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Sample records for non-linear dynamics analysis

  1. Employment of CB models for non-linear dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. R. M.; Deloo, P.; Fournier-Sicre, A.

    1990-01-01

    The non-linear dynamic analysis of large structures is always very time, effort and CPU consuming. Whenever possible the reduction of the size of the mathematical model involved is of main importance to speed up the computational procedures. Such reduction can be performed for the part of the structure which perform linearly. Most of the time, the classical Guyan reduction process is used. For non-linear dynamic process where the non-linearity is present at interfaces between different structures, Craig-Bampton models can provide a very rich information, and allow easy selection of the relevant modes with respect to the phenomenon driving the non-linearity. The paper presents the employment of Craig-Bampton models combined with Newmark direct integration for solving non-linear friction problems appearing at the interface between the Hubble Space Telescope and its solar arrays during in-orbit maneuvers. Theory, implementation in the FEM code ASKA, and practical results are shown.

  2. DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D

    2008-06-10

    Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.

  3. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    A good understanding of the steady state dynamic behavior of a geared system is required in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. This study focuses on a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type non-linearities. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and force vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solution with the finite element model results. Several key system parameters such as mean load and damping ratio are identified and their effects on the non-linear frequency response are evaluated quantitatively. Other fundamental issues such as the dynamic coupling between non-linear modes, dynamic interactions between component non-linearities and time-varying mesh stiffness, and the existence of subharmonic and chaotic solutions including routes to chaos have also been examined in depth.

  4. Non-linear dynamic analysis of anisotropic cylindrical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Lakis, A.A.; Selmane, A.; Toledano, A.

    1996-12-01

    A theory to predict the influence of geometric non-linearities on the natural frequencies of an empty anisotropic cylindrical shell is presented in this paper. It is a hybrid of finite element and classical thin shell theories. Sanders-Koiter non-linear and strain-displacement relations are used. Displacement functions are evaluated using linearized equations of motion. Modal coefficients are then obtained for these displacement functions. Expressions for the mass, linear and non-linear stiffness matrices are derived through the finite element method. The uncoupled equations are solved with the help of elliptic functions. The period and frequency variations are first determined as a function of shell amplitudes and then compared with the results in the literature.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Flexible Slider-Crank Mechanisms with Non-Linear Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, J.-S.; HUANG, C.-L.

    2001-09-01

    Previous research in finite element formulation of flexible mechanisms usually neglected high order terms in the strain-energy function. In particular, the quartic term of the displacement gradient is always neglected due to the common belief that it is not important in the dynamic analysis. In this paper, we show that this physical intuition is not always valid. By retaining all the high order terms in the strain-energy function the equations of motion naturally become non-linear, which can then be solved by the Newmark method. In the low-speed range it is found that the dynamic responses predicted by non-linear and linear approaches indeed make no significant difference. However, when the rotation speed increases up to about one-fifth of the fundamental bending natural frequency of the connecting rod, simplified approaches begin to incur noticeable error. Specifically, for a connecting rod with a slenderness ratio of 0·01 the conventional simplified approaches overestimate the vibration amplitude almost 10-fold when the rotation speed is comparable to the fundamental natural frequency of the connecting rod. Therefore, non-linear finite element formulation taking into account the complete non-linear strain is needed in analyzing high-speed flexible mechnisms with slender links.

  6. Non-linear dynamic analysis of ancient masonry structures by 3D rigid block models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orduña, Agustin; Ayala, A. Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a formulation for non-linear dynamic analysis of unreinforced masonry structures using rigid block models. This procedure is akin to the distinct element family of methods, nevertheless, we assume that small displacements occur and, therefore, the formulation does not involve the search for new contacts between blocks. This proposal is also related to the rigid element method, although, in this case we use full three-dimensional models and a more robust interface formulation.

  7. Ammonia quantitative analysis model based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rongfei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia quantitative analysis based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model was proposed. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was used to obtain the current-voltage (I-V) data. Measurement data was processed by non-linear bistable dynamics model. Results showed that the proposed method quantitatively determined ammonia concentrations. PMID:25975362

  8. Non-linear dynamic analysis of a flexible rotor supported on porous oil journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, S. K.; Kakoty, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    In the present paper, the non-linear dynamic analysis of a flexible rotor with a rigid disk under unbalance excitation mounted on porous oil journal bearings at the two ends is carried out. The system equation of motion is obtained by finite element formulation of Timoshenko beam and the disk. The non-linear oil-film forces are calculated from the solution of the modified Reynolds equation simultaneously with Darcy's equation. The system equation of motion is then solved by the Wilson- θ method. Bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré maps, time response, journal trajectories, FFT-spectrum, etc. are obtained to study the non-linear dynamics of the rotor-bearing system. The effect of various non-dimensional rotor-bearing parameters on the bifurcation characteristics of the system is studied. It is shown that the system undergoes Hopf bifurcation as the speed increases. Further, slenderness ratio, material properties of the rotor, ratio of disk mass to shaft mass and permeability of the porous bush are shown to have profound effect on the bifurcation characteristics of the rotor-bearing system.

  9. Use of non-linear EEG analysis to study abnormal brain dynamics in deaf human subjects.

    PubMed

    Micheloyannis, S; Stam, C J; Fountoulakis, E; Bourkas, M; Arvanitis, S; Papanikolaou, E

    1998-06-19

    We compared the cortical dynamics of deaf subjects to those of control subjects at rest with eyes closed and during reading with the help of a non-linear prediction statistic. This method is suitable for short-term noisy time series such as electroencephalographic signals. Furthermore, we used surrogate data to test for non-linear dynamics underlying the electroencephalographic time series recorded. Our results indicate that significant non-linearity accompanies cortical activation during reading. This is more diffuse in deaf subjects and could be due to the widespread reorganization of their cerebral cortex. Predictability was lower in deaf subjects at rest, which indicates their increased 'readiness' in the resting condition. Finally, our results indicate that normal and deaf subjects differ significantly in terms of cortical dynamics. PMID:9682843

  10. Dynamic analysis of space-related linear and non-linear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bosela, P.A.; Shaker, F.J.; Fertis, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to be cost effective, space structures must be extremely light weight, and subsequently, very flexible structures. The power system for Space Station Freedom is such a structure. Each array consists of a deployable truss mast and a split blanket of photovoltaic solar collectors. The solar arrays are deployed in orbit, and the blanket is stretched into position as the mast is extended. Geometric stiffness due to the preload make this an interesting non-linear problem. The space station will be subjected to various dynamic loads, during shuttle docking, solar tracking, attitude adjustment, etc. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the space station components, including the solar arrays, is critical for determining the structural adequacy of the components, and for designing a dynamic controls system. The process used in developing and verifying the finite element dynamic model of the photo-voltaic arrays is documented. Various problems were identified, such as grounding effects due to geometric stiffness, large displacement effects, and pseudo-stiffness (grounding) due to lack of required rigid body modes. Analysis techniques, such as development of rigorous solutions using continuum mechanics, finite element solution sequence altering, equivalent systems using a curvature basis, Craig-Bampton superelement approach, and modal ordering schemes were utilized. The grounding problems associated with the geometric stiffness are emphasized.

  11. Dynamic analysis of space-related linear and non-linear structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosela, Paul A.; Shaker, Francis J.; Fertis, Demeter G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to be cost effective, space structures must be extremely light weight, and subsequently, very flexible structures. The power system for Space Station Freedom is such a structure. Each array consists of a deployable truss mast and a split blanket of photo-voltaic solar collectors. The solar arrays are deployed in orbit, and the blanket is stretched into position as the mast is extended. Geometric stiffness due to the preload make this an interesting non-linear problem. The space station will be subjected to various dynamic loads, during shuttle docking, solar tracking, attitude adjustment, etc. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the space station components, including the solar arrays, is critical for determining the structural adequacy of the components, and for designing a dynamic control system. The process used in developing and verifying the finite element dynamic model of the photo-voltaic arrays is documented. Various problems were identified, such as grounding effects due to geometric stiffness, large displacement effects, and pseudo-stiffness (grounding) due to lack of required rigid body modes. Analysis techniques, such as development of rigorous solutions using continuum mechanics, finite element solution sequence altering, equivalent systems using a curvature basis, Craig-Bampton superelement approach, and modal ordering schemes were utilized. The grounding problems associated with the geometric stiffness are emphasized.

  12. Seismic evaluation of a large nuclear pump bearing using non-linear dynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, K.A.; Hugins, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic bearings of a large vertical pump using sodium as the lubricant were critically examined to determine their ability to withstand seismic loads. Initial linear dynamics analyses predicted journal displacements to exceed bearing clearance by a ratio of 3:1. Equivalent time-history excitations were then developed from the response spectra to determine the number, magnitude, and duration of the bearing impact loads. Predicted loads were further reduced by 50% by modeling non-linear bearing characteristics normally present but not generally included in conventional linear analyses. Results are presented of the comprehensive design evaluation performed, based on these non-linear predictions, that assess stress, wear, and fatigue to demonstrate hydrostatic bearing integrity.

  13. Study on Brain Dynamics by Non Linear Analysis of Music Induced EEG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Archi; Sanyal, Shankha; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Guhathakurta, Tarit; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak; Ghose, Partha

    2016-02-01

    Music has been proven to be a valuable tool for the understanding of human cognition, human emotion, and their underlying brain mechanisms. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of Hindustani music on brain activity during normal relaxing conditions using electroencephalography (EEG). Ten male healthy subjects without special musical education participated in the study. EEG signals were acquired at the frontal (F3/F4) lobes of the brain while listening to music at three experimental conditions (rest, with music and without music). Frequency analysis was done for the alpha, theta and gamma brain rhythms. The finding shows that arousal based activities were enhanced while listening to Hindustani music of contrasting emotions (romantic/sorrow) for all the subjects in case of alpha frequency bands while no significant changes were observed in gamma and theta frequency ranges. It has been observed that when the music stimulus is removed, arousal activities as evident from alpha brain rhythms remain for some time, showing residual arousal. This is analogous to the conventional 'Hysteresis' loop where the system retains some 'memory' of the former state. This is corroborated in the non linear analysis (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis) of the alpha rhythms as manifested in values of fractal dimension. After an input of music conveying contrast emotions, withdrawal of music shows more retention as evidenced by the values of fractal dimension.

  14. Dynamical mean-field theory and weakly non-linear analysis for the phase separation of active Brownian particles

    SciTech Connect

    Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-06-14

    Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.

  15. Real-time Detection of Precursors to Epileptic Seizures: Non-Linear Analysis of System Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nesaei, Sahar; Sharafat, Ahmad R.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for detecting precursors to epileptic seizures in intracranial electroencephalograms (iEEG), which is based on the analysis of system dynamics. In the proposed scheme, the largest Lyapunov exponent of the discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) of the segmented EEG signals is considered as the discriminating features. Such features are processed by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify whether the corresponding segment of the EEG signal contains a precursor to an epileptic seizure. When consecutive EEG segments contain such precursors, a decision is made that a precursor is in fact detected. The proposed scheme is applied to the Freiburg dataset, and the results show that seizure precursors are detected in a time frame that unlike other existing schemes is very much convenient to patients, with sensitivity of 100% and negligible false positive detection rates. PMID:24761374

  16. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predatorprey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  17. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-04-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  18. Model-size reduction for the non-linear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical technique is developed to reduce the size of models describing the nonlinear dynamic response of quasi-symmetric structures (i.e., structures with unsymmetric geometry). The response vectors of the structure are approximated by a linear combination of the symmetric and antisymmetric vectors at each time step. The mathematical formulation and numerical implementation of the method are described in detail, and results for a shallow laminated anisotropic panel of quadrilateral planform are presented in graphs and normalized contour plots.

  19. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    Under driving conditions, a typical geared system may be subjected to large dynamic loads. Also, the vibration level of the geared system is directly related to the noise radiated from the gear box. The steady state dynamic behavior of the system is examined in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. The scope is limited to a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type nonlinearities. The internal static transmission error at the gear mesh, which is of importance from high frequency noise and vibration control view point, is considered in the formulation in sinusoidal or periodic form. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and forced vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solutions with the finite element model results. Using the reduced order formulations, a three degree of freedom dynamic model is developed which includes nonlinearities associated with radical clearances in the radial rolling element bearings, backlash between a spur gear pair and periodically varying gear mesh stiffness. As a limiting case, a single degree of freedom model of the spur gear pair with backlash is considered and mathematical conditions for tooth separation and back collision are defined. Both digital simulation technique and analytical models such as method of harmonic balance and the method of multiple scales were used to develop the steady state frequency response characteristics for various nonlinear and/or time varying cases.

  20. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from

  1. Analysis and modification of Volterra/Wiener neural networks for the adaptive identification of non-linear hysteretic dynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, J.-S.; Smyth, A. W.; Kosmatopoulos, E. B.

    2004-08-01

    This study attempts to demystify a powerful neural network approach for modelling non-linear hysteretic systems and in turn to streamline its architecture to achieve better computational efficiency. The recently developed neural network modelling approach, the Volterra/Wiener neural network (VWNN), demonstrated its usefulness in identifying the restoring forces for hysteretic systems in an off-line or even in an adaptive (on-line) mode, however, the mechanism of how and why it works has not been thoroughly explored especially in terms of a physical interpretation. Artificial neural network are often treated as "black box" modelling tools, in contrast, here the authors carry out a detailed analysis in terms of problem formulation and network architecture to explore the inner workings of this neural network. Based on the understanding of the dynamics of hysteretic systems, some simplifications and modifications are made to the original VWNN in predicting accelerations of hysteretic systems under arbitrary force excitations. Through further examination of the algorithm related to the VWNN applications, the efficiency of the previously published approach is improved by reducing the number of the hidden nodes without affecting the modelling accuracy of the network. One training example is presented to illustrate the application of the VWNN; and another is provided to demonstrate that the VWNN is able to yield a unique set of weights when the values of the controlling design parameters are fixed. The practical issue of how to choose the values of these important parameters is discussed to aid engineering applications.

  2. Determining Stochasticity and Causality of Vegetation Dynamics in the Southwestern Amazon: Non-linear Time Series Analysis and Dynamic Factor Analysis of EVI2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarenberg, G.

    2015-12-01

    Infrastructure projects such as road paving have proven to bring a variety of (mainly) socio-economic advantages to countries and populations. However, many studies have also highlighted the negative socio-economic and biophysical effects that these developments have at local, regional and even larger scales. The "MAP" area (Madre de Dios in Peru, Acre in Brazil, and Pando in Bolivia) is a biodiversity hotspot in the southwestern Amazon where sections of South America's Inter-Oceanic Highway were paved between 2006 and 2010. We are interested in vegetation dynamics in the area since it plays an important role in ecosystem functions and ecosystem services in socio-ecological systems: it provides information on productivity and structure of the forest. In preparation of more complex and mechanistic simulation of vegetation, non-linear time series analysis and Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA) was conducted on Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series - which is a remote sensing product and provides information on vegetation dynamics as it detects chlorophyll (productivity) and structural change. Time series of 30 years for EVI2 (from MODIS and AVHRR) were obtained for 100 communities in the area. Through specific time series cluster analysis of the vegetation data, communities were clustered to facilitate data analysis and pattern recognition. The clustering is spatially consistent, and appears to be driven by median road paving progress - which is different for each cluster. Non-linear time series analysis (multivariate singular spectrum analysis, MSSA) separates common signals (or low-dimensional attractors) across clusters. Despite the presence of this deterministic structure though, time series behavior is mostly stochastic. Granger causality analysis between EVI2 and possible response variables indicates which variables (and with what lags) are to be included in DFA, resulting in unique Dynamic Factor Models for each cluster.

  3. Non-Linear Dynamical Analysis of EEG Time Series Distinguishes Patients with Parkinson’s Disease from Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Hernandez, Manuel E.; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is known to involve altered patterns of neuronal firing and synchronization in cortical-basal ganglia circuits. One window into the nature of the aberrant temporal dynamics in the cerebral cortex of PD patients can come from analysis of the patients electroencephalography (EEG). Rather than using spectral-based methods, we used data models based on delay differential equations (DDE) as non-linear time-domain classification tools to analyze EEG recordings from PD patients on and off dopaminergic therapy and healthy individuals. Two sets of 50 1-s segments of 64-channel EEG activity were recorded from nine PD patients on and off medication and nine age-matched controls. The 64 EEG channels were grouped into 10 clusters covering frontal, central, parietal, and occipital brain regions for analysis. DDE models were fitted to individual trials, and model coefficients and error were used as features for classification. The best models were selected using repeated random sub-sampling validation and classification performance was measured using the area under the ROC curve A′. In a companion paper, we show that DDEs can uncover hidden dynamical structure from short segments of simulated time series of known dynamical systems in high noise regimes. Using the same method for finding the best models, we found here that even short segments of EEG data in PD patients and controls contained dynamical structure, and moreover, that PD patients exhibited a greater dynamic range than controls. DDE model output on the means from one set of 50 trials provided nearly complete separation of PD patients off medication from controls: across brain regions, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves, A′, varied from 0.95 to 1.0. For distinguishing PD patients on vs. off medication, classification performance A′ ranged from 0.86 to 1.0 across brain regions. Moreover, the generalizability of the model to the second set of

  4. A non-linear mathematical model for dynamic analysis of spur gears including shaft and bearing dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozguven, H. Nevzat

    1991-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear semi-definite model with time varying mesh stiffness has been developed for the dynamic analysis of spur gears. The model includes a spur gear pair, two shafts, two inertias representing load and prime mover, and bearings. As the shaft and bearing dynamics have also been considered in the model, the effect of lateral-torsional vibration coupling on the dynamics of gears can be studied. In the nonlinear model developed several factors such as time varying mesh stiffness and damping, separation of teeth, backlash, single- and double-sided impacts, various gear errors and profile modifications have been considered. The dynamic response to internal excitation has been calculated by using the 'static transmission error method' developed. The software prepared (DYTEM) employs the digital simulation technique for the solution, and is capable of calculating dynamic tooth and mesh forces, dynamic factors for pinion and gear, dynamic transmission error, dynamic bearing forces and torsions of shafts. Numerical examples are given in order to demonstrate the effect of shaft and bearing dynamics on gear dynamics.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of the non-linear dynamic viscoplastic response of 2-d structures with respect to material parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Makarand; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the viscoplastic response of structures subjected to dynamic loading. A state of plane stress is assumed to exist in the structure, a velocity strain-Cauchy stress formulation is used, and the geometric non-linearities arising from large strains are incorporated. The Jaumann rate is used as a frame indifferent stress rate. The material model is chosen to be isothermal viscoplasticity, and an associated flow rule is used with a von Mises effective stress. The equations of motion emanating from a finite element semi-discretization are integrated using an explicit central difference scheme with an implicit stress update. The sensitivity coefficients are evaluated using a direct differentiation approach. Since the domain of integration is the current configuration, the sensitivity coefficients of the spatial derivatives of the shape functions must be included. Numerical results are presented for a thin plate with a central cutout subjected to an in-plane compressive loading. The sensitivity coefficients are generated by evaluating the derivatives of the response quantities with respect to Young's modulus, and two of the material parameters characterizing the viscoplastic response. Time histories of the response and sensitivity coefficients, and spatial distributions at selected times are presented.

  6. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,L.; Nash, B.

    2009-05-04

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  7. Arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G.; Bhat, Kishor G.

    2009-04-01

    In order to perform source coding (data compression), we treat messages emitted by independent and identically distributed sources as imprecise measurements (symbolic sequence) of a chaotic, ergodic, Lebesgue measure preserving, non-linear dynamical system known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). GLS achieves Shannon's entropy bound and turns out to be a generalization of arithmetic coding, a popular source coding algorithm, used in international compression standards such as JPEG2000 and H.264. We further generalize GLS to piecewise non-linear maps (Skewed-nGLS). We motivate the use of Skewed-nGLS as a framework for joint source coding and encryption.

  8. Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnat, B.

    2011-09-01

    Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.

  9. Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, B.

    2011-09-22

    Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.

  10. Non-Linearity in Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensors Utilizing a Partial Charge Transfer Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji; Halin, Izhal Abdul; Hasan, Wan Zuha Wan

    2009-01-01

    The partial charge transfer technique can expand the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor by synthesizing two types of signal, namely the long and short accumulation time signals. However the short accumulation time signal obtained from partial transfer operation suffers of non-linearity with respect to the incident light. In this paper, an analysis of the non-linearity in partial charge transfer technique has been carried, and the relationship between dynamic range and the non-linearity is studied. The results show that the non-linearity is caused by two factors, namely the current diffusion, which has an exponential relation with the potential barrier, and the initial condition of photodiodes in which it shows that the error in the high illumination region increases as the ratio of the long to the short accumulation time raises. Moreover, the increment of the saturation level of photodiodes also increases the error in the high illumination region. PMID:22303133

  11. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-11-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects

  12. Real-Time Monitoring of Non-linear Suicidal Dynamics: Methodology and a Demonstrative Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fartacek, Clemens; Schiepek, Günter; Kunrath, Sabine; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of different authors have stressed the usefulness of non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicide research and suicide prevention. This approach applies specific methods of time series analysis and, consequently, it requires a continuous and fine-meshed assessment of the processes under consideration. The technical means for this kind of process assessment and process analysis are now available. This paper outlines how suicidal dynamics can be monitored in high-risk patients by an Internet-based application for continuous self-assessment with integrated tools of non-linear time series analysis: the Synergetic Navigation System. This procedure is illustrated by data from a patient who attempted suicide at the end of a 90-day monitoring period. Additionally, future research topics and clinical applications of a non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicidology are discussed. PMID:26913016

  13. Structural Dynamic Analyses And Test Predictions For Spacecraft Structures With Non-Linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergniaud, Jean-Baptiste; Soula, Laurent; Newerla, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    The overall objective of the mechanical development and verification process is to ensure that the spacecraft structure is able to sustain the mechanical environments encountered during launch. In general the spacecraft structures are a-priori assumed to behave linear, i.e. the responses to a static load or dynamic excitation, respectively, will increase or decrease proportionally to the amplitude of the load or excitation induced. However, past experiences have shown that various non-linearities might exist in spacecraft structures and the consequences of their dynamic effects can significantly affect the development and verification process. Current processes are mainly adapted to linear spacecraft structure behaviour. No clear rules exist for dealing with major structure non-linearities. They are handled outside the process by individual analysis and margin policy, and analyses after tests to justify the CLA coverage. Non-linearities can primarily affect the current spacecraft development and verification process on two aspects. Prediction of flights loads by launcher/satellite coupled loads analyses (CLA): only linear satellite models are delivered for performing CLA and no well-established rules exist how to properly linearize a model when non- linearities are present. The potential impact of the linearization on the results of the CLA has not yet been properly analyzed. There are thus difficulties to assess that CLA results will cover actual flight levels. Management of satellite verification tests: the CLA results generated with a linear satellite FEM are assumed flight representative. If the internal non- linearities are present in the tested satellite then there might be difficulties to determine which input level must be passed to cover satellite internal loads. The non-linear behaviour can also disturb the shaker control, putting the satellite at risk by potentially imposing too high levels. This paper presents the results of a test campaign performed in

  14. Heart period variability and respiratory changes associated with physical and mental load: non-linear analysis.

    PubMed

    Sammer, G

    1998-05-01

    In the investigation of heart rate and heart rate variability, the discrimination between mental workload, physical activity and respiration is known to be methodologically difficult. At most, heart rate variability measures are more likely to be coarse-grained measures with variability confounded by heart rate. Moreover, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability shows broad-band frequency characteristics, pointing towards non-stationarity or non-linearity. From this it is suggested to focus on non-linear dynamic analyses that are variance-insensitive. The experimental section of the paper focuses on the estimation of two non-linear measures for both heartbeat dynamics and respiration, the correlation dimension indicating complexity and the Lyapunov exponents indicating predictability. The results indicate that the complexity of heart dynamics is related to the type of task and that the predictability of heart dynamics is related to the amount of load. PMID:9613233

  15. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft s control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland s continuing study of active wing load control.

  16. Non-linear dynamics of compound sawteeth in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.-H.; Garbet, X.; Lütjens, H.; Marx, A.; Nicolas, T.; Sabot, R.; Luciani, J.-F.; Guirlet, R.; Février, O.; Maget, P.

    2016-05-01

    Compound sawteeth is studied with the XTOR-2F code. Non-linear full 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that the plasma hot core is radially displaced and rotates during the partial crash, but is not fully expelled out of the q = 1 surface. Partial crashes occur when the radius of the q = 1 surface exceeds a critical value, at fixed poloidal beta. This critical value depends on the plasma elongation. The partial crash time is larger than the collapse time of an ordinary sawtooth, likely due to a weaker diamagnetic stabilization. This suggests that partial crashes result from a competition between destabilizing effects such as the q = 1 radius and diamagnetic stabilization.

  17. Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079

  18. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  19. Non-linear dynamics of human locomotion: effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on local dynamic stability

    PubMed Central

    Terrier, Philippe; Dériaz, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed that times series of gait parameters [stride length (SL), stride time (ST), and stride speed (SS)], exhibit long-term persistence and fractal-like properties. Synchronizing steps with rhythmic auditory stimuli modifies the persistent fluctuation pattern to anti-persistence. Another non-linear method estimates the degree of resilience of gait control to small perturbations, i.e., the local dynamic stability (LDS). The method makes use of the maximal Lyapunov exponent, which estimates how fast a non-linear system embedded in a reconstructed state space (attractor) diverges after an infinitesimal perturbation. We propose to use an instrumented treadmill to simultaneously measure basic gait parameters (time series of SL, ST, and SS from which the statistical persistence among consecutive strides can be assessed), and the trajectory of the center of pressure (from which the LDS can be estimated). In 20 healthy participants, the response to rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) of LDS and of statistical persistence [assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)] was compared. By analyzing the divergence curves, we observed that long-term LDS (computed as the reverse of the average logarithmic rate of divergence between the 4th and the 10th strides downstream from nearest neighbors in the reconstructed attractor) was strongly enhanced (relative change +73%). That is likely the indication of a more dampened dynamics. The change in short-term LDS (divergence over one step) was smaller (+3%). DFA results (scaling exponents) confirmed an anti-persistent pattern in ST, SL, and SS. Long-term LDS (but not short-term LDS) and scaling exponents exhibited a significant correlation between them (r = 0.7). Both phenomena probably result from the more conscious/voluntary gait control that is required by RAC. We suggest that LDS and statistical persistence should be used to evaluate the efficiency of cueing therapy in patients with neurological gait disorders. PMID

  20. a Frequency Domain Based NUMERIC-ANALYTICAL Method for Non-Linear Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, S.; Sekar, P.

    1998-04-01

    In this paper a multiharmonic balancing technique is used to develop certain algorithms to determine periodic orbits of non-liner dynamical systems with external, parametric and self excitations. Essentially, in this method the non-linear differential equations are transformed into a set of non-linear algebraic equations in terms of the Fourier coefficients of the periodic solutions which are solved by using the Newton-Raphson technique. The method is developed such that both fast Fourier transform and discrete Fourier transform algorithms can be used. It is capable of treating all types of non-linearities and higher dimensional systems. The stability of periodic orbits is investigated by obtaining the monodromy matrix. A path following algorithm based on the predictor-corrector method is also presented to enable the bifurcation analysis. The prediction is done with a cubic extrapolation technique with an arc length incrementation while the correction is done with the use of the least square minimisation technique. The under determined system of equations is solved by singular value decomposition. The suitability of the method is demonstrated by obtaining the bifurcational behaviour of rolling contact vibrations modelled by Hertz contact law.

  1. Passive dynamic controllers for non-linear mechanical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Wu, Shih-Chin; Phan, Minh; Longman, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to develop active model-independent controllers for slewing and vibration control of nonlinear multibody flexible systems, including flexible robots. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: passive stabilization; work-energy rate principle; Liapunov theory; displacement feedback; dynamic controller; displacement and acceleration feedback; velocity feedback; displacement feedback; physical interaction; a 6-DOF robot; and simulation results.

  2. Non-linear dynamics of the complement system activation.

    PubMed

    Korotaevskiy, Andrey A; Hanin, Leonid G; Khanin, Mikhail A

    2009-12-01

    The complement system (CS) plays a prominent role in the immune defense. The goal of this work is to study the dynamics of activation of the classic and alternative CS pathways based on the method of mathematical modeling. The principal difficulty that hinders modeling effort is the absence of the measured values of kinetic constants of many biochemical reactions forming the CS. To surmount this difficulty, an optimization procedure consisting of constrained minimization of the total protein consumption by the CS was designed. The constraints made use of published data on the in vitro kinetics of elimination of the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria by the CS. Special features of the problem at hand called for a significant modification of the general constrained optimization procedure to include a mathematical model of the bactericidal effect of the CS in the iterative setting. Determination of the unknown kinetic constants of biochemical reactions forming the CS led to a fully specified mathematical model of the dynamics of cell killing induced by the CS. On the basis of the model, effects of the initial concentrations of complements and their inhibitors on the bactericidal action of the CS were studied. Proteins playing a critical role in the regulation of the bactericidal action of the CS were identified. Results obtained in this work serve as an important stepping stone for the study of functioning of the CS as a whole as well as for developing methods for control of pathogenic processes. PMID:19854207

  3. Liapunov functions for non-linear difference equation stability analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. E.; Kinnen, E.

