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1

Mobile Phones, Non-Ionizing Radiofrequency Fields and Brain Cancer: Is There an Adaptive Response?  

PubMed Central

There is widespread concern among the general public regarding the ever increasing use of mobile phones. The concern is mainly because the antenna which transmits nonionizing radiofrequency fields is held close to the head during use and thus might cause brain cancer. By far, the largest epidemiological study was conducted by the INTER-PHONE study group and the results were published in 2011. The author’s conclusions were (i) no increased risk of meningioma and glioma in mobile phone users and (ii) there were suggestions of an increased risk for glioma at the highest exposure levels but, bias and error prevented a causal interpretation. We have carefully examined all of the odd ratios presented in the INTERPHONE study publication: our results showed 24.3% decreased and 0.7% increased risk for meningioma and 22.1% decreased and 6.6% increased risk for glioma. Hence, we hypothesize that the overwhelming evidence for the decreased risk for both diseases may be due to the induction of ‘adaptive response’ which is well-documented in scientific literature PMID:25249839

Vijayalaxmi; Prihoda, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

2

Mobile phones, non-ionizing radiofrequency fields and brain cancer: is there an adaptive response?  

PubMed

There is widespread concern among the general public regarding the ever increasing use of mobile phones. The concern is mainly because the antenna which transmits nonionizing radiofrequency fields is held close to the head during use and thus might cause brain cancer. By far, the largest epidemiological study was conducted by the INTER-PHONE study group and the results were published in 2011. The author's conclusions were (i) no increased risk of meningioma and glioma in mobile phone users and (ii) there were suggestions of an increased risk for glioma at the highest exposure levels but, bias and error prevented a causal interpretation. We have carefully examined all of the odd ratios presented in the INTERPHONE study publication: our results showed 24.3% decreased and 0.7% increased risk for meningioma and 22.1% decreased and 6.6% increased risk for glioma. Hence, we hypothesize that the overwhelming evidence for the decreased risk for both diseases may be due to the induction of 'adaptive response' which is well-documented in scientific literature. PMID:25249839

Vijayalaxmi; Prihoda, Thomas J

2014-07-01

3

Adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage  

PubMed Central

The aim of this preliminary investigation was to assess whether human peripheral blood lymphocytes which have been pre-exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields exhibit an adaptive response (AR) by resisting the induction of genetic damage from subsequent exposure to ionizing radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from four healthy donors were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 24 h and then exposed for 20 h to 1950 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF, adaptive dose, AD) at an average specific absorption rate of 0.3 W/kg. At 48 h, the cells were subjected to a challenge dose (CD) of 1.0 or 1.5 Gy X-irradiation (XR, challenge dose, CD). After a 72 h total culture period, cells were collected to examine the incidence of micronuclei (MN). There was a significant decrease in the number of MN in lymphocytes exposed to RF + XR (AD + CD) as compared with those subjected to XR alone (CD). These observations thus suggested a RF-induced AR and induction of resistance to subsequent damage from XR. There was variability between the donors in RF-induced AR. The data reported in our earlier investigations also indicated a similar induction of AR in human blood lymphocytes that had been pre-exposed to RF (AD) and subsequently treated with a chemical mutagen, mitomycin C (CD). Since XR and mitomycin-C induce different kinds of lesions in cellular DNA, further studies are required to understand the mechanism(s) involved in the RF-induced adaptive response. PMID:23979077

Sannino, Anna; Zeni, Olga; Romeo, Stefania; Massa, Rita; Gialanella, Giancarlo; Grossi, Gianfranco; Manti, Lorenzo; Vijayalaxmi; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

2014-01-01

4

Estimation of electromagnetic dosimetric values from non-ionizing radiofrequency fields in an indoor commercial airplane environment.  

PubMed

Abstract In this article, the impact of topology as well as morphology of a complex indoor environment such as a commercial aircraft in the estimation of dosimetric assessment is presented. By means of an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray-launching code, estimation of electric field amplitude as a function of position for the complete volume of a commercial passenger airplane is obtained. Estimation of electromagnetic field exposure in this environment is challenging, due to the complexity and size of the scenario, as well as to the large metallic content, giving rise to strong multipath components. By performing the calculation with a deterministic technique, the complete scenario can be considered with an optimized balance between accuracy and computational cost. The proposed method can aid in the assessment of electromagnetic dosimetry in the future deployment of embarked wireless systems in commercial aircraft. PMID:23915231

Aguirre, Erik; Arpón, Javier; Azpilicueta, Leire; López, Peio; de Miguel, Silvia; Ramos, Victoria; Falcone, Francisco

2014-12-01

5

Genetic damage in human cells exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: a meta-analysis of the data from 88 publications (1990-2011).  

PubMed

Based on the 'limited' evidence suggesting an association between exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF) emitted from mobile phones and two types of brain cancer, glioma and acoustic neuroma, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified RF as 'possibly carcinogenic to humans' in group 2B. In view of this classification and the positive correlation between increased genetic damage and carcinogenesis, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether a significant increase in genetic damage in human cells exposed to RF provides a potential mechanism for its carcinogenic potential. The extent of genetic damage in human cells, assessed from various end-points, viz., single-/double-strand breaks in the DNA, incidence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges, reported in a total of 88 peer-reviewed scientific publications during 1990-2011 was considered in the meta-analysis. Among the several variables in the experimental protocols used, the influence of five specific variables related to RF exposure characteristics was investigated: (i) frequency, (ii) specific absorption rate, (iii) exposure as continuous wave, pulsed wave and occupationally exposed/mobile phone users, (iv) duration of exposure, and (v) different cell types. The data indicated the following. (1) The magnitude of difference between RF-exposed and sham-/un-exposed controls was small with some exceptions. (2) In certain RF exposure conditions there was a statistically significant increase in genotoxicity assessed from some end-points: the effect was observed in studies with small sample size and was largely influenced by publication bias. Studies conducted within the generally recommended RF exposure guidelines showed a smaller effect. (3) The multiple regression analyses and heterogeneity goodness of fit data indicated that factors other than the above five variables as well as the quality of publications have contributed to the overall results. (4) More importantly, the mean indices for chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange end-points in RF-exposed and sham-/un-exposed controls were within the spontaneous levels reported in a large data-base. Thus, the classification of RF as possibly carcinogenic to humans in group 2B was not supported by genotoxicity-based mechanistic evidence. PMID:23022599

Vijayalaxmi; Prihoda, Thomas J

2012-12-12

6

Measurement of radiofrequency fields  

SciTech Connect

We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs.

Leonowich, J.A.

1992-05-01

7

Bio-effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in context of cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Bio-effects mediated by non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) have become a hot topic of research in the last decades. This interest has been triggered by a growing public concern about the rapid expansion of telecommunication devices and possible consequences of their use on human health. Despite a feasibility study of potential negative impacts, the therapeutic advantages of EMF could be effectively harnessed for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This review aims to examine recent findings relating to the mechanisms of action underlying the bio-effects induced by non-ionizing EMF. The potential of non-thermal and thermal effects is discussed in the context of possible applications for the induction of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, and increase of membrane permeability in malignant cells. A special emphasis has been put on the combination of EMF with magnetic nano-particles and ultrasound for cancer treatment. The review encompasses both human and animal studies. PMID:24389151

Saliev, Timur; Tachibana, Katsuro; Bulanin, Denis; Mikhalovsky, Sergey; Whitby, Ray D L

2014-01-01

8

Superconducting surface impedance under radiofrequency field  

Based on BCS theory with moving Cooper pairs, the electron states distribution at 0K and the probability of electron occupation with finite temperature have been derived and applied to anomalous skin effect theory to obtain the surface impedance of a superconductor under radiofrequency (RF) field. We present the numerical results for Nb and compare these with representative RF field-dependent effective surface resistance measurements from a 1.5 GHz resonant structure.

Xiao, Binping [JLAB, William and Mary College; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [JLAB, William and Mary College

2013-07-01

9

Induction of adaptive response in mice exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields: application of micronucleus assay.  

PubMed

Adult male ICR mice were pre-exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF), 900MHz at 120?W/cm(2) power density for 4h/day for 7 days (adaptation dose, AD) and then subjected to an acute whole body dose of 3Gy ?-radiation (challenge dose, CD). The classical micronucleus (MN) assay was used to determine the extent of genotoxicity in immature erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow. The data obtained in mice exposed to AD+CD were compared with those exposed to CD alone. The results indicated that in both tissues, the MN indices were similar in un-exposed controls and those exposed to AD alone while a significantly increased MN frequency was observed in mice exposed to CD alone. Exposure of mice to AD+CD resulted in a significant decrease in MN indices compared to those exposed to CD alone. Thus, the data suggested that pre-exposure of mice to non-ionizing RF is capable of 'protecting' the erythrocytes in the blood and bone marrow from genotoxic effects of subsequent ?-radiation. Such protective phenomenon is generally described as 'adaptive response' (AR) and is well documented in human and animal cells which were pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. It is interesting to observe AR being induced by non-ionizing RF. PMID:23295244

Jiang, Bingcheng; Zong, Chunyan; Zhao, Hua; Ji, Yongxin; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

2013-03-18

10

Recent advances in research on radiofrequency fields and health.  

PubMed

Since the Royal Society of Canada report on potential health risks of radiofrequency (RF) fields from wireless telecommunications in the spring of 1999, there have been several newly published reports on risks associated with the use of mobile phones. This article provides a summary of scientific research on the potential health effects of radiofrequency fields that has been reported since the original Royal Society report was published. This update also discusses several earlier results not included in the original report. PMID:11202059

Krewski, D; Byus, C V; Glickman, B W; Lotz, W G; Mandeville, R; McBride, M L; Prato, F S; Weaver, D F

2001-01-01

11

Ets1 oncogene induction by ELF-modulated 50 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field.  

PubMed

We have analyzed gene expression in hemopoietic and testicular cell types after their exposure to 50 MHz radiofrequency (RF) non-ionizing radiation modulated (80%) with a 16 Hz frequency. The exposure system generates a 0.2 microT magnetic field parallel to the ground and a 60 V/m electric field orthogonal to the earth's magnetic field. Exposure conditions were selected so as to interfere with the calcium ion flow. Under these electromagnetic field (EMF) conditions, we observed an overexpression of the ets1 mRNA in Jurkat T-lymphoblastoid and Leydig TM3 cell lines. This effect was observed only in the presence of the 16 Hz modulation, corresponding to the resonance frequency for calcium ion with a DC magnetic field of 45.7 microT. We have also identified a putative candidate gene repressed after EMF exposure. The experimental model described in this paper may contribute to the understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in EMF effects. PMID:10615087

Romano-Spica, V; Mucci, N; Ursini, C L; Ianni, A; Bhat, N K

2000-01-01

12

Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an iterative measurement and modeling method for outdoor RF-EMF exposure. • Hotspots are rapidly identified, and accurately characterized. • An accurate graphical representation, or heat map, is created, using kriging. • Random validation shows good correlation (0.7) and low relative errors (2 dB)

Aerts, Sam, E-mail: sam.aerts@intec.ugent.be; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

2013-10-15

13

Superatom paramagnetism enables gold nanocluster heating in applied radiofrequency fields.  

PubMed

The Au102(pMBA)44 nanocluster becomes a superatom paramagnet after chemical oxidation. Solutions of paramagnetic Au102(pMBA)44 heat in an oscillating magnetic field component of an RF field, but not in the electric component. Combined, these experiments suggest that paramagnetic Au102(pMBA)44 heats through interactions of spin magnetic moment with an external oscillating magnetic field. These results may clarify some current controversy regarding gold nanoparticle heating in radiofrequency fields. PMID:23390932

McCoy, Ruthanne S; Choi, Sam; Collins, George; Ackerson, Bruce J; Ackerson, Christopher J

2013-03-26

14

Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Human Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF), specifically related to the use of mobile telephones, on the nervous system in humans have been the subject of a large number of experimental studies in recent years. There is some evidence of an effect of exposure to a Global System for Mobile Telecommunication (GSM)-type signal on the spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG).

Eric van Rongen; Rodney Croft; Jukka Juutilainen; Isabelle Lagroye; Junji Miyakoshi; Richard Saunders; René de Seze; Thomas Tenforde; Luc Verschaeve; Bernard Veyret; Zhengping Xu

2009-01-01

15

International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields  

PubMed Central

The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach) for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research. PMID:25211777

Vijayalaxmi; Scarfi, Maria R.

2014-01-01

16

International and national expert group evaluations: biological/health effects of radiofrequency fields.  

PubMed

The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the "weight of scientific evidence" approach) for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research. PMID:25211777

Vijayalaxmi; Scarfi, Maria R

2014-09-01

17

Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility and sex ratio of offspring.  

PubMed

Concern is growing about exposure to electromagnetic fields and male reproductive health. The authors performed a cross-sectional study among military men employed in the Royal Norwegian Navy, including information about work close to equipment emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, one-year infertility, children and sex of the offspring. Among 10,497 respondents, 22% had worked close to high-frequency aerials to a "high" or "very high" degree. Infertility increased significantly along with increasing self-reported exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. In a logistic regression, odds ratio (OR) for infertility among those who had worked closer than 10 m from high-frequency aerials to a "very high" degree relative to those who reported no work near high-frequency aerials was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46-2.37), adjusted for age, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and exposure to organic solvents, welding and lead. Similar adjusted OR for those exposed to a "high", "some" and "low" degree were 1.93 (95% CI: 1.55-2.40), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.25-1.84), and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.15-1.68), respectively. In all age groups there were significant linear trends with higher prevalence of involuntary childlessness with higher self-reported exposure to radiofrequency fields. However, the degree of exposure to radiofrequency radiation and the number of children were not associated. For self-reported exposure both to high-frequency aerials and communication equipment there were significant linear trends with lower ratio of boys to girls at birth when the father reported a higher degree of radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure. PMID:18415687

Baste, Valborg; Riise, Trond; Moen, Bente E

2008-01-01

18

Occupational exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The paper considers occupational exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields in industrial processes in near-field situations where electric and magnetic field strengths are monitored to assess the health hazard. Plastic materials are joined by an RF machine whose electrodes are not shielded and which may produce high level RF fields in the immediate vicinity, exceeding the ANSI standard. A physiotherapist may be exposed to high E and H fields using RF shortwave therapy, the maintenance personnel in FM/TV broadcast towers are subject to intense RF fields, and induction heating equipment used for forging, annealing and brazing can expose operators' hands to magnetic fields.

Mild, K.H.

1980-01-01

19

Electromagnetic Field Measurement in Presence of Radiofrequency Wideband Digital Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental research carried out to evaluate the efficiency of traditional exposure assessment procedures when applied to the measurement of radiofrequency electromagnetic field radiated by digital wideband signal transmitters (802.11x, 802.16x, DVB-x). For this purpose, it was analysed both the performance of wideband measuring procedures based on the use of wideband field probes and the behaviour of

Daniele Trinchero; Benedetta Fiorelli; Riccardo Stefanelli; Laura Anglesio; Alberto Benedetto; Stefano Trinchero; Giovanni d'Amore; Michele Borsero; Giuseppe Vizio

20

Radiofrequency field-induced thermal cytotoxicity in cancer cells treated with fluorescent nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background Non-ionizing radiation, such as radiofrequency (RF) field and near infrared laser, induces thermal cytotoxicity in cancer cells treated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP). Quantum dots (QD) are fluorescent semiconducting nanoparticles that we hypothesize will induce similar injury following RF field irradiation. Methods AuNP and two types of QD (cadmium-selenide and indium-gallium-phosphide) conjugated to cetuximab (C225), a monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-1), demonstrated concentration-dependent heating in a RF field. We investigated the effect of RF field exposure after targeted nanoparticle treatment in a co-culture of two human cancer cell lines that have differential EGFR-1 expression (a high expressing pancreatic carcinoma, Panc-1, and a low expressing breast carcinoma, Cama-1). Results RF exposed Panc-1 or Cama-1 cells not containing AuNP or QD had a viability greater than 92%. The viability of Panc-1 cells exposed to the RF field after treatment with 50 nM Au-C225 was 39.4% ± 8.3% without injury to bystander Cama-1 cells (viability was 93.7% ± 1.0%, p ~ 0.0006). Panc-1 cells treated with targeted Cd-Se QD were only 47.5% viable after RF field exposure (p < 0.0001 compared to RF only Panc-1 control cells). Targeted InGaP QD decreased Panc-1 viability to 58.2% ± 3.4% after RF field exposure (p ~ 0.0004 compared to Cama-1 and Panc-1 controls). Conclusion We selectively induced RF field cytotoxicity in Panc-1 cells without injury to bystander Cama-1 cells utilizing EGFR-1 targeted nanoparticles, and demonstrated an interesting bifunctionality of fluorescent nanoparticles as agents for both cancer cell imaging and treatment. PMID:20564640

Glazer, Evan S.; Curley, Steven A.

2010-01-01

21

Genetic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects of radiofrequency fields.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the literature data on the genetic toxicology of radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Whereas in the past most studies were devoted to microwave ovens and radar equipment, it is now mobile telecommunication that attracts most attention. Therefore we focus on mobile telephone frequencies where possible. According to a great majority of the papers, radiofrequency fields, and mobile telephone frequencies in particular, are not genotoxic: they do not induce genetic effects in vitro and in vivo, at least under non-thermal exposure conditions, and do not seem to be teratogenic or to induce cancer. Yet, some investigations gave rather alarming results that should be confirmed and completed by further experiments. Among them the investigation of synergistic effects and of possible mechanisms of action should be emphasised. PMID:9637234

Verschaeve, L; Maes, A

1998-04-01

22

Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure and non-specific symptoms of ill health: A systematic review  

SciTech Connect

This article is a systematic review of whether everyday exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) causes symptoms, and whether some individuals are able to detect low-level RF-EMF (below the ICNIRP [International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection] guidelines). Peer-reviewed articles published before August 2007 were identified by means of a systematic literature search. Meta-analytic techniques were used to pool the results from studies investigating the ability to discriminate active from sham RF-EMF exposure. RF-EMF discrimination was investigated in seven studies including a total of 182 self-declared electromagnetic hypersensitive (EHS) individuals and 332 non-EHS individuals. The pooled correct field detection rate was 4.2% better than expected by chance (95% CI: -2.1 to 10.5). There was no evidence that EHS individuals could detect presence or absence of RF-EMF better than other persons. There was little evidence that short-term exposure to a mobile phone or base station causes symptoms based on the results of eight randomized trials investigating 194 EHS and 346 non-EHS individuals in a laboratory. Some of the trials provided evidence for the occurrence of nocebo effects. In population based studies an association between symptoms and exposure to RF-EMF in the everyday environment was repeatedly observed. This review showed that the large majority of individuals who claims to be able to detect low level RF-EMF are not able to do so under double-blind conditions. If such individuals exist, they represent a small minority and have not been identified yet. The available observational studies do not allow differentiating between biophysical from EMF and nocebo effects.

Roeoesli, Martin [Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)], E-mail: Roeoesli@ispm.unibe.ch

2008-06-15

23

The generation of intense radiofrequency fields in ?coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large amplitude radiofrequency (rf) fields hold great promise in wide line NMR where it becomes possible to excite the full breadth of the line in a quantitative fashion. Applications in quadrupole NMR and in NMR of paramagnetic systems benefit greatly from intense fields. Spin manipulations in multiple quantum NMR experiments, specifically, the generation of multiple quantum coherence in MQ NMR, are more efficiently produced using intense rf fields. In this work we describe a ?coil probe that produces an rf field of 25 MHz, more than five times larger than the greatest rf field reported in the literature. We accomplish this in a robust, 127 ?m diameter solenoid coil using 1 kW of rf power.

Hagaman, Edward W.; Jiao, Jian; Moore, Tony

2008-07-01

24

Bray-Liebhafsky oscillatory reaction in the radiofrequency electromagnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oscillatory Bray-Liebhafsky (BL) reaction is capacitively coupled with the electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 60-110 MHz. Because of the specific reaction dynamics characterized by several characteristic parameters (induction period, period between chemical oscillations and their amplitude) it served as a good model system for the investigation of the effects of radiofrequent (RF) radiation. RF power of up to 0.2 W did not produce observable changes of the BL reaction parameters in the limit of the experiment reproductivity. Results indicate that, under the given experimental conditions, both dissipative and reactive properties of the solution are not considerably coupled with the RF electrical field.

Stanisavljev, Dragomir R.; Veliki?, Zoran; Veselinovi?, Dragan S.; Jaci?, Nevena V.; Milenkovi?, Maja C.

2014-09-01

25

Electromagnetic and heat transfer computations for non-ionizing radiation dosimetry.  

PubMed

Reliable information on the heat distribution inside biological tissues is essential for the planning and optimization of experiments which aim to study the effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR). In electrodynamics, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique has become the dominant technique for radiofrequency dosimetry. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field and heat distributions within the same simulation run without changing discretization, a heat diffusion solver has been directly integrated into an advanced electrodynamic FDTD kernel. The implementation enables both coupled and sequential simulations. It also includes the ability to work with complex bodies and to accelerate heat diffusion. This paper emphasizes the importance of this combination in the field of NIR dosimetry. Two examples from this area are given: the validation of dosimetry with temperature probes and the estimation of the highest thermal load during bioexperiments. PMID:10958191

Samaras, T; Regli, P; Kuster, N

2000-08-01

26

Electromagnetic and heat transfer computations for non-ionizing radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable information on the heat distribution inside biological tissues is essential for the planning and optimization of experiments which aim to study the effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR). In electrodynamics, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique has become the dominant technique for radiofrequency dosimetry. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field and heat distributions within the same simulation run without changing discretization, a heat diffusion solver has been directly integrated into an advanced electrodynamic FDTD kernel. The implementation enables both coupled and sequential simulations. It also includes the ability to work with complex bodies and to accelerate heat diffusion. This paper emphasizes the importance of this combination in the field of NIR dosimetry. Two examples from this area are given: the validation of dosimetry with temperature probes and the estimation of the highest thermal load during bioexperiments.

Samaras, T.; Regli, P.; Kuster, N.

2000-08-01

27

Ionization of N2 in radio-frequent electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rate coefficients for the electron impact ionization of the N2 molecule are calculated in non-equilibrium conditions in the presence of time-dependent electric field. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed in order to determine non-equilibrium electron energy distribution functions within one period of the radio-frequent (RF) electric field. By using these distribution functions, rate coefficients for ionization of the N2 molecule have been obtained time resolved within one period in the frequency range from 13.56 up to 500 MHz, at effective reduced electric field values up to 700 Td. This work presents an insight into the temporal characteristics of ionizing process and provides the ionization rate coefficients that can be of great use for correct implementation in modeling RF plasma discharges. A behavior of rate coefficients under the influence of magnitude and frequency of the fields was studied separately revealing some interesting features in time dependence.

Popovi?, M. P.; Vojnovi?, M. M.; Aoneas, M. M.; Risti?, M. M.; Vi?i?, M. D.; Popari?, G. B.

2014-06-01

28

The Effect of Combined Exposure of 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields and Doxorubicin in HL-60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells were pre-exposed to non-ionizing 900 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 12 µW/cm2 power density for 1 hour/day for 3 days and then treated with a chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX, 0.125 mg/L). Several end-points related to toxicity, viz., viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular free calcium (Ca2+) and Ca2+-Mg2+ -ATPase activity were measured. The results obtained in un-exposed and sham-exposed control cells were compared with those exposed to RF alone, DOX alone and RF+DOX. The results indicated no significant differences between un-exposed, sham-exposed control cells and those exposed to RF alone while treatment with DOX alone showed a significant decrease in viability, increased apoptosis, decreased MMP, increased Ca2+ and decreased Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity. When the latter results were compared with cells exposed RF+DOX, the data showed increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, increased MMP, decreased Ca2+ and increased Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity. Thus, RF pre-exposure appear to protect the HL-60 cells from the toxic effects of subsequent treatment with DOX. These observations were similar to our earlier data which suggested that pre-exposure of mice to 900 MHz RF at 120 µW/cm2 power density for 1 hours/day for 14 days had a protective effect in hematopoietic tissue damage induced by subsequent gamma-irradiation. PMID:23029402

Jiang, Bingcheng; Zhou, Zhen; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

2012-01-01

29

Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the human nervous system.  

PubMed

The effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF), specifically related to the use of mobile telephones, on the nervous system in humans have been the subject of a large number of experimental studies in recent years. There is some evidence of an effect of exposure to a Global System for Mobile Telecommunication (GSM)-type signal on the spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG). This is not corroborated, however, by the results from studies on evoked potentials. Although there is some evidence emerging that there may be an effect of exposure to a GSM-type signal on sleep EEG, results are still variable. In summary, exposure to a GSM-type signal may result in minor effects on brain activity, but such changes have never been found to relate to any adverse health effects. No consistent significant effects on cognitive performance in adults have been observed. If anything, any effect is small and exposure seems to improve performance. Effects in children did not differ from those in healthy adults. Studies on auditory and vestibular function are more unequivocal: neither hearing nor the sense of balance is influenced by short-term exposure to mobile phone signals. Subjective symptoms over a wide range, including headaches and migraine, fatigue, and skin itch, have been attributed to various radiofrequency sources both at home and at work. However, in provocation studies a causal relation between EMF exposure and symptoms has never been demonstrated. There are clear indications, however, that psychological factors such as the conscious expectation of effect may play an important role in this condition. PMID:20183535

van Rongen, Eric; Croft, Rodney; Juutilainen, Jukka; Lagroye, Isabelle; Miyakoshi, Junji; Saunders, Richard; de Seze, René; Tenforde, Thomas; Verschaeve, Luc; Veyret, Bernard; Xu, Zhengping

2009-10-01

30

Enhanced field emission studies on niobium surfaces relevant to high field superconducting radiofrequency devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation

Tong Wang

2002-01-01

31

Recent Advances in Research on Radiofrequency Fields and Health: 2004–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of wireless telecommunications devices, particularly mobile phones and wireless networks, has resulted in increased human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. Although national and international agencies have established safety guidelines for exposure to RF fields, concerns remain about the potential for adverse health outcomes to occur in relation to RF field exposure. The extensive literature on RF fields

Riadh W. Y. Habash; J. Mark Elwood; Daniel Krewski; W. Gregory Lotz; James P. McNamee; Frank S. Prato

2009-01-01

32

Probing the fundamental limit of niobium in high radiofrequency fields by dual mode excitation in superconducting radiofrequency cavities  

SciTech Connect

We have studied thermal breakdown in several multicell superconducting radiofrequency cavity by simultaneous excitation of two TM{sub 010} passband modes. Unlike measurements done in the past, which indicated a clear thermal nature of the breakdown, our measurements present a more complex picture with interplay of both thermal and magnetic effects. JLab LG-1 that we studied was limited at 40.5 MV/m, corresponding to B{sub peak} = 173 mT, in 8{pi}/9 mode. Dual mode measurements on this quench indicate that this quench is not purely magnetic, and so we conclude that this field is not the fundamental limit in SRF cavities.

Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari

2011-07-01

33

Diverse Radiofrequency Sensitivity and Radiofrequency Effects of Mobile or Cordless Phone near Fields Exposure in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Introduction The impact of electromagnetic fields on health is of increasing scientific interest. The aim of this study was to examine how the Drosophila melanogaster animal model is affected when exposed to portable or mobile phone fields. Methods/Results Two experiments have been designed and performed in the same laboratory conditions. Insect cultures were exposed to the near field of a 2G mobile phone (the GSM 2G networks support and complement in parallel the 3G wide band or in other words the transmission of information via voice signals is served by the 2G technology in both mobile phones generations) and a 1880 MHz cordless phone both digitally modulated by human voice. Comparison with advanced statistics of the egg laying of the second generation exposed and non-exposed cultures showed limited statistical significance for the cordless phone exposed culture and statistical significance for the 900 MHz exposed insects. We calculated by physics, simulated and illustrated in three dimensional figures the calculated near fields of radiation inside the experimenting vials and their difference. Comparison of the power of the two fields showed that the difference between them becomes null when the experimental cylinder radius and the height of the antenna increase. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest a possible radiofrequency sensitivity difference in insects which may be due to the distance from the antenna or to unexplored intimate factors. Comparing the near fields of the two frequencies bands, we see similar not identical geometry in length and height from the antenna and that lower frequencies tend to drive to increased radiofrequency effects. PMID:25402465

Geronikolou, Styliani; Zimeras, Stelios; Davos, Constantinos H.; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Tsitomeneas, Stephanos

2014-01-01

34

Mobile phones, radiofrequency fields, and health effects in children – Epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, when WHO organized a workshop on children's sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, very few studies on radiofrequency fields were available. With the recent increase in mobile phone use among children and adolescents, WHO has identified studies on health effects in this age-group as a high priority research area. There are no empirical data supporting the notion that children and

Maria Feychting

35

In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of radiofrequency fields.  

PubMed

There has been growing concern about the possibility of adverse health effects resulting from exposure to radiofrequency radiations (RFR), such as those emitted by wireless communication devices. Since the introduction of mobile phones many studies have been conducted regarding alleged health effects but there is still some uncertainty and no definitive conclusions have been reached so far. Although thermal effects are well understood they are not of great concern as they are unlikely to result from the typical low-level RFR exposures. Concern rests essentially with the possibility that RFR-exposure may induce non-thermal and/or long-term health effects such as an increased cancer risk. Consequently, possible genetic effects have often been studied but with mixed results. In this paper we review the data on alleged RFR-induced genetic effects from in vitro and in vivo investigations as well as from human cytogenetic biomonitoring surveys. Attention is also paid to combined exposures of RFR with chemical or physical agents. Again, however, no entirely consistent picture emerges. Many of the positive studies may well be due to thermal exposures, but a few studies suggest that biological effects can be seen at low levels of exposure. Overall, however, the evidence for low-level genotoxic effects is very weak. PMID:20955816

Verschaeve, L; Juutilainen, J; Lagroye, I; Miyakoshi, J; Saunders, R; de Seze, R; Tenforde, T; van Rongen, E; Veyret, B; Xu, Z

2010-12-01

36

Maximum therapeutic effect of glioma treatment by radio-frequency electric field  

E-print Network

An influence of a radio-frequency electric field on glioma - brain cancer development is considered. A specific task emerging here is whether this new medical technology is effective against invasive cells with a high motility, when switching between migrating and proliferating phenotypes takes place. This therapeutic effect is studied in the framework of a continuous time random walk. It is shown that the migration proliferation dichotomy of cancer cells leads to the weakening of the electric field treatment.

Iomin, A

2014-01-01

37

Experimental verification of numerically predicted electric field distributions produced by a radiofrequency coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are safety issues regarding energy deposition within tissues due to radiofrequency fields used in some magnetic resonance (MR) procedures. Procedures should be compliant with guidelines that specify limits to temperature elevation and specific absorption rate (SAR). In general, direct measurement of these quantities in patients is impractical and an alternative approach is to determine SAR from the electric field (E-field) distributions predicted by numerical models. In this initial study the E-field distribution in a tissue-simulating phantom due to a square coil driven at 31 MHz is predicted using a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) solution to Maxwell's equations. An experimental arrangement of the same problem was constructed and the resulting E-field distribution was measured using a calibrated minimally perturbing E-field probe. A comparison between experimentally and theoretically derived data showed that the numerically predicted E-fields were within of the fields measured with the E-field probe in the phantom material. The results provide confidence in the use of the FDTD algorithm to determine quantitatively accurate E-field distributions arising from square radiofrequency (RF) coils used in MR procedures. The accuracy of numerical models of other coil designs such as birdcages, saddles and surface coils can be investigated in the same manner. Future studies will evaluate the exposure of patients to these RF fields.

Taylor, Helen C.; Burl, Mike; Hand, Jeffrey W.

1997-07-01

38

Experimental verification of numerically predicted electric field distributions produced by a radiofrequency coil.  

PubMed

There are safety issues regarding energy deposition within tissues due to radiofrequency fields used in some magnetic resonance (MR) procedures. Procedures should be compliant with guidelines that specify limits to temperature elevation and specific absorption rate (SAR). In general, direct measurement of these quantities in patients is impractical and an alternative approach is to determine SAR from the electric field (E-field) distributions predicted by numerical models. In this initial study the E-field distribution in a tissue-simulating phantom due to a square coil driven at 31 MHz is predicted using a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) solution to Maxwell's equations. An experimental arrangement of the same problem was constructed and the resulting E-field distribution was measured using a calibrated minimally perturbing E-field probe. A comparison between experimentally and theoretically derived data showed that the numerically predicted E-fields were within +/-1 dB of the fields measured with the E-field probe in the phantom material. The results provide confidence in the use of the FDTD algorithm to determine quantitatively accurate E-field distributions arising from square radiofrequency (RF) coils used in MR procedures. The accuracy of numerical models of other coil designs such as bird cages, saddles and surface coils can be investigated in the same manner. Future studies will evaluate the exposure of patients to these RF fields. PMID:9253047

Taylor, H C; Burl, M; Hand, J W

1997-07-01

39

Radio-frequency and microwave energies, magnetic and electric fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biological effects of radio frequency, including microwave, radiation are considered. Effects on body temperature, the eye, reproductive systems, internal organs, blood cells, the cardiovascular system, and the central nervous system are included. Generalized effects of electric and magnetic fields are also discussed. Experimentation with animals and clinical studies on humans are cited, and possible mechanisms of the effects observed are suggested.

Michaelson, S. M.

1975-01-01

40

Radio-frequency electromagnetic field influence on critical behavior of thin granular Y-Ba-Cu-O films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dc critical current response of a thin (300 nm) c-oriented granular Y-Ba-Cu-O film to an excitation of radiofrequency (up to 10 MHz) electromagnetic field has been studied at the temperature 77 K. We have used the scheme where a bridge of the film is radiated by an overhead coil loading radiofrequency (RF) generator. The dependencies of the critical current

S. R. Harutyunyan; A. L. Gyulamiryan

2001-01-01

41

Alkali-vapor magnetic resonance driven by fictitious radiofrequency fields  

E-print Network

We demonstrate an all-optical $^{133}$Cs scalar magnetometer, operating in nonzero magnetic field,in which the magnetic resonance is driven by an effective oscillating magnetic field provided by the AC Stark shift of an intensity-modulated laser beam. We achieve a projected shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 1.7 fT/Hz$^{1/2}$ and measure a technical noise floor of 40 fT/Hz$^{1/2}$. These results are essentially identical to a coil-driven scalar magnetometer using the same setup. This all-optical scheme offers advantages over traditional coil-driven magnetometers for use in arrays and in magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments e.g., searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

Zhivun, Elena; Patton, Brian; Budker, Dmitry

2014-01-01

42

DOUBLE ENDOR with a linearly and a circularly polarized radiofrequency field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of the two spectroscopical techniques, DOUBLE ENDOR and ENDOR with a circularly polarized radiofrequency field (CP-ENDOR), is described. with this new method, termed by the acronym CP-DOUBLE ENDOR, the selective induction of transitions of different types of nuclei and of different paramagnetic species allows a drastic reduction of the number of observed ENDOR lines. With this technique, analysis of hitherto not interpretable ENDOR spectra is often made possible. The experimental setup of the CP-DOUBLE ENDOR spectrometer is described. The advantage of using circularly polarized rf fields in DOUBLE ENDOR spectroscopy is illustrated by two applications on transition metal complexes in single crystals.

Schweiger, A.; Rudin, M.; Forrer, J.; Günthard, Hs. H.

43

Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To address concerns on the effect of natural air drying process on EFE, a comparative study was conducted on Nb and the results showed insignificant difference under the experimental conditions. Nb thin films deposited on Cu present a possible alternative to bulk Nb in superconducting cavities. The EFE performance of a preliminary energetically deposited Nb thin film sample are presented.

Tong Wang

2002-09-18

44

Human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Final rule.  

PubMed

This document resolves several issues regarding compliance with the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC's) regulations for conducting environmental reviews under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as they relate to the guidelines for human exposure to RF electromagnetic fields. More specifically, the Commission clarifies evaluation procedures and references to determine compliance with its limits, including specific absorption rate (SAR) as a primary metric for compliance, consideration of the pinna (outer ear) as an extremity, and measurement of medical implant exposure. The Commission also elaborates on mitigation procedures to ensure compliances with its limits, including labeling and other requirements for occupational exposure classification, clarification of compliance responsibility at multiple transmitter sites, and labeling of fixed consumer transmitters. PMID:23734401

2013-06-01

45

Intracellular hyperthermia mediated by nanoparticles in radiofrequency fields in the treatment of pancreatic cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracellular hyperthermic therapy may prove to be a unique and novel approach to the management of pancreatic cancer. Utilizing the principle of photothermal destruction, selective killing of cancer cells with minimal injury to normal tissues may be possible. This dissertation investigated the role of antibody targeted metal nanoparticles and the cytotoxic effects of nonionizing radiofrequency fields in pancreatic cancer. Cancer cell death was induced by heat release from intracellular metal nanoparticles after radiofrequency field exposure. Fluorescent and gold nanoparticles were delivered with two antibodies, cetuximab and PAM-4, to pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and mouse xenografts in vivo. Selective delivery of these nanoparticles induced cell death in vitro and decreased tumor burden in vivo after whole animal RF field exposure. This occurred through both apoptosis and necrosis. In addition, activated caspase-3 was increased after antibody treatment and RF field exposure. Furthermore, although there was non-specific uptake by the liver and spleen in vivo, there was no evidence of acute or chronic toxicity in the animals. These results are in agreement with the principle that malignant cells are more thermally sensitive than normal cells or tissues. Selective intracellular delivery of metal nanoparticles coupled with whole body RF field exposure may be a beneficial therapy against micrometastases and unresectable pancreatic cancer in the future. Further studies are planned with more specific antibodies, other nanoparticles, and other cancer targets.

Glazer, Evan Scott

46

[On one term (translation of SAR) in the dosimetry of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields].  

PubMed

Uncertainties in the use of some terms in the dosimetry of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are discussed. We have come to the conclusion that the term conventionally applied in the Russian literature to describe the absorbed energy is an incorrect translation of the international term "Specific Absorption Rate" (SAR). The main error in the Russian term is that the energy rather than the rate is absorbed. More precise Russian definition for this term is suggested by analogy with the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. In this case, the dimension of this parameter remains without any change. PMID:23227718

Petin, V G; Grigor'ev, O A; Merkulov, A V; Grigor'ev, Iu G; Trukhanov, K A

2012-01-01

47

Fractional kinetics of glioma treatment by a radio-frequency electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A realistic model for estimation of the medical effect of brain cancer (glioma) treatment by a radio-frequency (RF) electric field is suggested. This low intensity, intermediate-frequency alternating electric field is known as the tumor-treating field (TTF). The model is based on a construction of 3D comb model for a description of the cancer cells dynamics, where the migration-proliferation dichotomy becomes naturally apparent, and the outer-invasive region of glioma cancer is considered as a fractal composite embedded in the 3D space. In the framework of this model, the interplay between the TTF and the migration-proliferation dichotomy of cancer cells is considered, and the efficiency of this TTF is estimated. It is shown that the efficiency of the medical treatment by the TTF depends essentially on the mass fractal dimension of the cancer in the outer-invasive region.

Iomin, A.

2013-09-01

48

Tunable Atomic Magnetometer for Detection of Radio-Frequency Magnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

We describe an alkali-metal magnetometer for detection of weak magnetic fields in the radio-frequency (rf) range. High sensitivity is achieved by tuning the Zeeman resonance of alkali atoms to the rf frequency and partially suppressing spin-exchange collisions in the alkali-metal vapor. We demonstrate magnetic field sensitivity of 2 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at a frequency of 99 kHz with a resonance width of 400 Hz. We also derive a simple analytic expression for the fundamental limit on the sensitivity of the rf magnetometer and show that a sensitivity of about 0.01 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} can be achieved in a practical system with a measurement volume of 200 cm{sup 3}.

Savukov, I.M.; Seltzer, S.J.; Romalis, M.V.; Sauer, K.L. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

2005-08-05

49

Controlling the electromagnetically induced transparency frequency tuning range by radio-frequency field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) is associated with a ? three-level system and the spectral position of EIT window can be changed by varying the frequency of the coupling field, however, at large detuning the EIT will evolve into a dispersion-like feature and transparency property of EIT become less obvious. In this paper, it is shown that we can perform EIT frequency tuning by a radio-frequency (rf) field. In the cascade quasic-? four-level system, the absorption profile of probe field is calculated by solving the equations of motion of the density matrix. It is shown that the Autler-Townes doublet originates from the rf-field induced dynamic Stark effect and the spectral position of EIT window is determined by the frequency detuning of the coupling field. When the frequency detuning of the coupling field is half of the rf Rabi frequency, the EIT feature remain its absorptive profile. The frequency tuning rang of EIT is determined by the rf Rabi frequency, and can be explained using a dressed-state analysis. Therefore, frequency tuning range of EIT can be controlled by the rf Rabi frequency.

Zhang, Lianshui; Zhuang, Zhonghong; Wang, Jian; Feng, Xiaomin; Yang, Lijun

2008-01-01

50

Gene and Protein Expression following Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields from Mobile Phones  

PubMed Central

Background Since 1999, several articles have been published on genome-wide and/or proteome-wide response after exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields whose signal and intensities were similar to or typical of those of currently used mobile telephones. These studies were performed using powerful high-throughput screening techniques (HTSTs) of transcriptomics and/or proteomics, which allow for the simultaneous screening of the expression of thousands of genes or proteins. Objectives We reviewed these HTST-based studies and compared the results with currently accepted concepts about the effects of RF fields on gene expression. In this article we also discuss these last in light of the recent concept of microwave-assisted chemistry. Discussion To date, the results of HTST-based studies of transcriptomics and/or proteomics after exposure to RF fields relevant to human exposure are still inconclusive, as most of the positive reports are flawed by methodologic imperfections or shortcomings. In addition, when positive findings were reported, no precise response pattern could be identified in a reproducible way. In particular, results from HTST studies tend to exclude the role of a cell stressor for exposure to RF fields at nonthermal intensities. However, on the basis of lessons from microwave-assisted chemistry, we can assume that RF fields might affect heat-sensitive gene or protein expression to an extent larger than would be predicted from temperature change only. But in all likelihood, this would concern intensities higher than those relevant to usual human exposure. Conclusions The precise role of transcriptomics and proteomics in the screening of bioeffects from exposure to RF fields from mobile phones is still uncertain in view of the lack of positively identified phenotypic change and the lack of theoretical, as well as experimental, arguments for specific gene and/or protein response patterns after this kind of exposure. PMID:18795152

Vanderstraeten, Jacques; Verschaeve, Luc

2008-01-01

51

Investigation of co-genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in vivo.  

PubMed

We investigated the possible combined genotoxic effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (900 MHz, amplitude modulated at 217 Hz, mobile phone signal) with the drinking water mutagen and carcinogen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX). Female rats were exposed to RF fields for a period of 2 years for 2 h per day, 5 days per week at average whole-body specific absorption rates of 0.3 or 0.9 W/kg. MX was given in the drinking water at a concentration of 19 microg/ml. Blood samples were taken at 3, 6 and 24 months of exposure and brain and liver samples were taken at the end of the study (24 months). DNA damage was assessed in all samples using the alkaline comet assay, and micronuclei were determined in erythrocytes. We did not find significant genotoxic activity of MX in blood and liver cells. However, MX induced DNA damage in rat brain. Co-exposures to MX and RF radiation did not significantly increase the response of blood, liver and brain cells compared to MX exposure only. In conclusion, this 2-year animal study involving long-term exposures to RF radiation and MX did not provide any evidence for enhanced genotoxicity in rats exposed to RF radiation. PMID:16669742

Verschaeve, L; Heikkinen, P; Verheyen, G; Van Gorp, U; Boonen, F; Vander Plaetse, F; Maes, A; Kumlin, T; Mäki-Paakkanen, J; Puranen, L; Juutilainen, J

2006-05-01

52

Targeted treatment of cancer with radiofrequency electromagnetic fields amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies  

PubMed Central

In the past century, there have been many attempts to treat cancer with low levels of electric and magnetic fields. We have developed noninvasive biofeedback examination devices and techniques and discovered that patients with the same tumor type exhibit biofeedback responses to the same, precise frequencies. Intrabuccal administration of 27.12 MHz radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), which are amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies, results in long-term objective responses in patients with cancer and is not associated with any significant adverse effects. Intrabuccal administration allows for therapeutic delivery of very low and safe levels of EMF throughout the body as exemplified by responses observed in the femur, liver, adrenal glands, and lungs. In vitro studies have demonstrated that tumor-specific frequencies identified in patients with various forms of cancer are capable of blocking the growth of tumor cells in a tissue- and tumor-specific fashion. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-specific modulation frequencies regulate the expression of genes involved in migration and invasion and disrupt the mitotic spindle. This novel targeted treatment approach is emerging as an appealing therapeutic option for patients with advanced cancer given its excellent tolerability. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the anti-cancer effects of tumor-specific modulation frequencies is likely to lead to the discovery of novel pathways in cancer. PMID:24206915

Zimmerman, Jacquelyn W.; Jimenez, Hugo; Pennison, Michael J.; Brezovich, Ivan; Morgan, Desiree; Mudry, Albert; Costa, Frederico P.; Barbault, Alexandre; Pasche, Boris

2013-01-01

53

Designing Radio-frequency Electromagnetic Field Immunity of Watt-hour Meter Test System Based on LabVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to IEC 61000-4-3, a new method using LabVIEW to build radio-frequency electromagnetic field immunity of Watt-hour meter test system is researched in this paper. The test interface, flow diagram and key technologies are to be analyzed. With the expansibility of LabVIEW program, this system is applicable to adjust its parameters or programs for different test requirements

Zhao Bo; Song Ping

2006-01-01

54

Derangement of chick embryo retinal differentiation caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.  

