Science.gov

Sample records for non-linear c-axis v-i

  1. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.« less

  2. Non-linearity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Petros, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The whole spectrum of medicine consists of complex non-linear systems that are balanced and interact with each other. How non-linearity confers stability on a system and explains variation and uncertainty in clinical medicine is discussed. A major theme is that a small alteration in initial conditions may have a major effect on the end result. In the context of non-linearity, it is argued that 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) as it exists today can only ever be relevant to a small fraction of the domain of medicine, that the 'art of medicine' consists of an intuitive 'tuning in' to these complex systems and as such is not so much an art as an expression of non-linear science. The main cause of iatrogenic disease is interpreted as a failure to understand the complexity of the systems being treated. Case study examples are given and analysed in non-linear terms. It is concluded that good medicine concerns individualized treatment of an individual patient whose body functions are governed by non-linear processes. EBM as it exists today paints with a broad and limited brush, but it does promise a fresh new direction. In this context, we need to expand the spectrum of scientific medicine to include non-linearity, and to look upon the 'art of medicine' as a historical (but unstated) legacy in this domain. PMID:12787180

  3. Non-linear Post Processing Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Shawn; Lopez, Alex; Torres, Angel

    1997-01-01

    A non-linear filter for image post processing based on the feedforward Neural Network topology is presented. This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of "smart" filters in image post processing. The filter has shown to be useful in recovering high frequencies, such as those lost during the JPEG compression-decompression process. The filtered images have a higher signal to noise ratio, and a higher perceived image quality. Simulation studies comparing the proposed filter with the optimum mean square non-linear filter, showing examples of the high frequency recovery, and the statistical properties of the filter are given,

  4. Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Batalov, I.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.

  5. The non-linear MSW equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Mark J.; McKellar, Bruce H. J.

    1991-04-01

    A simple, non-linear generalization of the MSW equation is presented and its analytic solution is outlined. The orbits of the polarization vector are shown to be periodic, and to lie on a sphere. Their non-trivial flow patterns fall into two topological categories, the more complex of which can become chaotic if perturbed.

  6. Non-linear cord-rubber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the stress-strain relations in a multi-layer composite made up of materials whose individual stress-strain characteristics are non-linear and possibly different. The method is applied to the case of asymmetric tubes in tension, and comparisons with experimentally measured data are given.

  7. Non-linear dark energy clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, Stefano; Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pietroni, Massimo E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it

    2011-11-01

    We consider a dark energy fluid with arbitrary sound speed and equation of state and discuss the effect of its clustering on the cold dark matter distribution at the non-linear level. We write the continuity, Euler and Poisson equations for the system in the Newtonian approximation. Then, using the time renormalization group method to resum perturbative corrections at all orders, we compute the total clustering power spectrum and matter power spectrum. At the linear level, a sound speed of dark energy different from that of light modifies the power spectrum on observationally interesting scales, such as those relevant for baryonic acoustic oscillations. We show that the effect of varying the sound speed of dark energy on the non-linear corrections to the matter power spectrum is below the per cent level, and therefore these corrections can be well modelled by their counterpart in cosmological scenarios with smooth dark energy. We also show that the non-linear effects on the matter growth index can be as large as 10–15 per cent for small scales.

  8. Phototube non-linearity correction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboldi, S.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.

    2015-06-01

    Scintillation light is often detected by photo-multiplier tube (PMT) technology. PMTs are however intrinsically non linear devices, especially when operated with high light yield scintillators and high input photon flux. Many physical effects (e.g. inter-dynode field variation, photocathode resistivity, etc.) can spoil the ideal PMT behavior in terms of gain, ending up in what are addressed as the under-linearity and over-linearity effects. Established techniques implemented in the PMT base (e.g. increasing bleeding current, active voltage divider, etc.) can mitigate these effects, but given the unavoidable spread in manufacturing and materials, it turns out that, with respect to linearity at the percent level, every PMT sample is a story of its own. The residual non linearity is usually accounted for with polynomial correction of the spectrum energy scale, starting from the position of a few known energy peaks of calibration sources, but uncertainly remains in between of calibration peaks. We propose to retrieve the calibration information from the entire energy spectrum and not only the position of full energy peaks (FEP), by means of an automatic procedure that also takes into account the quality (signal/noise ratio) of the information about the non-linearity extracted from the various regions of the spectrum.

  9. Spin waves cause non-linear friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, M. P.; Brendel, L.; Wolf, D. E.; Nowak, U.

    2011-07-01

    Energy dissipation is studied for a hard magnetic tip that scans a soft magnetic substrate. The dynamics of the atomic moments are simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation numerically. The local energy currents are analysed for the case of a Heisenberg spin chain taken as substrate. This leads to an explanation for the velocity dependence of the friction force: The non-linear contribution for high velocities can be attributed to a spin wave front pushed by the tip along the substrate.

  10. Non-linear Models for Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Serroyen, Jan; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert; Davidian, Marie

    2009-01-01

    While marginal models, random-effects models, and conditional models are routinely considered to be the three main modeling families for continuous and discrete repeated measures with linear and generalized linear mean structures, respectively, it is less common to consider non-linear models, let alone frame them within the above taxonomy. In the latter situation, indeed, when considered at all, the focus is often exclusively on random-effects models. In this paper, we consider all three families, exemplify their great flexibility and relative ease of use, and apply them to a simple but illustrative set of data on tree circumference growth of orange trees. PMID:20160890

  11. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predatorprey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  12. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-04-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  13. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from

  14. Non-linear Flood Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, A.

    The genesis of floodings is very complex depending on hydrologic, meteorological and evapo-transpirative factors that are linked among themselves in a non linear way with numerous feedback processes. The Cantor dust and the rank-ordering statistics supply a proper framework for identifying a kind of a non linear order in the time succession of the floodings and so provide a basis for their prediction. When a catalogue is analysed, it is necessary to test its completeness with respect to the size of the recorded events and results obtained from analysis of catalogues that do not take into account such a test are suspect and possibly wrong, or, at least, unreliable. Floodings have no instrumentally determined magnitude scale, like that conventionally used for earthquakes, and this is why they are generally described in qualitative terms. For this reason, a semi-quantitative index, called ASI (Alluvial Strength Index) has been here developed that combines attributes of alluvial triggering mechanisms and effects on the territorial and hydraulic system.The historical succession of alluvial events occurred at high valley of Po river (Northern Italy), mean valley of Calore river (Southern Italy) and at Sarno, near Naples, have been accurately reconstructed on the basis of old documents and classified according to their ASI. The catalogues have been verified to be complete only for events classified at least as moderate and this probably because many of the lowest energetic events, especially in the past, escaped the detection. The identification of scale-invariances in the time clustering of alluvial events, both on short and long time scales, even if indicative of the complexity of their genesis, might be very helpful for the assessment and reduction of the hazard of future disasters. For example, on the basis of the results of the rank-ordering statistics, the most probable occurrence of an alluvial event at Sarno, classified at least as strong, is predicted to occur

  15. Non-Linear Electrohydrodynamics in Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Since the inception of microfluidics, the electric force has been exploited as one of the leading mechanisms for driving and controlling the movement of the operating fluid and the charged suspensions. Electric force has an intrinsic advantage in miniaturized devices. Because the electrodes are placed over a small distance, from sub-millimeter to a few microns, a very high electric field is easy to obtain. The electric force can be highly localized as its strength rapidly decays away from the peak. This makes the electric force an ideal candidate for precise spatial control. The geometry and placement of the electrodes can be used to design electric fields of varying distributions, which can be readily realized by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication methods. In this paper, we examine several electrically driven liquid handling operations. The emphasis is given to non-linear electrohydrodynamic effects. We discuss the theoretical treatment and related numerical methods. Modeling and simulations are used to unveil the associated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. The modeling based investigation is interwoven with examples of microfluidic devices to illustrate the applications. PMID:21673912

  16. Non-linear electrohydrodynamics in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Since the inception of microfluidics, the electric force has been exploited as one of the leading mechanisms for driving and controlling the movement of the operating fluid and the charged suspensions. Electric force has an intrinsic advantage in miniaturized devices. Because the electrodes are placed over a small distance, from sub-millimeter to a few microns, a very high electric field is easy to obtain. The electric force can be highly localized as its strength rapidly decays away from the peak. This makes the electric force an ideal candidate for precise spatial control. The geometry and placement of the electrodes can be used to design electric fields of varying distributions, which can be readily realized by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication methods. In this paper, we examine several electrically driven liquid handling operations. The emphasis is given to non-linear electrohydrodynamic effects. We discuss the theoretical treatment and related numerical methods. Modeling and simulations are used to unveil the associated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. The modeling based investigation is interwoven with examples of microfluidic devices to illustrate the applications. PMID:21673912

  17. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey - III. A statistical study of non-linearity in the Leavitt Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anupam; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Macri, Lucas M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ishida, Emille E. O.

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of possible non-linearities in the period-luminosity (PL), period-Wesenheit (PW) and period-colour (PC) relations for Cepheid variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at optical (VI) and near-infrared (JHKs) wavelengths. We test for the presence of possible non-linearities and determine their statistical significance by applying a variety of robust statistical tests (F-test, random-walk, testimator and the Davies test) to optical data from third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment and near-infrared data from Large Magellanic Cloud Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey. For fundamental-mode Cepheids, we find that the optical PL, PW and PC relations are non-linear at 10 d. The near-infrared PL and the W^H_{V,I} relations are non-linear around 18 d; this break is attributed to a distinct variation in mean Fourier amplitude parameters near this period for longer wavelengths as compared to optical bands. The near-infrared PW relations are also non-linear except for the W_{H,K_s} relation. For first-overtone mode Cepheids, a significant change in the slope of PL, PW and PC relations is found around 2.5 d only at optical wavelengths. We determine a global slope of -3.212 ± 0.013 for the W^H_{V,I} relation by combining our LMC data with observations of Cepheids in Supernovae host galaxies. We find this slope to be consistent with the corresponding LMC relation at short periods, and significantly different to the long-period value. We do not find any significant difference in the slope of the global-fit solution using a linear or non-linear LMC PL relation as calibrator, but the linear version provides a two times better constraint on the slope and metallicity coefficient.

  18. Phonon mean free path of graphite along the c-axis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiyong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Weiyu; Bi, Kedong; Chen, Yunfei

    2014-02-24

    Phonon transport in the c-axis direction of graphite thin films has been studied using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results show that the c-axis thermal conductivities for films of thickness ranging from 20 to 500 atomic layers are significantly lower than the bulk value. Based on the MD data, a method is developed to construct the c-axis thermal conductivity as an accumulation function of phonon mean free path (MFP), from which we show that phonons with MFPs from 2 to 2000 nm contribute ∼80% of the graphite c-axis thermal conductivity at room temperature, and phonons with MFPs larger than 100 nm contribute over 40% to the c-axis thermal conductivity. These findings indicate that the commonly believed value of just a few nanometers from the simple kinetic theory drastically underestimates the c-axis phonon MFP of graphite.

  19. Non-linear interaction of elastic waves in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Smit, T. J. H.; Campman, X. H.

    2013-09-01

    We study theoretically the interaction of elastic waves caused by non-linearities of rock elastic moduli, and assess the possibility to use this phenomenon in hydrocarbon exploration and in the analysis of rock samples. In our calculations we use the five-constant model by Gol'dberg. It is shown that the interaction of plane waves in isotropic solids is completely described by five coupling coefficients, which have the same order of magnitude. By considering scattering of compressional waves generated by controlled sources at the Earth surface from a non-linear layer at the subsurface, we conclude that non-linear signals from deep formations are unlikely to be measured with the current level of technology. Our analysis of field tests where non-linear signals were measured, suggests that these signals are generated either in the shallow subsurface or in the vicinity of sources. Non-linear wave interaction might be observable in lab tests with focused ultrasonic beams. In this case, the non-linear response is generated in the secondary parametric array formed by linear beams scattered from inclusions. Although the strength of this response is controlled by non-linearity of the surrounding medium rather than by non-linearity of inclusions, its measurement can help to obtain better images of rock samples.

  20. Employment of CB models for non-linear dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. R. M.; Deloo, P.; Fournier-Sicre, A.

    1990-01-01

    The non-linear dynamic analysis of large structures is always very time, effort and CPU consuming. Whenever possible the reduction of the size of the mathematical model involved is of main importance to speed up the computational procedures. Such reduction can be performed for the part of the structure which perform linearly. Most of the time, the classical Guyan reduction process is used. For non-linear dynamic process where the non-linearity is present at interfaces between different structures, Craig-Bampton models can provide a very rich information, and allow easy selection of the relevant modes with respect to the phenomenon driving the non-linearity. The paper presents the employment of Craig-Bampton models combined with Newmark direct integration for solving non-linear friction problems appearing at the interface between the Hubble Space Telescope and its solar arrays during in-orbit maneuvers. Theory, implementation in the FEM code ASKA, and practical results are shown.

  1. Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079

  2. Computer modeling of batteries from non-linear circuit elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waaben, S.; Federico, J.; Moskowitz, I.

    1983-01-01

    A simple non-linear circuit model for battery behavior is given. It is based on time-dependent features of the well-known PIN change storage diode, whose behavior is described by equations similar to those associated with electrochemical cells. The circuit simulation computer program ADVICE was used to predict non-linear response from a topological description of the battery analog built from advice components. By a reasonable choice of one set of parameters, the circuit accurately simulates a wide spectrum of measured non-linear battery responses to within a few millivolts.

  3. Asymptotic Stability of Interconnected Passive Non-Linear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isidori, A.; Joshi, S. M.; Kelkar, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of stabilization of a class of internally passive non-linear time-invariant dynamic systems. A class of non-linear marginally strictly passive (MSP) systems is defined, which is less restrictive than input-strictly passive systems. It is shown that the interconnection of a non-linear passive system and a non-linear MSP system is globally asymptotically stable. The result generalizes and weakens the conditions of the passivity theorem, which requires one of the systems to be input-strictly passive. In the case of linear time-invariant systems, it is shown that the MSP property is equivalent to the marginally strictly positive real (MSPR) property, which is much simpler to check.

  4. Dilatonic non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carfora, M.; Marzuoli, A.

    2016-09-01

    We review our recent work describing, in terms of the Wasserstein geometry over the space of probability measures, the embedding of the Ricci flow in the renormalization group flow for dilatonic non-linear sigma models.

  5. Stochastic differential equations for non-linear hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Español, Pep

    1998-02-01

    We formulate the stochastic differential equations for non-linear hydrodynamic fluctuations. The equations incorporate the random forces through a random stres tensor and random heat flux as in the Landau and Lifshitz theory. However, the equations are non-linear and the random forces are non-Gaussian. We provide explicit expressions for these random quantities in terms of the well-defined increments of the Wienner process.

  6. Correcting the NICMOS count-rate dependent non-linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Roelof S.

    2006-03-01

    We describe a routine to correct NICMOS imaging data for the NICMOS count-rate dependent non-linearity recently discovered by Bohlin et al. (2005) and quantified by deJong et al. (2006) and Bohlin et al. (2006). The routine has been implemented in the python scripting language and is callable from the shell command line and from iraf. The routine corrects NICMOS count-rate images assuming the non-linearity follows a powerlaw behavior. The wavelength dependence of the non-linearity is interpolated between the measured points of de Jong et al. (2006) and Bohlin et al. (2006) if necessary. The count rates in the output images are modified and hence the standard NICMOS calibration zero-points are no longer valid. New calibration zero-points have been derived from standard star images corrected with the routine. The routine was tested on the lamp-on/off data used in de Jong et al. (2006) to measure the non-linearity effect. We apply the correction to the NGC1850 stellar cluster field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) to show the magnitude offsets expected due to the non-linearity on objects with a range in luminosity and surface brightness.

  7. C-Axis Properties of DyNi2B2C System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. C.

    2012-02-01

    We have measured the electrical resistivity along c-axis ρc(T, H) of the DyNi2B2C single crystal with the magnetic fields perpendicular to the c-axis and the magnetization isotherms M(H) of the DyNi2B2C single crystal with magnetic fields perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis. We confirmed that Neel temperature TN is 10.3K from the ρc(T) result which is consistent with that from previous ρab(T) result. In addition, the constructed critical fields Hc2(T) curve and magnetic transitions diagram of DyNi2B2C from ρc(T) magnetic fields perpendicular to c-axis is similar to that of ρab(T) result, which is thought to arise that 3 D magnetic structure of DyNi2B2C.

  8. Characterization of reactively sputtered c-axis aligned nanocrystalline InGaZnO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, David M.; Zhu, Bin; Ast, Dieter G.; Thompson, Michael O.; Levin, Barnaby D. A.; Muller, David A.; Greene, Raymond G.

    2014-12-29

    Crystallinity and texturing of RF sputtered c-axis aligned crystal InGaZnO{sub 4} (CAAC IGZO) thin films were quantified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Above 190 °C, nanocrystalline films with an X-ray peak at 2θ = 30° (009 planes) developed with increasing c-axis normal texturing up to 310 °C. Under optimal conditions (310 °C, 10% O{sub 2}), films exhibited a c-axis texture full-width half-maximum of 20°. Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed these results, showing alignment variation of ±9° over a 15 × 15 nm field of view and indicating formation of much larger aligned domains than previously reported. At higher deposition temperatures, c-axis alignment was gradually lost as polycrystalline films developed.

  9. Ghost Dark Energy with Non-Linear Interaction Term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, E.

    2016-06-01

    Here we investigate ghost dark energy (GDE) in the presence of a non-linear interaction term between dark matter and dark energy. To this end we take into account a general form for the interaction term. Then we discuss about different features of three choices of the non-linear interacting GDE. In all cases we obtain equation of state parameter, w D = p/ ρ, the deceleration parameter and evolution equation of the dark energy density parameter (Ω D ). We find that in one case, w D cross the phantom line ( w D < -1). However in two other classes w D can not cross the phantom divide. The coincidence problem can be solved in these models completely and there exist good agreement between the models and observational values of w D , q. We study squared sound speed {vs2}, and find that for one case of non-linear interaction term {vs2} can achieves positive values at late time of evolution.

  10. Theoretical studies for novel non-linear optical crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kechen; Chen, Chuangtian

    1996-09-01

    To fulfil the "molecular engineering" of non-linear optical crystals, two theoretical models suitable respectively for the studies of the absorption edge and birefringence of a non-linear optical crystal have been set up. Molecular quantum chemical methods have been adopted in the systematic calculations of some typical crystals. DV-SCM-X α methods have been used to calculate the absorption edge on the UV side of BBO, LBO, KB5, KDP, Na 2SbF 5, Ba 2TiSi 2O 8, iodate and NaNO 2 crystals. Ab initio methods have been adopted to study the birefringence of NaNO 2, BBO, LiIO 3 and urea crystals. All the theoretical results agreed well with the experimental values. The relationship between structure and properties has been discussed. The results will be helpful to the search for novel non-linear optical crystals.

  11. Non-Linear Vibration Characteristics of Clamped Laminated Shallow Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ABE, A.; KOBAYASHI, Y.; YAMADA, G.

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines non-linear free vibration characteristics of first and second vibration modes of laminated shallow shells with rigidly clamped edges. Non-linear equations of motion for the shells based on the first order shear deformation and classical shell theories are derived by means of Hamilton's principle. We apply Galerkin's procedure to the equations of motion in which eigenvectors for first and second modes of linear vibration obtained by the Ritz method are employed as trial functions. Then simultaneous non-linear ordinary differential equations are derived in terms of amplitudes of the first and second vibration modes. Backbone curves for the first and second vibration modes are solved numerically by the Gauss-Legendre integration method and the shooting method respectively. The effects of lamination sequences and transverse shear deformation on the behavior are discussed. It is also shown that the motion of the first vibration mode affects the response for the second vibration mode.

  12. Non-linear dynamic analysis of anisotropic cylindrical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Lakis, A.A.; Selmane, A.; Toledano, A.

    1996-12-01

    A theory to predict the influence of geometric non-linearities on the natural frequencies of an empty anisotropic cylindrical shell is presented in this paper. It is a hybrid of finite element and classical thin shell theories. Sanders-Koiter non-linear and strain-displacement relations are used. Displacement functions are evaluated using linearized equations of motion. Modal coefficients are then obtained for these displacement functions. Expressions for the mass, linear and non-linear stiffness matrices are derived through the finite element method. The uncoupled equations are solved with the help of elliptic functions. The period and frequency variations are first determined as a function of shell amplitudes and then compared with the results in the literature.

  13. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A.; Lu, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  14. Neural network modelling of non-linear hydrological relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahart, R. J.; See, L. M.

    2007-09-01

    Two recent studies have suggested that neural network modelling offers no worthwhile improvements in comparison to the application of weighted linear transfer functions for capturing the non-linear nature of hydrological relationships. The potential of an artificial neural network to perform simple non-linear hydrological transformations under controlled conditions is examined in this paper. Eight neural network models were developed: four full or partial emulations of a recognised non-linear hydrological rainfall-runoff model; four solutions developed on an identical set of inputs and a calculated runoff coefficient output. The use of different input combinations enabled the competencies of solutions developed on a reduced number of parameters to be assessed. The selected hydrological model had a limited number of inputs and contained no temporal component. The modelling process was based on a set of random inputs that had a uniform distribution and spanned a modest range of possibilities. The initial cloning operations permitted a direct comparison to be performed with the equation-based relationship. It also provided more general information about the power of a neural network to replicate mathematical equations and model modest non-linear relationships. The second group of experiments explored a different relationship that is of hydrological interest; the target surface contained a stronger set of non-linear properties and was more challenging. Linear modelling comparisons were performed against traditional least squares multiple linear regression solutions developed on identical datasets. The reported results demonstrate that neural networks are capable of modelling non-linear hydrological processes and are therefore appropriate tools for hydrological modelling.

  15. Observing (non)linear lattice dynamics in graphite by ultrafast Kikuchi diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenxi; Vanacore, Giovanni M.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2014-01-01

    In materials, the nature of the strain–stress relationship, which is fundamental to their properties, is determined by both the linear and nonlinear elastic responses. Whereas the linear response can be measured by various techniques, the nonlinear behavior is nontrivial to probe and to reveal its nature. Here, we report the methodology of time-resolved Kikuchi diffraction for mapping the (non)linear elastic response of nanoscale graphite following an ultrafast, impulsive strain excitation. It is found that the longitudinal wave propagating along the c-axis exhibits echoes with a frequency of 9.1 GHz, which indicates the reflections of strain between the two surfaces of the material with a speed of ∼4 km/s. Because Kikuchi diffraction enables the probing of strain in the transverse direction, we also observed a higher-frequency mode at 75.5 GHz, which has a relatively long lifetime, on the order of milliseconds. The fluence dependence and the polarization properties of this nonlinear mode are entirely different from those of the linear, longitudinal mode, and here we suggest a localized breather motion in the a-b plane as the origin of the nonlinear shear dynamics. The approach presented in this contribution has the potential for a wide range of applications because most crystalline materials exhibit Kikuchi diffraction. PMID:24706785

  16. BEAM-BASED NON-LINEAR OPTICS CORRECTIONS IN COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    PILAT, R.; LUO, Y.; MALITSKY, N.; PTITSYN, V.

    2005-05-16

    A method has been developed to measure and correct operationally the non-linear effects of the final focusing magnets in colliders, that gives access to the effects of multi-pole errors by applying closed orbit bumps, and analyzing the resulting tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been tested and used during 4 years of RHIC (the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL) operations. I will discuss here the theoretical basis of the method, the experimental set-up, the correction results, the present understanding of the machine model, the potential and limitations of the method itself as compared with other non-linear correction techniques.

  17. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  18. Proceedings of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop, held at NASA Langley Research Center on 8-9 Dec. 1993, was to identify and articulate requirements for non-linear aero prediction capabilities during conceptual/preliminary design. The attendees included engineers from industry, government, and academia in a variety of aerospace disciplines, such as advanced design, aerodynamic performance analysis, aero methods development, flight controls, and experimental and theoretical aerodynamics. Presentations by industry and government organizations were followed by panel discussions. This report contains copies of the presentations and the results of the panel discussions.

  19. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Shahram Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Jiarui Yu, Faxin

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  20. Arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G.; Bhat, Kishor G.

    2009-04-01

    In order to perform source coding (data compression), we treat messages emitted by independent and identically distributed sources as imprecise measurements (symbolic sequence) of a chaotic, ergodic, Lebesgue measure preserving, non-linear dynamical system known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). GLS achieves Shannon's entropy bound and turns out to be a generalization of arithmetic coding, a popular source coding algorithm, used in international compression standards such as JPEG2000 and H.264. We further generalize GLS to piecewise non-linear maps (Skewed-nGLS). We motivate the use of Skewed-nGLS as a framework for joint source coding and encryption.

