorbic acid and BHA. Of the three polysaccharides, WSM exhibited the strongest antioxidant properties, followed by citrus pectin and xanthan gum. Statistical analysis showed that the MW and uronic acid content had significant effects on antioxidant activity (P<0.05). MW, uronic acid and apparent viscosity had significant effects on reducing power on Fe (P<0.05). Concentration also significantly affected DPPH free radical scavenging effect and reducing power on Fe (P<0.05). The study indicated a great potential of using WSM as a novel ingredient in food industries due to its superior antioxidant activities compared to citrus pectin and xanthan gum. PMID:27238588

  12. Pulmonary administration of a water-soluble curcumin complex reduces severity of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Madathilparambil V; Wagner, Matthew C; Rosania, Gus R; Stringer, Kathleen A; Min, Kyoung Ah; Risler, Linda; Shen, Danny D; Georges, George E; Reddy, Aravind T; Parkkinen, Jaakko; Reddy, Raju C

    2012-09-01

    Local or systemic inflammation can result in acute lung injury (ALI), and is associated with capillary leakage, reduced lung compliance, and hypoxemia. Curcumin, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties, but its poor solubility and limited oral bioavailability reduce its therapeutic potential. A novel curcumin formulation (CDC) was developed by complexing the compound with hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (CD). This results in greatly enhanced water solubility and stability that facilitate direct pulmonary delivery. In vitro studies demonstrated that CDC increased curcumin's association with and transport across Calu-3 human airway epithelial cell monolayers, compared with uncomplexed curcumin solubilized using DMSO or ethanol. Importantly, Calu-3 cell monolayer integrity was preserved after CDC exposure, whereas it was disrupted by equivalent uncomplexed curcumin solutions. We then tested whether direct delivery of CDC to the lung would reduce severity of ALI in a murine model. Fluorescence microscopic examination revealed an association of curcumin with cells throughout the lung. The administration of CDC after LPS attenuated multiple markers of inflammation and injury, including pulmonary edema and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. CDC also reduced oxidant stress in the lungs and activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These results demonstrate the efficacy of CDC in a murine model of lung inflammation and injury, and support the feasibility of developing a lung-targeted, curcumin-based therapy for the treatment of patients with ALI. PMID:22312018

  13. Development of micellar reactive oxygen species assay for photosafety evaluation of poorly water-soluble chemicals.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yoshiki; Kato, Masashi; Yamada, Shizuo; Onoue, Satomi

    2013-09-01

    A reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay was previously developed for photosafety assessment; however, the phototoxic potential of some chemicals cannot be evaluated because of their limited aqueous solubility. The present study was undertaken to develop a new micellar ROS (mROS) assay system for poorly water-soluble chemicals using a micellar solution of 0.5% (v/v) Tween 20 for solubility enhancement. In repeated mROS assay, intra- and inter-day precisions (coefficient of variation) were found to be below 11%, and the Z'-factors for singlet oxygen and superoxide suggested a large separation band between positive and negative standards. The ROS and mROS assays were applied to 65 phototoxins and 18 non-phototoxic compounds for comparative purposes. Of all 83 chemicals, 25 were unevaluable in the ROS assay due to poor solubility, but only 2 were in the mROS assay. Upon mROS assay on these model chemicals, the individual specificity was 76.5%, and the positive and negative predictivities were found to be 93.9% and 86.7%, respectively. The mROS assay provided 2 false negative predictions, although negative predictivity for the ROS assay was found to be 100%. Considering the pros and cons of these assays, strategic combined use of the ROS and mROS assays might be efficacious for reliable photosafety assessment with high applicability and predictivity. PMID:23727251

  14. Viscoelastic Behavior of Aqueous Solutions of Hydrophobically-Modified Water-Soluble Polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Katsuhiro; Takai, Tomokazu; Sugimoto, Hideki; Nakanishi, Eiji

