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Sample records for non-negligible cohabitational unions

  1. Sexual Frequency and the Stability of Marital and Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yabiku, Scott T.; Gager, Constance T.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research found that lower sexual frequency and satisfaction were associated with higher rates of divorce, but little research had examined the role of sexual activity in the dissolution of cohabiting unions. We drew upon social exchange theory to hypothesize why sexual frequency is more important in cohabitation: (a) cohabitors' lower costs…

  2. FERTILITY AND THE STABILITY OF COHABITING UNIONS: VARIATION BY INTENDEDNESS.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R

    2014-03-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates that children increase the stability of marriage. However, it is not clear whether the theories explaining greater marital stability among parents can be applied to the increasing number of cohabiting couples who have children, as cohabitation plays more varied roles in the family system than marriage. Furthermore, theories about children and marital stability often assume that births are intended, which is less likely to be the case for cohabiting than for marital births. Using data from the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, we find that intended and disagreed-upon pregnancies (but not unintended pregnancies) reduce the risk of dissolution relative to women who have no pregnancy or birth. Relative to non-fertile couples, all pregnancies increase the risk of marriage over staying cohabiting, but couples with a birth show little difference in the odds of stability or transitions once the child is born. However, relative to an intended birth, having an unintended or disagreed-upon birth increases the risk of dissolution. These findings suggest that normative pressures influence the union behaviors of cohabitors during pregnancy, while selection processes and rational choice considerations play a greater role after a birth. PMID:24554794

  3. The Influence of Union Transitions on White Adults' Attitudes toward Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Mick; Thornton, Arland

    2005-01-01

    Data from the Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children are used to identify the influences of adult union transitions on changes in attitudes toward cohabitation among a sample of 794 young adults. The analysis examines the extent to which attitudes about cohabitation change as a result of entry into and exit from cohabitation and…

  4. Cohabitation, post-conception unions, and the rise in nonmarital fertility.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Daniel T; Sassler, Sharon; Turner, Richard N

    2014-09-01

    The majority of U.S. nonmarital births today are to cohabiting couples. This study focuses on transitions to cohabitation or marriage among pregnant unmarried women during the period between conception and birth. Results using the newly-released 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth show that nonmarital pregnancy is a significant precursor to cohabitation before childbirth (18%), exceeding transitions to marriage (5%) by factor of over three. For pregnant women, the boundaries between singlehood, cohabitation, and marriage are highly fluid. The results also reveal substantial variation in post-conception cohabiting and marital unions; e.g., disproportionately low percentages of black single and cohabiting women transitioned into marriage, even when conventional social and economic risk factors are controlled. The multivariate analyses also point to persistent class differences in patterns of family formation, including patterns of cohabitation and marriage following conception. Poorly educated women, in particular, are much more likely to become pregnant as singles living alone or as partners in cohabiting unions. But compared with college-educated women, pregnancies are less likely to lead to either cohabitation or marriage. This paper highlights the conceptual and technical challenges involved in making unambiguous interpretations of nonmarital fertility during a period of rising nonmarital cohabitation. PMID:24913950

  5. Cohabitation, Post-Conception Unions, and the Rise in Nonmarital Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Sassler, Sharon; Turner, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. nonmarital births today are to cohabiting couples. This study focuses on transitions to cohabitation or marriage among pregnant unmarried women during the period between conception and birth. Results using the newly-released 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth show that nonmarital pregnancy is a significant precursor to cohabitation before childbirth (18 percent), exceeding transitions to marriage (5 percent) by factor of over three. For pregnant women, the boundaries between singlehood, cohabitation, and marriage are highly fluid. The results also reveal substantial variation in post-conception cohabiting and marital unions; e.g., disproportionately low percentages of black single and cohabiting women transitioned into marriage, even when conventional social and economic risk factors are controlled. The multivariate analyses also point to persistent class differences in patterns of family formation, including patterns of cohabitation and marriage following conception. Poorly educated women, in particular, are much more likely to become pregnant as singles living alone or as partners in cohabiting unions. But compared with college-educated women, pregnancies are less likely to lead to either cohabitation or marriage. This paper highlights the conceptual and technical challenges involved in making unambiguous interpretations of nonmarital fertility during a period of rising nonmarital cohabitation. PMID:24913950

  6. Change in the Stability of Marital and Cohabiting Unions Following the Birth of a Child.

    PubMed

    Musick, Kelly; Michelmore, Katherine

    2015-10-01

    The share of births to cohabiting couples has increased dramatically in recent decades. How we evaluate the implications of these increases depends critically on change in the stability of cohabiting families. This study examines change over time in the stability of U.S. couples who have a child together, drawing on data from the 1995 and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). We parse out the extent to which change in the stability of cohabiting and married families reflects change in couples' behavior versus shifts in the characteristics of those who cohabit, carefully accounting for trajectories of cohabitation and marriage around the couple's first birth. Multivariate event history models provide evidence of a weakening association between cohabitation and instability given that marriage occurs at some point before or after the couple's first birth. The more recent data show statistically indistinguishable separation risks for couples who have a birth in marriage without ever cohabiting, those who cohabit and then have a birth in marriage, and those who have a birth in cohabitation and then marry. Cohabiting unions with children are significantly less stable when de-coupled from marriage, although the parents in this group also differ most from others on observed (and likely, unobserved) characteristics. PMID:26385110

  7. The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avellar, Sarah; Smock, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, we use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of…

  8. Relationship Quality in Marital and Cohabiting Unions across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Keizer, Renske; Lappegard, Trude

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey to investigate relationship quality among currently married and cohabiting individuals ages 18 to 55 (N = 41,760) in 8 European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Romania, Russia, and The Netherlands). They expected to find fewer…

  9. Better Parents, More Stable Partners: Union Transitions among Cohabiting Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Lauren Rinelli

    2011-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,702 couples) are employed to examine the association between mother- and father-reported parenting characteristics (father involvement and coparenting) and transitions out of cohabitation through marriage or separation in the 5 years after a child is born. Father involvement and…

  10. How Similar are Cohabiting and Married Parents? Second Conception Risks by Union Type in the United States and Across Europe.

    PubMed

    Perelli-Harris, Brienna

    2014-01-01

    The increase in births within cohabitation in the United States and across Europe suggests that cohabitation and marriage have become more similar with respect to childbearing. However, little is known about additional childbearing after first birth. Using harmonized union and fertility histories from surveys in 15 countries, this study examines second conception risks leading to a live birth for women who have given birth within a union. Results show that women who continue to cohabit after birth have significantly lower second conception risks than married women in all countries except those in Eastern Europe, even when controlling for union duration, union dissolution, age at first birth, and education. Pooled models indicate that differences in the second conception risks by union type between Eastern and Western Europe are significant. Pooled models including an indicator for the diffusion of cohabitation show that when first births within cohabitation are rare, cohabiting women have significantly lower second conception risks than married women. As first births within cohabitation increase, differences in second conception risks for cohabiting and married women narrow. But as the percent increases further, the differentials increase again, suggesting that cohabitation and marriage are not becoming equivalent settings for additional childbearing. However, I also find that in all countries except Estonia, women who marry after first birth have second conception risks similar to couples married at first birth, indicating that the sequence of marriage and childbearing does not matter to fertility as much as the act of marrying itself. PMID:25395696

  11. Earnings and Expenditures on Household Services in Married and Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treas, Judith; de Ruijter, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Despite the rise in women's paid employment, little is known about how women and their partners allocate money to outsource domestic tasks, especially in unmarried unions. Tobit analyses of 6,170 married and cohabiting couples in the 1998 Consumer Expenditure Survey test hypotheses that recognize gender inequality between partners, gender typing…

  12. Income Allocation in Marital and Cohabiting Unions: The Case of Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropesa, R. S.; Landale, Nancy S.; Kenkre, Tanya

    2003-01-01

    The rise of cohabitation and the growing share of births to cohabiting couples have led to speculation that the boundary between marriage and cohabitation is blurring. Examines this issue with an analysis of the financial arrangements of fathers of mainland Puerto Rican children. Reveals that married fathers are more likely than cohabiting fathers…

  13. Childbearing in Cohabitational Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng

    1996-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 Friends and Family Survey, examined the childbearing experiences of cohabiting women after their entry into a cohabitational relationship. Found that the hazard rate of a cohabiting woman bearing a child within the union is associated with her age, educational status, nativity, and other factors. (RJM)

  14. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhu, Junmin; Hu, Qiwen; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-09-01

    Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1), thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection. PMID:27421818

  15. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…

  16. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons—out of financial necessity, because it was convenient, or to meet a housing need. Regardless of social class status, few couples move in together as a “trial marriage.” Nonetheless, middle-class cohabitors were more likely to have become engaged than their working-class counterparts. Our findings indicate the need to reassess common beliefs regarding the role served by cohabitation and suggest that cohabitation has become another location where family outcomes are diverging by social class. PMID:23504506

  17. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  18. He Says, She Says: Gender and Cohabitation*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Penelope M.; Smock, Pamela J.; Manning, Wendy D.; Bergstrom-Lynch, Cara A.

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation has become the modal path to marriage in the United States. However, little is known about what cohabitation means to young adults today. Drawing on data from 18 focus groups (N=138) and 54 in-depth interviews with young adults, this exploratory study investigates motivations to cohabit, and examines potential gender differences in those motivations and the meanings attached to them. We find that primary motives to cohabit include spending time together, sharing expenses, and evaluating compatibility. Strong gender differences emerge in how respondents discuss these themes and how they characterize the drawbacks of cohabitation, with men more concerned about loss of freedom and women with delays in marriage. Overall, our findings suggest that gendered cultural norms governing intimate relationships extend to cohabiting unions, and point to gender differences in the perceived role of cohabitation in union formation processes. PMID:21643456

  19. Cohabitation and Family Formation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    RAYMO, JAMES M.; IWASAWA, MIHO; BUMPASS, LARRY

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demonstrate that the cumulative probabilities of marriage and parenthood within marriage are roughly similar for women who did and those who did not cohabit. The most notable difference is in the pathways to family formation, with women who cohabited more likely both to marry subsequent to pregnancy and to delay childbearing within marriage. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that cohabiting unions in Japan are best viewed as an emerging prelude to marriage rather than as an alternative to marriage or singlehood. We conclude with speculation about the likelihood of further increases in cohabitation in Japan and the potential implications for marriage and fertility. PMID:20084829

  20. Cohabitation and family formation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Iwasawa, Miho; Bumpass, Larry

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demonstrate that the cumulative probabilities of marriage and parenthood within marriage are roughly similar for women who did and those who did not cohabit. The most notable difference is in the pathways to family formation, with women who cohabited more likely both to marry subsequent to pregnancy and to delay childbearing within marriage. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that cohabiting unions in Japan are best viewed as an emerging prelude to marriage rather than as an alternative to marriage or singlehood. We conclude with speculation about the likelihood of further increases in cohabitation in Japan and the potential implications for marriage and fertility. PMID:20084829

  1. Financial Issues and Relationship Outcomes among Cohabiting Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined how financial relationship issues are associated with cohabiting individuals' risk of union dissolution or marriage. Competing-risks Cox regressions using the cohabiting data in the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 483) found that financial disagreements predicted union dissolution, whereas disagreements…

  2. Investments in Marriage and Cohabitation: The Role of Legal and Interpersonal Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Cohabiters have been shown to invest less in their relationship than married couples. This study investigated the role of legal and interpersonal commitment by examining heterogeneity within marital and cohabiting unions. Going beyond the dichotomy of cohabitation versus marriage, different union types were distinguished by their level of legal…

  3. Why are cohabiting relationships more violent than marriages?.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Catherine T; McLanahan, Sara S

    2006-02-01

    In response to increases in cohabitation in the United States, researchers have recently focused on differences between cohabiting and marital unions. One consistent finding is a higher rate of domestic violence among cohabiting couples as compared with married couples. A prominent explanation for this finding is that cohabitation is governed by a different set of institutionalized controls than marriage. This article explores an alternative explanation, namely, that differences in selection out of cohabitation and marriage, including selection of the least-violent cohabiting couples into marriage and the most-violent married couples into divorce, lead to higher observed rates of violence among cohabiting couples in cross-sectional samples. Our results suggest that researchers should be cautious when making comparisons between married and cohabiting couples in which the dependent variable of interest is related to selection into and out of relationship status. PMID:16579211

  4. Non-Negligible Diffusio-Osmosis Inside an Ion Concentration Polarization Layer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Inhee; Kim, Wonseok; Kim, Junsuk; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Hyomin; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-06-24

    The first experimental and theoretical evidence was provided for the non-negligible role of a diffusio-osmosis in the ion concentration polarization (ICP) layer, which had been reported to be in a high Peclet number regime. Under the assumption that the hydrated shells of cations were stripped out with the amplified electric field inside the ICP layer, its concentration profile possessed a steep concentration gradient at the stripped location. Since the concentration gradient drove a strong diffusio-osmosis, the combination of electro-osmotic and diffusio-osmotic slip velocity had a form of an anomalous nonmonotonic function with both a single- and multiple-cationic solution. A direct measurement of electrolytic concentrations around the layer quantitatively validated our new investigations. This non-negligible diffusio-osmotic contribution in a micro- and nanofluidic platform or porous medium would be essential for clarifying the fundamental insight of nanoscale electrokinetics as well as guiding the engineering of ICP-based electrochemical systems. PMID:27391727

  5. Non-Negligible Diffusio-Osmosis Inside an Ion Concentration Polarization Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Inhee; Kim, Wonseok; Kim, Junsuk; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Hyomin; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-06-01

    The first experimental and theoretical evidence was provided for the non-negligible role of a diffusio-osmosis in the ion concentration polarization (ICP) layer, which had been reported to be in a high Peclet number regime. Under the assumption that the hydrated shells of cations were stripped out with the amplified electric field inside the ICP layer, its concentration profile possessed a steep concentration gradient at the stripped location. Since the concentration gradient drove a strong diffusio-osmosis, the combination of electro-osmotic and diffusio-osmotic slip velocity had a form of an anomalous nonmonotonic function with both a single- and multiple-cationic solution. A direct measurement of electrolytic concentrations around the layer quantitatively validated our new investigations. This non-negligible diffusio-osmotic contribution in a micro- and nanofluidic platform or porous medium would be essential for clarifying the fundamental insight of nanoscale electrokinetics as well as guiding the engineering of ICP-based electrochemical systems.