    1972-01-01

    Liapunov functions to determine the stability of non-linear autonomous difference equations can be developed through the use of auxiliary exact difference equations. For this purpose definitions are introduced for the gradient of an implicit function of a discrete variable, a principal sum, a definite sum and an exact difference equation, and a theorem for exactness of a difference form is proved. Examples illustrate the procedure.

  4. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  5. The non-linear analysis of multi-support rotor-bearing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kicinski, J.; Drozdowski, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper contains selected parts of the simulation research of large rotor machines (200 MW power turbine-sets). These investigations were based on a non-linear theoretical model and the NLDW computer program, and were carried out in the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery of PAS. A trial has been performed of the optimization of system-dynamic properties, through the suitable selection of thermally deformed bearing-bush centers line -- the so called ``hot`` line -- (due to a rotor`s geodesic line), as well as the selection of the external fixing stiffness of bearing supports. Examples are also included of the orbits of selected system nodes for two differently powered turbine-sets. On this basis, an analysis of the stability of those turbines was achieved. A significant objective of this paper is also to point out some possibilities of applying the simulation research, based on a non-linear description of the system, to the diagnostics of rotor-machinery. Non-linear analysis facilitates the possibility of easily generating vibration spectra, as well as creating simulation waterfall graphs. These properties of nonlinear analysis create convenient conditions for gaining specific diagnostic information.

  6. Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Baki, K.; Boitier, F.; Diab, H.; Lanty, G.; Jemli, K.; Lédée, F.; Garrot, D.; Deleporte, E.; Lauret, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high potentiality for photovoltaic applications or coherent light sources, a renewed interest in hybrid organic perovskites has emerged for few years. When they are arranged in two dimensions, these materials can be considered as hybrid quantum wells. One consequence of the unique structure of 2D hybrid organic perovskites is a huge exciton binding energy that can be tailored through chemical engineering. We present experimental investigations of the exciton non-linearities by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The exciton dynamics is fitted with a bi-exponential decay with a free exciton life-time of ˜100 ps. Moreover, an ultrafast intraband relaxation (<150 fs) is also reported. Finally, the transient modification of the excitonic line is analyzed through the moment analysis and described in terms of reduction of the oscillator strength and linewidth broadening. We show that excitonic non-linearities in 2D hybrid organic perovskites share some behaviours of inorganic semiconductors despite their high exciton binding energy.

  7. Non linear approach to study the dynamics of neurodegenerative diseases by Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis-A quantitative assessment on gait disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Srimonti; Ghosh, Dipak; Samanta, Shukla

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the human gait pattern of normal people and patients suffering from Parkinson's disease using the MFDXA (Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis) methodology. The auto correlation and cross correlation of the time series of the total force under the left foot and right foot were studied. The study reveals that the degree of multifractality (W) and degree of correlation (γ) are generally more for normal patients than the diseased set. It is also observed that the values of W and γ are nearly same for left foot and right. It is also observed that the study of autocorrelation alone is not sufficient, cross correlations should also be studied to get a better concept of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Non-linear quantum critical dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation ratios far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Farzaneh; Ribeiro, Pedro; Kirchner, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal correlations of strongly correlated electron systems and the far-from-equilibrium properties of phases of condensed matter have become a topical research area. Here, an overview of the non-linear dynamics found near continuous zero-temperature phase transitions within the context of effective temperatures is presented. In particular, we focus on models of critical Kondo destruction. Such a quantum critical state, where Kondo screening is destroyed in a critical fashion, is realized in a number of rare earth intermetallics. This raises the possibility of experimentally testing for the existence of fluctuation-dissipation relations far from equilibrium in terms of effective temperatures. Finally, we present an analysis of a non-interacting, critical reference system, the pseudogap resonant level model, in terms of effective temperatures and contrast these results with those obtained near interacting quantum critical points.

  9. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part i: Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-08-01

    The study presented is an investigation of the non-linear dynamics and stability of simply supported, circular cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Non-linearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using the non-linear Donnell's shallow shell theory, with account taken of the effect of viscous structural damping. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction. The system is discretiszd by Galerkin's method, and is investigated by using a model involving seven degrees of freedom, allowing for travelling wave response of the shell and shell axisymmetric contraction. Two different boundary conditions are applied to the fluid flow beyond the shell, corresponding to: (i) infinite baffles (rigid extensions of the shell), and (ii) connection with a flexible wall of infinite extent in the longitudinal direction, permitting solution by separation of variables; they give two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the system, as a consequence of the fact that axisymmetric contraction, responsible for the softening non-linear dynamical behaviour of shells, is not allowed if the fluid flow beyond the shell is constrained by rigid baffles. Results show that the system loses stability by divergence.

  10. Non-linear behaviour of XTE J1550-564 during its 1998-1999 outburst, revealed by recurrence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suková, Petra; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    We study the X-ray emission of the microquasar XTE J1550-564 and analyze the properties of its light curves using the recurrence analysis method. The indicators for non-linear dynamics of the accretion flow are found in the very high state and soft state of this source. The significance of deterministic variability depends on the energy band. We discuss the non-linear dynamics of the accretion flow in the context of the disc-corona geometry and propagating oscillations in the accretion flow.

  11. Non-linear dynamics of operant behavior: a new approach via the extended return map.

    PubMed

    Li, Jay-Shake; Huston, Joseph P

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to apply non-linear dynamic tools to the analysis of operant behavior revealed some promise for this kind of approach, but also some doubts, since the complexity of animal behavior seemed to be beyond the analyzing ability of the available tools. We here outline a series of studies based on a novel approach. We modified the so-called 'return map' and developed a new method, the 'extended return map' (ERM) to extract information from the highly irregular time series data, the inter-response time (IRT) generated by Skinner-box experiments. We applied the ERM to operant lever pressing data from rats using the four fundamental reinforcement schedules: fixed interval (FI), fixed ratio (FR), variable interval (VI) and variable ratio (VR). Our results revealed interesting patterns in all experiment groups. In particular, the FI and VI groups exhibited well-organized clusters of data points. We calculated the fractal dimension out of these patterns and compared experimental data with surrogate data sets, that were generated by randomly shuffling the sequential order of original IRTs. This comparison supported the finding that patterns in ERM reflect the dynamics of the operant behaviors under study. We then built two models to simulate the functional mechanisms of the FI schedule. Both models can produce similar distributions of IRTs and the stereotypical 'scalloped' curve characteristic of FI responding. However, they differ in one important feature in their formulation: while one model uses a continuous function to describe the probability of occurrence of an operant behavior, the other one employs an abrupt switch of behavioral state. Comparison of ERMs showed that only the latter was able to produce patterns similar to the experimental results, indicative of the operation of an abrupt switch from one behavioral state to another over the course of the inter-reinforcement period. This example demonstrated the ERM to be a useful tool for the analysis of

  12. Non-Linear Structural Dynamics Characterization using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal \\ielocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second. third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass. gravity. mass centers of mode shapes. and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances. energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode. and amplitude- and phase- modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.

  13. Heart rate variability and non-linear dynamics in risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Perkiömäki, Juha S

    2011-01-01

    The time-domain measures and power-spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) are classic conventional methods to assess the complex regulatory system between autonomic nervous system and heart rate and are most widely used. There are abundant scientific data about the prognostic significance of the conventional measurements of HRV in patients with various conditions, particularly with myocardial infarction. Some studies have suggested that some newer measures describing non-linear dynamics of heart rate, such as fractal measures, may reveal prognostic information beyond that obtained by the conventional measures of HRV. An ideal risk indicator could specifically predict sudden arrhythmic death as the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy can prevent such events. There are numerically more sudden deaths among post-infarction patients with better preserved left ventricular function than in those with severe left ventricular dysfunction. Recent data support the concept that HRV measurements, when analyzed several weeks after acute myocardial infarction, predict life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with moderately depressed left ventricular function. However, well-designed prospective randomized studies are needed to evaluate whether the ICD therapy based on the assessment of HRV alone or with other risk indicators improves the patients' prognosis. Several issues, such as the optimal target population, optimal timing of HRV measurements, optimal methods of HRV analysis, and optimal cutpoints for different HRV parameters, need clarification before the HRV analysis can be a widespread clinical tool in risk stratification. PMID:22084633

  14. Non-linear longitudinal compression effect on dynamics of the transcription bubble in DNA.

    PubMed

    Shikhovtseva, E S; Nazarov, V N

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of the dynamics of transcription bubble on the parameters of non-linear longitudinal compression is presented on the base of simple model of soliton-like conformational switchings in two-component bistable polymer molecules with energetically non-equivalent stable states. It has been shown that under certain conditions the longitudinal compression may be a trap for a conformational switching. PMID:27232455

  15. Non-Linear Dynamics and Chaos Control of a Physical Pendulum with Vibrating and Rotating Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GE, Z.-M.; YANG, C.-H.; CHEN, H.-H.; LEE, S.-C.

    2001-04-01

    The dynamic behavior of a physical pendulum system of which the support is subjected to both rotation and vertical vibration are studied in this paper. Both analytical and computational results are employed to obtain the characteristics of the system. By using Lyapunov's direct method the conditions of stability of the relative equilibrium position can be determined. Melnikov's method is applied to identify the existence of chaotic motion. The incremental harmonic balance method is used to find the stable and unstable periodic solutions for the strong non-linear system. By applying various numerical results such as phase portrait, Pioncaré map, time history and power spectrum analysis, a variety of the periodic solutions and the phenomena of the chaotic motion can be presented. The effects of the changes of parameters in the system could be found in the bifurcation and parametric diagrams. Further, chaotic motion can be verified by using Lyapunov exponent and Lyapunov dimension. The global analysis of basin boundary and fractal structure are observed by the modified interpolated cell mapping method. Besides, non-feedback control, delayed feedback control, adaptive control, and variable structure control are used to control the chaos effectively.

  16. Non-linear dynamics of a one-way clutch in belt-pulley systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Farong; Parker, R. G.

    2005-01-01

    One-way clutches are frequently used in the serpentine belt accessory drives of automobiles and heavy vehicles. The clutch plays a role similar to a vibration absorber in order to reduce belt/pulley vibration and noise and increase belt life. This paper analyzes a two-pulley system where the driven pulley has a one-way clutch between the pulley and accessory shaft that engages only for positive relative displacement between these components. The belt is modelled with linear springs that transmit torque from the driving pulley to the accessory pulley. The one-way clutch is modelled as a piecewise linear spring with discontinuous stiffness that separates the driven pulley into two degrees of freedom. The harmonic balance method combined with arclength continuation is employed to illustrate the non-linear dynamic behavior of the one-way clutch and determine the stable and unstable periodic solutions for given parameters. The results are confirmed by numerical integration and the bifurcation software AUTO. At the first primary resonance, most of the responses are aperiodic, including quasiperiodic and chaotic solutions. At the second primary resonance, the peak bends to the left with classical softening non-linearity because clutch disengagement decouples the pulley and the accessory over portions of the response period. The dependence on clutch stiffness, excitation amplitude, and inertia ratio between the pulley and accessory is studied to characterize the non-linear dynamics across a range of conditions.

  17. Discriminative analysis of non-linear brain connectivity in schizophrenia: an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Longfei; Wang, Lubin; Shen, Hui; Feng, Guiyu; Hu, Dewen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dysfunctional integration of distributed brain networks is believed to be the cause of schizophrenia, and resting-state functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Unfortunately, existing functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have been mostly limited to linear associations. Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the discriminative power of non-linear functional connectivity and identify its changes in schizophrenia. Method: A novel measure utilizing the extended maximal information coefficient was introduced to construct non-linear functional connectivity. In conjunction with multivariate pattern analysis, the new functional connectivity successfully discriminated schizophrenic patients from healthy controls with relative higher accuracy rate than the linear measure. Result: We found that the strength of the identified non-linear functional connections involved in the classification increased in patients with schizophrenia, which was opposed to its linear counterpart. Further functional network analysis revealed that the changes of the non-linear and linear connectivity have similar but not completely the same spatial distribution in human brain. Conclusion: The classification results suggest that the non-linear functional connectivity provided useful discriminative power in diagnosis of schizophrenia, and the inverse but similar spatial distributed changes between the non-linear and linear measure may indicate the underlying compensatory mechanism and the complex neuronal synchronization underlying the symptom of schizophrenia. PMID:24155713

  18. Application of non-linear dynamics to the characterization of cardiac electrical instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Beat-to-beat alternation in the morphology of the ECG has been previously observed in hearts susceptible to fibrillation. In addition, fibrillation has been characterized by some as a chaotic state. Period doubling phenomena, such as alternation, and the onset of chaos have been connected by non-linear dynamical systems theory. In this paper, we describe the use of a technique from nonlinear dynamics theory, the construction of a first return nap, to assess the susceptibility to fibrillation threshhold in canine experiments.

  19. Non-linear Dynamics in ETG Mode Saturation and Beam-Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc K.

    Non-linear mechanisms arise frequently in plasmas and beam-plasma systems resulting in dynamics not predicted by linear theory. The non-linear mechanisms can influence the time evolution of plasma instabilities and can be used to describe their saturation. Furthermore time and space averaged non-linear fields generated by instabilities can lead to collisionless transport and plasma heating. In the case of beam-plasma systems counter-intuitive beam defocusing and scaling behavior which are interesting areas of study for both Low-Temperature and High Energy Density physics. The non-linear mode interactions in form of phase coupling can describe energy transfer to other modes and can be used to describe the saturation of plasma instabilities. In the first part of this thesis, a theoretical model was formulated to explain the saturation mechanism of Slab Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode observed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM), based on experimental time-series data collected through probe diagnostics [1]. ETG modes are considered to be a major player in the unexplained high levels of electron transport observed in tokamak fusion experiments and the saturation mechanism of these modes is still an active area of investigation. The data in the frequency space indicated phase coupling between 3 modes, through a higher order spectral correlation coefficient known as bicoherence. The resulting model is similar to [2], which was a treatment for ITG modes observed in the CLM and correctly predicts the observed saturation level of the ETG turbulence. The scenario is further supported by the fact that the observed mode frequencies are in close alignment with those predicted theoretical dispersion relations. Non-linear effects arise frequently in beam-plasma systems and can be important for both low temperature plasma devices commonly used for material processing as well as High Energy Density applications relevant to inertial fusion. The non-linear time averaged

  20. Dynamics of atom-field probability amplitudes in a coupled cavity system with Kerr non-linearity

    SciTech Connect

    Priyesh, K. V.; Thayyullathil, Ramesh Babu

    2014-01-28

    We have investigated the dynamics of two cavities coupled together via photon hopping, filled with Kerr non-linear medium and each containing a two level atom in it. The evolution of various atom (field) state probabilities of the coupled cavity system in two excitation sub space are obtained numerically. Detailed analysis has been done by taking different initial conditions of the system, with various coupling strengths and by varying the susceptibility of the medium. The role of susceptibility factor, on the dynamics atom field probability has been examined. In a coupled cavity system with strong photon hopping it is found that the susceptibility factor modifies the behaviour of probability amplitudes.

  1. Analysis of structural seismic behaviour: from non stationary to non linear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Monaco, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    The change in fundamental frequency of a building is considered the simplest way to detect the onset of damage. Several authors in the past proposed that the difference in periods that can be observed among ambient noise, earthquake weak-motion measurements can be attributed to transient non-linearity due to reversible modification of the building characteristic (e.g. the degree of coupling between frame and infill in reinforced concrete buildings). The necessity of effective and efficient seismic protection of vast and aging structures and infrastructure has increased markedly the interest in the development of structural monitoring techniques. Damage to any structure alters its dynamic properties and for that dynamic monitoring techniques enable the identification of damage by comparing pre and post seismic excitation characteristic. The principle parameters usually monitored are: fundamental period, damping factors and modal shapes. Several damage identification and localization techniques are based on variations in these parameters (see, e.g Ponzo et al. 2010 and reference therein). Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods can be rank on four different levels with the higher levels requiring increased quality and quantity of available information. The most common methods are therefore related to Level 1, due to their simplified and economic implementation. These methods are based mainly upon the variation of vibration frequencies and/or variations in Equivalent Viscous Damping associated with these vibration modes. It is important to underline however that although the presence of damage will lead to alterations in vibration modes the opposite does not necessarily hold true. Two types of frequency variation can be distinguished; long time period variations (due to variations in temperature, foundation soil moisture content etc.) and short period variations (for example due to a seismic event). For short period variations, changes in frequency can be attributed

  2. Intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system based on the adaptive neurocontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Kobezhicov, V.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an adaptive neuro-controller for intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system. The formed as the fuzzy selective neural net the adaptive neuro-controller on the base of system's state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations. The validity and advantages of the proposed adaptive neuro-controller are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed controller scheme achieves real-time control speed and the competitive performance, as compared to PID, fuzzy logic controllers.

  3. Computational non-linear dynamical psychiatry: a new methodological paradigm for diagnosis and course of illness.

    PubMed

    Bystritsky, A; Nierenberg, A A; Feusner, J D; Rabinovich, M

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this article is to highlight the significant potential benefits of applying computational mathematical models to the field of psychiatry, specifically in relation to diagnostic conceptualization. The purpose of these models is to augment the current diagnostic categories that utilize a "snapshot" approach to describing mental states. We hope to convey to researchers and clinicians that non-linear dynamics can provide an additional useful longitudinal framework to understand mental illness. Psychiatric phenomena are complex processes that evolve in time, similar to many other processes in nature that have been successfully described and understood within deterministic chaos and non-linear dynamic computational models. Dynamical models describe mental processes and phenomena that change over time, more like a movie than a photograph, with multiple variables interacting over time. The use of these models may help us understand why and how current diagnostic categories are insufficient. They may also provide a new, more descriptive and ultimately more predictive approach leading to better understanding of the interrelationship between psychological, neurobiological, and genetic underpinnings of mental illness. PMID:22261550

  4. A Signal Transmission Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable signal transmission theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.

  5. Non-Linear Dynamics Approach to Assessing Woody-Encroachment in Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, N. A.; Nippert, J. B.; Van Vleck, E.

    2015-12-01

    Woody species are encroaching on grasslands globally. Here, we investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of this encroachment in relation to climate and fire regimes in the central U.S. A low-dimensional model is used to assess stability of species composition. Sixe years of eddy covariance data at a paired grassland and woody encroachment site at the Konza Prairie LTER site are used to verify carbon and water dynamics. Historical aerial photography and remote sensing data are used to quantify the spatial diffusion of woody tree fraction into grasslands. Non-linear dynamics approaches are used to quantify the stability of vegetation and the presence of tipping points in relation to woody fraction, fire frequency and precipitation and temperature variability. Understanding the roles of multiple confounding forcing factors operating at disparate timescales is essential for predicting future woody encroachment and the water and climate implications of land cover transitions.

  6. Stability analysis, non-linear pulsations and mass loss of models for 55 Cygni (HD 198478)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Abhay Pratap; Glatzel, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    55 Cygni is a variable supergiant. Recent observational studies revealed that this star pulsates in pressure, gravity and strange modes. The pulsations seem to be associated with episodes of mass loss. In this paper we present a theoretical study of stellar models with parameters close to that of 55 Cygni. A linear non-adiabatic stability analysis with respect to radial perturbations is performed and the evolution of instabilities into the non-linear regime is followed by numerical simulation. Our study indicates that the mass of 55 Cygni lies below 28 M⊙. As the final consequence of the instabilities the non-linear simulations revealed finite amplitude pulsations with periods consistent with the observations. The non-linear results also indicate a connection between pulsations and mass loss and allow for an estimate of the mean mass-loss rate. It is consistent with the observed values.

  7. A Navigational Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Hypermedia Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard H.; Balestra, Joel; Davis, Miles

    The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive model for the analysis of hypermap navigation patterns through a comparison of navigation patterns associated with a traditional linear interface versus a non-linear "hypermap" interface. Twenty-six general psychology university students studied material on bipolar…

  8. Detectability of deterministic non-linear processes in Earth rotation time-series-II. Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frede, V.; Mazzega, P.

    1999-05-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting non-linear low-dimensional deterministic processes in the time-series of the length of day (LOD) and polar motion components (PMX, PMY), filtered to keep the period range [ ~ 1 day-100 days]. After each time-series has been embedded in a pseudo-phase space with dimension D_E*=5 or 6 (see Frede & Mazzega 1999, hereafter referred to as Paper I) we extract the geometric and dynamical characteristics of the reconstructed orbit. Using a local false neighbours algorithm and an analysis of the data local covariance matrix eigenspectrum, we find a local dimension D_L=5 for the three EOP series. The principal Lyapunov exponents averaged over the ~ 27 years of observation (1970-1997) are positive. This result unambiguously indicates the chaotic nature of the Earth's rotational dynamical regime in this period range of fluctuations. As a consequence, some theoretical prediction horizons cannot be exceeded by any tentative forecast of the EOP evolution. Horizons of 11.3 days for LOD, 8.7 days for PMX and 8.1 days for PMY are found, beyond which prediction errors will be of the order of the s of the filtered EOP series, say 0.12 ms, 2.30 mas (milliarcsecond) and 1.57 mas respectively. From the Lyapunov spectra we estimate the Lyapunov dimension D_Lyap, which is an upper bound for the corresponding attractor dimension D_A. We find D_Lyap(LOD)=4.48, D_Lyap(PMX)=4.90 and D_Lyap(PMY)=4.97. These determinations are in broad agreement with those of the attractor dimensions obtained from correlation integrals, i.e. D_A(LOD)=4.5-5.5, D_A(PMX)=3.5-4.5, D_A(PMY)=4-5. We finally show that the Earth's rotational state experiences large changes in stability. Indeed, the local prediction horizons, as deduced from the local Lyapunov exponents, occasionally drop to about 3.3 days for LOD in the years 1982-1984, 2.6 days for PMX in 1972-1973 and 2.6 days for PMY in 1996-1997. Some of these momentary stability perturbations of the Earth's rotation are

  9. Visual Detection Under Uncertainty Operates Via an Early Static, Not Late Dynamic, Non-Linearity

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Signals in the environment are rarely specified exactly: our visual system may know what to look for (e.g., a specific face), but not its exact configuration (e.g., where in the room, or in what orientation). Uncertainty, and the ability to deal with it, is a fundamental aspect of visual processing. The MAX model is the current gold standard for describing how human vision handles uncertainty: of all possible configurations for the signal, the observer chooses the one corresponding to the template associated with the largest response. We propose an alternative model in which the MAX operation, which is a dynamic non-linearity (depends on multiple inputs from several stimulus locations) and happens after the input stimulus has been matched to the possible templates, is replaced by an early static non-linearity (depends only on one input corresponding to one stimulus location) which is applied before template matching. By exploiting an integrated set of analytical and experimental tools, we show that this model is able to account for a number of empirical observations otherwise unaccounted for by the MAX model, and is more robust with respect to the realistic limitations imposed by the available neural hardware. We then discuss how these results, currently restricted to a simple visual detection task, may extend to a wider range of problems in sensory processing. PMID:21212835

  10. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  11. Non-linear dynamic interactions of a Jeffcott rotor with preloaded snubber ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovskaia, E. E.; Karpenko, E. V.; Wiercigroch, M.

    2004-09-01

    A two-degrees-of-freedom model of a Jeffcott rotor with a preloaded snubber ring subjected to out-of-balance excitation has been developed. The purely impact interactions have been investigated. The rotor makes intermittent contacts with the preloaded snubber ring and as a consequence it can be in one of five different contact regimes, which boundaries have been found analytically. The current location of the snubber ring has been determined using the principle of the minimum elastic energy in the snubber ring. Consequently a non-linear piecewise smooth dynamical system has been obtained and studied numerically. The results in form of bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and Poincaré maps show significant differences for the cases with and without preloading.

  12. Reprint of : Dynamics of coupled vibration modes in a quantum non-linear mechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadze, G.; Dukalski, M.; Blanter, Ya. M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the behaviour of two non-linearly coupled flexural modes of a doubly clamped suspended beam (nanomechanical resonator). One of the modes is externally driven. We demonstrate that classically, the behavior of the non-driven mode is reminiscent of that of a parametrically driven linear oscillator: it exhibits a threshold behavior, with the amplitude of this mode below the threshold being exactly zero. Quantum-mechanically, we were able to access the dynamics of this mode below the classical parametric threshold. We show that whereas the mean displacement of this mode is still zero, the mean squared displacement is finite and at the threshold corresponds to the occupation number of 1/2. This finite displacement of the non-driven mode can serve as an experimentally verifiable quantum signature of quantum motion.

  13. Sensitivity of the non-linear dynamics of lysozyme “Liesegang rings” to small asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappa, M.; Castagnolo, D.; Carotenuto, L.

    2002-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the sensitivity of the non-linear dynamics of the crystallization process of lysozyme and related “Liesegang rings” phenomena to small asymmetries that may characterize the geometry and/or the boundary conditions of the system under investigation. Mathematical models and appropriate numerical methods are introduced to handle the complex phenomena related to protein nucleation and further precipitation (or resolution) according to the concentration distribution. The configuration under investigation consists of a protein chamber and a salt chamber separated by an “interface”. The interface is strictly related to the presence of agarose gel in the protein chamber. Different models of the interface are considered. For the first group of simulations the deformation of the interface due to surface tension effects is neglected. For the second group of simulations this deformation is taken into account. The distribution of salt at the initial time is supposed to follow the shape of the gel meniscus whose interface cannot be horizontal due to surface tension effects. The shape is modeled using a sin function in order to have a minimum protruding in the protein chamber at the mean point along the horizontal length of the chamber. For the last group of numerical computations the gel meniscus is supposed to be not symmetrical with respect to this point in order to simulate small experimental imperfections. The numerical simulations show that neglecting the interface deformation leads to 1D results. The phenomenon is characterized by a certain degree of periodicity in time and along the vertical dimension (Liesegang patterns). The bands of Liesegang patterns are not spatially uniform. New solid particles are created on the lower boundary of depleted bands if the local concentration of salt reaches a value to let the local protein concentration overcome the “supersaturation limit”. The numerical simulations show that the space

  14. Polynomial elimination theory and non-linear stability analysis for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennon, S. R.; Dulikravich, G. S.; Jespersen, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical methods are presented that exploit the polynomial properties of discretizations of the Euler equations. It is noted that most finite difference or finite volume discretizations of the steady-state Euler equations produce a polynomial system of equations to be solved. These equations are solved using classical polynomial elimination theory, with some innovative modifications. This paper also presents some preliminary results of a new non-linear stability analysis technique. This technique is applicable to determining the stability of polynomial iterative schemes. Results are presented for applying the elimination technique to a one-dimensional test case. For this test case, the exact solution is computed in three iterations. The non-linear stability analysis is applied to determine the optimal time step for solving Burgers' equation using the MacCormack scheme. The estimated optimal time step is very close to the time step that arises from a linear stability analysis.

  15. Spontaneous Fluctuations and Non-linear Ignitions: Two Dynamic Faces of Cortical Recurrent Loops.

    PubMed

    Moutard, Clément; Dehaene, Stanislas; Malach, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Recent human neurophysiological recordings have uncovered two fundamental modes of cerebral cortex activity with distinct dynamics: an active mode characterized by a rapid and sustained activity ("ignition") and a spontaneous (resting-state) mode, manifesting ultra-slow fluctuations of low amplitude. We propose that both dynamics reflect two faces of the same recurrent loop mechanism: an integration device that accumulates ongoing stochastic activity and, either spontaneously or in a task-driven manner, crosses a dynamic threshold and ignites, leading to content-specific awareness. The hypothesis can explain a rich set of behavioral and neuronal phenomena, such as perceptual threshold, the high non-linearity of visual responses, the subliminal nature of spontaneous activity fluctuations, and the slow activity buildup anticipating spontaneous behavior (e.g., readiness potential). Further elaborations of this unified scheme, such as a cascade of integrators with different ignition thresholds or multi-stable states, can account for additional complexities in the repertoire of human cortical dynamics. PMID:26447581

  16. Model dissection from earthquake time series: A comparative analysis using modern non-linear forecasting and artificial neural network approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Lakshmi, S.; Tiwari, R. K.