  1. Non-linear optics of ultrastrongly coupled cavity polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimanno, Michael; Liu, Bin; McMaster, Michael; Singer, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Experiments at CWRU have developed organic cavity polaritons that display world-record vacuum Rabi splittings of more than an eV. This ultrastrongly coupled polaritonic matter is a new regime for exploring non-linear optical effects. We apply quantum optics theory to quantitatively determine various non-linear optical effects including types of low harmonic generation (SHG and THG) in single and double cavity polariton systems. Ultrastrongly coupled photon-matter systems such as these may be the foundation for technologies including low-power optical switching and computing.

  2. Photocrosslinkable copolymers for non-linear optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatsuki, N.; Pakbaz, K.; Schmidt, H.W.

    1993-12-31

    New photocrosslinkable copolymers have been synthesized and applied as non-linear optical materials. The copolymers are based on methyl methacrylate, a photo-excitable benzophenone monomer, a non-linear optical active 4`-[(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylamino]-4-nitro-azobenzene (disperse red 1) side chain monomer and a crosslinkable 2-butenyl monomer. These copolymers can be crosslinked by UV light at 366 nm in the poled state and show a stable alignment of NLO chromophore by monitoring the adsorption spectra. The crosslinked and poled film did not change its alignment after storing 4 weeks at room temperature.

  3. Non-Linear Finite Element Modeling of THUNDER Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.

    1999-01-01

    A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric DrivER) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.

  4. Rare earth ion doped non linear laser crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaque, D.; Romero, J. J.; Ramirez, M. O.; Garcia, J. A. S.; de Las Heras, C.; Bausa, L. E.; Sole, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We show how non linear crystals activated with Yb3+ or Nd3+ ions can be used to develop diode pumped solid state lasers emitting in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For this purpose we have selected relevant examples of systems investigated in our laboratory.

  5. Non-linear protocell models: synchronization and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filisetti, A.; Serra, R.; Carletti, T.; Villani, M.; Poli, I.

    2010-09-01

    We consider generic protocells models allowing linear and non-linear kinetics for the main involved chemical reactions. We are interested in understanding if and how the protocell division and the metabolism do synchronise to give rise to sustainable evolution of the protocell.

  6. Is 3D true non linear traveltime tomography reasonable ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, A.; Virieux, J.

    2003-04-01

    The data sets requiring 3D analysis tools in the context of seismic exploration (both onshore and offshore experiments) or natural seismicity (micro seismicity surveys or post event measurements) are more and more numerous. Classical linearized tomographies and also earthquake localisation codes need an accurate 3D background velocity model. However, if the medium is complex and a priori information not available, a 1D analysis is not able to provide an adequate background velocity image. Moreover, the design of the acquisition layouts is often intrinsically 3D and renders difficult even 2D approaches, especially in natural seismicity cases. Thus, the solution relies on the use of a 3D true non linear approach, which allows to explore the model space and to identify an optimal velocity image. The problem becomes then practical and its feasibility depends on the available computing resources (memory and time). In this presentation, we show that facing a 3D traveltime tomography problem with an extensive non-linear approach combining fast travel time estimators based on level set methods and optimisation techniques such as multiscale strategy is feasible. Moreover, because management of inhomogeneous inversion parameters is more friendly in a non linear approach, we describe how to perform a jointly non-linear inversion for the seismic velocities and the sources locations.

  7. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    A good understanding of the steady state dynamic behavior of a geared system is required in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. This study focuses on a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type non-linearities. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and force vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solution with the finite element model results. Several key system parameters such as mean load and damping ratio are identified and their effects on the non-linear frequency response are evaluated quantitatively. Other fundamental issues such as the dynamic coupling between non-linear modes, dynamic interactions between component non-linearities and time-varying mesh stiffness, and the existence of subharmonic and chaotic solutions including routes to chaos have also been examined in depth.

  8. Evolution equation for non-linear cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Brustein, Ram; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@cern.ch

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel approach, based entirely on the gravitational potential, for studying the evolution of non-linear cosmological matter perturbations. Starting from the perturbed Einstein equations, we integrate out the non-relativistic degrees of freedom of the cosmic fluid and obtain a single closed equation for the gravitational potential. We then verify the validity of the new equation by comparing its approximate solutions to known results in the theory of non-linear cosmological perturbations. First, we show explicitly that the perturbative solution of our equation matches the standard perturbative solutions. Next, using the mean field approximation to the equation, we show that its solution reproduces in a simple way the exponential suppression of the non-linear propagator on small scales due to the velocity dispersion. Our approach can therefore reproduce the main features of the renormalized perturbation theory and (time)-renormalization group approaches to the study of non-linear cosmological perturbations, with some possibly important differences. We conclude by a preliminary discussion of the nature of the full solutions of the equation and their significance.

  9. Tunneling control using classical non-linear oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    A quantum particle is placed in symmetric double well potential which is coupled to a classical non-linear oscillator via a coupling function. With different spatial symmetry of the coupling and under various controlling fashions, the tunneling of the quantum particle can be enhanced or suppressed, or totally destroyed.

  10. Non-linear Langmuir waves in a warm quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.

    2014-10-15

    A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a warm quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its numerical solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.

  11. Non-linearity in Bayesian 1-D magnetotelluric inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dettmer, Jan; Tong, Xiaozhong

    2011-05-01

    This paper applies a Bayesian approach to examine non-linearity for the 1-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem. In a Bayesian formulation the posterior probability density (PPD), which combines data and prior information, is interpreted in terms of parameter estimates and uncertainties, which requires optimizing and integrating the PPD. Much work on 1-D MT inversion has been based on (approximate) linearized solutions, but more recently fully non-linear (numerical) approaches have been applied. This paper directly compares results of linearized and non-linear uncertainty estimation for 1-D MT inversion; to do so, advanced methods for both approaches are applied. In the non-linear formulation used here, numerical optimization is carried out using an adaptive-hybrid algorithm. Numerical integration applies Metropolis-Hastings sampling, rotated to a principal-component parameter space for efficient sampling of correlated parameters, and employing non-unity sampling temperatures to ensure global sampling. Since appropriate model parametrizations are generally not known a priori, both under- and overparametrized approaches are considered. For underparametrization, the Bayesian information criterion is applied to determine the number of layers consistent with the resolving power of the data. For overparametrization, prior information is included which favours simple structure in a manner similar to regularized inversion. The data variance and/or trade-off parameter regulating data and prior information are treated in several ways, including applying fixed optimal estimates (an empirical Bayesian approach) or including them as hyperparameters in the sampling (hierarchical Bayesian). The latter approach has the benefit of accounting for the uncertainty in the hyperparameters in estimating model parameter uncertainties. Non-linear and linearized inversion results are compared for synthetic test cases and for the measured COPROD1 MT data by considering marginal probability

  12. Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.

    2007-05-01

    Current industrial practice for the prediction and analysis of flutter relies heavily on linear methods and this has led to overly conservative design and envelope restrictions for aircraft. Although the methods have served the industry well, it is clear that for a number of reasons the inclusion of non-linearity in the mathematical and computational aeroelastic prediction tools is highly desirable. The increase in available and affordable computational resources, together with major advances in algorithms, mean that non-linear aeroelastic tools are now viable within the aircraft design and qualification environment. The Partnership for Unsteady Methods in Aerodynamics (PUMA) Defence and Aerospace Research Partnership (DARP) was sponsored in 2002 to conduct research into non-linear aeroelastic prediction methods and an academic, industry, and government consortium collaborated to address the following objectives: To develop useable methodologies to model and predict non-linear aeroelastic behaviour of complete aircraft. To evaluate the methodologies on real aircraft problems. To investigate the effect of non-linearities on aeroelastic behaviour and to determine which have the greatest effect on the flutter qualification process. These aims have been very effectively met during the course of the programme and the research outputs include: New methods available to industry for use in the flutter prediction process, together with the appropriate coaching of industry engineers. Interesting results in both linear and non-linear aeroelastics, with comprehensive comparison of methods and approaches for challenging problems. Additional embryonic techniques that, with further research, will further improve aeroelastics capability. This paper describes the methods that have been developed and how they are deployable within the industrial environment. We present a thorough review of the PUMA aeroelastics programme together with a comprehensive review of the relevant research

  13. Chemical solution deposition of the highly c-axis oriented apatite type lanthanum silicate thin films.

    PubMed

    Hori, Shigeo; Takatani, Yasuhiro; Kadoura, Hiroaki; Uyama, Takeshi; Fujita, Satoru; Tani, Toshihiko

    2015-10-28

    Highly c-axis oriented apatite-type lanthanum silicate (LSO) thin films were fabricated by a simple solution coating method. In the solution coating method, LSO thin films are obtained by crystallization of initially deposited amorphous LSO precursor thin films. The degree of orientation was influenced by the precursor morphologies and a dense LSO precursor led to a high c-axis orientation perpendicular to the substrate. The oriented LSO thin films were composed of columnar grains with a single crystal orientation over the entire film thickness. In-plane orientation was not detected, which indicates that the c-axis orientation of the LSO thin films can be attributed to self-orientation. PMID:26391101

  14. New non-linear photovoltaic effect in uniform bipolar semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Volovichev, I.

    2014-11-21

    A linear theory of the new non-linear photovoltaic effect in the closed circuit consisting of a non-uniformly illuminated uniform bipolar semiconductor with neutral impurities is developed. The non-uniform photo-excitation of impurities results in the position-dependant current carrier mobility that breaks the semiconductor homogeneity and induces the photo-electromotive force (emf). As both the electron (or hole) mobility gradient and the current carrier generation rate depend on the light intensity, the photo-emf and the short-circuit current prove to be non-linear functions of the incident light intensity at an arbitrarily low illumination. The influence of the sample size on the photovoltaic effect magnitude is studied. Physical relations and distinctions between the considered effect and the Dember and bulk photovoltaic effects are also discussed.

  15. On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas E-mail: mathias.garny@desy.de

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections at any order in perturbation theory. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.

  16. A non-linear model of economic production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

    2003-06-01

    We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

  17. Non-linear Higgs portal to Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, I.; Gavela, M. B.; Merlo, L.; Mimasu, K.; No, J. M.; del Rey, R.; Sanz, V.

    2016-04-01

    The Higgs portal to scalar Dark Matter is considered in the context of non-linearly realised electroweak symmetry breaking. We determine the dominant interactions of gauge bosons and the physical Higgs particle h to a scalar singlet Dark Matter candidate. Phenomenological consequences are also studied in detail, including the possibility of distinguishing this scenario from the standard Higgs portal in which the electroweak symmetry breaking is linearly realised. Two features of significant impact are: i) the connection between the electroweak scale v and the Higgs particle departs from the ( v + h) functional dependence, as the Higgs field is not necessarily an exact electroweak doublet; ii) the presence of specific couplings that arise at different order in the non-linear and in the linear expansions. These facts deeply affect the Dark Matter relic abundance, as well as the expected signals in direct and indirect searches and collider phenomenology, where Dark Matter production rates are enhanced with respect to the standard portal.

  18. Non-linear microscopy and spectroscopy of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palero, Jonathan A.; Latouche, Gwendal; de Bruijn, Henri"tte S.; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2005-11-01

    We combined a non-linear microscope with a sensitive prism-based spectrograph and employed it for the imaging of the auto fluorescence of skin tissues. The system has a sub-micron spatial resolution and a spectral resolution of better than 5 nm. The spectral images contain signals arising from two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) of endogenous fluorophores in the skin and from second harmonic generation (SHG) produced by the collagen fibers, which have non-centrosymmetric structure. Non-linear microscopy has the potential to image deep into optically thick specimens because it uses near-infrared (NIR) laser excitation. In addition, the phototoxicity of the technique is comparatively low. Here, the technique is used for the spectral imaging of unstained skin tissue sections. We were able to image weak cellular autofluorescence as well as strong collagen SHG. The images were analyzed by spectral unmixing and the results exhibit a clear spectral signature for the different skin layers.

  19. Non-linear power spectra in the synchronous gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Jeong, Donghui; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Biern, Sang Gyu

    2015-05-01

    We study the non-linear corrections to the matter and velocity power spectra in the synchronous gauge (SG). For the leading correction to the non-linear power spectra, we consider the perturbations up to third order in a zero-pressure fluid in a flat cosmological background. Although the equations in the SG happen to coincide with those in the comoving gauge (CG) to linear order, they differ from second order. In particular, the second order hydrodynamic equations in the SG are apparently in the Lagrangian form, whereas those in the CG are in the Eulerian form. The non-linear power spectra naively presented in the original SG show rather pathological behavior quite different from the result of the Newtonian theory even on sub-horizon scales. We show that the pathology in the nonlinear power spectra is due to the absence of the convective terms in, thus the Lagrangian nature of, the SG. We show that there are many different ways of introducing the corrective convective terms in the SG equations. However, the convective terms (Eulerian modification) can be introduced only through gauge transformations to other gauges which should be the same as the CG to the second order. In our previous works we have shown that the density and velocity perturbation equations in the CG exactly coincide with the Newtonian equations to the second order, and the pure general relativistic correction terms starting to appear from the third order are substantially suppressed compared with the relativistic/Newtonian terms in the power spectra. As a result, we conclude that the SG per se is an inappropriate coordinate choice in handling the non-linear matter and velocity power spectra of the large-scale structure where observations meet with theories.

  20. Liapunov functions for non-linear difference equation stability analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. E.; Kinnen, E.

    1972-01-01

    Liapunov functions to determine the stability of non-linear autonomous difference equations can be developed through the use of auxiliary exact difference equations. For this purpose definitions are introduced for the gradient of an implicit function of a discrete variable, a principal sum, a definite sum and an exact difference equation, and a theorem for exactness of a difference form is proved. Examples illustrate the procedure.

  1. Approximate solutions for non-linear iterative fractional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damag, Faten H.; Kiliçman, Adem; Ibrahim, Rabha W.

    2016-06-01

    This paper establishes approximate solution for non-linear iterative fractional differential equations: d/γv (s ) d sγ =ℵ (s ,v ,v (v )), where γ ∈ (0, 1], s ∈ I := [0, 1]. Our method is based on some convergence tools for analytic solution in a connected region. We show that the suggested solution is unique and convergent by some well known geometric functions.

  2. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,L.; Nash, B.

    2009-05-04

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  3. Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnat, B.

    2011-09-01

    Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.

  4. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at k ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  5. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-06-01

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = nabla \\cdot v({x},t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ˜10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at k ˜ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k < 0.1 h Mpc-1. The stochasticity in the θ-δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  6. Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, B.

    2011-09-22

    Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.

  7. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmore » ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  8. Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at low levels (m = 3, 4, 5) are presented as well as a sketch of some proofs. The first identity gives the Ising model characters (m = 3) as bilinears in tricritical Ising model characters (m = 4), while the second one gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model.

  9. Non-linear Compton Scattering in Short Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Kamiński, Jerzy

    2012-06-01

    The generation of short X-ray laser pulses attracts a great deal of attention. One of mechanisms to achieve this goal is the non-linear Compton scattering at very high laser powers. The majority of previous works on the non-linear Compton scattering have been devoted to the case when the incident laser field is treated as a monochromatic plane wave. There is, however, recent interest in analyzing the effect of a pulsed laser field on the non-linear Compton scattering [1-4]. We study the process for different durations of the incident laser pulse and compare it with the results for both a plane wave laser field and a laser pulse train. [4pt] [1] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053403 (2009).[0pt] [2] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Eur. Phys. J. D 61, 446 (2011).[0pt] [3] D. Seipt and B. Kämpfer, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022101 (2011).[0pt] [4] F. Mackenroth and A. Di Piazza, Phys. Rev. A 83, 032106 (2011).

  10. Can the Non-linear Ballooning Model describe ELMs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, S. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Wilson, H. R.

    2015-11-01

    The explosive, filamentary plasma eruptions described by the non-linear ideal MHD ballooning model is tested quantitatively against experimental observations of ELMs in MAST. The equations describing this model were derived by Wilson and Cowley for tokamak-like geometry which includes two differential equations: the linear ballooning equation which describes the spatial distribution along the field lines and the non-linear ballooning mode envelope equation, which is a two-dimensional, non-linear differential equation which can involve fractional temporal-derivatives, but is often second-order in time and space. To employ the second differential equation for a specific geometry one has to evaluate the coefficients of the equation which is non-trivial as it involves field line averaging of slowly converging functions. We have solved this system for MAST, superimposing the solutions of both differential equations and mapping them onto a MAST plasma. Comparisons with the evolution of ELM filaments in MAST will be reported in order to test the model. The support of the EPSRC for the FCDT (Grant EP/K504178/1), of Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 (No 633053) and of the RCUK Energy Programme [grant number EP/I501045] is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. A Technique for Determining Non-Linear Circuit Parameters from Ring Down Data

    SciTech Connect

    ROMERO, LOUIS; DICKEY, FRED M.; DISON, HOLLY

    2003-01-01

    We present a technique for determining non-linear resistances, capacitances, and inductances from ring down data in a non-linear RLC circuit. Although the governing differential equations are non-linear, we are able to solve this problem using linear least squares without doing any sort of non-linear iteration.

  12. Non-linearities in Holocene floodplain sediment storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; Nils, Broothaerts; Jean-François, Berger; Gert, Verstraeten

    2013-04-01

    Floodplain sediment storage is an important part of the sediment cascade model, buffering sediment delivery between hillslopes and oceans, which is hitherto not fully quantified in contrast to other global sediment budget components. Quantification and dating of floodplain sediment storage is data and financially demanding, limiting contemporary estimates for larger spatial units to simple linear extrapolations from a number of smaller catchments. In this paper we will present non-linearities in both space and time for floodplain sediment budgets in three different catchments. Holocene floodplain sediments of the Dijle catchment in the Belgian loess region, show a clear distinction between morphological stages: early Holocene peat accumulation, followed by mineral floodplain aggradation from the start of the agricultural period on. Contrary to previous assumptions, detailed dating of this morphological change at different shows an important non-linearity in geomorphologic changes of the floodplain, both between and within cross sections. A second example comes from the Pre-Alpine French Valdaine region, where non-linearities and complex system behavior exists between (temporal) patterns of soil erosion and floodplain sediment deposition. In this region Holocene floodplain deposition is characterized by different cut-and-fill phases. The quantification of these different phases shows a complicated image of increasing and decreasing floodplain sediment storage, which hampers the image of increasing sediment accumulation over time. Although fill stages may correspond with large quantities of deposited sediment and traditionally calculated sedimentation rates for such stages are high, they do not necessary correspond with a long-term net increase in floodplain deposition. A third example is based on the floodplain sediment storage in the Amblève catchment, located in the Belgian Ardennes uplands. Detailed floodplain sediment quantification for this catchments shows

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of c-axis untilted YBCO films on c-axis tilted ISD MgO-buffered metallic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Ma, B.; Koritala, R. E.; Fisher, B. L.; Venkataraman, K.; Maroni, V. A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V.; Berghuis, P.; Welp, U.; Gray, K. E.; Balachandran, U.

    2003-05-01

    Biaxially textured MgO template layer was deposited on nontextured metal substrates by inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) at a deposition rate of 24-600 nm/min. c-axis untilted YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x (YBCO) films were deposited on these MgO-buffered substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The crystalline structures of the YBCO films and MgO layers were examined by X-ray pole figure analysis, X-ray φ-scans, and χ-scans. A tilt angle of 33° of the MgO[0 0 1] with respect to the substrate normal and c-axis untilted YBCO films were observed, respectively. Good biaxial texture of these films with full-width-at-half-maximum values of 13.8° and 10.6° for the φ-scans of YBCO(1 0 3) and MgO(2 2 0), respectively, were obtained. Morphologies were examined by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed a unique roof-tile feature and columnar grain growth for the ISD MgO layer. Raman spectroscopy and magneto-optical image technique were also used to evaluate the quality of the YBCO film. An angular dependence of Jc on the direction of an applied magnetic field confirmed the c-axis untilted orientation of the YBCO films. Tc=90 K with sharp transition and Jc=3.0×10 5 A/cm 2 at 77 K in zero field were obtained on 0.4-μm-thick YBCO films.

  14. Transport properties along c-axis of DyNi2B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    We have measured the resistivity along c-axis ρc(H, T) of DyNi2B2C with the applied magnetic field H perpendicular to c-axis for 0 kG < H < 4 kG and temperature range 2 K < T < 300 K. From these, the superconducting upper critical field HC2(T) curve of DyNi2B2C for the c-axis was constructed and our HC2(T) curve from ρc(H, T) measurement has been compared with that from previous known ρab(H, T) result. With additional magnetization isotherms M(H, T) for H ⊥ c and H ∥ c-axis, the anisotropy in HC2(T) curves of the magnetic structure DyNi2N2C, which has the superconducting transition temperature TC is lower than the Néel temperatures TN, might be originated from the additional anisotropic magnetic Dy3+ sublattice.

  15. Effect of strain along C-axis NbS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Tapender Kumar, Jagdish Sastri, O. S. K. S.

    2015-05-15

    We have studied electronic properties of double layered hexagonal structure of the Niobium Di-Sulphide (2H-NbS{sub 2}) superconductor for various strains introduced along the c-axis using ab-initio calculations. The DFT calculations based on Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FPLAPW) method are performed using the ELK code. The total energy curve (E vs a), Density of States (DOS) and the Band structure calculations obtained in this work are matching with the earlier reports. The Pressure-Volume (P-V) diagram for 2H-NbS{sub 2} was obtained using the Equation of State(EOS) calculations, which provides the relationship between the pressure and strain applied along the c-axis. The band structures for various strains ranging from 0 percent to 10 percent along c-axis in steps of 2 percent are obtained. We note that there are increasing number of bands crossing over the Fermi energy level with increase in strain. Thus, we conclude that with increasing strain along c-axis, number of conduction bands crossing the E{sub F} increases, which gives rise to more conduction states and hence higher conductivity.

  16. In-plane and c-axis optical spectroscopy study on 122 Fe-pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan Lin

    2011-03-01

    I present the in-plane and the c-axis optical spectroscopy investigations on 122 Fe-pnictides. For the parent compound BaFe 2 As 2 , the in-plane measurement revealed two different energy gaps in the SDW state, whereas for the c-axis polarized measurement only the energy gap at smaller energy scale could be clearly observed. We suggest different driving mechanisms for the formation of the two energy gaps. The large energy gap is caused by the nesting between disconnected 2D cylinder-like electron and hole Fermi surfaces. It is the main driving force for the SDW instability. The small energy gap is the one formed on the 3D Fermi surface due to the presence of reduced magnetic Brillouin zone which crosses the 3D Fermi surface. It is the consequence of the establishment of the magnetic order. For the doped superconducting 122 samples, the in-plane optical measurement revealed a formation of full superconducting energy gap, whereas the c-axis optical measurement indicated a large residual quasiparticle population down to very low temperature. Those quasiparticles contribute specifically to the c-axis transport. We suggest that there exist horizontal nodes in the superconducting gap in regions of the 3D Fermi surface that contribute dominantly to the c-axis optical conductivity. Work done with Z. G. Chen, W. Z. Hu, B. Cheng, G. Li, J. Dong, T. Dong, R. H. Yuan, P. Zheng, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, Z. Fang, X. Dai, C. L. Zhang and P. Dai.

  17. Spherulitic (c-axis) Growth for Terrestrial (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) and Martian Hematite "blueberries"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2006-01-01

    Hematite concentrations observed by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor were considered a possible indicator for aqueous processes on Mars. Observations made by Opportunity show that the hematite at Meridiani Planum is present as spherules ( blueberries) and their fragments. The internal structure of the hematite spherules is not discernable at the resolution limit (approx.30 m/pixel) of Opportunity s Microscopic Imager (MI). A terrestrial analog for martian hematite spherules are spherules from hydrothermally altered and sulfate-rich tephra from the summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. The objective of this study is to determine the crystal growth fabric of the Mauna Kea hematite spherules using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and to relate that crystalline fabric to the observed TES signature of Meridiani Planum "blueberries." TEM analysis of Mauna Kea spherules exhibited a radial growth pattern consisting of "fibrous" hematite with the c-axis of hematite particles aligned along the elongation direction of the hematite fibers. The individual fibers appear to be made of coalesced nano-particles of hematite arranged with their c-axis oriented radially to form a spherical structure. Lattice fringes suggest long-range order across particles and along fibers. According to interpretations of thermal emission spectra for Meridian Planum hematite, the absence of a band at approx. 390/cm implies a geometry where c-face emission dominates. Because the c-face is perpendicular to the c-axis, this is precisely the geometry for the Mauna Kea spherules because the c-axis is aligned parallel to their radial growth direction. Therefore, we conclude as a working hypothesis that the martian spherules also have radial, c-axis growth pattern on a scale that is too small to be detected by the MER MI. Furthermore, by analogy with the Mauna Kea spherules, the martian blueberries could have formed during hydrothermal alteration of

  18. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  19. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    PubMed

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate. PMID:26503051

  20. Non-linear dynamics of compound sawteeth in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.-H.; Garbet, X.; Lütjens, H.; Marx, A.; Nicolas, T.; Sabot, R.; Luciani, J.-F.; Guirlet, R.; Février, O.; Maget, P.