PubMed

The possible adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from mobile phones present a major public concern. Biological electrical activities of the human body are vulnerable to interference from oscillatory aspects of EMF, which affect fundamental cellular activities, in particular, the highly active development process of embryos. Some studies highlight the possible health hazards of EMF, while others contest the hypothesis of biological impact of EMF. The present study was designed to observe the histomorphological effects of EMF emitted by a mobile phone on the retinae of developing chicken embryos. Fertilized chicken eggs were exposed to a ringing mobile set on silent tone placed in the incubator at different ages of development. After exposure for the scheduled duration the retinae of the embryos were dissected out and processed for histological examination. The control and experimental embryos were statistically compared for retinal thickness and epithelial pigmentation grades. Contrasting effects of EMF on the retinal histomorphology were noticed, depending on the duration of exposure. The embryos exposed for 10 post-incubation days exhibited decreased retinal growth and mild pigmentation of the epithelium. Growth retardation reallocated to growth enhancement on increasing EMF exposure for 15 post-incubation days, with a shift of pigmentation grade from mild to intense. We conclude that EMF emitted by a mobile phone cause derangement of chicken embryo retinal differentiation. PMID:19243412

Zareen, Nusrat; Khan, Muhammad Yunus; Ali Minhas, Liaqat

2009-03-01

55

Activation of endogenous opioid gene expression in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts by pulsed radiofrequency energy fields  

PubMed Central

Background Pulsed radiofrequency energy (PRFE) fields are being used increasingly for the treatment of pain arising from dermal trauma. However, despite their increased use, little is known about the biological and molecular mechanism(s) responsible for PRFE-mediated analgesia. In general, current therapeutics used for analgesia target either endogenous factors involved in inflammation, or act on endogenous opioid pathways. Methods and Results Using cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK), we investigated the effect of PRFE treatment on factors, which are involved in modulating peripheral analgesia in vivo. We found that PRFE treatment did not inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme activity, but instead had a positive effect on levels of endogenous opioid precursor mRNA (proenkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, prodynorphin) and corresponding opioid peptide. In HEK cells, increases in opioid mRNA were dependent, at least in part, on endothelin-1. In HDF cells, additional pathways also appear to be involved. PRFE treatment was also followed by changes in endogenous expression of several cytokines, including increased levels of interleukin-10 mRNA and decreased levels of interleukin-1? mRNA in both cell types. Conclusion These findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying PRFE-mediated analgesia reported in the clinical setting. PMID:23055776

Moffett, John; Fray, Linley M; Kubat, Nicole J

2012-01-01

56

Young's Modulus Reconstruction for Radio-frequency Ablation Electrode-induced Displacement Fields: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a minimally invasive treatment for tumors in various abdominal organs. It is effective if good tumor localization and intra-procedural monitoring can be done. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using an ultrasound-based Young’s modulus reconstruction algorithm to image an ablated region whose stiffness is elevated due to tissue coagulation. To obtain controllable tissue deformations for abdominal organs during and/or intermediately after the RF ablation, the proposed modulus imaging method is specifically designed for using tissue deformation fields induced by the RF electrode. We have developed a new scheme under which the reconstruction problem is simplified to a two-dimensional problem. Based on this scheme, an iterative Young’s modulus reconstruction technique with edge-preserving regularization was developed to estimate the Young’s modulus distribution. The method was tested in experiments using a tissue-mimicking phantom and on ex vivo bovine liver tissues. Our preliminary results suggest that high contrast modulus images can be successfully reconstructed. In both experiments, the geometries of the reconstructed modulus images of thermal ablation zones match well with the phantom design and the gross pathology image, respectively. PMID:19258195

Jiang, Jingfeng; Varghese, Tomy; Brace, Chris L.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Hall, Timothy J.; Bharat, Shyam; Hobson, Maritza A.; Zagzebski, James A.; Lee, Fred T.

2009-01-01

57

Optimization and Validation of Methods for Mapping of the Radiofrequency Transmit Field at 3T  

PubMed Central

MRI techniques such as quantitative imaging and parallel transmit require precise knowledge of the radio-frequency transmit field (). Three published methods were optimized for robust mapping at 3T in the human brain: three-dimensional (3D) actual flip angle imaging (AFI), 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI), and two-dimensional (2D) stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). We performed a comprehensive comparison of the methods, focusing on artifacts, reproducibility, and accuracy compared to a reference 2D double angle method. For the 3D AFI method, the addition of flow-compensated gradients for diffusion damping reduced the level of physiological artifacts and improved spoiling of transverse coherences. Correction of susceptibility-induced artifacts alleviated image distortions and improved the accuracy of the 3D EPI imaging method. For the 2D STEAM method, averaging over multiple acquisitions reduced the impact of physiological noise and a new calibration method enhanced the accuracy of the maps. After optimization, all methods yielded low noise maps (below 2 percentage units), of the nominal flip angle value (p.u.) with a systematic bias less than 5 p.u. units. Full brain coverage was obtained in less than 5 min. The 3D AFI method required minimal postprocessing and showed little sensitivity to off-resonance and physiological effects. The 3D EPI method showed the highest level of reproducibility. The 2D STEAM method was the most time-efficient technique. Magn Reson Med, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20572153

Lutti, Antoine; Hutton, Chloe; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Helms, Gunther; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

2010-01-01

58

Optimization and validation of methods for mapping of the radiofrequency transmit field at 3T.  

PubMed

MRI techniques such as quantitative imaging and parallel transmit require precise knowledge of the radio-frequency transmit field (B(1) (+)). Three published methods were optimized for robust B(1) (+) mapping at 3T in the human brain: three-dimensional (3D) actual flip angle imaging (AFI), 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI), and two-dimensional (2D) stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). We performed a comprehensive comparison of the methods, focusing on artifacts, reproducibility, and accuracy compared to a reference 2D double angle method. For the 3D AFI method, the addition of flow-compensated gradients for diffusion damping reduced the level of physiological artifacts and improved spoiling of transverse coherences. Correction of susceptibility-induced artifacts alleviated image distortions and improved the accuracy of the 3D EPI imaging method. For the 2D STEAM method, averaging over multiple acquisitions reduced the impact of physiological noise and a new calibration method enhanced the accuracy of the B(1) (+) maps. After optimization, all methods yielded low noise B(1) (+) maps (below 2 percentage units), of the nominal flip angle value (p.u.) with a systematic bias less than 5 p.u. units. Full brain coverage was obtained in less than 5 min. The 3D AFI method required minimal postprocessing and showed little sensitivity to off-resonance and physiological effects. The 3D EPI method showed the highest level of reproducibility. The 2D STEAM method was the most time-efficient technique. PMID:20572153

Lutti, Antoine; Hutton, Chloe; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Helms, Gunther; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

2010-07-01

59

Mobile phones, radiofrequency fields, and health effects in children--epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

In 2004, when WHO organized a workshop on children's sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, very few studies on radiofrequency fields were available. With the recent increase in mobile phone use among children and adolescents, WHO has identified studies on health effects in this age-group as a high priority research area. There are no empirical data supporting the notion that children and adolescents are more susceptible to RF exposure, but the number of studies is still relatively small. There are a few cross-sectional studies on well-being, cognitive effects and behavioral problems, and some cohort studies, mainly of maternal use of mobile phones during pregnancy. Cancer outcomes have been studied in relation to environmental RF exposure, e.g. from transmitters, and only one study on mobile phone use in children and adolescents and brain tumor risk has been published. Several methodological limitations need to be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings of the epidemiological studies. The cross-sectional design does not allow determination of the temporal sequence of exposure and outcome, and for several outcomes there is a large potential for reversed causality, i.e. that the outcome causes an increased RF exposure rather than the opposite. Biases such as recall errors in self-reported mobile phone use, lack of confounding control, e.g. of other aspects of mobile phone use than RF fields, trained behaviors, and pubertal development, makes causal interpretations impossible. Future studies need to include prospectively collected exposure information, incident outcomes, and proper confounding control. Monitoring of brain tumor incidence trends is strongly recommended. PMID:21958911

Feychting, Maria

2011-12-01

60

Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was assessed by means of standardized questionnaires in May 2008 (baseline) and May 2009 (follow-up). We also asked about mobile and cordless phone use and asked study participants for consent to obtain their mobile phone connection data from the mobile phone operators. Exposure to environmental RF-EMF was computed for each study participant using a previously developed and validated prediction model. In a nested sample of 119 study participants, RF-EMF exposure was measured in the bedroom and data on sleep behavior was collected by means of actigraphy during two weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results In the longitudinal analyses neither operator-recorded nor self-reported mobile phone use was associated with sleep disturbances or daytime sleepiness. Also, exposure to environmental RF-EMF did not affect self-reported sleep quality. The results from the longitudinal analyses were confirmed in the nested sleep study with objectively recorded exposure and measured sleep behavior data. Conclusions We did not find evidence for adverse effects on sleep quality from RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment. PMID:22624036

Mohler, Evelyn; Frei, Patrizia; Frohlich, Jurg; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Roosli, Martin

2012-01-01

61

[Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)].  

PubMed

The population has widely used mobile communication for already more than 15 years. It is important to note that the use of mobile communication has sharply changed the conditions of daily exposure of the population to EME We expose our brain daily for the first time in the entire civilization. The mobile phone is an open and uncontrollable source of electromagnetic radiation. The comparative risk estimation for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was carried out taking into account the real conditions of influence. Comparison of risks for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation leads us to a conclusion that EMF RF exposure in conditions of wide use of mobile communication is potentially more harmful than ionizing radiation influence. PMID:22690585

Grigor'ev, Iu G

2012-01-01

62

Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case–control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use, we used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma

T Takebayashi; N Varsier; Y Kikuchi; K Wake; M Taki; S Watanabe; S Akiba; N Yamaguchi

2008-01-01

63

Radio-frequency measurements of UNiX compounds (X= Al, Ga, Ge) in high magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

We performed radio-frequency (RF) skin-depth measurements of antiferromagnetic UNiX compounds (X=Al, Ga, Ge) in magnetic fields up to 60 T and at temperatures between 1.4 to {approx}60 K. Magnetic fields are applied along different crystallographic directions and RF penetration-depth was measured using a tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO) circuit. The sample is coupled to the inductive element of a TDO resonant tank circuit, and the shift in the resonant frequency {Delta}f of the circuit is measured. The UNiX compounds exhibit field-induced magnetic transitions at low temperatures, and those transitions are accompanied by a drastic change in {Delta}f. The results of our skin-depth measurements were compared with previously published B-T phase diagrams for these three compounds.

Mielke, Charles H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Altarawneh, Moaz M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lacerda, Alex H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adak, Sourav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Karunakar, Kothapalli [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nakotte, Heinrich [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chang, S [NIST; Alsmadi, A M [HASHEMITE UNIV; Alyones, S [HASHEMIT UNIV

2009-01-01

64

A radio-frequency source using direct digital synthesis and field programmable gate array for nuclear magnetic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radio-frequency (rf) source for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described. With the application of direct digital synthesis (DDS), the rf source has the ability to yield rf pulses with short switching time and high resolution in frequency and phase. To facilitate the generation of a soft pulse, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) cooperating with a pulse programmer is used as the auxiliary controller of the DDS chip. Triggered by the pulse programmer, the FPGA automatically controls the DDS to generate soft pulse according to predefined parameters, and the operation mode of the pulse programmer is optimized. The rf source is suitable for being used as transmitter in low-field (<1 T) NMR applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging and relaxation measurement. As a compact and low-cost module, the rf source is of general use for constructing low-field NMR spectrometer.

Liang, Xiao; Weimin, Wang

2009-12-01

65

EDITORIAL: The interaction of radio-frequency fields with fusion plasmas: the JET experience The interaction of radio-frequency fields with fusion plasmas: the JET experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JET Task Force Heating is proud to present this special issue. It is the result of hard and dedicated work by everybody participating in the Task Force over the last four years and gives an overview of the experimental and theoretical results obtained in the period 2008-2010 with radio frequency heating of JET fusion plasmas. Topics studied and reported in this issue are: investigations into the operation of lower hybrid heating accompanied by new modeling results; new experimental results and insights into the physics of various ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating scenarios; progress in studies of intrinsic and ion cyclotron wave-induced plasma rotation and flows; a summary of the developments over the last years in designing an ion cyclotron radiofrequency heating (ICRH) system that can cope with the presence of fast load variations in the edge, as e.g. caused by pellets or edge localized modes (ELMs) during H-Mode operation; an overview of the results obtained with the ITER-like antenna operating in H-Mode with a packed array of straps and power densities close to those of the projected ITER ICRH antenna; and, finally, a summary of the results obtained in applying ion cyclotron waves for wall conditioning of the tokamak. This issue would not have been possible without the strong motivation and efforts (sometimes truly heroic) of all colleagues of the JET Task Force Heating. A sincere word of thanks, therefore, to all authors and co-authors involved in the experiments, analysis and compilation of the papers. It was a special privilege to work with all of them during the past very intense years. Thanks also to all other European and non-European scientists who contributed to the JET scientific programme, the operations team of JET and the colleagues of the Close Support Unit in Culham. Thanks also to the editors, Editorial Board and referees of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, together with the publishing staff of IOPP, who have not only supported but also contributed very substantially to this initiative. Without their dedication this issue would not have been possible in its present form. A special word of thanks to Marie-Line Mayoral and Joelle Mailloux for their precious help and very active support in running the JET Task Force Heating over the last years. Without Joelle and Marie-Line itwould have been a much more daunting task to prepare JET operations, monitor progress during the experiments and edit the papers that are compiled here.

Ongena, Jef

2012-07-01

66

Effect of the transverse nonuniformity of the radiofrequency field on the start current and efficiency of gyrodevices with confocal mirrors  

SciTech Connect

The theory is developed for analyzing the effect of transverse nonuniformity of the radiofrequency (rf) field on the starting conditions and efficiency of such gyrotron oscillators as gyromonotrons and gyro-backward-wave oscillators (gyro-BWO). The formalism allows one to study this effect in oscillators operating in the regimes of soft and hard self-excitation. Results obtained for a device with a confocal waveguide (or resonator) are compared with the results for conventional gyrodevices where the rf field acting on electrons with different guiding centers is the same. It is shown how to use results of the classical small-signal theory of backward-wave oscillators driven by linear electron beams for calculating the start currents in gyro-BWOs. The effect of the wave attenuation in waveguide walls on the start current is analyzed, which is important for the design of frequency-tunable gyro-backward-wave oscillators in the THz (and sub THz) frequency range.

Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Chainani, Samir; Granatstein, Victor L. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

2008-10-15

67

Tunable Atomic Magnetometer for Detection of Radio-Frequency Magnetic Fields I. M. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer, and M. V. Romalis  

E-print Network

Tunable Atomic Magnetometer for Detection of Radio-Frequency Magnetic Fields I. M. Savukov, S. J (Received 25 January 2005; published 3 August 2005) We describe an alkali-metal magnetometer for detection on the sensitivity of the rf magnetometer and show that a sensitivity of about 0:01 fT=Hz1=2 can be achieved

Romalis, Mike

68

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” and in supplements to...Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz...Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” NCRP Report No....

2013-10-01

69

Effects of GSM-modulated 900?MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the hematopoietic potential of mouse bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

Studies describing the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on bone marrow cells (BMC) often lack functional data. We examined the effects of in vivo exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated 900?MHz RF fields on BMC using two transplantation models. X-irradiated syngeneic mice were injected with BMC from either RF-field-exposed, sham-exposed or cage control mice. Twelve weeks after transplantation, no differences in thymocyte number, frequency of subpopulations and cell proliferation were found in mice receiving BMC from either group. Also, in the spleen cell number, percentages of B/T cells, B/T-cell proliferation, and interferon ? (IFN-?) production were similar in all groups. In parallel, a mixture of BMC from congenic sham- and RF-exposed mice were co-transplanted into lymphopenic Rag2 deficient mice. BMC from RF-exposed and sham-exposed mice displayed no advantage or disadvantage when competing for the replenishment of lymphatic organs with mature lymphocytes in Rag2 deficient mice. This model revealed that BMC from sham-exposed and RF-exposed mice were less efficient than BMC from cage control mice in repopulating the thymus, an effect likely due to restraint stress. In conclusion, our results showed no effects of in vivo exposure to GSM-modulated RF-fields on the ability of bone marrow (BM) precursors to long-term reconstitute peripheral T and B cell compartments. Bioelectromagnetics 35:559-567, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25256206

Rosado, Maria Manuela; Nasta, Francesca; Prisco, Maria Grazia; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

2014-12-01

70

Animal carcinogenicity studies on radiofrequency fields related to mobile phones and base stations  

SciTech Connect

Since a report in 1997 on an increased lymphoma incidence in mice chronically exposed to a mobile phone radiofrequency signal, none of the subsequent long-term studies in rodents have confirmed these results. On the other hand, several of the follow-up co- and carcinogenicity studies are still underway or are presently being initiated. Most of the published long-term studies used 1 exposure level only and suffer from a poor dosimetry which does not consider the animal's growth. Additional points of criticism are a limited, in some cases, questionable histopathology and inadequate group sizes. Overall, if dealing with new chemicals or drugs, these studies would not be acceptable for registration with the responsible authorities. The major critical points are taken into consideration within the European co- and carcinogenicity projects (CEMFEC and PERFORM-A), which are in their final stages and in the US long-term studies in mice and rats which are about to be initiated. Nevertheless, the WHO evaluation for health risk assessment of long-term telephone use and base station exposure will start in late 2005.

Dasenbrock, Clemens [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: clemens-dasebrock@bc.boehringer-ingelheim.com

2005-09-01

71

Biophysical evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic field effects on male reproductive pattern.  

PubMed

There are possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations emitted from mobile phone on the human reproductive pattern. It is more effective while keeping mobile phones in pocket or near testicular organs. Present review examines the possible concern on radio frequency radiation interaction and biological effects such as enzyme induction, and toxicological effects, including genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, testicular cancer, and reproductive outcomes. Testicular infertility or testicular cancer due to mobile phone or microwave radiations suggests an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though generation of ROS in testis has been responsible for possible toxic effects on physiology of reproduction, the reviews of last few decades have well established that these radiations are very harmful and cause mutagenic changes in reproductive pattern and leads to infertility. The debate will be focused on bio-interaction mechanism between mobile phone and testicular cancer due to ROS formation. This causes the biological damage and leads to several changes like decreased sperm count, enzymatic and hormonal changes, DNA damage, and apoptosis formation. In the present review, physics of mobile phone including future research on various aspects has been discussed. PMID:22926544

Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jayprakash; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Behari, Jitendra

2013-03-01

72

Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

In a case–control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use, we used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma (322 cases in total), and with 683 individually matched controls. All maximal SAR values were below 0.1?W?kg?1, far lower than the level at which thermal effects may occur, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for regular mobile phone users being 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–2.37) for glioma and 0.70 (0.42–1.16) for meningioma. When the maximal SAR value inside the tumour tissue was accounted for in the exposure indices, the overall OR was again not increased and there was no significant trend towards an increasing OR in relation to SAR-derived exposure indices. A non-significant increase in OR among glioma patients in the heavily exposed group may reflect recall bias. PMID:18256587

Takebayashi, T; Varsier, N; Kikuchi, Y; Wake, K; Taki, M; Watanabe, S; Akiba, S; Yamaguchi, N

2008-01-01

73

Noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermic cytotoxicity in human cancer cells using cetuximab-targeted gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Shortwave (MHz range) radiofrequency (RF) energy is nonionizing, penetrates deeply into biologic tissues with no adverse side effects, and heats gold nanoparticles efficiently. Targeted delivery of gold nanoparticles to cancer cells should result in hyperthermic cytotoxicity upon exposure to a focused, noninvasive RF field. In this report we demonstrate that gold nanoparticles conjugated with cetuximab (C225) are quickly internalized by Panc-1 (pancreatic adenocarcinoma) and Difi (colorectal adenocarcinoma) cancer cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Panc-1 or Difi cells treated with naked gold nanoparticles or nonspecific IgG-conjugated gold nanoparticles demonstrated minimal intracellular uptake of gold nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In contrast, there were dense concentrations of cytoplasmic vesicles containing gold nanoparticles following treatment with cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticles. Exposure of cells to a noninvasive RF field produced nearly 100% cytotoxicity in cells treated with the cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticles, but significantly lower levels of cytotoxicity in the two control groups (P < 0.00012). Treatment of a breast cancer cell line (CAMA-1) that does not express EGFR with cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticles produced no enhanced cytotoxicity following treatment in the RF field. Conjugation of cancer cell-directed targeting agents to gold nanoparticles may represent an effective and cancer-specific therapy to treat numerous types of human malignant disease using noninvasive RF hyperthermia. PMID:19227011

Curley, Steven A; Cherukuri, Paul; Briggs, Katrina; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Upton, Mark; Dolson, Elisa; Mukherjee, Priyabrata

2008-01-01

74

Citrate-capped gold nanoparticle electrophoretic heat production in response to a time-varying radiofrequency electric-field  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of heat production from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) irradiated with radiofrequency (RF) energy has been problematic due to Joule heating of their background ionic buffer suspensions. Insights into the physical heating mechanism of nanomaterials under RF excitations must be obtained if they are to have applications in fields such as nanoparticle-targeted hyperthermia for cancer therapy. By developing a purification protocol which allows for highly-stable and concentrated solutions of citrate-capped AuNPs to be suspended in high-resistivity water, we show herein, for the first time, that heat production is only evident for AuNPs of diameters ? 10 nm, indicating a unique size-dependent heating behavior not previously observed. Heat production has also shown to be linearly dependent on both AuNP concentration and total surface area, and severely attenuated upon AuNP aggregation. These relationships have been further validated using permittivity analysis across a frequency range of 10 MHz to 3 GHz, as well as static conductivity measurements. Theoretical evaluations suggest that the heating mechanism can be modeled by the electrophoretic oscillation of charged AuNPs across finite length scales in response to a time-varying electric field. It is anticipated these results will assist future development of nanoparticle-assisted heat production by RF fields for applications such as targeted cancer hyperthermia. PMID:23795228

Corr, Stuart J.; Raoof, Mustafa; Mackeyev, Yuri; Phounsavath, Sophia; Cheney, Matthew A.; Cisneros, Brandon T.; Shur, Michael; Gozin, Michael; McNally, Patrick J.; Wilson, Lon J.; Curley, Steven A.

2013-01-01

75

Luciferase-based protein-denaturation assay for quantification of radiofrequency field-induced targeted hyperthermia: developing an intracellular thermometer  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have reported targeted hyperthermia at the cellular level using remote activation of nanoparticles by radiofrequency waves. To date, methods to quantify intracellular thermal dose have not been reported. In this report we study the relationship between radio wave exposure and luciferase denaturation with and without intracellular nanoparticles. The findings are used to devise a strategy to quantify targeted thermal dose in a primary human liver cancer cell line. Methods Water-bath or non-invasive external RF generator (600W, 13.56 MHz) was used for hyperthermia exposures. Luciferase activity was measured using a bioluminescence assay and viability was assessed using Annexin V-FITC and Propidium iodide staining. Heat shock proteins were analyzed using western-blot analysis Results Duration-dependent luciferase denaturation was observed in SNU449 cells exposed to RF field that preceded measurable loss in viability. Loss of luciferase activity was higher in cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticle (C225-AuNP) treated cells. Using a standard curve from water-bath experiments, the intracellular thermal dose was calculated. Cells treated with C225-AuNP accumulated 6.07 times higher intracellular thermal dose than the untreated controls over initial 4 minutes of RF exposure. Conclusions Cancer cells when exposed to an external RF field exhibit dose-dependent protein denaturation. Luciferase denaturation assay can be used to quantify thermal dose delivered after RF exposures to cancer cells with and without nanoparticles. PMID:22515341

Raoof, Mustafa; Zhu, Cihui; Kaluarachchi, Warna D.; Curley, Steven A.

2013-01-01

76

Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields  

PubMed Central

Microglia and astrocytes play important role in maintaining the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS). Several CNS impacts have been postulated to be associated with radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure. Given the important role of inflammation in neural physiopathologic processes, we investigated the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and the involved mechanism in response to RF fields. Microglial N9 and astroglial C8-D1A cells were exposed to 1800 MHz RF for different time with or without pretreatment with STAT3 inhibitor. Microglia and astrocytes were activated by RF exposure indicated by up-regulated CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Moreover, the RF exposure activated STAT3 in microglia but not in astrocytes. Furthermore, the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic ameliorated the RF-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia but not in astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes, which involved differential activation of STAT3 in microglia and astrocytes. Our data provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms of the reported CNS impacts associated with mobile phone use and present STAT3 as a promising target to protect humans against increasing RF exposure. PMID:25275372

Lu, Yonghui; He, Mindi; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; He, Yue; Chen, Chunhai; Liu, Chuan; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

2014-01-01

77

Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields.  

PubMed

Microglia and astrocytes play important role in maintaining the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS). Several CNS impacts have been postulated to be associated with radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure. Given the important role of inflammation in neural physiopathologic processes, we investigated the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and the involved mechanism in response to RF fields. Microglial N9 and astroglial C8-D1A cells were exposed to 1800 MHz RF for different time with or without pretreatment with STAT3 inhibitor. Microglia and astrocytes were activated by RF exposure indicated by up-regulated CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Moreover, the RF exposure activated STAT3 in microglia but not in astrocytes. Furthermore, the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic ameliorated the RF-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia but not in astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes, which involved differential activation of STAT3 in microglia and astrocytes. Our data provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms of the reported CNS impacts associated with mobile phone use and present STAT3 as a promising target to protect humans against increasing RF exposure. PMID:25275372

Lu, Yonghui; He, Mindi; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; He, Yue; Chen, Chunhai; Liu, Chuan; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

2014-01-01

78

Diffusion measurements with the aid of nutation spin echoes appearing after two inhomogeneous radiofrequency pulses in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.  

PubMed

Nutation echoes are generated by radiofrequency (RF) pulses with an inhomogeneous amplitude, B(1) = B(1)(r), in inhomogeneous magnetic fields, B(0) = B(0)(r). The two gradients of strengths G(1) and G(0), respectively, must be aligned in parallel for a maximum echo signal. After two RF pulses, two echoes appear at times tau(a) = 2 tau(1) + tau(2) + (G(1)/G(0))tau(1) and tau(b) = 2 tau(1) + tau(2) + 2(G(1)/G(0))tau(1), where tau(1) is the RF pulse duration and tau(2) the interpulse interval. It is shown that these echoes can favorably be employed for the determination of self-diffusion coefficients even in the poor experimental situation one often faces in low-resolution or low-field NMR. The signal intensity is comparable to that of ordinary Hahn echoes. Diffusion coefficients and spin-lattice relaxation times can be evaluated from the same experimental data set if both nutation echoes are recorded. Test experiments are in good agreement with literature data. Applications of the technique to "inside out" NMR, well logging NMR, surface coil NMR, toroid cavity NMR, etc., are suggested. PMID:11237643

Scharfenecker, A; Ardelean, I; Kimmich, R

2001-02-01

79

Anomalous Capacitive Sheath with Deep Radio-Frequency Electric-Field Penetration Igor D. Kaganovich  

E-print Network

dielectric constant. In many practical appli- cations, the value of the external electric field is large is determined by the condition that the external electric field is screened in the sheath regions where

Kaganovich, Igor

80

Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss for Coulomb Scattered Particles from Low Energy up to Relativistic Regime in Space Radiation Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the space environment, instruments onboard of spacecrafts can be affected by displacement damage due to radiation. The differential scattering cross section for screened nucleus-nucleus interactions - i.e., including the effects due to screened Coulomb nuclear fields -, nuclear stopping powers and non-ionization energy losses are treated from about 50 keV/nucleon up to relativistic energies.

Boschini, M. J.; Consolandi, C.; Gervasi, M.; Giani, S.; Grandi, D.; Ivanchenko, V.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Tacconi, M.

2011-06-01

81

Evaluation of Safety and Patient Subjective Efficacy of Using Radiofrequency and Pulsed Magnetic Fields for the Treatment of Striae (Stretch Marks)  

PubMed Central

Stretch marks are common skin disorders that are dermal scars with associated epidermal atrophy. They are of significant concern or psychological concern to many. This manuscript describes the use of multipolar radiofrequency with pulsed magnetic fields that was successfully used to diminish these lesions in 16 subjects undergoing a series of treatments. The improvements noted were statistically significant and no serious adverse events were noted. PMID:25276274

Dover, Jeffrey S.; Rothaus, Kenneth

2014-01-01

82

Evaluation of safety and patient subjective efficacy of using radiofrequency and pulsed magnetic fields for the treatment of striae (stretch marks).  

PubMed

Stretch marks are common skin disorders that are dermal scars with associated epidermal atrophy. They are of significant concern or psychological concern to many. This manuscript describes the use of multipolar radiofrequency with pulsed magnetic fields that was successfully used to diminish these lesions in 16 subjects undergoing a series of treatments. The improvements noted were statistically significant and no serious adverse events were noted. PMID:25276274

Dover, Jeffrey S; Rothaus, Kenneth; Gold, Michael H

2014-09-01

83

Radio-frequency electromagnetic field and vortex penetration in multilayered superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multilayered structure with a single superconductor layer and a single insulator layer formed on a bulk superconductor is studied. General formulae for the vortex-penetration field of the superconductor layer and the magnetic field on the bulk superconductor, which is shielded by the superconductor and insulator layers, are derived with a rigorous calculation of the magnetic field attenuation in the multilayered structure. The achievable peak surface field depends on the thickness and its material of the superconductor layer, the thickness of the insulator layer, and material of the bulk superconductor. The calculation shows a good agreement with an experimental result. A combination of the thicknesses of superconductor and insulator layers to enhance the field limit can be given by the formulae for any given materials.

Kubo, Takayuki; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Saeki, Takayuki

2014-01-01

84

Effects of Early-Onset Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure (GSM 900 MHz) on Behavior and Memory in Rats.  

PubMed

Female Wistar rats, from an age of 14 days to 19 months, were exposed in the head region for 2 h per day, 5 days per week, to a GSM-modulated 900 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF). The average specific absorption rates (SAR) in the brain were 0 (sham), 0.7, 2.5 and 10 W/kg. To ensure a primary exposure of the head region, rats were fixed in restraining tubes of different sizes according to their increasing body weight. During the experiment, a set of 4 behavioral and learning tests (rotarod, Morris water maze, 8-arm radial maze, open field) were performed 3 times in juvenile, adult and presenile rats. In these tests, no profound differences could be identified between the groups. Only presenile rats of the cage control group showed a lower activity in two of these tests compared to the other groups presumably due to the lack of daily handling. The rotarod data revealed on some testing days significantly longer holding times for the sham-exposed rat vs. the exposed rat, but these findings were not consistent. During the first year, body weights of sham-exposed and exposed rats were not different from those of the cage controls, and thereafter only marginally lower, so that the effect of stress as confounder was probably negligible. The results of this study do not indicate harmful effects of long-term RF-EMF exposure even when begun at an early age on subsequent development, learning skills and behavior in rats, even at relatively high SAR values. PMID:25251701

Klose, Melanie; Grote, Karen; Spathmann, Oliver; Streckert, Joachim; Clemens, Markus; Hansen, Volkert W; Lerchl, Alexander

2014-10-01

85

Detection of radio-frequency magnetic fields using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation  

SciTech Connect

We describe a room-temperature alkali-metal atomic magnetometer for detection of small, high-frequency magnetic fields. The magnetometer operates by detecting optical rotation due to the precession of an aligned ground state in the presence of a small oscillating magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the magnetometer can be adjusted to any desired value by tuning the bias magnetic field. Based on experimentally measured signal-to-noise ratio, we demonstrate a sensitivity of 100 pG/{radical}(Hz) (rms) in a 3.5-cm-diameter paraffin coated cell. Assuming detection at the photon shot-noise limit, we project a sensitivity as low as 25 pG/{radical}(Hz) (rms)

Ledbetter, M. P.; Acosta, V. M.; Rochester, S. M.; Budker, D.; Pustelny, S.; Yashchuk, V. V. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Centrum Badan Magnetooptycznych, Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Advanced Light Source Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2007-02-15

86

The Precautionary Principle in the Context of Mobile Phone and Base Station Radiofrequency Exposures  

PubMed Central

Background No health hazard has been established from exposure to radiofrequency fields up to the levels recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, in response to public concern and the perceived level of scientific uncertainty, there are continuing calls for the application of the precautionary principle to radiofrequency exposures from mobile phones and base stations. Objective We examined the international evolution of calls for precautionary measures in relation to mobile phones and base stations, with particular focus on Australia and the United Kingdom. Results The precautionary principle is difficult to define, and there is no widespread agreement as to how it should be implemented. However, there is a strong argument that precautionary measures should not be implemented in the absence of reliable scientific data and logical reasoning pointing to a possible health hazard. There is also experimental evidence that precautionary advice may increase public concern. Conclusion We argue that conservative exposure standards, technical features that minimize unnecessary exposures, ongoing research, regular review of standards, and availability of consumer information make mobile communications inherently precautionary. Commonsense measures can be adopted by individuals, governments, and industry to address public concern while ensuring that mobile networks are developed for the benefit of society. PMID:19750093

Dolan, Mike; Rowley, Jack

2009-01-01

87

Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result,

Martin Röösli; Patrizia Frei; John Bolte; Georg Neubauer; Elisabeth Cardis; Maria Feychting; Peter Gajsek; Sabine Heinrich; Wout Joseph; Simon Mann; Luc Martens; Evelyn Mohler; Roger C Parslow; Aslak Harbo Poulsen; Katja Radon; Joachim Schüz; György Thuroczy; Jean-François Viel; Martine Vrijheid

2010-01-01

88

Study of Oxidative Stress in Human Lens Epithelial Cells Exposed to 1.8 GHz Radiofrequency Fields  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of the present study were to determine oxidative stress and to explore possible reasons of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase in human lens epithelial (HLE) B3 cells exposed to low intensity 1.8 GHz radiofrequency fields (RF). Methods The HLE B3 cells were divided into RF exposure and RF sham-exposure groups. The RF exposure intensity was at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2, 3, or 4 W/kg. The ROS levels were measured by a fluorescent probe 2?7?-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 0.5, 1, and 1.5 h. Lipid peroxidation and cellular viability were detected by an MDA test and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, respectively, in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The mRNA expression of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx1 genes and the expression of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx1 proteins was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 1 h. Results The ROS and MDA levels significantly increased (P<0.05) in the RF exposure group and that the cellular viability, mRNA expression of four genes, and expression of four proteins significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with the RF sham-exposure group. Conclusions Oxidative stress is present in HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz low-intensity RF and that the increased production of ROS may be related to down-regulation of four antioxidant enzyme genes induced by RF exposure. PMID:23991100

Ni, Shuang; Yu, Yibo; Zhang, Yidong; Wu, Wei; Lai, Kairan; Yao, Ke

2013-01-01

89

Gold-gold sulfide nanoshell as a novel intensifier for anti-tumor effects of radiofrequency fields  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of various nanoparticles exposed to radiofrequency (RF) waves on cancerous tissues. In this study, a colon carcinoma tumor model was irradiated by RF in the presence of gold-gold sulfide (GGS) nanoshells. Materials and Methods: Synthesis and characterization of GGS nanoshells were initially performed. CT26 cells were subcutaneously injected into the flank of BALB/c mice to create the colon carcinoma tumor models. Then the tumors were subjected to different treatments. Treatment factors included intratumoral injection of GGS and RF radiation. Different groups were considered as control with no treatment, receiving GGS, RF irradiated and simultaneous administration of GGS and RF. Efficacy of the treatments was evaluated by daily monitoring of tumor volume and recording the relative changes in it, the time needed for a 5-fold increase in the volume of tumor (T5) and utilizing pathologic studies to determine the lost volume of the tumors. Results: In comparison with control group, tumor growth was not markedly inhibited in the groups receiving only GGS or RF, while in the group receiving GGS and RF, tumor growth was effectively inhibited compared with the other groups. In addition, the lost volume of the tumor and T5 was markedly higher in groups receiving GGS and RF compared with other groups. Conclusion: This study showed that RF radiation can markedly reduce the tumor growth in presence of GGS. Hence, it can be predicted that GGS nanoshells convert sub-lethal effects of noninvasive RF fields into lethal damages.

Sadeghi, Hamid Reza; Bahreyni-Toosi, Mohammad Hossein; Meybodi, Naser Tayebi; Esmaily, Habibollah; Soudmand, Samaneh; Eshghi, Hossein; Soudmand, Samaneh; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

2014-01-01

90

[Bioeffects of chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of low intensity (standardization strategy)].  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of the experimental researches on the effect of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health, carried out in the USSR, is presented. The results of chronic exposure of laboratory animals to EMF have been considered. Apparently, EMF in the range of 1750-2750 MHz with power density up to 100-500 W/cm2 caused in immune globullin fractions, and a development of autoimmune processes. The changes in parameters of reproductive functions and posterity, the increase in embryo mortality were found. The standartization strategy used in the USSR and currently applied in Russia has been discussed. PMID:14658279

Grigor'ev, Iu G; Shafirkin, A V; Vasin, A L

2003-01-01

91

Radio-Frequency Performance of Epitaxial Graphene Field-Effect Transistors on Sapphire Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report dc and the first-ever measured small signal rf performance of epitaxial graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), where the epitaxial graphene is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a 2-inch c-plane sapphire substrate. Our epitaxial graphene material has a good flatness and uniformity due to the low carbon concentration during the graphene growth. With a gate length Lg = 100 nm, the maximum drain source current Ids and peak transconductance gm reach 0.92 A/mm and 0.143 S/mm, respectively, which are the highest results reported for GFETs directly grown on sapphire. The extrinsic cutoff frequency (fT) and maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of the device are 12 GHz and 9.5 GHz, and up to 32 GHz and 21.5 GHz after de-embedding, respectively. Our work proves that epitaxial graphene on sapphire substrates is a promising candidate for rf electronics.

Liu, Qing-Bin; Yu, Cui; Li, Jia; Song, Xu-Bo; He, Ze-Zhao; Lu, Wei-Li; Gu, Guo-Dong; Wang, Yuan-Gang; Feng, Zhi-Hong

2014-07-01

92

Searching for the perfect wave: the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on cells.  

PubMed

There is a growing concern in the population about the effects that environmental exposure to any source of "uncontrolled" radiation may have on public health. Anxiety arises from the controversial knowledge about the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to cells and organisms but most of all concerning the possible causal relation to human diseases. Here we reviewed those in vitro and in vivo and epidemiological works that gave a new insight about the effect of radio frequency (RF) exposure, relating to intracellular molecular pathways that lead to biological and functional outcomes. It appears that a thorough application of standardized protocols is the key to reliable data acquisition and interpretation that could contribute a clearer picture for scientists and lay public. Moreover, specific tuning of experimental and clinical RF exposure might lead to beneficial health effects. PMID:24681584

Gherardini, Lisa; Ciuti, Gastone; Tognarelli, Selene; Cinti, Caterina

2014-01-01

93

Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas. PMID:20487532

2010-01-01

94

Rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation time imaging by radio-frequency field gradients: visualization of strained crosslinked natural rubbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NMR imaging by radio-frequency field gradients ( B1 gradients) is especially convenient for heterogeneous samples and/or in the case of relatively short transverse relaxation times. The method has been combined with the application of two spin-lock periods of different duration so as to produce rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation time ( T1 ?) images. In the case of natural rubber samples with different crosslink densities, such images are not only characteristic of the crosslink density but also reveal the way in which the material has been stressed. The strained parts can be visualized either directly or through histograms showing the T1 ? distribution over the whole sample.

Chaumette, H.; Grandclaude, D.; Canet, D.

2003-08-01

95

[Patient exposure to electromagnetic fields in magnetic resonance scanners: a review].  

PubMed

The use of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the low frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum and static fields, radiofrequencies (RF), and microwaves is fundamental both in modern communication systems and in diagnostic medical imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proliferation of these applications in recent decades has led to intense activity in developing regulations to guarantee their safety and to the establishment of guidelines and legal recommendations for the public, workers, and patients. In April 2012 it was foreseen that the European Parliament and Council would approve and publish a directive on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields, which would modify Directive 2004/40/EC. New studies related to the exposure to electromagnetic radiation and its impact on health published in recent years have led to a new postponement, and it is now foreseen that the directive will come into effect in October 2013. One of the most noteworthy aspects of the new version of the directive is the exclusion of the limits of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the clinical use of MRI. In exchange for this exception, physicians and experts in protection against non-ionizing radiation are asked to make additional efforts to train workers exposed to non-ionizing radiation and to establish mechanisms to guarantee the correct application of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in patients, along similar lines to the principles of justification and optimization established for ionizing radiation. On the basis of the most recently published studies, this article reviews some safety-related aspects to take into account when examining patients with MRI with high magnetic fields. PMID:24246885

Guibelalde del Castillo, E

2013-12-01

96

Theranostic applications: Non-ionizing cellular and molecular imaging through innovative nanosystems for early diagnosis and therapy  

PubMed Central

Modern medicine is expanding the possibilities of receiving “personalized” diagnosis and therapies, providing minimal invasiveness, technological solutions based on non-ionizing radiation, early detection of pathologies with the main objectives of being operator independent and with low cost to society. Our research activities aim to strongly contribute to these trends by improving the capabilities of current diagnostic imaging systems, which are of key importance in possibly providing both optimal diagnosis and therapies to patients. In medical diagnostics, cellular imaging aims to develop new methods and technologies for the detection of specific metabolic processes in living organisms, in order to accurately identify and discriminate normal from pathological tissues. In fact, most diseases have a “molecular basis” that detected through these new diagnostic methodologies can provide enormous benefits to medicine. Nowadays, this possibility is mainly related to the use of Positron Emission Tomography, with an exposure to ionizing radiation for patients and operators and with extremely high medical diagnostics costs. The future possible development of non-ionizing cellular imaging based on techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance or Ultrasound, would represent an important step towards modern and personalized therapies. During the last decade, the field of nanotechnology has made important progress and a wide range of organic and inorganic nanomaterials are now available with an incredible number of further combinations with other compounds for cellular targeting. The availability of these new advanced nanosystems allows new scenarios in diagnostic methodologies which are potentially capable of providing morphological and functional information together with metabolic and cellular indications. PMID:22229079

Casciaro, Sergio

2011-01-01

97

Temperature changes associated with radiofrequency exposure near authentic metallic implants in the head phantom—a near field simulation study with 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz dipole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with increased use of wireless communication devices operating in the radiofrequency (RF) range, concern has been raised about the related possible health risks. Among other concerns, the interaction of medical implants and RF devices has been studied in order to assure the safety of implant carriers under various exposure conditions. In the RF range, the main established quantitative effect of electromagnetic (EM) fields on biological tissues is heating due to vibrational movements of water molecules. The temperature changes induced in tissues also constitute the basis for the setting of RF exposure limits and recommendations. In this study, temperature changes induced by electromagnetic field enhancements near passive metallic implants have been simulated in the head region. Furthermore, the effect of the implant material on the induced temperature change was evaluated using clinically used metals with the highest and the lowest thermal conductivities. In some cases, remarkable increases in maximum temperatures of tissues (as much as 8 °C) were seen in the near field with 1 W power level whereas at lower power levels significant temperature increases were not observed.

Matikka (formerly Virtanen, H.; Keshvari, J.; Lappalainen, R.

2010-10-01

98

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” NCRP Report No. 86...MHz, exposure limits for field strength and power density...Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,”...

2010-10-01

99

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” NCRP Report No. 86...MHz, exposure limits for field strength and power density...Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,”...

2011-10-01

100

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” NCRP Report No. 86...MHz, exposure limits for field strength and power density...Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,”...

2012-10-01

101

Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields from broadcast transmitters and risk of childhood cancer: a census-based cohort study.  

PubMed

We investigated the association between exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from broadcast transmitters and childhood cancer. First, we conducted a time-to-event analysis including children under age 16 years living in Switzerland on December 5, 2000. Follow-up lasted until December 31, 2008. Second, all children living in Switzerland for some time between 1985 and 2008 were included in an incidence density cohort. RF-EMF exposure from broadcast transmitters was modeled. Based on 997 cancer cases, adjusted hazard ratios in the time-to-event analysis for the highest exposure category (>0.2 V/m) as compared with the reference category (<0.05 V/m) were 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74, 1.43) for all cancers, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26, 1.19) for childhood leukemia, and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.98, 2.91) for childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Results of the incidence density analysis, based on 4,246 cancer cases, were similar for all types of cancer and leukemia but did not indicate a CNS tumor risk (incidence rate ratio = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.46). This large census-based cohort study did not suggest an association between predicted RF-EMF exposure from broadcasting and childhood leukemia. Results for CNS tumors were less consistent, but the most comprehensive analysis did not suggest an association. PMID:24651167

Hauri, Dimitri D; Spycher, Ben; Huss, Anke; Zimmermann, Frank; Grotzer, Michael; von der Weid, Nicolas; Spoerri, Adrian; Kuehni, Claudia E; Röösli, Martin

2014-04-01

102

Increased protein synthesis by cells exposed to a 1,800-MHz radio-frequency mobile phone electromagnetic field, detected by proteome profiling  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether or not low intensity radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EME) associated with mobile phone use can affect human cells, we used a sensitive proteome analysis method to study changes in protein synthesis in cultured human cells. Methods Four different cell kinds were exposed to 2 W/kg specific absorption rate in medium containing 35S-methionine/cysteine, and autoradiography of 2D gel spots was used to measure the increased synthesis of individual proteins. Results While short-term RF-EME did not significantly alter the proteome, an 8-h exposure caused a significant increase in protein synthesis in Jurkat T-cells and human fibroblasts, and to a lesser extent in activated primary human mononuclear cells. Quiescent (metabolically inactive) mononuclear cells, did not detectably respond to RF-EME. Since RF exposure induced a temperature increase of less than 0.15°C, we suggest that the observed cellular response is a so called “athermal” effect of RF-EME. Conclusion Our finding of an association between metabolic activity and the observed cellular reaction to low intensity RF-EME may reconcile conflicting results of previous studies. We further postulate that the observed increased protein synthesis reflects an increased rate of protein turnover stemming from protein folding problems caused by the interference of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields with hydrogen bonds. Our observations do not directly imply a health risk. However, vis-a-vis a synopsis of reports on cells stress and DNA breaks, after short and longer exposure, on active and inactive cells, our findings may contribute to the re-evaluation of previous reports. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00420-010-0513-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20145945

Gerner, Christopher; Haudek, Verena; Schandl, Ulla; Bayer, Editha; Gundacker, Nina; Hutter, Hans Peter

2010-01-01

103

Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27. 12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.