    2009-02-01

    This study utilizes two non-linear approaches to characterize model behavior of earthquake dynamics in the crucial tectonic regions of Northeast India (NEI). In particular, we have applied a (i) non-linear forecasting technique to assess the dimensionality of the earthquake-generating mechanism using the monthly frequency earthquake time series (magnitude ⩾4) obtained from NOAA and USGS catalogues for the period 1960-2003 and (ii) artificial neural network (ANN) methods—based on the back-propagation algorithm (BPA) to construct the neural network model of the same data set for comparing the two. We have constructed a multilayered feed forward ANN model with an optimum input set configuration specially designed to take advantage of more completely on the intrinsic relationships among the input and retrieved variables and arrive at the feasible model for earthquake prediction. The comparative analyses show that the results obtained by the two methods are stable and in good agreement and signify that the optimal embedding dimension obtained from the non-linear forecasting analysis compares well with the optimal number of inputs used for the neural networks. The constructed model suggests that the earthquake dynamics in the NEI region can be characterized by a high-dimensional chaotic plane. Evidence of high-dimensional chaos appears to be associated with "stochastic seasonal" bias in these regions and would provide some useful constraints for testing the model and criteria to assess earthquake hazards on a more rigorous and quantitative basis.

  17. Non-linear analysis of PESA-Lo electrostatic analyzer data and solar wind temperature anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, B. Z.; Maruca, B.; Bale, S. D.; Wilson, L. B., III; Larson, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, non-linear fitting techniques are applied to ion measurements from the Wind spacecraft's PESA-Lo electrostatic analyzer. Previous studies have relied primarily on moments-analyses, which, although satisfactory for simple distributions and density calculations, often return unreasonable values for higher order moments (e.g., temperature) and fail to account for non-thermal effects (e.g., temperature anisotropy and beams) and multiple ion-species. A Levenberg-Marquadt non-linear algorithm is applied to the PESA-Lo data in order to calculate the characteristic parameters of the proton, alpha-particle, and beam distributions. This analysis is augmented with calibration data from the WIND Faraday cups and magnetic-field data from WIND/MFI. Preliminary results from this non-linear analysis indicate that it indeed provides higher-quality ion parameters than the existing moments-analysis. When this analysis is complete, the set of bulk-parameter values will be suitable for studies of microinstabilities in the solar wind and of possible correlation between magnetic field fluctuations and non-thermal properties of the ion distributions. Applications of thermodynamic principles, such as the Boltzmann H-theorem, will allow for further characterization of the non-thermal properties of the solar wind.

  18. The amazing evolutionary dynamics of non-linear optical systems with feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavsky, Leonid

    2013-09-01

    Optical systems with feedback are, generally, non-linear dynamic systems. As such, they exhibit evolutionary behavior. In the paper we present results of experimental investigation of evolutionary dynamics of several models of such systems. The models are modifications of the famous mathematical "Game of Life". The modifications are two-fold: "Game of Life" rules are made stochastic and mutual influence of cells is made spatially non-uniform. A number of new phenomena in the evolutionary dynamics of the models are revealed: - "Ordering of chaos". Formation, from seed patterns, of stable maze-like patterns with chaotic "dislocations" that resemble natural patterns, such as skin patterns of some animals and fishes, see shell, fingerprints, magnetic domain patterns and alike, which one can frequently find in the nature. These patterns and their fragments exhibit a remarkable capability of unlimited growth. - "Self-controlled growth" of chaotic "live" formations into "communities" bounded, depending on the model, by a square, hexagon or octagon, until they reach a certain critical size, after which the growth stops. - "Eternal life in a bounded space" of "communities" after reaching a certain size and shape. - "Coherent shrinkage" of "mature", after reaching a certain size, "communities" into one of stable or oscillating patterns preserving in this process isomorphism of their bounding shapes until the very end.

  19. Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise using Edge Pattern Analysis in Non-Linear Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  20. Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; Trimer, Vitor; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Italiano Monteiro, Clara; Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Marcela; Silva Pereira, Ana Maria; Rodrigues das Chagas, Gustavo; Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-05-15

    Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, p<0.05), while DFA decreased during P3 (DFA=1.10±0.10) with respect to P1 (DFA=1.26±0.14, p<0.05). A significant SDRR increase (p<0.05) was observed during the recovery period P4 (SDRR=50±30ms) with respect to the HT session period P3 (SDRR=30±10ms). Our results suggest that HT might benefit children with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period. PMID:26988283

  1. Non-Linear Analysis of Mode II Fracture in the end Notched Flexure Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizov, V.

    2016-03-01

    Analysis is carried-out of fracture in the End Notched Flex- ure (ENF) beam configuration, taking into account the material nonlin- earity. For this purpose, the J-integral approach is applied. A non-linear model, based on the Classical beam theory is used. The mechanical be- haviour of the ENF configuration is described by the Ramberg-Osgood stress-strain curve. It is assumed that the material possesses the same properties in tension and compression. The influence is evaluated of the material constants in the Ramberg-Osgood stress-strain equation on the fracture behaviour. The effect of the crack length on the J-integral value is investigated, too. The analytical approach, developed in the present paper, is very useful for parametric analyses, since the simple formulae obtained capture the essentials of the non-linear fracture in the ENF con- figuration.

  2. Wavelet shrinkage of a noisy dynamical system with non-linear noise impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Matthieu; Guégan, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    By filtering wavelet coefficients, it is possible to construct a good estimate of a pure signal from noisy data. Especially, for a simple linear noise influence, Donoho and Johnstone (1994) have already defined an optimal filter design in the sense of a minimization of the error made when estimating the pure signal. We set here a different framework where the influence of the noise is non-linear. In particular, we propose a method to filter the wavelet coefficients of a discrete dynamical system disrupted by a weak noise, in order to construct good estimates of the pure signal, including Bayes' estimate, minimax estimate, oracular estimate or thresholding estimate. We present the example of a logistic and a Lorenz chaotic dynamical system as well as an adaptation of our technique in order to show empirically the robustness of the thresholding method in presence of leptokurtic noise. Moreover, we test both the hard and the soft thresholding and also another kind of smoother thresholding which seems to have almost the same reconstruction power as the hard thresholding. Finally, besides the tests on an estimated dataset, the method is tested on financial data: oil prices and NOK/USD exchange rate.

  3. Extraction and restoration of hippocampal spatial memories with non-linear dynamical modeling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong; Harway, Madhuri; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    To build a cognitive prosthesis that can replace the memory function of the hippocampus, it is essential to model the input-output function of the damaged hippocampal region, so the prosthetic device can stimulate the downstream hippocampal region, e.g., CA1, with the output signal, e.g., CA1 spike trains, predicted from the ongoing input signal, e.g., CA3 spike trains, and the identified input-output function, e.g., CA3-CA1 model. In order for the downstream region to form appropriate long-term memories based on the restored output signal, furthermore, the output signal should contain sufficient information about the memories that the animal has formed. In this study, we verify this premise by applying regression and classification modelings of the spatio-temporal patterns of spike trains to the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 data recorded from rats performing a memory-dependent delayed non-match-to-sample (DNMS) task. The regression model is essentially the multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) non-linear dynamical model of spike train transformation. It predicts the output spike trains based on the input spike trains and thus restores the output signal. In addition, the classification model interprets the signal by relating the spatio-temporal patterns to the memory events. We have found that: (1) both hippocampal CA3 and CA1 spike trains contain sufficient information for predicting the locations of the sample responses (i.e., left and right memories) during the DNMS task; and more importantly (2) the CA1 spike trains predicted from the CA3 spike trains by the MIMO model also are sufficient for predicting the locations on a single-trial basis. These results show quantitatively that, with a moderate number of unitary recordings from the hippocampus, the MIMO non-linear dynamical model is able to extract and restore spatial memory information for the formation of long-term memories and thus can serve as the computational basis of the hippocampal memory prosthesis. PMID

  4. Non-linear analysis and calculation of the performance of a shelving protection system by FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Nieto, P. J.; del Coz Díaz, J. J.; Vilán Vilán, J. A.; Suárez Sierra, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper consists on the study, analysis and calculation of the efficiency of a shelving protection system by means of the finite element method (FEM). These shelving protection systems are intended to prevent the eventual damage due to the impacts of transport elements in motion, such as: forklifts, dumpers, hand pallet trucks, and so on. The impact loads may threaten the structural integrity of the shelving system. The present structural problem is highly non-linear, due to the simultaneous presence of the following nonlinearities: material non-linearity (plasticity in this case), geometrical non-linearity (large displacements) and contact-type boundary conditions (between the rigid body and the protection system). A total of forty eight different FEM models are built varying the thickness of the steel plate (4, 5 and 6 mm), the impact height (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 meters) and the impact direction (head-on collision and side impact). Once the models are solved, the stress distribution, the overall displacements and the absorbed impact energy were calculated. In order to determine the best shelving protection's candidate, some constraints must be taken into account: the maximum allowable stress (235 MPa), the maximum displacement (0.05 m) and the absorbed impact energy (400 J according to the European Standard Rule PREN-15512). Finally, the most important results are shown and conclusions of this study are exposed.

  5. Bayesian analysis of non-linear differential equation models with application to a gut microbial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Daniel J; Holtrop, Grietje; Flint, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Process models specified by non-linear dynamic differential equations contain many parameters, which often must be inferred from a limited amount of data. We discuss a hierarchical Bayesian approach combining data from multiple related experiments in a meaningful way, which permits more powerful inference than treating each experiment as independent. The approach is illustrated with a simulation study and example data from experiments replicating the aspects of the human gut microbial ecosystem. A predictive model is obtained that contains prediction uncertainty caused by uncertainty in the parameters, and we extend the model to capture situations of interest that cannot easily be studied experimentally. PMID:21681780

  6. Observing (non)linear lattice dynamics in graphite by ultrafast Kikuchi diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenxi; Vanacore, Giovanni M.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2014-01-01

    In materials, the nature of the strain–stress relationship, which is fundamental to their properties, is determined by both the linear and nonlinear elastic responses. Whereas the linear response can be measured by various techniques, the nonlinear behavior is nontrivial to probe and to reveal its nature. Here, we report the methodology of time-resolved Kikuchi diffraction for mapping the (non)linear elastic response of nanoscale graphite following an ultrafast, impulsive strain excitation. It is found that the longitudinal wave propagating along the c-axis exhibits echoes with a frequency of 9.1 GHz, which indicates the reflections of strain between the two surfaces of the material with a speed of ∼4 km/s. Because Kikuchi diffraction enables the probing of strain in the transverse direction, we also observed a higher-frequency mode at 75.5 GHz, which has a relatively long lifetime, on the order of milliseconds. The fluence dependence and the polarization properties of this nonlinear mode are entirely different from those of the linear, longitudinal mode, and here we suggest a localized breather motion in the a-b plane as the origin of the nonlinear shear dynamics. The approach presented in this contribution has the potential for a wide range of applications because most crystalline materials exhibit Kikuchi diffraction. PMID:24706785

  7. How does non-linear dynamics affect the baryon acoustic oscillation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Spergel, David N. E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-02-01

    We study the non-linear behavior of the baryon acoustic oscillation in the power spectrum and the correlation function by decomposing the dark matter perturbations into the short- and long-wavelength modes. The evolution of the dark matter fluctuations can be described as a global coordinate transformation caused by the long-wavelength displacement vector acting on short-wavelength matter perturbation undergoing non-linear growth. Using this feature, we investigate the well known cancellation of the high-k solutions in the standard perturbation theory. While the standard perturbation theory naturally satisfies the cancellation of the high-k solutions, some of the recently proposed improved perturbation theories do not guarantee the cancellation. We show that this cancellation clarifies the success of the standard perturbation theory at the 2-loop order in describing the amplitude of the non-linear power spectrum even at high-k regions. We propose an extension of the standard 2-loop level perturbation theory model of the non-linear power spectrum that more accurately models the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillation than the standard perturbation theory. The model consists of simple and intuitive parts: the non-linear evolution of the smoothed power spectrum without the baryon acoustic oscillations and the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillations due to the large-scale velocity of dark matter and due to the gravitational attraction between dark matter particles. Our extended model predicts the smoothing parameter of the baryon acoustic oscillation peak at z = 0.35 as ∼ 7.7Mpc/h and describes the small non-linear shift in the peak position due to the galaxy random motions.

  8. Non-linear Creep Analysis of Ceramic Specimen Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Jaswinder Singh; Khera, Saurabh

    2016-07-01

    In the present work the stress analysis of a ceramic tensile specimen is obtained. The effects of specimen geometry along with the pin loading are considered in the stress distribution calculations. Thereafter, the optimization based on a set of constraints is performed on the specimen with pinhole location, pinhole diameter, head width, neck radius and gauge length as its design variables. The work is then extended for the non-linear analysis for creep. A mathematical model is developed which is implemented using C++ code.

  9. Non-linear Creep Analysis of Ceramic Specimen Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Jaswinder Singh; Khera, Saurabh

    2016-03-01

    In the present work the stress analysis of a ceramic tensile specimen is obtained. The effects of specimen geometry along with the pin loading are considered in the stress distribution calculations. Thereafter, the optimization based on a set of constraints is performed on the specimen with pinhole location, pinhole diameter, head width, neck radius and gauge length as its design variables. The work is then extended for the non-linear analysis for creep. A mathematical model is developed which is implemented using C++ code.

  10. Non-linear dynamics of inlet film thickness during unsteady rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Kuo; Zang, Yong; Gao, Zhiying; Qin, Qin; Wu, Diping

    2016-05-01

    The inlet film thickness directly affects film and stress distribution of rolling interfaces. Unsteady factors, such as unsteady back tension, may disturb the inlet film thickness. However, the current models of unsteady inlet film thickness lack unsteady disturbance factors and do not take surface topography into consideration. In this paper, based on the hydrodynamic analysis of inlet zone an unsteady rolling film model which concerns the direction of surface topography is built up. Considering the small fluctuation of inlet angle, absolute reduction, reduction ratio, inlet strip thickness and roll radius as the input variables and the fluctuation of inlet film thickness as the output variable, the non-linear relationship between the input and output is discussed. The discussion results show that there is 180° phase difference between the inlet film thickness and the input variables, such as the fluctuant absolute reduction, the fluctuant reduction ratio and non-uniform inlet strip thickness, but there is no phase difference between unsteady roll radius and the output. The inlet angle, the steady roll radius and the direction of surface topography have significant influence on the fluctuant amplitude of unsteady inlet film thickness. This study proposes an analysis method for unsteady inlet film thickness which takes surface topography and new disturbance factors into consideration.

  11. Some non-linear interactions in polytropic gas cosmology: phase space analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2015-11-01

    There are various cosmological models with polytropic equation of state associated to dark energy. Polytropic EoS has important applications in astrophysics, therefore a study of it on cosmological framework continues to be interesting. From the other hand, there are various forms of interactions phenomenologically involved into the darkness of the universe able to solve important cosmological problems. This is a motivation for us to perform a phase space analysis of various cosmological scenarios where non-linear interacting polytropic gas models are involved. Dark matter is taken to be a pressureless fluid.

  12. Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.

    2003-04-01

    Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.

  13. A non-linear dynamical approach to belief revision in cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kronemyer, David; Bystritsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. In this review we analyze and apply a novel approach to this process based on AGM theory of belief revision, named after its proponents, Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson. AGM is a set-theoretical model. We reconceptualize it as describing a non-linear, dynamical system that occurs within a semantic space, which can be represented as a phase plane comprising all of the brain's attentional, cognitive, affective and physiological resources. Triggering events, such as anxiety-producing or depressing situations in the real world, or their imaginal equivalents, mobilize these assets so they converge on an equilibrium point. A preference function then evaluates and integrates evidentiary data associated with individual beliefs, selecting some of them and comprising them into a belief set, which is a metastable state. Belief sets evolve in time from one metastable state to another. In the phase space, this evolution creates a heteroclinic channel. AGM regulates this process and characterizes the outcome at each equilibrium point. Its objective is to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for belief revision by simultaneously minimizing the set of new beliefs that have to be adopted, and the set of old beliefs that have to be discarded or reformulated. Using AGM, belief revision can be modeled using three (and only three) fundamental syntactical operations performed on belief sets, which are expansion; revision; and contraction. Expansion is like adding a new belief without changing any old ones. Revision is like adding a new belief and changing old, inconsistent ones. Contraction is like changing an old belief without adding any new ones. We provide operationalized examples of this process in action. PMID:24860491

  14. [Analysis Methods of Short-term Non-linear Heart Rate Variability and Their Application in Clinical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chi, Xianglin; Zhou, Jianhua; Shi, Ping; Liu, Chengyu

    2016-02-01

    The linear analysis for heart rate variability (HRV), including time domain method, frequency domain method and time-frequency analysis, has reached a lot of consensus. The non-linear analysis has also been widely applied in biomedical and clinical researches. However, for non-linear HRV analysis, especially for short-term non-linear HRV analysis, controversy still exists, and a unified standard and conclusion has not been formed. This paper reviews and discusses three short-term non-linear HRV analysis methods (fractal dimension, entropy and complexity) and their principles, progresses and problems in clinical application in detail, in order to provide a reference for accurate application in clinical medicine. PMID:27382764

  15. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  16. Non-Linear Analysis of Compressively/thermally Stressed Elastic Shell Structures on the Steelpan and the Underlying Theory of the Tuning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achong, A.

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents a non-linear analysis of the dome-shaped notes on the steelpan under compressive and thermal stresses. Equations are derived for the static and dynamic response of symmetrically distorted notes. Analytical results are obtained for modal frequencies, non-linear coupling coefficients and the buckling parameter. Experimental results demonstrate the vibration characteristics and their dependence on temperature. Experimental results were also obtained for the effects of stress relaxation which follows the shaping and tuning process of these notes by hammer peening. The results of the analysis are applicable to other shell-like structures not necessarily designed for musical purposes.

  17. Litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose and non-linear dynamics stochastic resonance model

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) was proposed. EN responses to litchi samples were continuously detected for 6 d Principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) methods were utilized to analyze EN detection data. PCA method could not totally discriminate litchi samples, while SR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen spectrum successfully discriminated all litchi samples. Litchi freshness predictive model developed using SNR eigen values shows high predictive accuracy with regression coefficients R2 = 0 .99396. PMID:25920547

  18. Non-linear canonical correlation for joint analysis of MEG signals from two subjects

    PubMed Central

    Campi, Cristina; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2013-01-01

    Traditional stimulus-based analysis methods of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data are often dissatisfactory when applied to naturalistic experiments where two or more subjects are measured either simultaneously or sequentially. To uncover the commonalities in the brain activity of the two subjects, we propose a method that searches for linear transformations that output maximally correlated signals between the two brains. Our method is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which provides linear transformations, one for each subject, such that the temporal correlation between the transformed MEG signals is maximized. Here, we present a non-linear version of CCA which measures the correlation of energies and allows for a variable delay between the time series to accommodate, e.g., leader–follower changes. We test the method with simulations and with MEG data from subjects who received the same naturalistic stimulus sequence. The method may help analyse future experiments where the two subjects are measured simultaneously while engaged in social interaction. PMID:23785311

  19. Non-Linear Dynamics of AN ELASTO-PLASTIC Oscillator with Kinematic and Isotropic Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, M. A.; Pacheco, P. M. C. L.

    1997-10-01

    This contribution reports on a dynamic analysis of an elasto-plastic oscillator. Kinematic and isotropic hardening are considered. The equations of motion have five state variable associated with complementary conditions. System dynamics is treated by performing a split in phase space in two parts. This split is suggested by an analysis of the equations of motion near equilibrium points and permits conclusions about high dimensional dynamical system by analyzing subspaces with lower dimension. This physical consideration is in close agreement with the operator split technique used for the numerical solution. Some numerical results are shown for free and forced vibrations of the oscillator with kinematic, isotropic and kinematic/isotropic hardening.

  20. Non-linear joint dynamics and controls of jointed flexible structures with active and viscoelastic joint actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, H. S.

    1990-12-01

    Studies on joint dominated flexible space structures have attracted much interest recently due to the rapid developments in large deployable space systems. This paper describes a study of the non-linear structural dynamics of jointed flexible structures with initial joint clearance and subjected to external excitations. Methods of using viscoelastic and active vibration control technologies, joint actuators, to reduce dynamic contact force and to stabilize the systems are proposed and evaluated. System dynamic equations of a discretized multi-degrees-of-freedom flexible system with initial joint clearances and joint actuators (active and viscoelastic passive) are derived. Dynamic contacts in an elastic joint are simulated by a non-linear joint model comprised of a non-linear spring and damper. A pseudo-force approximation method is used in numerical time-domain integration. Dynamic responses of a jointed flexible structure with and without viscoelastic and active joint actuators are presented and compared. Effectiveness of active/passive joint actuators is demonstrated.

  1. The Natural Neighbour Radial Point Interpolation Meshless Method Applied to the Non-Linear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinis, L. M. J. S.; Jorge, R. M. Natal; Belinha, J.

    2011-05-01

    In this work the Natural Neighbour Radial Point Interpolation Method (NNRPIM), is extended to large deformation analysis of elastic and elasto-plastic structures. The NNPRIM uses the Natural Neighbour concept in order to enforce the nodal connectivity and to create a node-depending background mesh, used in the numerical integration of the NNRPIM interpolation functions. Unlike the FEM, where geometrical restrictions on elements are imposed for the convergence of the method, in the NNRPIM there are no such restrictions, which permits a random node distribution for the discretized problem. The NNRPIM interpolation functions, used in the Galerkin weak form, are constructed using the Radial Point Interpolators, with some differences that modify the method performance. In the construction of the NNRPIM interpolation functions no polynomial base is required and the used Radial Basis Function (RBF) is the Multiquadric RBF. The NNRPIM interpolation functions posses the delta Kronecker property, which simplify the imposition of the natural and essential boundary conditions. One of the scopes of this work is to present the validation the NNRPIM in the large-deformation elasto-plastic analysis, thus the used non-linear solution algorithm is the Newton-Rapson initial stiffness method and the efficient "forward-Euler" procedure is used in order to return the stress state to the yield surface. Several non-linear examples, exhibiting elastic and elasto-plastic material properties, are studied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The numerical results indicated that NNRPIM handles large material distortion effectively and provides an accurate solution under large deformation.

  2. Non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of giant magnetostrictive film subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z. W.; Zhang, W. D. Xu, J.

    2014-03-15

    The non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of a giant magnetostrictive film (GMF) subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were studied. Non-linear differential items were introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of the GMF, and the non-linear dynamic model of the GMF subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The stochastic stability was analysed, and the probability density function was obtained. The condition of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and noise-induced chaotic response were determined, and the fractal boundary of the system's safe basin was provided. The reliability function was solved from the backward Kolmogorov equation, and an optimal control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that the system stability varies with the parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the process; the area of the safe basin decreases when the noise intensifies, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal; the system reliability improved through stochastic optimal control. Finally, the theoretical and numerical results were proved by experiments. The results are helpful in the engineering applications of GMF.

  3. Wave packet dynamics for a non-linear Schrödinger equation describing continuous position measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C.; Plastino, A. R.; Díaz-Alonso, J.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate time-dependent solutions for a non-linear Schrödinger equation recently proposed by Nassar and Miret-Artés (NM) to describe the continuous measurement of the position of a quantum particle (Nassar, 2013; Nassar and Miret-Artés, 2013). Here we extend these previous studies in two different directions. On the one hand, we incorporate a potential energy term in the NM equation and explore the corresponding wave packet dynamics, while in the previous works the analysis was restricted to the free-particle case. On the other hand, we investigate time-dependent solutions while previous studies focused on a stationary one. We obtain exact wave packet solutions for linear and quadratic potentials, and approximate solutions for the Morse potential. The free-particle case is also revisited from a time-dependent point of view. Our analysis of time-dependent solutions allows us to determine the stability properties of the stationary solution considered in Nassar (2013), Nassar and Miret-Artés (2013). On the basis of these results we reconsider the Bohmian approach to the NM equation, taking into account the fact that the evolution equation for the probability density ρ =| ψ | 2 is not a continuity equation. We show that the effect of the source term appearing in the evolution equation for ρ has to be explicitly taken into account when interpreting the NM equation from a Bohmian point of view.

  4. Three dimensional, non-linear, finite element analysis of compactable soil interaction with a hyperelastic wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiroux, Robert Charles

    The objective of this research was to produce a three dimensional, non-linear, dynamic simulation of the interaction between a hyperelastic wheel rolling over compactable soil. The finite element models developed to produce the simulation utilized the ABAQUS/Explicit computer code. Within the simulation two separate bodies were modeled, the hyperelastic wheel and a compactable soil-bed. Interaction between the bodies was achieved by allowing them to come in contact but not to penetrate the contact surface. The simulation included dynamic loading of a hyperelastic, rubber tire in contact with compactable soil with an applied constant angular velocity or torque, including a tow load, applied to the wheel hub. The constraints on the wheel model produced a straight and curved path. In addition the simulation included a shear limit between the tire and soil allowing for the introduction of slip. Soil properties were simulated using the Drucker-Prager, Cap Plasticity model available within the ABAQUS/Explicit program. Numerical results obtained from the three dimensional model were compared with related experimental data and showed good correlation for similar conditions. Numerical and experimental data compared well for both stress and wheel rut formation depth under a weight of 5.8 kN and a constant angular velocity applied to the wheel hub. The simulation results provided a demonstration of the benefit of three-dimensional simulation in comparison to previous two-dimensional, plane strain simulations.

  5. The Dynamic Stability and Non-Linear Resonance of a Flexible Connecting Rod: Single-Mode Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, S.-R.; Shaw, S. W.

    1994-02-01

    An analytical and computer simulation investigation of the dynamic behavior associated with the flexible connecting rod of an otherwise rigid, in-line, planar slider-crank mechanism is presented. The main goal of this work is to determine the manner in which this response depends on the system parameters, with a particular emphasis on non-linear analyses of the dynamic response near resonance conditions. A single-mode model is distilled from the governing partial equations and is used to describe the transverse deflection of the connecting rod. It is found that the slider mass is the primary source of the non-linearity, and that the connecting rod behaves as a system with a softening type of non-linearity, which is subjected to both external and parametric excitations. The effects of selected non-dimensional system parameters, such as the length ratio, damping ratios, frequency ratios and inertia ratios, are investigated in detail. A systematic numerical study is also carried out and compared with the analytical results.

  6. Non-linear Dynamics Of Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, M; Crocker, N A; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; Heidbrink, W W; Kubota, S; LeBlanc, B P

    2011-04-26

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]) routinely operates with neutral beam injection as the primary system for heating and current drive. The resulting fast ion population is super-Alfv enic, with velocities 1 < vfast=vAlfven < 5. This provides a strong drive for toroidicity-induced Alfv en eigenmodes (TAEs). As the discharge evolves, the fast ion population builds up and TAEs exhibit increasing bursts in amplitude and down-chirps in frequency, which eventually lead to a so-called TAE avalanche. Avalanches cause large (≤ 30%) fast ion losses over ~ 1 ms, as inferred from the neutron rate. The increased fast ion losses correlate with a stronger activity in the TAE band. In addition, it is shown that a n = 1 mode with frequency well below the TAE gap appears in the Fourier spectrum of magnetic fluctuations as a result of non-linear mode coupling between TAEs during avalanche events. The non-linear coupling between modes, which leads to enhanced fast ion transport during avalanches, is investigated.

  7. Applying Differential Transforms and ADER to Multi-Dimensional Atmospheric Transport and Non-Linear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Differential Transforms (DTs), a core component of so-called "automatic" or "algorithmic" differentiation, offer significant flexibility and efficiency to any numerical method. The i-th and j-th DT, U(i,j), of a function, u(x,y), is simply U(i,j)=1/(i!j!)*∂(i+j)u/∂xi∂yj. Being a term in the Taylor series of u(x,y) makes the reverse transform trivial. This relation also computes initial DTs from known spatial derivatives. What is novel about DTs is how they simplify a complex PDE system, transforming most arithmetic, trigonometric, and other operators into simple recurrence relations in derivative space. This allows one to simply and quickly compute analytical derivatives of highly complex and non-linear functions. Consider a pseudo-conservation law system, u(x)t+f(u,x)x=s(u,x), for instance. The fluxes and source terms could be (and often are) highly complex, non-linear functions of the state vector and independent variables. Regardless of the spatial discretization (variational / finite-element, weak / finite-volume, or strong / finite-difference), one nearly always must resort to tensored quadrature to evaluate face fluxes and body source terms, and this treatment is expensive. However, if one uses DTs to analytically compute spatial derivatives of the flux and source terms, given spatial derivatives of u, then the fluxes and source terms are directly expanded as polynomials, allowing for significantly cheaper, quadrature-free integration, sampling, and differentiation with a single dot product. Besides being simpler, this also allows flexibility for Galerkin methods in particular to analytically and cheaply compute body integrals, which are often approximated inexactly with quadrature. Computing Nth-order DTs in D dimensions is of O(D2*N) complexity, and whether for transport or non-linear compressible Euler equations, they are cheaper to compute and integrate analytically than quadrature. Further, because time-dependent PDE systems relate spatial

  8. Helical waves and non-linear dynamics of fluid/structure interactions in a tube row

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, F.C.; Thothadri, M.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study has been to investigate low-dimensional models for fluid-structure dynamics of flow across a row of cylindrical tubes. Four principle results of this experimental-theoretical study are discussed. (i) Experimental evidence has shown that the dynamic instability of the tube row is a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. (ii) The critical flow velocity decreases as the number of flexible cylinders increases. (iii) The linear model exhibits coupled helical wave solutions in the tube dynamics. (iv) A nonlinear model of the tube motions shows a complex subcritical Hopf bifurcation with a secondary bifurcation to a torus or quasi-periodic oscillation. In this analysis the tools of center manifolds, normal forms and numerical simulation are used.