  6. Diazotrophs: a non-negligible source of nitrogen for the tropical coral Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Mar; Houlbrèque, Fanny; Camps, Mercedes; Lorrain, Anne; Grosso, Olivier; Bonnet, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Corals are mixotrophs: they are able to fix inorganic carbon through the activity of their symbiotic dinoflagellates and to gain nitrogen from predation on plankton and uptake of dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. They also live in close association with diverse diazotrophic communities, inhabiting their skeleton, tissue and mucus layer, which are able to fix dinitrogen (N2). The quantity of fixed N2 transferred to the corals and its distribution within coral compartments as well as the quantity of nitrogen assimilated through the ingestion of planktonic diazotrophs are still unknown. Here, we quantified nitrogen assimilation via (i) N2 fixation by symbiont diazotrophs, (ii) ingestion of cultured unicellular diazotrophs and (iii) ingestion of natural planktonic diazotrophs. We estimate that the ingestion of diazotrophs provides 0.76±0.15 µg N cm(-2) h(-1), suggesting that diazotrophs represent a non-negligible source of nitrogen for scleractinian corals. PMID:27335448

  7. Repartnering after First Union Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the 1995 General Social Survey (N= 2,639), this study examines two competing repartnering choices made by Canadians after first union disruption: marriage or cohabitation. About 42% of women and 54% of men form a second union 5 years after union disruption, with cohabitation being the most prevalent choice. The timing of second…

  8. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  9. Cohabitation Expectations among Young Adults in the United States: Do They Match Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Smock, Pamela J.; Dorius, Cassandra; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation continues to rise, but there is a lack of knowledge about expectations to cohabit and the linkage between expectations and subsequent cohabitation. We capitalize on a new opportunity to study cohabitation expectations by drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) main youth and two waves (2008 and 2010) of the NLSY young adult (YA) surveys (n=1,105). We find considerable variation in cohabitation expectations: 39.9% have no expectation of cohabiting in the future and 16.6% report high odds of cohabiting in the next two years. Cohabitation expectations are associated with higher odds of entering a cohabiting relationship, but are not perfectly associated. Only 38% of young adults with certain cohabitation expectations in 2008 entered a cohabiting union by 2010. Further investigation of the mismatch between expectations and behaviors indicates that a substantial minority (30%) who entered a cohabiting union had previously reported no or low expectations, instances of what we term “unplanned cohabitation.” Our findings underscore the importance of considering not just behavior, but also individuals’ expectations for understanding union formation, and more broadly, family change. PMID:25147419

  10. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  11. Cohabitation in the Philippines: Attitudes and Behaviors among Young Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindy; Kabamalan, Midea; Ogena, Nimfa

    2007-01-01

    We examine data from a national survey of 15-27 year olds in the Philippines to assess attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation, and we analyze the marital and nonmarital union experiences of 25-27 year olds. We find that attitudes toward cohabitation remain quite conservative among young Filipinos, although men view cohabitation more favorably…

  12. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    PubMed Central

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these arrangements, 18 of whom resided with their children's fathers occasionally while saying that they were not in a cohabiting relationship. We term such relationships living together apart (LTA). Data analysis revealed that distinct patterns of voluntary and involuntary separations and reunifications characterized intermittent cohabitation and LTA and that these relationships were shaped by the bonds that shared parenting created and the economic needs of both parents. We argue that these dimensions may explain some disparate accounts of cohabitation status in low-income populations. They also demonstrate previously unexplored diversity in cohabiting relationships and suggest further questioning contemporary definitions of families. PMID:25435641

  13. COHABITATION: PARENTS FOLLOWING IN THEIR CHILDREN’S FOOTSTEPS?

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Lauren Rinelli

    2011-01-01

    As cohabitation has risen dramatically in the past few decades among adults of all ages, it is possible that middle and older-aged parents are "learning" cohabitation from their young adult children. The present study uses this theory as a guiding framework to determine if parents are more likely to cohabit themselves following the start of a young adult child's cohabitation. Using three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 275), results show that union formation patterns are influenced by young adult children among parents who are single at their child’s 18th birthday. Parents are less likely to marry than remain single and are much more likely to cohabit than marry if they have a young adult child who cohabits. These results show support for the hypotheses. PMID:21528020

  14. Children and the Stability of Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2004-01-01

    Theory and empirical evidence generally credit children with creating stability in their parents marriages, but whether children have a similar effect on cohabiting unions has not been previously investigated in the United States. This article uses the National Survey of Family Growth N=2,716 to evaluate the effects of children on the stability of…

  15. Debt, cohabitation, and marriage in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Addo, Fenaba R

    2014-10-01

    Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is un-affordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults. PMID:25267281

  16. The elevated risk for violence against cohabiting women: a comparison of three nationally representative surveys of Canada.

    PubMed

    Brownridge, Douglas A

    2008-07-01

    This study examined cohabiting women's elevated risk for male partner violence. It was predicted that an increased rate of cohabitation would be accompanied by a reduction in the bias toward selection into cohabitation and that this would result in greater similarity between characteristics of cohabiting and marital relationships as well as in their respective rates of violence. The results were generally consistent with this prediction. Cohabitation increased in Canada between 1993 and 2004, which appeared to have been reflected in some reduction in differences in selection and relationship variables as well as in lower rates of violence for cohabiting relative to married women. Nevertheless, persons who cohabited remained a select group and several relationship differences persisted. These selection and relationship differences accounted for the persistence of cohabiting women's elevated odds of violence in each survey. Results suggested that rates of violence in cohabiting and marital unions should eventually converge. PMID:18559868

  17. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Nonmarital Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e., breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a nonmarital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of…

  18. Psychological distress of marital and cohabitation breakups.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lara Patrício; Aassve, Arnstein

    2013-11-01

    Using data from a large survey, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), this paper explores the extent to which marital and cohabiting unions differ with respect to the short-term effects of union dissolution on mental health. We compare married individuals who divorced or separated with cohabitors whose first union ended and test the hypothesis that married individuals experience larger negative effects. Results show that initial differences are not statistically significant once the presence of children is controlled for, suggesting that the presence of children is a particularly significant source of increased psychological distress in union dissolutions. However, parenthood does not explain serious psychological distress, which appears to be associated with enduring traits (the personality trait neuroticism). PMID:24090854

  19. Reassessing the Link between Women’s Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality

    PubMed Central

    James, Spencer L.; Beattie, Brett A.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and communication and positively related to conflict. As in previous research, selection mechanisms appear to increase the odds of cohabitation while decreasing marital happiness. A closer examination of the problem also reveals a negative effect of the experience of cohabitation. This paper’s primary contributions are the ability to model selection and experience in the same model and evidence of a robust effect of cohabitation on marital quality. These results underscore the complex pathways between union formation, family structure and marital outcomes. PMID:23616690

  20. Union Type and Depressive Symptoms Among Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2012-01-01

    Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative data from Mexico in cross-sectional and change models to evaluate differences in depressive symptoms across union type (marital vs. cohabiting and first vs. higher order unions) among Mexican men and women. The findings suggest that cohabiting unions do not provide the same mental health benefits as marital unions (especially for men). Repartnering is also associated with higher depressive symptoms (especially for women), which indicates possible lasting mental health disadvantages of divorce/separation or entrance into lower quality second unions. These results suggest that the changing family context in Mexico, which includes increasing cohabitation and union instability, may have important consequences for individuals’ psychological well-being. PMID:22822284

  1. Marital Intentions and the Stability of First Cohabitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Using Cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this article documents the extent to which cohabitors begin their union with intentions to marry (indicated by either being engaged or having definite plans to marry) and how this is related to subsequent cohabitation transitions, building on earlier literature examining expectations.…

  2. Military Service, Race, and the Transition to Marriage and Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth, the author investigates the relationship between military service and the transition to the first intimate union. The author argues that active-duty military service promotes marriage over cohabitation. The results are consistent with this argument, showing that active-duty members of…

  3. The Effect of Union Status at First Childbirth on Union Stability: Evidence from Eastern and Western Germany.

    PubMed

    Schnor, Christine

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that cohabitation is much less stable than marriage. If cohabitation becomes more common among parents, children may be increasingly exposed to separation. However, little is known about how the proportion of cohabiting parents relates to their separation behavior. Higher shares of childbearing within cohabitation might reduce the proportion of negatively selected couples among cohabiting parents, which could in turn improve their union stability. This study focuses on parents who were cohabiting when they had their first child. It compares their union stability within a context in which they represent the majority or the minority. The German case is well-suited to this research goal because non-marital childbearing is common in eastern Germany (60 %) but not in western Germany (27 %). The data came from the German Family Panel (pairfam), and include 1,844 married and cohabiting mothers born in 1971-1973 and 1981-1983. The empirical results suggest that the union stability of cohabiting mothers is positively related to their prevalence: survival curves showed that eastern German cohabiting mothers had a greater degree of union stability than their western German counterparts. This difference increased in the event-history model, which accounted for the particular composition of eastern German society, including the relatively low level of religious affiliation among the population. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity did not change this result. In sum, these findings indicate that context plays an important role in the union stability of cohabiting parents. PMID:24882913

  4. Partner Caregiving in Older Cohabiting Couples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of cohabitation among older adults, the caregiving literature has exclusively focused on formally married individuals. Extending prior work on intra-couple care, this study contrasts frail cohabitors’ patterns of care receipt from a partner to that of frail spouses. Methods. Using nationally representative panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006), we estimate random effects cross-sectional times series models predicting frail cohabitors’ likelihood of receiving partner care compared with their married counterparts’. Conditional on the receipt of intra-couple care, we also examine differences in marital and nonmarital partners’ caregiving hours and caregiving involvement relative to other helpers. Results. Net of sociodemographic, disability, and comorbidity factors, we find that cohabitors are less likely to receive partner care than married individuals. However, caregiving nonmarital partners provide as many hours of care as spouses while providing a substantially larger share of disabled respondents’ care than marital partners. Discussion. Cohabitation and marriage have distinct implications for older adults’ patterns of partner care receipt. This study adds weight to a growing body of research emphasizing the importance of accounting for older adults’ nontraditional union forms and of examining the ramifications of cohabitation for older adults’ well-being. PMID:21482588

  5. Residential Differences in Cohabitors' Union Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Snyder, Anastasia R.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, we examine residential variation in cohabiting women's union outcomes. Prior work has shown that although there are no residential differences in cohabitation, nonmetro women are more likely than others to marry directly and hold more favorable attitudes toward marriage. Building on this…

  6. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ("n" = 1,998 for mothers…

  7. Cohabitation and Children's Family Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…

  8. Emotional health across the transition to first and second unions among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Mernitz, Sara E; Dush, Claire Kamp

    2016-03-01

    The link between romantic relationships and emotional health has been extensively examined and suggests that marriage provides more emotional health benefits than cohabiting or dating relationships. However, the contemporary context of intimate relationships has changed and these associations warrant reexamination among emerging adults in the 2000s. We examined the change in emotional health across the entrance into first and second unions, including cohabiting unions, direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation), and marriage preceded by cohabitation. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, a nationally representative panel study of youth born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States, pooled fixed-effects regression models indicated that entrance into first cohabiting unions and direct marriages, and all second unions, were significantly associated with reduced emotional distress. Gender differences were found for first unions only; for men, only direct marriage was associated with an emotional health benefit, while both direct marriage and cohabitation benefited women's emotional health. PMID:26479896

  9. The Child Health Disadvantage of Parental Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Fragile Families data (N = 2,160) to assess health differences at age 5 for children born to cohabiting versus married parents. Regression analyses indicate worse health for children born to cohabiting parents, including those whose parents stably cohabited, dissolved their cohabitation, and married, than for children with stably…

  10. Diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Agnese; Aassve, Arnstein; Lappegård, Trude

    2015-04-01

    The article analyzes the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation in Norway, using municipality data over a 24-year period (1988-2011). Research has found substantial spatial heterogeneity in this phenomenon but also substantial spatial correlation, and the prevalence of childbearing within cohabitation has increased significantly over time. We consider several theoretical perspectives and implement a spatial panel model that allows accounting for autocorrelation not only on the dependent variable but also on key explanatory variables, and hence identifies the key determinants of diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation across space and over time. We find only partial support for the second demographic transition as a theory able to explain the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation. Our results show that at least in the first phase of the diffusion (1988-1997), economic difficulties as measured by increased unemployment among men contributed to the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation. However, the most important driver for childbearing within cohabitation is expansion in education for women. PMID:25808022

  11. The lower timing resolution bound for scintillators with non-negligible optical photon transport time in time-of-flight PET

    PubMed Central

    Vinke, Ruud; Olcott, Peter D.; Cates, Joshua W.; Levin, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a method is presented that can calculate the lower bound of the timing resolution for large scintillation crystals with non-negligible photon transport. Hereby, the timing resolution bound can directly be calculated from Monte Carlo generated arrival times of the scintillation photons. This method extends timing resolution bound calculations based on analytical equations, as crystal geometries can be evaluated that do not have closed form solutions of arrival time distributions. The timing resolution bounds are calculated for an exemplary 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 LYSO crystal geometry, with scintillation centers exponentially spread along the crystal length as well as with scintillation centers at fixed distances from the photosensor. Pulse shape simulations further show that analog photosensors intrinsically operate near the timing resolution bound, which can be attributed to the finite single photoelectron pulse rise time. PMID:25255807

  12. Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Suzanne; Lesnard, Laurent; Nazio, Tiziana; Raley, Sara

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation. OBJECTIVE Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most “marriage like” and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States. RESULTS Cohabitating men’s and women’s time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S. PMID:25404866

  13. Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Qian, Zhenchao

    2008-01-01

    Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper tracks the experiences of "serial cohabitors." Results indicate that only a minority of cohabiting women (about 15%-20%) were involved in multiple cohabitations. Serial cohabitations were overrepresented among economically disadvantaged groups, especially those with low…

  14. He Says, She Says: Gender and Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Penelope M.; Smock, Pamela J.; Manning, Wendy D.; Bergstrom-Lynch, Cara A.