1989-04-01

104

Light-emitting diode as radio-frequency detector - Development of RFI-free electromagnetic field sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique RFI-fre electromagnetic field sensing technique using an LED as an RF detector is described. A double heterojunction (AlGaAs\\/GaAs) LED is used as an RF rectifier coupled to an EM probe; it delivers proportional light output with significant efficiency even at low (rectified) drive currents. It is shown that dc biasing of the LED to the threshold of conduction

P. S. Neelakanta; D. Degroff

1989-01-01

105

Cell Type-Dependent Induction of DNA Damage by 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Result in Significant Cellular Dysfunctions  

PubMed Central

Background Although IARC clarifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as possible human carcinogen, the debate on its health impact continues due to the inconsistent results. Genotoxic effect has been considered as a golden standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for RF-EMF remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of RF-EMF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate its genotoxicity. Objectives To determine whether RF-EMF does induce DNA damage and if the effect is cell-type dependent by adopting a more sensitive method ?H2AX foci formation; and to investigate the biological consequences if RF-EMF does increase ?H2AX foci formation. Methods Six different types of cells were intermittently exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 3.0 W/kg for 1 h or 24 h, then subjected to immunostaining with anti-?H2AX antibody. The biological consequences in ?H2AX-elevated cell type were further explored with comet and TUNEL assays, flow cytometry, and cell growth assay. Results Exposure to RF-EMF for 24 h significantly induced ?H2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster lung cells and Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs), but not the other cells. However, RF-EMF-elevated ?H2AX foci formation in HSF cells did not result in detectable DNA fragmentation, sustainable cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation or viability change. RF-EMF exposure slightly but not significantly increased the cellular ROS level. Conclusions RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated ?H2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions. PMID:23355902

Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Guangdi; Chen, Chunjing; Sun, Chuan; Zhang, Danying; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Zeng, Qunli; Xu, Zhengping

2013-01-01

106

Association between exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields assessed by dosimetry and acute symptoms in children and adolescents: a population based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in numbers of mobile phone users was accompanied by some concern that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) might adversely affect acute health especially in children and adolescents. The authors investigated this potential association using personal dosimeters. Methods A 24-hour exposure profile of 1484 children and 1508 adolescents was generated in a population-based cross-sectional study in Germany between 2006 and 2008 (participation 52%). Personal interview data on socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported exposure and potential confounders were collected. Acute symptoms were assessed twice during the study day using a symptom diary. Results Only few of the large number of investigated associations were found to be statistically significant. At noon, adolescents with a measured exposure in the highest quartile during morning hours reported a statistically significant higher intensity of headache (Odd Ratio: 1.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 2.19). At bedtime, adolescents with a measured exposure in the highest quartile during afternoon hours reported a statistically significant higher intensity of irritation in the evening (4th quartile 1.79; 1.23, 2.61), while children reported a statistically significant higher intensity of concentration problems (4th quartile 1.55; 1.02, 2.33). Conclusions We observed few statistically significant results which are not consistent over the two time points. Furthermore, when the 10% of the participants with the highest exposure are taken into consideration the significant results of the main analysis could not be confirmed. Based on the pattern of these results, we assume that the few observed significant associations are not causal but rather occurred by chance. PMID:21108839

2010-01-01

107

Hsp70 expression and free radical release after exposure to non-thermal radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and ultrafine particles in human Mono Mac 6 cells.  

PubMed

The contemporary urban environment has become increasingly complex in its composition, leading to discussions regarding possible novel health effects. Two factors that recently have received considerable attention are ultrafine particles (UFP; <0.1 microm) produced by combustion processes and emissions from wireless communication devices like mobile phones that emit in the radio-frequency (RF) part of the spectrum. Several studies have shown biological effects of both these exposures in various cell systems. Here we investigate if exposure to UFP (12-14 nm, 100 microg/ml) and RF-electromagnetic fields (EMF; 2 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR); continuous wave (CW) or modulated (217Hz or GSM-nonDTX)), alone or in combination influences levels of the superoxide radical anion or the stress protein heat-shock protein (Hsp70) in the human monocyte cell line Mono Mac 6. Heat treatment (42-43 degrees C, 1h) was used as positive control for both stress reaction and for heat development in the RF exposure setup. Our results clearly show that Mono Mac 6 cells are capable to internalise UFP, and that this phagocytic activity is connected to an increased release of free radicals. This increase (40-45% above negative control) is stronger than the effect of heat treatment. On the other hand, none of the employed RF exposures showed any effects on free radical levels. Co-exposure of RF and UFP did not potentiate the UFP effect either. Our investigations showed a significantly increased Hsp70 expression level by heat treatment in a time-dependent manner, whereas UFP, RF, or UFP+RF were without any effect. Therefore, we conclude that in the investigated Mono Mac 6 cells, RF exposure alone or in combination with UFP cannot influence stress-related responses. PMID:16153791

Simkó, M; Hartwig, C; Lantow, M; Lupke, M; Mattsson, M-O; Rahman, Q; Rollwitz, J

2006-02-01

108

Direct amide formation using radiofrequency heating.  

PubMed

We present a simple method for direct and solvent-free formation of amides from carboxylic acids and amines using radiofrequency heating. The direct energy coupling of the AC magnetic field via nickel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles enables fast and controllable heating, as well as enabling facile work-up via magnetic separation. PMID:23175135

Houlding, Thomas K; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Rahman, Md Taifur; Rebrov, Evgeny V

2013-07-01

109

Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurements in The Netherlands: exposure level and variability for everyday activities, times of day and types of area.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is necessary for epidemiological studies on possible health effects. The main goal of this study is to determine the exposure level and spatial and temporal variances during 39 everyday activities in 12 frequency bands used in mobile telecommunication and broadcasting. Therefore, 24 h measurements were gathered from 98 volunteers living in or near Amsterdam and Purmerend, The Netherlands. They carried an activity diary to be kept to the minute, a GPS logger sampling at an interval of 1 s, and an EME Spy exposimeter with a detection limit of 0.0066 mW/m(2) sampling at an interval of 10s in 12 frequency bands. The mean exposure over 24 h, excluding own mobile phone use, was 0.180 mW/m(2). During daytime exposure was about the same, but during night it was about half, and in the evening it was about twice as high. The main contribution to environmental exposure (calling by participant not included) is from calling with mobile phones (37.5%), from cordless DECT phones and their docking stations (31.7%), and from the base stations (12.7%). The exposure to mobile phone base stations increases with the percentage of urban ground use, which is an indication for high people density. In agreement, the highest mean exposure relates to the activities with high people density, such as travelling by public transport, visiting social events, pubs or shopping malls. Exposure at home depends mainly on exposure from people calling in the neighbourhood of the participant and thus on the number of persons in a household. In addition just the possession of DECT docking stations leads to exposure as most models transmit continuously in stand-by. Also wireless internet routers continuously transmit in the WiFi band. Though the highest exposure peaks in the WiFi band, up to 0.265 W/m(2), come from stray radiation of microwave ovens. The mean total exposure largely depends on phone calls of a high exposure level and short duration. These calls lead to potentially high contrasts as well in exposure levels between sessions of the same activity as between persons, thus posing a challenge for personal exposure prediction. PMID:22906414

Bolte, John F B; Eikelboom, Tessa

2012-11-01

110

Effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field on DNA damage and expression of heat shock protein 70 in human lens epithelial cells.  

PubMed

To investigate the DNA damage, expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and cell proliferation of human lens epithelial cells (hLEC) after exposure to the 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field (RF) of a global system for mobile communications (GSM). An Xc-1800 RF exposure system was used to employ a GSM signal at 1.8 GHz (217 Hz amplitude-modulated) with the output power in the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1, 2 and 3 W/kg. After 2 h exposure to RF, the DNA damage of hLEC was accessed by comet assay at five different incubation times: 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min, respectively. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to determine the expression of Hsp70 in hLECs after RF exposure. The proliferation rate of cells was evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation on days 0, 1 and 4 after exposure. The results show that the difference of DNA-breaks between the exposed and sham-exposed (control) groups induced by 1 and 2 W/kg irradiation were not significant at any incubation time point (P > 0.05). The DNA damage caused by 3 W/kg irradiation was significantly increased at the times of 0 and 30 min after exposure (P < 0.05), a phenomenon that could not be seen at the time points of 60, 120 or 240 min (P > 0.05). Detectable mRNA as well as protein expression of Hsp70 was found in all groups. Exposure at SARs of 2 and 3 W/kg for 2 h exhibited significantly increased Hsp70 protein expression (P < 0.05), while no change in Hsp70 mRNA expression could be found in any of the groups (P > 0.05). No difference of the cell proliferation rate between the sham-exposed and exposed cells was found at any exposure dose tested (P > 0.05). The results indicate that exposure to non-thermal dosages of RF for wireless communications can induce no or repairable DNA damage and the increased Hsp70 protein expression in hLECs occurred without change in the cell proliferation rate. The non-thermal stress response of Hsp70 protein increase to RF exposure might be involved in protecting hLEC from DNA damage and maintaining the cellular capacity for proliferation. PMID:17011595

Lixia, Sun; Yao, Ke; Kaijun, Wang; Deqiang, Lu; Huajun, Hu; Xiangwei, Gao; Baohong, Wang; Wei, Zheng; Jianling, Lou; Wei, Wu

2006-12-01

111

Radiofrequency Ablation of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been used for over 18 years for treatment of nerve-related chronic pain and cardiac arrhythmias. In the last 10 years, technical developments have increased ablation volumes in a controllable, versatile, and relatively inexpensive manner. The host of clinical applications for RFA have similarly expanded. Current RFA equipment, techniques, applications, results, complications, and research avenues for local

Marc Friedman; Igor Mikityansky; Anthony Kam; Steven K. Libutti; McClellan M. Walther; Ziv Neeman; Julia K. Locklin; Bradford J. Wood

2004-01-01

112

Removal of organic pollutants by surfactant modified zeolite: comparison between ionizable phenolic compounds and non-ionizable organic compounds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption capability and mechanism of hexadecyltrimethylammonium modified zeolite, which was synthesized from coal fly ash, for the removal of ionizable phenolic compounds (phenol, p-chlorophenol and bisphenol A, with different pK(a)) and non-ionizable organic compounds (aniline, nitrobenzene, and naphthalene, with different hydrophobicity). The obtained zeolite was identified as type Na-P1 (Na(6)Al(6)Si(10)O(32)·12H(2)O, JCPDS code 39-0219), which is classified into the gismondine group with a pore size of 3.1 Å × 4.5 Å [100] and 2.8 Å × 4.8 Å [101]. The adsorption of the two kinds of organic compounds was due to loaded surfactant bilayer because modified zeolite showed great ability for the removal of organic chemicals while little adsorption by zeolite was observed. The isotherm data of ionizable compounds fitted well to the Langmuir model but those of non-ionizable chemicals followed a linear equation. Uptake of ionizable compounds depended greatly on pH, increasing at alkaline pH conditions. In contrary, adsorption of non-ionizable chemicals was essentially the same at all pH levels studied. The adsorption of both kinds of organic compounds correlated well to k(ow) value, suggesting that more hydrophobic organic contaminants are more easily retained by modified zeolite. Based on the different adsorption behavior, the uptake of non-ionizable pollutants was thought to be a single partitioning process into the surfactant bilayer. For ionizable compounds, however, interaction of the phenol group(s) with the positively charged "head" of surfactant additionally functions. PMID:22771348

Xie, Jie; Meng, Wenna; Wu, Deyi; Zhang, Zhenjia; Kong, Hainan

2012-09-15

113

The study of the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations on birth weight of newborns to exposed mothers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Life evolved in an environment filled with a wide variety of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. It was previously reported that medical exposures to pregnant women increases the risk of low birth weight. This study intends to investigate the relationship between exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and the risk of low birth weight. Materials and Methods: One thousand two hundred mothers with their first-term labor (vaginal or cesarean) whose newborns’ history had been registered in neonates’ screening program in Shiraz were interviewed and surveyed. Data collection was performed by the assessment of mother's history of radiography before and during pregnancy, physical examination of the mother for height and weight and weighing and examining the newborn for any diagnosis of disease and anomalies. Results: There were no statistical significant differences between the mean weight of newborns whose mothers had been exposed to some common sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations such as dental or non dental radiographies, mobile phone, cordless phone and cathode ray tube (CRT) and those of non-exposed mothers. Conclusions: The findings of this study cast doubt on previous reports, which indicated that exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy increased the risk of low birth weight. PMID:23633865

Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shirazi, K. R.; Mortazavi, G.

2013-01-01

114

A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge. PMID:23179188

Wu, Tongning; Shao, Qing; Yang, Lei; Qi, Dianyuan; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiaojun; Yu, Zongying

2013-06-01

115

Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

1998-05-19

116

Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

1997-03-11

117

Radio-Frequency Spectroscopy of Ultracold Fermions  

E-print Network

Radio-frequency techniques were used to study ultracold fermions. We observed the absence of mean-field "clock" shifts, the dominant source of systematic error in current atomic clocks based on bosonic atoms. This is a direct consequence of fermionic antisymmetry. Resonance shifts proportional to interaction strengths were observed in a three-level system. However, in the strongly interacting regime, these shifts became very small, reflecting the quantum unitarity limit and many-body effects. This insight into an interacting Fermi gas is relevant for the quest to observe superfluidity in this system.

S. Gupta; Z. Hadzibabic; M. W. Zwierlein; C. A. Stan; K. Dieckmann; C. H. Schunck; E. G. M. van Kempen; B. J. Verhaar; W. Ketterle

2003-07-10

118

Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

Phillips, Harry L. (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

1997-01-01

119

Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

1998-01-01

120

Dynamics of dust particles in a collisional radio-frequency plasma sheath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have examined the dynamics of a single dust particle in a non-ionized radio-frequency plasma sheath. For this, we have used a steady state one-dimensional time-averaged model where the electrons are considered to be in thermal equilibrium, while the positive ions are described by cold fluid equations. The interactions between ions and neutrals are considered. Numerous forces acting on the dust particles, such as electric force, gravitational force, neutral drag force and ion drag force are taken into account. The numerical results show that the ion-neutral collisions have significant effects on the properties of the motion of the dust. The dust oscillation frequency increases and the equilibrium position of the dust particle drops when the coefficient of ion collision increases.

El Kaouini, Morad; Chatei, Hassan; Bougdira, Jamal

2014-05-01

121

Dosimetry associated with exposure to non-ionizing radiation: very low frequency to microwaves.  

PubMed

The interpretation of the effects in biological systems exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields requires knowledge of the internal fields and absorbed energy. The quantification of the specific absorption rate (SAR) is called dosimetry. The SAR given in units of watts per kilogram is a complex function of the source configuration, shape and size of the exposed subjects, orientation of the subject with respect to the source, and the frequency. The average and maximum SAR in the exposed subject may vary over many orders of magnitude for a given exposure level. In order to relate observed biological effects in exposed laboratory animals to safe exposure levels for man, both the fields within the environment and SAR within the exposed tissues must be determined. The environmental fields and the SAR can often be determined from EM theory, but in most cases one must rely on instrumentation such as field survey meters for quantifying the exposure fields and electric field probes, thermocouples, thermistors, fiber optic probes, thermography, and calorimetry for quantifying the SAR in the tissues or equivalent models. A combination of techniques, each valid for a particular model over a particular frequency range, have been used to determine average and peak SARs in humans and animals exposed to plane wave radiation. Though it has been considerably more difficult to quantify these quantities for near field and partial-body exposure conditions, progress is continually being made in this area. PMID:3679822

Guy, A W

1987-12-01

122

Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss of Electrons with Low and Relativistic Energies in Materials and Space Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment of the electron-nucleus interaction based on the Matt differential cross section was extended to account for effects due to screened Coulomb potentials, finite sizes and finite rest masses of nuclei for electrons above 200keV and up to ultra high energies. This treatment allows one to determine both the total and differential cross sections, thus, subsequently to calculate the resulting nuclear and non-ionizing stopping powers. Above a few hundreds of MeV, neglecting the effect due to finite rest masses of recoil nuclei the stopping power and NIEL result to be largely underestimated. While, above a few tens of MeV, the finite size ofthe nuclear target prevents a further large increase of stopping powers which approach almost constant values.

Boschini, M. J.; Consolandi, C.; Gervasi, M.; Giani, S.; Grandi, D.; Ivanchenko, V.; Nieminem, P.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Tacconi, M.

2012-08-01

123

Evaluating exposure to radio-frequency emissions from base station antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of efficient, reliable and reasonably simple procedures providing assistance in evaluating human exposure to radiofrequency fields from base station antennas is essential for mobile communications. In this paper, sample results of \\

Andrzej Karwowski

2002-01-01

124

24. IMPROVED TECHNIQUE FOR SIMPLIFYING STANDARDS-COMPLIANT TESTS OF NON-IONIZING ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Typically the compliance with Standards for personal safety in electromagnetic fields under complex exposure situations was measured by experts with specific equipment. Recently, measuring instruments became more sophisticated. This enables also less educated staff to carry out the measurements. Inexperienced workers can be fitted with personal monitors. Ease of use was improved in three points. The frequency response shaping

Rainer Bitzer; Helmut Keller

125

Red eyes of PC users due to the effects of non-ionized electromagnetic radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an experimental study of the appearance of redness on the surface of the eye on PC users due to the exposition to low frequency electromagnetic fields LF, VLF and ELF that VDTs with TRC monitors radiate, based on the measurement of the level of pigmentation and temperature. The total of the samples was analyzed using digital processing of images extracting the component of red color of the sclera. We demonstrated that under the same ergonomics and operating conditions, TRC monitors cause a higher heating and greater pigmentation in the users eyes as compared to LCD screens, due to the higher low frequency radiation.

Soto-Bernal, J. J.; Huizar-Gonzalez, A. A.; Rosales-Candelas, I.; Cardoza-Rodriguez, A. R.

2007-03-01

126

Radiofrequency thermal ablationof hepatic metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a promising therapeutic option for liver metastases, which may result in prolonged survival and chance for cure. Recent technological advancements provide larger coagulation volumes, allowing treatment of medium- and large-size metastases. Candidates are patients with metachronous liver metastases from colorectal or other primary cancers, in whom surgery is contraindicated and with one to four nodules

Luigi Solbiati; Tiziana Ierace; Massimo Tonolini; Valeria Osti; Luca Cova

2001-01-01

127

Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and cancer--is there a relationship  

SciTech Connect

A number of problems become evident when we attempt to assess the data in this review. We must first acknowledge the fact that EM radiation, as opposed to some chemical and physical pollutants which can be seen, tasted, or detected by odor, is in most situations not detected by human senses. This fact alone, however, does not prove or disprove the conjecture that EMR is a potential health hazard. The studies on the effects of EMR on cell systems, animals, and human subjects, report results which promote in some and reject in others the hypothesis that EMR in the ELF and microwave range is carcinogenic. Much of the criticism of the studies on human subjects centers around (1) quantifying exposure to EM Fields; (2) the epidemiologic-statistical methods used to gather, study, and interpret the data; and (3) lack of data studying co-carcinogens. Although there is no convincing evidence that EMR is carcinogenic, the uncertainty, in addition to the ubiquity of EMR, makes study of its possible health effects and its carcinogenic potential an essential part of future medical and epidemiologic research.59 references.

Salvatore, J.R.; Weitberg, A.B.

1989-01-01

128

[Safety of use assessment in a radio-frequency medical device].  

PubMed

The authors assessed the operating safety physical parameters of a bipolar radiofrequency device for aesthetic purposes. According to both Italian and EU guidelines, the authors considered: magnetic field environmental emission levels, electricity induced in the opertator's limbs, operator's exposure and radiofrequency specific absorbance rate (SAR) in treated tissues. Measurements were carried out with isotropic sensors and an inductive current indicator. Results pointed out excellent safety levels regarding environment, operators and patients as well, although such radiofrequency equipment cannot be used on patients with pacemakers, neurostimulators and other vital function controlling devices. PMID:25369715

Nicoletti, Giovanni; Coppola, Antonio; Di Liberto, Riccardo; Faga, Angela; Scevola, Silvia

2014-01-01

129

Increased protein synthesis by cells exposed to a 1,800MHz radio-frequency mobile phone electromagnetic field, detected by proteome profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate whether or not low intensity radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EME) associated with mobile\\u000a phone use can affect human cells, we used a sensitive proteome analysis method to study changes in protein synthesis in cultured\\u000a human cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Four different cell kinds were exposed to 2 W\\/kg specific absorption rate in medium containing 35S-methionine\\/cysteine, and autoradiography of 2D gel spots

Christopher Gerner; Verena Haudek; Ulla Schandl; Editha Bayer; Nina Gundacker; Hans Peter Hutter; Wilhelm Mosgoeller

2010-01-01

130

Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting cavities have been operating routinely in a variety of accelerators with a range of demanding applications. With the success of completed projects, niobium cavities have become an enabling technology, offering upgrade paths for existing facilities and pushing frontier accelerators for nuclear physics, high-energy physics, materials science, and the life sciences. With continued progress in basic understanding of radio-frequency superconductivity, the performance of cavities has steadily improved to approach theoretical capabilities.

Padamsee, Hasan S.

2014-10-01

131

Radiofrequency treatment of cervicogenic headache  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In the clinical management of facial pain, a possible cervical origin must be considered. A clinical exploration is therefore essential. The disorder originates in the intimate connections between the cranial portion of the spinal cord and the trigeminal system. Although solid evidence supporting the use of radiofrequency (RF) treatment is lacking, it remains one of the management options to be taken into account. The present study evaluates the efficacy of RF in application to cervicogenic headache. Study design: We present three cases of severe facial pain arising from different cervical structures. Results: In two cases the pain originated in cervical roots C2 and C3, while in the third patient the trigger point was located at the level of the atlantoaxial joint. Pulsed RF was applied for 4 minutes at the dorsal ganglion of C2 and C3 in the first two cases, and for 8 minutes at intraarticular level in the third patient. The pain gradually subsided during the first month in all cases. The first two patients reported 70% improvement after one month, 60% improvement after 6 months, and 30-50% after one year, versus baseline. The third patient reported complete pain resolution lasting approximately 5 months, after which the pain reappeared with the same intensity as before. Conclusions: Radiofrequency is a satisfactory treatment option, affording adequate analgesia, though the effects are sometimes temporary. Key words:Cervicogenic headache, pulsed radiofrequency, analgesia. PMID:23229235

Penarrocha, Miguel; Penarrocha, Maria; Calvo, Ana; Jimenez, Alejandro; March, Rafael

2013-01-01

132

Design and evaluation of a hybrid radiofrequency applicator for magnetic resonance imaging and RF induced hyperthermia: electromagnetic field simulations up to 14.0 Tesla and proof-of-concept at 7.0 Tesla.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the feasibility of a hybrid radiofrequency (RF) applicator that supports magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR controlled targeted RF heating at ultrahigh magnetic fields (B0?7.0T). For this purpose a virtual and an experimental configuration of an 8-channel transmit/receive (TX/RX) hybrid RF applicator was designed. For TX/RX bow tie antenna electric dipoles were employed. Electromagnetic field simulations (EMF) were performed to study RF heating versus RF wavelength (frequency range: 64 MHz (1.5T) to 600 MHz (14.0T)). The experimental version of the applicator was implemented at B0?=?7.0T. The applicators feasibility for targeted RF heating was evaluated in EMF simulations and in phantom studies. Temperature co-simulations were conducted in phantoms and in a human voxel model. Our results demonstrate that higher frequencies afford a reduction in the size of specific absorption rate (SAR) hotspots. At 7T (298 MHz) the hybrid applicator yielded a 50% iso-contour SAR (iso-SAR-50%) hotspot with a diameter of 43 mm. At 600 MHz an iso-SAR-50% hotspot of 26 mm in diameter was observed. RF power deposition per RF input power was found to increase with B0 which makes targeted RF heating more efficient at higher frequencies. The applicator was capable of generating deep-seated temperature hotspots in phantoms. The feasibility of 2D steering of a SAR/temperature hotspot to a target location was demonstrated by the induction of a focal temperature increase (?T?=?8.1 K) in an off-center region of the phantom. Temperature simulations in the human brain performed at 298 MHz showed a maximum temperature increase to 48.6C for a deep-seated hotspot in the brain with a size of (19×23×32)mm(3) iso-temperature-90%. The hybrid applicator provided imaging capabilities that facilitate high spatial resolution brain MRI. To conclude, this study outlines the technical underpinnings and demonstrates the basic feasibility of an 8-channel hybrid TX/RX applicator that supports MR imaging, MR thermometry and targeted RF heating in one device. PMID:23613896

Winter, Lukas; Özerdem, Celal; Hoffmann, Werner; Santoro, Davide; Müller, Alexander; Waiczies, Helmar; Seemann, Reiner; Graessl, Andreas; Wust, Peter; Niendorf, Thoralf

2013-01-01

133

Predicting nurses' acceptance of radiofrequency identification technology.  

PubMed

The technology of radiofrequency identification allows for the scanning of radiofrequency identification-tagged objects and individuals without line-of-sight requirements. Healthcare organizations use radiofrequency identification to ensure the health and safety of patients and medical personnel and to uncover inefficiencies. Although the successful implementation of a system incorporating radiofrequency identification technologies requires acceptance and use of the technology, some nurses using radiofrequency identification in hospitals feel like "Big Brother" is watching them. This predictive study used a theoretical model assessing the effect of five independent variables: privacy concerns, attitudes, subjective norms, controllability, and self-efficacy, on a dependent variable, nurses' behavioral intention to use radiofrequency identification. A Web-based questionnaire containing previously validated questions was answered by 106 US RNs. Multiple linear regression showed that all constructs together accounted for 60% of the variance in nurses' intention to use radiofrequency identification. Of the predictors in the model, attitudes provided the largest unique contribution when the other predictors in the model were held constant; subjective norms also provided a unique contribution. Privacy concerns, controllability, and self-efficacy did not provide a significant contribution to nurses' behavioral intention to use radiofrequency identification. PMID:22805120

Norten, Adam

2012-10-01

134

Numerical modelling calculations for evaluating exposure to radio-frequency emissions from base station antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of reliable, simple procedures providing assistance in evaluating human exposure to radiofrequency fields from base station antennas is essential for mobile communications. In the paper, sample results of 'rigorous' full-wave numerical analysis of the electromagnetic field morphology in vicinity of a representative base station (BS) panel antenna are presented. Having recognized the field morphology, two simple approximate calculational

Andnej Karwowski

2002-01-01

135

Lumbar and sacral radiofrequency neurotomy.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy is an interventional procedure used to alleviate certain types of low back pain. RF energy is used to thermally coagulate the specific nerves that transmit pain signals. Recent evidence has shown that this procedure demonstrates significant efficacy in relieving low back pain in lumbar zygapophysial joints, and research is ongoing to determine if pain relief for the sacroiliac joint is also possible. This article provides an evidence-based background for performing RF neurotomy, discusses the relevant anatomy, and highlights the indications and technique for lumbar and sacral RF neurotomy. PMID:20977967

Mazin, David A; Sullivan, Joseph P

2010-11-01

136

Radio-Frequency Strain Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio-frequency (RF) strain monitor developed to measure lengths of objects. RF waveguide or cable bonded to structure monitored. Propagation of RF signal along waveguide results in phase shift proportional to length of path traveled. Impedance mismatches placed in RF cable at nodes of structure. Records mismatches and detects overall length of line and lengths of intervals between nodes. Used to detect changes in elements of large structure with single cable. Monitor has potential for many applications, including monitoring stability of such large structures as aircraft, bridges, and buildings in Earthquake zones.

Heyman, Joseph S.; Rogowski, Robert S.; Holben, Milford S., Jr.

1988-01-01

137

Radiofrequency power deposition utilizing thermal imaging.  

PubMed

Wavelength effects influence radiofrequency (RF) power deposition distributions and limit magnetic resonance (MR) medical applications at very high magnetic fields. The power depositions in spherical saline gel phantoms were deduced from proton resonance shift thermal maps at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T over a range of conductivities. Phase differences before and after RF heating were measured for both a quadrature head coil and a circular surface coil. A long echo time (TE) pulse sequence with a 3D phase unwrap algorithm provided increased thermal sensitivity. The measured thermal maps agreed with a model of eddy-current heating by circularly polarized oscillating RF fields in a conducting dielectric sphere. At 3.0 T, thermal maps were acquired with a <0.32 degrees C temperature rise at 4 W. Proton resonance shift thermal maps provided a measure of hot spots in very-high-field MR imaging (MRI), in which both the phase sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were increased. The method provides a means of studying the heat distribution generated by RF coils excited by clinical pulse sequences. PMID:15170832

Cline, Harvey; Mallozzi, Richard; Li, Zhu; McKinnon, Graeme; Barber, William

2004-06-01

138

Radiofrequency heating pathways for gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This feature article reviews the thermal dissipation of nanoscopic gold under radiofrequency (RF) irradiation. It also presents previously unpublished data addressing obscure aspects of this phenomenon. While applications in biology motivated initial investigation of RF heating of gold nanoparticles, recent controversy concerning whether thermal effects can be attributed to nanoscopic gold highlight the need to understand the involved mechanism or mechanisms of heating. Both the nature of the particle and the nature of the RF field influence heating. Aspects of nanoparticle chemistry which may affect thermal dissipation include the hydrodynamic diameter of the particle, the oxidation state and related magnetism of the core, and the chemical nature of the ligand shell. Aspects of RF which may affect thermal dissipation include power, frequency and antenna designs that emphasize relative strength of magnetic or electric fields. These nanoparticle and RF properties are analysed in the context of three heating mechanisms proposed to explain gold nanoparticle heating in an RF field. This article also makes a critical analysis of the existing literature in the context of the nanoparticle preparations, RF structure, and suggested mechanisms in previously reported experiments. PMID:24962620

Collins, C B; McCoy, R S; Ackerson, B J; Collins, G J; Ackerson, C J

2014-08-01

139

The privilege to use lasers (non-ionizing radiation) at Stanford University requires each individual user to follow and adhere to the guidelines recommended in the American National Standard Institute  

E-print Network

Preface The privilege to use lasers (non-ionizing radiation) at Stanford recommended in the American National Standard Institute guidelines on laser safety for Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1). All individuals who work with lasers

Kay, Mark A.

140

47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices...Authorization Procedures Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure § 2.1091 Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile...

2011-10-01

141

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health...

2011-04-01

142

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health...

2012-04-01

143

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health...

2010-04-01

144

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health...

2013-04-01

145

Exposure to radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress in duckweed Lemna minor L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread use of radiofrequency radiation emitting devices increased the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. Various biological effects of exposure to these fields have been documented so far, but very little work has been carried out on plants. The aim of the present work was to investigate the physiological responses of the plant Lemna minor after exposure

Mirta Tkalec; Krešimir Malari?; Branka Pevalek-Kozlina

2007-01-01

146

[Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma].  

PubMed

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its curative potential, it is the method of choice for non resectable BCLC (Barcelona Liver Clinic) 0 and A. RFA challenges surgical resection for small HCC and is the method of choice in bridging for transplantation and recurrence after resection or transplantation. The technical feasibility of RFA depends on the size and location of the HCC and the availability of ablation techniques (one needle techniques, multi-needle techniques). More recently, stereotactic multi-needle techniques with 3D trajectory planning and guided needle placement substantially improve the spectrum of treatable lesions including large volume tumors. Treatment success depends on the realization of ablations with large intentional margins of tumor free tissue (A0 ablation in analogy to R0 resection), which has to be documented by fusion of post- with pre-ablation images, and confirmed during follow-up imaging. PMID:23515886

Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Bale, Reto

2013-03-01

147

Radiofrequency Ablation of Renal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumors is a promising technique that plays a unique and increasingly important role in urologic oncology practices. RFA is appealing as a minimally invasive therapy that may be performed on an outpatient basis. It enables treatment of an area 3 to 5 cm in diameter, with relatively low morbidity and mortality rates. Most interventional radiologists (IRs) are familiar with RFA of liver tumors, and several principles and techniques used in the liver may be extrapolated for use in the kidney. However, it is crucial to bear in mind that local tumor ablation in the kidney presents unique challenges, secondary to the kidney's unique anatomic and physiologic features. Clinical and technical considerations, risks, and complications pertaining to RFA of renal tumors are reviewed here, including approaches commonly used in our practice. PMID:18070691

Stone, Michael J.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Pinto, Peter; Linehan, Marston; Wood, Bradford J.

2008-01-01

148

Percutaneous radiofrequency upper thoracic sympathectomy.  

PubMed

Between June 1979 and May 1994, I performed 148 unilateral or bilateral sympathectomies on 247 limbs in 110 patients using a percutaneous radiofrequency technique, usually on an outpatient surgery basis. Patient ages ranged from 10 to 81 years, with 45 male and 65 female patients. Four patients had unsuccessfully undergone prior open surgical sympathectomy. Patients suffered from hyperhidrosis, vascular occlusion, Raynaud's disease or other chronic vasculopathies, painful causalgia or reflex sympathetic dystrophy, or Prinzmetal's angina. The sympathectomy technique has evolved over this 15-year period and is currently in its third phase. Changes in the procedure were based on anatomic and clinical/radiographic correlations and careful patient follow-up. Current modifications have reduced the frequency of both early and late failures. The present technique (Phase III) relies on neuroleptanalgesia with superficial local anesthesia only and does not require general anesthesia, intubation, or lung collapse. Two 18-gauge radiofrequency TIC needle electrodes (Radionics, Burlington, MA) are used. A series of three lesions is rostrocaudally made at each of the ganglion sites selected in an attempt to destroy the entire fusiform ganglion. Lesion sites are targeted by C-arm fluoroscopy and electrical stimulation, which produces a threshold of sensory awareness of > 1.0 V. Lesion effectiveness is monitored by bilateral finger plethysmography and hand skin temperature measurement. With the Phase III technique, the sympathetic activity in 96% of operated limbs after 2 years and in 91% of operated limbs after 3 years continues to be completely or largely interrupted. By comparison, I achieved similar success in 83 and 72% operated limbs with the Phase I technique and in 77 and 71% with the Phase II technique. Symptomatic pneumothorax, in six patients, has been the only serious complication. When necessary, a subsequent operation can easily be performed and is effective. PMID:8692390

Wilkinson, H A

1996-04-01

149

Radiofrequency Ablation Effective Against Barrett Esophagus  

Cancer.gov

In a randomized phase II trial, radiofrequency ablation led to high rates of eradication of the cell abnormalities associated with Barrett esophagus, according to the May 28, 2009, New England Journal of Medicine.

150

Quantitative calibration of radiofrequency NMR Stark effects.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Stark responses can occur in quadrupolar nuclei for an electric field oscillating at twice the usual NMR frequency (2?(0)). Calibration of responses to an applied E field is needed to establish nuclear spins as probes of native E fields within material and molecular systems. We present an improved approach and apparatus for accurate measurement of quadrupolar Stark effects. Updated values of C(14) (the response parameter in cubic crystals) were obtained for both (69)Ga and (75)As in GaAs. Keys to improvement include a modified implementation of voltage dividers to assess the 2?(0) amplitude, |E|, and the stabilization of divider response by reduction of stray couplings in 2?(0) circuitry. Finally, accuracy was enhanced by filtering sets of |E| through a linear response function that we established for the radiofrequency amplifier. Our approach is verified by two types of spectral results. Steady-state 2?(0) excitation to presaturate NMR spectra yielded C(14) = (2.59 ± 0.06) × 10(12) m(-1) for (69)Ga at room-temperature and 14.1 T. For (75)As, we obtained (3.1 ± 0.1) × 10(12) m(-1). Both values reconcile with earlier results from 77 K and below 1 T, whereas current experiments are at room temperature and 14.1 T. Finally, we present results where few-microsecond pulses of the 2?(0) field induced small (tens of Hz) changes in high-resolution NMR line shapes. There too, spectra collected vs |E| agree with the model for response, further establishing the validity of our protocols to specify |E|. PMID:22047309

Tarasek, Matthew R; Kempf, James G

2011-10-01

151

Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens.  

PubMed

This work presents data on the amount of radiation leakage from 117 microwave ovens in domestic and restaurant use in the West Bank, Palestine. The study of leakage is based on the measurements of radiation emissions from the oven in real-life conditions by using a frequency selective field strength measuring system. The power density from individual ovens was measured at a distance of 1 m and at the height of centre of door screen. The tested ovens were of different types, models with operating powers between 1000 and 1600 W and ages ranging from 1 month to >20 y, including 16 ovens with unknown ages. The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 ?W cm(-2) with an average value equalling 3.64 ?W cm(-2). Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (?6 % of the total) were below 10 ?W cm(-2). The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ?16.4 ?W cm(-2), and found in two cases only. In no case did the leakage exceed the limit of 1 mW cm(-2) recommended by the ICNIRP for 2.45-GHz radiofrequency. This study confirms a linear correlation between the amount of leakage and both oven age and operating power, with a stronger dependence of leakage on age. PMID:23861537

Lahham, Adnan; Sharabati, Afifeh

2013-12-01

152

Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} {minus} 8 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} {minus} 8 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were considered to be around 100 and 80 {mu}m, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 {mu}m on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications.

Okada, T.; Hamatani, H.; Yoshida, T. (Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, The Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (JP))

1989-11-01

153

Epidemiology of Health Effects of Radiofrequency Exposure  

PubMed Central

We have undertaken a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies about the effects of radiofrequency fields (RFs) on human health in order to summarize the current state of knowledge, explain the methodologic issues that are involved, and aid in the planning of future studies. There have been a large number of occupational studies over several decades, particularly on cancer, cardiovascular disease, adverse reproductive outcome, and cataract, in relation to RF exposure. More recently, there have been studies of residential exposure, mainly from radio and television transmitters, and especially focusing on leukemia. There have also been studies of mobile telephone users, particularly on brain tumors and less often on other cancers and on symptoms. Results of these studies to date give no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relation between RF exposure and any adverse health effect. On the other hand, the studies have too many deficiencies to rule out an association. A key concern across all studies is the quality of assessment of RF exposure. Despite the ubiquity of new technologies using RFs, little is known about population exposure from RF sources and even less about the relative importance of different sources. Other cautions are that mobile phone studies to date have been able to address only relatively short lag periods, that almost no data are available on the consequences of childhood exposure, and that published data largely concentrate on a small number of outcomes, especially brain tumor and leukemia. PMID:15579422

Ahlbom, Anders; Green, Adele; Kheifets, Leeka; Savitz, David; Swerdlow, Anthony

2004-01-01

154

A Comparative PCET Study of a Donor-Acceptor Pair Linked by Ionized and Non-ionized Asymmetric Hydrogen-Bonded Interfaces  

PubMed Central

A Zn(II) porphyrin-amidinium is the excited state electron donor (D) to a naphthalene diimide acceptor (A) appended with either a carboxylate or sulfonate functionality. The two-point hydrogen bond (---[H+]---) formed between the amidinium and carboxylate or sulfonate establishes a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) pathway for charge transfer. The two D---[H+]---A assemblies differ only by the proton configuration within the hydrogen bonding interface. Specifically, the amidinium transfers a proton to the carboxylate to form a non-ionized amidine-carboxylic acid two-point hydrogen network whereas the amidinium maintains both protons when bound to the sulfonate functionality forming an ionized amidinium-sulfonate two-point hydrogen network. These two interface configurations within the dyads thus allow for a direct comparison of PCET kinetics for the same donor and acceptor juxtaposed by an ionized and non-ionized hydrogen-bonded interface. Analysis of PCET kinetics ascertained from transient absorption and transient emission spectroscopy reveal that the ionized interface is more strongly impacted by the local solvent environment, thus establishing that the initial static configuration of the proton interface is a critical determinant to the kinetics of PCET. PMID:19489645

Young, Elizabeth R.; Rosenthal, Joel; Hodgkiss, Justin M.

2012-01-01

155

Comparison of Renal Ablation with Cryotherapy, Dry Radiofrequency, and Saline Augmented Radiofrequency in a Porcine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Needle ablative therapy has recently generated a lot of interest in the urologic community. We compare renal lesions produced in a porcine model using three forms of needle ablative energy: cryoablation (CR), dry radiofrequency (RF), and saline augmented radiofrequency (SARF). STUDY DESIGN: In 10 farm pigs, under ultrasonographic guidance, 40 laparoscopic renal lesions were produced: 825-mm CR lesions were

William C Collyer; Jaime Landman; Ephrem O Olweny; Cassio Andreoni; Kurt Kerbl; David G Bostwick; Ralph V Clayman

156

Characterization of superconducting radiofrequency breakdown by two-mode excitation  

SciTech Connect

We show that thermal and magnetic contributions to the breakdown of superconductivity in radiofrequency (RF) fields can be separated by applying two RF modes simultaneously to a superconducting surface. We develop a simple model that illustrates how mode-mixing RF data can be related to properties of the superconductor. Within our model the data can be described by a single parameter, which can be derived either from RF or thermometry data. Our RF and thermometry data are in good agreement with the model. We propose to use mode-mixing technique to decouple thermal and magnetic effects on RF breakdown of superconductors.

Eremeev, Grigory V. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Palczewski, Ari D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-01-01

157

Radiofrequency microcoils for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Small radiofrequency coils, often termed "microcoils", have found extensive use in many areas of magnetic resonance. Their advantageous properties include a very high intrinsic sensitivity, a high (several MHz) excitation and reception bandwidth, the fact that large arrays can fit within the homogeneous volume of the static magnetic field, and the very high resonance frequencies (several GHz) that can be achieved. This review concentrates on recent developments in the construction of single and multiple RF microcoil systems, and new types of experiments that can be performed using such assemblies. PMID:23142002

Webb, A G

2013-04-01

158

Radiofrequency microcoils for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small radiofrequency coils, often termed “microcoils”, have found extensive use in many areas of magnetic resonance. Their advantageous properties include a very high intrinsic sensitivity, a high (several MHz) excitation and reception bandwidth, the fact that large arrays can fit within the homogeneous volume of the static magnetic field, and the very high resonance frequencies (several GHz) that can be achieved. This review concentrates on recent developments in the construction of single and multiple RF microcoil systems, and new types of experiments that can be performed using such assemblies.

Webb, A. G.

2013-04-01

159

Radiofrequency Ablation Beyond the Liver  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has begun to show promise for extrahepatic indications. Although much of the reported work on image-guided RFA of liver neoplasms is quite promising, it is even earlier in the evaluation and validation process for extrahepatic RFA, with few short-term and no long-term studies reported. Although there are much more data for liver RFA with almost 3,000 cases reported in the literature, there are a number of ongoing investigations of RFA for tumors in the kidney, lung, bone, breast, bone, and adrenal gland. Debulking and pain control with RFA present palliative options becoming increasingly popular weapons in the interventionalist's oncology arsenal. Metastatic disease with a wide variety of primary histologies in a myriad of locations may be treated with RFA after a careful consideration of the risk-to-benefit ratio balance. The RFA technique can be slightly different outside the liver. Specifically, differing dielectric tissue characteristics may markedly alter the RFA treatment. Each different RFA system has a unique risk and advantage profile. Extrahepatic indications and contraindications will be suggested. Treatment tips and the unique complications and considerations will be introduced for some of the more common extrahepatic locations. PMID:12524646

Neeman, Ziv; Wood, Bradford J.

2008-01-01

160

Models of radiofrequency coupling for negative ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Radiofrequency heating for ICP (inductively coupled plasma) ion sources depends on the source operating pressure, the presence or absence of a Faraday shield, the driver coil geometry, the frequency used, and the magnetic field configuration: in negative ion source a magnetic filter seems necessary for H{sup -} survival. The result of single particle simulations showing the possibility of electron acceleration in the preglow regime and for reasonable driver chamber radius (15 cm) is reported, also as a function of the static external magnetic field. An effective plasma conductivity, depending not only from electron density, temperature, and rf field but also on static magnetic field is here presented and compared to previous models. Use of this conductivity and of multiphysics tools for a plasma transport and heating model is shown and discussed for a small source.

Cavenago, M.; Petrenko, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell'Universita n.2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

2012-02-15

161

Radiofrequency uvulopalatoplasty for primary snoring.  

PubMed

Simple snoring is a social problem, one that can gravely affect the patient's married life. About 40% of men and 20% of women are affected, and it often goes along with sleep-disordered breathing. Up to now various surgical techniques have been defined such as UPPP(uvulopalatopharyngo plasty), and laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP). Among the surgical methods, RAUP (radiofrequency assisted uvulopalatoplasty) is a minimal invasive, an easy performed, and time and cost effective one. We designed a before and after a clinical trial. The inclusion criteria were age >18 years, complaint of nocturnal snoring, have a bed partner to assess snoring, AHI<5 events per hour in the polysomnography, malampathy score (soft palate position) I or II, an elongated uvula, grade I and II of pharyngeal webbing and patient consent was needed too. A 10-score visual analog scale (VAS) of snoring severity was completed by bed partner. All of 35 included patients underwent RAUP under local anesthesia by the same expert surgeon. After 3 months, 6 months and one year, subjective snoring decreased significantly compared to the preoperative period. The decline in VAS in 6 month compared to 3 months postoperatively, was not significant (P=0.223). When comparing 1 year and 6 months after treatment, the VAS scores were increased, but they were not significant (From 1.8 to 1.9, P=0.78). Three months after treatment minor complications consisted of: nasal regurgitation in 2 patients (5.7%), nasal speech in 2 (5.7%) and exacerbation of snoring in 2 (5.7%) patients.There was no major complication including mucosal laceration, uvular damage and obstruction of the airway. The rate of snoring decrease did not correlate with age, sex and BMI. Based on this study and literature review, it seems RAUP is a safe surgery, which may decrease symptoms of snoring, at least, in short-term follow-up. PMID:24026989

Samimi Ardestani, Seyed Hadi; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Mazidi, Mona; Rabbani, Mahtab; Behniafard, Nasim; Baradaranfar, Amin

2013-01-01

162

Mapping and radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiofrequency catheter ablation has become the nonpharmacologic treatment of choice in patients with a variety of supraventricular arrhythmias. Small discrete lesions are produced by delivering 20-40 W of unmodulated 500 kHz RF energy to the tip of a standard 4 mm electrode catheter. Resistive heating of cardiac tissue occurs at the point of tissue contact. Successful treatment of these arrhythmias

A. J. Greenspon

1997-01-01

163

Percutaneous radiofrequency treatment of osteoid osteoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoid osteoma is a small osteogenic tumor usually found in the lower extremity of children and young adults. Although these lesions are benign and rarely progress, they present distinctive pain symptoms that frequently require medical intervention. This article reviews surgical, medical, and percutaneous techniques for treatment of osteoid osteoma, emphasizing the value of percutaneous radiofrequency treatment.