  9. Linear and non-linear deflection analysis of thick rectangular plates. 2: Numerical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencharif, N.; Ng, S. F.

    1994-03-01

    Variational methods are widely used for the solution of complex differential equations in mechanics for which exact solutions are not possible. The finite difference method, although well known as an efficient numerical method, was applied in the past only for the analysis of linear and non-linear thin plates. In this paper the suitability of the method for the analysis of non-linear deflection of thick plates is studied for the first time. While there are major differences between small deflection and large deflection plate theories, the former can be treated as a particular case of the latter, when the centre deflection of the plate is less than or equal to 0.2-0.25 of the thickness of the plate. The finite difference method as applied here is a modified finite difference approach to the ordinary finite difference method generally used for the solution of thin plate problems. In this analysis thin plates are treated as a particular case of the corresponding thick plate when the boundary conditions of the plates are taken into account. The method is first applied to investigate the deflection behaviour of clamped and simply supported square isotropic thick plates. After the validity of the method is established, it is then extended to the solution of rectangular thick plates of various aspect ratios and thicknesses. Generally, beginning with the use of a limited number of mesh sizes for a given plate aspect ratio and boundary conditions, a general solution of the problem including the investigation of accuracy and convergence was extended to rectangular thick plates by providing more detailed functions satisfying the rectangular mesh sizes generated automatically by the program. Whenever possible results obtained by the present method are compared with existing solutions in the technical literature obtained by much more laborious methods and close agreements are found. The significant number of results presented here are not currently available in the technical

  10. Non-linear quantum-classical scheme to simulate non-equilibrium strongly correlated fermionic many-body dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kreula, J M; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D

    2016-01-01

    We propose a non-linear, hybrid quantum-classical scheme for simulating non-equilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated fermions described by the Hubbard model in a Bethe lattice in the thermodynamic limit. Our scheme implements non-equilibrium dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) and uses a digital quantum simulator to solve a quantum impurity problem whose parameters are iterated to self-consistency via a classically computed feedback loop where quantum gate errors can be partly accounted for. We analyse the performance of the scheme in an example case. PMID:27609673

  11. Non-linear quantum-classical scheme to simulate non-equilibrium strongly correlated fermionic many-body dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kreula, J. M.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a non-linear, hybrid quantum-classical scheme for simulating non-equilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated fermions described by the Hubbard model in a Bethe lattice in the thermodynamic limit. Our scheme implements non-equilibrium dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) and uses a digital quantum simulator to solve a quantum impurity problem whose parameters are iterated to self-consistency via a classically computed feedback loop where quantum gate errors can be partly accounted for. We analyse the performance of the scheme in an example case. PMID:27609673

  12. Turning the tide or riding the waves? Impacts of antibiotic stewardship and infection control on MRSA strain dynamics in a Scottish region over 16 years: non-linear time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawes, Timothy; López-Lozano, José-María; Nebot, César; Macartney, Gillian; Subbarao-Sharma, Rashmi; Dare, Ceri R J; Edwards, Giles F S; Gould, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore temporal associations between planned antibiotic stewardship and infection control interventions and the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Design Retrospective ecological study and time-series analysis integrating typing data from the Scottish MRSA reference laboratory. Setting Regional hospital and primary care in a Scottish Health Board. Participants General adult (N=1 051 993) or intensive care (18 235) admissions and primary care registrations (460 000 inhabitants) between January 1997 and December 2012. Interventions Hand-hygiene campaign; MRSA admission screening; antibiotic stewardship limiting use of macrolides and ‘4Cs’ (cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones). Outcome measures Prevalence density of MRSA clonal complexes CC22, CC30 and CC5/Other in hospital (isolates/1000 occupied bed days, OBDs) and community (isolates/10 000 inhabitant-days). Results 67% of all clinical MRSA isolates (10 707/15 947) were typed. Regional MRSA population structure was dominated by hospital epidemic strains CC30, CC22 and CC45. Following declines in overall MRSA prevalence density, CC5 and other strains of community origin became increasingly important. Reductions in use of ‘4Cs’ and macrolides anticipated declines in sublineages with higher levels of associated resistances. In multivariate time-series models (R2=0.63–0.94) introduction of the hand-hygiene campaign, reductions in mean length of stay (when >4 days) and bed occupancy (when >74 to 78%) predicted declines in CC22 and CC30, but not CC5/other strains. Lower importation pressures, expanded MRSA admission screening, and reductions in macrolide and third generation cephalosporin use (thresholds for association: 135–141, and 48–81 defined daily doses/1000 OBDs, respectively) were followed by declines in all clonal complexes. Strain-specific associations with fluoroquinolones and clindamycin reflected

  13. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it; Valente, Marco

    2015-12-31

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/− and Y+/− directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend.

  14. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Valente, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/- and Y+/- directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend.

  15. Multivariate, non-linear trend analysis of heterogeneous water quality monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischeid, Gunnar; Kalettka, Thomas; Steidl, Jörg; Merz, Christoph; Lehr, Christian

    2014-05-01

    in the graph is proportional to the dissimilarity of the two respective water samples with respect to all 13 solutes. In our study, the non-linear 2D projection of the SOM-SM reflected 75% of the variance of the 13D data set. For further analyses the same graph was used again and again, where different colouring revealed different information. Thus the user rapidly became acquainted with the large, high dimensional data set. At a first glance outliers easily could be identified as well as clusters of samples with similar solute concentration. Different groups of samples were analysed for the degree of overlap. Multivariate trend analysis was performed that did not only account for increasing or decreasing concentration of single solutes but for systemic shifts of characteristic solute concentration patterns as well. Partly converging trends were found, that is, sampling sites becoming more similar to each other. In addition, long-term decreasing variance was found at some sites. For checking for significant differences between different time periods confidence intervals were included in the graph. We conclude that the SOM-SM proved to be a powerful and extremely helpful tool for analysis of this large, heterogeneous water quality data set.

  16. Non-linear electroencephalogram dynamics in patients with spontaneous nocturnal migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Fritzer, G; Göder, R; Niederberger, U; Gerber, W D; Aldenhoff, J

    2001-08-24

    The present study was conducted to examine non-linear electroencephalogram (EEG) measures during the development of a spontaneous migraine attack. We investigated the sleep EEG of five patients with migraine without aura in the pain-free interval and at the onset of a nocturnal attack. Sleep EEG recordings were analysed using the method of global dimensional complexity compared to conventional sleep scoring techniques. We found no divergence between classical sleep architecture and the estimated dimensional course nor any relevant short-term changes related to the onset of headache. There was, however, a loss of dimensional complexity in the first two non-rapid eye movement sleep states in the migraine night, with statistical significance during the second sleep cycle. For the first time, these results provide evidence of a global dimension decrease that is related to cortical network changes during a migraine attack. PMID:11502356

  17. Non-linearity analysis of depth and angular indexes for optimal stereo SLAM.

    PubMed

    Bergasa, Luis M; Alcantarilla, Pablo F; Schleicher, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a real-time 6DoF egomotion estimation system for indoor environments using a wide-angle stereo camera as the only sensor. The stereo camera is carried in hand by a person walking at normal walking speeds 3-5 km/h. We present the basis for a vision-based system that would assist the navigation of the visually impaired by either providing information about their current position and orientation or guiding them to their destination through different sensing modalities. Our sensor combines two different types of feature parametrization: inverse depth and 3D in order to provide orientation and depth information at the same time. Natural landmarks are extracted from the image and are stored as 3D or inverse depth points, depending on a depth threshold. This depth threshold is used for switching between both parametrizations and it is computed by means of a non-linearity analysis of the stereo sensor. Main steps of our system approach are presented as well as an analysis about the optimal way to calculate the depth threshold. At the moment each landmark is initialized, the normal of the patch surface is computed using the information of the stereo pair. In order to improve long-term tracking, a patch warping is done considering the normal vector information. Some experimental results under indoor environments and conclusions are presented. PMID:22319348

  18. Application of non-linear system model updating using feature extraction and parameter effects analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, J.; Hemez, F.

    2000-11-01

    This research presents a new method to improve analytical model fidelity for non-linear systems. The approach investigates several mechanisms to assist the analyst in updating an analytical model based on experimental data and statistical analysis of parameter effects. The first is a new approach at data reduction called feature extraction. This is an expansion of the classic update metrics to include specific phenomena or character of the response that is critical to model application. This is an extension of the familiar linear updating paradigm of utilizing the eigen-parameters or FRF's to include such devices as peak acceleration, time of arrival or standard deviation of model error. The next expansion of the updating process is the inclusion of statistical based parameter analysis to quantify the effects of uncertain or significant effect parameters in the construction of a meta-model. This provides indicators of the statistical variation associated with parameters as well as confidence intervals on the coefficients of the resulting meta-model. Also included in this method is the investigation of linear parameter effect screening using a partial factorial variable array for simulation. This is intended to aid the analyst in eliminating from the investigation the parameters that do not have a significant variation effect on the feature metric. Finally an investigation of the model to replicate the measured response variation is examined.

  19. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XX. Third harmonic experiments of non-linear dielectric effects versus a phenomenological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pyeongeun; Young-Gonzales, Amanda R.; Richert, Ranko

    2016-08-01

    We have re-measured the third harmonic non-linear dielectric response of supercooled glycerol using zero-bias sinusoidal electric fields, with the aim of comparing the resulting susceptibilities with a phenomenological model of non-linear dielectric responses. In the absence of known chemical effects in this liquid, the present model accounts for three sources of non-linear behavior: dielectric saturation, field induced entropy reduction, and energy absorption from the time dependent field. Using parameters obtained from static high field results, the present model reproduces the characteristic features observed in the third harmonic susceptibility spectra: a low frequency plateau originating from dielectric saturation and a peak positioned below the loss peak frequency whose amplitude increases with decreasing temperature. Semi-quantitative agreement is achieved between experiment and the present model, which does not involve spatial scales or dynamical correlations explicitly. By calculating the three contributions separately, the model reveals that the entropy effect is the main source of the "hump" feature of this third harmonic response.

  20. Applying non-linear dynamics to atrial appendage flow data to understand and characterize atrial arrhythmia

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Grimm, R.A.; Katz, R.; Thomas, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand and characterize left atrial appendage flow in atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation and flutter are the most common cardiac arrhythmias affecting 15% of the older population. The pulsed Doppler velocity profile data was recorded from the left atrial appendage of patients using transesophageal echocardiography. The data was analyzed using Fourier analysis and nonlinear dynamical tools. Fourier analysis showed that appendage mechanical frequency ({ital f{sub f}}) for patients in sinus rhythm was always lower (around1 Hz) than that in atrial fibrillation (5-8 Hz). Among patients with atrial fibrillation spectral power below {ital f{sub f}} was significantly different suggesting variability within this group of patients. Results that suggested the presence of nonlinear dynamics were: a) the existence of two arbitrary peak frequencies {ital f{sub 1}, f{sub 2}}, and other peak frequencies as linear combinations thereof ({ital mf{sub 1}{+-}nf{sub 2}}), and b) the similarity between the spectrum of patient data and that obtained using the Lorenz equation. Nonlinear analysis tools, including Phase plots and differential radial plots, were also generated from the velocity data using a delay of 10. In the phase plots, some patients displayed a torus-like structure, while others had a more random-like pattern. In the differential radial plots, the first set of patients (with torus-like phase plots) showed fewer values crossing an arbitrary threshold of 10 than did the second set (8 vs. 27 in one typical example). The outcome of cardioversion was different for these two set of patients. Fourier analysis helped to: differentiate between sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation, understand the characteristics of the wide range of atrial fibrillation patients, and provide hints that atrial fibrillation could be a nonlinear process. Nonlinear dynamical tools helped to further characterize and sub-classify atrial fibrillation.

  1. The behaviour of PM10 and ozone in Malaysia through non-linear dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapini, Muhamad Luqman; Rahim, Nurul Zahirah binti Abd; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md.

    2015-10-01

    Prediction of ozone (O3) and PM10 is very important as both these air pollutants affect human health, human activities and more. Short-term forecasting of air quality is needed as preventive measures and effective action can be taken. Therefore, if it is detected that the ozone data is of a chaotic dynamical systems, a model using the nonlinear dynamic from chaos theory data can be made and thus forecasts for the short term would be more accurate. This study uses two methods, namely the 0-1 Test and Lyapunov Exponent. In addition, the effect of noise reduction on the analysis of time series data will be seen by using two smoothing methods: Rectangular methods and Triangle methods. At the end of the study, recommendations were made to get better results in the future.

  2. The behaviour of PM10 and ozone in Malaysia through non-linear dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sapini, Muhamad Luqman; Rahim, Nurul Zahirah binti Abd; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md.

    2015-10-22

    Prediction of ozone (O3) and PM10 is very important as both these air pollutants affect human health, human activities and more. Short-term forecasting of air quality is needed as preventive measures and effective action can be taken. Therefore, if it is detected that the ozone data is of a chaotic dynamical systems, a model using the nonlinear dynamic from chaos theory data can be made and thus forecasts for the short term would be more accurate. This study uses two methods, namely the 0-1 Test and Lyapunov Exponent. In addition, the effect of noise reduction on the analysis of time series data will be seen by using two smoothing methods: Rectangular methods and Triangle methods. At the end of the study, recommendations were made to get better results in the future.

  3. Motor variability in sports: a non-linear analysis of race walking.

    PubMed

    Preatoni, Ezio; Ferrario, Manuela; Donà, Giulia; Hamill, Joseph; Rodano, Renato

    2010-10-01

    This aim of this study was to analyse the nature of movement variability and to assess whether entropy measures may represent a valuable synthetic index of neuromuscular organization. The regularity of kinematic/kinetic time series during race walking, the changes in the structure of intra-individual variability over the test session, and the influence of athletic skill in (inter)national rank athletes were investigated. Motion analysis techniques were used. Sample entropy (SampEn) was adopted to examine fluctuations in lower limb angles and ground reaction forces. The regularity of both original and surrogate time series was assessed and compared, by estimating SampEn, to verify the presence of non-linear features in movement variability. SampEn was statistically lower in the original data than in surrogates. In contrast, the regularity of time series did not change significantly throughout the subsequent intra-individual repetitions. Hip and ankle joint angles and vertical ground reaction force manifested increased entropy for skilled athletes. Results suggest that race walking variability was not only the product of random noise but also contained information about the inherent propriety of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. Furthermore, they provide some indications about neuromuscular control of the lower limb joints during race walking gait, and about the differences between more and less skilled individuals. PMID:20853204

  4. Hemispheric asymmetry non-linear analysis of EEG during emotional responses from idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies show right hemisphere has a unique contribution to emotion processing. The present study investigated EEG using non-linear measures during emotional processing in PD patients with respect to motor symptom asymmetry (i.e., most affected body side). We recorded 14-channel wireless EEGs from 20 PD patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls (HC) by eliciting emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. PD patients were divided into two groups, based on most affected body side and unilateral motor symptom severity: left side-affected (LPD, n = 10) or right side-affected PD patients (RPD, n = 10). Nonlinear analysis of these emotional EEGs were performed by using approximate entropy, correlation dimension, detrended fluctuation analysis, fractal dimension, higher order spectra, hurst exponent (HE), largest Lyapunov exponent and sample entropy. The extracted features were ranked using analysis of variance based on F value. The ranked features were then fed into classifiers namely fuzzy K-nearest neighbor and support vector machine to obtain optimal performance using minimum number of features. From the experimental results, we found that (a) classification performance across all frequency bands performed well in recognizing emotional states of LPD, RPD, and HC; (b) the emotion-specific features were mainly related to higher frequency bands; and (c) predominantly LPD patients (inferred right-hemisphere pathology) were more impaired in emotion processing compared to RPD, as showed by a poorer classification performance. The results suggest that asymmetric neuronal degeneration in PD patients may contribute to the impairment of emotional communication. PMID:27275378

  5. Modeling and analysis of aircraft non-linear components for harmonics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, K.J.; Voss, J.

    1995-12-31

    Modern commercial aircraft Electric Power Systems (EPS) include many nonlinear components which produce harmonics. The addition of all the current harmonics could result in a power system with unacceptable levels of voltage distortion. It is important to be able to predict the levels of voltage distortion at early program stages to correct any potential problems and avoid costly redesigns. In this paper the nature and sources of harmonic producing equipment are described. These sources of harmonics and their effect on aircraft power system operation are described. Models for various aircraft non-linear components are developed in this paper. These component models are used in a model of the Boeing 777 EPS which is used to calculate voltage harmonics for various airplane configurations and flight conditions. A description of this model and the models used for various components are given. Tests performed to validate these models are described. Comparison of experimental results with analytical model predictions are given.

  6. Influence of shear in the non-linear analysis of RC members

    SciTech Connect

    Diotallevi, Pier Paolo; Landi, Luca; Cardinetti, Filippo

    2008-07-08

    The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical model characterized by a beam-column finite element which is able to reproduce the non-linear flexural-shear behavior of RC structures. The paper shows a brief description of the finite element formulation, the theory used for modeling the constitutive relationship and the scheme of the algorithm, transformed in a computer program, which was developed for implementing the theoretical model. Finally it illustrates a comparison with available experimental results for the calibration and validation of the model and a study on the influence of the non-linear shear response.

  7. Discriminative analysis of non-linear brain connectivity for leukoaraiosis with resting-state fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Youzhi; Xu, Lele; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

    2015-03-01

    Leukoaraiosis (LA) describes diffuse white matter abnormalities on CT or MR brain scans, often seen in the normal elderly and in association with vascular risk factors such as hypertension, or in the context of cognitive impairment. The mechanism of cognitive dysfunction is still unclear. The recent clinical studies have revealed that the severity of LA was not corresponding to the cognitive level, and functional connectivity analysis is an appropriate method to detect the relation between LA and cognitive decline. However, existing functional connectivity analyses of LA have been mostly limited to linear associations. In this investigation, a novel measure utilizing the extended maximal information coefficient (eMIC) was applied to construct non-linear functional connectivity in 44 LA subjects (9 dementia, 25 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 10 cognitively normal (CN)). The strength of non-linear functional connections for the first 1% of discriminative power increased in MCI compared with CN and dementia, which was opposed to its linear counterpart. Further functional network analysis revealed that the changes of the non-linear and linear connectivity have similar but not completely the same spatial distribution in human brain. In the multivariate pattern analysis with multiple classifiers, the non-linear functional connectivity mostly identified dementia, MCI and CN from LA with a relatively higher accuracy rate than the linear measure. Our findings revealed the non-linear functional connectivity provided useful discriminative power in classification of LA, and the spatial distributed changes between the non-linear and linear measure may indicate the underlying mechanism of cognitive dysfunction in LA.

  8. Transonic and Low-Supersonic Aeroelastic Analysis of a Two-Degree Airfoil with a Freeplay Non-Linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, DONG-HYUN; LEE, IN

    2000-07-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom airfoil with a freeplay non-linearity in the pitch and plunge directions has been analyzed in the transonic and low-supersonic flow region, where aerodynamic non-linearities also exist. The primary purpose of this study is to show aeroelastic characteristics due to freeplay structural non-linearity in the transonic and low-supersonic regions. The unsteady aerodynamic forces on the airfoil were evaluated using two-dimensional unsteady Euler code, and the resulting aeroelastic equations are numerically integrated to obtain the aeroelastic time responses of the airfoil motions and to investigate the dynamic instability. The present model has been considered as a simple aeroelastic model, which is equivalent to the folding fin of an advanced generic missile. From the results of the present study, characteristics of important vibration responses and aeroelastic instabilities can be observed in the transonic and supersonic regions, especially considering the effect of structural non-linearity in the pitch and plunge directions. The regions of limit-cycle oscillation are shown at much lower velocities, especially in the supersonic flow region, than the divergent flutter velocities of the linear structure model. It is also shown that even small freeplay angles can lead to severe dynamic instabilities and dangerous fatigue conditions for the flight vehicle wings and control fins.

  9. Cold gas in cluster cores: global stability analysis and non-linear simulations of thermal instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Prakriti Pal; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-04-01

    We perform global linear stability analysis and idealized numerical simulations in global thermal balance to understand the condensation of cold gas from hot/virial atmospheres (coronae), in particular the intracluster medium (ICM). We pay particular attention to geometry (e.g. spherical versus plane-parallel) and the nature of the gravitational potential. Global linear analysis gives a similar value for the fastest growing thermal instability modes in spherical and Cartesian geometries. Simulations and observations suggest that cooling in haloes critically depends on the ratio of the cooling time to the free-fall time (tcool/tff). Extended cold gas condenses out of the ICM only if this ratio is smaller than a threshold value close to 10. Previous works highlighted the difference between the nature of cold gas condensation in spherical and plane-parallel atmospheres; namely, cold gas condensation appeared easier in spherical atmospheres. This apparent difference due to geometry arises because the previous plane-parallel simulations focused on in situ condensation of multiphase gas but spherical simulations studied condensation anywhere in the box. Unlike previous claims, our non-linear simulations show that there are only minor differences in cold gas condensation, either in situ or anywhere, for different geometries. The amount of cold gas depends on the shape of tcool/tff; gas has more time to condense if gravitational acceleration decreases towards the centre. In our idealized plane-parallel simulations with heating balancing cooling in each layer, there can be significant mass/energy/momentum transfer across layers that can trigger condensation and drive tcool/tff far beyond the critical value close to 10.

  10. Non-Linear Analysis of the Modular Coil Windings for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenberg, K.D.; Williamson, D.E.; Fan, H.M.; Myatt, L

    2005-05-15

    A non linear FEA study has been performed on the modular coils of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). The modular coils provide the primary magnetic field within NCSX and consist of flexible cable conductor wound on a cast and machined winding form and vacuum impregnated with epoxy. Eighteen coils and associated winding forms are connected at assembly into a toroidal shell structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structural response of the windings and shell structure during cooldown and normal operation. Two separate software packages were used for the study, and two independent analyses were undertaken. The first analysis performed with Pro/Mechanica, examined both the response of the modular coils to magnetic pressure and thermal effects during a 2 Tesla pulse. Modeled items included a portion of the shell structure the winding packs, and a set of 48 'pseudo clamps'. The so called 'pseudo clamps' are represented simply by blocks of material that are restrained in their respective normal directions and have properties which mimic the stiffness of the spring washers of the actual preload clamps. The winding pack is free to slide on the shell structure and is restrained only by the clamps. A second model, including the complete shell structure of all three coils, was studied with the FEA program ANSYS. Contact regions defined in both Pro/Mechanica and Ansys allow the winding to slide and detach form the shell structure. The two analyses are compared for parameters such as winding/structure gap, overall displacement, equivalent stress and principle strain values.

  11. Non-Linear Dynamics and Control of Chaos for a Tachometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GE, Z.-M.; SHIUE, J.-S.

    2002-06-01

    The dynamic behaviors of a rotational tachometer with vibrating support are studied in the paper. Both analytical and computational results are used to obtain the characteristics of the system. The Lyapunov direct method is applied to obtain the conditions of stability of the equilibrium position of the system. The center manifold theorem determines the conditions of stability for the system in a critical case. By applying various numerical analyses such as phase plane, Poincaré map and power spectrum analysis, a variety of periodic solutions and phenomena of the chaotic motion are observed. The effects of the changes of parameters in the system can be found in the bifurcation diagrams and parametric diagrams. By using Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimensions, the periodic and chaotic behaviors are verified. Finally, various methods, such as the addition of a constant torque, the addition of a periodic torque, delayed feedback control, adaptive control, Bang-Bang control, optimal control and the addition of a periodic impulse are used to control chaos effectively.

  12. Complexity of visual stimuli and non-linear EEG dynamics in humans.

    PubMed

    Müller, Viktor; Lutzenberger, Werner; Preissl, Hubert; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Birbaumer, Niels

    2003-03-01

    The effects of stimulus complexity on the nonlinear electrical brain (EEG) dynamics were investigated in a sample of 24 healthy volunteers. Stimuli used were either a single mechanical low-friction pendulum with a periodic movement (temporal frequency about 1 Hz) or a double-pendulum with a chaotic movement, which were observed for 2-3 min in each case. The prediction that a more complex visual stimulus (double-pendulum) increases the dimensional complexity of brain activity as compared to a simple visual stimulus (single-pendulum), was confirmed by determination of pointwise correlation dimension. Further, there was a significant decrease of alpha power in the double-pendulum compared to a single-pendulum condition. Moreover, a correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between EEG complexity and beta power over the whole cortex in the single- and, above all, in the double-pendulum condition, and also a positive correlation between dimensional complexity and alpha power in the double-pendulum condition only, particularly in the brain regions responsible for the 'bottom-up' sustained attention processes. PMID:12589895

  13. Storage Dynamics and Non-Linear Connectivity between Landscape Units Control Runoff Generation and Stream Water Age Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the influence of storage dynamics and non-linearities in hydrological connectivity on runoff generation and stream water ages, using a long-term record of daily isotopes in precipitation and stream flow. These were used to test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model for a Scottish catchment. The model tracks tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores representing steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands and deeper groundwater (i.e. the main landscape units involved in runoff generation). Storage is largest in groundwater and on the steep hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in smaller stores in the riparian peat. The model also couples the ecohydrological effects of different vegetation communities in contrasting landscape units, by estimating evaporation, resulting moisture deficits and the ages of evaporated waters, which also affect the generation and age of runoff. Both stream flow and isotope variations are well-captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts the mean age of runoff as ~1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies from ~1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the riparian peatland dominate, to around 4 years in dry periods, when groundwater sustains flow. Hydrological connectivity between the units varies non-linearly with storage which depends upon antecedent conditions and event characteristics. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting non-stationary ages. Improving the representation of storage dynamics and quantifying the ages of water fluxes in such models gives a more complete conceptualisation of the importance of the soil water fluxes in critical zone processes and a framework for tracking diffuse pollutants in water quality assessment.

  14. First results on applying a non-linear effect formalism to alliances between political parties and buy and sell dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, F.; Haven, E.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a non linear extension of a model of alliances in politics, recently proposed by one of us. The model is constructed in terms of operators, describing the interest of three parties to form, or not, some political alliance with the other parties. The time evolution of what we call the decision functions is deduced by introducing a suitable Hamiltonian, which describes the main effects of the interactions of the parties amongst themselves and with their environments, which are generated by their electors and by people who still have no clear idea for which party to vote (or even if to vote). The Hamiltonian contains some non-linear effects, which takes into account the role of a party in the decision process of the other two parties. Moreover, we show how the same Hamiltonian can also be used to construct a formal structure which can describe the dynamics of buying and selling financial assets (without however implying a specific price setting mechanism).

  15. Reservoir computing and extreme learning machines for non-linear time-series data analysis.

    PubMed

    Butcher, J B; Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; Day, C R; Haycock, P W

    2013-02-01

    Random projection architectures such as Echo state networks (ESNs) and Extreme Learning Machines (ELMs) use a network containing a randomly connected hidden layer and train only the output weights, overcoming the problems associated with the complex and computationally demanding training algorithms traditionally used to train neural networks, particularly recurrent neural networks. In this study an ESN is shown to contain an antagonistic trade-off between the amount of non-linear mapping and short-term memory it can exhibit when applied to time-series data which are highly non-linear. To overcome this trade-off a new architecture, Reservoir with Random Static Projections (R(2)SP) is investigated, that is shown to offer a significant improvement in performance. A similar approach using an ELM whose input is presented through a time delay (TD-ELM) is shown to further enhance performance where it significantly outperformed the ESN and R(2)SP as well other architectures when applied to a novel task which allows the short-term memory and non-linearity to be varied. The hard-limiting memory of the TD-ELM appears to be best suited for the data investigated in this study, although ESN-based approaches may offer improved performance when processing data which require a longer fading memory. PMID:23275138

  16. Non-linear strain-displacement relations and flexible multibody dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Flotow, A. H.; Padilla, C. E.