    2011-01-01

    Cohabitation has become the modal path to marriage in the United States. However, little is known about what cohabitation means to young adults today. Drawing on data from 18 focus groups (N = 138) and 54 in-depth interviews with young adults, this exploratory study investigates motivations to cohabit and examines potential gender differences in…

  15. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

  16. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families.

    PubMed

    Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2013-02-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,998 for mothers and 1,764 for fathers). Overall, cohabitation and marital dissolution were both associated with increased maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, though for married mothers, depressive symptoms returned to predissolution levels with time. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated no differences in the magnitude of the increase in depressive symptoms by type of dissolution, though pooled difference models suggested that married fathers increased in depressive symptoms more than cohabiting fathers. Potential time-variant mediators did not account for these associations, though greater family chaos was associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms, and decreased social support and father - child contact were associated with increased paternal depressive symptoms. PMID:23671351

  17. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families

    PubMed Central

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,998 for mothers and 1,764 for fathers). Overall, cohabitation and marital dissolution were both associated with increased maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, though for married mothers, depressive symptoms returned to predissolution levels with time. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated no differences in the magnitude of the increase in depressive symptoms by type of dissolution, though pooled difference models suggested that married fathers increased in depressive symptoms more than cohabiting fathers. Potential time-variant mediators did not account for these associations, though greater family chaos was associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms, and decreased social support and father – child contact were associated with increased paternal depressive symptoms. PMID:23671351

  18. Union Type and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative…

  19. Marriage and separation risks among German cohabiters: Differences between types of cohabiter.

    PubMed

    Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a typology of different meanings of cohabitation that combines cohabiters' intentions to marry with a general attitude toward marriage, using competing risk analyses to examine whether some cohabiters are more prone than others to marry or to separate. Using data (N = 1,258) from four waves of the German Family Panel (PAIRFAM) and a supplementary study (DEMODIFF), we compared eastern and western German cohabiters of the birth cohorts 1971-73 and 1981-83. Western Germans more frequently view cohabitation as a step in the marriage process, whereas eastern Germans more often cohabit as an alternative to marriage. Taking into account marital attitudes reveals that cohabiters without marriage plans differ from those with plans in their relationship careers, and also shows that cohabiters who plan to marry despite holding a less favourable view of marriage are less likely to realize their plans than cohabiters whose intentions and attitudes are more congruent. PMID:26160505

  20. Maternal Cohabitation and Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raley, R. Kelly; Frisco, Michelle L.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in children's experiences in cohabiting families, little is known about how living in such families affects children's academic success. Extrapolating from two theoretical frameworks that have been commonly used to explain the association between parental divorce and educational outcomes, the authors constructed…

  1. Reassessing Differences in Work and Income in Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperberg, Arielle

    2012-01-01

    Are cohabiters different than married couples who cohabited before marriage? This study used the 2002 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to determine how work behavior might differ for 4 relationship types: (a) cohabiters with uncertain marriage plans, (b) cohabiters with definite marriage plans, (c) premarital cohabiters who…

  2. Equal Access to Income and Union Dissolution among Mainland Puerto Ricans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropesa, R. S.; Landale, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the implications for union stability of different methods for providing access to income in cohabiting and marital unions among mainland Puerto Ricans. Using the Puerto Rican Maternal and Infant Health Study (N= 836), we show that union dissolution is associated with both union type and type of method. The relatively high…

  3. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24320175

  4. Poverty among Cohabiting Gay and Lesbian, and Married and Cohabiting Heterosexual Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokos, Anastasia H.; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2010-01-01

    Using a subsample ( N = 1,365,145) of the 2000 Census 5% Public Use Microdata Sample, the authors investigate explanations for differing poverty chances of cohabiting gay and lesbian, and married and cohabiting heterosexual families. Gay and lesbian couples fare worse than married couples, but better economically than cohabiting heterosexuals.…

  5. Two Decades of Stability and Change in Age at First Union Formation

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Brown, Susan L.; Payne, Krista K.

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of union formation has been shifting; Americans are now marrying at the highest ages on record and the majority of young adults have cohabited. Yet little attention has been paid to the timing of cohabitation relative to marriage. Using the National Survey of Families and Households and 4 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined the timing of marriage, cohabitation, and unions over 20 years. As the median age at first marriage has climbed, the age at cohabitation has remained stable for men and women. The changes in the timing of union formation have been similar according to race/ethnicity. The marked delay in marriage among women and men with low educational attainment has resulted in a near-convergence in the age at first marriage according to education. The authors conclude that the rise in cohabitation has offset changes in the levels and timing of marriage. PMID:25147410

  6. Two Decades of Stability and Change in Age at First Union Formation.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Payne, Krista K

    2014-04-01

    The landscape of union formation has been shifting; Americans are now marrying at the highest ages on record and the majority of young adults have cohabited. Yet little attention has been paid to the timing of cohabitation relative to marriage. Using the National Survey of Families and Households and 4 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined the timing of marriage, cohabitation, and unions over 20 years. As the median age at first marriage has climbed, the age at cohabitation has remained stable for men and women. The changes in the timing of union formation have been similar according to race/ethnicity. The marked delay in marriage among women and men with low educational attainment has resulted in a near-convergence in the age at first marriage according to education. The authors conclude that the rise in cohabitation has offset changes in the levels and timing of marriage. PMID:25147410

  7. The effects of marriage and separation on the psychotropic medication use of non-married cohabiters: a register-based longitudinal study among adult Finns.

    PubMed

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-11-01

    Non-marital cohabitation has become increasingly common and is suggested to offer similar mental-health benefits as marriage does. We studied levels and changes in cohabiters' mental health five years before and five years after entering into marriage or separating, and compared long-term non-married and married cohabiters. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics, excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to non-marital transition and gender, using register data on 189,394 Finns aged 25 to 64. Similar levels of psychotropic-medication use were found among individuals in long unions that continued throughout the follow-up and were non-marital, marital, or changed from non-marital to marital. Among men and women who separated from longer cohabiting unions of more than five years, however, an increase in medication prevalence was observed immediately before separation, followed by a similar decline after separation. At the time of separation the level of medication use was 9.9 per cent (95% CI = 8.7 - 11.3) among men and 15.7 per cent (95% CI = 14.2 - 17.4) among women compared to 4.3 per cent (95% CI = 3.7 - 5.0) and 8.0 per cent (95% CI = 7.2 - 9.0), respectively, among those who cohabited continuously. No changes in medication use were observed before or after separation among those leaving shorter cohabiting unions of less than five years. Among those marrying following shorter cohabiting unions a positive effect of approaching marriage was observed only among women. Compared to continuous cohabiters, the level of medication use was higher among men and women separating from both short-term and long-term cohabiting unions five years before separation. This selective effect suggests that cohabiters with mental-health problems might benefit from relationship counselling. In a long-term stable union it seems to matter little for mental health whether the union is marital or non

  8. Union Formation among Men in the U.S.: Does Having Prior Children Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan D.; Manning, Wendy D.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates whether fatherhood, and specifically involvement with nonresident children, influence men's entrance into marital and cohabiting unions. Findings suggest that neither resident nor nonresident children affect men's chances of entering a new marriage, but nonresident children have a positive effect on cohabitation. (Contains 79…

  9. Economic well-being among elderly couples in marriage and cohabitation in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Gilbert Brenes

    2015-01-01

    In Latin America, the proportion of people in middle and late age who are cohabiting is higher than in industrialized countries. Some scholars consider cohabitation as an “incomplete” institution, where couples fare worse in economic and social well-being compared to marriage. The paper’s goal is to analyze whether cohabiting couples in old age face a different economic situation than married couples, and whether this difference is due to the fact that cohabiters might be a selected group from the general population. The analysis focuses on Mexican couples where at least one of the partners was older than 49, by using the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) 2001 dataset, and part of the 2003 second wave. After controlling for compositional variables (related to selection into consensual unions), the paper finds no significant difference in net worth, change in net worth (from 2001 to 2003), and perceived financial situation between married and cohabiting couples, but there is on the likelihood of owning a house. PMID:25717288

  10. The Role of Cohabitation in Remarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohe; Hudspeth, Clark D.; Bartkowski, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Using 3 subsamples of remarried respondents (n=1,583, 971, and 926) in the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households, this study investigates how different types of cohabitation, especially postdivorce cohabitation, affect the timing and quality of remarriage in the United States. Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis…

  11. Trends in the economic consequences of marital and cohabitation dissolution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tach, Laura M; Eads, Alicia

    2015-04-01

    Mothers in the United States use a combination of employment, public transfers, and private safety nets to cushion the economic losses of romantic union dissolution, but changes in maternal labor force participation, government transfer programs, and private social networks may have altered the economic impact of union dissolution over time. Using nationally representative panels from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) from 1984 to 2007, we show that the economic consequences of divorce have declined since the 1980s owing to the growth in married women's earnings and their receipt of child support and income from personal networks. In contrast, the economic consequences of cohabitation dissolution were modest in the 1980s but have worsened over time. Cohabiting mothers' income losses associated with union dissolution now closely resemble those of divorced mothers. These trends imply that changes in marital stability have not contributed to rising income instability among families with children, but trends in the extent and economic costs of cohabitation have likely contributed to rising income instability for less-advantaged children. PMID:25749487

  12. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  13. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  14. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  15. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  16. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  17. Heterosexual Cohabitation Among Unmarried College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Eleanor D.

    1972-01-01

    This article is an initial exploration of unmarried cohabitation as experienced by female students at Cornell University, and includes a description of the nature of the relationship, the reasons for involvement, and attendant problems and benefits. (Author)

  18. Cigarette Smoking in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions: The Role of Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997–2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter’s education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed. PMID:25346559

  19. Revisiting Jane Austen's Theory of Marriage Timing: Changes in Union Formation among American Men in the Late 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Goldscheider, Frances

    2004-01-01

    This article examines union entrance among never-married young men, focusing on whether the importance of a man's being economically established to marry has decreased in this new era of cohabitation and working wives. The authors test this assumption by examining marriage and cohabitation as competing risks to see whether the importance of…

  20. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-05-18

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:26645897

  1. Realistic dispersion kernels applied to cohabitation reaction dispersion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern, Neus; Fort, Joaquim; Pérez-Losada, Joaquim

    2008-10-01

    We develop front spreading models for several jump distance probability distributions (dispersion kernels). We derive expressions for a cohabitation model (cohabitation of parents and children) and a non-cohabitation model, and apply them to the Neolithic using data from real human populations. The speeds that we obtain are consistent with observations of the Neolithic transition. The correction due to the cohabitation effect is up to 38%.

  2. Justice and the Fate of Married and Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Are cohabiting couples more likely than married couples to break up in response to perceptions that their relationship is not fair? Based on social psychological perspectives on intimate relationship stability, in addition to empirical research contrasting cohabitation with marriage, I hypothesize that cohabiting couples will be more likely than…

  3. Reassessing the Link between Women's Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Spencer L.; Beattie, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and…

  4. Sliding versus Deciding: Inertia and the Premarital Cohabitation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena Kline; Markman, Howard J.

    2006-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has consistently been found to be associated with increased risk for divorce and marital distress in the United States. Two explanations for this "cohabitation effect" are discussed: selection and experience. We present an empirically based view of how the experience of cohabitation may increase risk for relationship…

  5. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation Among Low-Income Single Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women’s perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. Based on longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the 3-city Welfare Study, results indicate that employment status alone is not significantly associated with whether women marry or cohabit. We find that nonemployed mothers and mothers working nonstandard schedules were less likely to marry compared to those working standard schedules. Mothers’ perceptions of economic well-being were associated with marriage at Wave 2. In contrast, cohabitation outcomes were not explained by economic factors, but were related to the perception of child care support. The policy implications of these results are discussed, in particular, as they relate to welfare reform’s work and family goals. PMID:26478647

  6. Factors influencing union formation in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585

  7. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  8. Teen Mothers: Marriage, Cohabitation, and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the proportions of ethnically diverse low-income teen mothers who are cohabitating and/or married to the father of their child(ren) at approximately 14, 24, and 36 months after birth of their child. In addition, the relationship between marital status and education among teen mothers is explored. At 36 months after giving…

  9. The Changing Institution of Marriage: Adolescents' Expectations to Cohabit and to Marry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2007-01-01

    Cohabitation has become part of the pathway toward marriage. Prior work focuses on expectations to marry and has ignored cohabitation. Although most young adults are not replacing marriage with cohabitation, but instead cohabit and then marry, it is important to study adolescents' joint expectations to cohabit as well as marry. Our analyses draw…

  10. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    PubMed

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. PMID:27030417

  11. Education and Cohabitation in Britain: A Return to Traditional Patterns?

    PubMed Central

    Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire; Beaujouan, Éva

    2013-01-01

    Cohabitation is sometimes thought of as being inversely associated with education, but in Britain a more complex picture emerges. Educational group differences in cohabitation vary by age, time period, cohort, and indicator used. Well-educated women pioneered cohabitation in Britain in the 1970s and 1980s. In the most recent cohorts, however, the less educated have exceeded the best educated in the proportions ever having cohabited at young ages. But the main difference by education currently seems largely a matter of timing—that is, the less educated start cohabiting earlier than the best educated. In Britain, educational differentials in cohabitation appear to be reinstating longstanding social patterns in the level and timing of marriage. Taking partnerships as a whole, social differentials have been fairly stable. Following a period of innovation and diffusion, there is much continuity with the past. PMID:25653463

  12. Cohabitation and Repartnering among Low-Income Black Mothers

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; REID, MEGAN

    2015-01-01

    Serial cohabitation has increased dramatically in the U.S., especially in the low-income Black population. The purpose of the study is to understand cohabiting and co-parenting relationships among unmarried cohabiting low-income urban Black families on their own terms, identifying the strengths, challenges, and unique needs of these families. Though cohabitation patterns varied widely, most participants had extensive periods living without a partner. This finding provides more support for the unbalanced marriage markets explanation than the serial cohabitation explanation. Indeed, most participants’ children (83%) had none or only one resident father prior to the current cohabitation. Implications for having a new resident father and child development are discussed. PMID:26161432