Martin Torriani; Daniel I. Rosenthal

2002-01-01

164

[Radiofrequency transcatheter ablation in atrial tachycardia].  

PubMed

Incessant atrial tachycardia is an infrequent arrhythmia. Specially difficult to treat medically. Radiofrequency catheter ablation has been used successfully to cure a variety of supraventricular tachycardias. The purpose of this work is to report our initial experience in the treatment of atrial tachycardia. Ten patients, mean age 28.7 +/- 15 year with conventional drug-resistant symptomatic atrial tachycardia were treated with selective ablation of the focus using radiofrequency energy. It was found an abnormal automaticity in 10 tachycardias and in only one patient intra-atrial reentrant was supported. Radiofrequency energy was successful in 10 of 11 tachycardias with a mean of 9.3 +/- 6.8 applications using the technique of local atrial electrogram activation time with a mean value of -54 +/- -31 milliseconds at the successful ablation sites. No complications were observed and one patient had an early clinical recurrence. All patients with successful ablation are symptom-free, in sinus rhythm and without antiarrhythmic medications after 1 to 28 months of follow-up. Our initial experience support that radiofrequency catheter ablation is a safe and effective therapeutic option for incessant atrial tachycardia. PMID:10855411

Velázquez Rodríguez, E; Morales Hernández, J A

2000-01-01

165

Ross Ice Shelf in situ radio-frequency ice attenuation  

E-print Network

We have measured the in situ average electric field attenuation length for radio-frequency signals broadcast vertically through the Ross Ice Shelf. We chose a location, Moore Embayment, south of Minna Bluff, known for its high reflectivity at the ice-sea interface. We confirmed specular reflection and used the return pulses to measure the average attenuation length from 75-1250 MHz over the round-trip distance of 1155 m. We find the average electric field attenuation length to vary from 500 m at 75 MHz to 300 m at 1250 MHz, with an experimental uncertainty of 55 to 15 m. We discuss the implications for neutrino telescopes that use the radio technique and include the Ross Ice Shelf as part of their sensitive volume.

Barrella, Taylor; Saltzberg, David

2010-01-01

166

Cytogenetic investigation of subjects professionally exposed to radiofrequency radiation.  

PubMed

Nowadays, virtually everybody is exposed to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phone base station antennas or other sources. At least according to some scientists, this exposure can have detrimental health effects. We investigated cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes from subjects who were professionally exposed to mobile phone electromagnetic fields in an attempt to demonstrate possible RFR-induced genetic effects. These subjects can be considered well suited for this purpose as their RFR exposure is 'normal' though rather high, and definitely higher than that of the 'general population'. The alkaline comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration tests revealed no evidence of RFR-induced genetic effects. Blood cells were also exposed to the well known chemical mutagen mitomycin C in order to investigate possible combined effects of RFR and the chemical. No cooperative action was found between the electromagnetic field exposure and the mutagen using either the comet assay or SCE test. PMID:16481348

Maes, Annemarie; Van Gorp, Urbain; Verschaeve, Luc

2006-03-01

167

Ross Ice Shelf in situ radio-frequency ice attenuation  

E-print Network

We have measured the in situ average electric field attenuation length for radio-frequency signals broadcast vertically through the Ross Ice Shelf. We chose a location, Moore Embayment, south of Minna Bluff, known for its high reflectivity at the ice-sea interface. We confirmed specular reflection and used the return pulses to measure the average attenuation length from 75-1250 MHz over the round-trip distance of 1155 m. We find the average electric field attenuation length to vary from 500 m at 75 MHz to 300 m at 1250 MHz, with an experimental uncertainty of 55 to 15 m. We discuss the implications for neutrino telescopes that use the radio technique and include the Ross Ice Shelf as part of their sensitive volume.

Taylor Barrella; Steven Barwick; David Saltzberg

2010-11-02

168

Summary of Information on the Effects of Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation on Cytochrome P450 and Other Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters  

PubMed Central

The present paper is an update of data on the effects of ionizing radiation (?-rays, X-rays, high energy UV, fast neutron) caused by environmental pollution or clinical treatments and the effects of non-ionizing radiation (low energy UV) on the expression and/or activity of drug metabolism (e.g., cytochrome P450,, glutathione transferase), enzymes involved in oxidative stress (e.g., peroxidases, catalase,, aconitase, superoxide dismutase), and transporters. The data are presented in tabular form (Tables 1–3) and are a continuation of previously published summaries on the effects of drugs and other chemicals on cytochrome P450 enzymes (Rendic, S.; Di Carlo, F. Drug Metab. Rev., 1997, 29 (1–2), 413–580, Rendic, S. Drug Metab. Rev., 2002, 34 (1–2), 83–448) and of the data on the effects of diseases and environmental factors on the expression and/or activity of human cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters (Guengerich, F.P.; Rendic, S. Curr. Drug Metab., 2010, 11(1), 1–3, Rendic, S.; Guengerich, F.P. Curr. Drug Metab., 2010, 11 (1), 4–84). The collective information is as presented by the cited author(s) in cases where several references are cited the latest published information is included. Remarks and conclusions suggesting clinically important impacts are highlighted, followed by discussion of the major findings. The searchable database is available as an Excel file (for information about file availability contact the corresponding author). PMID:22571481

Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

2014-01-01

169

The Importance of Radiofrequency Safety into Occupational Safety Coursework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Typical safety programs, both undergraduate and graduate, do not explore issues related with RF hazards and safety. Without federal regulations and enforcement, the topic is usually disregarded and thus creating future safety professionals without any knowledge of the possibilities of RF hazards at the future employment. This paper will discuss what is radiofrequency, how radiofrequency is used, regulatory agencies and compliance issues in regards to radiofrequency and finally research of Safety, Health and Environmental programs across the United States.

2010-07-29

170

Radiofrequency ablation and breast cancer: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) use in breast cancer is a developing area of research. There have been a number of published studies over the last decade, which explores the feasibility of minimally invasive techniques in breast cancer treatment. In this review, we will discuss the most recent data on radiofrequency ablation and examine the current methods, outcomes, complications, and limitations of RFA in breast cancer therapy. Methods Pub Med search for English Language articles on RFA in breast cancer. Results More than 25 studies were reviewed and we searched for number of tumors, average size, electrode used, if they successfully ablated the tumor, when the tumor was then resected and if the patients experienced any complication from the ablation. Conclusions Radiofrequency ablation is an emerging minimally invasive therapy in small, localized breast cancer. Currently, no clinical trials have been published to directly compare RFA to the current standard of surgical resection. Ultimately, RFA will need clinical trials to evaluate oncologic outcomes involving long interval follow-up to determine survival, local control and disease progression before it becomes a reasonable alternative to surgical resection. PMID:25083506

Nguyen, Tiffany; Hattery, Eleanor

2014-01-01

171

Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers.  

PubMed

Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented. PMID:24593614

Maggiore, M; Cavenago, M; Comunian, M; Chirulotto, F; Galatà, A; De Lazzari, M; Porcellato, A M; Roncolato, C; Stark, S; Caruso, A; Longhitano, A; Cavaliere, F; Maero, G; Paroli, B; Pozzoli, R; Romé, M

2014-02-01

172

Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.  

PubMed

This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (< 1%). Limited measurements identified pulses from the meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits. PMID:23799502

Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

2013-08-01

173

Use of Semiflexible Applicators for Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and potential advantages of the radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors using new MRI-compatible semiflexible applicators in a closed-bore high-field MRI scanner. Methods. We treated 8 patients with 12 malignant liver tumors of different origin (5 colorectal carcinoma, 2 cholangiocellular carcinoma, 1 breast cancer) under MRI guidance. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed using 5 cm Rita Starburst Semi-Flex applicators (Rita Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, USA) which are suitable for MR- and CT-guided interventions and a 150 W RF generator. All interventions were performed in a closed-bore 1.5 T high-field MRI scanner for MRI-guided RFA using fast T1-weighted gradient echo sequences and T2-weighted ultra-turbo spin echo sequences. Control and follow-up MRI examinations were performed on the next day, at 6 weeks, and every 3 months after RFA. Control MRI were performed as double-contrast MRI examinations (enhancement with iron oxide and gadopentetate dimeglumine). All interventions were performed with the patient under local anesthesia and analgo-sedation. Results. The mean diameter of the treated hepatic tumors was 2.4 cm ({+-}0.6 cm, range 1.0-3.2 cm). The mean diameter of induced necrosis was 3.1 cm ({+-}0.4 cm). We achieved complete ablation in all patients. Follow-up examinations over a duration of 7 months ({+-}1.3 months, range 4-9 month) showed a local control rate of 100% in this group of patients. All interventions were performed without major complications; only 2 subcapsular hematomas were documented. Conclusion. RFA of liver tumors using semiflexible applicators in closed-bore 1.5 T scanner systems is feasible. These applicators might simplify the RFA of liver tumors under MRI control. The stiff distal part of the applicator facilitates its repositioning.

Gaffke, G., E-mail: gunnar.gaffke@charite.de; Gebauer, B.; Knollmann, F.D. [Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde und Poliklinik, Charite (Germany); Helmberger, T. [Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer klinische Radiologie Grosshadern (Germany); Ricke, J. [Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde und Poliklinik, Charite (Germany); Oettle, H. [Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus-Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Haematologie und Onkologie der Charite (Germany); Felix, R.; Stroszczynski, C. [Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde und Poliklinik, Charite (Germany)

2006-04-15

174

An in situ measurement of the radio-frequency attenuation in ice at Summit Station, Greenland  

E-print Network

We report an in situ measurement of the electric field attenuation length at radio frequencies for the bulk ice at Summit Station, Greenland, made by broadcasting radio-frequency signals vertically through the ice and measuring the relative power in the return ground bounce signal. We find the depth-averaged field attenuation length to be 947 +92/-85 meters at 75 MHz. While this measurement has clear radioglaciological applications, the radio clarity of the ice also has implications for the detection of ultra-high energy (UHE) astrophysical particles via their radio emission in dielectric media such as ice. The measured attenuation length at Summit Station is comparable to previously measured radio-frequency attenuation lengths at candidate particle detector sites around the world, and strengthens the case for Summit Station as the most promising northern site for UHE neutrino detection.

Avva, J; Miki, C; Saltzberg, D; Vieregg, A G

2014-01-01

175

An in situ measurement of the radio-frequency attenuation in ice at Summit Station, Greenland  

E-print Network

We report an in situ measurement of the electric field attenuation length at radio frequencies for the bulk ice at Summit Station, Greenland, made by broadcasting radio-frequency signals vertically through the ice and measuring the relative power in the return ground bounce signal. We find the depth-averaged field attenuation length to be 947 +92/-85 meters at 75 MHz. While this measurement has clear radioglaciological applications, the radio clarity of the ice also has implications for the detection of ultra-high energy (UHE) astrophysical particles via their radio emission in dielectric media such as ice. The measured attenuation length at Summit Station is comparable to previously measured radio-frequency attenuation lengths at candidate particle detector sites around the world, and strengthens the case for Summit Station as the most promising northern site for UHE neutrino detection.

J. Avva; J. M. Kovac; C. Miki; D. Saltzberg; A. G. Vieregg

2014-09-18

176

Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy U. Kemiktarak1  

E-print Network

LETTERS Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy U. Kemiktarak1 , T. Ndukum3 , K. C. Schwab3-year period since its invention, the STM has helped uncover a wealth of phenomena in diverse physical measurementsinmesoscopicelectronicsandmechanics. Broadband noise measurements across the tunnel junction using this radio-frequency STM

177

Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD)  

E-print Network

Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD) Kurt Alexander Polzin;Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD) Prepared by: Kurt Alexander Polzin Dr. Michael R. LaPointe Dissertation Reader #12;c Copyright by Kurt Alexander Polzin, 2006. All

Choueiri, Edgar

178

High-resolution MRI encoding using radiofrequency phase gradients.  

PubMed

Although MRI offers highly diagnostic medical imagery, patient access to this modality worldwide is very limited when compared with X-ray or ultrasound. One reason for this is the expense and complexity of the equipment used to generate the switched magnetic fields necessary for MRI encoding. These field gradients are also responsible for intense acoustic noise and have the potential to induce nerve stimulation. We present results with a new MRI encoding principle which operates entirely without the use of conventional B0 field gradients. This new approach--'Transmit Array Spatial Encoding' (TRASE)--uses only the resonant radiofrequency (RF) field to produce Fourier spatial encoding equivalent to conventional MRI. k-space traversal (image encoding) is achieved by spin refocusing with phase gradient transmit fields in spin echo trains. A transmit coil array, driven by just a single transmitter channel, was constructed to produce four phase gradient fields, which allows the encoding of two orthogonal spatial axes. High-resolution two-dimensional-encoded in vivo MR images of hand and wrist were obtained at 0.2 T. TRASE exploits RF field phase gradients, and offers the possibility of very low-cost diagnostics and novel experiments exploiting unique capabilities, such as imaging without disturbance of the main B0 magnetic field. Lower field imaging (<1 T) and micro-imaging are favorable application domains as, in both cases, it is technically easier to achieve the short RF pulses desirable for long echo trains, and also to limit RF power deposition. As TRASE is simply an alternative mechanism (and technology) of moving through k space, there are many close analogies between it and conventional B0 -encoded techniques. TRASE is compatible with both B0 gradient encoding and parallel imaging, and so hybrid sequences containing all three spatial encoding approaches are possible. PMID:24019215

Sharp, Jonathan C; King, Scott B; Deng, Qunli; Volotovskyy, Vyacheslav; Tomanek, Boguslaw

2013-11-01

179

Evaluation of stray radiofrequency radiation emitted by electrosurgical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrosurgery refers to the passage of a high-frequency, high-voltage electrical current through the body to achieve the desired surgical effects. At the same time, these procedures are accompanied by a general increase of the electromagnetic field in an operating room that may expose both patients and personnel to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation. In the first part of this study, we have taken into account the radiation emitted by different monopolar electrosurgical devices, evaluating the electromagnetic field strength delivered by an electrosurgical handle and straying from units and other electrosurgical accessories. As a summary, in the worst case a surgeon's hands are exposed to a continuous and pulsed RF wave whose magnetic field strength is 0.75 A m-1 (E-field 400 V m-1). Occasionally stray radiation may exceed ICNIRP's occupational exposure guidelines, especially close to the patient return plate. In the second part of this paper, we have analysed areas of particular concern to prevent electromagnetic interference with some life-support devices (ventilators and electrocardiographic devices), which have failed to operate correctly. Most clinically relevant interference occurred when an electrosurgery device was used within 0.3 m of medical equipment. In the appendix, we suggest some practical recommendations intended to minimize the potential for electromagnetic hazards due to therapeutic application of RF energy.

DeMarco, M.; Maggi, S.

2006-07-01

180

Levels of electric field strength within the immediate vicinity of FM radio stations in Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

Heightened awareness of the ever-expanding use of radiofrequency (RF) techniques and technology has led to mounting concerns from the general public and the scientific community regarding the possible health effects that may arise as a consequence of exposure to RF radiations and has drawn the attention of many researchers the world over. A survey of the RF electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 20 frequency-modulated (FM) radio stations has been made in Accra, Ghana. The fundamental object was to determine the levels of RF fields from FM broadcast antennae within 10-200 m radius about the foot of the FM base station and at a height of 1.5 m above the ground at selected locations. A spectrum analyser and a bi-conical antenna element sensitive and effective within the frequency band of 30-300 MHz were used. Results obtained indicated that the levels of electric field strength ranged from 5.4E-04 V m(-1) at FM station 'O' to 7.4E-08 V m(-1) at FM station 'D'. At a transmission frequency range of 88-108 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 2.5E-10 to 1.5E-17 Wm(-2). These values are very low and are far below the reference level set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and therefore do not pose any known hazard to the inhabitants of Accra, Ghana. The electric field levels presented in this work are comparable with those reported from epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere. PMID:23567196

Azah, C K; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J

2013-10-01

181

Wideband versatile radio-frequency spectrum analyzer.  

PubMed

Operation of a wideband, versatile optical spectrum analyzer for radio-frequency (RF) signals is demonstrated. The device is based on spectral hole burning (SHB). The demonstration features 2.3-GHz instantaneous bandwidth, 500-kHz resolution, and a 32-dB dynamic range. A true RF signal, transferred to the optical carrier with the help of a Mach-Zehnder modulator, is analyzed with optical carrier suppression and zooming capabilities. This is to the authors' knowledge the largest instantaneous bandwidth ever demonstrated for a SHB-based processor in rare-earth-doped crystals. PMID:12659254

Lavielle, V; Lorgeré, I; Le Gouët, J L; Tonda, S; Dolfi, D

2003-03-15

182

Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Bilateral Greater Occipital Neuralgia  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the suboccipital region and radiated into her vertex. She was diagnosed with bilateral greater occipital neuralgia. She underwent cooled radiofrequency ablation of bilateral greater occipital nerves with minimal side effects and 75% pain reduction. Cooled radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerve in challenging cases is an alternative to pulsed and continuous RFA to alleviate pain with less side effects and potential for long-term efficacy. PMID:24716017

Chhatre, Akhil

2014-01-01

183

Absorbed energy distribution from radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation in a mammalian cell model: Effect of membrane-bound water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distributions of induced 27 or 2,450 MHz radiofrequency (RF) electric fields (E-fields) and specific absorption rates (SARS) in a three-component spherical cell model were determined by Mie scattering theory. The results were compared to results for the same cell model but with 0.5 nm thick of bound water on the inner and outer membrane surfaces. Induced E-fields and

Li-Ming Liu; Stephen F. Cleary

1995-01-01

184

Optical frequency comb technology for ultra-broadband radio-frequency photonics  

E-print Network

The outstanding phase-noise performance of optical frequency combs has led to a revolution in optical synthesis and metrology, covering a myriad of applications, from molecular spectroscopy to laser ranging and optical communications. However, the ideal characteristics of an optical frequency comb are application dependent. In this review, the different techniques for the generation and processing of high-repetition-rate (>10 GHz) optical frequency combs with technologies compatible with optical communication equipment are covered. Particular emphasis is put on the benefits and prospects of this technology in the general field of radio-frequency photonics, including applications in high-performance microwave photonic filtering, ultra-broadband coherent communications, and radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation.

Torres-Company, Victor

2014-01-01

185

Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy.  

PubMed

The scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) relies on localized electron tunnelling between a sharp probe tip and a conducting sample to attain atomic-scale spatial resolution. In the 25-year period since its invention, the STM has helped uncover a wealth of phenomena in diverse physical systems--ranging from semiconductors to superconductors to atomic and molecular nanosystems. A severe limitation in scanning tunnelling microscopy is the low temporal resolution, originating from the diminished high-frequency response of the tunnel current readout circuitry. Here we overcome this limitation by measuring the reflection from a resonant inductor-capacitor circuit in which the tunnel junction is embedded, and demonstrate electronic bandwidths as high as 10 MHz. This approximately 100-fold bandwidth improvement on the state of the art translates into fast surface topography as well as delicate measurements in mesoscopic electronics and mechanics. Broadband noise measurements across the tunnel junction using this radio-frequency STM have allowed us to perform thermometry at the nanometre scale. Furthermore, we have detected high-frequency mechanical motion with a sensitivity approaching approximately 15 fm Hz(-1/2). This sensitivity is on par with the highest available from nanoscale optical and electrical displacement detection techniques, and the radio-frequency STM is expected to be capable of quantum-limited position measurements. PMID:17972882

Kemiktarak, U; Ndukum, T; Schwab, K C; Ekinci, K L

2007-11-01

186

Looking at the other side of the coin: the search for possible biopositive cognitive effects of the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency radiation  

PubMed Central

Although exposure to electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range has caused a great deal of concern globally, radiofrequency radiation has many critical applications in both telecommunication and non-communication fields. The induction of adaptive response phenomena by exposure to radiofrequency radiation as either increased resistance to a subsequent dose of ionizing radiation or resistance to a bacterial infection has been reported recently. Interestingly, the potential beneficial effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation are not only limited to the induction of adaptive phenomena. It has previously been indicated that the visual reaction time of university students significantly decreased after a 10 min exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by a mobile phone. Furthermore, it has been revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. Based on these findings, it can be hypothesized that in special circumstances, these exposures might lead to a better response of humans to different hazards. Other investigators have also provided evidence that confirms the induction of RF-induced cognitive benefits. Furthermore, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may play a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease. In this light, a challenging issue will arise if there are other RF-induced stimulating effects. It is also challenging to explore the potential applications of these effects. Further research may shed light on dark areas of the health effects of short and long-term human exposure to radiofrequency radiation. PMID:24843789

2014-01-01

187

Looking at the other side of the coin: the search for possible biopositive cognitive effects of the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency radiation.  

PubMed

Although exposure to electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range has caused a great deal of concern globally, radiofrequency radiation has many critical applications in both telecommunication and non-communication fields. The induction of adaptive response phenomena by exposure to radiofrequency radiation as either increased resistance to a subsequent dose of ionizing radiation or resistance to a bacterial infection has been reported recently. Interestingly, the potential beneficial effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation are not only limited to the induction of adaptive phenomena. It has previously been indicated that the visual reaction time of university students significantly decreased after a 10 min exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by a mobile phone. Furthermore, it has been revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. Based on these findings, it can be hypothesized that in special circumstances, these exposures might lead to a better response of humans to different hazards. Other investigators have also provided evidence that confirms the induction of RF-induced cognitive benefits. Furthermore, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may play a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. In this light, a challenging issue will arise if there are other RF-induced stimulating effects. It is also challenging to explore the potential applications of these effects. Further research may shed light on dark areas of the health effects of short and long-term human exposure to radiofrequency radiation. PMID:24843789

Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, Ali; Haghani, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad

2014-01-01

188

Operating a radio-frequency plasma source on water vapor.  

PubMed

A magnetically enhanced radio-frequency (rf) plasma source operating on water vapor has an extensive list of potential applications. In this work, the use of a rf plasma source to dissociate water vapor for hydrogen production is investigated. This paper describes a rf plasma source operated on water vapor and characterizes its plasma properties using a Langmuir probe, a residual gas analyzer, and a spectrometer. The plasma source operated first on argon and then on water vapor at operating pressures just over 300 mtorr. Argon and water vapor plasma number densities differ significantly. In the electropositive argon plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i) approximately = n(e), where n(i) is the positive ion density. But in the electronegative water plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i+) = n(i-) + n(e). The positive ion density and electron density of the water vapor plasma are approximately one and two orders of magnitude lower, respectively, than those of argon plasma. These results suggest that attachment and dissociative attachment are present in electronegative water vapor plasma. The electron temperature for this water vapor plasma source is between 1.5 and 4 eV. Without an applied axial magnetic field, hydrogen production increases linearly with rf power. With an axial magnetic field, hydrogen production jumps to a maximum value at 500 W and then saturates with rf power. The presence of the applied axial magnetic field is therefore shown to enhance hydrogen production. PMID:19725651

Nguyen, Sonca V T; Foster, John E; Gallimore, Alec D

2009-08-01

189

Operating a radio-frequency plasma source on water vapor  

SciTech Connect

A magnetically enhanced radio-frequency (rf) plasma source operating on water vapor has an extensive list of potential applications. In this work, the use of a rf plasma source to dissociate water vapor for hydrogen production is investigated. This paper describes a rf plasma source operated on water vapor and characterizes its plasma properties using a Langmuir probe, a residual gas analyzer, and a spectrometer. The plasma source operated first on argon and then on water vapor at operating pressures just over 300 mtorr. Argon and water vapor plasma number densities differ significantly. In the electropositive argon plasma, quasineutrality requires n{sub i}{approx_equal}n{sub e}, where n{sub i} is the positive ion density. But in the electronegative water plasma, quasineutrality requires n{sub i+}=n{sub i-}+n{sub e}. The positive ion density and electron density of the water vapor plasma are approximately one and two orders of magnitude lower, respectively, than those of argon plasma. These results suggest that attachment and dissociative attachment are present in electronegative water vapor plasma. The electron temperature for this water vapor plasma source is between 1.5 and 4 eV. Without an applied axial magnetic field, hydrogen production increases linearly with rf power. With an axial magnetic field, hydrogen production jumps to a maximum value at 500 W and then saturates with rf power. The presence of the applied axial magnetic field is therefore shown to enhance hydrogen production.

Nguyen, Sonca V. T.; Gallimore, Alec D. [Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States); Foster, John E. [Plasma Science and Technology Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)

2009-08-15

190

Simulation studies promote technological development of radiofrequency phased array hyperthermia.  

PubMed

A treatment planning program package for radiofrequency hyperthermia has been developed. It consists of software modules for processing three-dimensional computerized tomography (CT) data sets, manual segmentation, generation of tetrahedral grids, numerical calculation and optimisation of three-dimensional E field distributions using a volume surface integral equation algorithm as well as temperature distributions using an adaptive multilevel finite-elements code, and graphical tools for simultaneous representation of CT data and simulation results. Heat treatments are limited by hot spots in healthy tissues caused by E field maxima at electrical interfaces (bone/muscle). In order to reduce or avoid hot spots suitable objective functions are derived from power deposition patterns and temperature distributions, and are utilised to optimise antenna parameters (phases, amplitudes). The simulation and optimisation tools have been applied to estimate the improvements that could be reached by upgrades of the clinically used SIGMA-60 applicator (consisting of a single ring of four antenna pairs). The investigated upgrades are increased number of antennas and channels (triple-ring of 3 x 8 antennas and variation of antenna inclination. Significant improvement of index temperatures (1-2 degrees C) is achieved by upgrading the single ring to a triple ring with free phase selection for every antenna or antenna pair. Antenna amplitudes and inclinations proved as less important parameters. PMID:8877472

Wust, P; Seebass, M; Nadobny, J; Deuflhard, P; Mönich, G; Felix, R

1996-01-01

191

Genetic effects of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with helium  

SciTech Connect

Due to low gas temperatures and high densities of active species, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGDs) would have potential applications in the fields of plasma-based sterilization, gene mutation, etc. In this letter, the genetic effects of helium radio-frequency APGD plasmas with the plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide as the treated biomaterials are presented. The experimental results show that it is the chemically active species, instead of heat, ultraviolet radiation, intense electric field, and/or charged particles, that break the double chains of the plasmid DNA. The genetic effects depend on the plasma operating parameters, e.g., power input, helium flow rate, processing distance, time, etc.

Li Guo; Li Heping; Wang Sen; Sun Wenting; Bao Chengyu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Liyan; Zhao Hongxin; Xing Xinhui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2008-06-02

192

Designing shielded radio-frequency phased-array coils for magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an approach to the design of shielded radio-frequency (RF) phased-array coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is proposed. The target field method is used to find current densities distributed on primary and shield coils. The stream function technique is used to discretize current densities and to obtain the winding patterns of the coils. The corresponding highly ill-conditioned integral equation is solved by the Tikhonov regularization with a penalty function related to the minimum curvature. To balance the simplicity and smoothness with the homogeneity of the magnetic field of the coil's winding pattern, the selection of a penalty factor is discussed in detail.

Xu, Wen-Long; Zhang, Ju-Cheng; Li, Xia; Xu, Bing-Qiao; Tao, Gui-Sheng

2013-01-01

193

Palliative Radiofrequency Ablation for Recurrent Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive local therapy for cancer. Its efficacy is now becoming well documented in many different organs, including liver, kidney, and lung. The goal of RFA is typically complete eradication of a tumor in lieu of an invasive surgical procedure. However, RFA can also play an important role in the palliative care of cancer patients. Tumors which are surgically unresectable and incompatible for complete ablation present the opportunity for RFA to be used in a new paradigm. Cancer pain runs the gamut from minor discomfort relieved with mild pain medication to unrelenting suffering for the patient, poorly controlled by conventional means. RFA is a tool which can potentially palliate intractable cancer pain. We present here a case in which RFA provided pain relief in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer with pain uncontrolled by conventional methods.

Jindal, Gaurav; Friedman, Marc; Locklin, Julia, E-mail: JHvizda@cc.nih.gov; Wood, Bradford J. [National Institutes of Health, Diagnostic Radiology Department (United States)

2006-06-15

194

Radiofrequency ablation of a misdiagnosed Brodie's abscess  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy is recognised as a safe and effective treatment option for osteoid osteoma. This case report describes a 27-year-old man who underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous RFA for a femoral osteoid osteoma, which was diagnosed based on his clinical presentation and CT findings. The patient developed worsening symptoms complicated by osteomyelitis after the procedure. His clinical progression and subsequent MRI findings had led to a revised diagnosis of a Brodie’s abscess, which was further supported by the eventual resolution of his symptoms following a combination of antibiotics treatment and surgical irrigations. This case report illustrates the unusual MRI features of osteomyelitis mimicking soft tissue tumours following RFA of a misdiagnosed Brodie’s abscess and highlights the importance of a confirmatory histopathological diagnosis for an osteoid osteoma prior to treatment. PMID:22291860

Chan, RS; Abdullah, BJJ; Aik, S; Tok, CH

2011-01-01

195

Optical generation of radio-frequency power  

SciTech Connect

An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100`s of mW`s at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ``wall-plug`` efficiency approaching 34%.

Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

1994-11-01

196

Genetic effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR)  

SciTech Connect

The possible effects of radiofrequency (RF) exposure on the genetic material of cells are considered very important since damage to the DNA of somatic cells can be linked to cancer development or cell death whereas damage to germ cells can lead to genetic damage in next and subsequent generations. This is why the scientific literature reports many investigations on the subject. According to a number of review papers, the conclusion so far is that there is little evidence that RFR is directly mutagenic and that adverse effects that were reported in some of the papers are predominantly the result of hyperthermia. Yet, some subtle indirect effects on DNA replication and/or transcription of genes under relatively restricted exposure conditions cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, the possibility of combined effects of RFR with environmental carcinogens/mutagens merits further attention. The present paper takes into account more recent investigations but the conclusion remains the same. A majority of studies report no increased (cyto)genetic damage but yet, a considerable number of investigations do. However, many studies were not sufficiently characterized, are therefore difficult to replicate and cannot be compared to others. Experimental protocols were very different from one study to another and investigations from a single laboratory were very often limited in the sample size or number of cells investigated, preventing a robust statistical analysis. Subtle, but significant differences between RFR-exposed and sham-exposed cells cannot be found in such conditions. For the above reasons, it was concluded at a workshop in Loewenstein (November 2002) that further investigations by individual laboratories most probably will not add much to the discussion of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) genotoxicity. Large, well coordinated, international collaborative studies involving participation of several experienced scientists are considered an alternative of uttermost importance. One such study is now being planned.

Verschaeve, L. [Vito, Environmental Toxicology, Mol (Belgium)]. E-mail: luc.verschaeve@vito.be

2005-09-01

197

Genetic effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR).  

PubMed

The possible effects of radiofrequency (RF) exposure on the genetic material of cells are considered very important since damage to the DNA of somatic cells can be linked to cancer development or cell death whereas damage to germ cells can lead to genetic damage in next and subsequent generations. This is why the scientific literature reports many investigations on the subject. According to a number of review papers, the conclusion so far is that there is little evidence that RFR is directly mutagenic and that adverse effects that were reported in some of the papers are predominantly the result of hyperthermia. Yet, some subtle indirect effects on DNA replication and/or transcription of genes under relatively restricted exposure conditions cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, the possibility of combined effects of RFR with environmental carcinogens/mutagens merits further attention. The present paper takes into account more recent investigations but the conclusion remains the same. A majority of studies report no increased (cyto)genetic damage but yet, a considerable number of investigations do. However, many studies were not sufficiently characterized, are therefore difficult to replicate and cannot be compared to others. Experimental protocols were very different from one study to another and investigations from a single laboratory were very often limited in the sample size or number of cells investigated, preventing a robust statistical analysis. Subtle, but significant differences between RFR-exposed and sham-exposed cells cannot be found in such conditions. For the above reasons, it was concluded at a workshop in Löwenstein (November 2002) that further investigations by individual laboratories most probably will not add much to the discussion of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) genotoxicity. Large, well coordinated, international collaborative studies involving participation of several experienced scientists are considered an alternative of uttermost importance. One such study is now being planned. PMID:16019045

Verschaeve, L

2005-09-01

198

Auditory response to pulsed radiofrequency energy.  

PubMed

The human auditory response to pulses of radiofrequency (RF) energy, commonly called RF hearing, is a well established phenomenon. RF induced sounds can be characterized as low intensity sounds because, in general, a quiet environment is required for the auditory response. The sound is similar to other common sounds such as a click, buzz, hiss, knock, or chirp. Effective radiofrequencies range from 2.4 to 10000 MHz, but an individual's ability to hear RF induced sounds is dependent upon high frequency acoustic hearing in the kHz range above about 5 kHz. The site of conversion of RF energy to acoustic energy is within or peripheral to the cochlea, and once the cochlea is stimulated, the detection of RF induced sounds in humans and RF induced auditory responses in animals is similar to acoustic sound detection. The fundamental frequency of RF induced sounds is independent of the frequency of the radiowaves but dependent upon head dimensions. The auditory response has been shown to be dependent upon the energy in a single pulse and not on average power density. The weight of evidence of the results of human, animal, and modeling studies supports the thermoelastic expansion theory as the explanation for the RF hearing phenomenon. RF induced sounds involve the perception via bone conduction of thermally generated sound transients, that is, audible sounds are produced by rapid thermal expansion resulting from a calculated temperature rise of only 5 x 10(-6) degrees C in tissue at the threshold level due to absorption of the energy in the RF pulse. The hearing of RF induced sounds at exposure levels many orders of magnitude greater than the hearing threshold is considered to be a biological effect without an accompanying health effect. This conclusion is supported by a comparison of pressure induced in the body by RF pulses to pressure associated with hazardous acoustic energy and clinical ultrasound procedures. PMID:14628312

Elder, J A; Chou, C K

2003-01-01

199

Numerical modelling of a radio-frequency micro ion thruster  

E-print Network

A simple performance model is developed for an inductively-coupled radio-frequency micro ion thruster. Methods of particle and energy balance are utilized for modeling the chamber plasma discharge. A transformer model is ...

Tsay, Michael Meng-Tsuan

2006-01-01

200

Radio-frequency spectroscopy of ultracold atomic Fermi gases  

E-print Network

This thesis presents experiments investigating the phase diagram of ultracold atomic Fermi gases using radio-frequency spectroscopy. The tunability of many experimental parameters including the temperature, the interparticle ...

Schirotzek, Andre

2010-01-01

201

Radiofrequency detector coil performance maps for parallel MRI applications  

E-print Network

Parallel MRI techniques allow acceleration of MR imaging beyond traditional speed limits. In parallel MRI, arrays of radiofrequency (RF) detector coil arrays are used to perform some degree of spatial encoding which ...

Lattanzi, Riccardo

2006-01-01

202

Circuits and passive components for radio-frequency power conversion  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on developing technology for high efficiency power converters operating at very high frequencies. The work in the thesis involves two aspects of such converters: rf (radio-frequency) power circuit design ...

Han, Yehui, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

203

Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts  

DOEpatents

This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

Cha, Chang Y. (3807 Reynolds St., Laramie, WY 82070)

1993-01-01

204

Percutaneous computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one consecutive patients with osteoid osteoma treated with computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation, after\\u000a failed conservative treatment, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis was based on typical clinical and imaging features.\\u000a Radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas was undertaken by heating the tip of the electrode to 90°C for three sessions\\u000a of 2 min each. Follow-up evaluation included clinical examination and questionnaire, and radiographic

Christos K. Kyriakopoulos; Andreas F. Mavrogenis; John Pappas; Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos

2007-01-01

205

Radiofrequency exposure from wireless LANs utilizing Wi-Fi technology.  

PubMed

This survey measured radiofrequency (RF) fields from wireless local area networks (WLANs) using Wi-Fi technology against a background of RF fields in the environment over the frequency range 75 MHz-3 GHz. A total of 356 measurements were conducted at 55 sites (including private residences, commercial spaces, health care and educational institutions, and other public spaces) in four countries (U.S., France, Germany, Sweden). Measurements were conducted under conditions that would result in the higher end of exposures from such systems. Where possible, measurements were conducted in public spaces as close as practical to the Wi-Fi access points. Additional measurements were conducted at a distance of approximately 1 m from a laptop while it was uploading and downloading large files to the WLAN. This distance was chosen to allow a useful comparison of fields in the far-field of the antenna in the laptop, and give a representative measure of the exposure that a bystander might receive from the laptop. The exposure to the user, particularly if the antenna of the client card were placed against his or her body, would require different measurement techniques beyond the scope of this study. In all cases, the measured Wi-Fi signal levels were very far below international exposure limits (IEEE C95.1-2005 and ICNIRP) and in nearly all cases far below other RF signals in the same environments. An discusses technical aspects of the IEEE 802.11 standard on which WLANs operate that are relevant to determining the levels of RF energy exposure from WLANs. Important limiting factors are the low operating power of client cards and access points, and the low duty cycle of transmission that normally characterizes their operation. PMID:17293700

Foster, Kenneth R

2007-03-01

206

Treatment of acne vulgaris with fractional radiofrequency microneedling.  

PubMed

Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a novel radiofrequency technique that uses insulated microneedles to deliver energy to the deep dermis at the point of penetration without destruction of the epidermis. It has been used for the treatment of various dermatological conditions including wrinkles, atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars. There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne, and none measuring objective parameters like the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions or sebum excretion levels. The safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated. In a prospective clinical trial, 25 patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with fractional radiofrequency microneedling. The procedure was carried out three times at 1-month intervals. Acne lesion count, subjective satisfaction score, sebum excretion level and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the first treatment as well as 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Number of acne lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) decreased. Sebum excretion and subjective satisfaction were more favorable at every time point compared with the baseline values (P < 0.05). Inflammatory lesions responded better than non-inflammatory lesions (P < 0.05). Adverse effects such as pinpoint bleeding, pain and erythema were noted, but were transient and not severe enough to stop treatment. Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a safe and effective treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:24807263

Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Kang Hoon; Sim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Kee Suck; Jang, Min Soo

2014-07-01

207

Magnetic field properties in a birdcage coil P. Boissoles and G. Caloz  

E-print Network

Magnetic field properties in a birdcage coil P. Boissoles and G. Caloz March 15, 2006 Abstract Radiofrequency magnetic fields used in MRI experiments have to sat- isfy specific properties. First, they need they generate an adequate homogeneous radiofrequency magnetic field. Since then several studies have used

Boyer, Edmond

208

Successful treatment of refractory pudendal neuralgia with pulsed radiofrequency.  

PubMed

Pudendal neuralgia (PN) involves severe, sharp pain along the course of the pudendal nerve, often aggravated with sitting. Current therapies include medication management, nerve blocks, decompression surgery, and neuromodulation. The ideal management for PN has not been determined. We present a case of a female with 1.5 years of sharp, burning pain of the left gluteal and perineal regions. She could not sit for longer than 10 to 15 minutes. Sacroiliac joint, epidural, and piriformis injections did not improve her pain. She had tried physical therapy, occupational therapy, massage, and acupuncture but the pain persisted. Medication treatment with oxycodone-acetaminophen, extended release morphine sulfate, amitriptyline, and gabapentin provided only minor relief and she had failed other multianalgesic therapy. She had been unable to work at her desk job for over a year. She had a positive response to 2 diagnostic pudendal nerve blocks with lidocaine that provided pain relief for several hours. This patient elected to undergo pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) of the left pudendal nerve in hopes of achieving a longer duration and improved pain relief. PRF was carried out at a frequency of 2 Hz and a pulse width of 20 milliseconds for a duration of 120 seconds at 42 degrees Celsius. After the procedure she reported tolerating sitting for 4 to 5 hours. Her multianalgesic therapy was successfully weaned. At 5 months follow-up she felt motivated to return to work. One and a half years after the procedure the patient is only taking oxycodone-acetaminophen for pain relief and still has good sitting tolerance. There were no procedure-related complications. To our knowledge PRF for the treatment of PN has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. PRF is a relatively new procedure and is felt to be safer than continuous radiofrequency. Current literature suggests that PRF delivers an electromagnetic field, which modifies neuro-cellular function with minimal cellular destruction. We conclude that PRF of the pudendal nerve offers promise as a potential treatment of PN that is refractory to conservative therapy. PMID:19461829

Rhame, Ellen E; Levey, Kenneth A; Gharibo, Christopher G

2009-01-01

209

Correcting radiofrequency inhomogeneity effects in skeletal muscle magnetisation transfer maps.  

PubMed

The potential of MRI to provide quantitative measures of neuromuscular pathology for use in therapeutic trials is being increasingly recognised. Magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging shows particular promise in this context, being sensitive to pathological changes, particularly in skeletal muscle, where measurements correlate with clinically measured muscle strength. Radiofrequency (RF) transmit field (B(1)) inhomogeneities can be particularly problematic in measurements of the MT ratio (MTR) and may obscure genuine muscle MTR changes caused by disease. In this work, we evaluate, for muscle imaging applications, a scheme previously proposed for the correction of RF inhomogeneity artefacts in cerebral MTR maps using B(1) information acquired in the same session. We demonstrate the theoretical applicability of this scheme to skeletal muscle using a two-pool model of pulsed quantitative MT. The correction scheme is evaluated practically in MTR imaging of the lower limbs of 28 healthy individuals and in two groups of patients with representative neuromuscular diseases: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and inclusion body myositis. The correction scheme was observed to reduce both the within-subject and between-subject variability in the calf and thigh muscles of healthy subjects and patient groups in histogram- and region-of-interest-based approaches. This method of correcting for RF inhomogeneity effects in MTR maps using B(1) data may markedly improve the sensitivity of MTR mapping indices as measures of pathology in skeletal muscle. PMID:21796708

Sinclair, C D J; Morrow, J M; Hanna, M G; Reilly, M M; Yousry, T A; Golay, X; Thornton, J S

2012-02-01

210

Radio-Frequency Plasma Cleaning of a Penning Malmberg Trap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio-frequency-generated plasma has been demonstrated to be a promising means of cleaning the interior surfaces of a Penning-Malmberg trap that is used in experiments on the confinement of antimatter. {Such a trap was reported in Modified Penning-Malmberg Trap for Storing Antiprotons (MFS-31780), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 3 (March 2005), page 66.} Cleaning of the interior surfaces is necessary to minimize numbers of contaminant atoms and molecules, which reduce confinement times by engaging in matter/antimatter-annihilation reactions with confined antimatter particles. A modified Penning-Malmberg trap like the one described in the cited prior article includes several collinear ring electrodes (some of which are segmented) inside a tubular vacuum chamber, as illustrated in Figure 1. During operation of the trap, a small cloud of charged antiparticles (e.g., antiprotons or positrons) is confined to a spheroidal central region by means of a magnetic field in combination with DC and radiofrequency (RF) electric fields applied via the electrodes. In the present developmental method of cleaning by use of RF-generated plasma, one evacuates the vacuum chamber, backfills the chamber with hydrogen at a suitable low pressure, and uses an RF-signal generator and baluns to apply RF voltages to the ring electrodes. Each ring is excited in the polarity opposite that of the adjacent ring. The electric field generated by the RF signal creates a discharge in the low-pressure gas. The RF power and gas pressure are adjusted so that the plasma generated in the discharge (see Figure 2) physically and chemically attacks any solid, liquid, and gaseous contaminant layers on the electrode surfaces. The products of the physical and chemical cleaning reactions are gaseous and are removed by the vacuum pumps.

Sims, William Herbert, III; Martin, James; Pearson, J. Boise; Lewis, Raymond

2005-01-01

211

78 FR 33633 - Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rules for the 698-746 MHz Spectrum Band (Television Channels...Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band, PS Docket...Operational, Technical and Spectrum Requirements for Meeting Federal...Specialized Mobile Radio Service Spectrum Auction Closes: Winning...

2013-06-04

212

Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of a Small Renal Mass Complicated by Appendiceal Perforation  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained wide acceptance as nephron-sparing therapy for small renal masses in select patients. Generally, it is a safe procedure with minor morbidity and acceptable short-term oncologic outcome. However, as a result of the close proximity of vital structures, such as the bowel, ureter, and large vessels, to the ablative field, complications regarding these structures may occur. This is the first article describing appendiceal perforation as a complication of computed tomography-guided RFA despite hydrodissection. When performing this innovative and promising procedure one should be aware of the possibility of particular minor and even major complications.

Boone, Judith, E-mail: j.boone@amc.uva.nl [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute (Netherlands); Bex, Axel, E-mail: a.bex@nki.nl [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute (Netherlands); Prevoo, Warner, E-mail: w.prevoo@nki.nl [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute (Netherlands)

2012-06-15

213

Evaluation of radiofrequency exposure levels from multiple wireless installations in population dense areas in Korea.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of measurements from simultaneous human exposure to various radiofrequency (RF) signals at densely populated areas. Measurements were performed at 1260 positions across Korea to determine exposure compliance to electromagnetic fields for the general public. The measured exposure levels were very low compared with the international exposure guidelines and Korean human protection notice. The highest total exposure ratio was 5.1?×?10(-3) (approximately 7.1% of guideline limits). Bioelectromagnetics 35:603-606, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25196664

Kim, Byung Chan; Kim, Wan-Ki; Lee, Gi-Tae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Pack, Jeong-Ki

2014-12-01

214

Nonlinear frequency coupling in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Plasma ionization, and associated mode transitions, in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas are governed through nonlinear frequency coupling in the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath. Ionization in low-power mode is determined by the nonlinear coupling of electron heating and the momentary local plasma density. Ionization in high-power mode is driven by electron avalanches during phases of transient high electric fields within the boundary sheath. The transition between these distinctly different modes is controlled by the total voltage of both frequency components.