    2016-05-01

    Compound sawteeth is studied with the XTOR-2F code. Non-linear full 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that the plasma hot core is radially displaced and rotates during the partial crash, but is not fully expelled out of the q = 1 surface. Partial crashes occur when the radius of the q = 1 surface exceeds a critical value, at fixed poloidal beta. This critical value depends on the plasma elongation. The partial crash time is larger than the collapse time of an ordinary sawtooth, likely due to a weaker diamagnetic stabilization. This suggests that partial crashes result from a competition between destabilizing effects such as the q = 1 radius and diamagnetic stabilization.

  1. A non-linear UAV altitude PSO-PD control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a nonlinear model based approach is presented for the altitude stabilization of a hexarotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The mathematical model and control of the hexacopter airframe is presented. To stabilize the system along the vertical direction, a Proportional Derivative (PD) control is taken into account. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is used in this paper to select the optimal parameters of the control algorithm taking into account different objective functions. Simulation sets are performed to carry out the results for the non-linear system to show how the PSO tuned PD controller leads to zero the error of the position along Z earth direction.

  2. 8-PSK Signaling over non-linear satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Sheila B.; Caballero, Ruben B. Eng.

    1996-01-01

    Space agencies are under pressure to utilize better bandwidth-efficient communication methods due to the actual allocated frequency bands becoming more congested. Also budget reductions is another problem that the space agencies must deal with. This budget constraint results in simpler spacecraft carrying less communication capabilities and also the reduction in staff to capture data in the earth stations. It is then imperative that the most bandwidth efficient communication methods be utilized. This thesis presents a study of 8-ary Phase Shift Keying (8PSK) modulation with respect to bandwidth, power efficiency, spurious emissions and interference susceptibility over a non-linear satellite channel.

  3. Support Vector Machines for Non-linear Geophysical Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Rector, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Classical non-linear geophysical inversion can be simulated using computer learning via Support Vector Machines. Geophysical inverse problems are almost always ill-posed which means that many different models (i.e. descriptions of the earth) can be found to explain a given noisy or incomplete data set. Regularization and constraints encourage inversions to find physically realistic models. The set of preferred models needs to be defined a priori using as much geologic knowledge as is available. In inversion, it is assumed that data and a forward modeling process is known. The goal is to solve for a model. In the SVM paradigm, a series of models and associated data are known. The goal is to solve for a reverse modeling process. Starting with a series of initial models assembled using all available geologic information, synthetic data is created using the most realistic forward modeling program available. With the synthetic data as inputs and the known models as outputs, a Support Vector Machine is trained to approximate a local inverse to the forward modeling program. The advantages of this approach are that it is honest about the need to establish, a priori, the kinds of models that are reasonable in a particular field situation. There is no need to adjust the forward process to accommodate inversion, because SVMs can be easily modified to capture complicated, non-linear relationships. SVMs are transparent and require very little programming. If an SVM is trained using model/data pairs that are drawn from the same probability distribution that is implicit in the regularization of an inversion, then it will get very similar results to the inversion. Because SVMs can interpret as much data as desired so long as the conditions of an experiment do not change, they can be used to perform otherwise computationally expensive procedures. Support Vector Machines are trained to emulate non-linear seismic Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) inversions, gravity inversions

  4. Response of a rotorcraft model with damping non-linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongue, B. H.

    1985-11-01

    The linearized equations of motion of a helicopter in contact with the ground have solutions which can be linearly stable or unstable, depending on the system parameters. The present study includes physical non-linearities in the helicopter model. This allows one to determine if a steady-state response exists and, if so, what the frequency and amplitude of the oscillations will be. In this way, one can determine how serious the linearly unstable operating regime is and whether destructive oscillations are possible when the system is in the linearly stable regime. The present analysis applies to helicopters having fully articulated rotors.

  5. Non-linear wave interaction in a plasma column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J.-M.; Crawford, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Non-linear three-wave interaction is analysed for propagation along a cylindrical plasma column surrounded by an infinite dielectric, in the absence of a static magnetic field. An averaged-Lagrangian method is used, and the results are specialized to parametric interaction and mode conversion, assuming an undepleted pump wave. The theory for these two types of interactions is extended to include imperfect synchronism, and the effects of loss. Computations are presented indicating that parametric growth rates of the order of a fraction of a decibel per centimeter should be obtainable for plausible laboratory plasma column parameters.

  6. Non-linear identification of a squeeze-film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanway, Roger; Mottershead, John; Firoozian, Riaz

    1987-01-01

    Described is an experimental study to identify the damping laws associated with a squeeze-film vibration damper. This is achieved by using a non-linear filtering algorithm to process displacement responses of the damper ring to synchronous excitation and thus to estimate the parameters in an nth-power velocity model. The experimental facility is described in detail and a representative selection of results is included. The identified models are validated through the prediction of damper-ring orbits and comparison with observed responses.

  7. Non-linear isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo; Wands, David E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2008-12-15

    We study non-linear primordial adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations and their non-Gaussianity. After giving a general formulation in the context of an extended {delta}N formalism, we analyse in detail two illustrative examples. The first is a mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario in which fluctuations of both the inflaton and a curvaton (a light isocurvature field during inflation) contribute to the primordial density perturbation. The second example is that of double inflation involving two decoupled massive scalar fields during inflation. In the mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario we find that the bispectrum of primordial isocurvature perturbations may be large and comparable to the bispectrum of adiabatic curvature perturbations.

  8. Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy of microbiological suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Treo, Ernesto F; Felice, Carmelo J

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS) of microorganism was characterized by the generation of harmonics in the polarization current when a microorganism suspension was exposed to a sinusoidal electric field. The biological nonlinear response initially described was not well verified by other authors and the results were susceptible to ambiguous interpretation. In this paper NLDS was performed to yeast suspension in tripolar and tetrapolar configuration with a recently developed analyzer. Methods Tripolar analysis was carried out by applying sinusoidal voltages up to 1 V at the electrode interface. Tetrapolar analysis was carried on with sinusoidal field strengths from 0.1 V cm-1 to 70 V cm-1. Both analyses were performed within a frequency range from 1 Hz through 100 Hz. The harmonic amplitudes were Fourier-analyzed and expressed in dB. The third harmonic, as reported previously, was investigated. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) was used to test the effect of inhibitor an activator of the plasma membrane enzyme in the measured response. Results No significant non-linearities were observed in tetrapolar analysis, and no observable changes occurred when inhibitor and activator were added to the suspension. Statistical analysis confirmed these results. When a pure sinus voltage was applied to an electrode-yeast suspension interface, variations higher than 25 dB for the 3rd harmonic were observed. Variation higher than 20 dB in the 3rd harmonics has also been found when adding an inhibitor or activator of the membrane-bounded enzymes. These variations did not occur when the suspension was boiled. Discussion The lack of result in tetrapolar cells suggest that there is no, if any, harmonic generation in microbiological bulk suspension. The non-linear response observed was originated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The frequency and voltage windows observed in previous tetrapolar analysis were repeated in the tripolar measurements, but maximum were not

  9. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-11-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects

  10. Non-linear plasma wake growth of electron holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.; Zhou, C.

    2015-03-15

    An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts across the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable size, beyond which their uncontrolled growth disrupts the ions. The hole growth calculations provide a quantitative prediction of hole profile and size evolution. Hole growth appears to explain the observations of recent particle-in-cell simulations.

  11. Modified non-linear Burgers' equations and cosmic ray shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Mckenzie, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    A reductive perturbation scheme is used to derive a generalized non-linear Burgers' equation, which includes the effects of dispersion, in the long wavelength regime for the two-fluid hydrodynamical model used to describe cosmic ray acceleration by the first-order Fermi process in astrophysical shocks. The generalized Burger's equation is derived for both relativistic and non-relativistic cosmic ray shocks, and describes the time evolution of weak shocks in the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. The inclusion of dispersive effects modifies the phase velocity of the shock obtained from the lower order non-linear Burger's equation through the introduction of higher order terms from the long wavelength dispersion equation. The travelling wave solution of the generalized Burgers' equation for a single shock shows that larger cosmic ray pressures result in broader shock transitions. The results for relativistic shocks show a steepening of the shock as the shock speed approaches the relativistic cosmic ray sound speed. The dependence of the shock speed on the cosmic ray pressure is also discussed.

  12. Non-linear leak currents affect mammalian neuron physiology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiwei; Hong, Sungho; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In their seminal works on squid giant axons, Hodgkin, and Huxley approximated the membrane leak current as Ohmic, i.e., linear, since in their preparation, sub-threshold current rectification due to the influence of ionic concentration is negligible. Most studies on mammalian neurons have made the same, largely untested, assumption. Here we show that the membrane time constant and input resistance of mammalian neurons (when other major voltage-sensitive and ligand-gated ionic currents are discounted) varies non-linearly with membrane voltage, following the prediction of a Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz-based passive membrane model. The model predicts that under such conditions, the time constant/input resistance-voltage relationship will linearize if the concentration differences across the cell membrane are reduced. These properties were observed in patch-clamp recordings of cerebellar Purkinje neurons (in the presence of pharmacological blockers of other background ionic currents) and were more prominent in the sub-threshold region of the membrane potential. Model simulations showed that the non-linear leak affects voltage-clamp recordings and reduces temporal summation of excitatory synaptic input. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of trans-membrane ionic concentration in defining the functional properties of the passive membrane in mammalian neurons as well as other excitable cells. PMID:26594148

  13. Non-linear plasma wake growth of electron holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.; Zhou, C.

    2015-03-01

    An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts across the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable size, beyond which their uncontrolled growth disrupts the ions. The hole growth calculations provide a quantitative prediction of hole profile and size evolution. Hole growth appears to explain the observations of recent particle-in-cell simulations.

  14. Effects on non-linearities on aircraft poststall motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rohacs, J.; Thomasson, P.; Mosehilde, E.

    1994-12-31

    The poststall maneuverability controlled by thrust vectoring has become one of the important aspects of new fighter development projects. In simplified case, the motion of aircraft can be described by 6DOF nonlinear system. The lecture deals with the longitudinal motion of poststall maneuverable aircraft. The investigation made about the effects of non-linearities in aerodynamic coefficients having considerable non-linearities and hysteresisis an the poststall motions. There were used some different models of aerodynamic coefficients. The results of investigation have shown that the poststall domain of vectored aircraft can be divided into five different pHs in field of thrust - pitch vector angle, and the chaotic motions of aircraft can be found at the different frequencies of thrust deflection. There were defined an unstable right domain with an unstable oscillation and a field of overpulling at poststall motion. The certain frequency chaotic attractors were got at frequencies of Oxitation between the 0.15 and 0.65 rad/sec. The pitching moment derivatives had the big influence on the chaotic motions, while the lift coefficient derivatives bad the reasonable effects, only.

  15. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  16. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications.

    PubMed

    Stanculescu, F; Stanculescu, A

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised. PMID:26873262

  17. C-axis Transport Properties of DyNi2 B2 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. C.

    2014-03-01

    The resistivity along c-axis ρc(H,T) of DyNi2B2C have been measured with the applied magnetic field H perpendicular and parallel to c-axis, 0 kG c-axis were constructed for each magnetic fields and our HC2(T) curves from ρc(H,T) measurement have been compared with those from previous known ρab(H,T) results. Since RNi2N2C (R = non magnetic rare earth element) has isotropic electronic structure and properties, the anisotropy in HC2(T) curves of the magnetic DyNi2N2C, which has the superconducting transition temperature, TC, is lower than the Néel temperatures, TN, is thought to be originated from the anisotropic magnetic Dy +3 sublattice.

  18. Quartz c-axis evidence for deformation characteristics in the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, Babak

    2013-05-01

    Quartz c-axis fabric, finite strain, and kinematic vorticity analyses were carried out in well-exposed quartz mylonites to investigate the heterogeneous nature of ductile deformation within the Eghlid deformed area in the High Pressure-Low Temperature (HP-LT) Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt (Zagros Mountains, Iran). This belt belongs to a sequence of tectonometamorphic complexes with low- to high-grade metamorphic rocks affected by a polyphase deformation history. Asymmetric quartz c-axis fabrics (type I) confirm a localized top-to-the-southeast sense of shear. Quantitative finite strain analysis in the XZ, XY and YZ principal planes of the finite strain ellipsoid demonstrate that the strain ratio increases towards the thrust planes of the Zagros Thrust System. Kinematic vorticity analysis of deformed quartz grains showed sequential variation in the kinematic vorticity number from ˜0.5 to ˜0.8 between the thrust sheets. Such vorticity numbers show that both simple and pure shear components contribute to the deformation. Our results show that simple shear dominated deformation near the thrust faults, and pure shear dominated deformation far from them. Quartz c-axis opening angles suggest deformation temperatures range between 450° ± 50 °C and 600° ± 50 °C, which yield greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions during ductile deformation.

  19. Microstructure dependence of the c-axis critical current density in second-generation YBCO tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Rupich, M. W.; Fleshler, S.; Clem, J. R.

    2011-10-01

    C-axis current flow in high temperature superconductor (HTS) tape-shaped wires arises in configurations where the local wire axis is not perpendicular to the local magnetic field, such as in power cables with helically wound HTS tapes. The c-axis critical current density J{sub c}{sup c} has been recently found to be orders of magnitude lower than the ab-plane critical current density J{sub c}{sup ab}. Here we report on J{sub c}{sup c} (77 K, sf) values of various YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}-based (YBCO) tapes with different microstructures. Our results show that the value of J{sub c}{sup c} (77 K, sf) decreases significantly with increasing concentration of ab-plane stacking faults in YBCO thin films and that the critical current anisotropy {gamma} = J{sub c}{sup ab}/J{sub c}{sup c} can reach values as high as 2070, implying that in the highest-anisotropy tape, {approx}20% of the tape width carries c-axis current in a helically wound power cable.

  20. Microstructure dependence of the c-axis critical current density in second generation YBCO tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y. Welp, U. Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W.K.; Malozemoff, A.P.; Rupich, M.W.; Fleshler, S.; Clem, J.R.

    2011-10-31

    C-axis current flow in high temperature superconductor (HTS) tape-shaped wires arises in configurations where the local wire axis is not perpendicular to the local magnetic field, such as in power cables with helically wound HTS tapes. The c-axis critical current density J{sub c}{sup c} has been recently found to be orders of magnitude lower than the ab-plane critical current density J{sub c}{sup ab}. Here we report on J{sub c}{sup c} (77 K, sf) values of various YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}-based (YBCO) tapes with different microstructures. Our results show that the value of J{sub c}{sup c} (77 K, sf) decreases significantly with increasing concentration of ab-plane stacking faults in YBCO thin films and that the critical current anisotropy {gamma} = J{sub c}{sup ab}/J{sub c}{sup c} can reach values as high as 2070, implying that in the highest-anisotropy tape, {approx}20% of the tape width carries c-axis current in a helically wound power cable.

  1. C-axis critical current density of second-generation YBCO tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y.; Hua, J.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Welp, U.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Rupich, M.; Fleshler, S.; Materials Science Division; American Superconductor Corp.

    2010-10-01

    We report on measurements of the temperature and field dependence of the c-axis critical current density (J{sub c}{sup c}) obtained on mesa structures that were patterned into the YBCO layer of second-generation HTS tapes. We find the J{sub c}{sup c}-values of {approx}4 kA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and self-field, corresponding to an unexpectedly high anisotropy in the critical current density J{sub c}{sup ab}/J{sub c}{sup c} of 500-600. C-axis current flow is expected to arise in applications such as the helically wound wires in HTS cables. A simple estimate is given of the fraction of tape width for such a c-axis flow; while in our samples this fraction is approximately 5% for a typical geometry, the fraction will grow linearly with increasing current density anisotropy and could affect the current-carrying ability of the tape.

  2. C-Axis critical current density of second-generation YBCO tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y.; Hua, J.; Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W.K.; Welp, U.; Malozemoff, A.P.; Rupich, M.; Fleshler, S.

    2010-10-21

    We report on measurements of the temperature and field dependence of the c-axis critical current density (Jcc) obtained on mesa structures that were patterned into the YBCO layer of second-generation HTS tapes. We find the Jcc—values of ~ 4 kA cm-2 at 77 K and self-field, corresponding to an unexpectedly high anisotropy in the critical current density Jcab/Jcc of 500–600. C-axis current flow is expected to arise in applications such as the helically wound wires in HTS cables. A simple estimate is given of the fraction of tape width for such a c-axis flow; while in our samples this fraction is approximately 5% for a typical geometry, the fraction will grow linearly with increasing current density anisotropy and could affect the current-carrying ability of the tape.

  3. Transformation matrices between non-linear and linear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sartain, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    In the linearization of systems of non-linear differential equations, those systems which can be exactly transformed into the second order linear differential equation Y"-AY'-BY=0 where Y, Y', and Y" are n x 1 vectors and A and B are constant n x n matrices of real numbers were considered. The 2n x 2n matrix was used to transform the above matrix equation into the first order matrix equation X' = MX. Specially the matrix M and the conditions which will diagonalize or triangularize M were studied. Transformation matrices P and P sub -1 were used to accomplish this diagonalization or triangularization to return to the solution of the second order matrix differential equation system from the first order system.

  4. Non-linear radial spinwave modes in thin magnetic disks

    SciTech Connect

    Helsen, M. De Clercq, J.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Weigand, M.

    2015-01-19

    We present an experimental investigation of radial spin-wave modes in magnetic nano-disks with a vortex ground state. The spin-wave amplitude was measured using a frequency-resolved magneto-optical spectrum analyzer, allowing for high-resolution resonance curves to be recorded. It was found that with increasing excitation amplitude up to about 10 mT, the lowest-order mode behaves strongly non-linearly as the mode frequency redshifts and the resonance peak strongly deforms. This behavior was quantitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. Micromagnetic simulations showed that at higher excitation amplitudes, the spinwaves are transformed into a soliton by self-focusing, and collapse onto the vortex core, dispersing the energy in short-wavelength spinwaves. Additionally, this process can lead to switching of the vortex polarization through the injection of a Bloch point.

  5. Non-linear dielectric response of ferrofluids under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licinio, Pedro; Teixeira, Alvaro V.; Figueiredo, José Marcos A.

    2005-03-01

    The dielectric response of a water-based magnetic fluid is investigated at room temperature and in the frequency range of 100-10 7 rad/s. The response is linear in the electric fields used. Upon application of a constant magnetic field of 40 mT, which is well below the sample saturation, the response becomes non-linear. Magnetic field effects are isolated by performing a differential analysis of the inverse dielectric permittivity with and without applied field in both perpendicular and parallel configurations. The imaginary part of the differential inverse permittivity displays two peaks. The low-frequency peak is seen to correspond to the orientation relaxation of aggregates also detected in SAXS, photon correlation and atomic force microscopy measurements. The high-frequency peak corresponds to single magnetic particle reorientation.

  6. Memristive non-linear system and hidden attractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P.; Saha, D. C.; Ray, A.; Chowdhury, A. R.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of memristor on non-linear dynamical systems exhibiting chaos are analysed both form the view point of theory and experiment. It is observed that the memristive system has always fewer number of fixed points than the original one. Sometimes there is no fixed point in the memristive system. But its chaotic properties are retained. As such we have a situation known as hidden attractor because if it is a stable fixed point then the attractor does not evolve from its basin of attraction(obtained from its stable fixed point) or if there is no fixed point, the question of basin of attraction from fixed point does not arise at all [1, 2]. Our analysis gives a detailed accounts of properties related to its chaotic behavior. Important observations are also obtained with the help of electronic circuits to support the numerical simulations.

  7. Anderson Localization, Non-linearity and Stable Genetic Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Charles L.

    2006-07-01

    In many models of genotypic evolution, the vector of genotype populations satisfies a system of linear ordinary differential equations. This system of equations models a competition between differential replication rates (fitness) and mutation. Mutation operates as a generalized diffusion process on genotype space. In the large time asymptotics, the replication term tends to produce a single dominant quasi-species, unless the mutation rate is too high, in which case the asymptotic population becomes de-localized. We introduce a more macroscopic picture of genotypic evolution wherein a random fitness term in the linear model produces features analogous to Anderson localization. When coupled with density dependent non-linearities, which limit the population of any given genotype, we obtain a model whose large time asymptotics display stable genotypic diversity.

  8. Engineering Non-Classical Light with Non-Linear Microwaveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsmo, Arne; Clerk, Aashish; Blais, Alexandre

    The quest for ever increasing fidelity and scalability in measurement of superconducting qubits to be used for fault-tolerant quantum computing has recently led to the development of near quantum-limited broadband phase preserving amplifiers in the microwave regime. These devices are, however, more than just amplifiers: They are sources of high-quality, broadband two-mode squeezed light. We show how bottom-up engineering of Josephson junction embedded waveguides can be used to design novel squeezing spectra. Furthermore, the entanglement in the two-mode squeezed output field can be imprinted onto quantum systems coupled to the device's output. These broadband microwave amplifiers constitute a realization of non-linear waveguide QED, a very interesting playground for non-equilibrium many-body physics.

  9. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, R.

    1994-08-09

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.

  10. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1994-01-11

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

  11. Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.

  12. DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D

    2008-06-10

    Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.

  13. Neural networks: What non-linearity to choose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik YA.; Quintana, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks are now one of the most successful learning formalisms. Neurons transform inputs (x(sub 1),...,x(sub n)) into an output f(w(sub 1)x(sub 1) + ... + w(sub n)x(sub n)), where f is a non-linear function and w, are adjustable weights. What f to choose? Usually the logistic function is chosen, but sometimes the use of different functions improves the practical efficiency of the network. The problem of choosing f as a mathematical optimization problem is formulated and solved under different optimality criteria. As a result, a list of functions f that are optimal under these criteria are determined. This list includes both the functions that were empirically proved to be the best for some problems, and some new functions that may be worth trying.

  14. Method and system for non-linear motion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ligang (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for extrapolating and interpolating a visual signal including determining a first motion vector between a first pixel position in a first image to a second pixel position in a second image, determining a second motion vector between the second pixel position in the second image and a third pixel position in a third image, determining a third motion vector between one of the first pixel position in the first image and the second pixel position in the second image, and the second pixel position in the second image and the third pixel position in the third image using a non-linear model, determining a position of the fourth pixel in a fourth image based upon the third motion vector.

  15. Image enhancement by non-linear extrapolation in frequency space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Greenspan, Hayit K. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An input image is enhanced to include spatial frequency components having frequencies higher than those in an input image. To this end, an edge map is generated from the input image using a high band pass filtering technique. An enhancing map is subsequently generated from the edge map, with the enhanced map having spatial frequencies exceeding an initial maximum spatial frequency of the input image. The enhanced map is generated by applying a non-linear operator to the edge map in a manner which preserves the phase transitions of the edges of the input image. The enhanced map is added to the input image to achieve a resulting image having spatial frequencies greater than those in the input image. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for image sharpening after enlargement and for real-time applications such as videophones, advanced definition television, zooming, and restoration of old motion pictures.

  16. Spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking in non-linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, Luis F.

    2010-07-29

    A recently proposed model of non-linear electrodynamics arising from a gauge invariant spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is reviewed. The potential providing the symmetry breaking is argued to arise from the integration of gauge bosons and fermions in an underlying theory. The invariant subgroups remaining after the symmetry breaking are determined, as well as the dispersion relations and polarization modes of the propagating linear sector or the model. Strong bounds upon the predicted anisotropy of the speed of light are obtained by embedding the model in the electromagnetic sector of the Standard Model Extension and taking advantage of the restrictions in the parameters derived there. Finally, a reasonable estimation of the intergalactic magnetic field is obtained by assuming that the vacuum energy of the model is described by the standard cosmological constant.