  13. Marriage and Cohabitation Outcomes After Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Katherine J.; Sen, Ananda; Hayward, Rodney A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal was to evaluate marriage and cohabitation outcomes for couples who experienced a live birth or fetal death at any gestational age. METHODS For married and cohabitating women who experienced live births, miscarriages, or stillbirths, we conducted a survival analysis (median follow-up period: 7.8 years), by using data from the National Survey of Family Growth, to examine the association between birth outcomes and subsequent relationship survival. The Cox proportional-hazards models controlled for multiple independent risk factors known to affect relationship outcomes. The main outcome measure was the proportion of intact marriages or cohabitations over time. RESULTS Of 7770 eligible pregnancies, 82% ended in live births, 16% in miscarriages, and 2% in stillbirths. With controlling for known risk factors, women who experienced miscarriages (hazard ratio: 1.22 [95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.38]; P = .001) or stillbirths (hazard ratio: 1.40 [95% confidence interval: 1.10–1.79]; P = .007) had a significantly greater hazard of their relationship ending, compared with women whose pregnancies ended in live births. CONCLUSIONS This is the first national study to establish that parental relationships have a higher risk of dissolving after miscarriage or stillbirth, compared with live birth. Given the frequency of pregnancy loss, these findings might have significant societal implications if causally related. PMID:20368319

  14. Can marriage education mitigate the risks associated with premarital cohabitation?

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Allen, Elizabeth S

    2015-06-01

    This study tested whether relationship education (i.e., the Prevention and Relationship Education Program; PREP) can mitigate the risk of having cohabited before making a mutual commitment to marry (i.e., "precommitment cohabitation") for marital distress and divorce. Using data from a study of PREP for married couples in the U.S. Army (N = 662 couples), we found that there was a significant association between precommitment cohabitation and lower marital satisfaction and dedication before random assignment to intervention. After intervention, this precommitment cohabitation effect was only apparent in the control group. Specifically, significant interactions between intervention condition and cohabitation history indicated that for the control group, but not the PREP group, precommitment cohabitation was associated with lower dedication as well as declines in marital satisfaction and increases in negative communication over time. Furthermore, those with precommitment cohabitation were more likely to divorce by the 2-year follow-up only in the control group; there were no differences in divorce based on premarital cohabitation history in the PREP group. These findings are discussed in light of current research on cohabitation and relationship education; potential implications are also considered. PMID:25938709

  15. A Longitudinal Investigation of Commitment Dynamics in Cohabiting Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 120 cohabiting, opposite-sex couples over 8 months to test hypotheses derived from commitment theory about how two types of commitment (dedication and constraint) operate during cohabitation. In nearly half the couples, there were large differences between partners in terms of dedication. These differences were…

  16. Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

  17. Pathways into Marriage: Cohabitation and the Domestic Division of Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele; Hewitt, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Does time spent in a cohabiting relationship prior to marriage lead to more egalitarian housework arrangements after marriage? Previous research has shown that housework patterns within cohabiting relationships are more egalitarian than in marital relationships. But do these patterns remain when couples marry? The findings from previous studies…

  18. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  19. Measuring and Modeling Cohabitation: New Perspectives from Qualitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    Almost all our knowledge about cohabitation in the United States rests on analysis of nationally representative, large-scale surveys. We move beyond this work by drawing on 115 in-depth interviews with a sample of young men and women with recent cohabitation experience. These data allow us to address two issues of central interest to family…

  20. Typologies of Cohabitation: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the current evolution in the practice of cohabitation. The intent of this literature- and web-based article is to acquaint counselors with three typologies of cohabitation. These categories can be utilized in the development of psychoeducational and remedial interventions and in the identification of areas of future…

  1. Can Marriage Education Mitigate the Risks Associated with Premarital Cohabitation?

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Allen, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested whether relationship education (i.e., the Prevention and Relationship Education Program; PREP) can mitigate the risk of having cohabited before making a mutual commitment to marry (i.e., “pre-commitment cohabitation”) for marital distress and divorce. Using data from a study of PREP for married couples in the U.S. Army (N = 662 couples), we found that there was a significant association between pre-commitment cohabitation and lower marital satisfaction and dedication before random-assignment to intervention. After intervention, this pre-commitment cohabitation effect was only apparent in the control group. Specifically, significant interactions between intervention condition and cohabitation history indicated that for the control group, but not the PREP group, pre-commitment cohabitation was associated with lower dedication as well as declines in marital satisfaction and increases in negative communication over time. Further, those with pre-commitment cohabitation were more likely to divorce by the two-year follow up only in the control group; there were no differences in divorce based on premarital cohabitation history in the PREP group. These findings are discussed in light of current research on cohabitation and relationship education; potential implications are also considered. PMID:25938709

  2. How Do Cohabiting Couples with Children Spend Their Money?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deleire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    Increasing rates of cohabitation in the United States raise important questions about how cohabitation fits in with the definition of family. Answers to this question depend in part upon the extent to which cohabitors behavior differs from that of other family types. Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, we compare the expenditure…

  3. Maternal Cohabitation and Child Well-Being among Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artis, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    Using data collected from 10,511 kindergarten children and their parents from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines child well-being across cohabiting 2-biological-parent families; cohabiting stepfamilies; married stepfamilies; and married 2-biological-parent families. Findings indicate no differences in…

  4. Beyond single mothers: cohabitation and marriage in the AFDC program.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, R A; Reville, R; Winkler, A E

    1998-08-01

    We investigate the extent and implications of cohabitation and marriage among U.S. welfare recipients. An analysis of four data sets (the Current Population Survey, the National Survey of Families and Households, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) shows significant numbers of cohabitors among recipients of AFDC. An even more surprising finding is the large number of married women on welfare. We also report the results of a telephone survey of state AFDC agencies conducted to determine state rules governing cohabitation and marriage. The survey results indicate that, in a number of respects, AFDC rules encourage cohabitation. Finally, we conduct an analysis of the impact of AFDC rules on cohabitation, marriage, and single motherhood and find weak evidence in support of incentives to cohabit. PMID:9749319

  5. A Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas1

    PubMed Central

    López-Gay, Antonio; Esteve, Albert; López-Colás, Julian; Permanyer, Iñaki; Turu, Anna; Kennedy, Sheela; Laplante, Benoît; Lesthaeghe, Ron

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the context of increasing cohabitation and growing demand for understanding the driving forces behind the cohabitation boom, most analyses have been carried out at a national level, not accounting for regional heterogeneity within countries. OBJECTIVE This paper presents the geography of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas. We offer a large-scale, cross-national perspective together with small-area estimates of cohabitation. We decided to produce this map because: (i) geography unveils spatial heterogeneity and challenges explanatory frameworks that may work at the international level but have low explanatory power in regard to intra-national variation. (ii) we argue that historical pockets of cohabitation can still be identified by examining the current geography of cohabitation. (iii) our map is a first step toward understanding whether the recent increase in cohabitation is an intensification of pre-existing traditions or whether it has different roots that also imply a new geography. METHODS Census microdata from 39 countries and 19,000 local units have been pulled together to map the prevalence of cohabitation among women. RESULTS The results show inter- and intra-national regional contrasts. The highest rates of cohabitation are found in areas of Central America, the Caribbean, Colombia and Peru. The lowest rates are mainly found in the United States and Mexico. In all countries the spatial autocorrelation statistics indicates substantial spatial heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS Our results raise the question as to which forces have shaped these patterns and remind us that such forces need to be taken into account to understand recent patterns, particularly increases, in cohabitation. PMID:26161036

  6. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    PubMed

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth. PMID:25630383

  7. The Relationship between Cohabitation and Marital Quality and Stability: Change across Cohorts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Cohan, Catherine L.; Amato, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital dysfunction a sample spouses in two marriage cohorts: those married between 1964 and 1980 (when cohabitation was less common) and those married between 1981 and 1997 (when cohabitation was more common). Spouses in both cohorts who cohabited prior to marriage reported poorer…

  8. Cohabitation in the United States and Britain: Demography, Kinship, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Cohabitation is a rapidly changing aspect of family life in the United States and Britain. This article describes the demography of cohabitation, considers the place of cohabitation in the kinship system, and speculates on the future of cohabitation. I argue that three processes -cohort replacement, socialization that occurs when children live…

  9. The Latin American cohabitation boom, 1970–2007.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Albert; Lesthaeghe, Ron; López-Gay, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the rise of unmarried cohabitation in Latin American countries during the last 30 years of the twentieth century, both at the national and regional levels. It documents that this major increase occurred in regions with and without traditional forms of cohabitation alike. In addition, the striking degree of catching up of cohabitation among the better-educated population segments is illustrated. The connections between these trends and economic (periods of high inflation) and cultural (reduction of stigmas in ethical domains) factors are discussed. The conclusion is that the periods of inflation and hyperinflation may have been general catalysts, but no clear indications of correlation were found between such economic factors and the rise in cohabitation. The shift toward more tolerance for hitherto stigmatized forms of conduct (e.g., homosexuality, euthanasia, abortion, singleparent household) is in line with the rise of cohabitation in regions of Argentina, Chile, and Brazil where cohabitation used to be uncommon. Further rises in cohabitation during the first decade of the twenty-first century are expected in a number of countries (e.g., mexico) despite conditions of much lower inflation. PMID:22833864

  10. Working with Cohabitation in Relationship Education and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation is increasingly common in the United States, with the majority of couples now living together before marriage. This paper briefly reviews research on cohabitation, its association with marital distress and divorce for those who marry (the cohabitation effect), gender differences, and theories underlying this association. Suggestions are made for future areas of exploration in this field, and the implications of the existing research for relationship education efforts and clinical intervention with couples are discussed. In relationship education, it seems important to help individuals explore their own expectations about cohabitation as well as how cohabitation may or may not change their relationships and influence future relationship goals. With regard to cohabiting couples presenting for therapy, clinicians may need to help them consider how cohabitation may have affected their commitment levels, plans for the future, and power dynamics. For married couples in therapy, it may be useful for some to look at the process by which they married and to recommit or clarify commitments made together. Across all of these forms of clinical practice, we recommend a focus on building communication skills so that individuals and couples have the skills necessary to talk about issues, particularly issues related to commitment. PMID:20613887

  11. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  12. Early traces of the Second Demographic Transition in Bulgaria: a joint analysis of marital and non-marital union formation, 1960-2004.

    PubMed

    Hoem, Jan M; Kostova, Dora

    2008-11-01

    We explore trends in first-union formation in Bulgaria from 1960, using data from the national Gender and Generations Survey of 2004. We analyse jointly the transition into cohabitation and directly into marriage. The standardized marriage rate falls dramatically from the early 1980s; the corresponding rate of entry into cohabitation has already increased from the early 1960s but (surprisingly) falls moderately toward the end of our period. Cohabitation also tends to last progressively longer in more recent periods. The analysis shows that a pregnancy leads to a dramatic increase in the rate of both kinds of union formation: the increase is by a factor of almost 20 for marriage formation and about 10 for entry into cohabitation, ceteris paribus. Our findings suggest that, in Bulgaria at least, some manifestations of the Second Demographic Transition can be detected as early as the 1980s. PMID:18937141

  13. Using Marital Attitudes in Late Adolescence to Predict Later Union Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated whether marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found…

  14. Early Pubertal Timing and the Union Formation Behaviors of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether the transition into adolescence, proxied by pubertal timing, shaped the transition into adulthood, proxied by union formation behaviors, among contemporary American women. In a sample drawn from Add Health (n = 7,523), early maturing girls reported an accelerated transition to marriage and cohabitation in young…

  15. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCHS Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS ... other not-married men to have had a health care visit in the past 12 months. Figure 1. ...

  16. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family and Peer Networks in Dating Couples’ Views about Cohabitation

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a differing view about cohabitation, one romantic partner’s desire to not cohabit trumped their partner’s more ambivalent feelings about cohabitation. The influence of family in the formation of cohabitation views was evident through a variety of mechanisms, including parental advice, social modeling, religious values, and economic control. Peers also played a key role, with couples using the vicarious trials of their peer networks to judge how cohabitation would affect their own relationship. By using a couple perspective, assessing reports from both members of each couple, this study showcases how beliefs about cohabitation are formed within an intimate dyad. PMID:23087542

  17. The impact of alcohol consumption on patterns of union formation in Russia 1998-2010: an assessment using longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Katherine; Kenward, Michael G; Grundy, Emily; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, 1998-2010, we investigated the extent to which patterns of alcohol consumption in Russia are associated with the subsequent likelihood of entry into cohabitation and marriage. Using discrete-time event history analysis we estimated for 16-50 year olds the extent to which the probabilities of entry into the two types of union were affected by the amount of alcohol drunk and the pattern of drinking, adjusted to allow for social and demographic factors including income, employment, and health. The results show that individuals who did not drink alcohol were less likely to embark on either cohabitation or marriage, that frequent consumption of alcohol was associated with a greater chance of entering unmarried cohabitation than of entering into a marriage, and that heavy drinkers were less likely to convert their relationship from cohabitation to marriage. PMID:25320843

  18. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-06-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  19. The impact of alcohol consumption on patterns of union formation in Russia 1998–2010: An assessment using longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Katherine; Kenward, Michael G.; Grundy, Emily; Leon, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, 1998–2010, we investigated the extent to which patterns of alcohol consumption in Russia are associated with the subsequent likelihood of entry into cohabitation and marriage. Using discrete-time event history analysis we estimated for 16–50 year olds the extent to which the probabilities of entry into the two types of union were affected by the amount of alcohol drunk and the pattern of drinking, adjusted to allow for social and demographic factors including income, employment, and health. The results show that individuals who did not drink alcohol were less likely to embark on either cohabitation or marriage, that frequent consumption of alcohol was associated with a greater chance of entering unmarried cohabitation than of entering into a marriage, and that heavy drinkers were less likely to convert their relationship from cohabitation to marriage. PMID:25320843