    The dynamics of chains of flexible bodies undergoing large rigid body motions and small elastic deflections is investigated, with emphasis on the role of nonlinear strain-displacement relations in the development of the motion equations for the deflections of these systems. Numerical results are presented for a two-link chain constrained to move in the plane and subject to hinge torques. Slew maneuver simulations have been performed for models with and without properly modeled kinetics of deformation.

  17. Dynamic Range Enhancement of High-Speed Electrical Signal Data via Non-Linear Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laun, Matthew C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for high-speed compression of dynamic electrical signal waveforms to extend the measuring capabilities of conventional measuring devices such as oscilloscopes and high-speed data acquisition systems are discussed. Transfer function components and algorithmic transfer functions can be used to accurately measure signals that are within the frequency bandwidth but beyond the voltage range and voltage resolution capabilities of the measuring device.

  18. Non-linear dynamics of viscous bilayers subjected to an electric field: 3D phase field simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dritselis, Christos; Karapetsas, George; Bontozoglou, Vasilis

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this work is to investigate the non-linear dynamics of the electro-hydrodynamic instability of a bilayer of immiscible liquids. We consider the case of two viscous films which is separated from the top electrode by air. We assume that the liquids are perfect dielectrics and consider the case of both flat and patterned electrodes. We develop a computational model using the diffuse interface method and carry out 3D numerical simulations fully accounting for the flow and electric field in all phases. We perform a parametric study and investigate the influence of the electric properties of fluids, applied voltage and various geometrical characteristics of the mask. The authors acknowledge the support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant Number PE8/906), co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources.

  19. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XIX. Rise and decay of field induced anisotropy in the non-linear regime.

    PubMed

    Young-Gonzales, Amanda R; Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko

    2015-09-14

    For glycerol and three monohydroxy alcohols, we have measured the non-linear dielectric effects resulting from the application and removal of a high dc bias electric field. The field effects are detected by virtue of a small amplitude harmonic field, from which time resolved changes in the dielectric loss are derived. The changes in permittivity are dominated by modifications of the time constants (rather than amplitudes) which display two contributions: a heating-like decrease of relaxation times that originates from the time dependent field when the bias is switched on and off and a slowing down of the dynamics resulting from the field induced reduction of configurational entropy. As observed for the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise of the entropy change is slower than its decay, a feature that we rationalize on the basis of the quadratic dependence of the entropy change on polarization. For glycerol, the observed steady state level of the field induced shift of the glass transition temperature (+84 mK) matches the expectation based on the entropy change and its impact on dynamics via the Adam-Gibbs relation (+88 mK). For the alcohols, these non-linear effects rise and decay on the time scales of the prominent dielectric Debye process, underscoring the relation of these features to polarization anisotropy, opposed to mechanical or enthalpy relaxation which are orders of magnitude faster in these systems. A model is discussed which captures the observed magnitudes as well as time dependences in a near quantitative fashion. It is demonstrated that the high bias field modifies the response of polarization to the ac field, including a temporary change in the low field susceptibility. PMID:26374047

  20. Non-Linear Characterisation of Cerebral Pressure-Flow Dynamics in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Saqib; Teal, Paul D.; Kleijn, W. Bastiaan; O’Donnell, Terrence; Witter, Trevor; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism is critically dependent on the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), so it would be expected that vascular mechanisms that play a critical role in CBF regulation would be tightly conserved across individuals. However, the relationships between blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood velocity fluctuations exhibit inter-individual variations consistent with heterogeneity in the integrity of CBF regulating systems. Here we sought to determine the nature and consistency of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) during the application of oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP). In 18 volunteers we recorded BP and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) and examined the relationships between BP and MCAv fluctuations during 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07Hz OLBNP. dCA was characterised using project pursuit regression (PPR) and locally weighted scatterplot smoother (LOWESS) plots. Additionally, we proposed a piecewise regression method to statistically determine the presence of a dCA curve, which was defined as the presence of a restricted autoregulatory plateau shouldered by pressure-passive regions. Results show that LOWESS has similar explanatory power to that of PPR. However, we observed heterogeneous patterns of dynamic BP-MCAv relations with few individuals demonstrating clear evidence of a dCA central plateau. Thus, although BP explains a significant proportion of variance, dCA does not manifest as any single characteristic BP-MCAv function. PMID:26421429

  1. Mechanisms and dynamics of the external transport barrier formation in non-linear plasma edge simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chôné, L.; Beyer, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Fuhr, G.; Bourdelle, C.; Benkadda, S.

    2015-07-01

    L-H transition features are reproduced using three-dimensional first-principles plasma edge turbulence simulations. A transport barrier is observed to form spontaneously above a threshold of the input power. The physical mechanism relies on the coupling between the equilibrium pressure gradient and the poloidal flow, through both the radial force balance and the neoclassical friction. Accounting for the actual radial profile and time evolution of the latter is key to the barrier formation. It is found that neoclassical friction acts as an energy source for the flow, which largely overcomes the sink due to the turbulent Reynolds stress during the whole barrier lifetime. Importantly, experimentally reported dynamical features are recovered during the formation and lifetime of the barrier. This includes dithering of the radial electric field, which is reminiscent of experimentally observed limit-cycle oscillations and quasi-periodic relaxation oscillations showing similarities with type-III ELMs. These rich dynamics emerge from interplay between turbulence, turbulence-driven flows and the equilibrium flow governed by force balance.

  2. Non-linearity dynamics in ecosystem response to climate change: Case studies and policy implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Wilcox, D.A.; Stottlemyer, R.; Barrow, W.; Fagre, D.; Baron, J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Allen, C.D.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggerone, G.; Doyle, T.

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate cna lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  3. Filtering of non-linear instabilities. [from finite difference solution of fluid dynamics equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosla, P. K.; Rubin, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    For Courant numbers larger than one and cell Reynolds numbers larger than two, oscillations and in some cases instabilities are typically found with implicit numerical solutions of the fluid dynamics equations. This behavior has sometimes been associated with the loss of diagonal dominance of the coefficient matrix. It is shown here that these problems can in fact be related to the choice of the spatial differences, with the resulting instability related to aliasing or nonlinear interaction. Appropriate 'filtering' can reduce the intensity of these oscillations and in some cases possibly eliminate the instability. These filtering procedures are equivalent to a weighted average of conservation and non-conservation differencing. The entire spectrum of filtered equations retains a three-point character as well as second-order spatial accuracy. Burgers equation has been considered as a model. Several filters are examined in detail, and smooth solutions have been obtained for extremely large cell Reynolds numbers.

  4. Non-linear hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid flow in open fractures under dynamical stress loading

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself.

  5. Non-linear dynamics in recurrently connected neural circuits implement Bayesian inference by sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticchi, Alessandro; Faisal, Aldo A.; Brain; Behaviour Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    Experimental evidence at the behavioural-level shows that the brains are able to make Bayes-optimal inference and decisions (Kording and Wolpert 2004, Nature; Ernst and Banks, 2002, Nature), yet at the circuit level little is known about how neural circuits may implement Bayesian learning and inference (but see (Ma et al. 2006, Nat Neurosci)). Molecular sources of noise are clearly established to be powerful enough to pose limits to neural function and structure in the brain (Faisal et al. 2008, Nat Rev Neurosci; Faisal et al. 2005, Curr Biol). We propose a spking neuron model where we exploit molecular noise as a useful resource to implement close-to-optimal inference by sampling. Specifically, we derive a synaptic plasticity rule which, coupled with integrate-and-fire neural dynamics and recurrent inhibitory connections, enables a neural population to learn the statistical properties of the received sensory input (prior). Moreover, the proposed model allows to combine prior knowledge with additional sources of information (likelihood) from another neural population, and to implement in spiking neurons a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm which generates samples from the inferred posterior distribution.

  6. Higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions for the analysis of non-linear systems with harmonic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuij, P. W. J. M.; Bosgra, O. H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2006-11-01

    For high-precision motion systems, modelling and control design specifically oriented at friction effects is instrumental. The sinusoidal input describing function theory represents an approximative mathematical framework for analysing non-linear system behaviour. This theory, however, limits the description of the non-linear system behaviour to a quasi-linear amplitude-dependent relation between sinusoidal excitation and sinusoidal response. In this paper, an extension to higher-order describing functions is realised by introducing the concept of the harmonics generator. The resulting higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions (HOSIDFs) relate the magnitude and phase of the higher harmonics of the periodic response of the system to the magnitude and phase of a sinusoidal excitation. Based on this extension two techniques to measure HOSIDFs are presented. The first technique is FFT based. The second technique is based on IQ (in-phase/quadrature-phase) demodulation. In a simulation, the measurement techniques have been tested by comparing the simulation results to analytically derived results from a known (backlash) non-linearity. In a subsequent practical case study both techniques are used to measure the changes in dynamic behaviour as a function of drive level due to friction in an electric motor. Both methods prove successful for measuring HOSIDFs.

  7. Non-linear visco-elastic analysis and the design of super-pressure balloons : stress, strain and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, David

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures. Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite, these activities have broadened to encompass ‘lighter than air' structures such as aerostats, hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons. Since 2004 Tensys have acted as consultants to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. Early implementations of the super-pressure balloon design chosen for ULDB have shown problems of geometric instability, characterised by improper deployment and the potential for overall geometric instability once deployed. The latter has been reproduced numerically using inTENS, and the former are better understood following a series of large-scale hangar tests simulating launch and ascent. In both cases the solution lies in minimising the film lobing between the tendons. These tendons, which span between base and apex end fittings, cause the characteristic pumpkin shape of the balloons and also provide valuable constraint against excessive film deformation. There is also the requirement to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness. A consequence of reduced lobing between tendons is the development of higher stresses in the balloon film under pressure. The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film lead to further significant meridional stress under low temperature flight conditions. The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate excessive stress and local concentrations. However, creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations sufficient to compromise the geometric stability of the balloon. The design of a balloon requires an analysis approach that addresses the questions of stress and stability over the duration of a flight by time stepping analyses using an appropriate material model. This paper summarises the Dynamic Relaxation

  8. ANALYSIS OF HIGH FIELD NON-LINEAR LOSSES ON SRF SURFACES DUE TO SPECIFIC TOPOGRAPHIC ROUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xu,Charles Reece,Michael Kelley

    2012-07-01

    The high-field performance of SRF cavities will eventually be limited by the realization of fundamental material limits, whether it is Hc1 or Hsh, or some derivative thereof, at which the superconductivity is lost. Before reaching this fundamental field limit at the macro level, it must be encountered at localized, perhaps microscopic, sites of field enhancement due to local topography. If such sites are small enough, they may produce thermally stabilized normal-conducting regions which contribute non-linear losses when viewed from the macro resonant field perspective, and thus produce degradation in Q0. We have undertaken a calculation of local surface magnetic field enhancement from specific fine topographic structure by conformal mapping method and numerically. A solution of the resulting normal conducting volume has been derived and the corresponding RF Ohmic loss simulated.

  9. A Non-linear Lifting Line Model for Design and Analysis of Trochoidal Propulsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesler, Bernard; Epps, Brenden

    2014-11-01

    Flapping wing propulsors may increase the propulsive efficiency of large shipping vessels. A comparison of the design of a notional propulsor for a large shipping vessel with (a) a conventional ducted propeller versus (b) a flapping wing propulsor is presented. Calculations for flapping wing propulsors are performed using an open-source MATLAB software suite developed by the authors, CyROD, implementing an unsteady lifting-line model with free vortex wake roll-up to study the non-linear effects of foil-wake, and foil-foil interactions. Improvements to the traditional lifting line theory are made using further discretization of the wake vortex ring spacing near the trailing edge. Considerations of packaging options for a flapping wing propulsor on a large shipping vessel are presented, and compared with those for a conventional ducted propeller.

  10. Non-linear analysis of body responses to functional electrical stimulation on hemiplegic subjects.

    PubMed

    Yu, W W; Acharya, U R; Lim, T C; Low, H W

    2009-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a method of applying low-level electrical currents to restore or improve body functions lost through nervous system impairment. FES is applied to peripheral nerves that control specific muscles or muscle groups. Application of advanced signal computing techniques to the medical field has helped to achieve practical solutions to the health care problems accurately. The physiological signals are essentially non-stationary and may contain indicators of current disease, or even warnings about impending diseases. These indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random on the timescale. However, to study and pinpoint these subtle changes in the voluminous data collected over several hours is tedious. These signals, e.g. walking-related accelerometer signals, are not simply linear and involve non-linear contributions. Hence, non-linear signal-processing methods may be useful to extract the hidden complexities of the signal and to aid physicians in their diagnosis. In this work, a young female subject with major neuromuscular dysfunction of the left lower limb, which resulted in an asymmetric hemiplegic gait, participated in a series of FES-assisted walking experiments. Two three-axis accelerometers were attached to her left and right ankles and their corresponding signals were recorded during FES-assisted walking. The accelerometer signals were studied in three directions using the Hurst exponent H, the fractal dimension (FD), the phase space plot, and recurrence plots (RPs). The results showed that the H and FD values increase with increasing FES, indicating more synchronized variability due to FES for the left leg (paralysed leg). However, the variation in the normal right leg is more chaotic on FES. PMID:19743632

  11. Exciton Dynamics and Many Body Interactions in Layered Semiconducting Materials Revealed with Non-linear Coherent Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Prasenjit

    understanding the basic unexplored science as well as creating technological developments. The dephasing dynamics in semiconductors typically occur in the picosecond to femtosecond timescale, thus the use of ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a potential route to probe such excitonic responses. The focus of this dissertation is two-fold: firstly, to develop the necessary instrumentation to accurately probe the aforementioned parameters and secondly, to explore the quantum dynamics and the underlying many-body interactions in different layered semiconducting materials. A custom-built multidimensional optical non-linear spectrometer was developed in order to perform two-dimensional spectroscopic (2DFT) measurements. The advantages of this technique are multifaceted compared to regular one-dimensional and non-linear incoherent techniques. 2DFT technique is based on an enhanced version of Four wave mixing experiments. This powerful tool is capable of identifying the resonant coupling, probing the coherent pathways, unambiguously extracting the homogeneous linewidth in the presence of inhomogeneity and decomposing a complex spectra into real and imaginary parts. It is not possible to uncover such crucial features by employing one dimensional non-linear technique. Monolayers as well as bulk TMDs and group III-VI bulk layered materials are explored in this dissertation. The exciton quantum dynamics is explored with three pulse four-wave mixing whereas the phase sensitive measurements are obtained by employing two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy. Temperature and excitation density dependent 2DFT experiments unfold the information associated with the many-body interactions in the layered semiconducting samples.

  12. Recent seismic activity at Cephalonia (Greece): a study through candidate electromagnetic precursors in terms of non-linear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Kopanas, John; Antonopoulos, George; Balasis, Georgios; Kontoes, Charalampos; Nomicos, Constantinos; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    The preparation process of two recent earthquakes (EQs) that occurred in Cephalonia (Kefalonia), Greece, ((38.22° N, 20.53° E), 26 January 2014, Mw = 6.0, depth ˜ 20 km) and ((38.25° N, 20.39° E), 3 February 2014, Mw = 5.9, depth ˜ 10 km), respectively, is studied in terms of the critical dynamics revealed in observables of the involved non-linear processes. Specifically, we show, by means of the method of critical fluctuations (MCF), that signatures of critical, as well as tricritical, dynamics were embedded in the fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EMEs) recorded by two stations in locations near the epicentres of these two EQs. It is worth noting that both the MHz EMEs recorded by the telemetric stations on the island of Cephalonia and the neighbouring island of Zante (Zakynthos) reached a simultaneously critical condition a few days before the occurrence of each earthquake. The critical characteristics embedded in the EME signals were further verified using the natural time (NT) method. Moreover, we show, in terms of the NT method, that the foreshock seismic activity also presented critical characteristics before each event. Importantly, the revealed critical process seems to be focused on the area corresponding to the western Cephalonia zone, following the seismotectonic and hazard zoning of the Ionian Islands area near Cephalonia.

  13. Tracking conformational dynamics of polypeptides by non-linear electronic spectroscopy of aromatic residues: a first principles simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Beccara, Silvio a; Rivalta, Ivan; Cerullo, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    The ability of non-linear electronic spectroscopy to track folding/unfolding processes of proteins in solution by monitoring aromatic interactions is investigated by first-principle simulations of two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of a model peptide. A dominant reaction pathway approach is employed to determine the unfolding pathway of a tetrapeptide, connecting the initial folded configuration with stacked aromatic side chains and the final unfolded state with distant non-interacting aromatic residues. π-stacking and excitonic coupling effects are included via ab-initio simulations based on multiconfigurational methods within a hybrid QM/MM scheme. We show that linear absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet (UV) is unable to resolve the unstacking dynamics characterized by the three-step process: T-shaped→twisted offset stacking→unstacking. Conversely, pump-probe spectroscopy can be used to resolve aromatic interactions by probing in the visible (Vis) the excited state absorptions (ESA) that involve charge transfer (CT) states. 2DUV spectroscopy offers the highest sensitivity to the unfolding process, providing the disentanglement of ESA signals belonging to different aromatic chromophores and high correlation between the conformational dynamics and the quartic splitting. PMID:25145908

  14. SHAPS-2: a three-dimensional computer program for linear/non-linear, static/dynamic analyses of piping systems. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional computer program for linear/non-linear, static/dynamic analyses of reactor-piping systems under various accident loads is described. In the analysis, the hydrodynamic calculation can be performed in the implicit or semi-implicit manner. The structure response can be calculated using either a purely explicit or implicit time-integration scheme. Coupling between the fluid and structure is achieved by utilizing either the implicit-explicit or implicit-implicit link. Thus, a wide range of piping safety problems can be analyzed by the suitable choice of options available in the hydrodynamics and structural analysis. In this paper, several salient features are presented. Sample problems illustrating the versatility of the program are given. The results are discussed in detail.

  15. A non linear analysis of human gait time series based on multifractal analysis and cross correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed databases with gait time series of adults and persons with Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseases. We obtained the staircase graphs of accumulated events that can be bounded by a straight line whose slope can be used to distinguish between gait time series from healthy and ill persons. The global Hurst exponent of these series do not show tendencies, we intend that this is because some gait time series have monofractal behavior and others have multifractal behavior so they cannot be characterized with a single Hurst exponent. We calculated the multifractal spectra, obtained the spectra width and found that the spectra of the healthy young persons are almost monofractal. The spectra of ill persons are wider than the spectra of healthy persons. In opposition to the interbeat time series where the pathology implies loss of multifractality, in the gait time series the multifractal behavior emerges with the pathology. Data were collected from healthy and ill subjects as they walked in a roughly circular path and they have sensors in both feet, so we have one time series for the left foot and other for the right foot. First, we analyzed these time series separately, and then we compared both results, with direct comparison and with a cross correlation analysis. We tried to find differences in both time series that can be used as indicators of equilibrium problems.

  16. A non-linear regression method for CT brain perfusion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennink, E.; Oosterbroek, J.; Viergever, M. A.; Velthuis, B. K.; de Jong, H. W. A. M.

    2015-03-01

    CT perfusion (CTP) imaging allows for rapid diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Generation of perfusion maps from CTP data usually involves deconvolution algorithms providing estimates for the impulse response function in the tissue. We propose the use of a fast non-linear regression (NLR) method that we postulate has similar performance to the current academic state-of-art method (bSVD), but that has some important advantages, including the estimation of vascular permeability, improved robustness to tracer-delay, and very few tuning parameters, that are all important in stroke assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fast NLR method against bSVD and a commercial clinical state-of-art method. The three methods were tested against a published digital perfusion phantom earlier used to illustrate the superiority of bSVD. In addition, the NLR and clinical methods were also tested against bSVD on 20 clinical scans. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for each of the tested methods. All three methods showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the ground truth in the phantom. With respect to the clinical scans, the NLR perfusion maps showed higher correlation with bSVD than the perfusion maps from the clinical method. Furthermore, the perfusion maps showed that the fast NLR estimates are robust to tracer-delay. In conclusion, the proposed fast NLR method provides a simple and flexible way of estimating perfusion parameters from CT perfusion scans, with high correlation coefficients. This suggests that it could be a better alternative to the current clinical and academic state-of-art methods.

  17. Parallel-vector computation for linear structural analysis and non-linear unconstrained optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Al-Nasra, M.; Zhang, Y.; Baddourah, M. A.; Agarwal, T. K.; Storaasli, O. O.; Carmona, E. A.

    1991-01-01

    Several parallel-vector computational improvements to the unconstrained optimization procedure are described which speed up the structural analysis-synthesis process. A fast parallel-vector Choleski-based equation solver, pvsolve, is incorporated into the well-known SAP-4 general-purpose finite-element code. The new code, denoted PV-SAP, is tested for static structural analysis. Initial results on a four processor CRAY 2 show that using pvsolve reduces the equation solution time by a factor of 14-16 over the original SAP-4 code. In addition, parallel-vector procedures for the Golden Block Search technique and the BFGS method are developed and tested for nonlinear unconstrained optimization. A parallel version of an iterative solver and the pvsolve direct solver are incorporated into the BFGS method. Preliminary results on nonlinear unconstrained optimization test problems, using pvsolve in the analysis, show excellent parallel-vector performance indicating that these parallel-vector algorithms can be used in a new generation of finite-element based structural design/analysis-synthesis codes.

  18. Effect of bending on the mechanical properties of gold wrought-wire clasps: a non-linear finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Oda, Nobusuke; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of bending of dental gold alloy wires on the mechanical characteristics of wrought-wire clasps. We conducted a simulation of large deformation in straight wires by means of non-linear finite element (FE) analysis. A bending force increased the principal tensile stress on the outer surface of the bending corner and the compressive stress on the inner surface of the bending corner to their maximum values. After unloading with springback, a residual tensile stress was produced on the inner surface. A gold alloy wire clasp exhibited a relatively greater flexibility with small permanent deformation after the clasp tip deflection as compared to previously reported data for Co-Cr wires; this suggests that it is suitable for periodontally compromised teeth. Wire clasps are more susceptible to failure as compared to straight wrought wires because of the residual stress produced during the bending process. PMID:19280977

  19. Analysis of linear elasticity and non-linearity due to plasticity and material damage in woven and biaxial braided composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Deepak

    Textile composites have a wide variety of applications in the aerospace, sports, automobile, marine and medical industries. Due to the availability of a variety of textile architectures and numerous parameters associated with each, optimal design through extensive experimental testing is not practical. Predictive tools are needed to perform virtual experiments of various options. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of linear elastic response, plasticity and material damage induced nonlinear behavior and mechanics of load flow in textile composites. Textile composites exhibit multiple scales of complexity. The various textile behaviors are analyzed using a two-scale finite element modeling. A framework to allow use of a wide variety of damage initiation and growth models is proposed. Plasticity induced non-linear behavior of 2x2 braided composites is investigated using a modeling approach based on Hill's yield function for orthotropic materials. The mechanics of load flow in textile composites is demonstrated using special non-standard postprocessing techniques that not only highlight the important details, but also transform the extensive amount of output data into comprehensible modes of behavior. The investigations show that the damage models differ from each other in terms of amount of degradation as well as the properties to be degraded under a particular failure mode. When compared with experimental data, predictions of some models match well for glass/epoxy composite whereas other's match well for carbon/epoxy composites. However, all the models predicted very similar response when damage factors were made similar, which shows that the magnitude of damage factors are very important. Full 3D as well as equivalent tape laminate predictions lie within the range of the experimental data for a wide variety of braided composites with different material systems, which validated the plasticity analysis. Conclusions about the effect of

  20. Label-Free Analysis of Cellular Lipid Droplet Formation by Non-Linear Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schie, Iwan W.

    Cellular lipid droplets (LD) are cellular organelles that can be found in every cell type. Recent research indicates that cellular LD are involved in a large number of cellular metabolic functions, such as lipid metabolism, protection from lipotoxicity, protein storage and degradation, and many more. LD formation is frequently associated with adverse health effects, i.e. alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes type-2, as well as many cardiovascular disorders. Despite their wide presence, LDs are the least studied and most poorly understood cellular organelles. Typically, LDs are investigated using fluorescence-based techniques that require staining with exogenous fluorophores. Other techniques, e.g. biochemical assays, require the destruction of cells that prohibit the analysis of living cells. Therefore, in my thesis research I developed a novel compound fast-scanning nonlinear optical microscope equipped with the ability to also acquire Raman spectra at specific image locations. This system allows us to image label-free cellular LD formation in living cells and analyze the composition of single cellular LDs. Images can be acquired at near video-rate (˜16 frames/s). Furthermore, the system has the ability to acquire very large images of tissue of up to 7.5x15 cm2 total area by stitching together scans with dimensions of 1x1 mm2 in less than 1 minute. The system also enables the user to acquire Raman spectra from points of interest in the multiphoton images and provides chemically-specific data from sample volumes as small as 1 femtoliter. In my thesis I used this setup to determine the effects of VLDL lipolysis products on primary rat hepatocytes. By analyzing the Raman spectra and comparing the peak ratios for saturated and unsaturated fatty acid it was determined that the small cellular LD are highly saturated, while large cellular LDs contain mostly unsaturated lipids. Furthermore, I established a method to determine the specific contribution

  1. Wavelet analysis for non-stationary, non-linear time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Methods for detecting and quantifying nonlinearities in nonstationary time series are introduced and developed. In particular, higher-order wavelet analysis was applied to an ideal time series and the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) time series. Multiple-testing problems inherent in wavelet analysis were addressed by controlling the false discovery rate. A new local autobicoherence spectrum facilitated the detection of local nonlinearities and the quantification of cycle geometry. The local autobicoherence spectrum of the QBO time series showed that the QBO time series contained a mode with a period of 28 months that was phase-coupled to a harmonic with a period of 14 months. An additional nonlinearly interacting triad was found among modes with periods of 10, 16, 26 months. Local biphase spectra determined that the nonlinear interactions were not quadratic and that the effect of the nonlinearities was to produce non-smoothly varying oscillations. The oscillations were found to be skewed so that negative QBO regimes were preferred, and also asymmetric in the sense that phase transitions between the easterly and westerly phases occurred more rapidly than those from westerly to easterly regimes.

  2. Non-linear numerical analysis of the Iosipescu specimen for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Henjen; Morton, John; Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear elastic finite element analysis is presented of the Iosipescu shear specimen tested in the modified Wyoming fixture for unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites. It is shown that the nonlinear effects due to specimen-to-fixture contact interactions and specimen geometry on the overall shear response are negligible. It is proposed that the tangential shear modulus should be used to characterize the shear resistance of composite materials with highly nonlinear shear response. The correction factors, which are needed to compensate for the nonuniformity of the shear stress or strain distribution in the specimen test section for shear modulus measurement, have to be defined carefully. Strain contours in the nonlinear response ranges are presented and the initiation of failure in the notch regions is investigated.

  3. Non-Linear Time Series Analysis of Dissolved Oxygen in Five Diverse Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, K. E.; Barton, C. C.; Smigelski, J. R.; Tebbens, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    Temporal variations in the concentration of Dissolved oxygen (DO) can create catastrophic conditions for organisms that rely on aerobic metabolic processes for survival. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an aquatic parameter whose concentration is controlled by physical, biological, and chemical processes. The concentration of DO in an aquatic system is important to organisms that rely on aerobic metabolic processes for survival. A power-spectral-density analysis of time series of DO concentration is used to quantify persistence (the degree of internal correlation) over durations of 3 months to 19 years. The interval between data points was either 15 minutes or one hour. The data are from ten different water bodies throughout the United States. Four of these sites are large, slow moving bodies of water including three estuaries: Chesapeake Bay (Virginia), Winyah Bay (North Carolina) and Elkhorn Slough (California); and one reservoir: the Cheney Reservoir in Kansas. The other six sites are small, fast moving water bodies. They included four rivers: Christina River (Delaware), St. Croix River (Maine), Ramapo River (New Jersey), and Passaic River, New Jersey; one stream: Green Pond Brook (New Jersey); and one man-made channel: Reynolds Channel (New York). The analysis quantifies persistence as the power scaling exponent (β), which for all ten water bodies β ranges between 1.2 and 1.6 meaning that the signal is persistent and non-stationary. Rivers and streams, exhibit higher β-values of 1.5 < β<1.6 (greater persistence) than estuaries and lakes, which have β-values of 1.2< β <1.4t.