  17. Attractor reconstruction for non-linear systems: a methodological note

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.M.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Attractor reconstruction is an important step in the process of making predictions for non-linear time-series and in the computation of certain invariant quantities used to characterize the dynamics of such series. The utility of computed predictions and invariant quantities is dependent on the accuracy of attractor reconstruction, which in turn is determined by the methods used in the reconstruction process. This paper suggests methods by which the delay and embedding dimension may be selected for a typical delay coordinate reconstruction. A comparison is drawn between the use of the autocorrelation function and mutual information in quantifying the delay. In addition, a false nearest neighbor (FNN) approach is used in minimizing the number of delay vectors needed. Results highlight the need for an accurate reconstruction in the computation of the Lyapunov spectrum and in prediction algorithms.

  18. Predictability of extremes in non-linear hierarchically organized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Soloviev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems progresses to new approaches in assessing hazard and risk of the extreme catastrophic events. In particular, a series of interrelated step-by-step studies of seismic process along with its non-stationary though self-organized behaviors, has led already to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake forecast/prediction technique that has passed control in forward real-time applications during the last two decades. The observed seismic dynamics prior to and after many mega, great, major, and strong earthquakes demonstrate common features of predictability and diverse behavior in course durable phase transitions in complex hierarchical non-linear system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space and time implies that many traditional estimations of seismic hazard (from term-less to short-term ones) are usually based on erroneous assumptions of easy tractable analytical models, which leads to widespread practice of their deceptive application. The consequences of underestimation of seismic hazard propagate non-linearly into inflicted underestimation of risk and, eventually, into unexpected societal losses due to earthquakes and associated phenomena (i.e., collapse of buildings, landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction, etc.). The studies aimed at forecast/prediction of extreme events (interpreted as critical transitions) in geophysical and socio-economical systems include: (i) large earthquakes in geophysical systems of the lithosphere blocks-and-faults, (ii) starts and ends of economic recessions, (iii) episodes of a sharp increase in the unemployment rate, (iv) surge of the homicides in socio-economic systems. These studies are based on a heuristic search of phenomena preceding critical transitions and application of methodologies of pattern recognition of infrequent events. Any study of rare

  19. Ferrite core non-linearity in coils for magnetic neurostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lazzi, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The need to correctly predict the voltage across terminals of mm-sized coils, with ferrite core, to be employed for magnetic stimulation of the peripheral neural system is the motivation for this work. In such applications, which rely on a capacitive discharge on the coil to realise a transient voltage curve of duration and strength suitable for neural stimulation, the correct modelling of the non-linearity of the ferrite core is critical. A demonstration of how a finite-difference model of the considered coils, which include a model of the current-controlled inductance in the coil, can be used to correctly predict the time-domain voltage waveforms across the terminals of a test coil is presented. Five coils of different dimensions, loaded with ferrite cores, have been fabricated and tested: the measured magnitude and width of the induced pulse are within 10% of simulated values. PMID:26609390

  20. Reducing sample variance: halo biasing, non-linearity and stochasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Heavens, Alan F.

    2010-09-01

    Comparing clustering of differently biased tracers of the dark matter distribution offers the opportunity to reduce the sample or cosmic variance error in the measurement of certain cosmological parameters. We develop a formalism that includes bias non-linearities and stochasticity. Our formalism is general enough that it can be used to optimize survey design and tracers selection and optimally split (or combine) tracers to minimize the error on the cosmologically interesting quantities. Our approach generalizes the one presented by McDonald & Seljak of circumventing sample variance in the measurement of f ≡ d lnD/d lna. We analyse how the bias, the noise, the non-linearity and stochasticity affect the measurements of Df and explore in which signal-to-noise regime it is significantly advantageous to split a galaxy sample in two differently biased tracers. We use N-body simulations to find realistic values for the parameters describing the bias properties of dark matter haloes of different masses and their number density. We find that, even if dark matter haloes could be used as tracers and selected in an idealized way, for realistic haloes, the sample variance limit can be reduced only by up to a factor σ2tr/σ1tr ~= 0.6. This would still correspond to the gain from a three times larger survey volume if the two tracers were not to be split. Before any practical application one should bear in mind that these findings apply to dark matter haloes as tracers, while realistic surveys would select galaxies: the galaxy-host halo relation is likely to introduce extra stochasticity, which may reduce the gain further.

  1. Limit cycle oscillation of missile control fin with structural non-linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, J. S.; Lee, I.

    2004-01-01

    Non-linear aeroelastic characteristics of a deployable missile control fin with structural non-linearity are investigated. A deployable missile control fin is modelled as a two-dimensional typical section model. Doublet-point method is used for the calculation of supersonic unsteady aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic forces are approximated by using the minimum-state approximation. For non-linear flutter analysis structural non-linearity is represented by an asymmetric bilinear spring and is linearized by using the describing function method. The linear and non-linear flutter analyses indicate that the flutter characteristics are significantly dependent on the frequency ratio. From the non-linear flutter analysis, various types of limit cycle oscillations are observed in a wide range of air speeds below or above the linear divergent flutter boundary. The non-linear flutter characteristics and the non-linear aeroelastic responses are investigated.

  2. Lineation-parallel c-axis Fabric of Quartz Formed Under Water-rich Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Li, P.

    2014-12-01

    The crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz is of great significance because it records much valuable information pertinent to the deformation of quartz-rich rocks in the continental crust. The lineation-parallel c-axis CPO (i.e., c-axis forming a maximum parallel to the lineation) in naturally deformed quartz is generally considered to form under high temperature (> ~550 ºC) conditions. However, most laboratory deformation experiments on quartzite failed to produce such a CPO at high temperatures up to 1200 ºC. Here we reported a new occurrence of the lineation-parallel c-axis CPO of quartz from kyanite-quartz veins in eclogite. Optical microstructural observations, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques were integrated to illuminate the nature of quartz CPOs. Quartz exhibits mostly straight to slightly curved grain boundaries, modest intracrystalline plasticity, and significant shape preferred orientation (SPO) and CPOs, indicating dislocation creep dominated the deformation of quartz. Kyanite grains in the veins are mostly strain-free, suggestive of their higher strength than quartz. The pronounced SPO and CPOs in kyanite were interpreted to originate from anisotropic crystal growth and/or mechanical rotation during vein-parallel shearing. FTIR results show quartz contains a trivial amount of structurally bound water (several tens of H/106 Si), while kyanite has a water content of 384-729 H/106 Si; however, petrographic observations suggest quartz from the veins were practically deformed under water-rich conditions. We argue that the observed lineation-parallel c-axis fabric in quartz was inherited from preexisting CPOs as a result of anisotropic grain growth under stress facilitated by water, but rather than due to a dominant c-slip. The preservation of the quartz CPOs probably benefited from the preexisting quartz CPOs which renders most quartz grains unsuitably oriented for an easy a-slip at

  3. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  4. Discriminating Non-Linearity from Linearity: Its Cognitive Foundations in Five-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Van Dooren, Wim; Goudriaan, Margje N.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    People often have difficulties in understanding situations that involve non-linear processes. Also, the topic of non-linear functions is introduced relatively late in the curriculum. Previous research has nevertheless shown that already children aged 6 years and older are able to discriminate non-linear from linear processes. Within the present…

  5. Rapid Non-Linear Uncertainty Propagation via Analytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2012-09-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) is known to be a data starved problem compared to traditional estimation problems in that observation gaps per object may span over days if not weeks. Therefore, consistent characterization of the uncertainty associated with these objects including non-linear effects is crucial in maintaining an accurate catalog of objects in Earth orbit. Simultaneously, the motion of satellites in Earth orbit is well-modeled in that it is particularly amenable to having their solution and their uncertainty described through analytic or semi-analytic techniques. Even when stronger non-gravitational perturbations such as solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag are encountered, these perturbations generally have deterministic components that are substantially larger than their time-varying stochastic components. Analytic techniques are powerful because time propagation is only a matter of changing the time parameter, allowing for rapid computational turnaround. These two ideas are combined in this paper: a method of analytically propagating non-linear orbit uncertainties is discussed. In particular, the uncertainty is expressed as an analytic probability density function (pdf) for all time. For a deterministic system model, such pdfs may be obtained if the initial pdf and the system states for all time are also given analytically. Even when closed-form solutions are not available, approximate solutions exist in the form of Edgeworth series for pdfs and Taylor series for the states. The coefficients of the latter expansion are referred to as state transition tensors (STTs), which are a generalization of state transition matrices to arbitrary order. Analytically expressed pdfs can be incorporated in many practical tasks in SSA. One can compute the mean and covariance of the uncertainty, for example, with the moments of the initial pdf as inputs. This process does not involve any sampling and its accuracy can be determined a priori. Analytical

  6. Non-linear evolution of the cosmic neutrino background

    SciTech Connect

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Peña-Garay, Carlos E-mail: spb@ias.edu E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the non-linear evolution of the relic cosmic neutrino background by running large box-size, high resolution N-body simulations which incorporate cold dark matter (CDM) and neutrinos as independent particle species. Our set of simulations explore the properties of neutrinos in a reference ΛCDM model with total neutrino masses between 0.05-0.60 eV in cold dark matter haloes of mass 10{sup 11}−10{sup 15} h{sup −1}M{sub s}un, over a redshift range z = 0−2. We compute the halo mass function and show that it is reasonably well fitted by the Sheth-Tormen formula, once the neutrino contribution to the total matter is removed. More importantly, we focus on the CDM and neutrino properties of the density and peculiar velocity fields in the cosmological volume, inside and in the outskirts of virialized haloes. The dynamical state of the neutrino particles depends strongly on their momentum: whereas neutrinos in the low velocity tail behave similarly to CDM particles, neutrinos in the high velocity tail are not affected by the clustering of the underlying CDM component. We find that the neutrino (linear) unperturbed momentum distribution is modified and mass and redshift dependent deviations from the expected Fermi-Dirac distribution are in place both in the cosmological volume and inside haloes. The neutrino density profiles around virialized haloes have been carefully investigated and a simple fitting formula is provided. The neutrino profile, unlike the cold dark matter one, is found to be cored with core size and central density that depend on the neutrino mass, redshift and mass of the halo, for halos of masses larger than ∼ 10{sup 13.5}h{sup −1}M{sub s}un. For lower masses the neutrino profile is best fitted by a simple power-law relation in the range probed by the simulations. The results we obtain are numerically converged in terms of neutrino profiles at the 10% level for scales above ∼ 200 h{sup −1}kpc at z = 0, and are stable with

  7. Filtering Non-Linear Transfer Functions on Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Heitz, Eric; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Poulin, Pierre; Neyret, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Applying non-linear transfer functions and look-up tables to procedural functions (such as noise), surface attributes, or even surface geometry are common strategies used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient transfer function filtering remains an open problem for several reasons: transfer functions are complex and non-linear, especially when mapped through procedural noise and/or geometry-dependent functions, and the effects of perspective and masking further complicate the filtering over a pixel's footprint. We accurately solve this problem by computing and sampling from specialized filtering distributions on the fly, yielding very fast performance. We investigate the case where the transfer function to filter is a color map applied to (macroscale) surface textures (like noise), as well as color maps applied according to (microscale) geometric details. We introduce a novel representation of a (potentially modulated) color map's distribution over pixel footprints using Gaussian statistics and, in the more complex case of high-resolution color mapped microsurface details, our filtering is view- and light-dependent, and capable of correctly handling masking and occlusion effects. Our approach can be generalized to filter other physical-based rendering quantities. We propose an application to shading with irradiance environment maps over large terrains. Our framework is also compatible with the case of transfer functions used to warp surface geometry, as long as the transformations can be represented with Gaussian statistics, leading to proper view- and light-dependent filtering results. Our results match ground truth and our solution is well suited to real-time applications, requires only a few

  8. Multigrid approaches to non-linear diffusion problems on unstructured meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of three multigrid methods for solving highly non-linear diffusion problems on two-dimensional unstructured meshes is examined. The three multigrid methods differ mainly in the manner in which the nonlinearities of the governing equations are handled. These comprise a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) multigrid method which is used to solve the non-linear equations directly, a linear multigrid method which is used to solve the linear system arising from a Newton linearization of the non-linear system, and a hybrid scheme which is based on a non-linear FAS multigrid scheme, but employs a linear solver on each level as a smoother. Results indicate that all methods are equally effective at converging the non-linear residual in a given number of grid sweeps, but that the linear solver is more efficient in cpu time due to the lower cost of linear versus non-linear grid sweeps.

  9. Amplitude relations in non-linear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Du, Yi-Jian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate tree-level scattering amplitude relations in U( N) non-linear sigma model. We use Cayley parametrization. As was shown in the recent works [23,24], both on-shell amplitudes and off-shell currents with odd points have to vanish under Cayley parametrization. We prove the off-shell U(1) identity and fundamental BCJ relation for even-point currents. By taking the on-shell limits of the off-shell relations, we show that the color-ordered tree amplitudes with even points satisfy U(1)-decoupling identity and fundamental BCJ relation, which have the same formations within Yang-Mills theory. We further state that all the on-shell general KK, BCJ relations as well as the minimal-basis expansion are also satisfied by color-ordered tree amplitudes. As a consequence of the relations among color-ordered amplitudes, the total 2 m-point tree amplitudes satisfy DDM form of color decomposition as well as KLT relation.

  10. Experimental study of a linear/non-linear flux rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeHaas, Timothy; Gekelman, Walter; Van Compernolle, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Flux ropes are magnetic structures of helical field lines, accompanied by spiraling currents. Commonly observed on the solar surface extending into the solar atmosphere, flux ropes are naturally occurring and have been observed by satellites in the near earth and in laboratory environments. In this experiment, a single flux rope (r = 2.5 cm, L = 1100 cm) was formed in the cylindrical, magnetized plasma of the Large Plasma Device (LaPD, L = 2200 cm, rplasma = 30 cm, no = 1012 cm-3, Te = 4 eV, He). The flux rope was generated by a DC discharge between an electron emitting cathode and anode. This fixes the rope at its source while allowing it to freely move about the anode. At large currents (I > πr2B0c/2 L), the flux rope becomes helical in structure and oscillates about a central axis. Under varying Alfven speeds and injection current, the transition of the flux rope from stable to kink-unstable was examined. As it becomes non-linear, oscillations in the magnetic signals shift from sinusoidal to Sawtooth-like, associated with elliptical motion of the flux rope; or the signal becomes intermittent as its current density increases.

  11. STATISTICAL BASED NON-LINEAR MODEL UPDATING USING FEATURE EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.F.; Hemez, F.M.

    2000-10-01

    This research presents a new method to improve analytical model fidelity for non-linear systems. The approach investigates several mechanisms to assist the analyst in updating an analytical model based on experimental data and statistical analysis of parameter effects. The first is a new approach at data reduction called feature extraction. This is an expansion of the update metrics to include specific phenomena or character of the response that is critical to model application. This is an extension of the classical linear updating paradigm of utilizing the eigen-parameters or FRFs to include such devices as peak acceleration, time of arrival or standard deviation of model error. The next expansion of the updating process is the inclusion of statistical based parameter analysis to quantify the effects of uncertain or significant effect parameters in the construction of a meta-model. This provides indicators of the statistical variation associated with parameters as well as confidence intervals on the coefficients of the resulting meta-model, Also included in this method is the investigation of linear parameter effect screening using a partial factorial variable array for simulation. This is intended to aid the analyst in eliminating from the investigation the parameters that do not have a significant variation effect on the feature metric, Finally an investigation of the model to replicate the measured response variation is examined.

  12. Channel Capacity of Non-Linear Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Andrew D.; Zhao, Jian

    Since their introduction in the late 1970s, the capacity of optical communication links has grown exponentially, fuelled by a series of key innovations including movement between the three telecommunication windows of 850 nm, 1,310 nm and 1,550 nm, distributed feedback laser, erbium-doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs), dispersion-shifted and dispersion-managed fibre links, external modulation, wavelength division multiplexing, optical switching, forward error correction (FEC), Raman amplification, and most recently, coherent detection, electronic signal processing and optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Throughout this evolution, one constant factor has been the use of single-mode optical fibre, whose fundamental principles dated back to the 1800s, when Irish scientist, John Tyndall demonstrated in a lecture to the Royal Society in London that light could be guided through a curved stream of water [1]. Following many developments, including the proposal for waveguides by J.J. Thompson [2], the presentation of detailed calculations for dielectric waveguides by Snitzer [3], the proposal [4] and fabrication [5] of ultra low loss fibres, single-mode fibres were first adopted for non-experimental use in Dorset, UK in 1975, and are still in use today, despite the evolving designs to control chromatic dispersion and non-linearity.

  13. Non-linear methods in remotely sensed multispectral data classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Hs; Petkov, Di; Jeliazkova, N.; Ruseva, S.; Boyanov, K.

    The aim of this research is to examine existing geoinformation processing systems and to develop a new system, able to cope with the stochastic nature of remote sensing data. In order to achieve this objective, it is necessary to structure the methodological knowledge in the area of data mining and reveal the most suitable methods for the prediction and decision support based on large amounts of multispectral data. Non-linear methods are a vast and quickly advancing field of research, but in the case of geoinformatics they are far away from applications targeted to end-users. The idea is to establish a framework by decomposing the task into functionality objectives and to allow the end-user to experiment with a set of classification methods and select the best methods for specific applications. In this framework we consider Bayesian analysis tools, nonlinear regression models, neural networks, fuzzy reasoning systems, kernel methods, evolutionary programming, genetic algorithms and decision trees. In particular we compare our results from Bayesian classification based on estimated probability densities of the data to the results obtained from other classification methods. We demonstrate that the theoretically optimal Bayesian classification also provides optimal classification in practice.

  14. Organic non-linear optics and opto-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Santillán, R.; Farfán, N.

    2010-12-01

    π-conjugated organic molecules and polymers are of great importance in physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. It is expected that, in the near future, organic materials will find widespread use in many technological applications. In the case of organic opto-electronic systems, the list of devices includes light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), field-effect transistors (OFET), photorefractive materials for light manipulation, among others. These materials are also used for photonic applications: all-optical switching, modulators, optical correlators, plastic waveguides, all polymeric integrated circuits, solid-state lasers, and for biophotonic applications as in the case of the development of organic labels for multiphoton microscopy and photodynamic therapy. The advances in the developing of organic compounds with better mechanical, electrical, and optical (linear and non-linear) characteristics are of a great importance for this field. Here, we present the research on this area carried out at the Centro de Investigaciones en Óp-tica (CIO), in collaboration with Chemistry Departments of different institutions. This work focuses on the optical characterization of materials through several techniques such as TOF, FWM, TBC, THG Maker Fringes, HRS, Z-scan, and TPEF. Additionally, some applications, such as dynamic holography by using photorefractive polymers, and OPVs cells will be discussed.

  15. Experimental study of a linear/non-linear flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaas, Timothy; Gekelman, Walter; Van Compernolle, Bart

    2015-08-15

    Flux ropes are magnetic structures of helical field lines, accompanied by spiraling currents. Commonly observed on the solar surface extending into the solar atmosphere, flux ropes are naturally occurring and have been observed by satellites in the near earth and in laboratory environments. In this experiment, a single flux rope (r = 2.5 cm, L = 1100 cm) was formed in the cylindrical, magnetized plasma of the Large Plasma Device (LaPD, L = 2200 cm, r{sub plasma} = 30 cm, n{sub o} = 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −3}, T{sub e} = 4 eV, He). The flux rope was generated by a DC discharge between an electron emitting cathode and anode. This fixes the rope at its source while allowing it to freely move about the anode. At large currents (I > πr{sup 2}B{sub 0}c/2 L), the flux rope becomes helical in structure and oscillates about a central axis. Under varying Alfven speeds and injection current, the transition of the flux rope from stable to kink-unstable was examined. As it becomes non-linear, oscillations in the magnetic signals shift from sinusoidal to Sawtooth-like, associated with elliptical motion of the flux rope; or the signal becomes intermittent as its current density increases.

  16. Optimum Damping in a Non-Linear Base Isolation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangid, R. S.

    1996-02-01

    Optimum isolation damping for minimum acceleration of a base-isolated structure subjected to earthquake ground excitation is investigated. The stochastic model of the El-Centro1940 earthquake, which preserves the non-stationary evolution of amplitude and frequency content of ground motion, is used as an earthquake excitation. The base isolated structure consists of a linear flexible shear type multi-storey building supported on a base isolation system. The resilient-friction base isolator (R-FBI) is considered as an isolation system. The non-stationary stochastic response of the system is obtained by the time dependent equivalent linearization technique as the force-deformation of the R-FBI system is non-linear. The optimum damping of the R-FBI system is obtained under important parametric variations; i.e., the coefficient of friction of the R-FBI system, the period and damping of the superstructure; the effective period of base isolation. The criterion selected for optimality is the minimization of the top floor root mean square (r.m.s.) acceleration. It is shown that the above parameters have significant effects on optimum isolation damping.

  17. Non-linear optical measurements using a scanned, Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.

    2015-03-01

    Oftentimes cells are removed from the body for disease diagnosis or cellular research. This typically requires fluorescent labeling followed by sorting with a flow cytometer; however, possible disruption of cellular function or even cell death due to the presence of the label can occur. This may be acceptable for ex vivo applications, but as cells are more frequently moving from the lab to the body, label-free methods of cell sorting are needed to eliminate these issues. This is especially true of the growing field of stem cell research where specialized cells are needed for treatments. Because differentiation processes are not completely efficient, cells must be sorted to eliminate any unwanted cells (i.e. un-differentiated or differentiated into an unwanted cell type). In order to perform label-free measurements, non-linear optics (NLO) have been increasingly utilized for single cell analysis because of their ability to not disrupt cellular function. An optical system was developed for the measurement of NLO in a microfluidic channel similar to a flow cytometer. In order to improve the excitation efficiency of NLO, a scanned Bessel beam was utilized to create a light-sheet across the channel. The system was tested by monitoring twophoton fluorescence from polystyrene microbeads of different sizes. Fluorescence intensity obtained from light-sheet measurements were significantly greater than measurements made using a static Gaussian beam. In addition, the increase in intensity from larger sized beads was more evident for the light-sheet system.

  18. Non linear processes modulated by low doses of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Luca; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Alloni, Daniele; Babini, Gabriele; Morini, Jacopo; Baiocco, Giorgio

    The perturbation induced by radiation impinging on biological targets can stimulate the activation of several different pathways, spanning from the DNA damage processing to intra/extra -cellular signalling. In the mechanistic investigation of radiobiological damage this complex “system” response (e.g. omics, signalling networks, micro-environmental modifications, etc.) has to be taken into account, shifting from a focus on the DNA molecule solely to a systemic/collective view. An additional complication comes from the finding that the individual response of each of the involved processes is often not linear as a function of the dose. In this context, a systems biology approach to investigate the effects of low dose irradiations on intra/extra-cellular signalling will be presented, where low doses of radiation act as a mild perturbation of a robustly interconnected network. Results obtained through a multi-level investigation of both DNA damage repair processes (e.g. gamma-H2AX response) and of the activation kinetics for intra/extra cellular signalling pathways (e.g. NFkB activation) show that the overall cell response is dominated by non-linear processes - such as negative feedbacks - leading to possible non equilibrium steady states and to a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Together with experimental data of radiation perturbed pathways, different modelling approaches will be also discussed.

  19. Non-linear saturation mechanism of electron temperature gradient modes

    SciTech Connect

    Tokluoglu, E. K.; Sokolov, V.; Sen, A. K.

    2012-10-15

    The electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode is a very plausible candidate to explain the large electron particle transport and thermal conduction. Production and identification of slab ETG modes and measurement electron transport have been already reported [X. Wei, V. Sokolov, and A. K. Sen, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042108 (2010); V. Sokolov and A. K. Sen, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2011)]. Now, we develop a theoretical model of non-linear saturation mechanism of ETG mode based on the three wave coupling of an unstable high frequency ETG mode with a damped ETG radial harmonic and a damped ion acoustic (IA) mode. Bicoherence analysis of Columbia linear machine (CLM) data show coupling between ETG modes ({approx}2.4 MHz) and a low frequency mode ({approx}50 kHz). The large damping drive of the ETG radial harmonic accompanied by the smaller but finite damping of the IA mode presents an energy sink for the unstable ETG mode, thus causing saturation. This model predicts a saturation level of {approx}10% and agrees with the observed levels of ETG modes in the CLM.

  20. Possibility of c-axis voltage steps for a cuprate superconductor in a resonant cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornes, I.; Stroud, D.

    2003-08-01

    Very anisotropic cuprate superconductors, such as BiSr2Ca2CuO8+x, when driven by currents parallel to the c axis, behave like stacks of underdamped Josephson junctions. Here, we analyze the possibility that such a stack can be caused to phase lock, to exhibit self-induced resonant voltage steps (SIRS’s), and hence to radiate coherently when placed in a suitable resonant electromagnetic cavity. We analyze this possibility using equations of motion developed to describe such SIRS’s in stacks of artificial Josephson junctions. We conclude that such steps might be observable with a suitably chosen cavity and resonant frequency.