  20. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  1. Using Marital Attitudes in Late Adolescence to Predict Later Union Transitions.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated if marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found that marital attitudes did not have significant associations with the transition to cohabitation but did significantly predict the probability of transitioning to marriage during young adulthood. Specifically, having a younger expected age of marriage and placing more importance on marriage at the end of adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning to marriage earlier than other young adults. PMID:24748692

  2. Marital orientation and relationship well-being among cohabiting couples.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Belt, Dallin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to expand on previous studies of cohabitation to understand the relationship between marital orientations and the relationship well-being of cohabiting couples with a particular focus on using dyadic analyses to understand within-couple patterns. Results from a sample of 1,837 couples provided evidence that an intent to delay marriage and a lower importance placed on marriage for 1 partner was related to lower relationship well-being assessments for both partners in the areas of couple satisfaction, stability, and communication. Greater differences between partners in the intent to delay marriage and importance placed on marriage were also found to be associated with some outcomes. When female partners had a greater intention to marry or a greater importance placed on marriage than male partners, couples began to report lower assessments of couple well-being. Finally, whether or not a couple was engaged at the time of cohabitation moderated some of the findings, suggesting that some associations were stronger or only present among cohabiters that were not engaged. The findings of the study provide further evidence that cohabiting couples are not all the same and that marital orientations and engagement status are important indicators of relationship well-being for many such couples. PMID:26348109

  3. Diet Segregation between Cohabiting Builder and Inquiline Termite Species

    PubMed Central

    Florencio, Daniela Faria; Marins, Alessandra; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; DeSouza, Og

    2013-01-01

    How do termite inquilines manage to cohabit termitaria along with the termite builder species? With this in mind, we analysed one of the several strategies that inquilines could use to circumvent conflicts with their hosts, namely, the use of distinct diets. We inspected overlapping patterns for the diets of several cohabiting Neotropical termite species, as inferred from carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for termite individuals. Cohabitant communities from distinct termitaria presented overlapping diet spaces, indicating that they exploited similar diets at the regional scale. When such communities were split into their components, full diet segregation could be observed between builders and inquilines, at regional (environment-wide) and local (termitarium) scales. Additionally, diet segregation among inquilines themselves was also observed in the vast majority of inspected termitaria. Inquiline species distribution among termitaria was not random. Environmental-wide diet similarity, coupled with local diet segregation and deterministic inquiline distribution, could denounce interactions for feeding resources. However, inquilines and builders not sharing the same termitarium, and thus not subject to potential conflicts, still exhibited distinct diets. Moreover, the areas of the builder’s diet space and that of its inquilines did not correlate negatively. Accordingly, the diet areas of builders which hosted inquilines were in average as large as the areas of builders hosting no inquilines. Such results indicate the possibility that dietary partitioning by these cohabiting termites was not majorly driven by current interactive constraints. Rather, it seems to be a result of traits previously fixed in the evolutionary past of cohabitants. PMID:23805229

  4. Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabiting, Married, and Single-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Lamb, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses the well-being of adolescents in cohabiting parent stepfamilies. Teens living with cohabiting stepparents often fare worse than teens living with two biological married parents. Adolescents living in cohabiting stepfamilies experience greater disadvantage than teens living in married stepfamilies. Most of these differences, however, are…

  5. Waiting to Be Asked: Gender, Power, and Relationship Progression among Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of young married Americans lived with their spouses before the wedding, and many cohabited with partners they did not wed. Yet little is known about how cohabitating relationships progress or the role gender norms play in this process. This article explores how cohabiting partners negotiate relationship progression, focusing on…

  6. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family, and Peer Networks in Dating Couples' Views about Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semistructured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a…

  7. Is Your Love in Vain? Another Look at Premarital Cohabitation and Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we provide an empirical investigation of the association between premarital cohabitation and subsequent risk of divorce. Theoretically couples who cohabit before marriage should have a lower subsequent risk of divorce since cohabitation enables you to gather information about the match quality, and only good matches evolve into…

  8. Is Marriage More than Cohabitation? Well-Being Differences in 30 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soons, Judith P. M.; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to assess, first, whether there is a gap in well-being between unmarried cohabitants and the married, second, if selection factors can explain this so-called cohabitation gap, and third, if the size of the cohabitation gap differs across countries and how this can be explained. We use pooled data from young adults (18-44) in 3…

  9. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  10. How Do Cohabiting Couples with Children Spend Their Money? JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    Cohabitation is an increasingly prevalent living arrangement in the United States. Although the effects of living in a cohabiting arrangement on child wellbeing are not fully understood, the literature on children growing up in cohabiting families suggests that they have poorer developmental outcomes than do those growing up in married-parent…

  11. Reassessing the Link Between Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Instability

    PubMed Central

    REINHOLD, STEFFEN

    2010-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marriage cohorts. Using multiple marital outcomes for a person to account for one source of unobserved heterogeneity, panel models suggest that cohabitation is not selective of individuals with higher risk of marital dissolution and may be a stabilizing factor for higher-order marriages. Further research with more recent data is needed to assess whether these results are statistical artifacts caused by data weaknesses in the NSFG. PMID:20879685

  12. Legal and Social Ties between Children and Cohabiting Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottosen, Mai Heide

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether legal ties between members in the nuclear family affect the father-child relationship after domestic breakup. Found no evidence that civil status could explain differences in the post-separation organization of parenting, but a sole legal custody arrangement from the child's birth may disfavor cohabiting fathers as future…

  13. Maybe I Do: Interpersonal Commitment and Premarital or Nonmarital Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Whitton, Sarah W.; Markman, Howard J.

    2004-01-01

    Explanations for the risks associated with premarital and nonmarital cohabitation (e.g., higher rates of breakup and divorce, lower relationship satisfaction, and greater risk for violent interaction) have focused on levels of conventionality, including attitudes about commitment to the institution of marriage. However, relatively little attention…

  14. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  15. Planned Parenthood?: Fertility Intentions and Experiences among Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda; Favinger, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on nonmarital births focuses on disadvantaged populations. This study examined the childbearing expectations and experiences of a working-class sample, drawing on in-depth interviews with 30 cohabiting couples. Few couples in the sample were attempting to conceive; most desired to defer parenting. Three responses emerged to how a…

  16. Explaining Teen Childbearing and Cohabitation: Community Embeddedness and Primary Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Lewis, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation examines whether access to social capital reduces the chance that teens will cohabit or have a nonmaritally conceived birth. Using data from a nationally representative panel study of eighth-grade girls and their parents, we hypothesize that girls who have (and whose families have) dense community ties as well as greater access…

  17. Socio-economic resources and first-union formation in Finland, cohorts born 1969-81.

    PubMed

    Jalovaara, Marika

    2012-03-01

    Social scientists generally agree that better individual economic prospects enhance the probability of marriage for men, whereas there are conflicting views with regard to women. Moreover, it is argued that cohabitation does not require as strong an economic foundation as marriage. The aim of this study, which was based on Finnish register data, was to find out how the socio-economic resources of young adults affect first-union formation, and whether the effects vary by sex or union type. The results show that high education, labour-force participation, and high income seem to promote union formation. The findings are similar for women and men, which is plausible given the comparatively gender-egalitarian societal context. Similar factors encourage entry into both union types, although the union-promoting effects of university-level education and stable employment are stronger in the marriage models, suggesting that long-term prospects are more important when marriage is contemplated. PMID:22239474

  18. Marriage, cohabitation, and men's use of preventive health care services.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Stephen J; Vahratian, Anjel; Blumberg, Joseph H

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that married men are more likely than not-married men to seek preventive health care services because their spouses encourage them to do so (1,2). It was not known, however, whether cohabiting partners of not-married men play a health-promoting role similar to that of spouses. With data from the 2011-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), selected measures of preventive health care service use were compared for three groups of men aged 18-64: married men (defined as those living with a spouse), cohabiting men (defined as those living with a partner who is not a spouse), and other not-married men. The consistency of observed differences by age and health insurance coverage status was also investigated. PMID:24933267

  19. Cohabitation effect on the slowdown of the Neolithic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern, N.; Fort, J.

    2011-12-01

    We introduce the effect of cohabitation between generations to a previous model on the slowdown of the Neolithic transition in Europe. This effect consists on the fact that human beings do not leave their children alone when they migrate, but on the contrary they cohabit until their children reach adulthood. We also use archaeological data to estimate the variation of the Mesolithic population density with distance, and use this information to predict the slowdown of the Neolithic front speed. The new equation leads to a substantial correction, up to 37%, relative to previous results. The new model is able to provide a satisfactory explanation not only to the relative speed but also to the absolute speed of the Neolithic front obtained from archaeological data.

  20. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions within graduate…

  1. The choice between a married or unmarried first union by young adults. A competing risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Liefbroer, A C

    1991-09-01

    In studying the process of union formation in the Netherlands, researchers performed a hazard model analysis of 590 men and women 16-26 years old who chose between marriage and unmarried 1st union in 1987-88. Entering a union depended on the type of union, age, and social factors such as education and work, living arrangements, religiosity, and educational level. The descriptive results reveal that by age 26 80% have ever entered a 1st union, 66% consensually and 33% by marriage. Multivariate analyses showed that social structural constraints and opportunities and personal preferences and values explained the choice of 1st union. Students were twice as likely to have cohabited unmarried, and 8 times less likely to marry than employed young adults. The unemployed however did not differ much from the employed in union formation. The explanation given is that the unemployed may believe their situation to be temporary, and marriage may actually improve their financial position. Living independently encourages the formation of a union, while those living at home are more likely to marry. The suitability of accommodations may affect the earlier union formation and transform a dating relationship into a union. There is a drop in marriage and unmarried cohabitation after age 21, which may be attributed to a group more strongly committed to independence and unwilling to enter a union. Religious influences affect the type of union such that religious young adults are less likely to enter a consensual union. In spite of the decline in religiosity throughout Europe, the effect is nonetheless strong. It was not confirmed that higher educational level would lead to a greater likelihood to enter a consensual union. Whether or not one is a student has a greater bearing on union formation. Women are more likely to enter a union and particularly at young ages. This was the only gender relationship. An extension of this research for the future would be to examine the extent to which

  2. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

  3. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  4. Evaluation of a cohabitation challenge model in immunization trials for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcein marking and cohabitation challenge have not been investigated in fish parasite research. This study evaluated a cohabitation challenge method in immunization trials against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using calcein, a fluorescent dye, to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafi...

  5. Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women's Health at Midlife*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite high rates of nonmarital childbearing in the U.S., little is known about the health of women who have nonmarital births. We use data from the NLSY79 to examine differences in age 40 self-assessed health between women who had a premarital birth and those whose first birth occurred within marriage. We then differentiate women with a premarital first birth according to their subsequent union histories and estimate the effect of marrying or cohabiting versus remaining never-married on midlife self-assessed health, paying particular attention to the paternity status of the mother's partner and the stability of marital unions. To partially address selection bias, we employ multivariate propensity score techniques. Results suggest that premarital childbearing is negatively associated with midlife health for white and black (but not Hispanic) women. We find no evidence that these negative health consequences of nonmarital childbearing are mitigated by either marriage or cohabitation for black women. For other women, only enduring marriage to the biological father is associated with better health than remaining unpartnered. PMID:22199398

  6. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  7. The Role of Cohabitation in Family Formation: The United States in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuveline, Patrick; Timberlake, Jeffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of non-marital cohabitation is steadily increasing in the United States. In evaluating the contribution of this new living arrangement to family formation, analysts have relied primarily on comparisons between individuals who cohabit and those who do not. We complement this line of inquiry by comparing the United States and 16…

  8. Couples' Reasons for Cohabitation: Associations with Individual Well-Being and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new measure to examine how different types of reasons for cohabitation are associated with individual well-being and relationship quality in a sample of 120 cohabiting heterosexual couples (N = 240). Spending more time together and convenience are the most strongly endorsed reasons. The degree to which individuals report…

  9. The Timing of Cohabitation and Engagement: Impact on First and Second Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Amato, Paul R.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multistate sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200) and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without…

  10. Changes in Conjugal Life in Canada: Is Cohabitation Progressively Replacing Marriage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bourdais, Cline; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne

    2004-01-01

    This article aims first to contrast the trends of marriage and cohabitation across different regions in Canada, and second, to assess whether cohabitation constitutes a new stage in the progression to marriage, or an alternative to marriage altogether. Based on various empirical demographic indicators, the analysis shows profound differences…

  11. The Family Ties of Unmarried Cohabiting and Married Persons in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerbrugge, Martijn J. A.; Dykstra, Pearl A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative survey (N = 4,612), we analyze whether there is a difference in the Netherlands between cohabiting and married persons with regard to the frequency of contact with one's own family as well as the parents of the partner. Clustered regression analyses show that, as expected, cohabiting persons have less contact with…

  12. Children's Economic Well-Being in Married and Cohabiting Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Brown, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, children are living with cohabiting parents. Prior work on the material well-being of children living in cohabiting families is extended by including the biological relationship of children to adults, examining the racial and ethnic variations, and investigating the multiple indicators of material well-being. We draw on the 1999…

  13. Cohabitation impaired physiology, fitness and sex-related chemosignals in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Rao, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Da-Wei; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhao, Chenghua

    2008-03-18

    This study investigated the impact of long-term paternal presence (cohabitation) on several physiological parameters such as body weight, adrenal weight, cortisol of parents, and the survival of pups compared with brief daily encounters (isolation) of male-female pairs in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). We showed that females were affected more by cohabitation as evidenced by increased body and adrenal weights, elevated cortisol concentrations, and heavier uteri and spleens as compared with cohabiting male and isolated females. Furthermore, we found that tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids of the flank glands were sexually dimorphic, for which they were putative female pheromones. These two compounds were suppressed in females and elevated in males by cohabitation, suggesting that cohabitation impaired sex chemosignals. Overall, we concluded that housing females and males together had deleterious effects on adults and the survival of their pups in the golden hamster. PMID:18313701

  14. Users and Union Catalogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, R. J.; Booth, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Union catalogues have had an important place in libraries for many years. Their use has been little investigated. Recent interest in the relative merits of physical and virtual union catalogues and a recent collaborative project between a physical and several virtual union catalogues in the United Kingdom led to the opportunity to study how users…

  15. Food Service and the College Union. College Unions at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterheld, Douglas C.