  4. Non-Linear Stress Analysis of Threaded Connection With High Strength Ratio Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Khair, K.R.; Singh, P.N.

    2002-07-01

    When the relative strength ratio of nut-to-bolt thread is high, the weaker of the two threads will deflect under the relatively stiff action of the other. The rules of the ASME B1.1-1989 provide general design rules for designing non-critical threaded joints. Most threaded joint designs are based on these rules. In most cases, the strengths of the stud and the nut are about the same. This paper addresses plastic deformation and strain in the threaded part of a component (stud) whose strength is about 7 times more than the mating threads. An axisymmetric finite element analysis was performed using nonlinear material properties and nonlinear contact elements between the surfaces of the threads. The results were used to calculate the collapse load for the thread following the rules of Appendix F of the ASME B and PV. It was found that the collapse (maximum allowed) load calculated using this nonlinear finite element approach and Appendix F of ASME code is 50% higher than the load calculated using the conventional elastic methods given in the ASME code rules would be acceptable. (authors)

  5. Stress analysis for multilayered coating systems using semi-analytical BEM with geometric non-linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao-Ming; Gu, Yan; Chen, Jeng-Tzong

    2011-05-01

    For a long time, most of the current numerical methods, including the finite element method, have not been efficient to analyze stress fields of very thin structures, such as the problems of thin coatings and their interfacial/internal mechanics. In this paper, the boundary element method for 2-D elastostatic problems is studied for the analysis of multi-coating systems. The nearly singular integrals, which is the primary obstacle associated with the BEM formulations, are dealt with efficiently by using a semi-analytical algorithm. The proposed semi-analytical integral formulas, compared with current analytical methods in the BEM literature, are suitable for high-order geometry elements when nearly singular integrals need to be calculated. Owing to the employment of the curved surface elements, only a small number of elements need to be divided along the boundary, and high accuracy can be achieved without increasing more computational efforts. For the test problems studied, very promising results are obtained when the thickness of coated layers is in the orders of 10-6-10-9, which is sufficient for modeling most coated systems in the micro- or nano-scales.

  6. Linear and non-linear studies of Alfven waves in space. Stationary and dynamic processes in magnetospheric plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Hasegawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on linear and non-linear studies of Alfven waves in space is presented. Areas of research included relaxation of magnetotail plasmas with field-aligned currents; the equilibrium dayside magnetosphere; macroscale particle simulation of kinetic Alfven wave physics; ballooning stability of plasmas with sheared equilibrium flows; theory of the drift-mirror instability; collisionless tearing instability in magnetotail plasmas; and nonadiabatic behavior of the magnetic moment of a charged particle in a dipole magnetic field and the development of stochastic webs.

  7. Algorithmic complexity. A new approach of non-linear algorithms for the analysis of atrial signals from multipolar basket catheter.

    PubMed

    Pitschner, H F; Berkowitsch, A

    2001-01-01

    Symbolic dynamics as a non linear method and computation of the normalized algorithmic complexity (C alpha) was applied to basket-catheter mapping of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the right human atrium. The resulting different degrees of organisation of AF have been compared to conventional classification of Wells. Short time temporal and spatial distribution of the C alpha during AF and effects of propafenone on this distribution have been investigated in 30 patients. C alpha was calculated for a moving window. Generated C alpha was analyzed within 10 minutes before and after administration of propafenone. The inter-regional C alpha distribution was statistically analyzed. Inter-regional C alpha differences were found in all patients (p < 0.001). The right atrium could be divided in high- and low complexity areas according to individual patterns. A significant C alpha increase in cranio-caudal direction was confirmed inter-individually (p < 0.01). The administration of propafenone enlarged the areas of low complexity. PMID:11889958

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of parameter confidence intervals for non-linear regression analysis of biological data using Microsoft Excel.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Ronald J W; Mytilinaios, Ioannis; Maitland, Luke; Brown, Angus M

    2012-08-01

    This study describes a method to obtain parameter confidence intervals from the fitting of non-linear functions to experimental data, using the SOLVER and Analysis ToolPaK Add-In of the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Previously we have shown that Excel can fit complex multiple functions to biological data, obtaining values equivalent to those returned by more specialized statistical or mathematical software. However, a disadvantage of using the Excel method was the inability to return confidence intervals for the computed parameters or the correlations between them. Using a simple Monte-Carlo procedure within the Excel spreadsheet (without recourse to programming), SOLVER can provide parameter estimates (up to 200 at a time) for multiple 'virtual' data sets, from which the required confidence intervals and correlation coefficients can be obtained. The general utility of the method is exemplified by applying it to the analysis of the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, the growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by chlorhexidine and the further analysis of the electrophysiological data from the compound action potential of the rodent optic nerve. PMID:21764476

  9. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part Iv: Large-Amplitude Vibrations with Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    2000-11-01

    The response of a shell conveying fluid to harmonic excitation, in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies, is investigated for different flow velocities. The theoretical model has already been presented in Part I of the present study. Non-linearities due to moderately large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction by using the model proposed by Paı̈doussis and Denise. For different amplitudes and frequencies of the excitation and for different flow velocities, the following are investigated numerically: (1) periodic response of the system; (2) unsteady and stochastic motion; (3) loss of stability by jumps to bifurcated branches. The effect of the flow velocity on the non-linear periodic response of the system has also been investigated. Poincaré maps and bifurcation diagrams are used to study the unsteady and stochastic dynamics of the system. Amplitude modulated motions, multi-periodic solutions, chaotic responses, cascades of bifurcations as the route to chaos and the so-called “blue sky catastrophe” phenomenon have all been observed for different values of the system parameters; the latter two have been predicted here probably for the first time for the dynamics of circular cylindrical shells.

  10. Inverse cascade in the structure of substorm aurora and non-linear dynamics of field-aligned current filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelov, B. V.; Golovchanskaya, I. V.; Mingalev, O. V.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate time evolution of scaling index αA that characterizes auroral luminosity fluctuations at the beginning of substorm expansion. With the use of UVI images from the Polar satellite, it is shown that αA typically varies from values less than unity to ~1.5, increasing with breakup progress. Similar scaling features were previously reported for fluctuations at smaller scales from all-sky TV observations. If this signature is interpreted in terms of non-linear interactions between scales, it means that the power of small-scale fluctuations is transferred with time to larger scales, a kind of the inverse cascade. Scaling behavior in the aurora during substorm activity is compared with that in the field-aligned currents simulated numerically in the model of non-linear interactions of Alfvénic coherent structures, according to the Chang et al. (2004) scenario. This scenario also suggests an inverse cascade, manifesting in clustering of small-scale field-aligned current filaments of the same polarity and formation of "coarse-grained" structures of field-aligned currents.

  11. Non-linear thermal analysis of the efficiency of light concrete big-holed bricks by FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Coz Díaz, J. J.; García Nieto, P. J.; Martínez-Luengas, A. Lozano; Domínguez Hernández, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper shows how advanced numerical methods can help to improve the thermal efficiency of multi-holed brick walls. In order to get this objective, we will present a new methodology based on different numerical simulations. With the help of the finite element analysis (FEA), we present an optimization procedure in order to determine the best big-holed candidate brick from the thermal point of view. With respect to the ecological design and the energy saving for housing and industrial structures, there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical and thermal behaviors, which fulfils all thermal requirements of the new CTE Spanish rule for further energy savings. On the one hand, we want to validate the numerical analysis procedure, based on the simulation of three-dimensional walls by the finite element method (FEM). On the other hand, we have analyzed the material conductivity for different compositions of the light concrete. The FEM is used for finding accurate solutions of the heat transfer equation for light concrete bigholed brick walls. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. Afterwards, the thermal optimization of the walls is carried out from the FEA of several hollow brick geometries through the average mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. In order to select the appropriate wall satisfying the CTE requirements, detailed instructions are given. Finally, conclusions of this paper are exposed.

  12. Detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals based on time-frequency and non-linear analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gajic, Dragoljub; Djurovic, Zeljko; Gligorijevic, Jovan; Di Gennaro, Stefano; Savic-Gajic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique for detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals. After preprocessing of EEG signals we extract representative features in time, frequency and time-frequency domain as well as using non-linear analysis. The features are extracted in a few frequency sub-bands of clinical interest since these sub-bands showed much better discriminatory characteristics compared with the whole frequency band. Then we optimally reduce the dimension of feature space to two using scatter matrices. A decision about the presence of epileptiform activity in EEG signals is made by quadratic classifiers designed in the reduced two-dimensional feature space. The accuracy of the technique was tested on three sets of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded at the University Hospital Bonn: surface EEG signals from healthy volunteers, intracranial EEG signals from the epilepsy patients during the seizure free interval from within the seizure focus and intracranial EEG signals of epileptic seizures also from within the seizure focus. An overall detection accuracy of 98.7% was achieved. PMID:25852534

  13. A Study of Care Work in Welfare Facilities for the Elderly, Using Non Linear Analysis of Finger Plethysmograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohashi, Yoko; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Lee, Sangjae

    2011-06-01

    The fingertip pulse waves of a number of staff working in a daycare center for the elderly and a special nursing home for the elderly were measured several times throughout the day for a period of one or two days, and the chaotic information gained was analyzed using a non linear analysis method. As a result, a relation between the staff's length of career and the change of Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) of the fingertip pulse waves that synchronized with the mental revitalization degrees and the tension of the sympathetic nerve was evident. The LLE of the staff with short careers dramatically changed and also took a long time to settle down again. In addition, staff LLE changed greatly after sessions of bathing assistance and watching residents with dementia. LLE measurements showed drops in some staff after a period of rest, but this was not the case for other staff. It can be concluded that the LLE is related to the length of the staff member's career and what is actually done during working hours and rest periods. A high level of sympathetic nerve was seen in almost all of the care workers. On this basis, the authors propose that improvements are needed in the content of the care work.

  14. Investigating the Equilibrium Melting Temperature of Polyethylene Using the Non-Linear Hoffman-Weeks Analysis: Effect of Molecular Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hadi; Marand, Herve

    The limiting equilibrium melting temperature for infinite molar mass linear polyethylene, Tmo , has been a point of controversy for about five decades. On one hand, Broadhurst and Flory-Vrij extrapolated melting data for short alkanes to a value of ca. 145oC. On the other hand, Wunderlich proposed a value of 141oC from melting studies of extended-chain PE crystals formed under high pressure. While a difference in Tmo by 4oC might seem superfluous, it has significant implication for the analysis of the temperature and chain length dependences of crystal growth kinetic data. In this work we estimate the equilibrium melting temperatures, Tm for three linear narrow molecular weight distribution polyethylenes using the non-linear Hoffman-Weeks treatment. The resulting Tm values thus obtained are significantly lower than these predicted by the Flory-Vrij treatment and are within experimental uncertainty indistinguishable from those reported by Wunderlich and Hikosaka et al. Our results also suggest that the constant C2 in the expression for the undercooling dependence of the initial lamellar thickness (lg*= C1/ ΔT + C2) increases linearly with chain length.

  15. [Non linear principal component analysis and clues for a differential approach of five groups experiencing social precariousness].

    PubMed

    Meyer, C

    2008-01-01

    We wished to develop an original way of taking care of people experiencing great social precariousness. Our purpose was to develop communication and relational skills, to stimulate expression of emotions and feelings, to bring out personal resources, to increase well-being, motivation and self-esteem, and thus favour rehabilitation. Our sample is composed of long-term unemployed people, of people benefiting from measures of integration into the working process, of people living in community homes, of drug addicts, and of drug-addicted female prisoners. Our research is based on an integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology, with rating scales for the artistic production and observational frames for items of verbal and non-verbal behaviour completing the psychometric questionnaires. It is an action research; we use art therapy, which is a common practice in the health sector, especially with subjects having problems expressing there feelings through words. We have carried out a non linear principal component analysis (PRINCALS) on the data of the projective test (Rotter), as well as a between groups comparison of the responses to the questionnaire on life satisfaction (FLZ), with the help of the Mann-Whitney test. It is from these comparisons that we are able to draw out a few clues for differential treating strategies, depending on the inclusion into the five sub-groups that we have followed. PMID:18404875

  16. Multi-disease analysis of maternal antibody decay using non-linear mixed models accounting for censoring.

    PubMed

    Goeyvaerts, Nele; Leuridan, Elke; Faes, Christel; Van Damme, Pierre; Hens, Niel

    2015-09-10

    Biomedical studies often generate repeated measures of multiple outcomes on a set of subjects. It may be of interest to develop a biologically intuitive model for the joint evolution of these outcomes while assessing inter-subject heterogeneity. Even though it is common for biological processes to entail non-linear relationships, examples of multivariate non-linear mixed models (MNMMs) are still fairly rare. We contribute to this area by jointly analyzing the maternal antibody decay for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella, allowing for a different non-linear decay model for each infectious disease. We present a general modeling framework to analyze multivariate non-linear longitudinal profiles subject to censoring, by combining multivariate random effects, non-linear growth and Tobit regression. We explore the hypothesis of a common infant-specific mechanism underlying maternal immunity using a pairwise correlated random-effects approach and evaluating different correlation matrix structures. The implied marginal correlation between maternal antibody levels is estimated using simulations. The mean duration of passive immunity was less than 4 months for all diseases with substantial heterogeneity between infants. The maternal antibody levels against rubella and varicella were found to be positively correlated, while little to no correlation could be inferred for the other disease pairs. For some pairs, computational issues occurred with increasing correlation matrix complexity, which underlines the importance of further developing estimation methods for MNMMs. PMID:25908267

  17. Dynamical DMRG study of non-linear optical response in one-dimensional dimerized Hubbard model with nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction and alternating on-site potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota, Shigetoshi; Tohyama, Takami; Brazovskii, Serguei

    2012-02-01

    The optical response of organic compounds has been attracting much attention. The one of the reasons is the huge non-linear and ultrafast optical response [K. Yamamoto et. al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 074709(2008)]. In order to investigate such optical properties, we carry out dynamical DMRG calculations to obtain optical responses in the 1/4-filled one-dimensional Hubbard model including the nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction and the alternating electron hopping. The charge gap [S. Nishimoto, M. Takahashi, and Y. Ohta, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 1594(2000)] and the bound state [H. Benthien and E. Jeckelmann, Eur. Phys. J. B 44, 287(2005)] in this model have been discussed based on DMRG calculations. In the present study, we introduce an alternating on-site potential giving the polarization in the system into the dimerized Hubbard model, which breaks the reflection symmetry of the system. In this talk, we discuss the obtained linear and the 2nd order non-linear optical susceptibility in order to make a prediction for non-linear optical experiments in the future.

  18. Seismic response analysis of a tuff cliff by an effective stress non-linear 2D model approach: an example in Sorrento Peninsula, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Fiore, V.; Angelino, A.; Buonocunto, F. P.; Rapolla, A.; Tarallo, D.

    2009-04-01

    We present a model to describe the behavior of a tuff cliff under the dynamic stress considering a law reference input motion. The studied area is located in the Sorrento Peninsula, a major Quaternary morpho-structural unit of the western flank of Southern Apennines. The peninsula forms a narrow and elevated mountain range (up to 1444 m) that separates two major embayments of the eastern Tyrrhenian margin and is characterized by a carbonate bedrock capped by pyroclastic deposits (i.e. "Campania Ignimbrite"), originated from the Campi Flegrei volcanic district. The occurrence of steep slopes and the high relief energy of the area, along with the marine erosion at the base of the coastal cliff creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of a generalized instability of the slopes that is manifested by tuff rock falls as prevailing landslide phenomena. These events are highly dangerous because of the sudden detachments of conspicuous volumes of rocks with high speed, especially when the rock fall initiates in the upper part of the slopes. Prediction of such landslides is difficult if not accompanied by accurate hydrogeologic and geotechnical monitoring and assessment. The geometry of our model is represented by a tuff cliff of 48 m height, covered by a 8 m thick volcaniclastic layer. At the base of the tuff cliff marine sand deposits occur. The geotechnical parameters used for the analysis were selected from the literature. We have used an effective stress non-linear 2D model to determine the dynamic stress field of our model. The effective stress non-linear algorithm uses the Direct Integration Method to compute the motion and excess pore-water pressures arising from inertial forces at user-defined time steps. The seismic response analysis was performed using the field shear stress generated by synthetic 1-30 Hz band-limited accelerogram. The finite elements mesh considered for the test problem was established by 395 element and 401 nodal point. Our results show a

  19. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D{sub 2}), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  20. Non-linear dynamics of the photodissociation of nitrous oxide: equilibrium points, periodic orbits, and transition states.

    PubMed

    Mauguiere, Frederic; Farantos, Stavros C; Suarez, Jaime; Schinke, Reinhard

    2011-06-28

    The diffuse vibrational bands, observed in the ultraviolet photodissociation spectrum of nitrous oxide by exciting the molecule in the first (1)A' state, have recently been attributed to resonances localized mainly in the NN stretch and bend degrees of freedom. To further investigate the origin of this localization, fundamental families of periodic orbits emanating from several stationary points of the (1)A' potential energy surface and bifurcations of them are computed. We demonstrate that center-saddle bifurcations of periodic orbits are the main mechanism for creating stable regions in phase space that can support the partial trapping of the wave packet, and thus they explain the observed spectra. A non-linear mechanical methodology, which involves the calculation of equilibria, periodic orbits, and transition states in normal form coordinates, is applied for an in detail exploration of phase space. The fingerprints of the phase space structures in the quantum world are identified by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation and calculating autocorrelation functions. This demonstrates that different reaction channels could be controlled if exact knowledge of the phase space structure is available to guide the initial excitation of the molecule. PMID:21721625

  1. How to include the nonlinear Cox-Voinov law into sloshing dynamics? A weakly non linear approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Gallaire, Francois

    2015-11-01

    Fluid sloshing in a glass is a common example of damped oscillator, with the frequency derived in the potential flow limit. The damping rate is then evaluated considering the viscous dissipation at the wall, in the bulk and at the free surface, respectively. This classical theoretical result however differs from what is often seen in the laboratory when the attenuation of gravity waves happens in a small basin. In particular, the damping rate is found to increase as the sloshing amplitude decreases. Here we show that this enhanced damping is due to capillary forces at the contact line between the liquid and the container. The angle θd made by the liquid interface with the container walls (contact angle) is modeled as a non-linear function of the interface speed U, (Cox-Voinov law θd3 α U). We propose a multiple scale expansion scheme to consistently derive an amplitude equation using the Cox-Voinov law as boundary condition at the moving interface. The zero order problem reduces to the classical static meniscus problem, while the first order problem yields an eigenvalue problem defining the viscous sloshing modes. At an higher order, a compatibility condition has to be enforced, yielding an amplitude equation. Solving the later, we recover the expected increase of the damping rate as the sloshing amplitude decreases, an effect thus attributed to capillary effects.

  2. Non-Linear finite element analysis of cone penetration in layered sandy loam soil-considering precompression stress state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Axisymmetric finite element (FE) method was developed using a commercial computer program to simulate cone penetration process in layered granular soil. Soil was considered as a non-linear elastic plastic material which was modeled using variable elastic parameters of Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s r...

  3. Atomic force microscopy indentation and inverse analysis for non-linear viscoelastic identification of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhung; Shao, Yue; Wineman, Alan; Fu, Jianping; Waas, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MCF-10A) are studied through indentation with spherical borosilicate glass particles in atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode in fluid. Their mechanical properties are obtained by analyzing the recorded reaction force-time response. The analysis is based on comparing experimental data with predictions from finite element (FE) simulation. Here, FE modeling is employed to simulate the AFM indentation experiment which is neither a displacement nor a force controlled test. This approach is expected to overcome many underlying problems of the widely used models such as Hertz contact model due to its capability to capture the contact behaviors between the spherical indentor and the cell, account for cell geometry, and incorporate with large strain theory. In this work, a non-linear viscoelastic (NLV) model in which the viscoelastic part is described by Prony series terms is used for the constitutive model of the cells. The time-dependent material parameters are extracted through an inverse analysis with the use of a surrogate model based on a Kriging estimator. The purpose is to automatically extract the NLV properties of the cells with a more efficient process compared to the iterative inverse technique that has been mostly applied in the literature. The method also allows the use of FE modeling in the analysis of a large amount of experimental data. The NLV parameters are compared between MCF-7 and MCF-10A and MCF-10A treated and untreated with the drug Cytochalasin D to examine the possibility of using relaxation properties as biomarkers for distinguishing these types of breast cancer cells. The comparisons indicate that malignant cells (MCF-7) are softer and exhibit more relaxation than benign cells (MCF-10A). Disrupting the cytoskeleton using the drug Cytochalasin D also results in a larger amount of relaxation in the cell's response. In addition, relaxation properties indicate larger differences as compared to the elastic moduli

  4. The linear and non-linear characterization of dust ion acoustic mode in complex plasma in presence of dynamical charging of dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Saurav; Das, Nilakshi

    2015-10-01

    A systematic theoretical investigation has been carried out on the role of dust charging dynamics on the nature and stability of DIA (Dust Ion Acoustic) mode in complex plasma. The study has been made for both linear and non-linear scale regime of DIA mode. The observed results have been characterized in terms of background plasma responses towards dust surface responsible for dust charge fluctuation, invoking important dusty plasma parameters, especially the ion flow speed and dust size. The linear analyses confirm the nature of instability in DIA mode in presence of dust charge fluctuation. The instability shows a damping of DIA mode in subsonic flow regime followed by a gradual growth in instability in supersonic limit of ion flow. The strength of non-linearity and their existence domain is found to be driven by different dusty plasma parameters. As dust is ubiquitous in interstellar medium with plasma background, the study also addresses the possible effect of dust charging dynamics in gravito-electrostatic characterization and the stability of dust molecular clouds especially in proto-planetary disc. The observations are influential and interesting towards the understanding of dust settling mechanism and formation of dust environments in different regions in space.

  5. The linear and non-linear characterization of dust ion acoustic mode in complex plasma in presence of dynamical charging of dust

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Saurav Das, Nilakshi

    2015-10-15

    A systematic theoretical investigation has been carried out on the role of dust charging dynamics on the nature and stability of DIA (Dust Ion Acoustic) mode in complex plasma. The study has been made for both linear and non-linear scale regime of DIA mode. The observed results have been characterized in terms of background plasma responses towards dust surface responsible for dust charge fluctuation, invoking important dusty plasma parameters, especially the ion flow speed and dust size. The linear analyses confirm the nature of instability in DIA mode in presence of dust charge fluctuation. The instability shows a damping of DIA mode in subsonic flow regime followed by a gradual growth in instability in supersonic limit of ion flow. The strength of non-linearity and their existence domain is found to be driven by different dusty plasma parameters. As dust is ubiquitous in interstellar medium with plasma background, the study also addresses the possible effect of dust charging dynamics in gravito-electrostatic characterization and the stability of dust molecular clouds especially in proto-planetary disc. The observations are influential and interesting towards the understanding of dust settling mechanism and formation of dust environments in different regions in space.

  6. Spectral evolution and extreme value analysis of non-linear numerical simulations of narrow band random surface gravity waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet-Juglard, H.; Dysthe, K. B.; Trulsen, K.; Liu, J.; Krogstad, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    Numerical simulations of a narrow band gaussian spectrum of random surface gravity waves have been carried out in two and three spatial dimensions [7]. Different types of non-linear Schr&{uml;o}dinger equations, [1] and [4], have been used in these simulations. Simulations have now been carried with a JONSWAP spectrum associated with a spreading function of the type cosine-squared [5]. The evolution of the spectrum, skewness, kurtosis, ... will be presented. In addition, some results about stochastic properties of the surface will be shown. Based on the approach found in [2], [3] and [6], the results are presented in terms of deviations from linear Gaussian theory and the standard second order small slope perturbation theory. begin{thebibliography}{9} bibitem{kk96} Trulsen, K. &Dysthe, K. B. (1996). A modified nonlinear Schr&{uml;o}dinger equation for broader bandwidth gravity waves on deep water. Wave Motion, 24, pp. 281-289. bibitem{BK2000} Krogstad, H.E. and S.F. Barstow (2000). A uniform approach to extreme value analysis of ocean waves, Proc. ISOPE'2000, Seattle, USA, 3, pp. 103-108. bibitem{PRK} Prevosto, M., H. E. Krogstad and A. Robin (2000). Probability distributions for maximum wave and crest heights, Coast. Eng., 40, 329-360. bibitem{ketal} Trulsen, K., Kliakhandler, I., Dysthe, K. B. &Velarde, M. G. (2000) On weakly nonlinear modulation of waves on deep water, Phys. Fluids, 12, pp. L25-L28. bibitem{onorato} Onorato, M., Osborne, A.R. and Serio, M. (2002) Extreme wave events in directional, random oceanic sea states, Phys. Fluids, 14, pp. 2432-2437. bibitem{BK2002} Krogstad, H.E. and S.F. Barstow (2002). Analysis and Applications of Second Order Models for the Maximum Crest height, % Proc. 21nd Int. Conf. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Oslo. Paper no. OMAE2002-28479. bibitem{JFMP} Dysthe, K. B., Trulsen, K., Krogstad, H. E. and Socquet-Juglard, H. (2002, in press) Evolution of a narrow band spectrum of random surface gravity waves, J. Fluid

  7. Non-linear associations between laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clues from artificial intelligence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, E

    2006-01-01

    Summary The relationship between the different symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease remain markedly obscure due to the high underlying non-linearity and the lack of studies focusing on the problem. Aim of this study was to evaluate the hidden relationships between the triad of symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease using advanced mathematical techniques, borrowed from the artificial intelligence field, in a cohort of patients with oesophagitis. A total of 388 patients (from 60 centres) with endoscopic evidence of oesophagitis were recruited. The severity of oesophagitis was scored by means of the Savary-Miller classification. PST algorithm was employed. This study shows that laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are correlated even if in a non-linear way. PMID:17345935

  8. Non-linear associations between laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clues from artificial intelligence analysis.

    PubMed

    Grossi, E

    2006-10-01

    The relationship between the different symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease remain markedly obscure due to the high underlying non-linearity and the lack of studies focusing on the problem. Aim of this study was to evaluate the hidden relationships between the triad of symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease using advanced mathematical techniques, borrowed from the artificial intelligence field, in a cohort of patients with oesophagitis. A total of 388 patients (from 60 centres) with endoscopic evidence of oesophagitis were recruited. The severity of oesophagitis was scored by means of the Savary-Miller classification. PST algorithm was employed. This study shows that laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are correlated even if in a non-linear way. PMID:17345935

  9. Hydro-climatic Changes: Potential Non-linear Responses of Phosphorus Dynamic in Aquatic/Semi-aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2007-12-01

    Depending on resilience, threshold and lag times, hydro-climatic changes can cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in aquatic/semi-aquatic systems. Thus, studying direct/indirect effects of expected global climate change on bioavailability of organic P in aquatic systems are in critical need, to help manage or increase the resilience of the ecosystem. The central hypothesis of this study is that P dynamic in aquatic, especially freshwater, ecosystem is likely to behave nonlinearly due to expected changes in sediment and water acidity, redox status, etc., because of potential hydro-climatic changes in the decades to come, thus, could face irreversible adverse changes. Devising possible biological and chemical treatments for the removal of P from eutrophic lakes, estuaries, etc, as well as helping in predicting the movement and fate of P under changing hydro-climatic conditions would be crucial to manage aquatic ecosystem in the near future. The critical question is not how much P is stored in any given aquatic/semi-aquatic system, but how the resilience and nonlinearity relate to the stability of stored P are affected due to the levels of environmental stressors, which are expected to fluctuate due to global change in the decades to come. Studies related to 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis, and multiple hydraulic retention cycles showed that, in general, frequent drying and reflooding of a semi-aquatic system such as wetland could significantly increase the bioavailability of P due to degradation of relatively less stable organic P, e.g., glycerophosphate and nucleoside monophosphate. Moreover, nutrients flux from sediments to the water column depended on the concentration gradients of the sediment-water interface and redox status. Shift in equilibrium P concentration of the water column as the water level rises, may cause release of adsorbed P from the sediments. Restoration of a

  10. Development of a Probabilistic Technique for On-line Parameter and State Estimation in Non-linear Dynamic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tunc Aldemir; Don W. Miller; Brian k. Hajek; Peng Wang

    2002-04-01

    The DSD (Dynamic System Doctor) is a system-independent, interactive software under development for on-line state/parameter estimation in dynamic systems (1), partially supported through a Nuclear Engineering Education (NEER) grant during 1998-2001. This paper summarizes the recent accomplishments in improving the user-friendliness and computational capability of DSD

  11. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.« less

  12. Thermally-induced structural dynamic response of flexural configurations influenced by linear/non-linear thermal effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namburu, Raju R.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1991-01-01

    The thermally-induced strucural dynamic response of flexural configurations influenced by linear/nonlinear thermal effects is presented in conjunction with 'unified' transient approaches for effectively tackling this class of interdisciplinary problems. For illustrative purposes, the flexural structural models are assumed to be of the Euler-Bernoulli type. The purpose of the present paper is to not only provide an understanding of the influence of general linear/nonlinear thermal effects on flexural configurations, but also to provide to the analyst effective computational tools which help preserve a unified technology for the interdisciplinary areas encompassing structural mechanics/dynamics and thermal sciences. Several numerical test models illustrate the representative thermally-induced structural dynamic response of flexural configurations subjected to general linear/nonlinear temperature effects.