    2008-07-01

    Water-soluble polypeptide, poly[N5-(2-hydroxyethyl) L-glutamine] (PHEG), was hydrophobiocally modified partially along the main chain by long alkyl chains -(CH2)n-1CH3 (Cn), and association and viscoelastic behavior of aqueous solution of these associative polymers (PHEG-g-Cn,n = 16 and 18) in water/ethylene glycol (EG) mixed solvent have been investigated. The main chain of PHEG-g-Cn changed its conformation from flexible random-coil to rigid α-helix with an increase in EG content of the mixed solvent. When the solvent was pure water, the existence of associative alkyl chains induced a drastic increase in solution viscosity, probably because of a formation of self-assembled large aggregates via intermolecular association. When EG was used as solvent, the steady-flow viscosity measurements exhibited non-Newtonian behavior, suggesting a formation of weakly associated network structure. Concentration dependence of the viscosity for EG solution was similar to that for lyotropic liquid crystalline solutions around isotropic-anisotropic transition concentration, which may suggest an orientational ordering of PHEG-g-Cn in rodlike conformation.

  15. Cyclodextrin and Meglumine-Based Microemulsions as a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Aloisio, Carolina; G de Oliveira, Anselmo; Longhi, Marcela

    2016-09-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) and meglumine (MEG) are pharmaceutical excipients widely used to improve solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of CDs or MEG on the internal microstructure of soya oil-based O/W microemulsions (MEs) and on the modulation of the solubility and release rate of Class II model hydrophobic drugs, sulfamerazine and indomethacin. The pseudoternary phase diagrams revealed that higher proportions of oil phase, as well as the presence of β-cyclodextrin (ßCD), methyl-ßCD, and MEG, favored the incorporation of the drugs. The conductivity studies, particle size, and zeta potential analysis showed that the O/W ME structure remained unaffected and that the ME presented reduced droplet sizes after the incorporation of the ligands. The drug-component interactions were assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies. The highest incorporations of sulfamerazine (35.6 mg/mL) and indomethacin (73.1 mg/mL) were obtained with the ME with W = 5%, MEG and W = 1.8% ßCD in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 8, respectively. In addition, the ligands in ME significantly enhanced the released amount of the drugs, probably due to a solubilizing effect that facilitates the drug to penetrate the unstirred water layer adjacent to membranes. PMID:26886337

  16. Isolation and prebiotic activity of water-soluble polysaccharides fractions from the bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox).

    PubMed

    He, Shudong; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hanju; Wang, Junhui; Cao, Xiaodong; Ye, Yongkang

    2016-10-20

    The water-soluble polysaccharides from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox) (WBP) were isolated, and the characterizations as well as prebiotic activities were investigated. The yield of WBP was 7.58±0.31% under optimal hot-water extraction conditions. Two fractions, i.e., WBP-1 and WBP-2 with molecular weight of 83.50kDa and 80.08kDa, respectively, were purified by chromatography. Both the polysaccharides fractions were identified as heteropolysaccharides-protein complexes composed of 15 kinds of common amino acids in protein part and rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios in polysaccharide part. The existence of α- and β-glycosidic linkages between the sugar units was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectra. Compared with the blank control and the reference of FOS, WBP-1 and WBP-2 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium bifidum (P<0.05), which contributed to the production of organic acids, suggesting that the polysaccharides have potential prebiotic properties. PMID:27474570

  17. Biological conversion of a water-soluble prodrug of cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Lallemand, F; Varesio, E; Felt-Baeyens, O; Bossy, Leila; Hopfgartner, G; Gurny, R

    2007-09-01

    UNIL088 is a water-soluble prodrug of cyclosporine A (CsA) designed for topical ocular delivery. The pro-moiety is grafted via an ester function to CsA and the solubilizing group is a phosphate ion. The aim of this study was to elucidate the conversion mechanisms by which UNIL088 generates CsA. UNIL088 was incubated in rabbit tears at physiological temperature to study its enzymatic and chemical conversion, respectively. Metabolites and intermediates were identified using a quadrupole-time of flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometer, which allowed biotransformation pathways to be deduced. Conversion is activated by the chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of the terminal ester function of the pro-moiety, leading to the phospho-serine-sarcosine-cyclosporine A that spontaneously converts into CsA. In addition to the main biotransformation pathway, a secondary reaction involved hydrolysis of the phosphate ester group of the pro-moiety, probably by phosphatases present in tears. PMID:17475453