Waskoenig, J.; Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2010-05-03

215

Boltzmann expansion in a radiofrequency conical helicon thruster operating in xenon and argon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low pressure (˜0.5 mTorr in xenon and ˜1 mTorr in argon) Boltzmann expansion is experimentally observed on axis within a magnetized (60 to 180 G) radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) conical helicon thruster for input powers up to 900 W using plasma parameters measured with a Langmuir probe. The axial forces, respectively, resulting from the electron and magnetic field pressures are directly measured using a thrust balance for constant maximum plasma pressure and show a higher fuel efficiency for argon compared to xenon.

Charles, C.; Boswell, R.; Takahashi, K.

2013-06-01

216

Current oncologic applications of radiofrequency ablation therapies  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) uses high frequency alternating current to heat a volume of tissue around a needle electrode to induce focal coagulative necrosis with minimal injury to surrounding tissues. RFA can be performed via an open, laparoscopic, or image guided percutaneous approach and be performed under general or local anesthesia. Advances in delivery mechanisms, electrode designs, and higher power generators have increased the maximum volume that can be ablated, while maximizing oncological outcomes. In general, RFA is used to control local tumor growth, prevent recurrence, palliate symptoms, and improve survival in a subset of patients that are not candidates for surgical resection. It’s equivalence to surgical resection has yet to be proven in large randomized control trials. Currently, the use of RFA has been well described as a primary or adjuvant treatment modality of limited but unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, liver metastasis, especially colorectal cancer metastases, primary lung tumors, renal cell carcinoma, boney metastasis and osteoid osteomas. The role of RFA in the primary treatment of early stage breast cancer is still evolving. This review will discuss the general features of RFA and outline its role in commonly encountered solid tumors. PMID:23671734

Shah, Dhruvil R; Green, Sari; Elliot, Angelina; McGahan, John P; Khatri, Vijay P

2013-01-01

217

47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices. 2.1091 Section 2.1091...Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices. (a) Requirements of...b) For purposes of this section, a mobile device is defined as a...

2010-10-01

218

Radio-frequency induced ground state degeneracy in a Chromium Bose-Einstein condensate  

E-print Network

We study the effect of strong radio-frequency (rf) fields on a chromium Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), in a regime where the rf frequency is much larger than the Larmor frequency. We use the modification of the Land\\'{e} factor by the rf field to bring all Zeeman states to degeneracy, despite the presence of a static magnetic field of up to 100 mG. This is demonstrated by analyzing the trajectories of the atoms under the influence of dressed magnetic potentials in the strong field regime. We investigate the problem of adiabaticity of the rf dressing process, and relate it to how close the dressed states are to degeneracy. Finally, we measure the lifetime of the rf dressed BECs, and identify a new rf-assisted two-body loss process induced by dipole-dipole interactions.

Q. Beaufils; T. Zanon; R. Chicireanu; B. Laburthe-Tolra; E. Marechal; L. Vernac; J. -C. Keller; O. Gorceix

2008-08-28

219

PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 48, NUMBER 13 1 OCTOBER 1993-1 Determination of the absolute sign of nuclear quadrupole interactions by laser radio-frequency  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 48, NUMBER 13 1 OCTOBER 1993-1 Determination of the absolute sign of nuclear quadrupole interactions by laser radio-frequency double-resonance experiments Tilo Blasberg the quadrupole moment of nuclear spins I > + with the electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor leads to a splitting

Suter, Dieter

220

Faraday accelerator with radio-frequency assisted discharge (FARAD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new electrodeless accelerator concept, called Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD), that relies on an RF-assisted discharge to produce a plasma, an applied magnetic field to guide the plasma into the acceleration region, and an induced current sheet to accelerate the plasma, is presented. The presence of a preionized plasma allows for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages and energies than those found in other pulsed inductive accelerator concepts. A proof-of-concept experiment, supported by optical and probe diagnostics, was constructed and used to demonstrate the main features of the FARAD and to gain physical insight into the low-voltage, low-energy current sheet formation and acceleration processes. Magnetic field data indicate that the peak sheet velocity in this unoptimized configuration operating at a pulse energy of 78.5 J is 12 km/s. It is found that changes in the background gas pressure and applied field affect the initial preionized plasma distribution which, in turn, affects the sheet's initial location, relative magnetic impermeability and subsequent velocity history. The results of the experimental investigation motivated further theoretical and numerical investigations of pulsed inductive plasma acceleration. A model consisting of a set of coupled circuit equations and a one-dimensional momentum equation was nondimensionalized leading to the identification of several scaling parameters. Numerical analysis revealed the benefits of underdamped current waveforms and led to an efficiency maximization criterion that requires matching the external circuit's natural period to the acceleration timescale. Predictions of the model were compared to experimental measurements and were found to be in good qualitative agreement and reasonable quantitative agreement for most quantities. A set of design rules aimed at producing a high-performance FARAD thruster are derived using the modeling results and physical insights. The rules concern the optimization of each of the major processes in FARAD: plasma acceleration, current sheet formation, applied field generation, and mass injection and preionization, and are cast as specific prescriptions for the dynamic impedance, inductance change, circuit damping, plasma collisionality (or magnetization), magnetic field strength and topology, and intra-pulse sequencing.

Polzin, Kurt Alexander

221

Radiofrequency Cauterization with Biopsy Introducer Needle  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The principal risks of needle biopsy are hemorrhage and implantation of tumor cells in the needle tract. This study compared hemorrhage after liver and kidney biopsy with and without radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the needle tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS Biopsies of liver and kidney were performed in swine through introducer needles modified to allow RF ablation with the distal 2 cm of the needle. After each biopsy, randomization determined whether the site was to undergo RF ablation during withdrawal of the introducer needle. Temperature was measured with a thermistor stylet near the needle tip, with a target temperature of 70°C–100°C with RF ablation. Blood loss was measured as grams of blood absorbed in gauze at the puncture site for 2 minutes after needle withdrawal. Selected specimens were cut for gross examination. RESULTS RF ablation reduced bleeding compared with absence of RF ablation in liver and kidney (P < .01), with mean blood loss reduced 63% and 97%, respectively. Mean amounts of blood loss (±SD) in the liver in the RF and no-RF groups were 2.03 g ± 4.03 (CI, 0.53–3.54 g) and 5.50 g ± 5.58 (CI, 3.33–7.66 g), respectively. Mean amounts of blood loss in the kidney in the RF and no-RF groups were 0.26 g ± 0.32 (CI, ?0.01 to 0.53 g) and 8.79 g ± 7.72 (CI, 2.34–15.24 g), respectively. With RF ablation, thermal coagulation of the tissue surrounding the needle tract was observed. CONCLUSION RF ablation of needle biopsy tracts reduced hemorrhage after biopsy in the liver and kidney and may reduce complications of hemorrhage as well as implantation of tumor cells in the tract. PMID:14963187

Pritchard, William F.; Wray-Cahen, Diane; Karanian, John W.; Hilbert, Stephen; Wood, Bradford J.

2014-01-01

222

Surgical radiofrequency ablation induces coronary endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Surgical radiofrequency ablation is increasingly used during open heart surgery for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of application of radiofrequency on coronary endothelial function and structure and establish the relationship between coronary lesions and distance of radiofrequency application. Methods: Six Landrace swine (25.9±2.0 kg) were included in the

Roland G Demaria; Pierre Pagé; Tack Ki Leung; Marc Dubuc; Olivier Malo; Michel Carrier; Louis P Perrault

2003-01-01

223

Surgical radiofrequency ablation induces coronary endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteriesq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Surgical radiofrequency ablation is increasingly used during open heart surgery for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of application of radiofrequency on coronary endothelial function and structure and establish the relationship between coronary lesions and distance of radiofrequency application. Methods: Six Landrace swine (25.9 ^ 2.0 kg) were included

Roland G. Demaria; Tack Ki Leung; Marc Dubuc; Olivier Malo; Michel Carrier; Louis P. Perrault

224

Radiofrequency amplifier based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device  

DOEpatents

A low noise radiofrequency amplifier (10), using a dc SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) as the input amplifying element. The dc SQUID (11) and an input coil (12) are maintained at superconductivity temperatures in a superconducting shield (13), with the input coil (12) inductively coupled to the superconducting ring (17) of the dc SQUID (11). A radiofrequency signal from outside the shield (13) is applied to the input coil (12), and an amplified radiofrequency signal is developed across the dc SQUID ring (17) and transmitted to exteriorly of the shield (13). A power gain of 19.5.+-.0.5 dB has been achieved with a noise temperature of 1.0.+-.0.4 K. at a frequency of 100 MHz.

Hilbert, Claude (Berkeley, CA); Martinis, John M. (Berkeley, CA); Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA)

1986-01-01

225

Radiofrequency amplifier based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device  

DOEpatents

A low noise radiofrequency amplifer, using a dc SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) as the input amplifying element. The dc SQUID and an input coil are maintained at superconductivity temperatures in a superconducting shield, with the input coil inductively coupled to the superconducting ring of the dc SQUID. A radiofrequency signal from outside the shield is applied to the input coil, and an amplified radiofrequency signal is developed across the dc SQUID ring and transmitted to exteriorly of the shield. A power gain of 19.5 +- 0.5 dB has been achieved with a noise temperature of 1.0 +- 0.4 K at a frequency of 100 MHz.

Hilbert, C.; Martinis, J.M.; Clarke, J.

1984-04-27

226

Histopomorphic Evaluation of Radiofrequency Mediated D?bridement Chondroplasty  

PubMed Central

The use of radiofrequency devices has become widespread for surgical ablation procedures. When ablation devices have been deployed in treatment settings requiring tissue preservation like débridement chondroplasty, adoption has been limited due to the collateral damage caused by these devices in healthy tissue surrounding the treatment site. Ex vivo radiofrequency mediated débridement chondroplasty was performed on osteochondral specimens demonstrating surface fibrillation obtained from patients undergoing knee total joint replacement. Three radiofrequency systems designed to perform débridement chondroplasty were tested each demonstrating different energy delivery methods: monopolar ablation, bipolar ablation, and non-ablation energy. Treatment outcomes were compared with control specimens as to clinical endpoint and histopomorphic characteristics. Fibrillated cartilage was removed in all specimens; however, the residual tissue remaining at the treatment site displayed significantly different characteristics attributable to radiofrequency energy delivery method. Systems that delivered ablation-based energies caused tissue necrosis and collateral damage at the treatment site including corruption of cartilage Superficial and Transitional Zones; whereas, the non-ablation system created a smooth articular surface with Superficial Zone maintenance and without chondrocyte death or tissue necrosis. The mechanism of radiofrequency energy deposition upon tissues is particularly important in treatment settings requiring tissue preservation. Ablation-based device systems can cause a worsened state of articular cartilage from that of pre-treatment. Non-ablation energy can be successful in modifying/preconditioning tissue during débridement chondroplasty without causing collateral damage. Utilizing a non-ablation radiofrequency system provides the ability to perform successful débridement chondroplasty without causing additional articular cartilage tissue damage and may allow for other cartilage intervention success. PMID:20721322

Ganguly, Kumkum; McRury, Ian D; Goodwin, Peter M; Morgan, Roy E; Auge II, Wayne K

2010-01-01

227

In vivo thermography during small bowel fusion using radiofrequency energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Radiofrequency-controlled tissue fusion is a novel technology but the associated lateral thermal damage has not been determined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Lateral thermal spread of in vivo and ex vivo bowel in a live porcine model fused by radiofrequency energy was evaluated using\\u000a dynamic infrared thermography and histology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mean maximum thermal spread measured on histology was <1.2 mm, with no significant difference between thermal spreads

C. Beverly B. Lim; Robert D. Goldin; Daniel S. Elson; Ara Darzi; George B. Hanna

2010-01-01

228

Magnetic resonance imaging of rodent tumors using radiofrequency gradient echoes.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the use of radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field gradient echoes to provide contrast in magnetic resonance (MR) images of model tumors. Decay of RF gradient echoes as a function of evolution time was measured and sensitivity of the decay to changes in blood pressure was evaluated. Previous investigators have demonstrated that static field (B0) gradient echoes provide MR image contrast which is sensitive to the rate of self-diffusion of tissue water and may also be sensitive to the rate of tissue perfusion. Gradient echoes produced by RF magnetic field gradients provide a useful alternative to the conventional B0 methods. Unlike B0 gradient echoes RF gradient echoes are relatively insensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients and to magnetic field gradients produced by eddy currents. Differences between the two methods may be particularly significant for studies of tumors where large concentrations of deoxyhemoglobin and other paramagnetic substances may cause significant susceptibility gradients. Mammary adenocarcinomas subcutaneously implanted in the flanks of female Fisher rats were studied. Magnetic resonance experiments were performed at 2 T. A surface coil was used to provide an RF gradient and to excite and detect signals from the tumors. The decay of echo amplitude as a function of evolution time was measured and the decay at short and long evolution times was analyzed independently to calculate two apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). The preparation was extremely stable and the standard error for 10 consecutive measurements of gradient echo amplitude made over 30-60 min with an RF gradient strength of 50 kHz/cm, gradient duration of 1 ms (i.e., 50 cycles/cm), and echo evolution time (td) of 1 s was generally +/- 0.8%. The ADC calculated from the decay at short evolution times was approximately 3 x 10(-5) cm2/s. The ADC calculated from the decay at longer evolution times was approximately 0.5 x 10(-5) cm2/s. Both ADCs decreased immediately following sacrifice and administration of Hydralazine. The experiments demonstrate that measurements of RF gradient echo amplitudes in tumors can be made in vivo with a high degree of reproducibility and suggest that RF gradient echo amplitudes are sensitive to acute physiological changes in tumors. This method may be useful for characterization of tumors and prediction and monitoring of effects of therapeutic agents. PMID:7968288

Karczmar, G S; River, J N; Goldman, Z; Li, J; Weisenberg, E; Lewis, M Z; Liu, K

1994-01-01

229

Biological indicators in response to radiofrequency/microwave exposure.  

PubMed

Over the years, due to rapid technological progress, radiation from man-made sources exceeded that of natural origin. There is a general concern regarding a growing number of appliances that use radiofrequency/ microwave (RF/MW) radiation with particular emphasis on mobile communication systems. Since nonthermal biological effects and mechanisms of RF/MW radiation are still uncertain, laboratory studies on animal models, tissues, cells, and cell free system are of extraordinary importance in bioelectromagnetic research. We believe that such investigations play a supporting role in public risk assessment. Cellular systems with the potential for a clear response to RF/MW exposures should be used in those studies. It is known that organism is a complex electrochemical system where processes of oxidation and reduction regularly occur. One of the plausible mechanisms is connected with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Depending on concentration, ROS can have both beneficial and deleterious effects. Positive effects are connected with cell signalling, defence against infectious agents, and proliferative cell ability. On the other hand, excessive production, which overloads antioxidant defence mechanism, leads to cellular damage with serious potential for disease development. ROS concentration increase within the cell caused by RF/MW radiation seems to be a biologically relevant hypothesis to give clear insight into the RF/MW action at non-thermal level of radiation. In order to better understand the exact mechanism of action and its consequences, further research is needed in the field. We would like to present current knowledge on possible biological mechanisms of RF/MW actions. PMID:23152390

Marjanovi?, Ana Marija; Pavi?i?, Ivan; Troši?, Ivan?ica

2012-09-01

230

Comparison of Laparoscopic Radiofrequency Myolysis (LRFM) and Ultrasonographic Radiofrequency Myolysis (URFM) in Treatment of Midline Dysmenorrhea  

PubMed Central

Objectives To access the effectiveness of radiofrequency myolysis (RFM) in women with midline dysmenorrhea. Methods We designed RFM in two ways laparoscopic RFM (LRFM), vaginal ultrasound-guided RFM (URFM). One hundred and thirty-two patients were in the LRFM group and, 140 patients were in the URFM group. Results Upon receipt of surgery, both the LRFM and the URFM groups demonstrated a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the mean pain score when compared to those before and after surgery. Conclusion The RF uterine myolysis procedure provides an alternative for those patients who suffer from intractable midline dysmenorrhea. LRFM is an alternative choice because it is relatively safe and, simple to perform and moreover, it is satisfactory. LRFM appears to increasingly succeed in the treatment of midline dysmenorrhea. PMID:25371897

Cho, Eun A; Um, Mi Jung; Kim, Soo Ah; Kim, Suk Jin

2014-01-01

231

Numerical analysis of radio-frequency sheath-plasma interactions in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies  

SciTech Connect

A new finite element numerical scheme for analyzing self-consistent radio-frequency (RF) sheath-plasma interaction problems in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is applied to various problems represented by simplified models for the tokamak scrape-off layer. The present code incorporates a modified boundary condition, which is called a sheath boundary condition, that couples the radio-frequency waves and sheaths at the material boundaries by treating the sheath as a thin vacuum layer. A series of numerical analyses in one- and two-dimensional domains show several important physical properties, such as the existence of multiple roots, hysteresis effects, presence and characteristics of the sheath-plasma waves, and the phase shift of a reflected slow wave, some of which are newly identified by introducing a spatially varying plasma density and background magnetic field.

Kohno, H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue P-5, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

2012-01-15

232

Analytical model for the radio-frequency sheath.  

PubMed

A simple analytical model for the planar radio-frequency (rf) sheath in capacitive discharges is developed that is based on the assumptions of a step profile for the electron front, charge exchange collisions with constant cross sections, negligible ionization within the sheath, and negligible ion dynamics. The continuity, momentum conservation, and Poisson equations are combined in a single integro-differential equation for the square of the ion drift velocity, the so called sheath equation. Starting from the kinetic Boltzmann equation, special attention is paid to the derivation and the validity of the approximate fluid equation for momentum balance. The integrals in the sheath equation appear in the screening function which considers the relative contribution of the temporal mean of the electron density to the space charge in the sheath. It is shown that the screening function is quite insensitive to variations of the effective sheath parameters. The two parameters defining the solution are the ratios of the maximum sheath extension to the ion mean free path and the Debye length, respectively. A simple general analytic expression for the screening function is introduced. By means of this expression approximate analytical solutions are obtained for the collisionless as well as the highly collisional case that compare well with the exact numerical solution. A simple transition formula allows application to all degrees of collisionality. In addition, the solutions are used to calculate all static and dynamic quantities of the sheath, e.g., the ion density, fields, and currents. Further, the rf Child-Langmuir laws for the collisionless as well as the collisional case are derived. An essential part of the model is the a priori knowledge of the wave form of the sheath voltage. This wave form is derived on the basis of a cubic charge-voltage relation for individual sheaths, considering both sheaths and the self-consistent self-bias in a discharge with arbitrary symmetry. The externally applied rf voltage is assumed to be sinusoidal, although the model can be extended to arbitrary wave forms, e.g., for dual-frequency discharges. The model calculates explicitly the cubic correction parameter in the charge-voltage relation for the case of highly asymmetric discharges. It is shown that the cubic correction is generally moderate but more pronounced in the collisionless case. The analytical results are compared to experimental data from the literature obtained by laser electric field measurements of the mean and dynamic fields in the capacitive sheath for various gases and pressures. Very good agreement is found throughout. PMID:24483571

Czarnetzki, Uwe

2013-12-01

233

Effects of radiofrequency glow discharge on impression material surface wettability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. Argon radiofrequency glow discharge (RGD) may simultaneously sterilize and improve surface wettability of impression materials.Purpose. The purpose of this study was to define RGD technical parameters that influence the surface wettability of impression material (optimization phase). Definition of RGD was followed by an assessment of these optimized RGD parameters on the wettability of four impression materials either

Richard M. Hesby; Chris R. Haganman; Clark M. Stanford

1997-01-01

234

Multilevel radiofrequency for OSAS: Long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine long-term effectiveness of multilevel (tongue and palate) temperature controlled radiofrequency tissue ablation (TCRFTA) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)Methods: Prospective series of 20 subjects with mild to moderate OSAS (AHI 10 to 30) and at least 1 year from completion of multilevel TCRFTA were included, representing a subset of 90 subjects enrolled in a previously

David L. Steward; Edward M. Weaver; B. Tucker Woodson

2004-01-01

235

77 FR 43535 - Grantee Codes for Certified Radiofrequency Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 [FCC 12-60] Grantee Codes for Certified Radiofrequency Equipment...to remove the restriction that grantee codes must consist of only three characters...the Commission to issue longer grantee codes, thus greatly increasing the supply...

2012-07-25

236

Genetic damage in subjects exposed to radiofrequency radiation.  

PubMed

Despite many research efforts and public debate there is still great concern about the possible adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on human health. This is especially due to the enormous increase of wireless mobile telephones and other telecommunication devices throughout the world. The possible genetic effects of mobile phone radiation and other sources of radiofrequencies constitute one of the major points of concern. In the past several review papers were published on laboratory investigations that were devoted to in vitro and in vivo animal (cyto)genetic studies. However, it may be assumed that some of the most important observations are those obtained from studies with individuals that were exposed to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation, either as a result of their occupational activity or as frequent users of radiofrequency emitting tools. In this paper the cytogenetic biomonitoring studies of RF-exposed humans are reviewed. A majority of these studies do show that RF-exposed individuals have increased frequencies of genetic damage (e.g., chromosomal aberrations) in their lymphocytes or exfoliated buccal cells. However, most of the studies, if not all, have a number of shortcomings that actually prevents any firm conclusion. Radiation dosimetry was lacking in all papers, but some of the investigations were flawed by much more severe imperfections. Large well-coordinated multidisciplinary investigations are needed in order to reach any robust conclusion. PMID:19073278

Verschaeve, Luc

2009-01-01

237

Palliation of Painful Perineal Metastasis Treated with Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of painful perineal metastasis from urinary bladder carcinoma in a 73-years-old woman, treated with CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The pain was immediately relieved and follow-up at 1 and 6 months showed total necrosis of the mass. One year later, the patient has no pain and her quality of life is improved.

Thanos, L., E-mail: loutharad@yahoo.com; Mylona, S.; Kalioras, V.; Pomoni, M.; Batakis, N. [Red-Cross Hospital of Athens, Radiology Department, 'Korgialeneio-Benakeio' (Greece)

2005-04-15

238

A technique for periorbital syringomas: intralesional radiofrequency ablation  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the efficacy of intralesional radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of periorbital syringomas. METHODS We tried the intralesional radiofrequency ablation for 64 patients with periorbital syringomas from 2007 to 2011. The operation was performed under 2.5 loupe magnifications. The handpiece was assembled with a needle electrode and connected to the radiofrequency ablation apparatus. The electrode was then inserted into the target lesions in dermis and delivering injury to the base of these tumors. Results were assessed clinically by comparing pre- and post-treatment photographs and patient satisfaction rates. RESULTS Clinical improvement increased with each subsequent treatment session. The percent of patients whose clinic improvement grade were?3 after each session was respectively 71.9%(Session1), 83.3%(Session2), and 100%(Session3). The statistical results indicated the concordance of the clinical assessment and the satisfaction level of patients (kappa=0.78 of the session1; kappa=0.82 of the session2). The majority of patients had good or excellent cosmetic results. Postoperatively, there were no permanent side effects or recurrences. CONCLUSION As a new technique of minimally invasion, the intralesional radiofrequency ablation was found to be an effective, inexpensive, highly precise and safe way of treating periorbital syringomas. PMID:22762046

Huang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Leng; Wang, Xing-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Jiang, Tian-Yu; Lin, Bi-Weng

2012-01-01

239

Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases.Our approach to the tumors

Fernando Ruiz Santiago; María del Mar Castellano García; Luis Guzmán Álvarez; Jose Luis Martínez Montes; Manuel Ruiz García; Juan MIguel Tristán Fernández

2011-01-01

240

Percutaneous Bipolar Radiofrequency Microdebridement for Recalcitrant Proximal Plantar Fasciosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Success rates for traditional methods of surgical intervention for chronic plantar fasciosis are low, and associated with high rates of complications and long recovery times. The purpose of this prospective case series was to assess the effectiveness of percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency microfasciotomy for the treatment of recalcitrant proximal plantar fasciosis in 21 patients. The mean preoperative American Orthopaedic Foot &

Matthew D. Sorensen; Christopher F. Hyer; Terrence M. Philbin

2011-01-01

241

Multisource, Phase-controlled Radiofrequency for Treatment of Skin Laxity  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between degrees of clinical improvement and microscopic changes detected using confocal microscopy at the temperature gradients reached in patients treated for skin laxity with a phase-controlled, multisource radiofrequency system. Design and setting: Patients with skin laxity in the abdominal area were treated in six sessions with radiofrequency (the first 4 sessions were held at 2-week intervals and the 2 remaining sessions at 3-week intervals). Patients attended monitoring at 6, 9, and 12 months. Participants: 33 patients (all women). Measurements: The authors recorded the following: variations in weight, measurements of the contour of the treated area and control area, evaluation of clinical improvement by the clinician and by the patient, images taken using an infrared camera, temperature (before, immediately after, and 20 minutes after the procedure), and confocal microscopy images (before treatment and at 6, 9, and 12 months). The degree of clinical improvement was contrasted by two external observers (clinicians). The procedure was performed using a new phase-controlled, multipolar radiofrequency system. Results: The results reveal a greater degree of clinical improvement in patients with surface temperature increases greater than 11.5ºC at the end of the procedure and remaining greater than 4.5ºC 20 minutes later. These changes induced by radiofrequency were contrasted with the structural improvements observed at the dermal-epidermal junction using confocal microscopy. Changes are more intense and are statistically correlated with patients who show a greater degree of improvement and have higher temperature gradients at the end of the procedure and 20 minutes later. Conclusion: Monitoring and the use of parameters to evaluate end-point values in skin quality treatment by multisource, phased-controlled radiofrequency can help optimize aesthetic outcome. PMID:21278896

Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Munoz, Estefania; Cornejo Navarro, Paloma

2011-01-01

242

Theoretical modeling for radiofrequency ablation: state-of-the-art and challenges for the future  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency ablation is an interventional technique that in recent years has come to be employed in very different medical fields, such as the elimination of cardiac arrhythmias or the destruction of tumors in different locations. In order to investigate and develop new techniques, and also to improve those currently employed, theoretical models and computer simulations are a powerful tool since they provide vital information on the electrical and thermal behavior of ablation rapidly and at low cost. In the future they could even help to plan individual treatment for each patient. This review analyzes the state-of-the-art in theoretical modeling as applied to the study of radiofrequency ablation techniques. Firstly, it describes the most important issues involved in this methodology, including the experimental validation. Secondly, it points out the present limitations, especially those related to the lack of an accurate characterization of the biological tissues. After analyzing the current and future benefits of this technique it finally suggests future lines and trends in the research of this area. PMID:16620380

Berjano, Enrique J

2006-01-01

243

[Impact of radiofrequency/microwave radiation on cell and cytoskeleton structure].  

PubMed

The increasing number of mobile phone users raises concern about possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW) electromagnetic fields. The most intriguing issue is the existence of the so called non-thermal effect which is not related to increased temperature. Possible biological effects, associated with the exposure to RF/MW fields have not been elucidated so far. A number of in vitro studies have attempted to see whether permissible levels of RF/MW affect the cell membrane, gene transcription, apoptosis, and whether they induce stress. However, the effect of RF/MW on the cytoskeleton, one of the most important cell structures, remains unknown. Cytoskeleton is a functional and structural part of the cell, composed of actin, intermedial filaments and microtubules. Microtubules direct the distribution of cellular organelles, determine cell shape, cell polarity and segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. PMID:15584559

Pavici?, Ivan

2004-11-01

244

Non invasive radiofrequency diagnostics of cancer. The Bioscanner — Trimprob technology and clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new paper by Pokorny, Vedruccio, Cifra, Kucera, titled Cancer physics: Diagnostics based on damped cellular elasto-electrical vibrations in microtubules, recently available on Eur. Biophys. J., discloses the mechanism of active grown cancer tissues interaction with a Non- Linear Resonance Interaction (NLRI) Bioscanner Trimprob diagnostic device that is certified and ready to be used to investigate suspected cases of disease and cancer. This technology spreads early capabilities of cancer detection by means of low level radiofrequency oscillations in UHF band. The system is based on an unique and extremely innovative non- linear radiofrequency oscillator working on 462-465 MHz plus the harmonics. The diseased tissues suspected of cancer, are irradiated by means of a handy probe near field emission, while a spectrum analyzer placed in the far field detects by means of a small antenna, the oscillator interaction within the tissues. The Bioscanner is characterized by a high dynamic range, in the order of 30 or more decibel, and is useful for detection of small cancer agglomerates, if used by a well trained operator. At the resonance, the free running oscillator locks-in on the specific interaction frequency, in a sharp frequency window centered on 462 MHz; the resulting effect is evidenced by a deep decrease of the 462 MHz spectral line propagation in the far field around the oscillator probe. The NLRI provides a selective characterization, like a sort of a electronic biopsy response of biologic tissues in support of modern imaging diagnostics. Further to existing literature describing methods for cancer detections by means of electromagnetic fields this paper shows this innovative in vivo medical diagnostic equipment and some clinical applications.

Vedruccio, Clarbruno; Ricci Vedruccio, Carla

2011-12-01

245

Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation in Painful Myeloma of the Clavicle  

PubMed Central

A 57-year-old male patient had myeloma. He had severe pain in the left clavicle that did not respond to radiotherapy; therefore, it was treated with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Under fluoroscopic guidance, two RF needles at a distance of 1.5 cm from each other were inserted into the mass and conventional radiofrequency (90? and 60 seconds) at two different depths (1 cm apart) was applied. Then, 2 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine along with triamcinolone 40 mg was injected in each needle. The visual analogue pain score (VAS from 0 to 10) was decreased from 8 to 0. In the next 3 months of follow-up, the patient was very satisfied with the procedure and the mass gradually became smaller. There were no complications. This study shows that RFTA could be a useful method for pain management in painful osteolytic myeloma lesions in the clavicle. PMID:24478905

Imani, Farnad; Vakily, Masoud

2014-01-01

246

A review of current concepts in radiofrequency chondroplasty.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency (RF) chondroplasty is a promising treatment of chondral defects. The purpose of this study is to summarize current literature reporting the use of radiofrequency energy as an alternative treatment to mechanical shaving in chondroplasty. This review depicts the basic understanding of RF energy in ablating cartilage while exploring the basic science, laboratory evidence and clinical effectiveness of this form of chondroplasty. Laboratory studies have indicated that RF energy decreases inflammatory markers in the cartilage as well as providing optimal results with smoothing of chondral clefts. There have been concerns of chondrolysis due to heat damage of chondrocytes; however, this is unsubstantiated in clinical studies. These clinical trials have highlighted that RF energy is a safe and efficacious method of chondroplasty when compared to the mechanical shaving technique. PMID:23551491

Horton, Damien; Anderson, Suzanne; Hope, Nigel G

2014-06-01

247

Cosmic Radio-Frequency Radiation Near One Megacycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of cosmic radio-frequency radiation on frequencies of 2130 kc\\/sec, 1435 kc\\/sec, 900 kc\\/sec, and 520 kc\\/sec have been made, using a method of recording which effectively reduces interference from atmospherics. At these frequencies, the intensity of the radiation is approximately 10 - watt per square metre per cycle per second** per steradian. The ionospheric effects associated with observations near

Grote Reber; G. R. Ellis

1956-01-01

248

Arthroscopic Gluteal Muscle Contracture Release With Radiofrequency Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gluteal muscle contracture is common after repeated intramuscular injections and sometimes is sufficiently debilitating to\\u000a require open surgery. We asked whether arthroscopic release of gluteal muscle contracture using radiofrequency energy would\\u000a decrease complications with clinically acceptable results. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients with bilateral gluteal\\u000a muscle contractures (57 males, 51 females; mean age, 23.7 years). We used inferior, anterosuperior, and posterosuperior

Yu-Jie Liu; Yan Wang; Jing Xue; Pauline Po-Yee Lui; Kai-Ming Chan

2009-01-01

249

A tunable EBG absorber for radio-frequency power imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption characteristics of a tunable electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) absorber are analyzed, which is designed to capture 2d radio-frequency (RF) power distributions incident on the absorber surface. The EBG absorber has lumped resistors interconnecting the mushroom-type surface patches to absorb the incident RF power at the resonance frequency where the EBG structure exhibits a high-impedance feature. The absorbed RF power distribution

Satoshi Yagitani; Keigo Katsuda; Ryo Tanaka; Masayuki Nojima; Yoshiyuki Yoshimura; Hirokazu Sugiura

2011-01-01

250

Diaphragmatic Hernia After Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

We describe a 71-year-old woman with a hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RF) with a single internally cooled electrode under computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Nine months after the procedure, CT images showed herniation of the large intestine into the right pleural cavity. To our knowledge this complication of RF performed with a single internally cooled electrode under CT guidance has not been previously reported.

Yamagami, Takuji, E-mail: yamagami@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsushima, Shigenori; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan)

2011-02-15

251

Percutaneous radiofrequency upper thoracic sympathectomy: a new technique.  

PubMed

The author describes a new technique for performing unilateral or bilateral upper thoracic sympathectomy safely, effectively, and more easily than by any of the surgical methods now in use. The technique described is one of percutaneous radiofrequency sympathectomy, which is usually done on a day surgery or outpatient surgery basis. The technique has been effective and well tolerated in a small group of patients. PMID:6514152

Wilkinson, H A

1984-12-01

252

The ISO standard for radiofrequency identification of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiofrequency identification (RFID) is a good way to identify animals. To overcome the problem that systems were not interchangeable, a Working Group of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO\\/TC23\\/SC19\\/WG3) has defined a standard on the code structure in the transponder and on the technology for the communication between reader and transponder. In the code structure standard ISO 11784, the 64

F. W. H Kampers; W Rossing; W. J Eradus

1999-01-01

253

Diaphragmatic hernia after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

We describe a 71-year-old woman with a hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RF) with a single internally cooled electrode under computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Nine months after the procedure, CT images showed herniation of the large intestine into the right pleural cavity. To our knowledge this complication of RF performed with a single internally cooled electrode under CT guidance has not been previously reported. PMID:20237779

Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsushima, Shigenori; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

2011-02-01

254

Treatment of bone tumours by radiofrequency thermal ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) is considered the treatment of choice for osteoid osteomas, in which it has long been\\u000a safely used. Other benign conditions (chondroblastoma, osteoblastoma, giant cell tumour, etc.) can also be treated by this\\u000a technique, which is less invasive than traditional surgical procedures. RFTA ablation is also an option for the palliation\\u000a of localized, painful osteolytic metastatic and

Fernando Ruiz Santiago; María del Mar Castellano García; Jose Luis Martínez Montes; Manuel Ruiz García; Juan Miguel Tristán Fernández

2009-01-01

255

CARS spectroscopy of radio-frequency discharge plasma in hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of the vibrational and rotational levels of hydrogen is studied by the narrow-and broadband CARS spectroscopy in capacitive and inductive-capacitive radio-frequency discharge plasmas. Computational codes are developed to analyze and process CARS spectra of hydrogen obtained under conditions of disturbance of thermodynamic equilibrium over internal degrees of freedom of molecules. To interpret the measurement results, a model is

V. A. Shakhatov; O. A. Gordeev

2007-01-01

256

CARS spectroscopy of radio-frequency discharge plasma in hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of the vibrational and rotational levels of hydrogen is studied by the narrow-and broadband CARS spectroscopy\\u000a in capacitive and inductive-capacitive radio-frequency discharge plasmas. Computational codes are developed to analyze and\\u000a process CARS spectra of hydrogen obtained under conditions of disturbance of thermodynamic equilibrium over internal degrees\\u000a of freedom of molecules. To interpret the measurement results, a model is

V. A. Shakhatov; O. A. Gordeev

2007-01-01

257

Computer simulations of ions in radio-frequency traps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The motion of ions in a trapped-ion frequency standard affects the stability of the standard. In order to study the motion and structures of large ion clouds in a radio-frequency (RF) trap, a computer simulation of the system that incorporates the effect of thermal excitation of the ions was developed. Results are presented from the simulation for cloud sizes up to 512 ions, emphasizing cloud structures in the low-temperature regime.

Williams, A.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.; Djomehri, J.; Harabetian, E.

1990-01-01

258

Laser nitriding for niobium superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle accelerators are a key tool for scientific research ranging from;\\u000afundamental studies of matter to analytical studies at light sources. Cost-forperformance;\\u000ais critical, both in terms of initial capital outlay and ongoing;\\u000aoperating expense, especially for electricity. It depends on the niobium;\\u000asuperconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities at the heart of;\\u000amost of these machines.;\\u000aPresently Nb SRF cavities

Senthilraja Singaravelu; John Klopf; Gwyn Williams; Michael Kelley

2010-01-01

259

Perforated-Layer Implementation Of Radio-Frequency Lenses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Luneberg-type radio-frequency dielectric lenses made of stacked perforated circular dielectric sheets, according to proposal. Perforation pattern designed to achieve required spatial variation of permittivity. Consists of round holes distributed across face of each sheet in "Swiss-cheese" pattern, plus straight or curved slots that break up outer parts into petals in "daisy-wheel" pattern. Holes and slots made by numerically controlled machining.

Dolgin, Benjamin P.

1996-01-01

260

Assessment of radiofrequency radiation within the vicinity of some GSM base stations in Ghana.  

PubMed

A radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation safety survey had been carried out at public access points in 46 towns with 76 Global Systems for Mobile communication cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. The objective was to determine the levels of RF field in residential areas, schools and market places, and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation (ICNIRP). Measurements were made with log-periodic antenna coupled with spectrum analyzer. The results varied from 0.85 to 1.07 mW m(-2) and 0.78 to 1.19 mW m(-2) for the transmission frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively. The result generally shows a compliance with the ICNIRP limit of 0.024 % but was 108 times higher than a similar survey carried out in Ghana 2 y ago. PMID:22262818

Deatanyah, P; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Asiedu, G O; Adjei, D N; Dwapanyin, G O; Amoatey, E A

2012-08-01

261

Scientific basis for the Soviet and Russian radiofrequency standards for the general public.  

PubMed

The former Soviet Union (USSR) and the USA were the first countries to introduce standards limiting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. However, the exposure limits in the USSR standards were always much lower than those in the USA and other countries. The objective of this article is to provide a history of the development of the Soviet and Russian RF standards. In addition, we summarize the scientific evidence used to develop the original USSR RF and subsequent Russian public health standards, as well as the mobile telecommunications standard published in 2003, but we do not critique them. We also describe the protective approaches used by the Soviet and Russian scientists for setting their limits. A translation of the papers of the key studies used to develop their standards is available in the online version of this publication. PMID:22753071

Repacholi, Michael; Grigoriev, Yuri; Buschmann, Jochen; Pioli, Claudio

2012-12-01

262

Self-compensated standing wave probe for characterization of radio-frequency plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple self-compensated Langmuir probe using the character of a standing wave is developed for characterization of radio-frequency (RF) discharge plasmas. This probe is based on a concept that the interference of RF field is eliminated at the node of a standing wave which exists ideally at one-fourth of the RF wavelength (?/4) away from the probe tip in the plasma. The fluctuation of plasma space potential is suppressed as confirmed by comparison with a non-compensated probe and a self-compensated probe using an inductor-capacitor (LC) resonant circuit. The plasma parameters obtained with the standing wave probe are in agreement with those with the LC resonant probe within discrepancy of 15% indicating high reliability of the results.

Sung, Ta-Lun; Matsumura, Shosaku; Teii, Kungen; Teii, Shinriki

2014-06-01

263

Spatial distribution of the plasma parameters in a radio-frequency driven negative ion sourcea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from initial stage of modeling of the SPIDER source of negative hydrogen/deuterium ions currently under development in Consorzio RFX (Padova) regarding ITER are presented. A 2D model developed within the fluid plasma theory for low-pressure discharges (free-fall regime maintenance) is applied to the gas-discharge conditions planned and required for the SPIDER source: gas pressure of 0.3 Pa and radio-frequency (rf) power of 100 kW absorbed in a single driver. The results are for the spatial distribution of the plasma characteristics (charged particle densities, electron temperature and electron energy flux, plasma potential, and dc electric field) with conclusions for the role of the electron energy flux in the formation of the discharge structure.

Todorov, D.; Tarnev, Kh.; Paunska, Ts.; Lishev, St.; Shivarova, A.

2014-02-01

264

Stopping electrons with radio-frequency pulses in the quantum Hall regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the functionality of modern electronic circuits relies on the possibility to modify the path followed by the electrons using, e.g., field effect transistors. Here we discuss the interplay between the modification of this path and the quantum dynamics of the electronic flow. Specifically, we study the propagation of charge pulses through the edge states of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. By sending radio-frequency (rf) excitations on a top gate capacitively coupled to the electron gas, we manipulate these edge states dynamically. We find that a fast rf change of the gate voltage can stop the propagation of the charge pulse inside the sample. This effect is intimately linked to the vanishing velocity of bulk states in the quantum Hall regime and the peculiar connection between momentum and transverse confinement of Landau levels. Our findings suggest possibilities for stopping, releasing, and switching the trajectory of charge pulses in quantum Hall systems.

Gaury, Benoit; Weston, Joseph; Waintal, Xavier

2014-10-01

265

Spatial distribution of the plasma parameters in a radio-frequency driven negative ion source.  

PubMed

Results from initial stage of modeling of the SPIDER source of negative hydrogen/deuterium ions currently under development in Consorzio RFX (Padova) regarding ITER are presented. A 2D model developed within the fluid plasma theory for low-pressure discharges (free-fall regime maintenance) is applied to the gas-discharge conditions planned and required for the SPIDER source: gas pressure of 0.3 Pa and radio-frequency (rf) power of 100 kW absorbed in a single driver. The results are for the spatial distribution of the plasma characteristics (charged particle densities, electron temperature and electron energy flux, plasma potential, and dc electric field) with conclusions for the role of the electron energy flux in the formation of the discharge structure. PMID:24593544

Todorov, D; Tarnev, Kh; Paunska, Ts; Lishev, St; Shivarova, A

2014-02-01

266

The radio-frequency design of an iris-type coupler for the CPHS radio-frequency quadrupole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) project is a university-based proton accelerator platform (13 MeV, 16 kW, 50 mA peak current, 0.5 ms pulse width at 50 Hz) for multi-disciplinary neutron and proton applications. The CPHS linac consists of a 3 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac and a 13 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). Both the RFQ and DTL share a 325 MHz, 2.1 MW klystron source. A single iris-type radio-frequency (RF) coupler is used to feed 537 kW of RF power to the RFQ cavity. Three-dimensional electromagnetic models of the ridge-loaded tapered waveguide (RLWG) and the coupler-cavity system are presented, and the design process and results of the RLWG and iris plate are described in detail.

Xiong, Zheng-Feng; Zheng, Shu-Xin; Xing, Qing-Zi; Guan, Xia-Ling

2012-01-01

267

Radiofrequency magnetoelastic resonators for magnetoelectric applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoelastic resonance measurements are carried out in short ribbons (down to 1 cm length) of Fe59Co16Si15B10 metallic glasses, both as-quenched and after annealing at 400 °C for 10 min. The resonant frequency exceeds 200 kHz with good Q factors for the shortest elements in the as-quenched state. Sandwich-type laminated magnetoelectric (ME) composites are prepared by gluing these ribbons to a PVDF piezoelectric polymer layer, showing good ME response. This effect is discussed as a function of the as-quenched or annealed state, and the length of the magnetoelastic ribbon, and is of interest for near field communication applications.

Lasheras, A.; Gutiérrez, J.; Balza, A.; Barandiarán, J. M.; Rodríguez Pierna, A.

2014-08-01

268

Room temperature femtotesla radio-frequency atomic magnetometer W. Chalupczak,1  

E-print Network

Room temperature femtotesla radio-frequency atomic magnetometer W. Chalupczak,1 R. M. Godun,1 S online 12 June 2012) A radio-frequency tunable atomic magnetometer with a sensitivity of about 1 fT/Hz1/2 in a range of 10�500 kHz is demonstrated. The magnetometer is operated in the orientation configuration

269

Detection of NMR signals with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer I.M. Savukov 1  

E-print Network

Detection of NMR signals with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer I.M. Savukov 1 , S.J. Seltzer of proton NMR signals with a radio-frequency (rf) atomic magnetometer tuned to the NMR frequency of 62 kHz. High-frequency operation of the atomic magnetometer makes it relatively insensitive to ambient magnetic

Romalis, Mike

270

Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment in Proximity to the Gallbladder Without Subsequent Acute Cholecystitis  

SciTech Connect

Initial reports have suggested that proximity of liver tumors to the gallbladder may increase the risk for cholecystitis after radiofrequency ablation. A colon adenocarcinoma metastasis to the liver in contact with the gallbladder was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation without subsequent cholecystitis.