  13. Non-linear dynamics of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures based on a biological kinetic model of aerobic enzymatic methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V; Shim, Natalia; Vogt, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    The non-linear dynamics of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures during methane oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria Methylosinus sporium strain 5 (NCIMB 11126) and Methylocaldum gracile strain 14 L (NCIMB 11912) under copper-rich (8.9 µM Cu(2+)), copper-limited (0.3 µM Cu(2+)) or copper-regular (1.1 µM Cu(2+)) conditions has been described mathematically. The model was calibrated by experimental data of methane quantities and carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of methane measured previously in laboratory microcosms reported by Feisthauer et al. [ 1 ] M. gracile initially oxidizes methane by a particulate methane monooxygenase and assimilates formaldehyde via the ribulose monophosphate pathway, whereas M. sporium expresses a soluble methane monooxygenase under copper-limited conditions and uses the serine pathway for carbon assimilation. The model shows that during methane solubilization dominant carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation occurs. An increase of biomass due to growth of methanotrophs causes an increase of particulate or soluble monooxygenase that, in turn, decreases soluble methane concentration intensifying methane solubilization. The specific maximum rate of methane oxidation υm was proved to be equal to 4.0 and 1.3 mM mM(-1) h(-1) for M. sporium under copper-rich and copper-limited conditions, respectively, and 0.5 mM mM(-1) h(-1) for M. gracile. The model shows that methane oxidation cannot be described by traditional first-order kinetics. The kinetic isotope fractionation ceases when methane concentrations decrease close to the threshold value. Applicability of the non-linear model was confirmed by dynamics of carbon isotope signature for carbon dioxide that was depleted and later enriched in (13)C. Contrasting to the common Rayleigh linear graph, the dynamic curves allow identifying inappropriate isotope data due to inaccurate substrate concentration analyses. The non-linear model pretty adequately described experimental

  14. Linear center-of-mass dynamics emerge from non-linear leg-spring properties in human hopping.

    PubMed

    Riese, Sebastian; Seyfarth, Andre; Grimmer, Sten

    2013-09-01

    Given the almost linear relationship between ground-reaction force and leg length, bouncy gaits are commonly described using spring-mass models with constant leg-spring parameters. In biological systems, however, spring-like properties of limbs may change over time. Therefore, it was investigated how much variation of leg-spring parameters is present during vertical human hopping. In order to do so, rest-length and stiffness profiles were estimated from ground-reaction forces and center-of-mass dynamics measured in human hopping. Trials included five hopping frequencies ranging from 1.2 to 3.6 Hz. Results show that, even though stiffness and rest length vary during stance, for most frequencies the center-of-mass dynamics still resemble those of a linear spring-mass hopper. Rest-length and stiffness profiles differ for slow and fast hopping. Furthermore, at 1.2 Hz two distinct control schemes were observed. PMID:23880438

  15. Analog implementation of radix-2, 16-FFT processor for OFDM receivers: non-linearity behaviours and system performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtarian, N.; Hodtani, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Analog implementations of decoders have been widely studied by considering circuit complexity, as well as power and speed, and their integration with other analog blocks is an extension of analog decoding research. In the front-end blocks of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, combination of an analog fast Fourier transform (FFT) with an analog decoder is suitable. In this article, the implementation of a 16-symbol FFT processor based on analog complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor current mirrors within circuit and system levels is presented, and the FFT is implemented using a butterfly diagram, where each node is implemented using analog circuits. Implementation details include consideration of effects of transistor mismatch and inherent noises and effects of circuit non-linearity in OFDM system performance. It is shown that not only can transistor inherent noises be measured but also transistor mismatch can be applied as an input-referred noise source that can be used in system- and circuit-level studies. Simulations of a radix-2, 16-symbol FFT show that proposed circuits consume very low power, and impacts of noise, mismatch and non-linearity for each node of this processor are very small.

  16. A wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) dynamic neural network model for real-time flood forecasting using satellite-based rainfall products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Trushnamayee; Sahoo, Bhabagrahi; Beria, Harsh; Chatterjee, Chandranath

    2016-08-01

    Although flood forecasting and warning system is a very important non-structural measure in flood-prone river basins, poor raingauge network as well as unavailability of rainfall data in real-time could hinder its accuracy at different lead times. Conversely, since the real-time satellite-based rainfall products are now becoming available for the data-scarce regions, their integration with the data-driven models could be effectively used for real-time flood forecasting. To address these issues in operational streamflow forecasting, a new data-driven model, namely, the wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) is proposed and evaluated in comparison with four other data-driven models, viz., the linear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (ARMAX), static artificial neural network (ANN), wavelet-based ANN (WANN), and dynamic nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) models. First, the quality of input rainfall products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), viz., TRMM and TRMM-real-time (RT) rainfall products is assessed through statistical evaluation. The results reveal that the satellite rainfall products moderately correlate with the observed rainfall, with the gauge-adjusted TRMM product outperforming the real-time TRMM-RT product. The TRMM rainfall product better captures the ground observations up to 95 percentile range (30.11 mm/day), although the hit rate decreases for high rainfall intensity. The effect of antecedent rainfall (AR) and climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) temperature product on the catchment response is tested in all the developed models. The results reveal that, during real-time flow simulation, the satellite-based rainfall products generally perform worse than the gauge-based rainfall. Moreover, as compared to the existing models, the flow forecasting by the WNARX model is way better than the other four models studied herein with the

  17. Dynamic topology and flux rope evolution during non-linear tearing of 3D null point current sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Wyper, P. F. Pontin, D. I.

    2014-10-15

    In this work, the dynamic magnetic field within a tearing-unstable three-dimensional current sheet about a magnetic null point is described in detail. We focus on the evolution of the magnetic null points and flux ropes that are formed during the tearing process. Generally, we find that both magnetic structures are created prolifically within the layer and are non-trivially related. We examine how nulls are created and annihilated during bifurcation processes, and describe how they evolve within the current layer. The type of null bifurcation first observed is associated with the formation of pairs of flux ropes within the current layer. We also find that new nulls form within these flux ropes, both following internal reconnection and as adjacent flux ropes interact. The flux ropes exhibit a complex evolution, driven by a combination of ideal kinking and their interaction with the outflow jets from the main layer. The finite size of the unstable layer also allows us to consider the wider effects of flux rope generation. We find that the unstable current layer acts as a source of torsional magnetohydrodynamic waves and dynamic braiding of magnetic fields. The implications of these results to several areas of heliophysics are discussed.

  18. On the complex non-linear interaction between bacteria and redox dynamics in sediments and its effects on water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rubol, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the prognoses on the availability of resources related to different climate scenarios have been already formulated, the complex hydrological and biogeochemical reactions taking place in different compartments in natural environmental media are poorly understood, especially regarding the interactions between water bodies, and the reactions taking place at soil-water interfaces. Amongst them, the inter-relationship between hydrology, chemistry and biology has important implications in natural (rivers, lakes) and man-made water facilities (lagoons, artificial recharge pounds, reservoirs, slow infiltration systems, etc). The consequences involve environment, economic, social and health-risk aspects. At the current stage, only limited explanations are available to understand the implications of these relationships on ecosystem services, water quality and water quantity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek a full understanding of these physical-biogeochemical processes in water-bodies, sediments and biota and its implications in ecological and health risk. We present a soil column experiment and a mathematical model which aim to study the mutual interplay between water and bacteria activity in porous media, the corresponding dynamics and the feedback on nutrient cycling by using a multidisciplinary approach.

  19. Possibility of controlled ejection of ferrofluid grains from a magnetically ordered ferrofluid using high frequency non-linear acoustic pulses - a particle dynamical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Manciu, Marian; Sen, Surajit

    2000-10-01

    We consider a model dilute ferrofluid that is subjected to a strong, homogeneous magnetic field directed perpendicular to the surface of the ferrofluid, such that there is a chain formation in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the liquid. We study the propagation of impulses generated at high-frequency across finite times through the ferrofluid chains. Our numerical analysis shows that a very high-frequency sequence of non-linear acoustic pulses of appropriate magnitudes, initiated at the base of the container, can lead to the ejection of desired number of ferrofluid grains through the liquid-air interface. The proposed mechanism, if successfully realized in the laboratory, could help design a nozzle-free, ultrafast, ink-jet printer of unparalleled resolution.

  20. High Reynolds number analysis of flat plate and separated afterbody flow using non-linear turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, John R.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes method, PAB3D, to simulate the effect of Reynolds number variation using non-linear explicit algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence modeling was assessed. Subsonic flat plate boundary-layer flow parameters such as normalized velocity distributions, local and average skin friction, and shape factor were compared with DNS calculations and classical theory at various local Reynolds numbers up to 180 million. Additionally, surface pressure coefficient distributions and integrated drag predictions on an axisymmetric nozzle afterbody were compared with experimental data from 10 to 130 million Reynolds number. The high Reynolds data was obtained from the NASA Langley 0.3m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. There was generally good agreement of surface static pressure coefficients between the CFD and measurement. The change in pressure coefficient distributions with varying Reynolds number was similar to the experimental data trends, though slightly over-predicting the effect. The computational sensitivity of viscous modeling and turbulence modeling are shown. Integrated afterbody pressure drag was typically slightly lower than the experimental data. The change in afterbody pressure drag with Reynolds number was small both experimentally and computationally, even though the shape of the distribution was somewhat modified with Reynolds number.

  1. Performance analysis of an all-optical OFDM system in presence of non-linear phase noise.

    PubMed

    Hmood, Jassim K; Harun, Sulaiman W; Emami, Siamak D; Khodaei, Amin; Noordin, Kamarul A; Ahmad, Harith; Shalaby, Hossam M H

    2015-02-23

    The potential for higher spectral efficiency has increased the interest in all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. However, the sensitivity of all-optical OFDM to fiber non-linearity, which causes nonlinear phase noise, is still a major concern. In this paper, an analytical model for estimating the phase noise due to self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an all-optical OFDM system is presented. The phase noise versus power, distance, and number of subcarriers is evaluated by implementing the mathematical model using Matlab. In order to verify the results, an all-optical OFDM system, that uses coupler-based inverse fast Fourier transform/fast Fourier transform without any nonlinear compensation, is demonstrated by numerical simulation. The system employs 29 subcarriers; each subcarrier is modulated by a 4-QAM or 16-QAM format with a symbol rate of 25 Gsymbol/s. The results indicate that the phase variance due to FWM is dominant over those induced by either SPM or XPM. It is also shown that the minimum phase noise occurs at -3 dBm and -1 dBm for 4-QAM and 16-QAM, respectively. Finally, the error vector magnitude (EVM) versus subcarrier power and symbol rate is quantified using both simulation and the analytical model. It turns out that both EVM results are in good agreement with each other. PMID:25836428

  2. The biopsychology-nonlinear analysis toolbox: a free, open-source Matlab-toolbox for the non-linear analysis of time series data.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Otto, Tobias; Hoffmann, Sven

    2010-10-01

    We provide a free, open-source toolbox for non-linear time series analyses. The major goal of this project was to provide a toolbox for nonlinear time series analyses that is easily accessible to a wide range of neuroscientists. The toolbox offers modular, powerful and flexible algorithms embedded in an easy to handle graphical user interface (GUI). The toolbox can be run within the Matlab environment, but also as stand-alone solution without reference to a programming environment that is also usable for different PC operating systems (Windows and Linux). The Biopsychology--Nonlinear Analysis Toolbox and documentation are available freely and open-source from http://biopsynltoolbox.sourceforge.net. PMID:20532677

  3. Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Batalov, I.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.

  4. Conjugate momentum estimate using non-linear dynamic model of the sit-to-stand correlates well with accelerometric surface data.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Rachid; Ganea, Raluca; Aminian, Kamiar

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of a non-linear double inverted constrained pendulum model for the analysis of the movement of sit-to-stand (STS) transition. Ten able-bodied subjects perform five trials in their natural speed. Kinematics, kinetics as well as body worn accelerometer data were collected during the STS task using optoelectronic motion capture, force plate and inertial measurement unit, respectively. The conjugate momentum for the whole body which includes linear and angular motion correlates well with the accelerometric surface spanned by the accelerometer data. The partitioning of the conjugate momentum indicates a clear coordination between upper and lower limb after seat-off period. Moreover, the normalization procedure indicates a clear minimal and somehow invariant threshold value of the conjugate momentum to approximately 0.3 (body mass×body length) to perform the sit-to-stand for able-bodied subject. This threshold correlates well with the data obtained from accelerometeric index. The proposed accelerometric index is relevant to assess STS performance and to detect failed STS in clinics and outside a laboratory for patients with reduced mobility. PMID:21377682

  5. A study of equation solvers for linear and non-linear finite element analysis on parallel processing computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Brian C.; Kamat, Manohar P.

    1992-01-01

    Concurrent computing environments provide the means to achieve very high performance for finite element analysis of systems, provided the algorithms take advantage of multiple processors. The authors have examined several algorithms for both linear and nonlinear finite element analysis. The performance of these algorithms on an Alliant FX/80 parallel supercomputer has been studied. For single load case linear analysis, the optimal solution algorithm is strongly problem dependent. For multiple load cases or nonlinear analysis through a modified Newton-Raphson method, decomposition algorithms are shown to have a decided advantage over element-by-element preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithms.

  6. USE OF WEIBULL FUNCTION FOR NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF LOW LEVELS OF SIMULATED HERBICIDE DRIFT ON PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared two regression models, which are based on the Weibull and probit functions, for the analysis of pesticide toxicity data from laboratory studies on Illinois crop and native plant species. Both mathematical models are continuous, differentiable, strictly positive, and...

  7. Detecting non-linearities in neuro-electrical signals: A study of synchronous local field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Gerking, Johannes; Martinerie, Jacques; Neuenschwander, Sergio; Pezard, Laurent; Renault, Bernard; Varela, Francisco J.

    The question of the presence and detection of non-linear dynamics and possibly low-dimensional chaos in the brain is still an open question, with recent results indicating that initial claims for low dimensionality were faulted by incomplete statistical testing. To make some progress on this question, our approach was to use stringent data analysis of precisely controlled and behaviorally significant neuroelectric data. There are strong indications that functional brain activity is correlated with synchronous local field potentials. We examine here such synchronous episodes in data recorded from the visual system of behaving cats and pigeons. Our purpose was to examine under these ideal conditions whether the time series showed any evidence of non-linearity concommitantly with the arising of synchrony. To test for non-linearity we have used surrogate sets for non-linear forecasting, the false nearest strands method, and an examination of deterministic vs stochastic modeling. Our results indicate that the time series under examination do show evidence for traces of non-linear dynamics but weakly, since they are not robust under changes of parameters. We conclude that low-dimensional chaos is unlikely to be found in the brain, and that a robust detection and characterization of higher-dimensional non-linear dynamics is beyond the reach of current analytical tools.

  8. Finite-time H∞ filtering for non-linear stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Mingzhe; Deng, Zongquan; Duan, Guangren

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the robust H∞ filtering analysis and the synthesis of general non-linear stochastic systems with finite settling time. We assume that the system dynamic is modelled by Itô-type stochastic differential equations of which the state and the measurement are corrupted by state-dependent noises and exogenous disturbances. A sufficient condition for non-linear stochastic systems to have the finite-time H∞ performance with gain less than or equal to a prescribed positive number is established in terms of a certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality. Based on this result, the existence of a finite-time H∞ filter is given for the general non-linear stochastic system by a second-order non-linear partial differential inequality, and the filter can be obtained by solving this inequality. The effectiveness of the obtained result is illustrated by a numerical example.

  9. Quantitative methods for stochastic high frequency spatio-temporal and non-linear analysis: Assessing health effects of exposure to extreme ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Alexander

    Extreme weather events, such as heat waves and cold spells, cause substantial excess mortality and morbidity in the vulnerable elderly population, and cost billions of dollars. The accurate and reliable assessment of adverse effects of extreme weather events on human health is crucial for environmental scientists, economists, and public health officials to ensure proper protection of vulnerable populations and efficient allocation of scarce resources. However, the methodology for the analysis of large national databases is yet to be developed. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to examine the effect of extreme weather on the elderly population of the Conterminous US (ConUS) with respect to seasonality in temperature in different climatic regions by utilizing heterogeneous high frequency and spatio-temporal resolution data. To achieve these goals the author: 1) incorporated dissimilar stochastic high frequency big data streams and distinct data types into the integrated data base for use in analytical and decision support frameworks; 2) created an automated climate regionalization system based on remote sensing and machine learning to define climate regions for the Conterminous US; 3) systematically surveyed the current state of the art and identified existing gaps in the scientific knowledge; 4) assessed the dose-response relationship of exposure to temperature extremes on human health in relatively homogeneous climate regions using different statistical models, such as parametric and non-parametric, contemporaneous and asynchronous, applied to the same data; 5) assessed seasonal peak timing and synchronization delay of the exposure and the disease within the framework of contemporaneous high frequency harmonic time series analysis and modification of the effect by the regional climate; 6) modeled using hyperbolic functional form non-linear properties of the effect of exposure to extreme temperature on human health. The proposed climate

  10. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid, Part II: Large-Amplitude Vibrations Without Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-12-01

    The non-linear response of empty and fluid-filled circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitations is investigated. Both modal and point excitations have been considered. The model is suitable to study simply supported shells with and without axial constraints. Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory is used. The boundary conditions on radial displacement and the continuity of circumferential displacement are exactly satisfied. The radial deflection of the shell is expanded by using a basis of seven linear modes. The effect of internal quiescent, incompressible and inviscid fluid is investigated. The equations of motion, obtained in Part I of this study, are studied by using a code based on the collocation method. The validation of the present model is obtained by comparison with other authoritative results. The effect of the number of axisymmetric modes used in the expansion on the response of the shell is investigated, clarifying questions open for a long time. The results show the occurrence of travelling wave response in the proximity of the resonance frequency, the fundamental role of the first and third axisymmetric modes in the expansion of the radial deflection with one longitudinal half-wave, and limit cycle responses. Modes with two longitudinal half-waves are also investigated.

  11. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part Iii: Truncation Effect Without Flow and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    2000-11-01

    The response of simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies is investigated by using improved mode expansions with respect to those assumed in Parts I and II of the present study. Two cases are studied: (1) shells in vacuo; and (2) shells filled with stagnant water. The improved expansions allow checking the accuracy of the solutions previously obtained and giving definitive results within the limits of Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory. The improved mode expansions include: (1) harmonics of the circumferential mode number n under consideration, and (2) only the principal n, but with harmonics of the longitudinal mode included. The effect of additional longitudinal modes is absolutely insignificant in both the driven and companion mode responses. The effect of modes with 2 n circumferential waves is very limited on the trend of non-linearity, but is significant in the response with companion mode participation in the case of lightly damped shells (empty shells). In particular, the travelling wave response appears for much lower vibration amplitudes and presents a frequency range without stable responses, corresponding to a beating phenomenon. A liquid (water) contained in the shell generates a much stronger softening behaviour of the system. Experiments with a water-filled circular cylindrical shell made of steel are in very good agreement with the present theory.

  12. Bispectrum Analysis of Non-linear wave-wave Interaction between VLF Transmitter signal and ELF emission on the Basis of DEMETER satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Kasde, Satish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Symmetric sidebands are observed in the ionosphere by the DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Radiation Transmitted through Earthquake Region) satellite, when it passes above the Indian VLF transmitter, named VTX (18.2 kHz), located near Kanyakumari, India. The spectral boarding phenomena may be divided into two types: (1) spectrally broadened components occurring without any association with ELF/VLF emissions under disturbed ionospheric condition, (2) Spectrally broadened components with predominant side band structure in association with ELF emission. Generally spectral analysis at second order (Power spectrum) is used to analyze the frequency component of signal, but it losses the phase information among the different Fourier components. To retain this information the bispectrum (third order) and/or the bicoherence (normalized bispectrum) are used. Results suggest a non-linear mode coupling between the transmitter signal and ELF emission which produces sidebands that are quasi-electrostatic in nature. However, faint spectral broadened components in both types 1 and 2 may be connected with Doppler shift of quasi-electrostatic, whistler mode waves with a broad spectrum near resonance cone, due to scattering of the transmitter signals from ionospheric irregularities in the F-region. Keywords: spectral boarding, wave-wave Interaction, whistler mode waves and Doppler shift

  13. Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.

    2007-05-01

    Current industrial practice for the prediction and analysis of flutter relies heavily on linear methods and this has led to overly conservative design and envelope restrictions for aircraft. Although the methods have served the industry well, it is clear that for a number of reasons the inclusion of non-linearity in the mathematical and computational aeroelastic prediction tools is highly desirable. The increase in available and affordable computational resources, together with major advances in algorithms, mean that non-linear aeroelastic tools are now viable within the aircraft design and qualification environment. The Partnership for Unsteady Methods in Aerodynamics (PUMA) Defence and Aerospace Research Partnership (DARP) was sponsored in 2002 to conduct research into non-linear aeroelastic prediction methods and an academic, industry, and government consortium collaborated to address the following objectives: To develop useable methodologies to model and predict non-linear aeroelastic behaviour of complete aircraft. To evaluate the methodologies on real aircraft problems. To investigate the effect of non-linearities on aeroelastic behaviour and to determine which have the greatest effect on the flutter qualification process. These aims have been very effectively met during the course of the programme and the research outputs include: New methods available to industry for use in the flutter prediction process, together with the appropriate coaching of industry engineers. Interesting results in both linear and non-linear aeroelastics, with comprehensive comparison of methods and approaches for challenging problems. Additional embryonic techniques that, with further research, will further improve aeroelastics capability. This paper describes the methods that have been developed and how they are deployable within the industrial environment. We present a thorough review of the PUMA aeroelastics programme together with a comprehensive review of the relevant research

  14. Non-linear spatio-temporal filtering of dynamic PET data using a 4-dimensional Gaussian filter and expectation-maximization deconvolution

    PubMed Central

    Holden, J E

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a method for denoising dynamic PET data, spatio-temporal expectation-maximization (STEM) filtering, that combines 4-dimensional Gaussian filtering with EM deconvolution. The initial Gaussian filter suppresses noise at a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies and EM deconvolution quickly restores the frequencies most important to the signal. We aim to demonstrate that STEM filtering can improve variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images without introducing significant bias. We evaluate STEM filtering with a dynamic phantom study, and with simulated and human dynamic PET studies of a tracer with reversible binding behaviour, [C-11]raclopride, and a tracer with irreversible binding behaviour, [F-18]FDOPA. STEM filtering is compared to a number of established 3 and 4-dimensional denoising methods. STEM filtering provides substantial improvements in variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images generated with a number of kinetic analysis techniques while introducing little bias. STEM filtering does bias early frames, but this does not affect quantitative parameter estimates. STEM filtering is shown to be superior to the other simple denoising methods studied. STEM filtering is a simple and effective denoising method that could be valuable for a wide range of dynamic PET applications. PMID:23370699

  15. Non-linear interaction of elastic waves in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Smit, T. J. H.; Campman, X. H.

    2013-09-01

    We study theoretically the interaction of elastic waves caused by non-linearities of rock elastic moduli, and assess the possibility to use this phenomenon in hydrocarbon exploration and in the analysis of rock samples. In our calculations we use the five-constant model by Gol'dberg. It is shown that the interaction of plane waves in isotropic solids is completely described by five coupling coefficients, which have the same order of magnitude. By considering scattering of compressional waves generated by controlled sources at the Earth surface from a non-linear layer at the subsurface, we conclude that non-linear signals from deep formations are unlikely to be measured with the current level of technology. Our analysis of field tests where non-linear signals were measured, suggests that these signals are generated either in the shallow subsurface or in the vicinity of sources. Non-linear wave interaction might be observable in lab tests with focused ultrasonic beams. In this case, the non-linear response is generated in the secondary parametric array formed by linear beams scattered from inclusions. Although the strength of this response is controlled by non-linearity of the surrounding medium rather than by non-linearity of inclusions, its measurement can help to obtain better images of rock samples.

  16. Spin waves cause non-linear friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, M. P.; Brendel, L.; Wolf, D. E.; Nowak, U.

    2011-07-01

    Energy dissipation is studied for a hard magnetic tip that scans a soft magnetic substrate. The dynamics of the atomic moments are simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation numerically. The local energy currents are analysed for the case of a Heisenberg spin chain taken as substrate. This leads to an explanation for the velocity dependence of the friction force: The non-linear contribution for high velocities can be attributed to a spin wave front pushed by the tip along the substrate.

  17. Testing procedures for non-stationarity and non-linearity in physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Popivanov, D; Mineva, A

    1999-03-15

    Most of the physiological signals (EEG, ECG, blood flow, human gait, etc.) characterize by complex dynamics including both non-stationarities and non-linearities. These time series resemble red noise with long-range correlation and 1/(f beta) power spectrum. A question arises as to how to distinguish the characteristics of the process underlying the signal dynamics from the properties of the observed time series. The classical methods to determine possible non-linear (chaotic) dynamics (e.g. correlation dimension) often fail in such signals because of relatively short data records containing stochastic components and non-stationarities. We report an application of several approaches, aimed at (1) determining of the non-stationarities in the signals and (2) testing whether non-linear dynamics exists. Assessment of the intrinsic correlation properties of the dynamic process and distinguishing the same from external trends was performed using singular spectra and detrended fluctuation analysis. The existence of non-linear dynamics was tested by correlation dimension (modified algorithm of re-embedding) and by correlation integrals of real and surrogate data. The correlation integrals of real signal and surrogate data sets were statistically compared using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test. The procedures were tested on EEG and laser-Doppler (LD) blood flow. Our suggestion is that no one approach taken alone is the best for our aims. Instead, a battery of methods should be used. PMID:10194935

  18. On the Slow Transition across Instabilities in Non-Linear Dissipative Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, A.; Bajaj, A. K.; Davies, P.

    1996-05-01

    Non-linear vibratory systems are often characterized by external or excitation parameters which vary with time (i.e., are "non-stationary"). A general methodology is presented to predict analytically the response of some weakly non-linear dissipative systems as an excitation parameter varies slowly across points of instability corresponding to co-dimensional-1 bifurcations. It is shown that the motion near the bifurcation/critical point can be approximated by motion along a center manifold, and can be represented by a 1-dimensional dynamical system with a slowly varying parameter. Techniques expounded by Haberman [1] for analyzing such 1-dimensional equations using matched asymptotic expansions and non-linear boundary layers are summarized. The results are then used to obtain responses of some classical non-linear vibratory systems in the presence of non-stationary excitation. The problem of transition across saddle-node bifurcations or jumps during passage through primary resonance in the forced Duffing's oscillator is studied. Then, the transition across the points of dynamic instability (pitchfork bifurcations) in the parametrically excited non-linear Mathieu equation is analyzed. Lastly, the transition across a Hopf bifurcation in the Parkinson-Smith model for galloping of bluff bodies is discussed. The methodology described here is found to be effective in approximating the behavior of the systems in the vicinity of bifurcation points. The solutions and their qualitative features predicted by the analysis are in good agreement with those obtained from direct numerical integration of the equations.