  1. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum.

  2. Phenomenon of life: between equilibrium and non-linearity.

    PubMed

    Galimov, E M

    2004-12-01

    A model of ordering applicable to biological evolution is presented. It is shown that a steady state (more precisely approaching to a steady state) system of irreversible processes, under conditions of disproportionation of entropy, produces a lower-entropy product, that is, ordering. The ordering is defined as restricting of degrees of freedom: freedom of motion, interactions etc. The model differs from previous ones in that it relates the ordering to processes running not far from equilibrium, described in the linear field of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that a system, which includes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) conversion meets the demands of the physical model: it provides energy maintaining steady state conditions, and hydrolysis of ATP proceeding with consumption of water can be tightly conjugated with the most important reactions of synthesis of organic polymers (peptides, nucleotide chains etc.), which proceed with release of water. For these and other reasons ATP seems to be a key molecule of prebiotic evolution. It is argued that the elementary chemical reaction proceeding under control of an enzyme is not necessarily far from equilibrium. The experimental evidence supporting this idea, is presented. It is based on isotope data. Carbon isotope distribution in biochemical systems reveals regularity, which is inherent to steady state systems of chemical reactions, proceeding not far from equilibrium. In living organisms this feature appears at the statistical level, as many completely irreversible and non-linear processes occur in organisms. However not-far-from-equilibrium reactions are inherent to biochemical systems as a matter of principle. They are reconcilable with biochemical behavior. Extant organisms are highly evolved entities which, however, show in their basis the same features, as the simplest chemical systems must have had been involved in the origin of life. Some consequences following from the

  3. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  4. Non-Linear Pattern Formation in Bone Growth and Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here – chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) – which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of “group intelligence” exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called “particle swarm optimization” (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating “socially” in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or “feedback” between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the

  5. Non-linear scission/recombination kinetics of living polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyrkova, I. A.; Semenov, A. N.

    2007-10-01

    Living polymers are formed by reversible association of primary units (unimers). Generally the chain statistical weight involves a factor σ < 1 suppressing short chains in comparison with free unimers. Living polymerization is a sharp thermodynamic transition for σ ≪ 1 which is typically the case. We show that this sharpness has an important effect on the kinetics of living polymerization (one-dimensional association). The kinetic model involves i) the unimer activation step (a transition to an assembly-competent state); ii) the scission/recombination processes providing growth of polymer chains and relaxation of their length distribution. Analyzing the polymerization with no chains but unimers at t = 0 , with initial concentration of unimers M ≳ M* (M* is the critical polymerization concentration), we determine the time evolution of the chain length distribution and find that: 1) for M* ≪ M ≪ M*/σ the kinetics is characterized by 5 distinct time stages demarcated by 4 characteristic times t1, t2, t3 and t*; 2) there are transient regimes (t1 ≲ t ≲ t3) when the molecular-weight distribution is strongly non-exponential; 3) the chain scissions are negligible at times shorter than t2. The chain growth is auto-accelerated for t1 ≲ t ≲ t2 : the cut-off chain length (= polymerization degree w N1 ∝ t2 in this regime. 4) For t2 < t < t3 the length distribution is characterized by essentially 2 non-linear modes; the shorter cut-off length N1 is decreasing with time in this regime, while the length scale N2 of the second mode is increasing. (5) The terminal relaxation time of the polymer length distribution, t*, shows a sharp maximum in the vicinity of M*; the effective exponent {frac{{partialln1/t*}}{{partialln M}}} is as high as ˜ σ-1/3 just above M*.

  6. The non-linear initiation of diapirs and plume heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, David; Kelly, Amanda

    1997-04-01

    A simple theory is devised to describe the non-linear feedback mechanisms involved in the initial growth of a single diapir or plume head from a low viscosity channel overlain by a much more viscous layer. Such feedbacks arise primarily from the relation between the growth of a proto-diapir (i.e. an undulation on the upper boundary of the low viscosity channel) and the draining of the low viscosity channel. In the period of time between its initial exponential growth (characterized by linear stability analysis) and its separation from the low viscosity channel as a fully formed diapir, the proto-diapir can undergo a significant cessation in its development due to deflation of the low viscosity channel; i.e. the proto-diapir's growth can essentially stall for a long period of time before it separates and begins its ascent through the overlying medium. The theory is used to determine a criterion for separation of the diapir from the low viscosity channel that is in terms of the geometrical and mechanical properties of the channel, instead of the ad hoc volume flux widely used in many models of mantle plumes and plume heads (e.g. Whitehead and Luther, 1975; Richards et al., 1989; Olson, 1990; Sleep, 1990; Bercovici and Mahoney, 1994). From this separation criterion, self-consistent scaling laws can be formulated to relate the size of the fully developed diapir and its trailing conduit to the properties of the initial channel, instead of to the ad hoc volume flux. Basic laboratory experiments involving highly viscous fluids are presented and demonstrate that the so-called 'stalling' period between initial growth and separation does indeed occur. These results suggest that nascent mantle plume heads may stall for extended periods at the base of the mantle and thereby contribute to variations in thickness of the D″ layer.

  7. Simulation of non-linear coregionalization models by FFTMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Min; Marcotte, Denis; Shamsipour, Pejman

    2016-04-01

    A fast and efficient method to simulate multivariate fields with non-linear models of coregionalization (N-LMC) is described. The method generalizes FFTMA to the multivariate simulation of the N-LMC with symmetric cross-covariances, hence the name GFFTMA. It allows us for example to use an exponential model as the direct covariance for the main variable, a Cauchy model for the secondary variable and a K-Bessel model for the cross-covariance. Each covariance and cross-covariance are Fast Fourier Transformed (FFT) to get the discrete spectral densities. Then the spectral matrix is eigen-decomposed at each frequency separately to provide the square root matrix and to enforce positive-definiteness in cases where small negative eigenvalues are found. Finally the simulated spectrum is obtained as multiplication of the root matrix and the white noise coefficients. The method is particularly fast for covariances having derivatives at the origin and/or for covariances with long range. Hence, two-variables' 2D fields of 100 million pixels with all-Gaussian or all-cubic covariances and cross-covariance are both simulated in less than 200 s. The CPU-time increases only as N log(N) (N, the number of points to simulate). Additional realizations are obtained at a low marginal cost as the eigen-decomposition step needs to be done only once for the first realization. The main limitation of the approach is its rather stringent memory requirement. Synthetic examples illustrate the simulations of N-LMC with two and three variables for different combinations of the seven available models. It shows that the theoretical models are all well reproduced. An illustrative case-study on overburden thickness simulation is provided where the secondary information consists of a latent Gaussian variable identifying the geological domain.

  8. Synthesis of c-axis oriented AlN thin films on different substrates: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Iriarte, G.F.

    2010-09-15

    Highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films have been deposited by reactive sputtering on different substrates. The crystallographic properties of layered film structures consisting of a piezoelectric layer, aluminum nitride (AlN), synthesized on a variety of substrates, have been examined. Aluminum nitride thin films have been deposited by reactive pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering using an aluminum target in an Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixture. The influence of the most critical deposition parameters on the AlN thin film crystallography has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the rocking curve Full-Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the AlN-(0 0 0 2) peak. The relationship between the substrate, the synthesis parameters and the crystallographic orientation of the AlN thin films is discussed. A guide is provided showing how to optimize these conditions to obtain highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films on substrates of different nature.

  9. Linear and non-linear wall friction of wet foams.

    PubMed

    Le Merrer, Marie; Lespiat, Rémi; Höhler, Reinhard; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie

    2015-01-14

    We study the wall slip of aqueous foams with a high liquid content. We use a set-up where, driven by buoyancy, a foam creeps along an inclined smooth solid wall which is immersed in the foaming solution. This configuration allows the force driving the bubble motion and the bubble confinement in the vicinity of the wall to be tuned independently. First, we consider bubble monolayers with small Bond number Bo < 1 and measure the relation between the friction force F and the bubble velocity V. For bubbles which are so small that they are almost spherical, the friction law F ∝ V is Stokes-like. The analysis shows that the minimal thickness of the lubricating contact between the bubble and the wall is governed by DLVO long-range forces. Our results are the first evidence of this predicted linear friction regime for creeping bubbles. Due to buoyancy, large bubbles flatten against the wall. In this case, dissipation arises because of viscous flow in the dynamic meniscus between the contact film and the spherical part of the bubble. It leads to a non-linear Bretherton-like friction law F ∝ V(2/3), as expected for slipping bubbles with mobile liquid-gas interfaces. The Stokes-like friction dominates for capillary numbers Ca larger than the crossover value Ca* ∼ Bo(3/2). The overall friction force can be expressed as the sum of these two contributions. On this basis, we then study 3D foams close to the jamming transition with osmotic pressures Π small compared to the capillary pressure Pc. We measure the wall shear stress τ as a function of the capillary number, and we evidence two friction regimes that are consistent with those found for the monolayer. Similarly to this latter case, the total shear stress can be expressed as the sum of the Stokes-like friction term τ ∝ Ca and the Bretherton-like one τ ∝ Ca(2/3). However, for a 3D foam, the crossover at a capillary number Ca** between both regimes is governed by the ratio of the osmotic pressure to the

  10. Entropy, non-linearity and hierarchy in ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addiscott, T.

    2009-04-01

    Soil-plant systems are open systems thermodynamically because they exchange both energy and matter with their surroundings. Thus they are properly described by the second and third of the three stages of thermodynamics defined by Prigogine and Stengers (1984). The second stage describes a system in which the flow is linearly related to the force. Such a system tends towards a steady state in which entropy production is minimized, but it depends on the capacity of the system for self-organization. In a third stage system, flow is non-linearly related to force, and the system can move far from equilibrium. This system maximizes entropy production but in so doing facilitates self-organization. The second stage system was suggested earlier to provide a useful analogue of the behaviour of natural and agricultural ecosystems subjected to perturbations, but it needs the capacity for self-organization. Considering an ecosystem as a hierarchy suggests this capacity is provided by the soil population, which releases from dead plant matter nutrients such as nitrate, phosphate and captions needed for growth of new plants and the renewal of the whole ecosystem. This release of small molecules from macromolecules increases entropy, and the soil population maximizes entropy production by releasing nutrients and carbon dioxide as vigorously as conditions allow. In so doing it behaves as a third stage thermodynamic system. Other authors (Schneider and Kay, 1994, 1995) consider that it is in the plants in an ecosystem that maximize entropy, mainly through transpiration, but studies on transpiration efficiency suggest that this is questionable. Prigogine, I. & Stengers, I. 1984. Order out of chaos. Bantam Books, Toronto. Schneider, E.D. & Kay, J.J. 1994. Life as a manifestation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Mathematical & Computer Modelling, 19, 25-48. Schneider, E.D. & Kay, J.J. 1995. Order from disorder: The Thermodynamics of Complexity in Biology. In: What is Life: the Next

  11. Bilayer splitting and c-axis coupling in CMR bilayer manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, Chris; Graf, Jeff; Zhou, Shuyun; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Zheng, Hong; Mitchell, John; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2009-09-03

    By performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of the bilayer colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganite, La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7, we provide the complete mapping of the Fermi-level spectral weight topology. Clear and unambiguous bilayer splitting of the in-plane 3dx2-y2 band, mapped throughout the Brillouin zone, and the full mapping of the 3d3z2-r2 band are reported. Peculiar doping and temperature dependencies of these bands imply that as transition from the ferromagnetic metallic phase approaches, either as a function of doping or temperature, coherence along the c-axis between planes within the bilayer is lost, resulting in reduced interplane coupling. These results suggest that interplane coupling plays a large role in the CMR transition.

  12. C-axis electrical resistivity of PrO1-aFaBiS2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Masanori; Miura, Akira; Watauchi, Satoshi; Takano, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Isao

    2015-08-01

    The high anisotropy in RO1-aFaBiS2 (R denotes a rare-earth element) superconductors demonstrates their potential use as intrinsic Josephson junctions, considering the weak coupling among BiS2-PrO(F)-BiS2 (superconducting-normal-superconducting) layers along the c-axis. We grew PrO1-aFaBiS2 single crystals using CsCl/KCl flux. The superconducting anisotropies of the grown single crystals were estimated to be approximately 40-50 from the effective mass model. The c-axis transport properties were characterized using single-crystal s-shaped intrinsic Josephson junctions with a focused ion beam. Along the c-axis, the crystals showed zero resistivity at 2.7 K and a critical current density of 1.33 × 103 A/cm2 at 2.0 K. The current-voltage curve along the c-axis displayed hysteresis. The c-axis transport measurements under a magnetic field parallel to the ab-plane revealed a “lock-in” state due to the Josephson vortex flow, indicating that BiS2 superconductors are promising candidates for intrinsic Josephson junctions.

  13. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  14. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, A.; Söllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon–photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  15. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered. PMID:27187988

  16. Fast and Robust Newton strategies for non-linear geodynamics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; May, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Geodynamic problems are inherently non-linear, with sources of non-inearities arising from the (i) rheology, (ii) boundary conditions and (iii) the choice of time integration scheme. We have developed a robust non-linear scheme utilizing PETSc's non-linear solver framework; SNES. Through the SNES framework, we have access to a wide range of globalization techniques. In this work we extensively use line search implementation. We explored a wide range different strategies for solving a variety of non-linear problems specific to geodynamics. In this presentation, we report of the most robust line-searching techniques which we have found for the three classes of non-linearities previously identified. Among the class of rheological non-linearities, the shear banding instability using visco-plastic flow rules is the most difficult to solve. Distinctively from its sibling, the elasto-plastic rheology, the visco-plastic rheology causes instantaneous shear localisation. As a results, decreasing time-stepping is not a viable approach to better capture the initial phase of localisation. Furthermore, return map algorithms based on a consistent tangent cannot be used as the slope of the tangent is infinite. Obtaining a converged non-linear solution to this problem only relies on the robustness non-linear solver. After presenting a Newton methodology suitable for rheological non-linearities, we examine the performance of this formulation when frictional sliding boundary conditions are introduced. We assess the robustness of the non-linear solver when applied to critical taper type problems.

  17. Non-linear modelling and optimal control of a hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Stefano; Russo, Riccardo; Strano, Salvatore; Terzo, Mario

    2013-02-01

    This paper investigates the modelling, parameter identification and control of an unidirectional hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig. The plant is characterized by non-linearities such as the valve dead zone and frictions. A non-linear model is derived and then employed for parameter identification. The results concerning the model validation are illustrated and they fully confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model. The testing procedure of the isolation systems is based on the definition of a target displacement time history of the sliding table and, consequently, the precision of the table positioning is of primary importance. In order to minimize the test rig tracking error, a suitable control system has to be adopted. The system non-linearities highly limit the performances of the classical linear control and a non-linear one is therefore adopted. The test rig mathematical model is employed for a non-linear control design that minimizes the error between the target table position and the current one. The controller synthesis is made by taking no specimen into account. The proposed approach consists of a non-linear optimal control based on the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE). Numerical simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the soundness of the designed control with and without the specimen under test. The results confirm that the performances of the proposed non-linear controller are not invalidated because of the presence of the specimen.

  18. The origin of off-resonance non-linear optical activity of a gold chiral nanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrahman, Nadia; Syme, Christopher D.; Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar; Barron, Laurence D.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate that engineered artificial gold chiral nanostructures display significant levels of non-linear optical activity even without plasmonic enhancement. Our work suggests that although plasmonic excitation enhances the intensity of second harmonic emission it is not a prerequisite for significant non-linear (second harmonic) optical activity. It is also shown that the non-linear optical activities of both the chiral nanostructures and simple chiral molecules on surfaces have a common origin, namely pure electric dipole excitation. This is a surprising observation given the significant difference in length scales, three orders of magnitude, between the nanostructures and simple chiral molecules. Intuitively, given that the dimensions of the nanostructures are comparable to the wavelength of visible light, one would expect non-localised higher multipole excitation (e.g. electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole) to make the dominant contribution to non-linear optical activity. This study provides experimental evidence that the electric dipole origin of non-linear optical activity is a generic phenomenon which is not limited to sub-wavelength molecules and assemblies. Our work suggests that viewing non-plasmonic nanostructures as ``meta-molecules'' could be useful for rationally designing substrates for optimal non-linear optical activity.We demonstrate that engineered artificial gold chiral nanostructures display significant levels of non-linear optical activity even without plasmonic enhancement. Our work suggests that although plasmonic excitation enhances the intensity of second harmonic emission it is not a prerequisite for significant non-linear (second harmonic) optical activity. It is also shown that the non-linear optical activities of both the chiral nanostructures and simple chiral molecules on surfaces have a common origin, namely pure electric dipole excitation. This is a surprising observation given the significant difference in length scales

  19. Uncertainty due to non-linearity in radiation thermometers calibrated by multiple fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-09-11

    A new method to estimate the uncertainty due to non-linearity is described on the n= 3 scheme basis. The expression of uncertainty is mathematically derived applying the random walk method. The expression is simple and requires only the temperatures of the fixed points and a relative uncertainty value for each flux-doubling derived from the non-linearity measurement. We also present an example of the method, in which the uncertainty of temperature measurement by a radiation thermometer is calculated on the basis of non-linearity measurement.

  20. Non linear volume flow dependence on osmotic pressure difference in frog skin.

    PubMed

    Celentano, F; Monticelli, G; Orsenigo, M N

    1978-01-01

    The volume flow dependence upon the osmotic pressure difference of both impermeant (sucrose) and permeable (NaCl) species has been investigated in leg skin bags of Rana esculenta. It is concluded: 1. The hydration-dehydration error in the flow measurement with leg skin bags is negligible. 2. The flow-force relationship is non-linear. 3. Unstirred layers and solute permeation have little, if any, influence on non linearity. 4. Structural modifications of the skin induced with hypertonic solutions have been observed and may contribute to non linearity, as well as the multiple-barrier effect. PMID:310878

  1. Origin of the c-Axis Tilt Occurring During the Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, T. S.; Inoki, C. K.; Zhang, R.; Gu, S.; Kuech, T. F.

    2001-03-01

    A large angle c-axis tilt has often been observed in GaN layers grown by lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) through narrow windows defined on a seed layer. The c-axis tilt generates vertical tilt boundaries at the coalescence of growth facets. To investigate the defect mechanisms responsible for the onset of c-axis tilt, a series of GaN LEO samples was grown using the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) technique and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cross sectional TEM images indicate that as LEO proceeds from triangular-shaped ridges originally grown over the windows, all edge-type threading dislocations propagated from the seed layer bend into screw type and glide on the c plane. Plan-view TEM observations reveal further that to relax the twist/shear strain in the LEO regions, these screw dislocations collectively make another 90^o bend again, forming arrays of edge dislocations parallel to the mask edge. The number of dislocations in the arrays can account for the amount of crystal tilt observed. The c-axis tilt is thus a stress-driven phenomenon dictated by the growth window geometry, and is much less influenced by the growth parameters.

  2. Origin of the c-axis ultraincompressibility of Mo2GaC above about 15 GPa from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-He, Gao; Zhi-Jun, Xu; Ling, Tang; Jin, Li; An, Du; Yun-Dong, Guo; Ze-Jin, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties and structural evolution of Mo2GaC are calculated by first-principles under pressure. Our results unexpectedly found that the c axis is always stiffer than a axis within 0-100 GPa. An ultraincompressibility of c axis within 15-60 GPa is observed, with a contraction of about 0.2 Å, slightly larger than that of a axis (0.14 Å). The abnormal expansion of c axis and the fast decrease in a axis above about 15 GPa and 70 GPa failed to induce the structural instability, whereas such behavior caused the elastic softening in many mechanical quantities. The shrinkage anomaly of c axis is closely reflected by the internal coordinate (u) shift of Mo atom as it shows three different slopes within 0-15 GPa, 20-60 GPa, and 70-100 GPa, respectively. The longest Mo-Mo bond is responsible for the unusual shrinkage of c-axis under pressure as they experience nearly identical pressure dependences, whereas the a axis presents certain response with the variation of C-Mo bond particularly at 70 GPa. The electronic properties are investigated, including the energy band and density of states, and so on. At G point of K-M line, the energy decreases at 10 GPa first and increases at 30 GPa subsequently, the critical point is at about 15 GPa, with respective values of -0.17 of 0 GPa, -0.18 of 10 GPa, -0.16 of 15 GPa, and -0.13 of 30 GPa, respectively. This alternative energy change of G point, which is the symmetry center of the rhombic parallelogram of Ga atoms and the midpoint of the two bonded Mo atoms, convincingly reveal the origin of the anomalous ultraincompressibility of c axis as the Mo-Mo bond length shrinkage has to overcome the increasing energy barrier height. The Mo-Mo bond population and the electronegativity investigations of the Mo atom further reveal the most likely origin of the ultraincompressibility of c axis. This interesting result expects further experimental confirmation as this is the first nanolaminate ceramics compound presenting quite

  3. A new empirical calibration of the quartz c-axis fabric opening-angle deformation thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faleiros, F. M.; Moraes, R.; Pavan, M.; Campanha, G. A. C.

    2016-03-01

    The opening-angle of quartz c-axis fabrics (OA) is strongly temperature dependent and has proven to be a powerful deformation thermometer for natural metamorphic rocks. Previous considerations of empirical data have identified a linear correlation between OA and temperature between 250 and 650 °C, and no correlation above 650 °C. However, possible effects of pressure have not been investigated. We expanded the data set of OA versus temperature, including data from rocks deformed over 300-1050 °C and 2.5-15 kbar. Disregarding possible effects of pressure, the OA-temperature relationship can be described by two linear correlations for the intervals ~ 250-650 °C and ~ 650-1050 °C: The change on the curve slope of the OA-temperature relationship correlates approximately to the low- to high-quartz transition and to changes in the dynamic recrystallization mechanism from subgrain rotation to grain boundary migration. The available data suggest that pressure has a secondary effect accompanying the major temperature dependence of OA, which is particularly important for temperatures above 650 °C, where the correlation between OA and temperature is less pronounced. For fixed pressures, the OA has logarithmic relationships with temperature over the range 250-1050 °C. The following thermometer equation is formulated from a multiple regression: An uncertainty of ± 50 °C is inherited from the petrological temperature estimates of the natural samples. The data suggest the gradual increasing importance of prism [c] slip relative to < a > slip in quartz with rising temperature. Under conditions of 'average' geological strain rate and water weakening, prism [c] slip dominates for deformation above ~ 700 °C.

  4. High mobility, dual layer, c-axis aligned crystalline/amorphous IGZO thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chen-Yang; Zhu, Bin; Greene, Raymond G.; Thompson, Michael O.; Ast, Dieter G.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a dual layer IGZO thin film transistor (TFT) consisting of a 310 °C deposited c-axis aligned crystal (CAAC) 20 nm thick channel layer capped by a second, 30 nm thick, 260 °C deposited amorphous IGZO layer. The TFT exhibits a saturation field-effect mobility of ˜20 cm2/V s, exceeding the mobility of 50 nm thick single layer reference TFTs fabricated with either material. The deposition temperature of the second layer influences the mobility of the underlying transport layer. When the cap layer is deposited at room temperature (RT), the mobility in the 310 °C deposited CAAC layer is initially low (6.7 cm2/V s), but rises continuously with time over 58 days to 20.5 cm2/V s, i.e., to the same value as when the second layer is deposited at 260 °C. This observation indicates that the two layers equilibrate at RT with a time constant on the order of 5 × 106 s. An analysis based on diffusive transport indicates that the room temperature diffusivity must be of the order of 1 × 10-18 cm2 s-1 with an activation enthalpy EA < 0.2 eV for the mobility limiting species. The findings are consistent with a hypothesis that the amorphous layer deposited on top of the CAAC has a higher solubility for impurities and/or structural defects than the underlying nanocrystalline transport layer, and that the equilibration of the mobility limiting species is rate limited by hydrogen diffusion, whose known diffusivity fits these estimates.

  5. Optimal feedback control of strongly non-linear systems excited by bounded noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W. Q.; Huang, Z. L.; Ko, J. M.; Ni, Y. Q.

    2004-07-01

    A strategy for non-linear stochastic optimal control of strongly non-linear systems subject to external and/or parametric excitations of bounded noise is proposed. A stochastic averaging procedure for strongly non-linear systems under external and/or parametric excitations of bounded noise is first developed. Then, the dynamical programming equation for non-linear stochastic optimal control of the system is derived from the averaged Itô equations by using the stochastic dynamical programming principle and solved to yield the optimal control law. The Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the fully completed averaged Itô equations is solved to give the response of optimally controlled system. The application and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are illustrated with the control of cable vibration in cable-stayed bridges and the feedback stabilization of the cable under parametric excitation of bounded noise.