Patti, Jay W.; Neeman, Ziv, E-mail: zneeman@cc.hih.gov; Wood, Bradford J. [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Building 10, Room 1C641, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2003-08-15

271

Synthesis of Spinel Ferrites in Radiofrequency Thermal Plasma Reactor J. Szpvlgyi1,2  

E-print Network

Synthesis of Spinel Ferrites in Radiofrequency Thermal Plasma Reactor J. Szépvölgyi1,2 , L. Gál1 in RF thermal plasma conditions. The products were characterized for chemical composition, phase conditions on properties of products were studied in details. Keywords: radiofrequency thermal plasma, spinel

Gubicza, Jenõ

272

Simultaneous Radiofrequency (RF) Heating and Magnetic Resonance (MR) Thermal Mapping Using an  

E-print Network

; intravascular MRI; MR imaging guide- wire; MR thermal mapping; radiofrequency Gene therapy is an exciting is critical for the thermal enhancement of vascular gene therapy and for avoiding tissue damage. Our previousSimultaneous Radiofrequency (RF) Heating and Magnetic Resonance (MR) Thermal Mapping Using

Atalar, Ergin

273

Current trends in treatment of osteoid osteoma with an emphasis on radiofrequency ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews current trends in the treatment of osteoid osteoma with an emphasis on the evolving use of radiofrequency thermoablation as a primary definitive treatment and for recurrent and residual lesions. In so doing, the article reviews merits and relative disadvantages of both surgical and non-surgical imaging-guided techniques in treatment. Radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteoma is a highly effective,

Colin P. Cantwell; John Obyrne; Stephen Eustace

2004-01-01

274

36 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species STATUS OF MICROWAVES AND RADIOFREQUENCY AS ALTERNATIVE  

E-print Network

36 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species STATUS OF MICROWAVES AND RADIOFREQUENCY., University Park, PA 16802 ABSTRACT Microwave (MW) and radiofrequency (RF) irradiation are forms of dielectric and the cambium heat up rapidly with dielectric heating. For several years, we have been testing microwave energy

275

Subfemtotesla radio-frequency atomic magnetometer for detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance  

E-print Network

Subfemtotesla radio-frequency atomic magnetometer for detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance S 20 November 2006 A radio-frequency tunable atomic magnetometer is developed for detection of nuclearHz 14 N NQR frequency of ammonium nitrate. A potential application of the magnetometer is detection

Romalis, Mike

276

Curative treatment of atrial fibrillation with intraoperative radiofrequency ablation: Short-term and midterm results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This report describes the early and midterm results after intraoperative radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation for patients with isolated chronic atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation in combination with additional valvular and nonvalvular cardiac diseases. Methods: From August 1998 to March 2001, a total of 234 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation underwent isolated intraoperative radiofrequency ablation alone (n = 74,

Friedrich W. Mohr; Alexander M. Fabricius; Volkmar Falk; Rüdiger Autschbach; Nicolas Doll; Ulrich von Oppell; Anno Diegeler; Hans Kottkamp; Gerd Hindricks

2002-01-01

277

Radiofrequency ablation for oral and maxillofacial pathologies: A description of the technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) refers to a high-frequency current that heats and coagulates tissue. In the standard RFA setup, three components are used: a generator, an active electrode, and a dispersive electrode. RFA has garnered support in many of the surgical fields as an alternative to traditional procedures used in tumor removal. Other methods can prove to be more invasive and disfiguring to the patient, in addition to the unwarranted side effects; however, RFA provides a more localized treatment, resulting in decreased co-morbidity to the patient. Currently, its use in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery is limited, as its technology has not reached our field. By describing its limited use to the optics community, we hope to expand its uses and provide patients with one more alternative treatment option. Methods and Uses: We will describe the use of RFA on three types of pathology: lymphangioma, rhabdomyoscarcoma, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and neoplastic osseous metastasis. The majority of treatments geared towards these pathologies involve surgical resection, followed by reconstruction. However, damage to vital structures coupled with esthetic disfigurement makes RFA a more valuable alternative. In many of the cases, the tumors were successfully removed without recurrence. Conclusion: While the use of RFA has been scarce in our field, we believe that with more exposure it can gain momentum as an alternative to current treatment options. However, there are improvements that we feel can be made, helping to maximize its effectiveness.

Tandon, Rahul; Stevens, Timothy W.; Herford, Alan S.

2014-03-01

278

Radio-frequency ablation electrode displacement elastography: A phantom study  

PubMed Central

This article describes the evaluation of a novel method of tissue displacement for use in the elastographic visualization of radio-frequency (rf) ablation-induced lesions. The method involves use of the radio-frequency ablation electrode as a displacement device, which provides localized compression in the region of interest. This displacement mechanism offers the advantage of easyin vivo implementation since problems such as excessive lateral and elevational displacements present when using external compression are reduced with this approach. The method was tested on a single-inclusion tissue-mimicking phantom containing a radio-frequency ablation electrode rigidly attached to the inclusion center. Full-frame rf echo signals were acquired from the phantom before and after electrode displacements ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mm. One-dimensional cross-correlation analysis between pre-and postcompression signals was used to measure tissue displacements, and strains were determined by computing the gradient of the displacement. The strain contrast, contrast-to-noise ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio were estimated from the resulting strain images. Comparisons are drawn between the elastographically measured dimensions and those known a priori for the single-inclusion phantom. Electrode displacement elastography was found to slightly underestimate the inclusion dimensions. The method was also tested on a second tissue-mimicking phantom and on in vitro rf-ablated lesions in canine liver tissue. The results validate previous in vivo findings that electrode displacement elastography is an effective method for monitoring rf ablation. PMID:18649476

Bharat, Shyam; Varghese, Tomy; Madsen, Ernest L.; Zagzebski, James A.

2008-01-01

279

Black phosphorus radio-frequency transistors.  

PubMed

Few-layer and thin film forms of layered black phosphorus (BP) have recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance nanoelectronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP thin films offer a moderate bandgap of around 0.3 eV and high carrier mobility, which lead to transistors with decent on-off ratios and high on-state current densities. Here, we demonstrate the gigahertz frequency operation of BP field-effect transistors for the first time. The BP transistors demonstrated here show respectable current saturation with an on-off ratio that exceeds 2 × 10(3). We achieved a current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm for hole conduction. Using standard high frequency characterization techniques, we measured a short-circuit current-gain cutoff frequency fT of 12 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fmax of 20 GHz in 300 nm channel length devices. BP devices may offer advantages over graphene transistors for high frequency electronics in terms of voltage and power gain due to the good current saturation properties arising from their finite bandgap, thus can be considered as a promising candidate for the future high performance thin film electronics technology for operation in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond. PMID:25347787

Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Matthew L; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

2014-11-12

280

Esophageal perforation after radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old man underwent left atrial radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. After 10 minutes, the procedure was terminated due to pericardial tamponade secondary to perforation during mapping. Pericardiocentesis resolved the tamponade. Ablation was completed one week later, and the patient was discharged. Two days later, he presented with odynophagia. Computed tomography demonstrated small bilateral pleural effusions. He was judged to be stable and was discharged again, but returned 2 days later with chest pain. He was found to have esophageal perforation with empyema, which was repaired using a muscle patch and esophageal stenting, successfully treating the lesion with minimal morbidity. PMID:24887888

Manouchehri, Namdar; Turner, Simon R; Lockwood, Evan; Sterns, Laurence D; Bédard, Eric Lr

2014-11-01

281

Towards optimization of probe placement for radio-frequency ablation.  

PubMed

We present a model for the optimal placement of mono- and bipolar probes in radio-frequency (RF) ablation. The model is based on a numerical computation of the probe's electric potential and of the steady state of the heat distribution during RF ablation. The optimization is performed by minimizing a temperature based objective functional under these constraining equations. The paper discusses the discretization and implementation of the approach. Finally, applications of the optimization to artificial data and a comparison to a real RF ablation are presented. PMID:17354926

Altrogge, Inga; Kröger, Tim; Preusser, Tobias; Büskens, Christof; Pereira, Philippe L; Schmidt, Diethard; Weihusen, Andreas; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

2006-01-01

282

Radiofrequency ablation of liver malignancies: MRI for evaluation of response.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of response to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and detect residual or recurrent tumor. After RFA, the target lesion shows a hyperintensive signal without increased T1-weighted, low on T2-weighted, non enhancing in gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In the long term follow-up the successfully treated lesions decrease in size. Signs of recurrence include new enhancement areas, the lesion's size increase, and development of T1-weighted hypointense and T2 weighted hyperintense areas. The MRI is a reliable method to evaluate the effectiveness of RFA and detect residual tumor. PMID:15675486

Aliberti, C; Soriani, M; Tilli, M; Benea, G; De Giorgi, U; Fiorentini, G

2004-11-01

283

Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This paper reviews the basic physics, indications, patient preparation, devices, procedures, clinical results, and complications of RF ablation. PMID:23133449

Shin, Ji Hoon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Ha, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong Hyun

2012-01-01

284

Primary lung cancer: treatment with radio-frequency thermal ablation.  

PubMed

Primary lung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the world and the leading cause of death from cancer [1]. When the initial diagnosis is made, most cases are inoperable or the patients' condition does not permit surgical interventions [2]. For patients with inoperable lung cancer, percutaneous radio-frequency thermal ablation (RFA) under CT guidance represents an alternative and minimally invasive treatment. It can also be applied in combination with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. We report three cases treated by percutaneous CT-guided RF ablation, from which two had post-operative recurrent tumor and one was inoperable. PMID:14666377

Thanos, L; Mylona, S; Pomoni, M; Kalioras, V; Zoganas, L; Batakis, N

2004-05-01

285

Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm Related to Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumor  

SciTech Connect

We describe a case of pulmonary artery (PA) pseudoaneurysm related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung tumor. We performed RFA for a pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma directly adjacent to a branch of the PA. Seventeen days later, the patient complained of hemoptysis. A chest CT image revealed PA pseudoaneurysm. Transcatheter coil embolization was performed 59 days after RFA. Although PA pseudoaneurysm is rare, with an incidence of 0.2% (1/538 sessions) at our institution, it should be recognized as a risk when treating lung tumors adjacent to a branch of the PA.

Sakurai, Jun, E-mail: sakurai@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Mimura, Hidefumi; Gobara, Hideo; Hiraki, Takao; Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2010-04-15

286

Probing Properties of Cold Radiofrequency Plasma with Polymer Probe  

E-print Network

The probe intended for the characterization of cold plasma is introduced. The probe allows estimation of the Debye length of the cold plasma. The probe is based on the pronounced modification of surface properties (wettability) of polymer films by cold plasmas. The probe was tested with the cold radiofrequency inductive air plasma discharge. The Debye length and the concentration of charge carriers were estimated for various gas pressures. The reported results coincide reasonably with the corresponding values established by other methods. The probe makes possible measurement of characteristics of cold plasmas in closed chambers.

Bormashenko, Edward; Multanen, Victor

2014-01-01

287

Remote Thermometry to Avoid Complications in Radiofrequency Ablation  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tumors has the potential risk for thermal damage to nearby normal collateral tissues. Thus, the goal of creating a sufficient area of tumor necrosis must be weighed against the risk for injury to collateral tissues. In this study, remote thermistors were used to monitor temperatures near collateral structures during tumor RFA. Four unique cases are described. When temperature-sensitive structures are near the target lesion, remote thermometry could further increase the safety of this evolving minimally invasive procedure. PMID:14654495

Diehn, Felix E.; Neeman, Ziv; Hvizda, Julie L.; Wood, Bradford J.

2008-01-01

288

Plasma sheath thickness in radio-frequency discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio-frequency glow discharges of several kinds of gases were examined to measure the ion sheath thickness at the cathode electrode. At intermediate gas pressures around 0.05- 0.5 Torr, the sheath thickness d depends on the pressure P in the expression P1/2d=K0 for almost all of the discharges examined. It was also pointed out that the constant K0 value decreased linearly against a mass of the predominant ion in the plasma. The discrepancy between the sheath thickness measured in this work and by theoretical solution was discussed for the argon discharge.

Mutsukura, Nobuki; Kobayashi, Kenji; Machi, Yoshio

1990-09-01

289

Effects of radiofrequency exposure on the GABAergic system in the rat cerebellum: clues from semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

The widespread use of cellular phones raises the problem of interaction of electromagnetic fields with the central nervous system (CNS). In order to measure these effects on neurotransmitter content in the CNS, we developed a protocol of neurotransmitter detection based on immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), an inhibitor of the GABA-transaminase was injected in rats to increase GABA concentration in the CNS. The cellular GABA contents were then revealed by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantified by image analysis thanks to three parameters: optical density (O.D.), staining area, and number of positive cells. The increase in cerebellar GABA content induced by GVG 1200 mg/kg was reflected in these three parameters in the molecular and the granular layers. Therefore, control of immunohistochemistry parameters, together with appropriate image analysis, allowed both the location and the detection of variations in cellular neurotransmitter content. This protocol was used to investigate the effects of exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequencies on cerebellar GABA content. Both pulsed emission with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg and continuous emission with high SAR (32 W/kg) were tested. We observed a selective diminution of the stained processes area in the Purkinje cell layer after exposure to pulsed radiofrequency and, in addition, a decrease in O.D. in the three cell layers after exposure to continuous waves. Whether this effect is, at least partly, due to a local heating of the tissues is not known. Overall, it appears that high energetic radiofrequency exposure induces a diminution in cellular GABA content in the cerebellum. PMID:11520491

Mausset, A L; de Seze, R; Montpeyroux, F; Privat, A

2001-08-31

290

Controlling the interactions of a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms by radiofrequency-assisted F\\"orster resonances  

E-print Network

Long-range interactions between cold Rydberg atoms are being investigated for neutral-atom quantum computing, quantum simulations, phase transitions in cold Rydberg gases and other important applications. These applications often require fine tuning of the interaction strength. It can be implemented using F\\"orster resonances between Rydberg atoms controlled by a dc, microwave or radiofrequency (rf) electric field. Here we report on the experimental observation of highly-resolved rf-assisted F\\"orster resonances in a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms. We also observed rf-induced F\\"orster resonances which cannot be tuned by dc electric field. They correspond to an efficient conversion between the van der Waals and dipole-dipole interactions due to Floquet sidebands of Rydberg levels appearing in the rf-field. These observations pave the way to many applications of rf-assisted F\\"orster resonances in studying the many-body phenomena with cold Rydberg atoms.

Tretyakov, D B; Yakshina, E A; Beterov, I I; Andreeva, Ch; Ryabtsev, I I

2014-01-01

291

Estimation of urinary flow velocity in models of obstructed and unobstructed urethras by decorrelation of ultrasound radiofrequency signals.  

PubMed

The feasibility of estimating urinary flow velocity from the decorrelation of radiofrequency (RF) signals was investigated in soft tissue-mimicking models of obstructed and unobstructed urethras. The decorrelation was studied in the near field, focal zone and far field of the ultrasound beam. Furthermore, the effect of beam width was investigated. The results of this study suggest that it is feasible to estimate flow velocity in models of the urethra by quantifying the decorrelation of RF ultrasound signals. The decorrelation slope increased more rapidly and more linearly with increasing velocity in the focal zone than in the near and far field. A preliminary example of an in vivo measurement in a healthy volunteer illustrated that this method has potential for clinical use in the future. PMID:24412180

Arif, Muhammad; Idzenga, Tim; van Mastrigt, Ron; de Korte, Chris L

2014-05-01

292

High emission current density microwave-plasma-grown carbon nanotube arrays by postdepositional radio-frequency oxygen plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect

Highly stable field emission current densities of more than 6 A/ cm{sup 2} along with scalable total field emission currents of {approx}300 {mu}A per 70 {mu}m diameter carbon nanotube (CNT)-covered electron emitter dot are reported. Microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition, along with a novel catalyst sandwich structure and postdepositional radio-frequency (rf) oxygen plasma treatment lead to well-structured vertically aligned CNTs with excellent and scalable emission properties. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscope investigations reveal that postdepositional treatment reduces not only the number but modifies the structure of the CNTs. Well-structured microwave-plasma-grown nanotubes become amorphous during rf oxygen plasma treatment and the measured work functions of CNTs change from 4.6 eV to 4.0 eV before and after treatment, respectively. Our experiments outline a novel fabrication route for structured CNT arrays with improved and scalable field emission characteristics.

Chen, Z.; Engelsen, D. den; Bachmann, P.K.; Elsbergen, V. van; Koehler, I.; Merikhi, J.; Wiechert, D.U. [School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Jianshebei Road 4, 610054 Chengdu (China) and Philips Research Laboratories, Weisshausstrasse 2, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Jianshebei Road 4, 610054 Chengdu (China); Philips Research Laboratories, Weisshausstrasse 2, D-52066 Aachen (Germany)

2005-12-12

293

Osteoid Osteoma: Experience with Laser- and Radiofrequency-Induced Ablation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome of osteoid osteoma treated by thermal ablation after drill opening. A total of 17 patients and 20 procedures were included. All patients had typical clinical features (age, pain) and a typical radiograph showing a nidus. In 5 cases, additional histological specimens were acquired. After drill opening of the osteoid osteoma nidus, 12 thermal ablations were induced by laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) (9F Power-Laser-Set; Somatex, Germany) and 8 ablations by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) (RITA; StarBurst, USA). Initial clinical success with pain relief has been achieved in all patients after the first ablation. Three patients had an osteoid osteoma recurrence after 3, 9, and 10 months and were successfully re-treated by thermal ablation. No major complication and one minor complication (sensible defect) were recorded. Thermal ablation is a safe and minimally invasive therapy option for osteoid osteoma. Although the groups are too small for a comparative analysis, we determined no difference between laser- and radiofrequency-induced ablation in clinical outcome after ablation.

Gebauer, Bernhard [Charite, Medical University Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)], E-mail: bernhard.gebauer@charite.de; Tunn, Per-Ulf [Charite, Medical University Berlin, Department of Surgery and Surgical Oncology (Germany); Gaffke, Gunnar [Charite, Medical University Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany); Melcher, Ingo [Charite, Medical University Berlin, Campus Virchow-Clinic, Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery (Germany); Felix, Roland; Stroszczynski, Christian [Charite, Medical University Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2006-04-15

294

Radiofrequency ablation as first-line treatment of varicose veins.  

PubMed

Endovascular radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive method to safely treat symptomatic refluxing varicose veins. A retrospective chart review was used to determine patient demographics, disease severity, treatment algorithm, and outcome in patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation of symptomatic refluxing veins that had failed conservative management. Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad Demo Version (San Diego, CA). Two hundred forty-one limbs in 179 patients (average age, 53 years; 73% females, 27% males) were treated. Preprocedure Clinical Etiological Anatomic and Pathologic (CEAP) scores were C2s: 236, C3s: 4, and C5s:1. Procedures were performed in the office using tumescent anesthetic; all patients could ambulate immediately after the procedure. Postprocedure total occlusion (TO) rate was seen in 93 per cent of limbs (223 limbs) at 3 months and 91 per cent of limbs (220 limbs) at 12 months posttreatment. No relationship was found between patients who did not have total occlusion and age, sex, diameter of veins, CEAP scores, preoperative reflux time, and volume of tumescent anesthetic (P > 0.05). The VNUS procedure is an in-office, minimally invasive procedure with a low complication rate and quick recovery. Total occlusion rates are high and there is improvement in disease severity after treatment. PMID:24666862

Avery, John; Kumar, Keshav; Thakur, Vijaya; Thakur, Anjani

2014-03-01

295

Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the application of different statistical tests to the study of the spatial distribution of quasars. Applications to data sets of optically selected quasars lead to the detection of a clustering at a typical scale of 10 arcmin. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of quasars in a field around NGC 450 shows a deviation from randomness, towards clustering, at

E. Gosset; J. Surdej; J. P. Swings

1988-01-01

296

The Biological Effects of Quadripolar Radiofrequency Sequential Application: A Human Experimental Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of an innovative quadripolar variable electrode configuration radiofrequency device with objective measurements in an ex vivo and in vivo human experimental model. Background data: Nonablative radiofrequency applications are well-established anti-ageing procedures for cosmetic skin tightening. Methods: The study was performed in two steps: ex vivo and in vivo assessments. In the ex vivo assessments the radiofrequency applications were performed on human full-thickness skin and subcutaneous tissue specimens harvested during surgery for body contouring. In the in vivo assessments the applications were performed on two volunteer patients scheduled for body contouring surgery at the end of the study. The assessment methods were: clinical examination and medical photography, temperature measurement with thermal imaging scan, and light microscopy histological examination. Results: The ex vivo assessments allowed for identification of the effective safety range for human application. The in vivo assessments allowed for demonstration of the biological effects of sequential radiofrequency applications. After a course of radiofrequency applications, the collagen fibers underwent an immediate heat-induced rearrangement and were partially denaturated and progressively metabolized by the macrophages. An overall thickening and spatial rearrangement was appreciated both in the collagen and elastic fibers, the latter displaying a juvenile reticular pattern. A late onset in the macrophage activation after sequential radiofrequency applications was appreciated. Conclusions: Our data confirm the effectiveness of sequential radiofrequency applications in obtaining attenuation of the skin wrinkles by an overall skin tightening. PMID:25244081

Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Faga, Angela; Scevola, Silvia

2014-01-01

297

First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities  

SciTech Connect

Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

2013-09-01

298

High-voltage nanosecond pulses in a low-pressure radio-frequency discharge.  

PubMed

An influence of a high-voltage (3-17 kV) 20 ns pulse on a weakly-ionized low-pressure (0.1-10 Pa) capacitively coupled radiofrequency (RF) argon plasma is studied experimentally. The plasma evolution after pulse exhibits two characteristic regimes: a bright flash, occurring within 100 ns after the pulse (when the discharge emission increases by 2-3 orders of magnitude over the steady-state level), and a dark phase, lasting a few hundreds ?s (when the intensity of the discharge emission drops significantly below the steady-state level). The electron density increases during the flash and remains very large at the dark phase. 1D3V particle-in-cell simulations qualitatively reproduce both regimes and allow for detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. It is found that the high-voltage nanosecond pulse is capable of removing a significant fraction of plasma electrons out of the discharge gap, and that the flash is the result of the excitation of gas atoms, triggered by residual electrons accelerated in the electric field of immobile bulk ions. The secondary emission from the electrodes due to vacuum UV radiation plays an important role at this stage. High-density plasma generated during the flash provides efficient screening of the RF field (which sustains the steady-state plasma). This leads to the electron cooling and, hence, onset of the dark phase. PMID:23848787

Pustylnik, M Y; Hou, L; Ivlev, A V; Vasilyak, L M; Couëdel, L; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E; Fortov, V E

2013-06-01

299

Radio-frequency sheaths physics: Experimental characterization on Tore Supra and related self-consistent modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 2011 experimental campaign, one of the three ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas in the Tore Supra tokamak was equipped with a new type of Faraday screen (FS). The new design aimed at minimizing the integrated parallel electric field over long field lines as well as increasing the heat exhaust capability of the actively cooled screen. It proved to be inefficient for attenuating the radio-frequency (RF)-sheaths on the screen itself on the contrary to the heat exhaust concept that allowed operation despite higher heat fluxes on the antenna. In parallel, a new approach has been proposed to model self-consistently RF sheaths: the SSWICH (Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for IC Heating) code. Simulations results from SSWICH coupled with the TOPICA antenna code were able to reproduce the difference between the two FS designs and part of the spatial pattern of heat loads and Langmuir probe floating potential. The poloidal pattern is a reliable result that mainly depends on the electrical design of the antenna while the radial pattern is on the contrary highly sensitive to loosely constrained parameters such as perpendicular conductivity that generates a DC current circulation from the private region inside the antenna limiters to the free scrape off layer outside these limiters. Moreover, the cantilevered bars seem to be the element in the screen design that enhanced the plasma potential.

Jacquot, Jonathan; Milanesio, Daniele; Colas, Laurent; Corre, Yann; Goniche, Marc; Gunn, Jamie; Heuraux, Stéphane; Kubi?, Martin

2014-06-01

300

Effect of Addition of Nitrogen to a Capacitively Radio-Frequency Hydrogen Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid PIC/MC model is developed in this work for H2-xN2 capacitively coupled radio-frequency (CCRF) discharges in which we take into account 43 kinds of collisions reaction processes between charged particles (e-, H+3, H+2, H+, N+2, N+) and ground-state molecules (H2, N2). In addition, the mean energies and densities of electrons and ions (H+3, H+2, H+), and electric field distributions in the H2-N2 CCRF discharge are simulated by this model. Furthermore, the effects of addition of a variable percentage of nitrogen (0-30%) into the H2 discharge on the plasma processes and discharge characteristics are studied. It is shown that by increasing the percentage of nitrogen added to the system, the RF sheath thickness will narrow, the sheath electric field will be enhanced, and the mean energy of hydrogen ions impacting the electrodes will be increased. Because the electron impact ionization and dissociative ionization rates increase when N2 is added to the system, the electron mean density will increase while the electron mean energy and hydrogen ion density near the electrodes will decrease. This work aims to provide a theoretical basis for experimental studies and technological developments with regard to H2-N2 CCRF plasmas.

Zhang, Lianzhu; Yao, Fubao; Zhao, Guoming; Hao, Yingying; Sun, Qian

2014-03-01

301

Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants.

Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

1996-11-01

302

Energetic electron avalanches and mode transitions in planar inductively coupled radio-frequency driven plasmas operated in oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Space and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopic measurements reveal that in certain parameter regimes, inductively coupled radio-frequency driven plasmas exhibit three distinct operation modes. At low powers, the plasma operates as an alpha-mode capacitively coupled plasma driven through the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath potential in front of the antenna. At high powers, the plasma operates in inductive mode sustained through induced electric fields due to the time varying currents and associated magnetic fields from the antenna. At intermediate powers, close to the often observed capacitive to inductive (E-H) transition regime, energetic electron avalanches are identified to play a significant role in plasma sustainment, similar to gamma-mode capacitively coupled plasmas. These energetic electrons traverse the whole plasma gap, potentially influencing plasma surface interactions as exploited in technological applications.

Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Niemi, K. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Gans, T.; O'Connell, D. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Innovation Way, Heslington York YO10 5DQ (United Kingdom)

2011-07-25

303

Radiofrequency Ablation for Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids  

PubMed Central

The use of thermal energy-based systems to treat uterine fibroids has resulted in a plethora of devices that are less invasive and potentially as effective in reducing symptoms as traditional options such as myomectomy. Most thermal ablation devices involve hyperthermia (heating of tissue), which entails the conversion of an external electromagnetic or ultrasound waves into intracellular mechanical energy, generating heat. What has emerged from two decades of peer-reviewed research is the concept that hyperthermic fibroid ablation, regardless of the thermal energy source, can create large areas of necrosis within fibroids resulting in reductions in fibroid volume, associated symptoms and the need for reintervention. When a greater percentage of a fibroid's volume is ablated, symptomatic relief is more pronounced, quality of life increases, and it is more likely that such improvements will be durable. We review radiofrequency ablation (RFA), one modality of hyperthermic fibroid ablation. PMID:21961009

Jones, Sian; O'Donovan, Peter; Toub, David

2012-01-01

304

Superconducting radio-frequency modules test faciilty operating experience  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R&D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service Fermilab SRF R&D needs. The first stage of the project has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at MDB results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project.

Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab

2007-07-01

305

Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: role of radiofrequency ablation.  

PubMed

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a neuropathic pain condition affecting the face. It has a significant impact on the quality of life and physical function of patients. Evidence suggests that the likely etiology is vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve leading to focal demyelination and aberrant neural discharge. Secondary causes such as multiple sclerosis or brain tumors can also produce symptomatic TN. Treatment must be individualized to each patient. Carbamazepine remains the drug of choice in the first-line treatment of TN. Minimally invasive interventional pain therapies and surgery are possible options when drug therapy fails. Younger patients may benefit from microvascular decompression. Elderly patients with poor surgical risk may be more suitable for percutaneous trigeminal nerve rhizolysis. The technique of radiofrequency rhizolysis of the trigeminal nerve is described in detail in this review. PMID:21311718

Emril, Dessy R; Ho, Kok-Yuen

2010-01-01

306

Increased susceptibility to radiofrequency radiation due to pharmacological agents  

SciTech Connect

The effects of chlorpromazine, methysergide, and propranolol on thermal responses to 2.8 GHz radiofrequency radiation were examined in anesthetized rats. During intermittent exposure at an average power density of 60 mW/sq cm (specific absorption rate, 14 W/kg), when colonic temperature was not allowed to rise above 39.5 C, none of the pharmacological agents had any significant effects on thermal responses. When exposure was continued until lethal temperatures resulted, animals which were administered chlorpromazine, methysergide, or propranolol exhibited significantly shorter survival times than saline-treated animals. Propranolol administration caused the greatest decrease in survival time and resulted in a significantly lower lethal temperature than that which occurred in saline-treated animals. 29 references.

Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Heinmets, F.

1984-11-01

307

Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for Treatment of Recurrent Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is becoming more and more established in the treatment of various neoplasms, including retroperitoneal tumors of the kidneys and the adrenal glands. We report the case of RFA in a patient suffering from the third relapse of a retroperitoneal liposarcoma in the left psoas muscle. After repeated surgical resection and supportive radiation therapy of a primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma and two surgically treated recurrences, including replacement of the ureter by a fraction of the ileum, there was no option for further surgery. Thus, we considered RFA as the most suitable treatment option. Monopolar RFA was performed in a single session with a 2-cm umbrella-shaped LeVeen probe. During a 27-month follow-up period the patient remained free of tumor.

Keil, Sebastian, E-mail: keil@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Bruners, Philipp [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital (Germany); Brehmer, Bernhard [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Urology, University Hospital (Germany); Mahnken, Andreas Horst [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital (Germany)

2008-07-15

308

Laparoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Uterine Fibroids  

SciTech Connect

Four patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids measuring less than 6 cm underwent laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using multiprobe-array electrodes. Follow-up of the treated fibroids was performed with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and patients' symptoms were assessed by telephone interviews. The procedure was initially technically successful in 3 of the 4 patients and MRI studies at 1 month demonstrated complete fibroid ablation. Symptom improvement, including a decrease in menstrual bleeding and pain, was achieved in 2 patients at 3 months. At 7 months, 1 of these 2 patients experienced symptom worsening which correlated with recurrent fibroid on MRI. The third, initially technically successfully treated patient did not experience any symptom relief after the procedure and was ultimately diagnosed with adenomyosis. Our preliminary results suggest that RFA is a technically feasible treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids in appropriately selected patients.

Milic, Andrea [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging (Canada); Asch, Murray R. [Lakeridge Health Corporation, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Canada)], E-mail: masch@lakeridgehealth.on.ca; Hawrylyshyn, Peter A.; Allen, Lisa M. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Canada); Colgan, Terence J. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology (Canada); Kachura, John R. [Toronto General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada); Hayeems, Eran B. [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada)

2006-08-15

309

Effect of the levitating microparticle cloud on radiofrequency argon plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a levitating cloud of microparticles on the parameters of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma has been studied by means of two experimental techniques. Axial distributions of 1s excited states of argon were measured by a self-absorption method. A correction of a standard self-absorption method for the extinction of the light by the levitating microparticles is proposed. In addition the electron temperature was estimated using the optical emission spectroscopy. Measurements at the same discharge conditions in a microparticle-free discharge and discharge, containing a cloud of levitating microparticles, revealed the non-local influence of the microparticle cloud on the discharge plasma. The most probable cause of this influence is the disturbance of the ionization balance by the levitating microparticles.

Mitic, S.; Pustylnik, M. Y.; Klumov, B. A.; Morfill, G. E.

2010-06-01

310

Superconducting Radio-Frequency Modules Test Facility Operating Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R&D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service the SRF R&D needs. The project's first stage has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single-cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at Meson Detector Building (MDB) results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project.

Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.

2008-03-01

311

SUPERCONDUCTING RADIO-FREQUENCY MODULES TEST FACILITY OPERATING EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R and D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service the SRF R and D needs. The project's first stage has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single-cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at Meson Detector Building (MDB) results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project.

Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States)

2008-03-16

312

Microcalorimetry of dust particles in a radio-frequency plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal temperature of rhodamine B-dyed dust particles (2rp=1.2 ?m) immersed in radio-frequency (rf) plasmas has been measured for various plasma conditions. For this purpose, the dye has been excited with an argon-ion laser and the fluorescent emission of the particles has been recorded with an optical multichannel analyzer system. The temperature has been determined after comparison with calibration curves. In argon, the particle temperature increases with rf power and is independent of pressure. In oxygen, an increase with rf power is observed, too. However, the energy flux towards the particles includes also heating by atom recombination (association) and exothermic combustion reactions. These temperature measurements have been compared with calculations based on the thermal balance, where measurements of gas temperature, electron density, and electron temperature have been used. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been found.

Swinkels, G. H. P. M.; Kersten, H.; Deutsch, H.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

2000-08-01

313

Radiofrequency exposure in the French general population: band, time, location and activity variability.  

PubMed

Information on the exposure of individual persons to radiofrequency (RF) fields is scarce, although such data are crucial in order to develop a suitable exposure assessment method, and frame the hypothesis and design of future epidemiological studies. The main goal of this survey is to assess individual RF exposure on a population basis, while clarifying the relative contribution of different sources to the total exposure. A total of 377 randomly selected people were analyzed. Each participant was supplied with a personal exposure meter for 24-hour measurements (weekday), and kept a time-location-activity diary. Electric field strengths were recorded in 12 different RF bands every 13s. Summary statistics were calculated with the robust regression on order statistics method. Most of the time, recorded field strengths were not detectable with the exposure meter. Total field, cordless phones, WiFi-microwave, and FM transmitters stood apart with a proportion above the detection threshold of 46.6%, 17.2%, 14.1%, and 11.0%, respectively. The total field mean value was 0.201V/m, higher in urban areas, during daytime, among adults, and when moving. When focusing on specific channels, the highest mean exposure resulted from FM sources (0.044V/m), followed by WiFi-microwaves (0.038V/m), cordless phones (0.037V/m), and mobile phones (UMTS: 0.036V/m, UMTS: 0.037V/m). Various factors, however, contributed to a high variability in RF exposure assessment. These population-based estimates should therefore be confirmed by further surveys to better characterize the exposure situation in different microenvironments. PMID:19656570

Viel, Jean-François; Cardis, Elisabeth; Moissonnier, Monika; de Seze, René; Hours, Martine

2009-11-01

314

Electromagnetic and mechanical design of gridded radio-frequency cavity windows  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses of radio-frequency (RF) cavities were performed as part of a developmental RF cavity program for muon cooling. RF cavities are necessary to provide longitudinal focusing of the muons and to compensate for their energy loss. Closing the cavity ends by electrically conducting windows reduces the power requirement and increases the on-axis electric field for a given maximum surface electric field. Many factors must be considered in the design of RF cavity windows. RF heating can cause the windows to deform in the axial direction of the cavity. The resulting thermal stresses in the window must be maintained below the yield stress of the window material. The out-of-plane deflection must be small enough so that the consequent frequency shift is tolerable. For example, for an 805 MHz cavity, the out-of-plane deflection must be kept below 25 microns to prevent the frequency of the cavity from shifting more than 10 kHz. In addition, the window design should yield smooth electric and magnetic fields, terminate field leakage beyond the window, and minimize beam scattering. In the present thesis, gridded-tube window designs were considered because of their high structural integrity. As a starting point in the analysis, a cylindrical pillbox cavity was considered as a benchmark problem. Analytical and finite element solutions were obtained for the electric and magnetic fields, power loss density, and temperature profile. Excellent agreement was obtained between the analytical and finite element results. The finite element method was then used to study a variety of gridded-tube windows. It was found that cooling of the gridded-tube windows by passing helium gas inside the tubes significantly reduces the out-of-plane deflection and the thermal stresses. Certain tube geometries and grid patterns were found to satisfy all of the design requirements.

Alsharoa, Mohammad M.; /IIT, Chicago /Fermilab

2004-12-01

315

Factors Limiting Complete Tumor Ablation by Radiofrequency Ablation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine radiological or physical factors to predict the risk of residual mass or local recurrence of primary and secondary hepatic tumors treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eighty-two patients, with 146 lesions (80 hepatocellular carcinomas, 66 metastases), were treated by RFA. Morphological parameters of the lesions included size, location, number, ultrasound echogenicity, computed tomography density, and magnetic resonance signal intensity were obtained before and after treatment. Parameters of the generator were recorded during radiofrequency application. The recurrence-free group was statistically compared to the recurrence and residual mass groups on all these parameters. Twenty residual masses were detected. Twenty-nine lesions recurred after a mean follow-up of 18 months. Size was a predictive parameter. Patients' sex and age and the echogenicity and density of lesions were significantly different for the recurrence and residual mass groups compared to the recurrence-free group (p < 0.05). The presence of an enhanced ring on the magnetic resonance control was more frequent in the recurrence and residual mass groups. In the group of patients with residual lesions, analysis of physical parameters showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the time necessary for the temperature to rise. In conclusion, this study confirms risk factors of recurrence such as the size of the tumor and emphasizes other factors such as a posttreatment enhanced ring and an increase in the time necessary for the rise in temperature. These factors should be taken into consideration when performing RFA and during follow-up.

Paulet, Erwan, E-mail: erwanpaulet@yahoo.fr; Aube, Christophe [University Hospital Angers, Department of Radiology (France); Pessaux, Patrick [University Hospital Angers, Department of Visceral Surgery (France); Lebigot, Jerome [University Hospital Angers, Department of Radiology (France); Lhermitte, Emilie [University Hospital Angers, Department of Visceral Surgery (France); Oberti, Frederic [University Hospital Angers, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology (France); Ponthieux, Anne [University Hospital Angers, Clinical Research Center (France); Cales, Paul [University Hospital Angers, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology (France); Ridereau-Zins, Catherine [University Hospital Angers, Department of Radiology (France); Pereira, Philippe L. [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2008-01-15

316

Stereotactic Radiofrequency Ablation of Unresectable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinomas: A Retrospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate treatment effects, complications, and outcome of percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency ablation (SRFA) of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients and Methods: Eleven consecutive patients (nine men and two women) with a total of 36 inoperable ICCs (18 initial lesions, 16 lesions newly detected during follow-up, and two local recurrences) underwent SRFA between December 2004 and June 2010. Two different radiofrequency ablation (RFA) devices with internally cooled electrodes were used. Tumor diameters ranged from 0.5 to 10 cm (median 3.0 cm). A total of 23 SRFA sessions were performed. The efficacy of SRFA was evaluated by contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging 1 month after treatment and then every 3 months. Results: Primary technical effectiveness rate was 92%. Further follow-up every 3 months revealed three local recurrences (8%), two of which were successfully retreated, resulting in a secondary technical effectiveness rate of 98%. After a total of 23 RFA sessions, three major complications occurred (13%) that could be managed interventionally. Mean follow-up time was 35 months (range 12-81 months). One- and 3-year overall survival rates were 91 and 71%, respectively. The median overall survival was 60 months (according to the life table method). Eight (73%) of 11 patients were still alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusion: SRFA is effective in the treatment of unresectable ICC even if the tumor is large and located close to major vessels. SRFA shows a survival benefit compared to other palliative treatment options and may also be considered as the first-line local treatment of ICCs in selected patients.

Haidu, Marion, E-mail: marion.haidu@i-med.ac.at [Medical University Innsbruck, Clinic of Radiology, Department of Microinvasive Therapy (SIP) (Austria); Dobrozemsky, Georg, E-mail: georg.dobroszemsky@i-med.ac.at [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Austria); Schullian, Peter, E-mail: peter.schullian@i-med.ac.at; Widmann, Gerlig, E-mail: gerlig.widmann@i-med.ac.at [Medical University Innsbruck, Clinic of Radiology, Department of Microinvasive Therapy (SIP) (Austria); Klaus, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.klaus@bhs.at; Weiss, Helmut, E-mail: helmut.weiss@bbsalz.at; Margreiter, Raimund, E-mail: raimund.margreiter@i-med.ac.at [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Surgery (Austria); Bale, Reto, E-mail: reto.bale@i-med.ac.at [Medical University Innsbruck, Clinic of Radiology, Department of Microinvasive Therapy (SIP) (Austria)

2012-10-15

317

Radio-Frequency Driven Dielectric Heaters for Non-Nuclear Testing in Nuclear Core Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and methods are provided through which a radiofrequency dielectric heater has a cylindrical form factor, a variable thermal energy deposition through variations in geometry and composition of a dielectric, and/or has a thermally isolated power input.

Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor); Godfroy, Thomas J. (Inventor); Bitteker, Leo (Inventor)

2006-01-01

318

Design and characterization of a radio-frequency dc/dc power converter  

E-print Network

The use of radio-frequency (RF) amplifier topologies in dc/dc power converters allows the operating frequency to be increased by more than two orders of magnitude over the frequency of conventional converters. This enables ...

Jackson, David A. (David Alexander)

2005-01-01

319

Excessive Hyperthermic Necrosis of a Pulmonary Lobe after Hypertonic Saline-Enhanced Monopolar Radiofrequency Ablation  

SciTech Connect

Although there has been a feasibility study of saline-enhanced radiofrequency ablation of the lung in rabbits, there has been no report on hypertonic saline-enhanced radiofrequency ablation of human pulmonary tumors or its complication. We report a case in which a large necrotic cavity was produced in the lung after hypertonic saline-enhanced radiofrequency ablation of recurrent metastatic tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma. Although hypertonic saline-enhanced radiofrequency ablation is powerful and efficient in local ablation, it is difficult to predict the exact extent of ablation, especially in the lungs. This can be dangerous, as there is a high chance of producing an ablation area much larger than expected and, hence, major complications. Special attention is required not to overablate while using this technique.

Kim, Tae Sung, E-mail: tskim@smc.samsung.co.kr; Lim, Hyo K. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hojoong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

2006-02-15

320

Endoscopic 3D-OCT reveals buried glands following radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus  

E-print Network

Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia is generally treated by endoscopic mucosal resection or esophagectomy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recent treatment that allows broad and superficial ablation for ...

Zhou, Chao

321

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

322

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

323

APPLICATION OF A FINITE-DIFFERENCE TECHNIQUE TO THE HUMAN RADIOFREQUENCY DOSIMETRY PROBLEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A powerful finite difference numerical technique has been applied to the human radiofrequency dosimetry problem. The method possesses inherent advantages over the method of moments approach in that its implementation requires much less computer memory. Consequently, it has the ca...

324

21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.  

...radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. 179.30 Section 179...radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. Radiofrequency radiation, including microwave frequencies, may be safely used...

2014-04-01

325

Computer simulation of a novel technique for Radio-Frequency Ablation of ventricular arrhythmias  

E-print Network

Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) is a rapid arrhythmia, most commonly due to reentrant electrical activity in the heart. A common treatment for VT is Radio-Frequency Ablation (RFA), which is minimally invasive, but requires ...

Rosbury, Tamara S

2006-01-01

326

Measurement of radio-frequency magnetic fluctuations in the VTF magnetic reconnection experiment  

E-print Network

In this thesis work, I designed, fabricated, and calibrated, a radio-frequency magnetic probe, subsequently used to measure magnetic turbulance in the reconnecting plasmas of the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF). Reconnecting ...

Whitney, John Peter, 1982-

2004-01-01

327

A computer simulation model for the prediction of temperature distributions in radiofrequency hyperthermia treatment  

E-print Network

of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE DECEMBER 1983 Major Subject: Bioengineering A COMPUTER SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN RADIOFREQUENCY HYPERTHERMIA TREATMENT A Thesis by JEANNE MARIE ROTHE Approved... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE DECEMBER 1983 Major Subject: Bioengineering A COMPUTER SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN RADIOFREQUENCY HYPERTHERMIA TREATMENT A Thesis by JEANNE MARIE ROTHE Approved...

Rothe, Jeanne Marie

2012-06-07

328

Radio-frequency tag with optoelectronic interface for distributed wireless chemical and biological sensor applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery-free, wireless optical chemical sensor with integral contactless power and data link is demonstrated. The chemical sensor and its optoelectronic interface form an integral part of a radio-frequency tag which we have developed specifically for use as a wireless chemical and biological sensor, and which is compatible with the International Standards Organisation ISO15693 radio-frequency identification (RFID) protocol. The chemical

Ivana Murkovi? Steinberg; Matthew D. Steinberg

2009-01-01

329

Evaluation of the measurement equipment for electromagnetic fields in the near-field and far-field zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Almost all measurements for assessment of electromagnetic radiation effect on human health are practically made in the near-field and intermediate zones around the emitter. However, the equations of classic electrodynamics could not be used for calculating the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the above mentioned zones. Unfortunately, the equipment used for the radiofrequency (RF), and microwave ranges

M. S. Israel; P. D. Chobanov

2000-01-01

330

Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Context The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. Objective To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes (“on” condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated (“off” condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm3) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Main Outcome Measure Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism (µmol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Results Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 µmol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.67–4.2]; P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001). Conclusions In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna. This finding is of unknown clinical significance. PMID:21343580

Volkow, Nora D.; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Vaska, Paul; Fowler, Joanna S.; Telang, Frank; Alexoff, Dave; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher

2011-01-01

331

CEM43?C thermal dose thresholds: a potential guide for magnetic resonance radiofrequency exposure levels?  

PubMed Central

Objective To define thresholds of safe local temperature increases for MR equipment that exposes patients to radiofrequency fields of high intensities for long duration. These MR systems induce heterogeneous energy absorption patterns inside the body and can create localised hotspots with a risk of overheating. Methods The MRI + EUREKA research consortium organised a “Thermal Workshop on RF Hotspots”. The available literature on thresholds for thermal damage and the validity of the thermal dose (TD) model were discussed. Results/Conclusions The following global TD threshold guidelines for safe use of MR are proposed: All persons: maximum local temperature of any tissue limited to 39 °CPersons with compromised thermoregulation AND Uncontrolled conditions: maximum local temperature limited to 39 °CControlled conditions: TD<2 CEM43°CPersons with uncompromised thermoregulation AND Uncontrolled conditions: TD<2 CEM43°CControlled conditions: TD<9 CEM43°C The following definitions are applied: Controlled conditions A medical doctor or a dedicated trained person can respond instantly to heat-induced physiological stress Compromised thermoregulation All persons with impaired systemic or reduced local thermoregulation PMID:23553588

Samaras, Theodoros; Yarmolenko, Pavel S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Neufeld, Esra; Kuster, Niels

2013-01-01

332

Short-duration exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation alters the chlorophyll fluorescence of duckweeds (Lemna minor).  