    This publication, one in a series of monographs on college unions, explores the importance, role, and function of food services in the college union. Major topics discussed include: (1) food service and the college union, (2) union food service and the campus, (3) union food service and the community, (4) organization of union food services, (5)…

  16. Prevalence and predictors of HIV sero-discordance among cohabiting couples tested in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngilangwa, David Paul; Ochako, Rhoune; Mboya, Beati Alphonce; Noronha, Rita Honoratha; Mgomella, George Suleman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In sub-Saharan Africa where HIV/AIDS epidemic is predominantly generalized, majority of HIV infections occur among heterosexual couples. The majority of people do not know their sero-status. Thus, utilisation of Couples’ HIV Counselling and Testing (CHCT) services remain to be critical in preventing new infections. The objective was to establish prevalence and predictors of HIV sero-discordance among cohabiting couples presenting for CHCT services in northern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study inteveviewed 1,333 couples aged 18-49 years tested from 2005 to 2007 in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions. A CHCT checklist was used to collect data from couples. Data were analyzed using STATA 10. Results Generally, 220(16%) out of 1,333 couples were HIV sero-discordant. In sero-discordance unions, women were likely to be HIV positive than men (71% versus 29% respectively p<0.001). HIV sero-discordant relationship was associated with age (35-45 years) for both men and women (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.7-3.2) and (AOR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.7) respectively. Women with older men partners were less likely to be in HIV sero-discordance relationships (AOR: 0.5 95% CI 0.3-09). Arusha couples were likely to be HIV sero-discordant than those of Kilimanjaro (AOR: 2.3 95% CI 1.7-3.2). Couples living far away from CHCT centres were less likely to be sero-discordant than those live nearby (AOR: 0.4 95% CI 0.2-0.9). Conclusion HIV sero-discordance prevalence is high among our participants. Thus, we recommend CHCT utilization should widely be promoted as entry point in treatment as prevention strategy in order to protect uninfected partners in HIV sero-discordance relationships. PMID:26958138

  17. Cohabitation reaction-diffusion model for virus focal infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-12-01

    The propagation of virus infection fronts has been typically modeled using a set of classical (noncohabitation) reaction-diffusion equations for interacting species. However, for some single-species systems it has been recently shown that noncohabitation reaction-diffusion equations may lead to unrealistic descriptions. We argue that previous virus infection models also have this limitation, because they assume that a virion can simultaneously reproduce inside a cell and diffuse away from it. For this reason, we build a several-species cohabitation model that does not have this limitation. Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis for the most relevant parameters of the model, and we compare the predicted infection speed with observed data for two different strains of the T7 virus.

  18. The educational homogamy gap between married and cohabiting couples in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel; McCaa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The explosive expansion of non-marital cohabitation in Latin America since the 1970s has led to the narrowing of the gap in educational homogamy between married and cohabiting couples (what we call “homogamy gap”) as shown by our analysis of 29 census samples encompassing eight countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Panama (N = 2,295,160 young couples). Most research on the homogamy gap is limited to a single decade and a small group of developed countries (the United States, Canada, and Europe). We take a historical and cross-national perspective and expand the research to a range of developing countries, where since early colonial times traditional forms of cohabitation among the poor, uneducated sectors of society have coexisted with marriage, although to widely varying degrees from country to country. In recent decades, cohabitation is emerging in all sectors of society. We find that among married couples educational homogamy continues to be higher than for those who cohabit, but in recent decades the difference has narrowed substantially in all countries. We argue that assortative mating between cohabiting and married couples tend to be similar when the contexts in which they are formed are also increasingly similar. PMID:25506110

  19. [Unionization on Campus].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This newsletter issue considers in separate articles: (1) unionization in 1981 among college faculty in the United States; (2) unionization at the California State University and College System (CSU) (by Lisa Flanzraich); (3) multi-year agreements; (4) contract size; (5) and, in "Yeshivawatch," developments pertaining to the National Labor…

  20. Today's Associations, Tomorrow's Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichniowski, Casey; Zax, Jeffrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of census data on local government departments investigated the effects of association-style unionism on union membership. Found that in all local government services, the presence of an association in 1977 was a strong predictor of the formation of a bargaining unit by 1982--holding constant other important determinants of public…

  1. Unions, Contractors and CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Across Illinois, in places where unions thrive, construction industry professionals and career and technical education (CTE) teachers are working together in promoting work-based learning program to students. Likewise, the outreach program provides union-supported contractors with qualified candidates for future employment. Programs such as the…

  2. Unionism and Professionalism: Siblings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Alfred; Nielsen, Robert

    The controversy surrounding the meaning of professionalism on American campuses is approached by examining the subject from an historical and trade union perspective. It is contended that faculty unions are compatible with professional needs and desires of faculty. The roots of the American college and university system are examined in conjunction…

  3. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  4. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  5. Power in a Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The work unions do in providing and supporting learning for their members rarely makes the news headlines, but it will be essential if people are to engage those workers who most need to acquire new and better skills to cope in the economic downturn. In this article, the author talks about the power in a union and describes UNISON, a comparatively…

  6. Technology and the Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Faculty union meetings will focus increasingly on the role of technology on college campuses, including adoption of new technologies, assuring support services, clarifying intellectual property issues, and preserving teacher-student contact as teleconferencing and network use grows. (MSE)

  7. A Test of Stellar Cohabitation in Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission has discovered over 2,300 exoplanet candidates, including more than 885 associated with target stars with multiple transiting planet candidates. While these putative multiple planet systems are predicted to have an extremely low false positive rate, it is important to test what fraction are indeed transiting a single star and what fraction are some sort of blend (e.g., one transiting planet and an eclipsing binary, or two planet-hosting stars blended within the photometric aperture). We perform such a test for stellar cohabitation using the observed distribution of ξ, the period-normalized transit duration ratio of pairs of transiting planet candidates. We developed a Bayesian framework to estimate the probability that two candidates orbit the target star based on the observed orbital periods and light curve properties with an emphasis on ξ. For priors distributions, we use empirical planet, binary star, and hierarchical triple star occurrence rates and galactic population synthesis models. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we calculate the implied distributions of ξ for all plausible blend scenarios; i.e., a planet around the target star and a background or physically associated eclipsing binary star, a planet around the the target star and a planet around a background or physically associated secondary star, as well as a single star with two planets and no blend. Finally, we compute the posterior probability that a given pair of transiting planet candidates are indeed a pair of planets in orbit around the target star given the observed values. We present the results of our test for a selection Kepler multiple planet candidates and for systems confirmed through other methods, such as transit timing variations. We demonstrate the utility of this technique for the confirmation and characterization of multiple transiting planet systems.

  8. Parasites or cohabitants: cruel omnipresent usurpers or creative "éminences grises"?

    PubMed

    Vannier-Santos, Marcos A; Lenzi, Henrique L

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term "cohabitant" is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together. PMID:21785696

  9. Cohabitating Partners and Domestic Labor in Low-Income Black Families

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew; Vazan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the division of domestic labor in low-income cohabiting Black stepfamilies. We analyze survey data collected from 136 such families in order to understand how stepparent gender and relationship length impact the distribution of domestic labor. We hypothesize that women do more domestic work than men across all three family types, and that stepfathers are more involved in domestic labor in established relationships compared to new relationships. Findings indicate that cohabiting stepfathers in both new and established cohabiting Black stepfamilies make substantial contributions to domestic labor. These families demonstrate a division of labor consistent with traditional gender roles, though both partners agree on how much work each does. Parents, regardless of gender, are more involved in domestic labor than stepparents. PMID:25400532

  10. Who's in the House? Race Differences in Cohabitation, Single Parenthood, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how family structure affected children's delinquency and math test scores, parenting practices as a mediator, and racial differences in these effects. Findings indicated that single parenthood related to reduced well-being among European American children, but not African American children. Cohabitation related to greater…

  11. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  12. Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adult Dating, Cohabitating, and Married Drinking Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Herrera, Veronica; Fischer, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined intimate partner violence (IPV) and drinking partnerships in 741 young adults in male-female dating, cohabitating, and married relationships. Cluster analyses revealed four similar kinds of drinking partnerships: (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b)…

  13. Change in the Association between Premarital Cohabitation and Separation, Australia 1945 - 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Belinda; de Vaus, David

    2009-01-01

    We investigate change in the association between premarital cohabitation and the risk of separation. Using retrospective marriage history data from the first wave (2001) of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australian survey, we examine 6,210 first marriages formed between 1945 and 2000. We find the association between premarital…

  14. Effects of Divorce and Cohabitation Dissolution on Preschoolers' Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth cohort ("N" = 6,450), the present study hypothesized that 48-month-old children of divorced mothers would score lower on emerging literacy than the children of formerly cohabiting mothers, compared with the children of mothers in stable marriage. The children of mothers who…

  15. Cohabitation and Children's Externalizing Behavior in Low-Income Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomby, Paula; Estacion, Angela

    2011-01-01

    We consider the association of cohabitation experience with externalizing behavior among children of Latina mothers whose ethnic origin is in Mexico, Puerto Rico, or the Dominican Republic. Data were drawn from three waves of the Three-City Study (N = 656 mother-child pairs). Children of Mexican-origin mothers had greater externalizing problems in…

  16. Cohabitation and U.S Adult Mortality: An Examination by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first to explore the relationship between cohabitation and U.S. adult mortality using a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey-Longitudinal Mortality Follow-up files 1997-2004 (N = 193,851), the authors found that divorced, widowed, and never-married White men had higher mortality…

  17. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julie A.; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2005-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (N=4,547) to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. We find that the nature and strength of the estimated effects of several risk factors for disruption differ across groups. In particular,…

  18. Premarital Sex, Premarital Cohabitation, and the Risk of Subsequent Marital Dissolution among Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Examines association between intimate premarital relationships and subsequent marital dissolution. Results suggest neither premarital sex nor premarital cohabitation by itself indicate either preexisting characteristics or subsequent relationship environments that weaken marriages. Findings are consistent with the notion that premarital sex and…

  19. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  20. Cohabiting Couple, Filing Jointly? Resource Pooling and U.S. Poverty Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Social policy in the United States is inconsistent in its treatment of cohabiting-parent households. For example, although welfare policy generally assumes that marital status should not affect the extent to which children benefit from each adult's income, tax policy and the poverty classification assume income pooling among married but not…

  1. For Better or for Worse? The Consequences of Marriage and Cohabitation for Single Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Nicholson, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether the mental and physical health of single mothers benefit from marriage or cohabitation compared to childless women who marry. Results indicate that marrying is associated with similar declines in psychological distress for single mothers and childless women, but only when that marriage endures. Single mothers do not…

  2. The Reproductive Context of Cohabitation in the United States: Recent Change and Variation in Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Megan M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from 2 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 11,065), the current research addressed 2 overarching questions about the reproductive context of cohabitation in the United States. First, did patterns of contraceptive use among cohabitors change during the last 2 decades of the 20th century? Second, did patterns of…

  3. Correlates of Attitudes toward Cohabitation: Looking at the Associations with Demographics, Relational Attitudes, and Dating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how demographics, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes toward sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and dating experience are associated with three different attitudes toward cohabitation among never-married young adults. Results from a sample of 1,036 young adult college students suggest that the endorsement of…

  4. Residential Differences in Family Formation: The Significance of Co-Habitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Anastasia R.; Brown, Susan L.; Condo, Erin P.

    2004-01-01

    We update and extend prior research on residential differences in women's family formation experiences using data from the 1995 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth. Residential differences in the timing of family formation behaviors are examined, including first birth, first cohabitation, and first marriage. Our study emphasizes the…

  5. Are Gay and Lesbian Cohabiting Couples Really Different from Heterosexual Married Couples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    Both partners from gay and lesbian cohabiting couples without children were compared longitudinally with both partners from heterosexual married couples with children (N at first assessment = 80, 53, and 80 couples, respectively) on variables from 5 domains indicative of relationship health. For 50% of the comparisons, gay and lesbian partners did…

  6. Economic Factors and Relationship Quality among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Lucas, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997…

  7. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  8. Unionism and American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Joel

    Organized labor in the United States has been divided in the types of economic solutions it has sought for the working class and in the type of support it has given education. In terms of education, rightwing unionism has tended to accept the basic structure of American education and the general ideology of equality of opportunity. Leftwing…

  9. Faculty Unionism and Tenure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, William F.

    1973-01-01

    With reference to personal experience, labor board decisions, and faculty collective bargaining agreements, the author discusses the causes of faculty unionism, what constitutes a tenure system and what problems it creates, what is involved in the bargaining process, and the implications involved in negotiating tenure. (JT)

  10. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  11. Unions and Workplace Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Bruce, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book focus on "The New American Workplace" and assess its adequacy or inadequacy as a guide for the U.S. labor movement in relation to new work systems. "Unions and Workplace Reorganization" (Bruce Nissen) introduces the subject. "The New American Workplace: A Labor Perspective" (AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work,…

  12. Unions, Solidarity, and Striking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Marc; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Hodson, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Organizational resources and group solidarity are central foci in literature on social movements generally and worker insurgency specifically. Research, however, seldom deals with both simultaneously and their potential interrelations. In this article, we examine the complex relationships between union organization and worker solidarity relative…

  13. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  14. Health consequences of same and opposite-sex unions: partnership, parenthood, and cardiovascular risk among young adults.