  6. Finite-time H∞ filtering for non-linear stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Mingzhe; Deng, Zongquan; Duan, Guangren

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the robust H∞ filtering analysis and the synthesis of general non-linear stochastic systems with finite settling time. We assume that the system dynamic is modelled by Itô-type stochastic differential equations of which the state and the measurement are corrupted by state-dependent noises and exogenous disturbances. A sufficient condition for non-linear stochastic systems to have the finite-time H∞ performance with gain less than or equal to a prescribed positive number is established in terms of a certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality. Based on this result, the existence of a finite-time H∞ filter is given for the general non-linear stochastic system by a second-order non-linear partial differential inequality, and the filter can be obtained by solving this inequality. The effectiveness of the obtained result is illustrated by a numerical example.

  7. Non-Linearity in Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensors Utilizing a Partial Charge Transfer Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji; Halin, Izhal Abdul; Hasan, Wan Zuha Wan

    2009-01-01

    The partial charge transfer technique can expand the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor by synthesizing two types of signal, namely the long and short accumulation time signals. However the short accumulation time signal obtained from partial transfer operation suffers of non-linearity with respect to the incident light. In this paper, an analysis of the non-linearity in partial charge transfer technique has been carried, and the relationship between dynamic range and the non-linearity is studied. The results show that the non-linearity is caused by two factors, namely the current diffusion, which has an exponential relation with the potential barrier, and the initial condition of photodiodes in which it shows that the error in the high illumination region increases as the ratio of the long to the short accumulation time raises. Moreover, the increment of the saturation level of photodiodes also increases the error in the high illumination region. PMID:22303133

  8. Multivariate standardisation for non-linear calibration range in the chemiluminescence determination of chromium.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2007-05-15

    Multivariate standardisation is proposed for the successful chemiluminescence determination of chromium based on luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction. In an extended concentration range, non-linear calibration model is needed. The studied instrumental situations were different detection cells, instruments, assemblies, time and their possible combinations. Chemiluminescence kinetic registers have been transferred using piecewise direct standardisation (PDS) method. The optimisation of transfer parameters has been carried out based on the prediction residual error criteria. Non-linear principal component regression (NL-PCR) and non-linear partial least square regression (NL-PLS) were chosen for modelling the relationship signal-concentration of transferred registers. Good accuracy and precision were obtained for water samples. The concentrations of chromium were statistically in agreement with reference method values and with recovery studies. Therefore, it is possible to transfer chemiluminescence curves without loosing ability of prediction, even the presence of a non-linear behaviour. PMID:19071716

  9. Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Johan

    The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and

  10. Construction of the wave operator for non-linear dispersive equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Kai Erik

    In this thesis, we will study non-linear dispersive equations. The primary focus will be on the construction of the positive-time wave operator for such equations. The positive-time wave operator problem arises in the study of the asymptotics of a partial differential equation. It is a map from a space of initial data X into itself, and is loosely defined as follows: Suppose that for a solution ψlin to the dispersive equation with no non-linearity and initial data ψ +, there exists a unique solution ψ to the non-linear equation with initial data ψ0 such that ψ behaves as ψ lin as t → infinity. Then the wave operator is the map W+ that takes ψ + to ψ0. By its definition, W+ is injective. An important additional question is whether or not the map is also surjective. If so, then every non-linear solution emanating from X behaves, in some sense, linearly as it evolves (this is known as asymptotic completeness). Thus, there is some justification for treating these solutions as their much simpler linear counterparts. The main results presented in this thesis revolve around the construction of the wave operator(s) at critical non-linearities. We will study the "semi-relativistic" Schrodinger equation as well as the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system on R2 . In both cases, we will impose fairly general quadratic non-linearities for which conservation laws cannot be relied upon. These non-linearities fall below the scaling required to employ such tools as the Strichartz estimates. We instead adapt the "first iteration method" of Jang, Li, and Zhang to our setting which depends crucially on the critical decay of the non-linear interaction of the linear evolution. To see the critical decay in our problem, careful analysis is needed to treat the regime where one has spatial and/or time resonance.

  11. How does non-linear dynamics affect the baryon acoustic oscillation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Spergel, David N. E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-02-01

    We study the non-linear behavior of the baryon acoustic oscillation in the power spectrum and the correlation function by decomposing the dark matter perturbations into the short- and long-wavelength modes. The evolution of the dark matter fluctuations can be described as a global coordinate transformation caused by the long-wavelength displacement vector acting on short-wavelength matter perturbation undergoing non-linear growth. Using this feature, we investigate the well known cancellation of the high-k solutions in the standard perturbation theory. While the standard perturbation theory naturally satisfies the cancellation of the high-k solutions, some of the recently proposed improved perturbation theories do not guarantee the cancellation. We show that this cancellation clarifies the success of the standard perturbation theory at the 2-loop order in describing the amplitude of the non-linear power spectrum even at high-k regions. We propose an extension of the standard 2-loop level perturbation theory model of the non-linear power spectrum that more accurately models the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillation than the standard perturbation theory. The model consists of simple and intuitive parts: the non-linear evolution of the smoothed power spectrum without the baryon acoustic oscillations and the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillations due to the large-scale velocity of dark matter and due to the gravitational attraction between dark matter particles. Our extended model predicts the smoothing parameter of the baryon acoustic oscillation peak at z = 0.35 as ∼ 7.7Mpc/h and describes the small non-linear shift in the peak position due to the galaxy random motions.

  12. Geometrically non-linear vibration of spinning structures by finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, A. Y. T.; Fung, T. C.

    1990-05-01

    The geometrically non-linear steady state vibration of spinning structures is studied. Full flap-lag-torsional gyroscopic coupling effects are considered. The non-linearity arises mainly from the non-linear axial strain-displacement relation. The equations of motion are derived from Lagrangian equations. Spatial discretization is achieved by the finite element method and steady state nodal displacements are expanded into Fourier series. The harmonic balance method gives a set of non-linear algebraic equations with the Fourier coefficients of the nodal displacements as unknowns. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved by a Newtonian algorithm iteratively. The importance of the conditions of completeness and balanceability in choosing the number of harmonic terms to be used is discussed. General frame structures with arbitrary orientation in a rotating frame can be investigated by the present method. Rotating blades and shafts are treated as special cases. Examples of a rotating ring with different orientations are given. The non-linear amplitude-frequency relation can be constructed parametrically.

  13. Second-order optical non-linearity of proton exchanged lithium tantalate waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkishko, Y. N.; Fedorov, V. A.; Alkaev, A. N.; Laurell, F.

    2001-10-01

    A detailed correlation between the fabrication conditions, crystallographic phase state of HxLi1-xTaO3 waveguides and second-order optical non-linearity has been investigated by using reflected SHG measurements from the polished waveguide end face. The non-linearity, strongly reduced after the initial proton exchange, is found to be restored and even increased after annealing. However, this apparent increase in the non-linearity is accompanied by a strong degradation of the quality of the SHG reflected beam in the region of the initial as-exchanged waveguide due to beam scattering. The high temperature proton exchange technique has been shown to produce high-quality α-phase waveguides with essentially undegraded non-linear optical properties. There is no phase transition when the α-phase waveguides are fabricated by direct exchange. This phase presents the same crystalline structure as that of LiTaO3 and maintains the excellent non-linear properties of the bulk material. The results obtained are important for the design, fabrication and optimization of guided-wave non-linear optical devices in LiTaO3.

  14. Discriminative analysis of non-linear brain connectivity in schizophrenia: an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Longfei; Wang, Lubin; Shen, Hui; Feng, Guiyu; Hu, Dewen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dysfunctional integration of distributed brain networks is believed to be the cause of schizophrenia, and resting-state functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Unfortunately, existing functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have been mostly limited to linear associations. Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the discriminative power of non-linear functional connectivity and identify its changes in schizophrenia. Method: A novel measure utilizing the extended maximal information coefficient was introduced to construct non-linear functional connectivity. In conjunction with multivariate pattern analysis, the new functional connectivity successfully discriminated schizophrenic patients from healthy controls with relative higher accuracy rate than the linear measure. Result: We found that the strength of the identified non-linear functional connections involved in the classification increased in patients with schizophrenia, which was opposed to its linear counterpart. Further functional network analysis revealed that the changes of the non-linear and linear connectivity have similar but not completely the same spatial distribution in human brain. Conclusion: The classification results suggest that the non-linear functional connectivity provided useful discriminative power in diagnosis of schizophrenia, and the inverse but similar spatial distributed changes between the non-linear and linear measure may indicate the underlying compensatory mechanism and the complex neuronal synchronization underlying the symptom of schizophrenia. PMID:24155713

  15. Detecting non-linearities in neuro-electrical signals: A study of synchronous local field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Gerking, Johannes; Martinerie, Jacques; Neuenschwander, Sergio; Pezard, Laurent; Renault, Bernard; Varela, Francisco J.

    The question of the presence and detection of non-linear dynamics and possibly low-dimensional chaos in the brain is still an open question, with recent results indicating that initial claims for low dimensionality were faulted by incomplete statistical testing. To make some progress on this question, our approach was to use stringent data analysis of precisely controlled and behaviorally significant neuroelectric data. There are strong indications that functional brain activity is correlated with synchronous local field potentials. We examine here such synchronous episodes in data recorded from the visual system of behaving cats and pigeons. Our purpose was to examine under these ideal conditions whether the time series showed any evidence of non-linearity concommitantly with the arising of synchrony. To test for non-linearity we have used surrogate sets for non-linear forecasting, the false nearest strands method, and an examination of deterministic vs stochastic modeling. Our results indicate that the time series under examination do show evidence for traces of non-linear dynamics but weakly, since they are not robust under changes of parameters. We conclude that low-dimensional chaos is unlikely to be found in the brain, and that a robust detection and characterization of higher-dimensional non-linear dynamics is beyond the reach of current analytical tools.

  16. Neural potentials and micro-signals of non-linear deep and shallow conical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, W. K.; Smithmaitrie, P.; Tzou, H. S.

    2004-07-01

    Conventional sensors, such as proximeters and accelerometers, are add-on devices usually adding additional weights to structures and machines. Health monitoring of flexible structures by electroactive smart materials has been investigated over the years. Thin-film piezoelectric material, e.g. polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric material, is a lightweight and dynamic sensitive material appearing to be a perfect candidate in monitoring structure's dynamic state and health status of flexible shell structures with complex geometries. The complexity of shell structures has thwarted the progress in studying the distributed sensing of shell structures. Linear distributed sensing of various structures have been studied, e.g. beams, plates, cylindrical shells, conical shells, spherical shells, paraboloidal shells and toroidal shells. However, distributed microscopic neural signals of non-linear shell structures has not been carried out rigorously. This study is to evaluate microscopic signals, modal voltages and distributed micro-neural signal components of truncated non-linear conical shells laminated with distributed infinitesimal piezoelectric neurons. Signal generation of distributed neuron sensors laminated on conical shells is defined first. The dynamic neural signal of truncated non-linear conical shells consists of microscopic linear and non-linear membrane components and linear bending component based on the von Karman geometric non-linearity. Micro-signals, modal voltages and distributed neural signal components of two different truncated non-linear conical shells are investigated and their sensitivities discussed.

  17. Structural Dynamic Analyses And Test Predictions For Spacecraft Structures With Non-Linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergniaud, Jean-Baptiste; Soula, Laurent; Newerla, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    The overall objective of the mechanical development and verification process is to ensure that the spacecraft structure is able to sustain the mechanical environments encountered during launch. In general the spacecraft structures are a-priori assumed to behave linear, i.e. the responses to a static load or dynamic excitation, respectively, will increase or decrease proportionally to the amplitude of the load or excitation induced. However, past experiences have shown that various non-linearities might exist in spacecraft structures and the consequences of their dynamic effects can significantly affect the development and verification process. Current processes are mainly adapted to linear spacecraft structure behaviour. No clear rules exist for dealing with major structure non-linearities. They are handled outside the process by individual analysis and margin policy, and analyses after tests to justify the CLA coverage. Non-linearities can primarily affect the current spacecraft development and verification process on two aspects. Prediction of flights loads by launcher/satellite coupled loads analyses (CLA): only linear satellite models are delivered for performing CLA and no well-established rules exist how to properly linearize a model when non- linearities are present. The potential impact of the linearization on the results of the CLA has not yet been properly analyzed. There are thus difficulties to assess that CLA results will cover actual flight levels. Management of satellite verification tests: the CLA results generated with a linear satellite FEM are assumed flight representative. If the internal non- linearities are present in the tested satellite then there might be difficulties to determine which input level must be passed to cover satellite internal loads. The non-linear behaviour can also disturb the shaker control, putting the satellite at risk by potentially imposing too high levels. This paper presents the results of a test campaign performed in

  18. Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, N.; Griffin, M. J.

    2003-11-01

    Seated human subjects have been exposed to vertical whole-body vibration so as to investigate the non-linearity in their biodynamic responses and quantify the response in directions other than the direction of excitation. Twelve males were exposed to random vertical vibration in the frequency range 0.25-25 Hz at four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 r.m.s.). The subjects sat in four sitting postures having varying foot heights so as to produce differing thigh contact with the seat (feet hanging, feet supported with maximum thigh contact, feet supported with average thigh contact, and feet supported with minimum thigh contact). Forces were measured in the vertical, fore-and-aft, and lateral directions on the seat and in the vertical direction at the footrest. The characteristic non-linear response of the human body with reducing resonance frequency at increasing vibration magnitudes was seen in all postures, but to a lesser extent with minimum thigh contact. Appreciable forces in the fore-and-aft direction also showed non-linearity, while forces in the lateral direction were low and showed no consistent trend. Forces at the feet were non-linear with a multi-resonant behaviour and were affected by the position of the legs. The decreased non-linearity with the minimum thigh contact posture suggests the tissues of the buttocks affect the non-linearity of the body more than the tissues of the thighs. The forces in the fore-and-aft direction are consistent with the body moving in two directions when exposed to vertical vibration. The non-linear behaviour of the body, and the considerable forces in the fore-aft direction should be taken into account when optimizing vibration isolation devices.

  19. Variation in the c-axis conductivity of multi-layer graphene due to H2 exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaekyung; Kwak, Cheol Hwan; Jung, Woochan; Huh, Yun Suk; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2016-06-21

    The variation of the c-axis conductivity of a multilayer graphene (MLG) as a function of H2 pressure from vacuum to 20 bar has been investigated. MLG was connected to the electrodes vertically using a wet transfer process. After exposure to H2 gas pressure up to 20 bar, the chemisorption of dissociated atomic hydrogen on MLG affects its electrical and structural properties. The formation of C-H bonds causes a decoupling of graphene layers, and then interferes with charge transfer through the out of plane. As a result, the c-axis conductivity decreases. Furthermore, the electron doping effect and the decoupling of the layers were confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. Hydrogenated carbons induce a defect structure of MLG which results in the expansion of layers. We observed a 43.54% increase in the thickness of the MLG after H2 exposure using atomic force microscopy. PMID:27241072

  20. A three-dimensional network model describing a non-linear composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mårtensson, E.; Gäfvert, U.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional network model for performing non-linear time-dependent simulations of the electrical characteristics related to a composite material is presented. The considered compounds are represented by a cubic lattice and consist of conducting particles distributed in an insulating matrix. Earlier studies of the non-linear characteristics of silicon carbide (SiC) grains and of the linear frequency-dependent electrical properties of composites are combined and extended. The calculations are compared to measurements on ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber filled with angular SiC grains. The field-dependent conductivity measured for the unconsolidated SiC powder is used as input to the simulations. The model can manage the conductivity difference of seven decades between the constituents and the strong exponential non-linearity of the conducting particles. The network calculations replicate the experimental characteristic at high filler concentrations, where direct 'face' contacts between the filler grains dominate the behaviour. At lower concentrations, it is shown that indirect 'edge' contacts involving the polymer control the current transport also in the non-linear high field range. The general effective conductivity describing an edge connection in the linear case is no longer appropriate. Non-linear mechanisms in the polymer and the conducting grains within a field enhanced limited region around the contact need to be represented by an equivalent circuit element with a case-dependent resulting expression.

  1. On the Slow Transition across Instabilities in Non-Linear Dissipative Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, A.; Bajaj, A. K.; Davies, P.

    1996-05-01

    Non-linear vibratory systems are often characterized by external or excitation parameters which vary with time (i.e., are "non-stationary"). A general methodology is presented to predict analytically the response of some weakly non-linear dissipative systems as an excitation parameter varies slowly across points of instability corresponding to co-dimensional-1 bifurcations. It is shown that the motion near the bifurcation/critical point can be approximated by motion along a center manifold, and can be represented by a 1-dimensional dynamical system with a slowly varying parameter. Techniques expounded by Haberman [1] for analyzing such 1-dimensional equations using matched asymptotic expansions and non-linear boundary layers are summarized. The results are then used to obtain responses of some classical non-linear vibratory systems in the presence of non-stationary excitation. The problem of transition across saddle-node bifurcations or jumps during passage through primary resonance in the forced Duffing's oscillator is studied. Then, the transition across the points of dynamic instability (pitchfork bifurcations) in the parametrically excited non-linear Mathieu equation is analyzed. Lastly, the transition across a Hopf bifurcation in the Parkinson-Smith model for galloping of bluff bodies is discussed. The methodology described here is found to be effective in approximating the behavior of the systems in the vicinity of bifurcation points. The solutions and their qualitative features predicted by the analysis are in good agreement with those obtained from direct numerical integration of the equations.

  2. Effects of c-axis Josephson coupling on dissipation, flux dynamics and the mechanism of high-T{sub c} superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, K.E.; Hettinger, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of the c-axis transport in highly anisotropic HTS materials strongly indicate that Josephson coupling is involved. This conclusion affects various properties of the HTS cuprates, including the irreversibility behavior for transport in the ab planes, the direct c-axis transport and potentially the mechanism of Cooper pairing.

  3. Temperature-Dependent Mean Free Path Spectra of Thermal Phonons Along the c-Axis of Graphite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang; Chen, Xiangwen; Jho, Young-Dahl; Minnich, Austin J

    2016-03-01

    Heat conduction in graphite has been studied for decades because of its exceptionally large thermal anisotropy. While the bulk thermal conductivities along the in-plane and cross-plane directions are well-known, less understood are the microscopic properties of the thermal phonons responsible for heat conduction. In particular, recent experimental and computational works indicate that the average phonon mean free path (MFP) along the c-axis is considerably larger than that estimated by kinetic theory, but the distribution of MFPs remains unknown. Here, we report the first quantitative measurements of c-axis phonon MFP spectra in graphite at a variety of temperatures using time-domain thermoreflectance measurements of graphite flakes with variable thickness. Our results indicate that c-axis phonon MFPs have values of a few hundred nanometers at room temperature and a much narrower distribution than in isotropic crystals. At low temperatures, phonon scattering is dominated by grain boundaries separating crystalline regions of different rotational orientation. Our study provides important new insights into heat transport and phonon scattering mechanisms in graphite and other anisotropic van der Waals solids. PMID:26840052

  4. Room temperature sputtering of inclined c-axis ZnO for shear mode solidly mounted resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rughoobur, G.; DeMiguel-Ramos, M.; Mirea, T.; Clement, M.; Olivares, J.; Díaz-Durán, B.; Sangrador, J.; Miele, I.; Milne, W. I.; Iborra, E.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    ZnO films with a c-axis significantly inclined away from the surface normal were grown by a remote plasma sputtering technique at room temperature. The films were used to make solidly mounted resonators (SMRs) operating in shear mode at a resonant frequency of 1.35 GHz. Control of the ZnO microstructure was achieved using a polycrystalline AlN seed layer which can be added on top of a sputtered acoustic mirror to give a complete SMR device. The ZnO was reactively sputtered in an atmosphere of argon and oxygen from a zinc target. The c-axis of the ZnO was estimated to be at an angle of ˜45° to the surface normal. SMRs were measured to have quality factors (Q) of up to 140 and effective electromechanical coupling coefficients of up to 2.2% in air. Although an inclined c-axis can be achieved with direct growth onto the acoustic mirror, it is shown that the AlN seed layer provides higher coupling coefficients and narrower inclination angular distribution. The responses of the devices in liquids of different viscosities (acetone, water, and AZ5214E photoresist) were measured. The shear mode Q decreased by 45% in acetone, 72% in water, and 92% in AZ5214E.

  5. Charge-screening role of c -axis atomic displacements in YBa2Cu3O6 +x and related superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božin, E. S.; Huq, A.; Shen, Bing; Claus, H.; Kwok, W. K.; Tranquada, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    The importance of charge reservoir layers for supplying holes to the CuO2 planes of cuprate superconductors has long been recognized. Less attention has been paid to the screening of the charge transfer by the intervening ionic layers. We address this issue in the case of YBa2Cu3O6 +x , where CuO chains supply the holes for the planes. We present a simple dielectric-screening model that gives a linear correlation between the relative displacements of ions along the c axis, determined by neutron powder diffraction, and the hole density of the planes. Applying this model to the temperature-dependent shifts of ions along the c axis, we infer a charge transfer of 5-10% of the hole density from the planes to the chains on warming from the superconducting transition to room temperature. Given the significant coupling of c -axis displacements to the average charge density, we point out the relevance of local displacements for screening charge modulations and note recent evidence for dynamic screening of in-plane quasiparticles. This line of argument leads us to a simple model for atomic displacements and charge modulation that is consistent with images from scanning-tunneling microscopy for underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ .

  6. Radiative Lifetimes of V I and V II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.

    2014-11-01

    New radiative lifetimes are reported for 168 levels of V I ranging in energy from 18086 cm-1 to 47702 cm-1, and for 31 levels of V II ranging in energy from 34593 cm-1 to 47420 cm-1. These lifetimes are measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic/ionic beam as part of an ongoing study of the radiative properties of the iron group elements. All but two of the V II lifetimes have been measured before using modern laser-based methods, but a large fraction of the V I lifetimes are reported here for the first time. Comparison to earlier measurements is discussed. These new lifetimes are, for the most part, accurate to ±5%. They will be combined with branching fraction measurements to produce a large set of transition probabilities for V I and V II which are needed by the astrophysics community for stellar abundance determinations.

  7. On incremental non-linearity in granular media: phenomenological and multi-scale views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Félix; Nicot, François

    2005-12-01

    On the basis of fundamental constitutive laws such as elasticity, perfect plasticity, and pure viscosity, many elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations have been developed since the 1970s through phenomenological approaches. In addition, a few more recent micro-mechanical models based on multi-scale approaches are now able to describe the main macroscopic features of the mechanical behaviour of granular media. The purpose of this paper is to compare a phenomenological constitutive relation and a micro-mechanical model with respect to a basic issue regularly raised about granular assemblies: the incrementally non-linear character of their behaviour. It is shown that both phenomenological and micro-mechanical models exhibit an incremental non-linearity. In addition, the multi-scale approach reveals that the macroscopic incremental non-linearity could stem from the change in the regime of local contacts between particles (from plastic regime to elastic regime) in terms of the incremental macroscopic loading direction. Copyright

  8. Effect of non-linear capacitance on a non-uniform transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, L.; Shankar Pandey, V.; Parthasarathy, H.; Shrimali, V.; Varshney, G.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we derive a non-linear polarization electric field relationship in a dielectric by considering harmonics binding of the electrons to its nuclei. We apply this theory to a transmission line to model the non-linear, inhomogeneous frequency-dependent capacitance of the line and approximate an expression for the line current when the line is terminated by load impedance. We then suggest a method for estimating the inhomogeneous, frequency-dependent non-linear component of the line capacitance from the measurements of the far field electromagnetic field radiated by the line current. The far field magnetic vector potential is calculated from the line current by the standard Green's function integration in free space.