PubMed

Abstract Plants growing in natural environments are exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by various communication network base stations. The environmental concentration of this radiation is increasing rapidly with the congested deployment of base stations. Although numerous scientific studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of EMR on the physiology of humans and animals, there have been few attempts to investigate the effects of EMR on plants. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of EMR on photosynthesis by investigating the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) parameters of duckweed fronds. During the experiment, the fronds were tested with 2, 2.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 8?GHz EMR frequencies, which are not widely studied even though there is a potentially large concentration of these frequencies in the environment. The duckweed fronds were exposed to EMR for 30?min, 1?h and 24?h durations with electric field strength of 45-50?V/m for each frequency. The results indicated that exposure to EMR causes a change in the non-photochemical quenching of the duckweeds. The changes varied with the frequency of the EMR and were time-varying within a particular frequency. The temperature remained unchanged in the duckweed fronds upon exposure to EMR, which confirms that the effect is non-thermal. PMID:24131393

Senavirathna, Mudalige Don Hiranya Jayasanka; Takashi, Asaeda; Kimura, Yuichi

2014-12-01

333

Histological and cytological examination of rat reproductive tissue after short-time intermittent radiofrequency exposure.  

PubMed

The unfavourable outcomes of mobile phone use on male fertility have still not been fully elaborated. To establish the potentially adverse effects of everyday exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RF) on humans, we performed a controlled animal study that aimed to investigate the influence of RF radiation on rat testis histology as well as the amount, mobility, and structure of epididymal free sperm cell population. Eighteen adult male rats were divided into two groups of nine. One group comprised sham-exposed control animals, while the other group endured total body irradiation for an hour daily during two weeks. A 915 MHz RF field, power density of 2.4 W m(-2) and strength of 30 V m(-1) was generated in a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic chamber. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.6 W kg(-1). Body mass and temperature were measured before and after each exposure treatment. Immediately after the last exposure, the animals were sacrificed and testes removed and prepared for histological analysis. The free sperm cells were collected from the cauda epididymis and their quantity, quality, and morphology were microscopically determined using a haemocytometer. No statistically significant alteration in any of the endpoints was observed. This study found no evidence of an unfavourable effect of the applied RF radiation on testicular function or structure. Based on these results, we can conclude that short-time intermittent exposure to RF radiation does not represent a significant risk factor for rat reproductive functions. PMID:24384757

Troši?, Ivan?ica; Matauši?-Pišl, Mirjana; Pavi?i?, Ivan; Marjanovi?, Ana Marija

2013-12-01

334

Radiofrequency (RF) effects on blood cells, cardiac, endocrine, and immunological functions.  

PubMed

Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RFEMF) on the pituitary adrenocortical (ACTH), growth (GH), and thyroid (TSH) hormones have been extensively studied, and there is coherent research on reproductive hormones (FSH and LH). Those effects which have been identified are clearly caused by heating. The exposure thresholds for these effects in living mammals, including primates, have been established. There is limited evidence that indicates no interaction between RFEMF and the pineal gland or an effect on prolactin from the pituitary gland. Studies of RFEMF exposed blood cells have shown that changes or damage do not occur unless the cells are heated. White cells (leukocytes) are much more sensitive than red cells (erythrocytes) but white cell effects remain consistent with normal physiological responses to systemic temperature fluctuation. Lifetime studies of RFEMF exposed animals show no cumulative adverse effects in their endocrine, hematological, or immune systems. Cardiovascular tissue is not directly affected adversely in the absence of significant RFEMF heating or electric currents. The regulation of blood pressure is not influenced by ultra high frequency (UHF) RFEMF at levels commonly encountered in the use of mobile communication devices. PMID:14628314

Black, David R; Heynick, Louis N

2003-01-01

335

Radiofrequency coagulation of ventricular myocardium: improved prediction of lesion size by monitoring catheter tip temperature.  

PubMed

To assess the importance of voltage, current, impedance and catheter tip temperature for the prediction of the size of tissue injury induced by transcatheter radiofrequency application, radiofrequency pulses (500 kHz) were delivered both in vitro and in vivo to isolated ventricular preparations and the intact canine heart, respectively. Radiofrequency coagulations were performed using unipolar electrode configuration. Besides measurements of current and voltage which were used to calculate the delivered power and tissue impedance, the catheter tip temperature was monitored during each application using specially designed 6F USCI catheters with a built-in nickel/chromium-nickel thermoelement. Lesion dimensions were measured and the correlation between lesion volume and delivered radiofrequency energy, maximum changes in catheter tip temperature and the integral of the temperature curve were calculated. First, in a pilot in vitro investigation, 50 radiofrequency coagulations (3.2 W-22.4 W, pulse duration 10 s) were performed in ventricular preparations from freshly excised dog hearts. The correlation between applied radiofrequency energy and lesion volume was 0.87; the correlation between maximal catheter tip temperature and lesion volume was 0.82; the correlation between temperature integral and lesion volume was 0.9. In the intact dog heart, 44 radiofrequency pulses were delivered to the left and right ventricular endocardium in 12 anaesthetized dogs (exposure time: 10 s). Delivered power ranged between 5.6 W and 24.6 W; tissue impedance varied between 92 omega and 364 omega; lesion volume measured 0-273 mm3; developed peak temperatures ranged from 16.25 degrees C to 196 degrees C. The calculated integral beneath temperature curves measured 126-1971 degrees C.s. The correlation between applied radiofrequency energy and lesion volume was 0.32; the correlation between maximal catheter tip temperature and lesion volume was 0.61. Temperature integral correlated best with the assessed volume of myocardial necrosis (r = 0.7). No significant arrhythmogenic or haemodynamic side-effects were observed. Macroscopic examination showed a central depression surrounded by a zone of homogeneous coagulation. Vaporization and crater formation up to a depth of 4 mm were observed following three radiofrequency discharges. In two of these cases, rapid changes and oscillation of catheter tip temperature were observed. Thus, monitoring of catheter tip temperature during radiofrequency energy application improves the prediction of lesion size. In addition, temperature monitoring might improve the safety of the procedure with respect to the risk of perforation. PMID:2591398

Hindricks, G; Haverkamp, W; Gülker, H; Rissel, U; Budde, T; Richter, K D; Borggrefe, M; Breithardt, G

1989-11-01

336

Development of a novel radio-frequency negative hydrogen ion source in conically converging configurationa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volume-produced negative ion source still requires enhancement of current density with lower input RF (radio-frequency) power in lower operating pressure for various applications. To confirm recent observation of efficient negative ion production with a short cylindrical chamber with smaller effective plasma size, the RF-driven transformer-coupled plasma H- ion source at Seoul National University is modified by adopting a newly designed quartz RF window to reduce the chamber length. Experiments with the reduced chamber length show a few times enhancement of H- ion beam current compared to that extracted from the previous chamber design, which is consistent with the measured H- ion population. Nevertheless, decrease in H- ion beam current observed in low pressure regime below ˜5 mTorr owing to insufficient filtering of high energy electrons in the extraction region needs to be resolved to address the usefulness of electron temperature control by the change of geometrical configuration of the discharge chamber. A new discharge chamber with conically converging configuration has been developed, in which the chamber diameter decreases as approaching to the extraction region away from the planar RF antenna such that stronger filter magnetic field can be utilized to prohibit high energy electrons from transporting to the extraction region. First experimental results for the H- ion beam extraction with this configuration show that higher magnetic filter field makes peak negative beam currents happen in lower operating pressure. However, overall decrease in H- ion beam current due to the change of chamber geometry still requires further study of geometrical effect on particle transport and optimization of magnetic field in this novel configuration.

Jung, B. K.; Dang, J. J.; An, Y. H.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

2014-02-01

337

The Effects of Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Treatment and Hyperthermia on Malignant and Nonmalignant Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure of biological subjects to electromagnetic fields with a high frequency is associated with temperature elevation. In our recent studies, we reported that non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment at 13.56 MHz with the field ranging from 1 KeV to 20 KeV/m2 inhibits tumor progression in animals with abdominal tumor xenografts and enhances the anticancer effect of chemotherapy. The RF treatment was followed by temperature elevation in tumors to approximately 46 °C during 10 min of exposure. In contrast, the temperature of normal tissues remained within a normal range at approximately 37 °C. Whether all biological effects of RF treatment are limited to its hyperthermic property remains unclear. Here, we compared how RF and hyperthermia (HT) treatments change the proliferation rate, oxygen consumption and autophagy in malignant and nonmalignant cells. Methods: In the current study, cancer and nonmalignant cells of pancreatic origin were exposed to the RF field or to conventional HT at 46 °C, which was chosen based on our previous in vivo studies of the tumor-specific RF-induced hyperthermia. Results: Only RF treatment caused declines in cancer cell viability and proliferation. RF treatment also affected mitochondrial function in cancer cells more than HT treatment did and, unlike HT treatment, was followed by the elevation of autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Importantly, the effects of RF treatment were negligible in nonmalignant cells. Conclusion: The obtained data indicate that the effects of RF treatment are specific to cancer cells and are not limited to its hyperthermic property. PMID:25192147

Curley, Steven A.; Palalon, Flavio; Sanders, Kelly E.; Koshkina, Nadezhda V.

2014-01-01

338

Investigation of the superconducting properties of niobium radio-frequency cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-frequency (rf) superconducting cavities are widely used to increase the energy of a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The maximum gradients of cavities made of bulk niobium have constantly improved over the last ten years and they are approaching the theoretical limit of the material. Nevertheless, rf tests of niobium cavities are still showing some "anomalous" losses (so-called "Q-drop"), characterized by a marked increase of the surface resistance at high rf fields, in absence of field emission. A low temperature "in-situ" baking under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied by several laboratories to reduce those losses and improve the cavity's quality factor. Several models have been proposed to explain the cause of the Q-drop and the baking effect. We investigated the effect of baking on niobium material parameters by measuring the temperature dependence of a cavity's surface impedance and comparing it with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer's theory of superconductivity. It was found that baking allows interstitial oxygen to diffuse from the surface deeper into the bulk. This produces a significant reduction of the normal electrons' mean free path, which causes an increase of the quality factor. The optimum baking parameters are 120°C for 24-48 h. We were also able to identify the origin of the Q-drop as due to a high magnetic field, rather then electric field, by measuring the quality factor of a cavity as function of the rf field in a resonant mode with only magnetic field present on the surface. With the aid of a thermometry system, we were able to localize the losses in the high magnetic field region. We measured the Q-drop in cavities which had undergone different treatments, such as anodization, electropolishing and post-purification, and with different metallurgical properties and we study the effectiveness of baking in each case. As a result, none of the models proposed so far can explain all the experimental observations. We elaborated a model proposing a reduction of the lower critical field due to oxygen contamination as the cause for the Q-drop, and the dilution of oxygen into the bulk during bake-out as the cause for its recovery.

Ciovati, Gianluigi

339

Palliation of Soft Tissue Cancer Pain With Radiofrequency Ablation  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to treat pain from soft tissue neoplasms. RFA was performed on 15 painful soft tissue tumors in 14 patients. Tumors varied in histology and location and ranged in size from 2 to 20 cm. Patient pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) at baseline and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months post RFA. All patients had unresectable tumors or were poor operative candidates whose pain was poorly controlled by conventional treatment methods. BPI scores were divided into two categories: pain severity and interference of pain. Although not all scores were statistically significant, all mean scores trended down with increased time post ablation. Based on these outcomes, RFA appears to be a low-risk and well-tolerated procedure for pain palliation in patients with unresectable, painful soft tissue neoplasms. RFA is effective for short-term local pain control and may provide another option for failed chemotherapy or radiation therapy in patients with cancer. However, pain may transiently worsen, and relief is often temporary. PMID:15524075

Locklin, Julia K.; Mannes, Andrew; Berger, Ann; Wood, Bradford J.

2008-01-01

340

Pulsed radiofrequency application in the treatment of chronic pain.  

PubMed

The efficacy of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) in the treatment of painful lumbosacral spondylosis has been reported. This case series reviews 22 consecutive patients presenting to clinic who had been previously treated with PRF with good results. Patients being prescribed opioids were excluded. During the PRF application, tissue temperature was limited to 43 degrees C. A minimum of 200 mA of current was delivered in each case. The minimum current (at 50 Hz) necessary to stimulate the involved nerve was recorded. The duration of time from PRF treatment until the patient requested a subsequent application was documented. The effective duration of PRF in patients treated for lumbosacral spondylosis ranged from 5 to 18 months (mean +/- SD: 9 +/- 3.7 months; n = 16). PRF applications to dorsal root ganglia were effective from 2 to 12 months (7 +/- 3.8 months; n = 8). Similar results were observed when PRF was applied to cervical medial branch nerves, one suprascapular nerve, and one stellate ganglion. The mean (50 Hz) sensory stimulation thresholds obtained before treatment ranged from 0.08 V to 0.14 V. In this select population of patients not receiving controlled substances, who had a favorable response to a previous PRF application, the duration of pain relief supports the use of PRF as an effective pain treatment. PMID:17305676

Martin, Dan C; Willis, Mark L; Mullinax, L Ashley; Clarke, Natalie L; Homburger, Jay A; Berger, Ines H

2007-03-01

341

Value of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant disease that substantially affects public health worldwide. It is especially prevalent in east Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where the main etiology is the endemic status of chronic hepatitis B. Effective treatments with curative intent for early HCC include liver transplantation, liver resection (LR), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). RFA has become the most widely used local thermal ablation method in recent years because of its technical ease, safety, satisfactory local tumor control, and minimally invasive nature. This technique has also emerged as an important treatment strategy for HCC in recent years. RFA, liver transplantation, and hepatectomy can be complementary to one another in the treatment of HCC, and the outcome benefits have been demonstrated by numerous clinical studies. As a pretransplantation bridge therapy, RFA extends the average waiting time without increasing the risk of dropout or death. In contrast to LR, RFA causes almost no intra-abdominal adhesion, thus producing favorable conditions for subsequent liver transplantation. Many studies have demonstrated mutual interactions between RFA and hepatectomy, effectively expanding the operative indications for patients with HCC and enhancing the efficacy of these approaches. However, treated tumor tissue remains within the body after RFA, and residual tumors or satellite nodules can limit the effectiveness of this treatment. Therefore, future research should focus on this issue. PMID:24876721

Feng, Kai; Ma, Kuan-Sheng

2014-05-28

342

Radiofrequency radiation and gene/protein expression: a review.  

PubMed

Mobile telecommunications have developed considerably in recent years. With the proliferation of wireless technologies, there is much public anxiety about the potential health impact associated with exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation from these novel products. Contradictory scientific evidence, often reported in the popular media, has further fueled public concern. Some epidemiological studies have reported that ipsilateral use of a mobile phone is associated with an increased risk for brain tumors, while other studies have reported an association between brain tumor risk and mobile phone use for longer than 10 years. However, other large epidemiological studies have failed to find similar associations. Despite the existence of national and international RF-radiation exposure guidelines, there are increasing public demands for precaution with respect to human exposure to RF radiation. Since current epidemiological evidence is insufficient to make a definitive judgment on the health risks of low-level RF radiation exposure, laboratory evidence assessing biological plausibility and theoretical mechanisms of interaction are important. A number of studies have reported that RF radiation may induce alterations in gene/protein expression in a variety of cells/tissues that may be associated with potentially harmful health outcomes, while other studies have shown no clear effects related to RF radiation. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence related to changes in protein and gene expression induced by low-level RF radiation. PMID:19708776

McNamee, J P; Chauhan, V

2009-09-01

343

Disinfection of dairy and animal farm wastewater with radiofrequency power.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency (RF) power was investigated as a new, physical (nonchemical), thermal process to disinfect wastewater from dairy and animal facilities. Samples (n = 38) from 8 dairy, 2 calf, and 3 swine facilities in California were collected over a 3-yr period and characterized for their dielectric properties, chemical composition, and suitability for thermal processing using RF power. To establish efficacy for disinfection, selected samples were inoculated with high levels (10(6) to 10(9) cfu/mL) of bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis and processed with an RF prototype system. The capabilities of RF power as a method for thermal disinfection of wastewater were demonstrated when bacteria pathogens were completely and rapidly (<1 min) inactivated when temperatures of 60 to 65 degrees C were achieved. Furthermore, RF technology can be used for large-scale, batch or continuous and portable applications, allowing significant improvements in energy-use efficiencies compared with conventional thermal (surface heating) technologies. Therefore, RF power has potential as an alternative to disinfect dairy/animal farm wastewater before recycling. PMID:16230716

Lagunas-Solar, M C; Cullor, J S; Zeng, N X; Truong, T D; Essert, T K; Smith, W L; Piña, C

2005-11-01

344

Radio-frequency measurement of an asymmetric single electron transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the invention of the radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET) by Schoelkopf et al.,[1] most measurements have focused on the symmetric single electron transistor. It has been shown, however, that the symmetric SET has a rather low measurement efficiency in its normal working regime.[2][3] Recently, it has been pointed out that an asymmetric SET can be considerably more efficient than a symmetric SET as a quantum amplifier. In this case the measurement efficiency of the asymmetric SET becomes similar to that of the quantum point contact (QPC) detector which can approach the quantum limit. We investigate the asymmetric SET by fabricating Al/AlOx SETs with junction areas 40x40 nm^2 and 40x80nm^2 and total resistance of about 25k?. The results of RF and DC characterization of such asymmetric SETs will be discussed. [1] R. J. Schoelkopf, P. Wahlgren, A. A. Kozhevnikov, P. Delsing, D. E. Prober, Science, 280, 1242 (1998). [2] A. N. Korotkov, Phys. Rev. B, 63, 085312 (2001); 63, 115403 (2001). [3] D. Mozyrsky, I. Martin, and M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 018303 (2004). [4] S. A. Gurvitz and G. P. Berman, Phys. Rev. B, 72 , 073303(2005).

Ji, Zhongqing; Xue, Weiwei; Rimberg, A. J.

2007-03-01

345

Sympathetic radiofrequency neurolysis for unilateral lumbar hyperhidrosis: a case report.  

PubMed

Patients with hyperhidrosis suffer from physical, social and mental discomfort which often cannot be treated sufficiently using conservative measures. A new percutaneous approach to sympathectomy using radiofrequency denervation has seemed to offer longer duration of action and less incidence of post sympathetic neuralgia. This article reports the authors' experience with sympathetic RF neurolysis in a 35 year old male with right unilateral lumbar hyperhidrosis. Under scopy guided localization of the lumbar spine sympathetic blockade with local anesthetics to L2-5 vertebral levels were performed as a diagnostic block. Lesion effectiveness is monitored by bilateral feet skin temperature measurement. Clinical effects produced by the first sympathetic ganglion block were sustained for 1 week and then RF neurolysis of lumbar sympathetic ganglion was performed to the same levels for a longer effect. The procedure was accomplished within 30 minutes and the patient was discharged within 2 hours after the procedure. Hyperhidrosis was relieved after the procedure and there were no postsympathectomy neuralgia and sexual dysfunction. The patient obtained improvement of lumbar hyperhidrosis at his first month of follow- up and was satisfied with the outcome. In conclusion, RF neurolysis of lumbar sympathetic ganglions is a safe and effective palliative procedure with minimal invasiveness for relieving excessive sweat secretion in patients with localized hyperhidrosis. PMID:19085180

A?ik, Züleyha Soytürk; Orbey, Ba?ak Ceyda; A?ik, Ibrahim

2008-07-01

346

Radio-frequency plasma transducer for use in harsh environments.  

PubMed

We describe a compact transducer used to generate and modulate low-intensity radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma (RF-APP) for high temperature gap measurement and generation of air-coupled ultrasound. The new transducer consists of a quarter-wave transmission line where the ground return path is a coaxial solenoid winding. The RF-APP is initiated at the open end of the transmission line and stabilized by passive negative feedback between the electrical impedance of the plasma and the energy stored in the solenoid. The electrical impedance of the plasma was measured at the lower-voltage source end of the transducer, eliminating the need to measure kilovolt-level voltages near the discharge. We describe the use of a 7 MHz RF-APP prototype as a harsh-environment clearance sensor to demonstrate the suitability of plasma discharges for a common nondestructive inspection application. Clearance measurements of 0-5 mm were performed on a rotating calibration target with a measurement precision of 0.1 mm and a 20 kHz sampling rate. PMID:17979443

May, Andrew; Andarawis, Emad

2007-10-01

347

Quality Improvement Guidelines for Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumours  

SciTech Connect

The development of image-guided percutaneous techniques for local tumour ablation has been one of the major advances in the treatment of liver malignancies. Among these methods, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is currently established as the primary ablative modality at most institutions. RFA is accepted as the best therapeutic choice for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when liver transplantation or surgical resection are not suitable options [1, 2]. In addition, RFA is considered a viable alternate to surgery (1) for inoperable patients with limited hepatic metastatic disease, especially from colorectal cancer, and (2) for patients deemed ineligible for surgical resection because of extent and location of the disease or concurrent medical conditions [3]. These guidelines were written to be used in quality-improvement programs to assess RFA of HCC and liver metastases. The most important processes of care are (1) patient selection, (2) performing the procedure, and (3) monitoring the patient. The outcome measures or indicators for these processes are indications, success rates, and complication rates.

Crocetti, Laura, E-mail: l.crocetti@med.unipi.i [University of Pisa, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Hepatology, Liver Transplants, and Infectious Diseases (Italy); Baere, Thierry de [Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Lencioni, Riccardo [University of Pisa, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Hepatology, Liver Transplants, and Infectious Diseases (Italy)

2010-02-15

348

Radio-Frequency Current Drive in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Two methods of radio-frequency (rf) current drive that are well suited to controlling and sustaining the current profile in burning plasma experiments have been studied in the DIII-D tokamak. Fast-wave current drive (FWCD) gave centrally peaked current densities that increased linearly with central electron temperature. While high harmonic absorption of the fast waves on energetic beam ions could reduce the available power for current drive, FWCD figures of merit as high as {gamma}{sub FW} = 0.5 x 10{sup 19} A/m{sup 2}.W were still achieved. Electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) was shown to be localized to the region of power deposition, with a current drive efficiency that decreased as the magnetic well depth increased. The detrimental effect of the magnetic well could be mitigated by raising the electron beta. ECCD figures of merit as high as {gamma}{sub EC} = 0.5 x 10{sup 19} A/m{sup 2}.W were measured for central deposition. The experimental FWCD and ECCD were both extensively tested against theoretical models and were found to be in excellent agreement. Validation of these predictive models of rf current drive aids in scenario development for next-step tokamaks.

Petty, C.C. [General Atomics (United States)

2005-10-15

349

Radiofrequency Ablation for Early-Stage Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

This review examines studies of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and discusses the role of RFA in treatment of early-stage NSCLC. RFA is usually performed under local anesthesia with computed tomography guidance. RFA-associated mortality, while being rare, can result from pulmonary events. RFA causes pneumothorax in up to 63% of cases, although pneumothorax requiring chest drainage occurs in less than 15% of procedures. Other severe complications are rare. After RFA of stage I NSCLC, 31–42% of patients show local progression. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 78% to 100%, 53% to 86%, 36% to 88%, and 25% to 61%, respectively. The median survival time ranged from 29 to 67 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cancer-specific survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 89% to 100%, 92% to 93%, and 59% to 88%, respectively. RFA has a higher local failure rate than sublobar resection and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Therefore, RFA may currently be reserved for early-stage NSCLC patients who are unfit for sublobar resection or SBRT. Various technologies are being developed to improve clinical outcomes of RFA for early-stage NSCLC. PMID:24995270

Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Matsui, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Susumu

2014-01-01

350

Software-assisted post-interventional assessment of radiofrequency ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is becoming a standard procedure for minimally invasive tumor treatment in clinical practice. Due to its common technical procedure, low complication rate, and low cost, RFA has become an alternative to surgical resection in the liver. To evaluate the therapy success of RFA, thorough follow-up imaging is essential. Conventionally, shape, size, and position of tumor and coagulation are visually compared in a side-by-side manner using pre- and post-interventional images. To objectify the verification of the treatment success, a novel software assistant allowing for fast and accurate comparison of tumor and coagulation is proposed. In this work, the clinical value of the proposed assessment software is evaluated. In a retrospective clinical study, 39 cases of hepatic tumor ablation are evaluated using the prototype software and conventional image comparison by four radiologists with different levels of experience. The cases are randomized and evaluated in two sessions to avoid any recall-bias. Self-confidence of correct diagnosis (local recurrence vs. no local recurrence) on a six-point scale is given for each case by the radiologists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values as well as receiver operating curves are calculated for both methods. It is shown that the software-assisted method allows physicians to correctly identify local tumor recurrence with a higher percentage than the conventional method (sensitivity: 0.6 vs. 0.35), whereas the percentage of correctly identified successful ablations is slightly reduced (specificity: 0.83 vs. 0.89).

Rieder, Christian; Geisler, Benjamin; Bruners, Philipp; Isfort, Peter; Na, Hong-Sik; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Hahn, Horst K.

2014-03-01

351

Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation.  

PubMed

We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases. Our approach to the tumors was simplified, using a single point of entrance for both RFTA and percutaneous osteoplasty. In the benign cases, clinical success was defined as resolution of pain within 1 month of the procedure and no recurrence during the follow-up period. It was achieved in 19 out of the 21 patients in which curative treatment was attempted. The two non-resolved cases were a patient with osteoid osteoma who developed a symptomatic bone infarct after a symptom-free period of 2 months and another with femoral diaphysis osteoblastoma who suffered a pathological fracture after 8 months without symptoms. The procedure was considered clinically successful in the five cases (4 malign and 1 benign) in which palliative treatment was attempted, because there was a mean (±SD) reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from 9.0±0.4 before the procedure to <4 during the follow-up period. PMID:19586734

Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Castellano García, María del Mar; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Martínez Montes, Jose Luis; Ruiz García, Manuel; Tristán Fernández, Juan Miguel

2011-01-01

352

Radio-frequency plasma transducer for use in harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

We describe a compact transducer used to generate and modulate low-intensity radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma (RF-APP) for high temperature gap measurement and generation of air-coupled ultrasound. The new transducer consists of a quarter-wave transmission line where the ground return path is a coaxial solenoid winding. The RF-APP is initiated at the open end of the transmission line and stabilized by passive negative feedback between the electrical impedance of the plasma and the energy stored in the solenoid. The electrical impedance of the plasma was measured at the lower-voltage source end of the transducer, eliminating the need to measure kilovolt-level voltages near the discharge. We describe the use of a 7 MHz RF-APP prototype as a harsh-environment clearance sensor to demonstrate the suitability of plasma discharges for a common nondestructive inspection application. Clearance measurements of 0-5 mm were performed on a rotating calibration target with a measurement precision of 0.1 mm and a 20 kHz sampling rate.

May, Andrew; Andarawis, Emad [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)

2007-10-15

353

PET guidance for liver radiofrequency ablation: an evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is emerging as the primary mode of treatment of unresectable malignant liver tumors. With current intraoperative imaging modalities, quick, precise, and complete localization of lesions remains a challenge for liver RFA. Fusion of intraoperative CT and preoperative PET images, which relies on PET and CT registration, can produce a new image with complementary metabolic and anatomic data and thus greatly improve the targeting accuracy. Unlike neurological images, alignment of abdominal images by combined PET/CT scanner is prone to errors as a result of large nonrigid misalignment in abdominal images. Our use of a normalized mutual information-based 3D nonrigid registration technique has proven powerful for whole-body PET and CT registration. We demonstrate here that this technique is capable of acceptable abdominal PET and CT registration as well. In five clinical cases, both qualitative and quantitative validation showed that the registration is robust and accurate. Quantitative accuracy was evaluated by comparison between the result from the algorithm and clinical experts. The accuracy of registration is much less than the allowable margin in liver RFA. Study findings show the technique's potential to enable the augmentation of intraoperative CT with preoperative PET to reduce procedure time, avoid repeating procedures, provide clinicians with complementary functional/anatomic maps, avoid omitting dispersed small lesions, and improve the accuracy of tumor targeting in liver RFA.

Lei, Peng; Dandekar, Omkar; Mahmoud, Faaiza; Widlus, David; Malloy, Patrick; Shekhar, Raj

2007-03-01

354

Hepatectomy for Recurrent Colorectal Liver Metastases after Radiofrequency Ablation  

PubMed Central

STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background The results of surgery for recurrent colorectal liver metastases (CLM) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have not been evaluated. Methods From 1993 to 2009, data on patients who underwent resection or RFA for recurrent CLM were collected prospectively. Inclusion criteria were: RFA as initial treatment of CLM, resection of recurrent CLM after RFA. Postoperative results and oncologic outcome were analyzed. Results Twenty-eight patients (median number of tumours 1 [range = 1 – 3], median size 2.75 [range = 2 – 4] cm) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 22 had recurrence at the site of RFA only, 2 developed new lesions, while 4 had both recurrent and de novo metastases. At the time of resection, patients had a median number of 1 (range = 1 – 13) CLM and median maximum tumour diameter was 5 (range = 1.8 – 11) cm, significantly larger than at the time of RFA (p = 0.02). Ninety-day postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were 46% and 7% respectively. After median follow-up of 35 (range = 0 – 70) months, Kaplan-Meier analyzed 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 60% and 33% respectively. Carcinoembryonic antigen plasma level > 5 ng/mL at the time of resection and a rectal primary tumour were associated with worse survival (p = 0.041 and p = 0.02 respectively). Conclusions Resection for recurrence after RFA is associated with significant morbidity and modest long-term benefit. PMID:21541936

Brouquet, Antoine; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Badgwell, Brian D.; Loyer, Evelyne M.; Kaur, Harmeet; Curley, Steven A.; Abdalla, Eddie K.

2014-01-01

355

Incidence and Cause of Hypertension During Adrenal Radiofrequency Ablation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and cause of hypertension prospectively during adrenal radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: For this study, approved by our institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients who received RFA for adrenal tumors (adrenal ablation) and other abdominal tumors (nonadrenal ablation) were included in this prospective study. Blood pressure was monitored during RFA. Serum adrenal hormone levels including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels were measured before and during RFA. The respective incidences of procedural hypertension (systolic blood pressure >200 mmHg) of the two patient groups were compared. Factors correlating with procedural systolic blood pressure were evaluated by regression analysis.ResultsNine patients underwent adrenal RFA and another 9 patients liver (n = 5) and renal (n = 4) RFA. Asymptomatic procedural hypertension that returned to the baseline by injecting calcium blocker was found in 7 (38.9%) of 18 patients. The incidence of procedural hypertension was significantly higher in the adrenal ablation group (66.7%, 6/9) than in the nonadrenal ablation group (11.1%, 1/9, P < 0.0498). Procedural systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with serum epinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.68, P < 0.0001) and norepinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.72, P < 0.0001) levels during RFA. The other adrenal hormones did not show correlation with procedural systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during adrenal RFA because of the release of catecholamine.

Yamakado, Koichiro, E-mail: yama@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan); Yamada, Tomomi [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Translational Medicine (Japan); Yamanaka, Takashi; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)

2012-12-15

356

Suppression of hydride precipitates in niobium superconducting radio-frequency cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Niobium hydride is a suspected contributor to degraded niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity performance by Q slope and Q disease. The concentration and distribution of hydrogen atoms in niobium can be strongly affected by the cavity processing treatments. This study provides guidance for cavity processing based on density functional theory calculations of the properties of common processing impurity species—hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon—in the body-centered cubic (bcc) niobium lattice. We demonstrate that some fundamental properties are shared between the impurity atoms, such as anionic character in niobium. The strain field produced, however, by hydrogen atoms is both geometrically different and substantially weaker than the strain field produced by the other impurities. We focus on the interaction between oxygen and hydrogen atoms in the lattice, and demonstrate that the elastic interactions between these species and the bcc niobium lattice cause trapping of hydrogen and oxygen atoms by bcc niobium lattice vacancies. We also show that the attraction of oxygen to a lattice vacancy is substantially stronger than the attraction of hydrogen to the vacancy. Additionally, hydrogen dissolved in niobium tetrahedral interstitial sites can be trapped by oxygen, nitrogen and possibly carbon atoms dissolved in octahedral interstitial sites. These results indicate that the concentration of oxygen in the bcc lattice can have a strong impact on the ability of hydrogen to form detrimental phases. Based on our results and a literature survey, we propose a mechanism for the success of the low-temperature annealing step applied to niobium SRF cavities. We also recommend further examination of nitrogen and carbon in bcc niobium, and particularly the role that nitrogen can play in preventing detrimental hydride phase formation.

Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

2013-10-01

357

Self-consistent modeling of radio-frequency plasma generation in stellarators  

SciTech Connect

A self-consistent model of radio-frequency (RF) plasma generation in stellarators in the ion cyclotron frequency range is described. The model includes equations for the particle and energy balance and boundary conditions for Maxwell’s equations. The equation of charged particle balance takes into account the influx of particles due to ionization and their loss via diffusion and convection. The equation of electron energy balance takes into account the RF heating power source, as well as energy losses due to the excitation and electron-impact ionization of gas atoms, energy exchange via Coulomb collisions, and plasma heat conduction. The deposited RF power is calculated by solving the boundary problem for Maxwell’s equations. When describing the dissipation of the energy of the RF field, collisional absorption and Landau damping are taken into account. At each time step, Maxwell’s equations are solved for the current profiles of the plasma density and plasma temperature. The calculations are performed for a cylindrical plasma. The plasma is assumed to be axisymmetric and homogeneous along the plasma column. The system of balance equations is solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. Maxwell’s equations are solved in a one-dimensional approximation by using the Fourier transformation along the azimuthal and longitudinal coordinates. Results of simulations of RF plasma generation in the Uragan-2M stellarator by using a frame antenna operating at frequencies lower than the ion cyclotron frequency are presented. The calculations show that the slow wave generated by the antenna is efficiently absorbed at the periphery of the plasma column, due to which only a small fraction of the input power reaches the confinement region. As a result, the temperature on the axis of the plasma column remains low, whereas at the periphery it is substantially higher. This leads to strong absorption of the RF field at the periphery via the Landau mechanism.

Moiseenko, V. E., E-mail: moiseenk@ipp.kharkov.ua; Stadnik, Yu. S., E-mail: stadnikys@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, National Science Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine); Lysoivan, A. I., E-mail: a.lyssoivan@fz-juelich.de [Royal Military Academy, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, Laboratory for Plasma Physics (Belgium); Korovin, V. B. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, National Science Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)] [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, National Science Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)

2013-11-15

358

Evaluation of the current radiofrequency ablation systems using axiomatic design theory.  

PubMed

This article evaluates current radiofrequency ablation systems using axiomatic design theory. Due to its minimally invasive procedure, short-time hospital stay, low cost, and tumour metastasis treatment, the radiofrequency ablation technique has been playing an important role in tumour treatment in recent decades. Although the radiofrequency ablation technique has many advantages, some issues still need to be addressed. Among these issues, the two most important are as follows: (1) the size of tumours to be removed (has to be larger than 3 cm in diameter) and (2) cleanness of the removal. Many device solutions have been proposed to address the two issues. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the systematic evaluation of these solutions. This article evaluates these systems in terms of their solution principles (or simply called conceptual design in general product design theory) using a design theory called axiomatic design theory. In addition, with the axiomatic design theory, a better conceptual design in terms of its feasibility to cope with incomplete target tissue necrosis from the large size of tumours has been found. The detailed analysis and simulation of the new conceptual design are conducted using finite element approach. The results in this article are proved by the information of animal experiments and clinical practices obtained from the literature. This study thus contributes to the current knowledge to further developments in radiofrequency ablation systems and procedure guidelines for physicians to perform the radiofrequency ablation operation more effectively. PMID:24705341

Zhang, Bing; Moser, Michael A J; Luo, Yigang; Zhang, Edwin M; Zhang, Wenjun

2014-04-01

359

Biophysical characteristics of radiofrequency lesion formation in vivo: Dynamics of catheter tip–tissue contact evaluated by intracardiac echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

During clinical radiofrequency catheter ablation a wide range of delivered power may be necessary to achieve success despite an apparently stable catheter position on fluoroscopy. The purpose of this study was to use intracardiac echocardiography to characterize the relation between catheter tip–tissue contact and the efficiency of heating during applications of radiofrequency energy in vivo and to determine whether intracardiac

Jonathan M. Kalman; Adam P. Fitzpatrick; Jeffrey E. Olgin; Michael C. Chin; Randall J. Lee; Melvin M. Scheinman; Michael D. Lesh

1997-01-01

360

Radio-frequency single-electron transistor: Toward the shot-noise limit A. Aassime,a)  

E-print Network

to a few kHz. With the invention of the radio-frequency SET rf-SET ,5 the SET was made fast and veryRadio-frequency single-electron transistor: Toward the shot-noise limit A. Aassime,a) D. Gunnarsson is embedded. We measured the charge sensitivity of this radio-frequency single-electron transistor to be 3

361

Screen printed flexible radiofrequency identification tag for oxygen monitoring.  

PubMed

In this work, a radiofrequency identification (RFID) tag with an optical indicator for the measurement of gaseous oxygen is described. It consists of an O2 sensing membrane of PtOEP together with a full electronic system for RFID communication, all printed on a flexible substrate. The membrane is excited by an LED at 385 nm wavelength and the intensity of the luminescence generated is registered by means of a digital color detector. The output data corresponding to the red coordinate of the RGB color space is directly related to the concentration of O2, and it is sent to a microcontroller. The RFID tag is designed and implemented by screen printing on a flexible substrate for the wireless transmission of the measurement to a remote reader. It can operate in both active and passive mode, obtaining the power supply from the electromagnetic waves of the RFID reader or from a small battery, respectively. This system has been fully characterized and calibrated including temperature drifts, showing a high-resolution performance that allows measurement of very low values of oxygen content. Therefore this system is perfectly suitable for its use in modified atmosphere packaging where the oxygen concentration is reduced below 2%. As the reading of the O2 concentration inside the envelope is carried out with an external RFID reader using wireless communication, there is no need for perforations for probes or wires, so the packaging remains completely closed. With the presented device, a limit of detection of 40 ppm and a resolution as low as 0.1 ppm of O2 can be reached with a low power consumption of 3.55 mA. PMID:24116378

Martínez-Olmos, A; Fernández-Salmerón, J; Lopez-Ruiz, N; Rivadeneyra Torres, A; Capitan-Vallvey, L F; Palma, A J

2013-11-19

362

Preoperative radiofrequency ablation in painful osteolytic long bone metastases.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine whether Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) followed by prophylactic internal fixation produces better palliation in terms of pain and reduces the need for blood transfusion more than radiotherapy and surgical stabilization (RT-SS). Patients with solitary long bone metastases and a pain score of 5 or more on the VAS scale were selected. Fifteen patients were treated with RFA and surgical stabilization (RFA-SS) and were compared with a matched group (15 subjects) treated by radiotherapy and surgical stabilization (RT-SS). A complete response in terms of pain relief at 12 weeks was documented in 20% (3/15) and 533% (8/15) of the subjects treated by RT-SS or RFA-SS, respectively (p = 0.027). The overall response rate at 12 weeks was 93.3% (14 patients) in the group treated by RFA-SS and 59.9% (9 patients) in the group treated by RT-SS (p = 0.048). Although recurrent pain was documented more frequently after RT-SS (26.6%) than after RFA-SS (6.7%) the difference did not reach statistical significance. The morbidity related to RT-SS did not significantly differ when the treatment was associated with RFA. We observed a reduction in blood transfusion, as 3 patients in the RT-SS group required a blood transfusion, versus none in the RFA-SS group. Our results suggest that RFA-SS is safe and is more effective than RT-SS; furthermore, RFA may become an option for patients with metastases of the long bones to prevent tumour dissemination and reduce intraoperative blood loss. The findings described here should serve as a framework around which to design future clinical trials. PMID:23019787

Di Francesco, Alexander; Flamini, Stefano; Zugaro, Luigi; Zoccali, Carmine

2012-08-01

363

Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

Mylona, Sophia, E-mail: mylonasophia@yahoo.com; Karagiannis, Georgios, E-mail: gekaragiannis@yahoo.gr; Patsoura, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.patsoura@yahoo.gr [Hellenic Red Cross Hospital 'Korgialenio-Benakio' (Greece); Galani, Panagiota, E-mail: gioulagalani@yahoo.com [Amalia Fleming Hospital (Greece); Pomoni, Maria, E-mail: marypomoni@gmail.com [Evgenidion Hospital (Greece); Thanos, Loukas, E-mail: loutharad@yahoo.com [Sotiria Hospital (Greece)

2012-08-15

364

A nanoengineered embolic agent for precise radiofrequency ablation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the work is to investigate whether the electromagnetic properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in the presence of radiofrequency (RF) energy is (1) safe, and (2) improves the precision of the therapeutic efficiency of the RF-ablation (RFA) procedure. An in vitro phantom was created for evaluating temperature near RF treated nanotubes. For the in vivo study, three baboons and six pigs were submitted for RFA procedure in superior/inferior kidney poles embolized with a non-adherent, lipophilic embolic agent (marsembol) with or without MWCNT. Tissue damage in the surrounding kill zone was assayed through caspase-3 activation. The in vitro results showed marked heat increase only in the region of the nanotubes. In vivo, necrosis/ischemic damage resulted from RFA therapy alone, RFA plus marsembol only. In marsembol + MWCNT condition, dramatic disruption of cell membranes and sub-cellular organelles was found whereas the nuclear membranes and basal cell membranes remained largely intact. The marsembol vaporized under RFA and tissue fluid filled the space. This caused the MWCNT to cluster within the new aqueous environment. RFA plus marsembol + MWCNT created a well-defined demarcation between healthy and apoptotic cells as evidenced by a marked reduction of caspase-3 expression. By contrast, there was a much less defined ablation zone in the absence of MWCNT. In conclusion, the combination of RFA plus marsembol + MWCNT embolization delineated the kill zone in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that MWCNTs remain in the ablation region thus minimizing their migration to the systemic circulation. PMID:24449052

Rolland, Pierre Henri; Berry, Joel L; Louis, Guillaume; Velly, Lionel; Vidal, Vincent; Brige, Pauline; Mayakonda, Vinuta; Carroll, David L

2014-05-01

365

Lung Tumor Radiofrequency Ablation: Where Do We Stand?  

SciTech Connect

Today, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of primary and metastatic lung tumor is increasingly used. Because RFA is most often used with curative intent, preablation workup must be a preoperative workup. General anesthesia provides higher feasibility than conscious sedation. The electrode positioning must be performed under computed tomography for sake of accuracy. The delivery of RFA must be adapted to tumor location, with different impedances used when treating tumors with or without pleural contact. The estimated rate of incomplete local treatment at 18 months was 7% (95% confidence interval, 3-14) per tumor, with incomplete treatment depicted at 4 months (n = 1), 6 months (n = 2), 9 months (n = 2), and 12 months (n = 2). Overall survival and lung disease-free survival at 18 months were, respectively, 71 and 34%. Size is a key point for tumor selection because large size is predictive of incomplete local treatment and poor survival. The ratio of ablation volume relative to tumor volume is predictive of complete ablation. Follow-up computed tomography that relies on the size of the ablation zone demonstrates the presence of incomplete ablation. Positron emission tomography might be an interesting option. Chest tube placement for pneumothorax is reported in 8 to 12%. Alveolar hemorrhage and postprocedure hemoptysis occurred in approximately 10% of procedures and rarely required specific treatment. Death was mostly related to single-lung patients and hilar tumors. No modification of forced expiratory volume in the first second between pre- and post-RFA at 2 months was found. RFA in the lung provides a high local efficacy rate. The use of RFA as a palliative tool in combination with chemotherapy remains to be explored.

Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: debaere@igr.fr [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

2011-04-15

366

Radiofrequency balloon angioplasty. Rationale and proof of principle.  