    PubMed

    Frech, Adrianne; Lynch, Jamie L; Barr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health to examine union and parenthood differences across same and opposite-sex couples in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and abdominal adiposity (waist circumference) among partnered (dating, cohabiting, married) young adults ages 25-33. Relative to women dating men, women cohabiting with women reported lower DBP and were less likely to have high CRP. Mothers reported lower SBP and DBP than non-mothers, but were more likely to have high waist circumference if they lived with a biological or step-child. Among men, nonresidential fathers reported higher DBP than nonfathers, and married men were more likely to have high waist circumference than men dating an opposite-sex partner. Same-sex cohabitation was neither a risk factor nor a health resource for men. Although the sample sizes for same-sex couples are quite small compared with those for opposite-sex couples, this study provides initial insight that occupying a sexual minority status while partnered is associated with some health benefits and few or no health risks relative to those who are dating an opposite sex partner. PMID:26323506

  15. The Australian Education Union and Teacher Union Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Examines some of the directions that modernization of teacher unionism has taken in the 1990s, explaining that the 1990s has been the decade of the Australian Education Union (AEU). The paper describes the AEU and looks at organizational changes within the AEU, industrial roles, and political roles that affect today's teacher unions in Australia.…

  16. Teacher Unions and Parent Involvement. EPI Series on Teacher Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haar, Charlene K.

    This booklet, part of the Education Policy Institute series about teacher union issues, clarifies the concept of parent involvement in educational reform, analyzing the treatment of parents in collective bargaining contracts between teacher unions and school boards and in union policy resolutions. Chapter 1 introduces the issue, offering an…

  17. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale

    2013-01-01

    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  18. Racial Discrimination and Trade Unionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes the likely determinants of a trade union's policy regarding race and estimates the effect of the presence of unionism on the average wage of black workers relative to that of white workers under various types of union organizational structure. (RJ)

  19. What's Wrong with Teacher Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    1998-01-01

    Responds and takes exception to the assumptions and arguments of Myron Lieberman, who argues against teacher unionism and says it is the major obstacle to educational reform. After summarizing Lieberman's discussion of contemporary teacher unions, concludes that Lieberman is biased against teacher unions in his analysis of their contemporary…

  20. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  1. The labour supply of married and cohabiting women in the Netherlands, 1981-1989.

    PubMed

    Henkens, K; Meijer, L; Siegers, J

    1993-01-01

    "In this article we investigate the differences in labour supply of married women and cohabiting women in the Netherlands; we try to answer the question how these differences can be explained. From this study, it can be concluded that differences between both categories of women in participation and in weekly hours worked can predominantly be explained by differences in characteristics (e.g. age, net wage rate, and age of children), than by differences in behaviour. The empirical results indicate that cohabiting women are more economically independent than married women. However for married women we found evidence that there was increased economic independence during the eighties; i.e. their weekly hours work has become less affected by the income of their partners." (SUMMARY IN FRE) PMID:12345354

  2. Parasites or Cohabitants: Cruel Omnipresent Usurpers or Creative “Éminences Grises”?

    PubMed Central

    Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lenzi, Henrique L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term “cohabitant” is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together. PMID:21785696

  3. IPV--bridging the juridical gap between scratches and DNA detection under fingernails of cohabitating partners.

    PubMed

    Kettner, M; Cappel-Hoffmann, S; Makuch, D; Schmidt, P; Ramsthaler, F

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global health issue with lifetime prevalences of physical and sexual violence against women of 12-71% in various populations. Due to its clandestine nature third party eye witnesses are scarce and prosecution of these cases has to rely on medical examination results, e.g. injury patterns of the victim and the perpetrator. Medicolegal assessment of DNA of the male partner found in fingernail specimen of the female partner after an assault is difficult since cohabitating couples are known to carry DNA of the respective partner in 17% of examined couples. In this study, male and total DNA content in fingernail specimen of 34 couples was analyzed after vigorous scratching of the male partners flank. Scratching and non-scratching fingers showed a highly significant difference in absolute and relative male DNA content allowing for the differentiation of DNA transfer caused by normal cohabitation and scratching during an assault. PMID:25450781

  4. Marital/Cohabitation Status and History in Relation to Sleep in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sowers, MaryFran; Hall, Martica H.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether current and/or history of marital/cohabitation status are associated with sleep, independent of demographic and general health risk factors. Design: Longitudinal, observational study of women, with sleep measured via multi-night in-home polysomnography and up to 35 nights of actigraphy. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Caucasian (n = 170), African American (n = 138), and Chinese women (n = 59); mean age 51 years. Interventions: None. Measurements: Sleep quality was assessed via questionnaire. Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were calculated using in-home polysomnography (PSG). Sleep continuity was also assessed by actigraphy. Categories of marital/cohabiting status or changes in status were inclusive of women who were legally married or living as married as well as transitions into or out of those partnership categories. Results: Partnered (married or cohabiting) women at the time of the sleep study had better sleep quality and PSG and actigraphy-assessed sleep continuity than unpartnered women; however, with covariate adjustment, most of these associations became non-significant. Analyses of women's relationship histories over the 6-8 years prior to the sleep study showed advantages in sleep for women who were consistently partnered versus women who were unpartnered throughout this interval, or those who had lost or gained a partner over that time course. These results persisted after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: The stable presence of a partner is an independent correlate of better sleep quality and continuity in women. Citation: Troxel WM; Buysse DJ; Matthews KA; Kravitz HM; Bromberger JT; Sowers M; Hall MH. Marital/cohabitation status and history in relation to sleep in midlife women. SLEEP 2010;33(7):973-981. PMID:20614858

  5. Cohabitation between male rats after ejaculation: effects on conditioned partner preference.

    PubMed

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge; García, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2014-04-10

    Male rats display a conditioned ejaculatory preference for females that bear olfactory cues associated with ejaculation+the postejaculatory interval (PEI), or with the PEI alone. This indicates that exposure to a partner during the PEI is necessary and sufficient 'for the development of conditioned sexual partner preference. In the present study we examined the effect of cohabitation between two males during the PEI on the possible development of same-sex partner preference. Males first copulated with an ovariectomized, E+P primed female to one ejaculation and were immediately removed from the female's chamber and placed in another chamber with a conspecific male scented with almond odor as a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Cohabitation lasted for 1 h and started immediately after ejaculation in the PEI group and 7h later in the control group. Conditioning occurred daily for a total of ten trials with different females, but cohabitation during the PEI occurred always with the same stimulus male partner. On trial 11, males were tested for social partner preference with two stimulus male partners. One was the familiar scented male and the other an unfamiliar unscented male. Results indicated that males did not develop any social or sexual preference for the male associated with the PEI. In fact, rats from the PEI group interacted significantly less with the scented male as compared to the unscented male, and displayed more agonistic behaviors towards the scented male than towards the unscented male. These data show that conditioned same-sex preference does not develop as a result of cohabitation during the PEI. We discuss the implications for conditioned hostility in intrasexual competition. PMID:24548684

  6. Who's in the house? Race differences in cohabitation, single parenthood, and child development.

    PubMed

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This study examined four questions: (1) How does family structure (specifically, single parenthood, married parent, and cohabitating parent) affect children's delinquency and math test scores? (2) Do these effects differ by race? (3) Do parenting practices mediate the links between family structure and children's outcomes? and (4) Does this mediation differ by race? Unlike some previous work in this area, the present study distinguished between the effects of single parenthood and cohabitation. Using fixed-effects techniques to control for unobserved heterogeneity between children in the various family structures, single parenthood was found to be associated with reduced well-being among European American children, but not African American children. Cohabitation was associated with greater delinquency among African American children, and lower math scores among European American children. No evidence was found to indicate that parenting mediated the links between family structure and children's outcomes. Finally, it was found that for African American children, measures of maternal warmth and the provision of rules had direct effects on children's delinquency. PMID:12146746

  7. Cohabiting family members share microbiota with one another and with their dogs.

    PubMed

    Song, Se Jin; Lauber, Christian; Costello, Elizabeth K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Humphrey, Gregory; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knights, Dan; Clemente, Jose C; Nakielny, Sara; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Human-associated microbial communities vary across individuals: possible contributing factors include (genetic) relatedness, diet, and age. However, our surroundings, including individuals with whom we interact, also likely shape our microbial communities. To quantify this microbial exchange, we surveyed fecal, oral, and skin microbiota from 60 families (spousal units with children, dogs, both, or neither). Household members, particularly couples, shared more of their microbiota than individuals from different households, with stronger effects of co-habitation on skin than oral or fecal microbiota. Dog ownership significantly increased the shared skin microbiota in cohabiting adults, and dog-owning adults shared more 'skin' microbiota with their own dogs than with other dogs. Although the degree to which these shared microbes have a true niche on the human body, vs transient detection after direct contact, is unknown, these results suggest that direct and frequent contact with our cohabitants may significantly shape the composition of our microbial communities. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00458.001. PMID:23599893

  8. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income. PMID:26652043

  9. PLANNING AND OPERATING COLLEGE UNION BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUTTS, PORTER

    THIS MONOGRAPH IS A DISCUSSION OF FOUR ASPECTS OF STUDENT UNIONS. PART ONE DISCUSSES THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF A UNION AND THE UNION AS A CAMPUS CENTER. PART TWO DEALS WITH THE PLANNING OF UNION BUILDINGS AND GIVES PROCEDURES, PRINCIPLES AND CAUTIONS. UNION FACILITIES AND SERVICES ARE LISTED. PART THREE DISCUSSES THE ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES OF…

  10. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  11. A Trade Union Sponsored Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Max; Corcoran, J. P.

    1969-01-01

    Professor Max Eddy, Head of Purdue University's Department of Industrial Education, with the assistance of J.P. Corcoran, Director of a trade union training department, describe the development of a programme of training for apprentice instructors run jointly by the union and the university. (Editor)

  12. Teaching Reform and Union Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles T.; Mitchell, Douglas E.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews present labor statutes and examines three alternatives to current practices; proposes that teaching, by its nature, is not well administered by industrial standards or well adjudicated through industrial unionism. Suggests "professional unionism" as a means of effecting educational reform. (DR)

  13. Recent Developments in Compulsory Unionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchnick, Morton G.

    1993-01-01

    Looks at legal cases concerning the uses to which mandatory union dues are put. Considers the variety of approaches adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Germany and reviews how compulsory unionism has been treated in the courts in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the United States, and Canada. (JOW)

  14. Union Roles in Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Stephen Michael

    1993-01-01

    Discusses roles for labor unions in resolving workforce deficiencies, suggesting that labor, management, and government must work together to develop cooperative training initiatives. Describes labor's historic role in basic and workplace literacy training, lists skills workers need in the "new" workplace, describes exemplary union-management…

  15. A Credit-Union Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Mary Ellen

    1997-01-01

    Describes establishing and running a credit union in a sixth-grade classroom. By establishing a classroom credit union, students can develop independence in solving real problems and model situations that occur in the real world to solve similar problems. (ASK)

  16. Teacher Unionization in School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The role of unions in school governance is reviewed to note that labor operates in a larger context of principal-agent relationships. As agents for teachers, unions articulate the concerns that must be addressed if teachers are to be successfully enlisted in the struggle to reduce achievement gaps among at-risk students. Transcending industrial…

  17. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  18. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  19. College/Labor Union Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 1,054 institutions by the AACJC Service Center for Community College-Labor Union Cooperation concluded that while substantial joint undertakings exist between unions and community colleges, in many cases labor and community colleges are waiting for the other party to make the first move. (JG)

  20. Toward a More Perfect Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  1. Union Presence, Class, and Individual Earnings Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leicht, Kevin T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data from the Survey of Class Structure and Class Consciousness showed that union membership positively affects earnings of all workers, but union density affects only the working class. Interindustry union threats affect the wages of only nonunionized workers. (SK)

  2. Compulsory Unionism and the Demise of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Susan E.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that forced unionism for teachers and forced union fees are undemocratic. Maintains that teacher unions will represent the interests of their members only when they must compete for membership. (Author/WD)

  3. Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Sarah

    1987-01-01

    Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

  4. The course of marriage/sustained cohabitation and parenthood among borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, Mary C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Wedig, Michelle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of marriage/sustained cohabitation and parenthood reported by recovered and nonrecovered borderline patients, the age first undertaken, and the stability of these relationships. Borderline patients were interviewed about these topics during their index admission and eight times over 16 years of prospective follow-up. Recovered borderline patients were significantly more likely than nonrecovered borderline patients to have married/lived with an intimate partner and to have become a parent. In addition, they first married/cohabited and became a parent at a significantly older age. They were also significantly less likely to have been divorced or ended a cohabiting relationship. In addition, they were significantly less likely to have given up or lost custody of a child. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that stable functioning as a spouse/partner and as a parent are strongly associated with recovery status for borderline patients. PMID:24963829

  5. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. PMID:24698667

  6. The Intergenerational Transmission of Smoking Across Three Cohabitant Generations: A Count Data Approach.

    PubMed

    Escario, José-Julián; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the extent to which parent and grandparent smoking influences adolescent smoking and its quantitative implications for tobacco control. It extends similar prior studies by investigating the effects on the probability of becoming a smoker and on the number of cigarettes smoked. Count regressions were used to assess the intergenerational transmission of smoking across three cohabitant generations, simultaneously, using data from the 2010 survey "Encuesta Estatal Sobre Uso De Drogas en Estudiantes de Enseñanzas Secundarias". This survey, of 32,234 students, constitutes a representative sample of Spanish students between 14 and 18 years of age. Living with a mother who smokes, a father who smokes, or a grandparent who smokes reduces the odds of being a non-smoker by 36.1% (OR 0.639), 26.1% (OR 0.739) and 20.3% (OR 0.797), respectively. Parental smoking increases cigarette consumption levels among adolescents. Having a cohabitant mother who smokes increases the number of cigarettes smoked by children by around 18.7% (IRR 1.187), while having a cohabitant father who smokes increases the number by around 12.1% (IRR 1.121). Estimates support the hypothesis that visibility of smoking among parents and grandparents is a strong predictor of smoking among adolescents. Accordingly, quitting smoking by parents and grandparents before children become adolescents appears to be a powerful means to both reduce smoking rates among adolescents and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers; such decisions appear to exert a stronger influence on the prevalence of smoking and consumption levels than exposure to smoking prevention campaigns at school. PMID:25796208

  7. Cohabitation with a sick partner increases allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; de Lima, Ana Paula Nascimento; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; dos Santos Franco, Adriana Lino; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Palermo-Neto, João