  9. S-cone contributions to linear and non-linear motion processing.

    PubMed

    Michna, Magda L; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya; Mullen, Kathy T

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the characteristics of mechanisms mediating motion discrimination of S-cone isolating stimuli and found a double dissociation between the effects of luminance noise, which masks linear but not non-linear motion, and chromatic noise, which masks non-linear but not linear motion. We conclude that S-cones contribute to motion via two different pathways: a non-linear motion mechanism via a chromatic pathway and a linear motion mechanism via a luminance pathway. Additionally, motion discrimination and detection thresholds for drifting, S-cone isolating Gabors are unaffected by luminance noise, indicating that grating motion is mediated via chromatic mechanisms and based on higher-order motion processing. PMID:17343890

  10. Heart period variability and respiratory changes associated with physical and mental load: non-linear analysis.

    PubMed

    Sammer, G

    1998-05-01

    In the investigation of heart rate and heart rate variability, the discrimination between mental workload, physical activity and respiration is known to be methodologically difficult. At most, heart rate variability measures are more likely to be coarse-grained measures with variability confounded by heart rate. Moreover, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability shows broad-band frequency characteristics, pointing towards non-stationarity or non-linearity. From this it is suggested to focus on non-linear dynamic analyses that are variance-insensitive. The experimental section of the paper focuses on the estimation of two non-linear measures for both heartbeat dynamics and respiration, the correlation dimension indicating complexity and the Lyapunov exponents indicating predictability. The results indicate that the complexity of heart dynamics is related to the type of task and that the predictability of heart dynamics is related to the amount of load. PMID:9613233

  11. An iterative method to solve the heat transfer problem under the non-linear boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhenggang; Kaliske, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine the approximation of the tangential matrix for solving the non-linear heat transfer problem. Numerical model of the strongly non-linear heat transfer problem based on the theory of the finite element method is presented. The tangential matrix of the Newton method is formulated. A method to solve the heat transfer with the non-linear boundary conditions, based on the secant slope of a reference function, is developed. The contraction mapping principle is introduced to verify the convergence of this method. The application of the method is shown by two examples. Numerical results of these examples are comparable to the ones solved with the Newton method and the commercial software COMSOL for the heat transfer problem under the radiative boundary conditions.

  12. Real-Time Monitoring of Non-linear Suicidal Dynamics: Methodology and a Demonstrative Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fartacek, Clemens; Schiepek, Günter; Kunrath, Sabine; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of different authors have stressed the usefulness of non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicide research and suicide prevention. This approach applies specific methods of time series analysis and, consequently, it requires a continuous and fine-meshed assessment of the processes under consideration. The technical means for this kind of process assessment and process analysis are now available. This paper outlines how suicidal dynamics can be monitored in high-risk patients by an Internet-based application for continuous self-assessment with integrated tools of non-linear time series analysis: the Synergetic Navigation System. This procedure is illustrated by data from a patient who attempted suicide at the end of a 90-day monitoring period. Additionally, future research topics and clinical applications of a non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicidology are discussed. PMID:26913016

  13. DSP-based Mitigation of RF Front-end Non-linearity in Cognitive Wideband Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Michael; Sharma, Rajesh K.; Hein, Matthias A.; Thomä, Reiner S.

    2012-09-01

    Software defined radios are increasingly used in modern communication systems, especially in cognitive radio. Since this technology has been commercially available, more and more practical deployments are emerging and its challenges and realistic limitations are being revealed. One of the main problems is the RF performance of the front-end over a wide bandwidth. This paper presents an analysis and mitigation of RF impairments in wideband front-ends for software defined radios, focussing on non-linear distortions in the receiver. We discuss the effects of non-linear distortions upon spectrum sensing in cognitive radio and analyse the performance of a typical wideband software-defined receiver. Digital signal processing techniques are used to alleviate non-linear distortions in the baseband signal. A feed-forward mitigation algorithm with an adaptive filter is implemented and applied to real measurement data. The results obtained show that distortions can be suppressed significantly and thus increasing the reliability of spectrum sensing.

  14. Stability analysis, non-linear pulsations and mass loss of models for 55 Cygni (HD 198478)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Abhay Pratap; Glatzel, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    55 Cygni is a variable supergiant. Recent observational studies revealed that this star pulsates in pressure, gravity and strange modes. The pulsations seem to be associated with episodes of mass loss. In this paper we present a theoretical study of stellar models with parameters close to that of 55 Cygni. A linear non-adiabatic stability analysis with respect to radial perturbations is performed and the evolution of instabilities into the non-linear regime is followed by numerical simulation. Our study indicates that the mass of 55 Cygni lies below 28 M⊙. As the final consequence of the instabilities the non-linear simulations revealed finite amplitude pulsations with periods consistent with the observations. The non-linear results also indicate a connection between pulsations and mass loss and allow for an estimate of the mean mass-loss rate. It is consistent with the observed values.

  15. Non-Linear Fuzzy Logic Control for Forced Large Motions of Spinning Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEI, SHULIANG; PALAZZOLO, ALAN; NA, UHNJOO; KASCAK, ALBERT

    2000-08-01

    A unique control approach is developed for prescribed large motion control using magnetic bearings in a proposed active stall control test rig. A finite element based, flexible shaft is modeled in a closed loop system with PD controllers that generate the control signals to support and to shake the rotor shaft. A linearized force model of the stall rig with 16 magnetic poles (4 opposing C-cores) yields stability and frequency responses. The non-linear model retains the non-linearities in Ampere's law, Faraday's law and the Maxwell stress tensor. A fuzzy logic control system is then designed to show the advantages over the conventional controllers with the fully non-linear model.

  16. Roles of Different Forms of Scale Factor in Non-linear Electrodynamics for Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Sayani; Debnath, Ujjal

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we have assumed the modified Lagrangian of non-linear electrodynamics for accelerated universe. The energy density and pressure for non-linear electromagnetic theory have been considered in terms of both electric and magnetic fields. The Einstein's filed equations have been considered in FRW universe for Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. Since we are considering the non-linear form of Lagrangian for accelerating universe, so four forms of scale factors like logamediate, intermediate, emergent and power law forms are chosen in our investigation. For every expansion, the natures of electric field and magnetic field have been shown through graphical representation. The electric and magnetic fields increase for logamediate, intermediate and emergent expansion and decrease in power law expansion.

  17. Instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar part 2: experimental confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Kenneth; Mazzaro, Gregory; Gallagher, Kyle; Martone, Anthony; Sherbondy, Kelly; Narayanan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Last year, we presented the theory behind "instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar". We demonstrated through simulation that certain devices (when interrogated by a multi-tone transmit signal) could be expected to produce a multi-tone output signal near harmonics of the transmitted tones. This hypothesized non-linear (multitone) response was then shown to be suitable for pulse compression via standard stepped-frequency processing techniques. At that time, however, we did not have measured data to support the theoretical and simulated results. We now present laboratory measurements confirming our initial hypotheses. We begin with a brief description of the experimental system, and then describe the data collection exercise. Finally, we present measured data demonstrating the accurate ranging of a non-linear target.

  18. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Steven J.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  19. A Signal Transmission Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable signal transmission theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.

  20. Non-linear regime of the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity in critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2016-03-01

    The Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG) theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. In the present paper we obtain exact solutions to the GMMG field equations in the non-linear regime of the model. GMMG model about AdS_3 space is conjectured to be dual to a 2-dimensional CFT. We study the theory in critical points corresponding to the central charges c_-=0 or c_+=0, in the non-linear regime. We show that AdS_3 wave solutions are present, and have logarithmic form in critical points. Then we study the AdS_3 non-linear deformation solution. Furthermore we obtain logarithmic deformation of extremal BTZ black hole. After that using Abbott-Deser-Tekin method we calculate the energy and angular momentum of these types of black hole solutions.

  1. Use of non-linear EEG analysis to study abnormal brain dynamics in deaf human subjects.

    PubMed

    Micheloyannis, S; Stam, C J; Fountoulakis, E; Bourkas, M; Arvanitis, S; Papanikolaou, E

    1998-06-19

    We compared the cortical dynamics of deaf subjects to those of control subjects at rest with eyes closed and during reading with the help of a non-linear prediction statistic. This method is suitable for short-term noisy time series such as electroencephalographic signals. Furthermore, we used surrogate data to test for non-linear dynamics underlying the electroencephalographic time series recorded. Our results indicate that significant non-linearity accompanies cortical activation during reading. This is more diffuse in deaf subjects and could be due to the widespread reorganization of their cerebral cortex. Predictability was lower in deaf subjects at rest, which indicates their increased 'readiness' in the resting condition. Finally, our results indicate that normal and deaf subjects differ significantly in terms of cortical dynamics. PMID:9682843

  2. Three-dimensional finite-difference modeling of non-linear ground notion

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-08-01

    We present a hybrid finite-difference technique capable of modeling non-linear soil amplification from the 3-D finite-fault radiation pattern for earthquakes in arbitrary earth models. The method is applied to model non-linear effects in the soils of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) from the 17 January 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquake. 0-7 Hz particle velocities are computed for an area of 17 km by 19 km immediately above the causative fault and 5 km below the surface where peak strike-parallel, strike-perpendicular, vertical, and total velocities reach values of 71 cm/s, 145 cm/s, 152 cm/s, and 180 cm/s, respectively. Selected Green`s functions and a soil model for the SFV are used to compute the approximate stress level during the earthquake, and comparison to the values for near-surface alluvium at the U.S. Nevada Test Site suggests that the non-linear regime may have been entered. We use selected values from the simulated particle velocity distribution at 5 km depth to compute the non-linear response in a soil column below a site within the Van Norman Complex in SFV, where the strongest ground motion was recorded. Since site-specific non- linear material parameters from the SFV are currently unavailable, values are taken from analyses of observed Test Site ground motions. Preliminary results show significant reduction of spectral velocities at the surface normalized to the peak source velocity due to non-linear effects when the peak velocity increases from 32 cm/s (approximately linear case) to 64 cm/s (30-92%), 93 cm/s (7-83%), and 124 cm/s (2-70%). The largest reduction occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz.

  3. The effects of anisotropic and non-linear thermoremanent magnetizations on Thellier-type paleointensity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Greig A.

    2013-05-01

    Numerous non-ideal factors can influence paleointensity data, but the detection of these factors remains problematic and new approaches to understanding how paleointensity data behave are needed. In this study, a recently developed stochastic model of single domain (SD) paleointensity behaviour is expanded to investigate the effects that anisotropic and non-linear thermoremanent magnetizations (TRMs) have on the paleointensity results and the parameters used to select data. The model results indicate that before applying any form of correction these non-ideal factors can produce results that are self-consistent, but highly inaccurate. The methods that are currently used to correct for anisotropic and non-linear TRMs are effective and greatly increase the likelihood of obtaining accurate results. The corrections, however, do not restore the results to those of ideal SD samples measured with the same laboratory-to-ancient field ratio, but the data are restored to those of ideal SD samples with the equivalent laboratory-to-ancient magnetization ratios (MLab/MAnc). The simulations indicate that non-linear and anisotropic TRM have no or only a weak influence on the parameters commonly used to select paleointensity data, which means that these non-ideal factors are effectively undetectable. These new models suggest that the paleointensity behaviour of thermally/chemically stable SD samples, whether they are ideally behaved, anisotropy or non-linear TRM corrected, is near universal and depends only on MLab/MAnc and the choice of paleointensity protocol (i.e. Coe-type versus Thellier). Given the high self-consistency and highly inaccurate results that anisotropic and non-linear TRM can yield, it is essential to test for such effects and all Thellier-type paleointensity studies must include tests for anisotropic and non-linear TRM to assert the reliability of the data obtained.

  4. The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-12-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z~ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula.

  5. Non-Linear Luminescent Coupling in Series-Connected Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, M. A.; Geisz, J. F.

    2012-06-18

    The assumption of superposition or linearity of photocurrent with solar flux is widespread for calculations and measurements of solar cells. The well-known effect of luminescent coupling in multijunction solar cells has also been assumed to be linear with excess current. Here we show significant non-linearities in luminescent coupling in III-V multijunction solar cells and propose a simple model based on competition between radiative and nonradiative processes in the luminescent junction to explain these non-linearities. We demonstrate a technique for accurately measuring the junction photocurrents under a specified reference spectrum, that accounts for and quantifies luminescent coupling effects.

  6. Airframe structural damage detection: a non-linear structural surface intensity based technique.

    PubMed

    Semperlotti, Fabio; Conlon, Stephen C; Barnard, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The non-linear structural surface intensity (NSSI) based damage detection technique is extended to airframe applications. The selected test structure is an upper cabin airframe section from a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter (Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, CT). Structural damage is simulated through an impact resonator device, designed to simulate the induced vibration effects typical of non-linear behaving damage. An experimental study is conducted to prove the applicability of NSSI on complex mechanical systems as well as to evaluate the minimum sensor and actuator requirements. The NSSI technique is shown to have high damage detection sensitivity, covering an extended substructure with a single sensing location. PMID:21476618

  7. Non-linear performance of a three-bearing rotor incorporating a squeeze-film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.; Dede, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the non-linear vibration performance of a rigid rotor supported on three bearings, one being surrounded by a squeeze-film damper. This damper relies on the pressure built up in the squeeze film to help counter-act external forces arising from unbalance and other effects. As a result a vibration orbit of a certain magnetude results. Such vibration orbits illustrate features found in other non-linear systems, in particular sub-harmonic resonances and jump phenomena. Comparisons between theoretical prediction and experimental observations of these phenomena are made.

  8. Influence of shear in the non-linear analysis of RC members

    SciTech Connect

    Diotallevi, Pier Paolo; Landi, Luca; Cardinetti, Filippo

    2008-07-08

    The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical model characterized by a beam-column finite element which is able to reproduce the non-linear flexural-shear behavior of RC structures. The paper shows a brief description of the finite element formulation, the theory used for modeling the constitutive relationship and the scheme of the algorithm, transformed in a computer program, which was developed for implementing the theoretical model. Finally it illustrates a comparison with available experimental results for the calibration and validation of the model and a study on the influence of the non-linear shear response.

  9. Geometrically Non-Linear Free Vibration of Fully Clamped Symmetrically Laminated Rectangular Composite Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HARRAS, B.; BENAMAR, R.; WHITE, R. G.

    2002-04-01

    The geometrically non-linear free vibration of thin composite laminated plates is investigated by using a theoretical model based on Hamilton's principle and spectral analysis previously applied to obtain the non-linear mode shapes and resonance frequencies of thin straight structures, such as beams, plates and shells (Benamar et al. 1991Journal of Sound and Vibration149 , 179-195; 1993, 164, 295-316; 1990 Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics, Southampton; Moussaoui et al. 2000 Journal of Sound and Vibration232, 917-943 [1-4]). The von Kármán non-linear strain-displacement relationships have been employed. In the formulation, the transverse displacement W of the plate mid-plane has been taken into account and the in-plane displacements U and V have been neglected in the non-linear strain energy expressions. This assumption, quite often made in the literature has been adopted in reference [2] and (El Kadiri et al. 1999 Journal of Sound and Vibration228, 333-358 [5]), in the isotropic case and has been mentioned here because the results obtained have been found to be in very good agreement with those based on the hierarchical finite element method (HFEM). In a previous study, it was assumed, based on the analogy with the isotropic case, that the fundamental carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate non-linear mode shape could be well estimated, by using nine plate functions, obtained as products of clamped-clamped beam functions in the x and y directions, symmetric in both the length U001and width directions [3]. In the present work, a convergence study has been performed and has shown that, although such an assumption may yield a good estimate for the non-linear resonance frequency, 18 plate functions should be taken into account instead of nine in the first non-linear mode shape and associated bending stress patterns calculations. This allows the anisotropy induced by the fibre orientations to be taken

  10. Non-perturbative aspects of particle acceleration in non-linear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, David A.; Flood, Stephen P.; Wen, Haibao

    2015-04-01

    We undertake an investigation of particle acceleration in the context of non-linear electrodynamics. We deduce the maximum energy that an electron can gain in a non-linear density wave in a magnetised plasma, and we show that an electron can "surf" a sufficiently intense Born-Infeld electromagnetic plane wave and be strongly accelerated by the wave. The first result is valid for a large class of physically reasonable modifications of the linear Maxwell equations, whilst the second result exploits the special mathematical structure of Born-Infeld theory.

  11. Non-Linear Approach to the Energy Loss of Ions in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arista, Néstor R.; Lifschitz, Agustín F.

    The present work includes the discussion of three main aspects in the area of the energy loss of ions in solids. First we review some of the main features contained in the historical Bohr, Bethe and Bloch theories, and related models based on them. Then we analyze new developments in this area based on a non-linear formulation of the energy loss of ions in a free electron gas. As a final question, we reconsider, from the new perspective of the non-linear approach, some long-standing problems concerning the charge state of ions moving in solids and its relationship with the effective charge concept.

  12. Genetic programming as an analytical tool for non-linear dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Woodward, A M; Gilbert, R J; Kell, D B

    1999-05-01

    By modelling the non-linear effects of membranous enzymes on an applied oscillating electromagnetic field using supervised multivariate analysis methods, Non-Linear Dielectric Spectroscopy (NLDS) has previously been shown to produce quantitative information that is indicative of the metabolic state of various organisms. The use of Genetic Programming (GP) for the multivariate analysis of NLDS data recorded from yeast fermentations is discussed, and GPs are compared with previous results using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Nets (NN). GP considerably outperforms these methods, both in terms of the precision of the predictions and their interpretability. PMID:10379559

  13. Non-perturbative aspects of particle acceleration in non-linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, David A.; Flood, Stephen P.; Wen, Haibao

    2015-04-15

    We undertake an investigation of particle acceleration in the context of non-linear electrodynamics. We deduce the maximum energy that an electron can gain in a non-linear density wave in a magnetised plasma, and we show that an electron can “surf” a sufficiently intense Born-Infeld electromagnetic plane wave and be strongly accelerated by the wave. The first result is valid for a large class of physically reasonable modifications of the linear Maxwell equations, whilst the second result exploits the special mathematical structure of Born-Infeld theory.

  14. Solution algorithms for non-linear singularly perturbed optimal control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    The applicability and usefulness of several classical and other methods for solving the two-point boundary-value problem which arises in non-linear singularly perturbed optimal control are assessed. Specific algorithms of the Picard, Newton and averaging types are formally developed for this class of problem. The computational requirements associated with each algorithm are analysed and compared with the computational requirement of the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Approximate solutions to a linear and a non-linear problem are obtained by each method and compared.

  15. The NOv>A simulation chain

    SciTech Connect

    Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Hatcher, R.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Patterson, R.; Schroeter, R.; Sousa, A.

    2015-12-23

    The NOv>A experiment is a two-detector, long-baseline neutrino experiment operating in the recently upgraded NuMI muon neutrino beam. Simulating neutrino interactions and backgrounds requires many steps including: the simulation of the neutrino beam flux using FLUKA and the FLUGG interface, cosmic ray generation using CRY, neutrino interaction modeling using GENIE, and a simulation of the energy deposited in the detector using GEANT4. To shorten generation time, the modeling of detector-specific aspects, such as photon transport, detector and electronics noise, and readout electronics, employs custom, parameterized simulation applications. We will describe the NOv>A simulation chain, and present details on the techniques used in modeling photon transport near the ends of cells, and in developing a novel data-driven noise simulation. Due to the high intensity of the NuMI beam, the Near Detector samples a high rate of muons originating in the surrounding rock. In addition, due to its location on the surface at Ash River, MN, the Far Detector collects a large rate ((˜) 140 kHz) of cosmic muons. Furthermore, we will discuss the methods used in NOv>A for overlaying rock muons and cosmic ray muons with simulated neutrino interactions and show how realistically the final simulation reproduces the preliminary NOv>A data.

  16. A Navigational Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Hypermedia Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard H.; Balestra, Joel; Davis, Miles

    The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive model for the analysis of hypermap navigation patterns through a comparison of navigation patterns associated with a traditional linear interface versus a non-linear "hypermap" interface. Twenty-six general psychology university students studied material on bipolar…

  17. Study of non-linear energy response of POLAR plastic scintillators to electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Hualin; Yu, Boxiang; Orsi, Silvio; Wu, Bobing; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    The POLAR experiment is a joint Chinese-European project conceived for a precise measurement of gamma ray polarization and optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the energy range 50-500 keV. POLAR is a novel compact space-borne Compton polarimeter consisting of 1600 low-Z plastic scintillator bars (EJ-248M), read out by 25 flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. In the paper, we first present a dedicated experiment to study the non-linear energy response of EJ-248M plastic scintillator bars to electrons and the detailed data analysis. Second we obtained the Birks' constant of EJ-248M plastic scintillator as kB = 0.143 mm / MeV by least squares fitting. Finally we used Geant4 simulation to study the influence of non-linear energy response on the performance of POLAR, through which it was found that non-linear energy response will lead to a significant decrease in statistics and result in larger uncertainty in polarization measurement. The paper presents a general solution to the study of non-linear energy response of plastic scintillators to electrons.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Flexible Slider-Crank Mechanisms with Non-Linear Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, J.-S.; HUANG, C.-L.

    2001-09-01

    Previous research in finite element formulation of flexible mechanisms usually neglected high order terms in the strain-energy function. In particular, the quartic term of the displacement gradient is always neglected due to the common belief that it is not important in the dynamic analysis. In this paper, we show that this physical intuition is not always valid. By retaining all the high order terms in the strain-energy function the equations of motion naturally become non-linear, which can then be solved by the Newmark method. In the low-speed range it is found that the dynamic responses predicted by non-linear and linear approaches indeed make no significant difference. However, when the rotation speed increases up to about one-fifth of the fundamental bending natural frequency of the connecting rod, simplified approaches begin to incur noticeable error. Specifically, for a connecting rod with a slenderness ratio of 0·01 the conventional simplified approaches overestimate the vibration amplitude almost 10-fold when the rotation speed is comparable to the fundamental natural frequency of the connecting rod. Therefore, non-linear finite element formulation taking into account the complete non-linear strain is needed in analyzing high-speed flexible mechnisms with slender links.

  19. Temporal-spatial modeling of non-linear electron density enhancement due to successive lightning strokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, E. H.; Holzworth, R. H.; Cho, M.; Rodger, C. J.; Thomas, J. N.

    2008-12-01

    We report results on the temporal-spatial modeling of non-linear electron density enhancement due to successive lightning strokes using World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data to experimentally describe the rate of large lightning strokes. The WWLLN provides real-time lightning locations globally by measuring the very low frequency (VLF) radiation emanating from lightning discharges. These WWLLN stroke rates are used as input to an axi-symmetric FDTD model that describes the non-linear effect of lightning electromagnetic pulses (EMP) on the ionosphere. This non-linear effect results from accumulating electron density modifications due to the interaction of the EMP from multiple successive lightning strokes with the lower ionosphere. Further studies must be completed to narrow uncertainties in the model, but the qualitative ionospheric response to successive EMPs is presented in two-dimensional, axi-symmetric space. Results from this study show that the non-linear effect of lightning EMP due to successive lightning strokes must be taken into account and varies with altitude. The limiting maximum electron density is reached earlier in time for higher altitudes, and the most significant effect occurs at 88 km. The limiting maximum modeled electron density profile in the 83- to 91-km altitude range does not depend on the initial electron density.

  20. Boundedness of solutions for non-linear quasi-periodic differential equations with Liouvillean frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; You, Jiangong

    2016-07-01

    We study the boundedness of solutions for non-linear quasi-periodic differential equations with Liouvillean frequencies. We proved that if the forcing is quasi-periodic in time with two frequencies which is not super-Liouvillean, then all solutions of the equation are bounded. The proof is based on action-angle variables and modified KAM theory.

  1. Positron self-driven hollow channel in non-linear plasma wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Ligia Diana; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Silva, Luis O.; GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear Team

    2014-10-01

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of sustaining very high acceleration gradients when compared to conventional accelerators. In particular plasma based accelerators operating in non-linear regimes reached the 100GV/m. One of the challenges for a future plasma based collider is to accelerate positrons in non-linear regimes. Although novel techniques have been investigated to this end, it is still important to propose and explore other new configurations for positron acceleration in non-linear regimes. In this context we suggest a novel process for positron acceleration in non-linear plasma wakefields, where a tightly focused positron drive beam expels the plasma ions forming a hollow channel with large accelerating and focusing wakefields suitable for positron acceleration. We introduce the setup of the proposed scheme and illustrate it with analytical and numerical results of a 3D numerical simulations performed with the PIC code OSIRS. Moreover, we discuss the optimal conditions for the positron drive beam stability. This work was partially supported by FCT grant SFRH / BD / 84851 / 2012. We acknowledge PRACE for access to resources on SuperMUC (Leibniz Research Center).

  2. Re-Mediating Classroom Activity with a Non-Linear, Multi-Display Presentation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, Brett; Coyle, Do

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to evaluate the use of a novel, multi-screen, non-linear presentation tool. The Thunder tool allows presenters to manipulate and annotate multiple digital slides and to concurrently display a selection of juxtaposed resources across a wall-sized projection area. Conventional, single screen presentation…

  3. Self-consistent linearization of non-linear BEM formulations with quadratic convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, G. R.; de Souza Neto, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a general technique to obtain the self-consistent linearization of non-linear formulations of the boundary element method (BEM) is presented. In the incremental-iterative procedure required to solve the non-linear problem the convergence is quadratic, being the solution obtained from the consistent tangent operator. This technique is applied to non-linear BEM formulations for plates where two independent problems are discussed: the plate bending and the stretching problem. For both problems an equilibrium equation is written in terms of strains and internal forces and then the consistent tangent operator is derived by applying the Newton-Raphson’s scheme. The Von Mises criterion is adopted to govern the elasto-plastic material behaviour checked at points along the plate thickness, although the presented formulations can be used with any non-linear model. Numerical examples are presented showing the accuracy of the results as well as the high convergence rate of the iterative procedure.