  19. The Association between Ambient Temperature and Childhood Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Chengdu, China: A Distributed Lag Non-linear Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has recently been recognized as a critical challenge to disease control and public health response in China. This study aimed to quantify the association between temperature and HFMD in Chengdu. Daily HFMD cases and meteorological variables in Chengdu between January 2010 and December 2013 were obtained to construct the time series. A distributed lag non-linear model was performed to investigate the temporal lagged association of daily temperature with age- and gender-specific HFMD. A total of 76,403 HFMD cases aged 0–14 years were reported in Chengdu during the study period, and a bimodal seasonal pattern was observed. The temperature-HFMD relationships were non-linear in all age and gender groups, with the first peak at 14.0–14.1 °C and the second peak at 23.1–23.2 °C. The high temperatures had acute and short-term effects and declined quickly over time, while the effects in low temperature ranges were persistent over longer lag periods. Males and children aged <1 year were more vulnerable to temperature variations. Temperature played an important role in HFMD incidence with non-linear and delayed effects. The success of HFMD intervention strategies could benefit from giving more consideration to local climatic conditions. PMID:27248051

  20. The Association between Ambient Temperature and Childhood Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Chengdu, China: A Distributed Lag Non-linear Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has recently been recognized as a critical challenge to disease control and public health response in China. This study aimed to quantify the association between temperature and HFMD in Chengdu. Daily HFMD cases and meteorological variables in Chengdu between January 2010 and December 2013 were obtained to construct the time series. A distributed lag non-linear model was performed to investigate the temporal lagged association of daily temperature with age- and gender-specific HFMD. A total of 76,403 HFMD cases aged 0-14 years were reported in Chengdu during the study period, and a bimodal seasonal pattern was observed. The temperature-HFMD relationships were non-linear in all age and gender groups, with the first peak at 14.0-14.1 °C and the second peak at 23.1-23.2 °C. The high temperatures had acute and short-term effects and declined quickly over time, while the effects in low temperature ranges were persistent over longer lag periods. Males and children aged <1 year were more vulnerable to temperature variations. Temperature played an important role in HFMD incidence with non-linear and delayed effects. The success of HFMD intervention strategies could benefit from giving more consideration to local climatic conditions. PMID:27248051

  1. Surface-wave amplitude analysis for array data with non-linear waveform fitting: Toward high-resolution attenuation models of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, K.; Yoshizawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    Anelastic attenuation of seismic waves provides us with valuable information on temperature and water content in the Earth's mantle. While seismic velocity models have been investigated by many researchers, anelastic attenuation (or Q) models have yet to be investigated in detail mainly due to the intrinsic difficulties and uncertainties in the amplitude analysis of observed seismic waveforms. To increase the horizontal resolution of surface wave attenuation models on a regional scale, we have developed a new method of fully non-linear waveform fitting to measure inter-station phase velocities and amplitude ratios simultaneously, using the Neighborhood Algorithm (NA) as a global optimizer. Model parameter space (perturbations of phase speed and amplitude ratio) is explored to fit two observed waveforms on a common great-circle path by perturbing both phase and amplitude of the fundamental-mode surface waves. This method has been applied to observed waveform data of the USArray from 2007 to 2008, and a large-number of inter-station amplitude and phase speed data are corrected in a period range from 20 to 200 seconds. We have constructed preliminary phase speed and attenuation models using the observed phase and amplitude data, with careful considerations of the effects of elastic focusing and station correction factors for amplitude data. The phase velocity models indicate good correlation with the conventional tomographic results in North America on a large-scale; e.g., significant slow velocity anomaly in volcanic regions in the western United States. The preliminary results of surface-wave attenuation achieved a better variance reduction when the amplitude data are inverted for attenuation models in conjunction with corrections for receiver factors. We have also taken into account the amplitude correction for elastic focusing based on a geometrical ray theory, but its effects on the final model is somewhat limited and our attenuation model show anti

  2. Asymptotic Stability of Interconnected Passive Non-Linear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isidori, A.; Joshi, S. M.; Kelkar, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of stabilization of a class of internally passive non-linear time-invariant dynamic systems. A class of non-linear marginally strictly passive (MSP) systems is defined, which is less restrictive than input-strictly passive systems. It is shown that the interconnection of a non-linear passive system and a non-linear MSP system is globally asymptotically stable. The result generalizes and weakens the conditions of the passivity theorem, which requires one of the systems to be input-strictly passive. In the case of linear time-invariant systems, it is shown that the MSP property is equivalent to the marginally strictly positive real (MSPR) property, which is much simpler to check.

  3. Hybrid fusion of linear, non-linear and spectral models for the dynamic modeling of sEMG and skeletal muscle force: an application to upper extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Chandrasekhar; Anugolu, Madhavi; Schoen, Marco P; Subbaram Naidu, D; Urfer, Alex; Chiu, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Estimating skeletal muscle (finger) forces using surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals poses many challenges. In general, the sEMG measurements are based on single sensor data. In this paper, two novel hybrid fusion techniques for estimating the skeletal muscle force from the sEMG array sensors are proposed. The sEMG signals are pre-processed using five different filters: Butterworth, Chebychev Type II, Exponential, Half-Gaussian and Wavelet transforms. Dynamic models are extracted from the acquired data using Nonlinear Wiener Hammerstein (NLWH) models and Spectral Analysis Frequency Dependent Resolution (SPAFDR) models based system identification techniques. A detailed comparison is provided for the proposed filters and models using 18 healthy subjects. Wavelet transforms give higher mean correlation of 72.6 ± 1.7 (mean ± SD) and 70.4 ± 1.5 (mean ± SD) for NLWH and SPAFDR models, respectively, when compared to the other filters used in this work. Experimental verification of the fusion based hybrid models with wavelet transform shows a 96% mean correlation and 3.9% mean relative error with a standard deviation of ± 1.3 and ± 0.9 respectively between the overall hybrid fusion algorithm estimated and the actual force for 18 test subjects' k-fold cross validation data. PMID:24209927

  4. Limit cycle oscillation of missile control fin with structural non-linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, J. S.; Lee, I.

    2004-01-01

    Non-linear aeroelastic characteristics of a deployable missile control fin with structural non-linearity are investigated. A deployable missile control fin is modelled as a two-dimensional typical section model. Doublet-point method is used for the calculation of supersonic unsteady aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic forces are approximated by using the minimum-state approximation. For non-linear flutter analysis structural non-linearity is represented by an asymmetric bilinear spring and is linearized by using the describing function method. The linear and non-linear flutter analyses indicate that the flutter characteristics are significantly dependent on the frequency ratio. From the non-linear flutter analysis, various types of limit cycle oscillations are observed in a wide range of air speeds below or above the linear divergent flutter boundary. The non-linear flutter characteristics and the non-linear aeroelastic responses are investigated.

  5. Dynamically coupling the non-linear Stokes equations with the shallow ice approximation in glaciology: Description and first applications of the ISCAL method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlkrona, Josefin; Lötstedt, Per; Kirchner, Nina; Zwinger, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    We propose and implement a new method, called the Ice Sheet Coupled Approximation Levels (ISCAL) method, for simulation of ice sheet flow in large domains during long time-intervals. The method couples the full Stokes (FS) equations with the Shallow Ice Approximation (SIA). The part of the domain where SIA is applied is determined automatically and dynamically based on estimates of the modeling error. For a three dimensional model problem, ISCAL computes the solution substantially faster with a low reduction in accuracy compared to a monolithic FS. Furthermore, ISCAL is shown to be able to detect rapid dynamic changes in the flow. Three different error estimations are applied and compared. Finally, ISCAL is applied to the Greenland Ice Sheet on a quasi-uniform grid, proving ISCAL to be a potential valuable tool for the ice sheet modeling community.

  6. Efficient Modeling Method of Vehicle Dynamics Operating at a Low Speed and Its Application to Non-Linear Optimal Controller Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Woo; Matsuzaki, Sinya; Narikiyo, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we propose a non-analytical but effective self-organizing modeling method, where system dynamics of interest are constructed in a polynomial affine formation with high granularity. The conventional data mining technique has the assessment scheme for representativeness of the developed model. However, if the model is applied to extract the desired values without considering the structural peculiarities such as input pattern used for constructing the dynamics, hardware specification used for data acquisition, and so on, it possibly shows substantial margin of modeling error. In order to correspond this type of control paradigm, we define the permissible set of state and input variables in order to characterize the data used for developing the model. The developed model is then applied to the programming based optimal control scheme where the optimal inputs are selected among the permissible set of the input variable, considering all the limitations specified by linear inequalities.

  7. Thermal Solitons in 1d and 2d Anharmonic Lattices - Solectrons and the Organization of Non-Linear Fluctuations in Long-Living Dynamical Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, M. G.; Ebeling, W.; Chetverikov, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermal excitation of intrinsic localized modes in the form of solitons in 1d and 2d anharmonic lattices at moderately high temperatures. Such finite-amplitude fluctuations form long-living dynamical structures with life-time in the pico-second range thus surviving a relatively long time in comparison to other thermal fluctuations. Further we discuss the influence of such long-living fluctuations on the dynamics of added excess free electrons. The atomic lattice units are treated as quasi-classical objects interacting by Morse forces and stochastically moving according to Langevin equations. In 2d the atoms are initially organized in a triangular lattice. The electron distributions are in a first estimate represented by equilibrium adiabatic distributions in the actual polarization fields. Computer simulations show that in 2d systems such excitations are moving with supersonic velocities along lattice rows oriented with the cristallographic axes. By following the electron distributions we have also been able to study the excitations of solectron type (electron-soliton dynamic bound states) and estimate their life times.

  8. Memristive non-linear system and hidden attractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P.; Saha, D. C.; Ray, A.; Chowdhury, A. R.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of memristor on non-linear dynamical systems exhibiting chaos are analysed both form the view point of theory and experiment. It is observed that the memristive system has always fewer number of fixed points than the original one. Sometimes there is no fixed point in the memristive system. But its chaotic properties are retained. As such we have a situation known as hidden attractor because if it is a stable fixed point then the attractor does not evolve from its basin of attraction(obtained from its stable fixed point) or if there is no fixed point, the question of basin of attraction from fixed point does not arise at all [1, 2]. Our analysis gives a detailed accounts of properties related to its chaotic behavior. Important observations are also obtained with the help of electronic circuits to support the numerical simulations.

  9. Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.

  10. Investigation of Non-Linear Dynamics of the Rock Massive,Using Seismological Catalogue data and Induction Electromagnetic Monitoring Data in a Rock Burst Mine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, O. Y.; Klimko, V. K.; Shipeev, O. V.

    2012-04-01

    Geological medium is an open dynamical system, which is influenced on different scales by natural and man-made impacts, which change the medium state and lead as a result to a complicated many ranked hierarchic evolution. That is the subject of geo synergetics. Paradigm of physical mesomechanics, which was advanced by academician Panin V.E. and his scientific school, which includes the synergetic approach is a constructive method for research and changing the state of heterogenic materials [1]. That result had been obtained on specimens of different materials. In our results of research of no stationary geological medium in a frame of natural experiments in real rock massifs, which are under high man-made influence it was shown, that the state dynamics can be revealed with use synergetics in hierarchic medium. Active and passive geophysical monitoring plays a very important role for research of the state of dynamical geological systems. It can be achieved by use electromagnetic and seismic fields. Our experience of that research showed the changing of the system state reveals on the space scales and times in the parameters, which are linked with the peculiarities of the medium of the second or higher ranks [2-5]. Results of seismological and electromagnetic information showed the mutual additional information on different space-time levels of rock massive state, which are energetic influenced by explosions, used in mining technology. It is revealed a change of nonlinearity degree in time of the massive state by active influence on it. The description of massive movement in a frame of linear dynamical system does not satisfy the practical situation. The received results are of great significance because for the first time we could find the coincidences with the mathematical theory of open systems and experimental natural results with very complicated structure. On that base we developed a new processing method for the seismological information which can be used in

  11. Non-linear Flood Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, A.

    The genesis of floodings is very complex depending on hydrologic, meteorological and evapo-transpirative factors that are linked among themselves in a non linear way with numerous feedback processes. The Cantor dust and the rank-ordering statistics supply a proper framework for identifying a kind of a non linear order in the time succession of the floodings and so provide a basis for their prediction. When a catalogue is analysed, it is necessary to test its completeness with respect to the size of the recorded events and results obtained from analysis of catalogues that do not take into account such a test are suspect and possibly wrong, or, at least, unreliable. Floodings have no instrumentally determined magnitude scale, like that conventionally used for earthquakes, and this is why they are generally described in qualitative terms. For this reason, a semi-quantitative index, called ASI (Alluvial Strength Index) has been here developed that combines attributes of alluvial triggering mechanisms and effects on the territorial and hydraulic system.The historical succession of alluvial events occurred at high valley of Po river (Northern Italy), mean valley of Calore river (Southern Italy) and at Sarno, near Naples, have been accurately reconstructed on the basis of old documents and classified according to their ASI. The catalogues have been verified to be complete only for events classified at least as moderate and this probably because many of the lowest energetic events, especially in the past, escaped the detection. The identification of scale-invariances in the time clustering of alluvial events, both on short and long time scales, even if indicative of the complexity of their genesis, might be very helpful for the assessment and reduction of the hazard of future disasters. For example, on the basis of the results of the rank-ordering statistics, the most probable occurrence of an alluvial event at Sarno, classified at least as strong, is predicted to occur

  12. The temporal lagged association between meteorological factors and malaria in 30 counties in south-west China: a multilevel distributed lag non-linear analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between malaria and meteorological factors is complex due to the lagged and non-linear pattern. Without fully considering these characteristics, existing studies usually concluded inconsistent findings. Investigating the lagged correlation pattern between malaria and climatic variables may improve the understanding of the association and generate possible better prediction models. This is especially beneficial to the south-west China, which is a high-incidence area in China. Methods Thirty counties in south-west China were selected, and corresponding weekly malaria cases and four weekly meteorological variables were collected from 2004 to 2009. The Multilevel Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (MDLNM) was used to study the temporal lagged correlation between weekly malaria and weekly meteorological factors. The counties were divided into two groups, hot and cold weathers, in order to compare the difference under different climatic conditions and improve reliability and generalizability within similar climatic conditions. Results Rainfall was associated with malaria cases in both hot and cold weather counties with a lagged correlation, and the lag range was relatively longer than those of other meteorological factors. Besides, the lag range was longer in hot weather counties compared to cold weather counties. Relative humidity was correlated with malaria cases at early and late lags in hot weather counties. Minimum temperature had a longer lag range and larger correlation coefficients for hot weather counties compared to cold weather counties. Maximum temperature was only associated with malaria cases at early lags. Conclusion Using weekly malaria cases and meteorological information, this work studied the temporal lagged association pattern between malaria cases and meteorological information in south-west China. The results suggest that different meteorological factors show distinct patterns and magnitudes for the lagged correlation, and

  13. A two dimensional interface element for coupling of independently modeled three dimensional finite element meshes and extensions to dynamic and non-linear regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aminpour, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The work reported here pertains only to the first year of research for a three year proposal period. As a prelude to this two dimensional interface element, the one dimensional element was tested and errors were discovered in the code for built-up structures and curved interfaces. These errors were corrected and the benchmark Boeing composite crown panel was analyzed successfully. A study of various splines led to the conclusion that cubic B-splines best suit this interface element application. A least squares approach combined with cubic B-splines was constructed to make a smooth function from the noisy data obtained with random error in the coordinate data points of the Boeing crown panel analysis. Preliminary investigations for the formulation of discontinuous 2-D shell and 3-D solid elements were conducted.

  14. Non-linearity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Petros, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The whole spectrum of medicine consists of complex non-linear systems that are balanced and interact with each other. How non-linearity confers stability on a system and explains variation and uncertainty in clinical medicine is discussed. A major theme is that a small alteration in initial conditions may have a major effect on the end result. In the context of non-linearity, it is argued that 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) as it exists today can only ever be relevant to a small fraction of the domain of medicine, that the 'art of medicine' consists of an intuitive 'tuning in' to these complex systems and as such is not so much an art as an expression of non-linear science. The main cause of iatrogenic disease is interpreted as a failure to understand the complexity of the systems being treated. Case study examples are given and analysed in non-linear terms. It is concluded that good medicine concerns individualized treatment of an individual patient whose body functions are governed by non-linear processes. EBM as it exists today paints with a broad and limited brush, but it does promise a fresh new direction. In this context, we need to expand the spectrum of scientific medicine to include non-linearity, and to look upon the 'art of medicine' as a historical (but unstated) legacy in this domain. PMID:12787180

  15. Using non-linear analogue of Nyquist diagrams for analysis of the equation describing the hemodynamics in blood vessels near pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Bord, E. E.; Khe, A. K.; Panarin, V. A.; Orlov, K. J.; Chupakhin, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    This article considers method of describing the behaviour of hemodynamic parameters near vascular pathologies. We study the influence of arterial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations on the vascular system. The proposed method involves using generalized model of Van der Pol-Duffing to find out the characteristic behaviour of blood flow parameters. These parameters are blood velocity and pressure in the vessel. The velocity and pressure are obtained during the neurosurgery measurements. It is noted that substituting velocity on the right side of the equation gives good pressure approximation. Thus, the model reproduces clinical data well enough. In regard to the right side of the equation, it means external impact on the system. The harmonic functions with various frequencies and amplitudes are substituted on the right side of the equation to investigate its properties. Besides, variation of the right side parameters provides additional information about pressure. Non-linear analogue of Nyquist diagrams is used to find out how the properties of solution depend on the parameter values. We have analysed 60 cases with aneurysms and 14 cases with arteriovenous malformations. It is shown that the diagrams are divided into classes. Also, the classes are replaced by another one in the definite order with increasing of the right side amplitude.

  16. Geometrically Non-Linear Free Vibration of Fully Clamped Symmetrically Laminated Rectangular Composite Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HARRAS, B.; BENAMAR, R.; WHITE, R. G.

    2002-04-01

    The geometrically non-linear free vibration of thin composite laminated plates is investigated by using a theoretical model based on Hamilton's principle and spectral analysis previously applied to obtain the non-linear mode shapes and resonance frequencies of thin straight structures, such as beams, plates and shells (Benamar et al. 1991Journal of Sound and Vibration149 , 179-195; 1993, 164, 295-316; 1990 Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics, Southampton; Moussaoui et al. 2000 Journal of Sound and Vibration232, 917-943 [1-4]). The von Kármán non-linear strain-displacement relationships have been employed. In the formulation, the transverse displacement W of the plate mid-plane has been taken into account and the in-plane displacements U and V have been neglected in the non-linear strain energy expressions. This assumption, quite often made in the literature has been adopted in reference [2] and (El Kadiri et al. 1999 Journal of Sound and Vibration228, 333-358 [5]), in the isotropic case and has been mentioned here because the results obtained have been found to be in very good agreement with those based on the hierarchical finite element method (HFEM). In a previous study, it was assumed, based on the analogy with the isotropic case, that the fundamental carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate non-linear mode shape could be well estimated, by using nine plate functions, obtained as products of clamped-clamped beam functions in the x and y directions, symmetric in both the length U001and width directions [3]. In the present work, a convergence study has been performed and has shown that, although such an assumption may yield a good estimate for the non-linear resonance frequency, 18 plate functions should be taken into account instead of nine in the first non-linear mode shape and associated bending stress patterns calculations. This allows the anisotropy induced by the fibre orientations to be taken

  17. Non-linear dynamics in photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimienta, V.; Lévy, G.; Lavabre, D.; Laplante, J. P.; Micheau, J. C.

    1992-09-01

    The rate law of an elementary photochemical reaction: A → B ( hv), contains 4 independent factors: the quantum yield, the photon flux, the concentration of the photosensitive substrate and the photokinetic factor. This type of reaction will always slow down. However, by increasing one of these 4 factors artificially, the reaction can be made to speed up. Using kinetic models comprising one or more photochemical reactions, we show that appropriate coupling between two or more elementary processes gives rise to a cooperative effect. This effect increases one or more of these 4 factors, and makes the coupled photochemical model bistable in a CSTR. The values of the parameters for which one observes bistability are experimentally realistic. One of these models provides a simplified simulation of the stages underlying the bistable photochemical behavior of the TPID/CHCl 3, system.

  18. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes T.; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Thang, Tran Binh; An, Do Dang; Hang, Lai Thi Minh; Long, Tran Thanh; Loan, Bui Thi Hong; Honda, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC) rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model). Results High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52), females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21), people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63), and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28). Conclusions In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases). These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City. PMID:26781954

  19. Proceedings of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop, held at NASA Langley Research Center on 8-9 Dec. 1993, was to identify and articulate requirements for non-linear aero prediction capabilities during conceptual/preliminary design. The attendees included engineers from industry, government, and academia in a variety of aerospace disciplines, such as advanced design, aerodynamic performance analysis, aero methods development, flight controls, and experimental and theoretical aerodynamics. Presentations by industry and government organizations were followed by panel discussions. This report contains copies of the presentations and the results of the panel discussions.

  20. Dynamic analysis of process reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Lawson, L.O.; Noel, S.D.

    1995-06-01

    The approach and methodology of conducting a dynamic analysis is presented in this poster session in order to describe how this type of analysis can be used to evaluate the operation and control of process reactors. Dynamic analysis of the PyGas{trademark} gasification process is used to illustrate the utility of this approach. PyGas{trademark} is the gasifier being developed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) by Jacobs-Siffine Engineering and Riley Stoker. In the first step of the analysis, process models are used to calculate the steady-state conditions and associated sensitivities for the process. For the PyGas{trademark} gasifier, the process models are non-linear mechanistic models of the jetting fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and the fixed-bed gasifier. These process sensitivities are key input, in the form of gain parameters or transfer functions, to the dynamic engineering models.

  1. Non-linear Post Processing Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Shawn; Lopez, Alex; Torres, Angel

    1997-01-01

    A non-linear filter for image post processing based on the feedforward Neural Network topology is presented. This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of "smart" filters in image post processing. The filter has shown to be useful in recovering high frequencies, such as those lost during the JPEG compression-decompression process. The filtered images have a higher signal to noise ratio, and a higher perceived image quality. Simulation studies comparing the proposed filter with the optimum mean square non-linear filter, showing examples of the high frequency recovery, and the statistical properties of the filter are given,

  2. Non-linear behaviour of charge-pump phase-locked loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, C.; Hedayat, C.; Hilleringmann, U.

    2010-10-01

    The analysis of the mixed analogue and digital structure of charge-pump phase-locked loops (CP-PLL) is a challenge in modelling and simulation. In most cases the system is designed and characterized using its continuous linear model or its discrete linear model neglecting its non-linear switching behaviour. I.e., the time-varying model is approximated by a time-invariant representation using its average dynamics. Depending on what kind of phase detector is used, the scopes of validity of these approximations are different. Here, a preeminent characterization and simulation technique based on the systems event-driven feature is presented, merging the logical and analogue inherent characteristics of the system. In particular, the high-grade non-linear locking process and the dead-zone are analyzed.

  3. A non-linear model of economic production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

    2003-06-01

    We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

  4. Is 3D true non linear traveltime tomography reasonable ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, A.; Virieux, J.

    2003-04-01

    The data sets requiring 3D analysis tools in the context of seismic exploration (both onshore and offshore experiments) or natural seismicity (micro seismicity surveys or post event measurements) are more and more numerous. Classical linearized tomographies and also earthquake localisation codes need an accurate 3D background velocity model. However, if the medium is complex and a priori information not available, a 1D analysis is not able to provide an adequate background velocity image. Moreover, the design of the acquisition layouts is often intrinsically 3D and renders difficult even 2D approaches, especially in natural seismicity cases. Thus, the solution relies on the use of a 3D true non linear approach, which allows to explore the model space and to identify an optimal velocity image. The problem becomes then practical and its feasibility depends on the available computing resources (memory and time). In this presentation, we show that facing a 3D traveltime tomography problem with an extensive non-linear approach combining fast travel time estimators based on level set methods and optimisation techniques such as multiscale strategy is feasible. Moreover, because management of inhomogeneous inversion parameters is more friendly in a non linear approach, we describe how to perform a jointly non-linear inversion for the seismic velocities and the sources locations.

  5. A single-degree-of-freedom model for non-linear soil amplification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdik, Mustafa Ozder

    1979-01-01

    For proper understanding of soil behavior during earthquakes and assessment of a realistic surface motion, studies of the large-strain dynamic response of non-linear hysteretic soil systems are indispensable. Most of the presently available studies are based on the assumption that the response of a soil deposit is mainly due to the upward propagation of horizontally polarized shear waves from the underlying bedrock. Equivalent-linear procedures, currently in common use in non-linear soil response analysis, provide a simple approach and have been favorably compared with the actual recorded motions in some particular cases. Strain compatibility in these equivalent-linear approaches is maintained by selecting values of shear moduli and damping ratios in accordance with the average soil strains, in an iterative manner. Truly non-linear constitutive models with complete strain compatibility have also been employed. The equivalent-linear approaches often raise some doubt as to the reliability of their results concerning the system response in high frequency regions. In these frequency regions the equivalent-linear methods may underestimate the surface motion by as much as a factor of two or more. Although studies are complete in their methods of analysis, they inevitably provide applications pertaining only to a few specific soil systems, and do not lead to general conclusions about soil behavior. This report attempts to provide a general picture of the soil response through the use of a single-degree-of-freedom non-linear-hysteretic model. Although the investigation is based on a specific type of nonlinearity and a set of dynamic soil properties, the method described does not limit itself to these assumptions and is equally applicable to other types of nonlinearity and soil parameters.

  6. The non-linear MSW equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Mark J.; McKellar, Bruce H. J.

    1991-04-01

    A simple, non-linear generalization of the MSW equation is presented and its analytic solution is outlined. The orbits of the polarization vector are shown to be periodic, and to lie on a sphere. Their non-trivial flow patterns fall into two topological categories, the more complex of which can become chaotic if perturbed.

  7. Non-linear cord-rubber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the stress-strain relations in a multi-layer composite made up of materials whose individual stress-strain characteristics are non-linear and possibly different. The method is applied to the case of asymmetric tubes in tension, and comparisons with experimentally measured data are given.

  8. Linear and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability in master athletes and healthy middle-aged non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Panagiota; Kouidi, Evangelia; Samaras, Theodoros; Deligiannis, Asterios

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the autonomic cardiac modulation of veteran athletes by the use of traditional and modern methods of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Twenty-nine healthy male master soccer players were divided into two groups; group A consisted of fourteen participants (age 48.9±5.8 years), who were engaged to regular aerobic exercise and group B of fifteen sedentary ones (age 50.8±5.7 years). Sixteen age-matched non-athletes formed control group C. All participants underwent ambulatory 24-h continuous electrocardiogram monitoring for the calculation of time and frequency domain HRV indices. Additionally, Poincaré analysis SD1 and SD2 as well as multiresolution wavelet analysis σwav(16) and σwav(32) markers were calculated. Time-domain indices were significantly increased in group A compared to groups B and C. Group A presented greater values of SD1 (by 43%, p<0.01 and 34.4%, p<0.05 than groups B and C respectively) and SD2 (by 26% compared to B and by 34.1% to C, p<0.05). Index σwav(16) was higher in group A than in B and C by 35.6% (p<0.01) and 23.5% (p<0.05) respectively and so did σwav(32) by 22% (p<0.05) and 24% (p<0.05). Strong correlations were reported among indices. In conclusion, physically active master athletes attain better cardiac autonomic activity than sedentary counterparts, as proved by the application of Poincaré and multiresolution wavelet analyses, which can be useful research tools of cardiac autonomic modulation in sports cardiology. PMID:23867807

  9. Statistical analysis of Amenamevir (ASP2151) between pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacies with non-linear effect model for the treatment of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Takada, Akitsugu; Katashima, Masataka; Kaibara, Atsunori; Sawamoto, Taiji; Zhang, Wenhui; Keirns, James

    2014-09-01

    Amenamevir is the international non-proprietary name for ASP2151 synthesized by Astellas Pharma, Inc. It is a structurally novel class of helicase-primase inhibitor and demonstrated more potency in vitro anti-viral activity with low cytotoxicity against varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) than acyclovir (ACV). Phase II randomized trial assessed the safety and efficacy of ASP2151 for episodic therapy of recurrent genital herpes was conducted. Participants self-initiated with ASP2151 (100, 200, or 400 mg daily for 3 days), ASP2151 (1,200 mg as a single dose), placebo for 3 days, or Valacyclovir (500 mg twice daily for 3 days). We present a first population pharmacokinetic (PPK) modeling analysis of Amenamevir for genital herpes patients. The final model retained the effect of Weight and Albumin on CL. Statistical analysis between pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacies was done by using the time above 200 ng/mL (T200 ). T200 derived from the final PPK model to consider the correlation with Time to lesion healing and viral shedding. This finding suggested that it could be necessary to maintain the Amenamevir concentration above the threshold level to prevent the virus replication. PMID:27129009

  10. Aeroelastic analysis for helicopter rotor blades with time-variable, non-linear structural twist and multiple structural redundancy: Mathematical derivation and program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of a nonlinearly twisted rotor blade in steady flight conditions together with those additional aeroelastic features germane to composite bearingless rotors are derived. The differential equations are formulated in terms of uncoupled (zero pitch and twist) vibratory modes with exact coupling effects due to finite, time variable blade pitch and, to second order, twist. Also presented are derivations of the fully coupled inertia and aerodynamic load distributions, automatic pitch change coupling effects, structural redundancy characteristics of the composite bearingless rotor flexbeam - torque tube system in bending and torsion, and a description of the linearized equations appropriate for eigensolution analyses. Three appendixes are included presenting material appropriate to the digital computer program implementation of the analysis, program G400.