    2014-11-01

    The bidirectional relationship between the nervous system and the immune system is relevant for homeostatic organism maintenance. Studies from our laboratory showed that 14days of cohabitation with a sick partner (injected with Ehrlich tumor cells-TAE) produced behavioral, neurochemical, endocrinological and immunological changes. This study analyzes the effects of cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing animal on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced lung inflammatory response in mice. Pairs of male mice were divided into three groups: naïve, control and experimental. Animals of the naïve group were kept undisturbed being used for the assessment of basal parameters. One animal of each experimental and control pair of mice was immunized with OVA. On ED(0), these OVA-immunized animals received an OVA booster. At this day (D(0)) the experimental mice that were kept undisturbed were inoculated with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells; their immunized cage-mates were then referred as to CSP ("companion of sick partner"). The undisturbed mice of each control pair were i.p. treated on D(0) with 0.9% NaCl; their sensitized cage-mates were subsequently referred as CHP ("companion of health partner"). The OVA challenge was performed on CSP and CHP mice on ED(12) and ED(13); blood and tissue collection were performed on ED(14). Fourteen days after cohabitation, in comparison to the CHP mice, the CSP mice displayed the following: (1) an increased number of eosinophils and neutrophils in the BAL, (2) a decreased bone marrow cell count, (3) increased levels of IL-4 and IL-5 and decreased levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ in the BAL supernatant, (5) increased levels of IgG1-OVA, decreased levels of IgG2a-OVA and no changes in OVA-specific IgE in the peripheral blood, (6) increased expression of L-selectin in the BAL granulocytes, (7) decreased tracheal reactivity to methacholine measured in vitro, (8) no changes in plasma corticosterone levels and (9) increased levels of plasmatic noradrenaline. These

  8. Attitudes towards family formation in cohabiting and single childless women in their mid- to late thirties.

    PubMed

    Birch Petersen, Kathrine; Sylvest, Randi; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Pinborg, Anja; Westring Hvidman, Helene; Schmidt, Lone

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34-39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. A sample of 10 single women and 10 cohabiting women was chosen with equal distribution of postgraduate education length. Data were analysed using content analysis following the method of Graneheim and Lundman and consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). The general attitude towards family formation was characterized by a fear of the consequences of choosing motherhood on one hand, and a 'ticking biological clock' and a wish to establish a nuclear family on the other. The women idealized the perception of perfect mothering in terms of uncompromising expectations of child rearing and showed an increasing awareness of solo motherhood as a possible solution to advanced age, the wish of a child and single status compared to earlier studies. Our study contributes to knowledge and understanding of personal considerations related to childbearing in nullipara women in their mid- to late 30s and may be useful in a fertility assessment and counselling setting. PMID:27006139

  9. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

  10. A MOLECULAR EXAMINATION OF RELATEDNESS, MULTIPLE PATERNITY, AND COHABITATION OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS WOODRAT (NEOTOMA MICROPUS)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, B. Dnate’; Mendez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-two individuals of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) were captured from 198 excavated middens at 10 discrete collecting sites from a single population in south-central Texas. Field data, mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes, and polymorphic microsatellite loci (5–7) were used to determine genetic patterns in parentage, relatedness, and mating strategy. Microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic (average observed heterozygosity = 0.859) and were used to construct genotypes that were unique for each individual (probability of identical genotypes: 1 in 2,104,567). Results indicated a high frequency of multiple paternity (6 of 9 litters), evidence of repeat mating between the same 2 individuals, and no indication of male dominance at any collection site. Examination of these data suggested a promiscuous mating system. Within a site, average relatedness between adult females was similar to that between adult males. A higher level of cohabitation from that previously documented was recorded and finer-scale analyses revealed high levels of relatedness between most cohabiting individuals. Taken with results from other studies of mating behaviors of N. micropus, our results suggest that mating and social behavior of this species are likely influenced by population density. PMID:20011670

  11. Emotional and physical satisfaction in noncohabiting, cohabiting, and marital relationships: the importance of jealous conflict.

    PubMed

    Gatzeva, Mariana; Paik, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article examines whether associations between marital status and emotional and physical satisfaction depend on jealous conflict associated with expectations about sexual exclusivity. Using data from a representative sample of 681 women and men drawn from the city of Chicago and its inner suburbs, this study estimated logistic regression models of jealous conflict and ordered logistic regression models of adults' reported emotional and physical satisfaction of their relationships. The results show that marriages are less exposed to jealous conflict than cohabiting and noncohabiting relationships. Regarding emotional and physical satisfaction, their associations with marital status were contingent upon whether individuals reported jealous conflict in their relationships. Specifically, in relationships without jealous conflict, married couples were more emotionally satisfied than noncohabiting couples. Married couples, but not cohabiting and noncohabiting couples, had significantly lower emotional and physical satisfaction when jealous conflict occurred. Cohabitors were not less emotionally or physically satisfied than married respondents. Overall, this research supports the argument that sexual exclusivity expectations are important for understanding the link between marital status and relationship quality. PMID:19941192

  12. Faculty Union Movement Gains Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the causes of the increase in faculty unionism over the past eight years and describes a report prepared for the Carnegie Commission and the Ford Foundation which analyzes this new campus development. (GS)

  13. Union Power for Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitzman, Barry

    1975-01-01

    The Teaching Assistants Association (TAA) is a labor union representing the graduate students who teach most of the University of Wisconsin and the University of Michigan freshman and sophomore courses. (Author/PG)

  14. Training for Transition: A Union View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotbaum, Victor

    1979-01-01

    A representative of a New York public service union discusses the role of his union in the education of workers. Focus is on the union's provisions for the educational needs of members, and changes in the workplace, particularly the trend away from industrial jobs to service occupations, for which union members must be prepared. (JMD)

  15. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  16. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  17. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  18. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  19. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  20. The Evolving Role of Union Learning Representatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sian; Ross, Cilla

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that the union learning representative (ULR) is increasingly situated at the heart of trade union activity. The paper draws upon recent research based on interviews with national trade union officers and case studies of union learning activity to explore the competing demands being made upon ULRs and the implications for…

  1. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  2. Cells of Escherichia coli are protected against severe chemical stress by co-habiting cell aggregates formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jagmann, Nina; Henke, Sebastian Franz; Philipp, Bodo

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial cells within biofilms and cell aggregates show increased resistance against chemical stress compared with suspended cells. It is not known whether bacteria that co-habit biofilms formed by other bacteria also acquire such resistance. This scenario was investigated in a proof-of-principle experiment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as cell aggregate-forming bacterium and Escherichia coli strain MG1655 as potential co-habiting bacterium equipped with an inducible bioluminescence system. Cell aggregation of strain PAO1 can be induced by the toxic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In single cultures of strain MG1655, bioluminescence was inhibited by the protonophor carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) but the cells were still viable. By applying CCCP and SDS together, cells of strain MG1655 lost their bioluminescence and viability indicating the importance of energy-dependent resistance mechanisms against SDS. In co-suspensions with strain PAO1, bioluminescence of strain MG1655 was sustained in the presence of SDS and CCCP. Image analysis showed that bioluminescent cells were located in cell aggregates formed by strain PAO1. Thus, cells of strain MG1655 that co-habited cell aggregates formed by strain PAO1 were protected against a severe chemical stress that was lethal to them in single cultures. Co-habiting could lead to increased survival of pathogens in clinical settings and could be employed in biotechnological applications involving toxic milieus. PMID:26066844

  3. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CUTANEOUS ANTIBODY PRODUCED BY CHANNEL CATFISH IMMUNE TO ICHTHYOPHTHIRIUS ON COHABITED NON-IMMUNE CATFISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish recovered from sublethal ichthyophthiriasis acquire protective immunity against Ichthyophthirius (Ich). This study evaluated the protective effect of cutaneous antibody excreted by channel catfish immune to Ich on cohabited non-immune catfish. Non-immune and immune fish controls were separatel...

  4. Correlates of Male Cohabiting Partner’s Involvement in Childrearing Tasks in Low-Income Urban Black Stepfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children. This study examines the link between family relationships (child relationship with mother and the cohabiting partner; parent and cohabiting partner relationship) and involvement of biologically unrelated male cohabiting partners (MCP) in childrearing. The participants were 121 low-income urban Black families consisting of a single mother, MCP, and an adolescent (56% female, M age = 13.7). Assessments were conducted individually with mothers, MCPs, and adolescents via measures administered by interview. MCPs were involved in both domains of childrearing assessed (Daily Child-Related Tasks and Setting limits) and those identified as coparents by the mother were more involved in childrearing tasks than those not identified as coparents. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the mother-MCP relationship (both support and conflict) and the adolescent-MCP relationship were related to MCP’s involvement in both domains of childrearing. The findings indicate that MCPs are actively involved in childrearing and family relationship variables are associated with their involvement in these tasks. PMID:24749653

  5. Correlates of male cohabiting partner's involvement in child-rearing tasks in low-income urban Black stepfamilies.

    PubMed

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2014-06-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children. This study examines the link between family relationships (child relationship with mother and the cohabiting partner; parent and cohabiting partner relationship) and involvement of biologically unrelated male cohabiting partners (MCP) in child rearing. The participants were 121 low-income urban Black families consisting of a single mother, MCP, and an adolescent (56% female, M age = 13.7). Assessments were conducted individually with mothers, MCPs, and adolescents via measures administered by interview. MCPs were involved in both domains of child rearing assessed (daily child-related tasks and setting limits) and those identified as coparents by the mother were more involved in child-rearing tasks than those not identified as coparents. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the mother-MCP relationship (both support and conflict) and the adolescent-MCP relationship were related to MCP's involvement in both domains of child rearing. The findings indicate that MCPs are actively involved in child rearing and family relationship variables are associated with their involvement in these tasks. PMID:24749653

  6. Union certification elections in nursing care facilities.

    PubMed

    Palthe, Jennifer; Deshpande, Satish P

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study examines 387 union certification elections conducted by the National Labor Relations Board in nursing care facilities (North American Industry Classification System 623) from January 1999 to December 2001. Unions won 60% of the elections. Service Employees International Union was involved in 42% of the elections. Bargaining unit size significantly impacted union victory. Unions had a better probability of winning elections in the northeast and midwest than in the south. Unlike other industries, American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations affiliated unions did not suffer a big labor image in nursing care facilities. Implications for union organizers and administrators of nursing care facilities are discussed. PMID:14672442

  7. Women Teachers, Union Affiliation, and the Future of North American Teacher Unionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascia, Nina

    1998-01-01

    Discusses benefits of union affiliation and involvement for women teachers, interpreting data from studies that explored the value of unionism to secondary teachers and researched the work and motives of union-active teachers. Women teachers' motives for union involvement and the gendered nature of their experiences regarding unions offer useful…

  8. Non-negligible Occurrence of Errors in Gender Description in Public Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Park, Jong-Luyl

    2016-01-01

    Due to advances in omics technologies, numerous genome-wide studies on human samples have been published, and most of the omics data with the associated clinical information are available in public repositories, such as Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress. While analyzing several public datasets, we observed that errors in gender information occur quite often in public datasets. When we analyzed the gender description and the methylation patterns of gender-specific probes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD], ephrin-B1 [EFNB1], and testis specific protein, Y-linked 2 [TSPY2]) in 5,611 samples produced using Infinium 450K HumanMethylation arrays, we found that 19 samples from 7 datasets were erroneously described. We also analyzed 1,819 samples produced using the Affymetrix U133Plus2 array using several gender-specific genes (X (inactive)-specific transcript [XIST], eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A, Y-linked [EIF1AY], and DEAD [Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp] box polypeptide 3, Y-linked [DDDX3Y]) and found that 40 samples from 3 datasets were erroneously described. We suggest that the users of public datasets should not expect that the data are error-free and, whenever possible, that they should check the consistency of the data. PMID:27103889

  9. Surface chemistry : a non-negligible parameter in determining optical properties of small colloidal metal nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Gray, S. K.; Peng, S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface chemistry can become pronounced in determining the optical properties of colloidal metal nanoparticles as the nanoparticles become so small (diameters <20 nm) that the surface atoms, which can undergo chemical interactions with the environment, represent a significant fraction of the total number of atoms although this effect is often ignored. For instance, formation of chemical bonds between surface atoms of small metal nanoparticles and capping molecules that help stabilize the nanoparticles can reduce the density of conduction band electrons in the surface layer of metal atoms. This reduced electron density consequently influences the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the metal atoms in the surface layer and, for sufficiently high surface to volume ratios, the overall surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectrum. The important role of surface chemistry is highlighted here by carefully analyzing the classical Mie theory and a multi-layer model is presented to produce more accurate predictions by considering the chemically reduced density of conduction band electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms in nanoparticles. Calculated absorption spectra of small Ag nanoparticles quantitatively agree with the experimental results for our monodispersed Ag nanoparticles synthesized via a well-defined chemical reduction process, revealing an exceptional size-dependence of absorption peak positions: the peaks first blue-shift followed by a turnover and a dramatic red-shift as the particle size decreases. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between surface chemistry and optical properties is beneficial to exploit new applications of small colloidal metal nanoparticles, such as colorimetric sensing, electrochromic devices, and surface enhanced spectroscopies.

  10. Electroosmotic fluid motion and late-time solute transport at non-negligible zeta potentials

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Griffiths; R. H. Nilson

    1999-12-01

    Analytical and numerical methods are employed to determine the electric potential, fluid velocity and late-time solute distribution for electroosmotic flow in a tube and channel when the zeta potential is not small. The electric potential and fluid velocity are in general obtained by numerical means. In addition, new analytical solutions are presented for the velocity in a tube and channel in the extremes of large and small Debye layer thickness. The electroosmotic fluid velocity is used to analyze late-time transport of a neutral non-reacting solute. Zeroth and first-order solutions describing axial variation of the solute concentration are determined analytically. The resulting expressions contain eigenvalues representing the dispersion and skewness of the axial concentration profiles. These eigenvalues and the functions describing transverse variation of the concentration field are determined numerically using a shooting technique. Results are presented for both tube and channel geometries over a wide range of the normalized Debye layer thickness and zeta potential. Simple analytical approximations to the eigenvalues are also provided for the limiting cases of large and small values of the Debye layer thickness. The methodology developed here for electroosmotic flow is also applied to the Taylor problem of late-time transport and dispersion in pressure-driven flows.