  4. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  5. CONSEQUENCES OF NON-LINEAR DENSITY EFFECTS ON BUOYANCY AND PLUME BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic plumes, as turbulent streams, grow by entraining ambient water. Buoyant plumes rise and dense ones sink, but, non-linear kinetic effects can reverse the buoyant force in mid-phenomenon. The class of nascent-density plumes begin as buoyant, upwardly accelerating plumes tha...

  6. Non-Linear EMG Parameters for Differential and Early Diagnostics of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meigal, Alexander Y.; Rissanen, Saara M.; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Airaksinen, Olavi; Kankaanpää, Markku; Karjalainen, Pasi A.

    2013-01-01

    The pre-clinical diagnostics is essential for management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although PD has been studied intensively in the last decades, the pre-clinical indicators of that motor disorder have yet to be established. Several approaches were proposed but the definitive method is still lacking. Here we report on the non-linear characteristics of surface electromyogram (sEMG) and tremor acceleration as a possible diagnostic tool, and, in prospective, as a predictor for PD. Following this approach we calculated such non-linear parameters of sEMG and accelerometer signal as correlation dimension, entropy, and determinism. We found that the non-linear parameters allowed discriminating some 85% of healthy controls from PD patients. Thus, this approach offers considerable potential for developing sEMG-based method for pre-clinical diagnostics of PD. However, non-linear parameters proved to be more reliable for the shaking form of PD, while diagnostics of the rigid form of PD using EMG remains an open question. PMID:24062722

  7. Piezoeletric and Mechanical properties of Non-linear Optical Manganese Mercury thiocyanate (MMTC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santhosh R.; Korah, Ignatius; Chandralingam, S.; kumar, Binay; George, Sijosh; Joseph, Ginson P.

    2011-07-01

    Single crystasls of the coordination complex non-linear optical crystal material, MMTC with dimensions of 12×8×6 mm3 were grown from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The mechanical properties and piezoelectric properties of the crystals were studied.

  8. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part i: Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-08-01

    The study presented is an investigation of the non-linear dynamics and stability of simply supported, circular cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Non-linearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using the non-linear Donnell's shallow shell theory, with account taken of the effect of viscous structural damping. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction. The system is discretiszd by Galerkin's method, and is investigated by using a model involving seven degrees of freedom, allowing for travelling wave response of the shell and shell axisymmetric contraction. Two different boundary conditions are applied to the fluid flow beyond the shell, corresponding to: (i) infinite baffles (rigid extensions of the shell), and (ii) connection with a flexible wall of infinite extent in the longitudinal direction, permitting solution by separation of variables; they give two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the system, as a consequence of the fact that axisymmetric contraction, responsible for the softening non-linear dynamical behaviour of shells, is not allowed if the fluid flow beyond the shell is constrained by rigid baffles. Results show that the system loses stability by divergence.

  9. Testing procedures for non-stationarity and non-linearity in physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Popivanov, D; Mineva, A

    1999-03-15

    Most of the physiological signals (EEG, ECG, blood flow, human gait, etc.) characterize by complex dynamics including both non-stationarities and non-linearities. These time series resemble red noise with long-range correlation and 1/(f beta) power spectrum. A question arises as to how to distinguish the characteristics of the process underlying the signal dynamics from the properties of the observed time series. The classical methods to determine possible non-linear (chaotic) dynamics (e.g. correlation dimension) often fail in such signals because of relatively short data records containing stochastic components and non-stationarities. We report an application of several approaches, aimed at (1) determining of the non-stationarities in the signals and (2) testing whether non-linear dynamics exists. Assessment of the intrinsic correlation properties of the dynamic process and distinguishing the same from external trends was performed using singular spectra and detrended fluctuation analysis. The existence of non-linear dynamics was tested by correlation dimension (modified algorithm of re-embedding) and by correlation integrals of real and surrogate data. The correlation integrals of real signal and surrogate data sets were statistically compared using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test. The procedures were tested on EEG and laser-Doppler (LD) blood flow. Our suggestion is that no one approach taken alone is the best for our aims. Instead, a battery of methods should be used. PMID:10194935

  10. Introduction to the Treatment of Non-Linear Effects Using a Gravitational Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus; Esperidiao, Antonio Sergio C.; Miranda, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    We show that the treatment of pendulum movement, other than the linear approximation,may be an instructive experimentally based introduction to the physics of non-linear effects. Firstly the natural frequency of a gravitational pendulum is measured as function of its amplitude. Secondly forced oscillations of a gravitational pendulum are…

  11. Non-Linear Structural Dynamics Characterization using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal \\ielocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second. third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass. gravity. mass centers of mode shapes. and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances. energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode. and amplitude- and phase- modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.

  12. Non-Linear Editing for the Smaller College-Level Production Program, Rev. 2.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetzlaff, David

    This paper focuses on a specific topic and contention: Non-linear editing earns its place in a liberal arts setting because it is a superior tool to teach the concepts of how moving picture discourse is constructed through editing. The paper first points out that most students at small liberal arts colleges are not going to wind up working…

  13. Loop-Imbedded (Non-Linear) Instruction Modules: A Novel Delivery Method for Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Jing; Turgeon, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Instructional modules are typically designed with the linear format of PowerPoint slide sets, thus mimicking classroom-based instruction with its temporal and spatial constraints. In an attempt to make instructional modules more student-centered and thus more individualized for online education, a prototype non-linear module was developed on the…

  14. In vitro dissolution and mechanical behavior of c-axis preferentially oriented hydroxyapatite thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunbin; Camata, Renato P.; Chowdhury, Shafiul; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to its resemblance to the major inorganic constituent of bone and tooth, hydroxyapatite is recognized as one of the most biocompatible materials and is widely used in systems for bone replacement and regeneration. In this study the pulsed laser deposition technique was chosen to produce hydroxyapatite with different crystallographic orientations in order to investigate some of the material properties, including its in vitro dissolution behavior, as well as mechanical properties. The crystallographic orientations of hydroxyapatite coatings can be carefully controlled, mainly by varying the energy density of the KrF excimer laser (248 nm) used for deposition. Nanoindentation results showed that highly c-axis oriented hydroxyapatite coatings have higher hardness and Young's modulus values compared with the values of randomly oriented coatings. After 24 h immersion in simulated physiological solution the overall surface morphology of the highly oriented coatings was dramatically altered. The porosity was drastically increased and sub-micron pores were formed throughout the coatings, whereas the average size of the grains in the coatings was not significantly changed. The composition of the textured hydroxyapatite coatings remained essentially unchanged. Their c-axis texture, on the other hand, was rather enhanced with an increase in immersion time. The c-axis oriented hydroxyapatite surfaces are likely to promote preferentially oriented growth through a cyclic process of dissolution and reprecipitation, followed by homoepitaxial growth. The remarkable morphological and microstructural changes after dissolution suggest a capability of highly textured hydroxyapatite as a tissue engineering scaffold with an interconnecting porous network that may be beneficial for cellular activity. PMID:20188868

  15. Disentangling redshift-space distortions and non-linear bias using the 2D power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Warren, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    We present the 2D redshift-space galaxy power spectrum, P(k, μ), measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using catalogues constructed with halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual μ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of non-linear growth and redshift-space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the μ < 0.2 simulation data, which is not impacted by RSD, we can successfully measure the non-linear bias to ˜5 per cent at k < 0.6 h Mpc-1. Using the low μ simulation data to constrain the non-linear bias, and μ ≥ 0.2 to constrain the growth rate, we show that f can be constrained to ˜26(22) per cent to a kmax < 0.4(0.6) h Mpc-1 from clustering alone using a dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual μ bins reveals interesting physical effects which arise from different methods of populating haloes with galaxies. We find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater than the non-linear growth, which differs for each galaxy model. The idea of separating non-linear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.

  16. Non-linear Frequency Shifts, Mode Couplings, and Decay Instability of Plasma Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, Mathew; Anderegg, F.; Driscoll, C. F.; Valentini, F.

    2015-11-01

    We present experiments and theory for non-linear plasma wave decay to longer wavelengths, in both the oscillatory coupling and exponential decay regimes. The experiments are conducted on non-neutral plasmas in cylindrical Penning-Malmberg traps, θ-symmetric standing plasma waves have near acoustic dispersion ω (kz) ~kz - αkz2 , discretized by kz =mz (π /Lp) . Large amplitude waves exhibit non-linear frequency shifts δf / f ~A2 and Fourier harmonic content, both of which are increased as the plasma dispersion is reduced. Non-linear coupling rates are measured between large amplitude mz = 2 waves and small amplitude mz = 1 waves, which have a small detuning Δω = 2ω1 -ω2 . At small excitation amplitudes, this detuning causes the mz = 1 mode amplitude to ``bounce'' at rate Δω , with amplitude excursions ΔA1 ~ δn2 /n0 consistent with cold fluid theory and Vlasov simulations. At larger excitation amplitudes, where the non-linear coupling exceeds the dispersion, phase-locked exponential growth of the mz = 1 mode is observed, in qualitative agreement with simple 3-wave instability theory. However, significant variations are observed experimentally, and N-wave theory gives stunningly divergent predictions that depend sensitively on the dispersion-moderated harmonic content. Measurements on higher temperature Langmuir waves and the unusual ``EAW'' (KEEN) waves are being conducted to investigate the effects of wave-particle kinetics on the non-linear coupling rates. Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  17. A study of non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response using 120 UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; McIntyre, Neil; Oughton, Rachel H.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a catchment characteristic sensitivity analysis concerning the non-linearity of rainfall-runoff response in 120 UK catchments. Two approaches were adopted. The first approach involved, for each catchment, regression of a power-law to flow rate gradient data for recession events only. This approach was referred to as the recession analysis (RA). The second approach involved calibrating a rainfall-runoff model to the full data set (both recession and non-recession events). The rainfall-runoff model was developed by combining a power-law streamflow routing function with a one parameter probability distributed model (PDM) for soil moisture accounting. This approach was referred to as the rainfall-runoff model (RM). Step-wise linear regression was used to derive regionalization equations for the three parameters. An advantage of the RM approach is that it utilizes much more of the observed data. Results from the RM approach suggest that catchments with high base-flow and low annual precipitation tend to exhibit greater non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response. In contrast, the results from the RA approach suggest that non-linearity is linked to low evaporative demand. The difference in results is attributed to the aggregation of storm-flow and base-flow into a single system giving rise to a seemingly more non-linear response when applying the RM approach to catchments that exhibit a strongly dual storm-flow base-flow response. The study also highlights the value and limitations in a regionlization context of aggregating storm-flow and base-flow pathways into a single non-linear routing function.

  18. Linear and non-linear performance of transducer and pupil in Calliphora retinula cells.

    PubMed Central

    Leutscher-Hazelhoff, J T

    1975-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings have been made from the blowfly (Calliphora erythrocephala) retinula cell; apart from the transducer mechanism, these cells also feature a pupil mechanism. 2. At several mean intensity levels, within the apparently linear range of response, frequency characteristics of amplitude and phase and responses to 'delta'-flashes and 'delta'-flash pairs have been obtained. 3. Fourier methods have shown these responses to be mutually compatible, confirming linearity in these circumstances. 4. Non-linear behaviour can be made to appear at the lower frequencies when the modulation depth is increased. 5. Non-linearities can also appear through application of the superposition test: a low frequency sine wave, modulated so as to elicit an apparently linear response, and a high frequence sine wave which does not give rise to non-linearity even at the highest modulation depths can, when superimposed, yield a greater response to the latter when situated at the minima of the former than at its maxima. 6. At frequencies above approximately 1 Hz these superposition non-linearities are attributed to the transducer mechanism gain control. Below this frequency the pupil mechanism takes part considerably in the retinula cell's total observed gain control: its characteristics remain yet to be cleared up. 7. The transducer's linear and non-linear properties fit in closely with those of the Fuortes-Hodgkin model which couples increases in gain and time constants. 8. The Fuortes-Hodgkin model will probably require some quantitative modifications in the originally treated case of Limulus, on account of its pupil. 9. Finally, the merits of Veringa's diffusion model, and the possibility of eventually joining this model with the Fuortes-Hodgkin one are pointed out briefly. PMID:1142250

  19. Effects of Dual-Energy CT with Non-Linear Blending on Abdominal CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaoqin; Jiang, Xiaochen; Xu, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether non-linear blending technique for arterial-phase dual-energy abdominal CT angiography (CTA) could improve image quality compared to the linear blending technique and conventional 120 kVp imaging. Materials and Methods This study included 118 patients who had accepted dual-energy abdominal CTA in the arterial phase. They were assigned to Sn140/80 kVp protocol (protocol A, n = 40) if body mass index (BMI) < 25 or Sn140/100 kVp protocol (protocol B, n = 41) if BMI ≥ 25. Non-linear blending images and linear blending images with a weighting factor of 0.5 in each protocol were generated and compared with the conventional 120 kVp images (protocol C, n = 37). The abdominal vascular enhancements, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and radiation dose were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test, independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Mean vascular attenuation, CNR, SNR and subjective image quality score for the non-linear blending images in each protocol were all higher compared to the corresponding linear blending images and 120 kVp images (p values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.007) except for when compared to non-linear blending images for protocol B and 120 kVp images in CNR and SNR. No significant differences were found in image noise among the three kinds of images and the same kind of images in different protocols, but the lowest radiation dose was shown in protocol A. Conclusion Non-linear blending technique of dual-energy CT can improve the image quality of arterial-phase abdominal CTA, especially with the Sn140/80 kVp scanning. PMID:25053901

  20. PkANN - I. Non-linear matter power spectrum interpolation through artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Shankar; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Feldman, Hume A.; Lahav, Ofer; Thomas, Shaun A.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the interpolation of power spectra of matter fluctuations using artificial neural networks (PkANN). We present a new approach to confront small-scale non-linearities in the power spectrum of matter fluctuations. This ever-present and pernicious uncertainty is often the Achilles heel in cosmological studies and must be reduced if we are to see the advent of precision cosmology in the late-time Universe. We show that an optimally trained artificial neural network (ANN), when presented with a set of cosmological parameters (? and redshift z), can provide a worst-case error ≤1 per cent (for z≤ 2) fit to the non-linear matter power spectrum deduced through N-body simulations, for modes up to k≤ 0.7 h Mpc-1. Our power spectrum interpolator is accurate over the entire parameter space. This is a significant improvement over some of the current matter power spectrum calculators. In this paper, we detail how an accurate interpolation of the matter power spectrum is achievable with only a sparsely sampled grid of cosmological parameters. Unlike large-scale N-body simulations which are computationally expensive and/or infeasible, a well-trained ANN can be an extremely quick and reliable tool in interpreting cosmological observations and parameter estimation. This paper is the first in a series. In this method paper, we generate the non-linear matter power spectra using HALOFIT and use them as mock observations to train the ANN. This work sets the foundation for Paper II, where a suite of N-body simulations will be used to compute the non-linear matter power spectra at sub-per cent accuracy, in the quasi-non-linear regime (0.1 ≤k≤ 0.9 h Mpc-1). A trained ANN based on this N-body suite will be released for the scientific community.

  1. Non-linearity's in proxy space: Three methods to deal with the non-linear behavior of proxies in calcareous marine skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauwens, M.; Ohlsson, H.; Beelaerts, V.; Barbé, K.; Dehairs, F.; Schoukens, J.

    2009-04-01

    The reconstruction of seasonal variations in the paleo-environement is possible thanks to the bivalve shells that are commonly found back in archeological sites and that are sensitive environmental recorders. To do these reconstructions we look to the chemical composition of a shell along his growth axis. When a certain element or isotope can be related to an environmental parameter it is called a proxy for that parameter. Many elemental and isotopic have been proposed as potential temperature proxy. But the same problem is showing up over and over again: a certain elemental shows a good linear correlation with temperature, but at the moment that the intrinsic variation has to be explained, the incorporation of the proxy seems to be much more complex than assumed in the first instance. Two observations gave us the idea to use a new type of models to reconstruct temperature. In first instance we observed that all proxy incorporations were always influenced by more than one environmental parameter, which automatically implicate that the reconstruction of an environmental parameter should be done with more than one proxy input. A second observation is that some proxy-environment relations seemed to be non-linear. We propose to do climate reconstructions based on Non-linear multi-proxy models. We will present our own intuitive approach to do temperature reconstructions and we will compare our results to two recognized engineering techniques: Manifold learning and Supported vector machines. These three methods are validated on shell data of Scheldt estuarine environment using high resolution measurements of Mg, Mn, Ba, Sr and Pb on a LA-ICP-MS. The site specificity is tested for all methods using shell-data from 4 different sites along the Scheldt. Time specificity is checked by reconstructing the temperature corresponding to a shell that grew in another year. The best reconstructions are computed with the manifold learning algorithms, but the simplicity and high

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of p-Type SnO Thin Film with High c-Axis Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yanli; Liu, Wuguang; Shi, Jingtao; Chen, Zimin; Wang, Gang

    2016-08-01

    p-Type tin monoxide (SnO) thin films with high c-axis preferred orientation have been fabricated on quartz substrate via electron-beam evaporation at 280°C. Subsequently, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was performed in N2 atmosphere at 400°C to 800°C. Their structural, chemical, optical, and electrical properties were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Hall-effect measurements. The c-axis-oriented films of Sn-rich SnO presented excellent thermal stability up to RTA at 700°C. Both the crystallization and the hole Hall mobility were enhanced with increasing RTA temperature, with Hall mobility of 16 cm2 V-1 s-1 being obtained after RTA at 700°C. It was considered that the presence of defects and low scattering from grain boundaries contributed to this high Hall mobility. RTA annealing temperature above 700°C induced chemical reaction between SnO and the quartz substrate, with a change of the film to amorphous state with Sn4+ formation.

  3. Incoherent c-Axis Interplane Response of the Iron Chalcogenide FeTe0:55Se0:45 Superconductor from Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, G.D.; Moon, S.J.; Homes, C.C.; Akrap, A.; Xu,, Z.J.; Wen, J.S.; Lin,, Z.W.; Li, Q.; Basov, D.N.

    2011-05-23

    We report on the interplane c-axis electronic response of FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45} investigated by infrared spectroscopy. We find that the normal-state c-axis electronic response of FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45} is incoherent and bears significant similarities to those of mildly underdoped cuprates. The c-axis optical conductivity {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) of FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45} does not display well-defined Drude response at all temperatures. As temperature decreases, {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) is continuously suppressed. The incoherent c-axis response is found to be related to the strong dissipation in the ab-plane transport: a pattern that holds true for various correlated materials as well as FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45}.

  4. RADIATIVE LIFETIMES OF V I AND V II

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu

    2014-11-01

    New radiative lifetimes are reported for 168 levels of V I ranging in energy from 18086 cm{sup –1} to 47702 cm{sup –1}, and for 31 levels of V II ranging in energy from 34593 cm{sup –1} to 47420 cm{sup –1}. These lifetimes are measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic/ionic beam as part of an ongoing study of the radiative properties of the iron group elements. All but two of the V II lifetimes have been measured before using modern laser-based methods, but a large fraction of the V I lifetimes are reported here for the first time. Comparison to earlier measurements is discussed. These new lifetimes are, for the most part, accurate to ±5%. They will be combined with branching fraction measurements to produce a large set of transition probabilities for V I and V II which are needed by the astrophysics community for stellar abundance determinations.

  5. Detection of Quiescent Phases in Echocardiography Data using Non-Linear Filtering and Boundary Detection

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Lakshminarayan; Wick, Carson A.; Tridandapani, Srini

    2013-01-01

    In order to detect the quasi-stationary states of the heart within a cardiac cycle from echocardiography data, we present an algorithm that uses non-linear filtering and boundary detection. The non-linear filtering algorithm involves anisotropic diffusion to remove the speckle noise from the data and to smoothen the homogeneous regions while preserving the edges. Following this, we perform binary thresholding and boundary detection, and observe the positional changes in the region of interest. From a series of echocardiography images, we derived the regions of cardiac quiescence, which we then plotted on the electrocardiograph (ECG) R–R interval. It is observed that the quiescence occurs in the diastolic region of the ECG signal, but the position and length of quiescence varies across multiple cardiac cycles for the same individual. PMID:23366202

  6. Simulation of non-linear rf losses derived from characteristic Nb topography

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Xu, Chen; Kelley, Michael

    2013-09-01

    A simplified model has been developed to simulate non-linear RF losses on Nb surfaces exclusively due to topographical enhancement of surface magnetic fields. If local sharp edges are small enough, at locations where local surface fields exceed Hc, small volumes of material may become normal conducting without thermal leading to quench. These small volumes of normal material yield increases in the effective surface resistance of the Nb. Using topographic data from typical BCP?d and EP?d fine grain niobium surfaces, we have simulated field-dependent losses and found that when extrapolated to resulting cavity performance, these losses correspond well to characteristic BCP/EP high field Q0 performance differences for fine grain Nb. We describe the structure of the model, its limitations, and the effects of this type of non-linear loss contribution on SRF cavities.

  7. Non-linear effects in the support motion of an elastically mounted slider crank mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, I.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of an in-line slider crank mechanism in which the sliding mass is elastically supported. The ratio of crank length to connecting rod length is not assumed small and relatively large displacements of the support are allowed. Ordinary and parametric non-linear terms are thus retained in the equations of motion. It is shown that the presence of parametric terms gives rise to additional conditions for resonance in the support motion. Approximate solutions are obtained for the fundamental and half subharmonic steady state responses and the effect of the non-linear and parametric terms examined. The stability of the steady state responses is considered and it is shown that instability is associated with a negative slope of the amplitude frequency characteristic.

  8. A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Fleischer, Sharly; Brandt, Nathaniel C.; Perkins, Bradford G., Jr.; Liu, Mengkun; Fan, Kebin; Sternbach, Aaron; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decade, breakthroughs in the generation and control of ultrafast high-field terahertz (THz) radiation have led to new spectroscopic methodologies for the study of light-matter interactions in the strong-field limit. In this review, we will outline recent experimental demonstrations of non-linear THz material responses in materials ranging from molecular gases, to liquids, to varieties of solids - including semiconductors, nanocarbon, and correlated electron materials. New insights into how strong THz fields interact with matter will be discussed in which a THz field can act as either a non-resonant electric field or a broad bandwidth pulse driving specific resonances within it. As an emerging field, non-linear THz spectroscopy shows promise for elucidating dynamic problems associated with next generation electronics and optoelectronics, as well as for demonstrating control over collective material degrees of freedom.

  9. Growth and characterization of L-arginine sulphate: A new nanocrystal with non linear optical behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandpekar, M. M.; Patil, Smita S.

    2013-06-01

    L-arginine combines with a variety of salts and acids to form a potential non-linear optical material. Nano crystals of L-arginine-Sulphate (LAS) have been grown from solution by the slow evaporation technique for the first time. The single phase formation has been verified by XRD studies. TEM studies confirm the formation of nanocrystallites of particle size of about 34nm. The optical absorption studies shows presence of a sharp UV cut-off region at 239.57nm. Further the presence of wide transparency window in the entire visible region shows its use for optoelectronic applications. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of potassium and sulphur in the grown nanocrystal of LAS. Fungus growth has been avoided by subjecting the solution to pre-heat treatment. Preliminary studies indicate presence of non-linear optical (NLO) response.

  10. Approximate solutions of non-linear circular orbit relative motion in curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Gonzalo, Juan Luis; Roa, Javier

    2016-07-01

    A compact, time-explicit, approximate solution of the highly non-linear relative motion in curvilinear coordinates is provided under the assumption of circular orbit for the chief spacecraft. The rather compact, three-dimensional solution is obtained by algebraic manipulation of the individual Keplerian motions in curvilinear, rather than Cartesian coordinates, and provides analytical expressions for the secular, constant and periodic terms of each coordinate as a function of the initial relative motion conditions or relative orbital elements. Numerical test cases are conducted to show that the approximate solution can be effectively employed to extend the classical linear Clohessy-Wiltshire solution to include non-linear relative motion without significant loss of accuracy up to a limit of 0.4-0.45 in eccentricity and 40-45° in relative inclination for the follower. A very simple, quadratic extension of the classical Clohessy-Wiltshire solution in curvilinear coordinates is also presented.