PubMed

Post-angioplasty restenosis (PARS) in atherosclerotic lesions of medium and small arteries occurs in about one-third of cases in the first year following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (early PARS). PARS includes acute spasm, dissection with reclosure, elastic recoil, fibrocellular proliferative response, and progressive atheromatous disease. Fibrocellular proliferation (possibly initiated by platelet derived growth factor) is felt to be culpable in many cases of early PARS (months). Pharmacologic regimens, stents, and thermal welding of the intimal-medial cracks of PTA are among the interventions being developed to deal with PARS. Radiofrequency (RF) current as a source of thermal energy may be useful in combination with balloon angioplasty to reduce PARS. Ideally, this combination would (1) weld intimal-medial cracks of PTA; (2) mold plaque and normal vessel to increase lumen diameters without creating intimal-medial cracks; and (3) destroy medial smooth muscle cells and multipotential cells (cellular substrate of PARS). Canine in vivo studies have established the feasibility of RF-mediated vascular tissue welding. Human aortic specimens (N = 28) were manually dissected into intima-media and media-adventitia layers. Bipolar RF energy (650 KHz, total 300 J) and mechanical pressure (1 atm) (experimental group, N = 24) or mechanical pressure alone (control group, N = 4) were applied to the reapposed specimen layers in a special chamber. The chamber was modified with a bipolar electrode designed to reproduce that planned for an RF balloon angioplasty catheter. Welding was demonstrated in normal and atherosclerotic treated specimens (23/24 or 96%) but not controls (0/4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2974840

Becker, G J; Lee, B I; Waller, B F; Barry, K J; Kaplan, J; Connolly, R; Dreesen, R G; Nardella, P

1988-11-01

367

Spectroscopic evaluation of a compact magnetically boosted radiofrequency glow discharge for time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A compact magnetically boosted radiofrequency glow discharge (GD) has been designed, constructed and its analytical potential evaluated by its coupling to a mass spectrometer (MS). Simple modifications to the original source configuration permitted the insertion of permanent magnets. Small cylindrical Nd-Fe-B magnets (diameter = 4 mm, h = 10 mm) were placed in an in-house-modified GD holder disc that allows easy and fast exchange of the magnets. The different processes taking place within the GD plasma under the influence of a magnetic field, such as sputtering, ionisation processes and ion transport into the MS, were studied using different GD operating conditions. Changes to the ionisation and ion transport efficiency caused by the magnetic field were studied using an rf-GD-TOFMS setup. A magnetic field of 60-75 gauss (G) was found not to affect the sputtering rates but to enhance the analyte ion signal intensities while decreasing the Ar species ion signals. Moreover, magnetic fields in this range were shown not to modify the crater shapes, enabling the fast and sensitive high depth resolved analysis of relatively thick coated samples (micrometre) by using the designed compact magnetically boosted rf-GD-TOFMS. PMID:19259646

Vega, P; Pisonero, J; Bordel, N; Tempez, A; Ganciu, M; Sanz-Medel, A

2009-05-01

368

[Radiofrequency ablation in ventricular tachycardia: initial experience and evaluation of its limitations].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to report our initial experience with radiofrequency catheter ablation in 21 patients with ventricular tachycardia of different etiologies and to evaluate the causes which play a role in its limitation. The results show a low rate of effectiveness: total clinical success of 43%. Nevertheless there was a high success rate in a specific subsets of patients. The results depends on several factors: the electrophysiologic mechanisms and substrates of the tachycardia, the criteria to localize the critical area perpetuating the arrhythmia and the biophysical aspects of radiofrequency energy. Its usefulness is manifested in ventricular tachycardia with structurally normal heart and it has a limited success in cases with organic heart disease. Improvement of technical aspects and better understanding of the mechanisms of the tachycardia and characteristics of the target site will enhance the results of radiofrequency catheter ablation in ventricular tachycardia. PMID:7979818

Velázquez, E; Rosas, F; Frank, R; Tonet, J; Fontaine, G; Lascault, G; Gallais, Y

1994-01-01

369

Endoscopic 3D-OCT reveals buried glands following radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia is generally treated by endoscopic mucosal resection or esophagectomy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recent treatment that allows broad and superficial ablation for BE. Endoscopic three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) is a volumetric imaging technique that is uniquely suited for follow-up surveillance of RFA treatment. 3D-OCT uses a thin fiberoptic imaging catheter placed down the working channel of a conventional endoscope. 3D-OCT enables en face and cross-sectional evaluation of the esophagus for detection of residual BE, neo-squamous mucosa, or buried BE glands. Patients who had undergone RFA treatment with the BARRX HALO90 system were recruited and imaged with endoscopic 3D-OCT before and after (3-25 months) RFA treatment. 3D-OCT findings were compared to pinch biopsy to confirm the presence or absence of squamous epithelium or buried BE glands following RFA. Gastric, BE, and squamous epithelium were readily distinguished from 3D-OCT over a large volumetric field of view (8mmx20mmx1.6 mm) with ~5?m axial resolution. In all patients, neosquamous epithelium (NSE) was observed in regions previously treated with RFA. A small number of isolated glands were found buried beneath the regenerated NSE and lamina propria. NSE is a marker of successful ablative therapy, while buried glands may have malignant potential and are difficult to detect using conventional video endoscopy and random biopsy. Buried glands were not observed with pinch biopsy due to their extremely sparse distribution. These results indicate a potential benefit of endoscopic 3D-OCT for follow-up assessment of ablative treatments for BE.

Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Becker, Lauren; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Huang, Qin; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2010-02-01

370

Radio-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the interstitial treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology, the method of interstitial laser photocoagulation and the monopolar RF- needle coagulation can be used as well as other methods, e.g. the microwave exposure, alcohol injection, ultrasound or hot water irrigation. This article will present latest results of interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency alternating current in bipolar technique. Therefore basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. THe efficiency of the developed applicators were examined using egg white and in in vitro experiments with porcine liver tissue. Bipolar needles with different diameters were built and tested. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through an integrated central flushing port. A bipolar needle has been developed for the treatment of concha hyperplasia which can be used as the monopolar pendant with similar results in partial tissue coagulation but without current flow in the sensitive head region. First pathologic investigations pointed out that with the use of the bipolar technique the surface of the concha with the ciliary epithelium is less affected due tot he limited spatial current distribution. Furthermore the design of a multi-electrode needle is presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon the use of a partial application of radio frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that a neutral electrode is not needed. Thus a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1996-12-01

371

Electron Spin Relaxation Time Measurements Using Radiofrequency Longitudinally Detected ESR and Application in Oximetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinally detected ESR (LODESR) involves transverse ESR irradiation with a modulated source and observing oscillations in the spin magnetization parallel to the main magnetic field. In this study, radiofrequency-LODESR was used for oximetry by measuring the relaxation times of the electron. T1e and T2e were measured by investigating LODESR signal magnitude as a function of detection frequency. We have also predicted theoretically and verified experimentally the LODESR signal phase dependence on detection frequency and relaxation times. These methods are valid even for inhomogeneous lines provided that T1e? T2e. We have also developed a new method for measuring T1e, valid for inhomogeneous spectra, for all values of T1e and T2e, based on measuring the spectral area as a function of detection frequency. We have measured T1e and T2e for lithium phthalocyanine crystals, for the nitroxide TEMPOL, and for the single line agent Triarylmethyl (TAM). Furthermore, we have collected spectra from aqueous solutions of TEMPOL and TAM at different oxygen concentrations and confirmed that T1e values are reduced with increased oxygen concentration. We have also measured the spin-lattice electronic relaxation time for degassed aqueous solutions of the same agents at different agent concentrations. T1e decreases as a function of concentration for TAM while it remains independent of free radical concentration for TEMPOL, a major advantage for oxygen mapping. This method, combined with the ability of LODESR to provide images of exogenous free radicals in vivo, presents an attractive alternative to the conventional transverse ESR linewidth based oximetry methods.

Panagiotelis, Ioannis; Nicholson, Ian; Hutchison, James M. S.

2001-03-01

372

Current sheet Formation in a Conical Theta Pinch Faraday Accelerator with Radio-Frequency Assisted Discharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inductive formation of current sheets in a conical theta pinch FARAD (Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge) thruster is investigated experimentally with time-integrated photography. The goal is to help in understanding the mechanisms and conditions controlling the strength and extent of the current sheet, which are two indices important for FARAD as a propulsion concept. The profiles of these two indices along the inside walls of the conical acceleration coil are assumed to be related to the profiles of the strength and extent of the luminosity pattern derived from photographs of the discharge. The variations of these profiles as a function of uniform back-fill neutral pressure (with no background magnetic field and all parameters held constant) provided the first clues on the nature and qualitative dependencies of current sheet formation. It was found that there is an optimal pressure for which both indices reach a maximum and that the rate of change in these indices with pressure differs on either side of this optimal pressure. This allowed the inference that current sheet formation follows a Townsend-like breakdown mechanism modified by the existence of a finite pressure-dependent radio-frequency-generated electron density background. The observation that the effective location of the luminosity pattern favors the exit-half of the conical coil is explained as the result of the tendency of the inductive discharge circuit to operate near its minimal self-inductance. Movement of the peak in the luminosity pattern towards the upstream side of the cone with increasing pressure is believed to result from the need of the circuit to compensate for the increase in background plasma resistivity due to increasing pressure.

Hallock, Ashley K.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.; Polzin, Kurt A.

2007-01-01

373

Health aspects of radio-frequency radiation accidents. Part II: A proposed protocol for assessment of health effects in radio-frequency radiation accidents  

SciTech Connect

A protocol is proposed for the assessment of health effects following a radio-frequency radiation accident. The protocol is intended to ensure uniform recording of exposure and medical data. This should meet the requirements of the individuals exposed as well as contributing to scientific knowledge. Difficult aspects about the collection of exposure and medical data are discussed and the need to consider the feelings of the exposed individual(s) is emphasized.

Hocking, B.; Joyner, K.

1988-01-01

374

Laser nitriding for niobium superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavities  

SciTech Connect

Particle accelerators are a key tool for scientific research ranging from fundamental studies of matter to analytical studies at light sources. Cost-forperformance is critical, both in terms of initial capital outlay and ongoing operating expense, especially for electricity. It depends on the niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities at the heart of most of these machines. Presently Nb SRF cavities operate near 1.9 K, well (and expensively) below the 4.2 K atmospheric boiling point of liquid He. Transforming the 40 nm thick active interior surface layer from Nb to delta NbN (Tc = 17 K instead of 9.2 K) appears to be a promising approach. Traditional furnace nitriding appears to have not been successful for this. Further, exposing a complete SRF cavity to the time-temperature history required for nitriding risks mechanical distortion. Gas laser nitriding instead has been applied successfully to other metals [P.Schaaf, Prog. Mat. Sci. 47 (2002) 1]. The beam dimensions and thermal diffusion length permit modeling in one dimension to predict the time course of the surface temperature for a range of per-pulse energy densities. As with the earlier work, we chose conditions just sufficient for boiling as a reference point. We used a Spectra Physics HIPPO nanosecond laser (l = 1064 nm, Emax= 0.392 mJ, beam spot@ 34 microns, PRF =15 – 30 kHz) to obtain an incident fluence of 1.73 - 2.15 J/cm2 for each laser pulse at the target. The target was a 50 mm diameter SRF-grade Nb disk maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 550 – 625 torr and rotated at a constant speed of 9 rpm. The materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images show a sharp transition with fluence from a smooth, undulating topography to significant roughening, interpreted here as the onset of ablation. EPMA measurements of N/Nb atom ratio as a function of depth found a constant value to depths greater than the SRF active layer thickness. Certain irradiation conditions resulted in values consistent with formation of delta NbN. Under certain irradiation conditions, XRD data were consistent only with delta NbN on top of Nb metal. Funding: authored by Jefferson Science Associates LLC under US DOE Contract De-AC05-06OR23177. We are indebted to Prof. P. Schaaf (Goettingen) for the simulation code and helpful discussions.

Senthilraja Singaravelu, John Klopf, Gwyn Williams, Michael Kelley

2010-10-01

375

Durability of Radiofrequency Ablation in Barrett's Esophagus with Dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can eradicate dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia in patients with dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and reduce rates of esophageal adenocarcinoma. We assessed long-term rates of eradication, durability of neosquamous epithelium, disease progression, and safety of RFA in patients with dysplastic BE. Methods We performed a randomized trial of 127 subjects with dysplastic BE; after cross-over subjects were included 119 received RFA. Subjects were followed for a mean time of 3.05 years; the study was extended to 5 years for patients with eradication of intestinal metaplasia at 2 years. Outcomes included eradication of dysplasia or intestinal metaplasia after 2 and 3 years, durability of response, disease progression, and adverse events. Results After 2 years, 101/106 patients had complete eradication of all dysplasia (95%) and 99/106 had eradication of intestinal metaplasia (93%). After 2 years, among subjects with initial low-grade dysplasia, all dysplasia was eradicated in 51/52 (98%) and intestinal metaplasia was eradicated in 51/52 (98%); among subjects with initial high-grade dysplasia, all dysplasia was eradicated in 50/54 (93%) and intestinal metaplasia was eradicated in 48/54 (89%). After 3 years, dysplasia was eradicated in 55/56 of subjects (98%) and intestinal metaplasia was eradicated in 51/56 (91%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that dysplasia remained eradicated in >85% of patients and intestinal metaplasia in >75%, without maintenance RFA. Serious adverse events occurred in 4/119 subjects (3.4%); the rate of stricture was 7.6%. The rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma was 1/181 pt-yrs (0.55%/pt-yr); there was no cancer-related morbidity or mortality. The annual rate of any neoplastic progression was 1/73 pt-yrs (1.37%/pt-yr). Conclusion In subjects with dysplastic BE, RFA therapy has an acceptable safety profile, is durable, and is associated with a low rate of disease progression, for up to 3 years. PMID:21679712

Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Overholt, Bergein F.; Sampliner, Richard E.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.; Wang, Kenneth K.; Fleischer, David E.; Sharma, Virender K.; Eisen, Glenn M.; Fennerty, M. Brian; Hunter, John G.; Bronner, Mary P.; Goldblum, John R.; Bennett, Ana E.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Rothstein, Richard I.; Gordon, Stuart R.; Edmundowicz, Steven A.; Madanick, Ryan D.; Peery, Anne F.; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Chang, Kenneth J.; Kimmey, Michael B.; Spechler, Stuart J.; Siddiqui, Ali A.; Souza, Rhonda F.; Infantolino, Anthony; Dumot, John A.; Falk, Gary W.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Jobe, Blair A.; Hawes, Robert H.; Hoffman, Brenda J.; Sharma, Prateek; Chak, Amitabh; Lightdale, Charles J.

2011-01-01

376

Radiated radiofrequency immunity testing of automated external defibrillators - modifications of applicable standards are needed  

PubMed Central

Background We studied the worst-case radiated radiofrequency (RF) susceptibility of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) based on the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements of a current standard for cardiac defibrillators, IEC 60601-2-4. Square wave modulation was used to mimic cardiac physiological frequencies of 1 - 3 Hz. Deviations from the IEC standard were a lower frequency limit of 30 MHz to explore frequencies where the patient-connected leads could resonate. Also testing up to 20 V/m was performed. We tested AEDs with ventricular fibrillation (V-Fib) and normal sinus rhythm signals on the patient leads to enable testing for false negatives (inappropriate "no shock advised" by the AED). Methods We performed radiated exposures in a 10 meter anechoic chamber using two broadband antennas to generate E fields in the 30 - 2500 MHz frequency range at 1% frequency steps. An AED patient simulator was housed in a shielded box and delivered normal and fibrillation waveforms to the AED's patient leads. We developed a technique to screen ECG waveforms stored in each AED for electromagnetic interference at all frequencies without waiting for the long cycle times between analyses (normally 20 to over 200 s). Results Five of the seven AEDs tested were susceptible to RF interference, primarily at frequencies below 80 MHz. Some induced errors could cause AEDs to malfunction and effectively inhibit operator prompts to deliver a shock to a patient experiencing lethal fibrillation. Failures occurred in some AEDs exposed to E fields between 3 V/m and 20 V/m, in the 38 - 50 MHz range. These occurred when the patient simulator was delivering a V-Fib waveform to the AED. Also, we found it is not possible to test modern battery-only-operated AEDs for EMI using a patient simulator if the IEC 60601-2-4 defibrillator standard's simulated patient load is used. Conclusions AEDs experienced potentially life-threatening false-negative failures from radiated RF, primarily below the lower frequency limit of present AED standards. Field strengths causing failures were at levels as low as 3 V/m at frequencies below 80 MHz where resonance of the patient leads and the AED input circuitry occurred. This plus problems with the standard's' prescribed patient load make changes to the standard necessary. PMID:21801368

2011-01-01

377

a Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of AN Eighteen Stage Radio-Frequency Mass Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and development of an l8 stage radiofrequency mass ; spectrometer for use in conjunction with a 2 meter grazing incidence vacuum ; monochromator is discussed. The ions to be mass analyzed are accelerated by a d-; c potential V\\/sub i\\/ into the analyzer, which consists of two sets of grids. ; Alternating potentials are applied to them, and

Gurdev Singh Bajwa

1962-01-01

378

BODY TEMPERATURE IN THE MOUSE, HAMSTER, AND RAT EXPOSED TO RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: AN INTERSPECIES COMPARISON  

EPA Science Inventory

Colonic temperatures of BALB/c and CBA/J mice, golden hamsters, and Sprague-Dawley rats were taken immediately after exposure for 90 min to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Exposures were made in 2450 MHz (mouse and hamster) or 600 MHz (rat) waveguide exposure systems while the dos...

379

Experimental study of coaxial cable antenna with a ring slot for radiofrequency thermal ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RlA) is becoming one of the treatment for small but inoperable tumors of the liver, disk, prostatomegaly, and Parkinson's disease, as one of the microwave hyperthermias. Especially, it provides a safe and effective option for patients with inoperable or recurrent liver cancer who have failed to respond to conventional methods such as percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and

Sung-kyo Park; Choul-jun Kang; Sung-pyo Ini; Chong-back Park

2003-01-01

380

Evaluation of Microneedling Fractional Radiofrequency Device for Treatment of Acne Scars  

PubMed Central

Background: Various treatment modalities including non-invasive methods such as chemical peels, topical retinoids, microdermabrasion, minimally invasive techniques such as microneedling, fractional lasers, microneedling radiofrequency devices and invasive procedures such as acne scar surgeries and ablative lasers are used for acne scars, each with its own unique advantages and disadvantages. This study is a retrospective assessment of efficacy and safety of microneedling fractional radiofrequency in the treatment of acne scars. Methods: Thirty one patients of skin types III-V with moderate and severe facial acne scarring received four sequential fractional radiofrequency treatments over a period of 6 months with an interval of 6 weeks between each session. Goodman & Baron's acne scar grading system was used for assessment by a side by side comparison of preoperative and post- operative photographs taken at their first visit and at the end of 3 months after the last session. Results: Estimation of improvement with Goodman and Baron's Global Acne Scarring System showed that by qualitative assessment of 31 patients with grade 3 and grade 4 acne scars, 80.64% showed improvement by 2 grades and 19.35% showed improvement by 1 grade. Quantitative assessment showed that 58% of the patients had moderate, 29% had minimal, 9% had good and 3% showed very good improvement. Adverse effects were limited to transient pain, erythema, edema and hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: Microneedling fractional radiofrequency is efficacious for the treatment of moderate and severe acne scars. PMID:25136209

Chandrashekar, Byalekere Shivanna; Sriram, Rashmi; Mysore, Rajdeep; Bhaskar, Sapnashree; Shetty, Abhishek

2014-01-01

381

The Fat Content of Small Primary Breast Cancer Interferes with Radiofrequency-Induced Thermal Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Radiofrequency (RF) thermal ablation is a minimally invasive technique of local mass elimination with variable efficiency. Methods: Ten patients with small primary breast cancer diagnosed preoperatively by core needle biopsy were ablated percutaneously by an RF (Radionics Cool-tip) device operating on impedance control mode. The percent fat-containing area was calculated in each slide of a total of 47 slides

E. Athanassiou; D. Sioutopoulou; N. Vamvakopoulos; F. Karasavvidou; G. Tzovaras; E. Tziastoudi; M. Sakellariou; C. Hatzitheofilou

2009-01-01

382

Understanding Pound-Drever-Hall locking using voltage controlled radio-frequency oscillators: An undergraduate experiment  

E-print Network

Understanding Pound-Drever-Hall locking using voltage controlled radio-frequency oscillators controlled oscillator to a cavity resonance at 800 MHz using the Pound-Drever-Hall method. This technique of microwave oscillators, and adapted to the optical domain by Drever et al.2 In brief, the source

Le Roy, Robert J.

383

Method for Automated Monitoring of Hand Hygiene Adherence without Radio-Frequency Identification  

PubMed Central

Many efforts to automatically measure hand hygiene activity depend on radio-frequency identification equipment or similar technology that can be expensive to install. We have developed a method for automatically tracking the use of hand hygiene dispensers before healthcare workers enter (or after they exit) patient rooms that is easily and quickly deployed without permanent hardware. PMID:20973724

Polgreen, Philip M.; Hlady, Christopher S.; Severson, Monica A.; Segre, Alberto M.; Herman, Ted

2011-01-01

384

Combined radiofrequency ablation and doxorubicin-eluting polymer implants for liver cancer treatment  

E-print Network

with radiofrequency (RF),5 laser,6 or microwave7 energy; and cryoablation.8 Among these, RF ablation has shown of major side effects.9 However, tumor recurrence, particularly at the boundary of RF abla- tion, has been. These improvements, such as water-cooled tips, multitined electrodes, and saline injections prior to the procedure11

Gao, Jinming

385

SCALING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: CONSEQUENCES OF BODY SIZE  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have demonstrated that a comparative analysis of the physiological effects of exposure of laboratory mammals to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) may be useful in predicting exposure thresholds for humans if the effect is assumed to be due only to heating...

386

REDUCTION IN METABOLIC HEAT PRODUCTION DURING EXPOSURE TO RADIO-FREQUENCY RADIATION IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 10 C and exposed to 600 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation while metabolic rate (MR) was measured by indirect calorimetry. RF radiation exposures were made in a waveguide-type system which permitted the con...

387

Radio-Frequency Conversion and Synthesis (for a 115mW GPS Receiver)  

E-print Network

at the antenna (PS -130dBm, PN -110dBm) · Large processing gain (GPS data bit, Tb = 20ms; C/A code chip, Tc 1Radio-Frequency Conversion and Synthesis (for a 115mW GPS Receiver) Arvin Shahani Stanford University #12;Overview · GPS Overview · Frequency Conversion · Frequency Synthesis · Conclusion #12;GPS

Lee, Thomas H.

388

Molecular responses of Jurkat T-cells to 1763 MHz radiofrequency TAI-QIN HUANG1  

E-print Network

June 2008; accepted 25 June 2008) Abstract Purpose: The biological effects of exposure to mobile phone to radiofrequency (RF) radiation from mobile phones poses a serious risk to public health. In order to determine of mobile phone users continues to expand throughout the world, raising concerns that growing exposure

Zhang, Byoung-Tak

389

Homogenization limit and asymptotic decay for electrical conduction in biological tissues in the high radiofrequency range  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive a macroscopic model of electrical conduction in biological tissues in the high radio-frequency range, which is relevant in applications like electric impedance tomogra- phy. This model is derived via a homogenization limit by a microscopic formulation, based on Maxwell's equations, taking into account the periodic geometry of the microstructure. We also study the asymptotic behavior of the solution

Roberto Gianni; Paolo Bisegna; Daniele Andreucci; Micol Amar

2010-01-01

390

CHRONIC EXPOSURE OF RATS TO 100-MHZ (CW) RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multidisciplinary approach was employed to assess the possible biological effects of chronic exposure of rats to 100-MHz continuous wave (CW) radiofrequency (RF) radiation. A group of 20 time-bred rats were exposed in a transverse electronmagnetic mode (TEM) transmission line t...

391

DOSE DEPENDENCE OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN NEUROBLASTOMA CELLS EXPOSED TO MODULATED RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at 915 and at 147 MHz, when sinusoidally amplitude modulated (AM) at 16 Hz, has been shown to enhance release of calcium ions from neuroblastoma cells in culture. he dose response is unusual, consisting of two power density 'windows' in which enhanc...

392

Diseases of modern living: neurological changes associated with mobile phones and radiofrequency radiation in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health effects of radiofrequency radiations (RFR) including mobile phone technology and the adequacy of their safety standards remain uncertain. Case reports of peripheral neurological effects of RFR describe mainly disturbances of noxious sensation (dysaesthesia). Cases associated with other RFR sources as well as mobile phone technology are examined seeking insights into neurophysiological mechanisms and safety levels. Cases have arisen after

Roderick Westerman; Bruce Hocking

2004-01-01

393

Stress (Tako-Tsubo) Cardiomyopathy Following Radiofrequency Ablation of a Liver Tumor: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

Stress cardiomyopathy is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction occurring in the absence of obstructive coronary disease. It is precipitated by acute emotional or physical stress. We present a case of stress cardiomyopathy which developed during hepatic radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Joo, Ijin; Lee, Jeong Min, E-mail: jmsh@snu.ac.kr; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Eun-Ah [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, and Institute of Radiation Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-15

394

Infrared thermography and thermocouple mapping of radiofrequency renal ablation to assess treatment adequacy and ablation margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe primary disadvantage of renal tumor RF ablation is the inability to monitor the intraoperative propagation of the RF lesion with real-time imaging. We sought to assess whether adequately lethal temperatures are obtained at the margins of the intended ablation zone using laparoscopic thermography to monitor radiofrequency (RF) lesions in real time, thermocouple measurements, and histopathologic evaluation.

Kenneth Ogan; William W Roberts; David M Wilhelm; Leonard Bonnell; Dennis Leiner; Guy Lindberg; Louis R Kavoussi; Jeffrey A Cadeddu

2003-01-01

395

RADIO-CONTROLLED CYBORG BEETLES: A RADIO-FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR  

E-print Network

-yet unmatched flight performance and increasingly understood muscular and nervous systems [2]. AdditionallyRADIO-CONTROLLED CYBORG BEETLES: A RADIO-FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR INSECT NEURAL FLIGHT CONTROL H. Sato1 were accomplished by optic lobe stimulation while muscular stimulation of either right or left basalar

Maharbiz, Michel

396

RF-Sim: a Treatment Planning Tool for Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatic Tumors  

E-print Network

have the advantage to be lighter for the patient than classic surgery. Among them, radiofrequency (RF for radiologists that can only rely on 2D scanner slices. That is why recent techniques of scanner image [10], and improving the information at their disposal remain a topical subject of research. After

Essert-Villard, Caroline

397

Radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction for treatment of turbinate hypertrophy: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Ideal treatment for nasal obstruction caused by turbinate hypertrophy remains in question. Medical therapy is often ineffective. Surgical procedures have associated morbidity including pain, bleeding, crusting, adhesion, infection, and dryness. Radiofrequency has recently been shown to be safe and effective in volumetric tissue reduction of the tongue in the animal model and of the palate in human beings. We

KASEY K. LI; NELSON B. POWELL; ROBERT W. RILEY; ROBERT J. TROELL; CHRISTIAN GUILLEMINAULT

1998-01-01

398

Epidemiological studies of radio-frequency radiation: current status and areas of concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

These comments deal with the possible impact on human populations of intense sources of radio-frequency radiation, and not the much lower level of the usual sources of such radiation associated, for example with household appliances. These intense sources were developed and extensively used first in World War II (1940–1945). Much of the health evaluation has been done by, and for,

John R. Goldsmith

1996-01-01

399

Treatment of pathologic spinal fractures with combined radiofrequency ablation and balloon kyphoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In oncologic patients with metastatic spinal disease, the ideal treatment should be well tolerated, relieve the pain, and preserve or restore the neurological function. The combination of fluoroscopic guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and kyphoplasty may fulfill these criteria. METHODS: We describe three pathological vertebral fractures treated with a combination of fluoroscopic guided RFA and kyphoplasty in one session: a

Pavlos Katonis; Dritan Pasku; Kalliopi Alpantaki; Artan Bano; George Tzanakakis; Apostolos Karantanas

2009-01-01

400

PHOTONIC SYNTHESIS AND HARDWARE CORRELATIONS OF ULTRABROADBAND RADIO-FREQUENCY WAVEFORMS AND POWER  

E-print Network

PHOTONIC SYNTHESIS AND HARDWARE CORRELATIONS OF ULTRABROADBAND RADIO-FREQUENCY WAVEFORMS AND POWER Jiang and F.S. Toong. Many thanks to Hsiao-Kuan Yuan and my other friends from Purdue who always love ..........................................18 3.1.3 Equalized RF Waveforms............................................23 3.2 Power Spectra

Purdue University

401

TEMPERATURE REGULATION IN THE UNRESTRAINED RABBIT DURING EXPOSURE TO 600 MHZ RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Six male New Zealand white rabbits were individually exposed to 600 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 90 min in a waveguide exposure system at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 20 or 30 C. Immediately after exposure, the rabbit was removed from the exposure chamber and its colon...

402

Techniques to Avoid Atrioventricular Block During Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Septal Tachycardia Substrates in Young Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) has proven safe for most young patients, but the risk of inadvertent atrioventricular (AV) block remains. The purpose of this report is to describe techniques to avoid inadvertent AV block during effective RFCA in young patients with septal tachycardia substrates.

Benjamin Pecht; Kathleen R. Maginot; Nicole K. Boramanand; James C. Perry

2002-01-01

403

Clinical short-term results of radiofrequency ablation in primary and secondary liver tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is emerging as a new therapeutic method for management of solid tumors. We report here our experience in the use of this technique for management of primary and secondary unresectable liver cancers.METHODS:Thirty-five patients with liver cancers were considered not suitable for curative resection at presentation: 8 with primary hepatocellular carcinoma ([HCC] 6 HCC and 2 fibrolamellar);

Long R Jiao; Paul D Hansen; Roman Havl??k; Ragai R Mitry; Massimo Pignatelli; Nagy Habib

1999-01-01

404

Radiofrequency ablation in snoring surgery: local tissue effects and safety measures.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency ablation is now widely used in the treatment of patients with snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea. It is well suited to the multilevel approach typically required in snoring surgery and can be used interstitially or in cutting mode. However, no research has been performed to analyse the collateral local tissue damage or size of lesions induced by radiofrequency application. This is the first study of the histological effects of interstitial radiofrequency. We studied the size of tissue lesions generated at differing power settings with and without local anaesthetic application in human tonsils and chicken breast tissue. The size of the lesion was independent of power setting and local anaesthetic infiltration. The typical effect was an oval-shaped lesion centred on the active electrode, 6-7 mm in width and 7-8 mm in length. This was confirmed histopathologically, with smaller lesions generated in the submucosa (2 × 3 mm) but with no collateral tissue damage beyond this distinct zone of injury. To avoid complications, we recommend placing contiguous radiofrequency applications at least 8 mm apart. Post-nasal space packing raises and tautens the soft palate. The use of local anaesthetic increases interstitial volume, thereby reducing the risk of incorrect probe placement and resultant ulceration or fistulation. PMID:24970292

Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Al-Okati, Dhafir; Kotecha, Bhik

2014-12-01

405

Stochastic electron heating in bounded radio-frequency plasmas I. D. Kaganovich,a)  

E-print Network

the mean-free-path is small as compared to and to colli- sional Joule heating. In region B, L, electrons plasma boundary at x L. But contrary to the Joule heating, this hybrid heating is nonlocal: the placeStochastic electron heating in bounded radio-frequency plasmas I. D. Kaganovich,a) V. I. Kolobov

Kaganovich, Igor

406

Esophageal perforation during left atrial radiofrequency ablation: Is the risk too high?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Intraoperative radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation (IRAAF) is a recently developed procedure being performed in an increasing number of patients. We have performed left atrial IRAAF in 387 patients since August 1998. The purpose of this article is to describe a serious complication of this procedure, namely IRAAF-induced esophageal perforation, in detail to identify possible risk factors.Methods: Left atrial

Nicolas Doll; Michael A. Borger; Alexander Fabricius; Susann Stephan; Jan Gummert; Friedrich W. Mohr; Johann Hauss; Hans Kottkamp; Gerd Hindricks

2003-01-01

407

Ultrasound radio-frequency time series for finding malignant breast lesions  

E-print Network

to augment the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Breast ultrasound is used as a supplement 050 051 052 053 Ultrasound radio-frequency time series for finding malignant breast lesions Anonymous-based solutions for breast lesion characterization to reduce the patient recall rate after mammography screening

de Freitas, Nando

408

Probe-ablative nephron-sparing surgery: Cryoablation versus radiofrequency ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, a number of probe ablative therapies have emerged for the treatment of patients with localized renal tumors. Cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been studied in the greatest detail. We present the results of 164 laparoscopic cryoablations and 82 percutaneous RFAs performed in our institution and compare them retrospectively in terms of complications, impact on renal

Nicholas J. Hegarty; Inderbir S. Gill; Mihir M. Desai; Erick M. Remer; Charles M. O’Malley; Jihad H. Kaouk

2006-01-01

409

Electromagnetic Fields  

MedlinePLUS

... Power lines Electrical wiring Microwave ovens Computers Cell phones Some people worry about EMF exposure and cancer. ... cancer. Some people worry that wireless and cellular phones cause cancer. They give off radio-frequency energy ( ...

410

Visualizing ex vivo radiofrequency and microwave ablation zones using electrode vibration elastography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Electrode vibration elastography is a new shear wave imaging technique that can be used to visualize thermal ablation zones. Prior work has shown the ability of electrode vibration elastography to delineate radiofrequency ablations; however, there has been no previous study of delineation of microwave ablations or radiological–pathological correlations using multiple observers. Methods: Radiofrequency and microwave ablations were formed in ex vivo bovine liver tissue. Their visualization was compared on shear wave velocity and maximum displacement images. Ablation dimensions were compared to gross pathology. Elastographic imaging and gross pathology overlap and interobserver variability were quantified using similarity measures. Results: Elastographic imaging correlated with gross pathology. Correlation of area estimates was better in radiofrequency than in microwave ablations, with Pearson coefficients of 0.79 and 0.54 on shear wave velocity images and 0.90 and 0.70 on maximum displacement images for radiofrequency and microwave ablations, respectively. The absolute relative difference in area between elastographic imaging and gross pathology was 18.9% and 22.9% on shear wave velocity images and 16.0% and 23.1% on maximum displacement images for radiofrequency and microwave ablations, respectively. Conclusions: Statistically significant radiological–pathological correlation was observed in this study, but correlation coefficients were lower than other modulus imaging techniques, most notably in microwave ablations. Observers provided similar delineations for most thermal ablations. These results suggest that electrode vibration elastography is capable of imaging thermal ablations, but refinement of the technique may be necessary before it can be used to monitor thermal ablation procedures clinically. PMID:23127063

DeWall, Ryan J.; Varghese, Tomy; Brace, Chris L.

2012-01-01

411

Pulsed radiofrequency reduced complete Freund's adjuvant-induced mechanical hyperalgesia via the spinal c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway.  

PubMed

Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment involves the pulsed application of a radiofrequency electric field to a nerve. The technology offers pain relief for patients suffering from chronic pain who do not respond well to conventional treatments. We tested whether PRF treatment attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammatory pain. The profile of spinal c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) phosphorylation was evaluated to elucidate the potential mechanism. Injection of CFA into the unilateral hind paw of rats induced mechanical hyperalgesia in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hind paws. We administered 500-kHz PRF treatment in 20-ms pulses, at a rate of 2 Hz (2 pulses per second) either to the sciatic nerve in the mid-thigh, or to the L4 anterior primary ramus just distal to the intervertebral foramen in both the CFA group and no-PRF group rats. Tissue samples were examined at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days following PRF treatments. Behavioral studies showed that PRF applied close to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) significantly attenuated CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia compared to no-PRF group (P < .05). And western blotting revealed significant attenuation of the activation of JNK in the spinal dorsal horn compared to no-PRF group animals (P < .05). Application of PRF close to DRG provides an effective treatment for CFA-induced persistent mechanical hyperalgesia by attenuating JNK activation in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:24242210

Chen, Kuan-Hung; Yang, Chien-Hui; Juang, Sin-Ei; Huang, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey; Lin, Chung-Ren

2014-03-01

412

Radio-Frequency Wave Excitation and Damping on a High Beta Plasma Column.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) radio-frequency (RF) waves for zero and for finite axial wave number k(,z) are investigated on the High-Beta Q Machine, a two-meter, 20 cm-diameter, low-compression linear theta pinch (T (GREATERTHEQ) 200 eV, n (DBLTURN) 10('15)cm('-3)) fast rising (0.4 (mu)s) compression field. The (k(,z) = 0) modes occur spontaneously following the implosion phase of the discharge. A novel 100-MWatt, 1 to 1.3-MHz, short wavelength current drive excites the plasma column in the vicinity of the lowest fast magnetoacoustic mode at various filling pressures. This current drive is designed as an integral part of the compression coil, which is segmented with a 20-cm axial wavelength (k(,z) = 0.314 cm('-1)). The electron density oscillations along major and minor chords at various positions are measured by interferometry perpendicular to the pinch axis. The oscillatory radial magnetic field component between pinch wall and hot plasma edge is measured by probes. Phases, amplitudes and radial mode structure are studied for the free (k = 0) modes and the externally driven (k (NOT=) 0) modes for various filling pressures of deuterium. In the first case, the damping is determined from the e-folding time of the decaying oscillations. In the latter case, the phases and amplitudes indicate a broad resonance structure, from which we extract the damping constant. The energy deposition from the externally driven RF wave leads to a radial expansion of the plasma column, as observed by axial interferometry and by excluded flux measurements. We compare these experimental results with damping phenomena as predicted by MHD-like collisional (viscous) and collisionless (ion-Landau and cyclotron) damping models. It is found that the viscous model overestimates the observed (k = 0) damping by at least an order of magnitude, while both the viscous and kinetic models underestimate the (k (NOT=) 0) damping by at least an order of magnitude. The characteristic and resonant frequencies, as well as the oscillatory radial mode structure, can be understood within the ideal MHD description. The experimentally observed damping and wave-energy deposition are consistent with the magnitude of the density oscillations. The efficiency of the RF energy deposition is at least 27%, somewhat exceeding that observed in other high-beta magnetoacoustic experiments.

Meuth, Hermann

413

Analysis of low-dimensional radio-frequency impedance-based cardio-synchronous waveforms for biometric authentication.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, there have been a lot of advances in the field of pattern analyses for biomedical signals, which have helped in both medical diagnoses and in furthering our understanding of the human body. A relatively recent area of interest is the utility of biomedical signals in the field of biometrics, i.e., for user identification. Seminal work in this domain has already been done using electrocardiograph (ECG) signals. In this paper, we discuss our ongoing work in using a relatively recent modality of biomedical signals-a cardio-synchronous waveform measured using a Radio-Frequency Impedance-Interrogation (RFII) device for the purpose of user identification. Compared to an ECG setup, this device is noninvasive and measurements can be obtained easily and quickly. Here, we discuss the feasibility of reducing the dimensions of these signals by projecting onto various subspaces while still preserving interuser discriminating information. We compare the classification performance using classical dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), random projections, with more recent techniques such as K-SVD-based dictionary learning. We also report the reconstruction accuracies in these subspaces. Our results show that the dimensionality of the measured signals can be reduced by 60 fold while maintaining high user identification rates. PMID:23846435

Venugopalan, Shreyas; Savvides, Marios; Griofa, Marc O; Cohen, Ken

2014-08-01

414

Radio-Frequency Illuminated Superconductive Disks: Reverse Josephson Effects and Implications for Precise Measuring of Proposed Gravity Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have previously reported results using a high precision gravimeter to probe local gravity changes in the neighborhood of large bulk-processed high-temperature superconductors. It have been indicated three essential components to achieve anomalous gravity effects, namely large, two-layer high-temperature YBCO superconductors, magnetic levitation and AC input in the form of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. We report experiments on RF-illuminated (1-15 MHz) superconducting disks with corresponding gravity readings indicating an apparent increase in observed gravity of approximately 3-5 x l0(exp -5)cm/sq s, above and to the side of the superconductor. In this preliminary study, RF- illumination is achieved using a series of large radius (15 cm) spiral antenna with RF power inputs equal to or greater than 90 W. The observed gravitational modification range is significantly lower than the 2.1% gravity modification. The error analyses of thermal and electromagnetic interference in a magnetically shielded gravimeter with vacuum enclosures, Faraday cages and shielded instrument leads, are outlined both experimentally and theoretically. The nearly exact correspondence between the peak gravity effects reported and the well-known peak in AC resistance in superconductors (2-7 MHz, owing to reverse Josephson quantum effects) suggests that electrical resistance will arise in this frequency range and subsequently any trapped magnetic fields in the superconductor may disperse partially into the measuring instrument's local environment. Implications for propulsion initiatives and RF-heating in superconductors will be discussed.

Noever, David A.; Koczor, Ronald J.

1998-01-01

415

Microfabricated oscillator for radio-frequency microscopy with integrated magnetic field concentrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a lithographically manufactured chip with niobium thin-film pancake coils, and a washerlike structure above this coil for focusing flux. Due to a wide range of coupling coefficients, various samples can be investigated in flip-chip or on-chip configuration, with the aim of evaluating the superconducting current-phase relation. With this, structures with dimensions in the order of 10 ?m were coupled to the resonance circuit with coupling coefficients from 10-3 up to 0.9. Resonance frequencies in the 10 MHz range and quality factors of about 500 were obtained with external capacitors. Furthermore, the chip is designed to facilitate the manufacture of superconducting qubits in the center of the coil. This offers the possibility of combining on one chip novel technologies for fabricating superconducting qubits along with high-quality tank circuits for studying the qubits.

May, T.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.; Grajcar, M.

2003-03-01

416

Microfabricated oscillator for radio-frequency microscopy with integrated magnetic field concentrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a lithographically manufactured chip with niobium thin-film pancake coils, and a washerlike structure above this coil for focusing flux. Due to a wide range of coupling coefficients, various samples can be investigated in flip-chip or on-chip configuration, with the aim of evaluating the superconducting current-phase relation. With this, structures with dimensions in the order of 10 mum were

T. May; E. Il'Ichev; H.-G. Meyer; M. Grajcar

2003-01-01

417

78 FR 33654 - Reassessment of Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Limits and Policies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as averaged over the whole body, and a peak spatial-average...compliance with both the whole-body and peak spatial-average limits...on a routine basis may not be ideal for all situations. Since it...head and a flat model for the body; however it seeks comment...

2013-06-04

418

Phase-Resolved Measurements of Ion Velocity in a Radio-Frequency Sheath Brett Jacobs,1,* Walter Gekelman,1  

E-print Network

Phase-Resolved Measurements of Ion Velocity in a Radio-Frequency Sheath Brett Jacobs,1,* Walter by Stern and Johnson [4]. The first experi- ments used low power cw lasers and signal averaging to study

California at Los Angles, University of

419

CMOS analog and radio-frequency integrated-circuit design employing low-power switched-capacitor techniques.  

E-print Network

??We propose and verify the design of low-power, high-performance CMOS Switched-Capacitor (SC) circuits for analog and radio-frequency (RF) applications. In low-cost CMOS semiconductor processes, SC… (more)

Song, Yu (1980 - )

2011-01-01

420

Expression of TGF?1 in pulmonary vein stenosis after radiofrequency ablation in chronic atrial fibrillation of dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of pulmonary vein stenosis has recently been described after radiofrequency ablation (RF) to treat atrial\\u000a fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to examine expression of TGF?1 in pulmonary vein stenosis after radiofrequency\\u000a ablation in chronic atrial fibrillation of dogs. About 28 mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to the sham-operated group (n = 7), the AF group (n = 7), AF + RF

Shufeng Li; Hongli Li; E. Mingyan; Bo Yu

2009-01-01

421

Phase Shifts in the Molecular Beam Method of Separated Oscillating Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of phase differences between the two oscillating fields in the separated oscillating fields method for molecular beam radiofrequency spectroscopy is discussed theoretically. It is shown that measurements in which the relative phase is changed from 0° to 180° effectively double the intensity of the signal and hence increase the sensitivity of the apparatus. Phase shifts of pi2 radians

Norman F. Ramsey; Henry B. Silsbee

1951-01-01

422

Standard probes for electromagnetic field measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses various standard antennas for measuring radio-frequency electric and magnetic fields. A theoretical analysis of each antenna's receiving characteristics is summarized and referenced. The standard probes described are an electrically short dipole, a resistively-loaded dipole, a half-wave dipole, an electrically small loop, and a resistively-loaded loop. A single-turn loop designed for simultaneous measurement of the electric and magnetic components of

Motohisa Kanda

1993-01-01

423

Nonlinear nonresonant forces by radio-frequency waves in plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Nonresonant forces by applied rf waves in plasmas are analyzed. Along the background dc magnetic field, the force arises from the gradient of the ponderomotive potential. Only when the dc magnetic field is straight, however, is this parallel force completely consistent with that from the single particle picture, where the ponderomotive force depends on the gradients of rf fields only. Across the dc magnetic field, besides the ponderomotive force from the particle picture, additional Reynolds stress and polarization stress contribute to the total force. For waves with frequency much lower than the cyclotron frequency, the perpendicular forces from the particle and fluid pictures can have opposite signs. In plasmas with a symmetry angle (e.g., toroidal systems), nonresonant forces cannot drive net flow or current in the flux surface, but the radial force may influence macroscopic behavior of plasma. Moreover, nonresonant forces may drive flow or current in linear plasmas or in a localized region of toroidal plasmas.

Gao Zhe; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong; Myra, J. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

2007-08-15

424

Radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of small renal masses: safety and oncologic efficacy.  

PubMed

The successful introduction of radio frequency ablation (RFA) into various surgical fields has fueled the interest of the urological community to study its application in small renal masses (SRM). However, some controversies remain regarding its oncologic efficacy. In this paper, we review the complication rates and highlight local ablative success and long-term oncologic outcomes of recent, larger RFA series. Review of the recent literature (Medline from January 2003 through May 2011 with the terms ("radiofrequency ablation" OR "catheter ablation") AND ("renal cell carcinoma" OR "renal tumor" OR "renal mass" OR "renal cancer" OR "kidney cancer"). Twelve RFA studies including a minimum of 35 treated tumors, and representing 717 patients were identified and analyzed for local ablative success rates and complications. Reported complications were classified according to Dindo-Clavien. Another five studies representing 172 patients were identified to assess long-term oncologic outcomes. Final pathology revealed 82.3% biopsy-proven renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) in 8 of the 12 evaluable RFA studies. Local ablative success rates after a first RFA session ranged from 67% to 100%. However, accepting a 8.8% repeat ablation rate, final success rates were 89.7-100%, with 7 of 12 studies showing final ablative success in >95%. These results demonstrate RFA to achieve adequate local tumor control regardless of histology. Risk of complications was 13.2%. Of complications, 10% were minor (grade I or II), while only 3.2% were major complications (grade ?III). Five papers were identified describing oncological outcome at a minimum follow-up of 53 months (range 53-61.2). Progression-free survival, cancer-specific survival and overall survival ranged from 79.9 to 93.8%, 98 to 100% and 58.3 to 85%, respectively. This literature review confirms that RFA can deliver durable local tumor control and excellent long-term oncological outcomes. However, in order to achieve this, a repeat ablation rate of 8.8% has to be accepted. Complication rates are low, with 10% grade I-II and only 3.2% grade >III. These observations render RFA an attractive alternative to surgery in an elderly or comorbid population. PMID:21993321

Joniau, S; Tsivian, M; Gontero, P

2011-09-01

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Comparison of Treatment Methods in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis for Geriatric Patient: Nerve Block Versus Radiofrequency Neurotomy Versus Spinal Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective The incidence of spinal treatment, including nerve block, radiofrequency neurotomy, instrumented fusions, is increasing, and progressively involves patients of age 65 and older. Treatment of the geriatric patients is often a difficult challenge for the spine surgeon. General health, sociofamilial and mental condition of the patients as well as the treatment techniques and postoperative management are to be accurately evaluated and planned. We tried to compare three treatment methods of spinal stenosis for geriatric patient in single institution. Methods The cases of treatment methods in spinal stenosis over than 65 years old were analyzed. The numbers of patients were 371 underwent nerve block, radiofrequency neurotomy, instrumented fusions from January 2009 to December 2012 (nerve block: 253, radiofrequency neurotomy: 56, instrumented fusions: 62). The authors reviewed medical records, operative findings and postoperative clinical results, retrospectively. Simple X-ray were evaluated and clinical outcome was measured by Odom's criteria at 1 m