  18. A study on antifungal activity of water-soluble chitosan against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Bishnu P; Guha, Arun K

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal effect of water-soluble chitosan (s-chitosan) on Macrophomina phaseolina (M. phaseolina) causing jute seedling infection and monitor the change in activity of released enzymes during infection. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of s-chitosan for M. phaseolina was found at 12.5g/l and s-chitosan exhibited fungistatic mode of action against this pathogen. The application of s-chitosan (12.5g/l) during infection of jute seedlings by M. phaseolina inhibited fungal infection and length of the seedlings was found almost similar to seedlings without infection. M. phaseolina infected jute seedlings showed length of 22mm over 10 days of incubation and it increased to 58mm in presence of s-chitosan (12.5g/l) during incubation for 10 days. TEM study indicated presence of hyphae in the cortical and epidermal cells of fungus infected jute seedlings indicating colonization by the fungus and it disappeared after treatment with s-chitosan. The changes in enzyme profiles of jute seedling during prevention of fungal infection using s-chitosan helped in proper understanding of mode of action of s-chitosan as antifungal agent. The activity of defense related enzymes like chitosanase and peroxidase in infected seedlings was observed to be enhanced after treatment with s-chitosan. PMID:24747381

  19. Bioactivation of water-soluble peptidic quantum dot through biotin-streptavidin binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dif, A.; Touchet, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Baudy-Floc'h, M.; Dahan, M.; Piehler, J.; Marchi-Artzner, V.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the preparation of bioactive water-soluble fluorescent CdSe/ZnS semi-conductor quantum dots with a small hydrodynamic diameter of 10 nm. These quantum dots are functionalized with a biotinylated peptide that can be introduced at different ratios onto the surface of the quantum dots. Their ability to bind to streptavidin in solution is tested by using gel electrophoresis and fluorescence resonance energy transfer with a fluorescent labeled-streptavidin. The binding of these quantum dots to Agarose micrometric beads coated with streptavidin is also analyzed by fluorescent optical microscopy. A synthetic pegylated peptide is successfully used to prevent the non specific adsorption of streptavidin onto the quantum dots. A specific binding to the streptavidin results in the formation of a very stable streptavidin-quantum dot complex without any significant aggregation. The average number of streptavidin per quantum dot is found to be to 4 at the most. Such bioactivate quantum dots can be further conjugated to any biotinylated biomolecule and used in biological medium.

  20. Susceptibility of representative dental pathogens to inactivation by the PDT with water-soluble photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, Ivan; Mantareva, Vanya; Kussovski, Veselin; Worle, Diter; Kisov, Hristo; Belcheva, Marieta; Georgieva, Tzvetelina; Dimitrov, Slavcho

    2010-09-01

    In the recent decade the applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) rapidly increase in several topics and one of areas where the PDT in the future will be play significant role is dentistry. The different photosensitizing complexes with a good water solubility and with absorption with an intensive maximum in the red region (630-690 nm), which makes them suitable for photodynamic treatments, were investigated. The photochemical properties of complexes for singlet oxygen generation were investigated and were shown relations between uptake levels and light intensity to achieve increase in photodynamic efficacy. Photodynamic efficacy against fungi Candida albicans and bacteria's E. faecalis, MRSA and S. Mutans in planktonic media was evaluated. The high photodynamic efficacy was shown for SiPc at very low concentrations (0.9 μM) and light doses of 50 J cm-2 by intensity of light 60 mW cm-2. The photodynamic response for E. faecalis, MRSA and S. Mutans, after treatments with different photosensitizers show strong dependence on concentrations of photsensitzers and micro organisms. The level of inactivation of the pathogen bacteria's from 1-2 degree of initial concentration up to full inactivation was observed. The studied complexes were compared to the recently studied Methylene blue, Haematoporphyrine and tetra-methylpirydiloxy Zn(II)- phthalocyanines and experimental results show that some of them have a good potential for inactivation of representative pathogenic bacterial strains. Experimental results also indicate that photodynamic therapy appears an effective method for inactivation of oral pathogenic bacterias and fungi.