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Sample records for non-occupationally exposed residents

  1. Cognitive impairment in an adult Mexican population non-occupationally exposed to manganese.

    PubMed

    Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Ríos, Camilo; Rosas, Irma; Montes, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We examined the association between non-occupational exposure to Mn and cognitive functions. The study was carried out in a mining district located in Hidalgo State, Mexico, with 288 adults. Air and blood Mn concentrations were determined, and neuropsychological tests were administered to explore cognitive functions and depression. Blood Mn mean was 9.5 ± 4.14 μg/L. A total of 73% of the study group were in contact with air Mn levels that surpassed the EPA recommended guideline level for non-occupational environments (0.05 μg/m(3)). Air Mn concentration was associated as a risk factor for attention impairment (OR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.01-3.06). Blood Mn levels were not associated to any of the measured outcomes. The main finding of this study is the presence of attention impairments associated to high levels of air Mn exposure. These results confirm previous studies, in which cognitive impairment is reported for exposed population. PMID:21784000

  2. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  3. Particle-Associated Ambient Benzo[a]pyrene and Levels of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in a Non-occupationally Exposed Population of Adults and Children in Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunjiang; Wang, Qiong; Li, Liangzhong; Liu, Zien; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Yanping; Lin, Haipeng; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Hui; Lin, Bigui

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in ambient air from different areas in Lanzhou city in northwest of China, and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the urine of resident children and adults were determined by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the atmospheric environmental concentration of B[a]P varied significantly from one part of the city to another with levels of 150 ng/m(3) in the industrial area of Xigu and 73.8 ng/m(3) in the agricultural area of Yuzhong. The geometric mean urinary 1-OHP concentration was 0.42 µmol/mol-creatinine, with a range of means between 0.067 and 2.05 for the various population sub-groups. The non-occupationally exposed populations' age, gender and area of residence were the major factors that influenced urinary 1-OHP levels. The health risks of B[a]P for adults and children in Xigu and for children in Yuzhong exceeded the acceptable level (1 × 10(-4)) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:26841792

  4. Dioxins in adipose tissue of non-occupationally exposed persons in France: correlation with individual food exposure.

    PubMed

    Arfi, C; Seta, N; Fraisse, D; Revel, A; Escande, J P; Momas, I

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated individual adipose tissue (subcutaneous lipomas) dioxin contamination in non-occupationally exposed persons living in France (adult patients undergoing a surgical ablation of benign lipomas), in relation to the corresponding individually evaluated mean daily dietary dioxin intake (DDDI). The diet survey (questionnaire) included information on consumption of meat, fish, milk and dairy products, from which the individual DDDI was calculated. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. DDDI ranged between 1.06 and 3.31 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight, bw (mean value: 2.05+/-0.72). Adipose tissue polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels ranged between 18.5 and 76.9 pg I-TEQ/g lipids (mean value: 35.6+/-14.8). No relation was found between the DDDI and adipose tissue PCDD/PCDF concentrations. The mean DDDI in France does not fundamentally differ from those found in other industrialised countries, is within the range of 1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg/day recently suggested by WHO-ECEH/ICPS for the tolerable daily intake of dioxins. Adipose tissue PCDD/PCDFs levels are similar to levels in other European countries and USA without relation to sex or age, and can be considered representative European background concentrations. Globalisation of alimentary production leads to a similar food exposure in Western European countries, in spite of dioxins accidental selective contaminations that are epiphenomenon and thus do not have any impact in human dioxin background levels. PMID:11513111

  5. FIXED-SITE AIR AND BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS OF VOCS IN A NON-OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED POPULATION ALONG THE ARIZONA-MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the NHEXAS-Border Study are to obtain environmental exposure and biomarker data for a representative population residing along the Arizona-Mexico border, and compare the distributions to similar distributions previously obtained for the state of Arizona (NHEXAS-Ari...

  6. CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the manner in which chemical contaminants found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents enter the environment and subsequently human tissue. Approximately 100 contaminants are treated. Sources of literature used in the survey covered a 30-year period, the b...

  7. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:25288430

  8. Biomonitoring of persons exposed to insecticides used in residences.

    PubMed

    Krieger, R I; Bernard, C E; Dinoff, T M; Ross, J H; Williams, R L

    2001-04-01

    Pesticides used indoors inevitably result in some unintentional and unavoidable exposures of residents. Measured dosages of residents are well below toxic levels. Exposures (microg/kg-day) are substantially less and occur over a longer time than suggested by unvalidated estimates derived from previous extreme, conservative default assumptions based solely on environmental residues. Human chlorpyrifos exposures were monitored following three different types of applications: fogger, broadcast, and crack-and-crevice. Persistence of total residue on carpet was substantially greater than the persistence of transferable residue (microg/cm(2)). Low-level (microg/kg) exposures of family members persisted for periods of weeks to a month after pesticide use. Although few children who resided with their parents in pest-protected homes have been monitored, they eliminated more biomarker than their parents on a kg body weight-day basis when absorbed dosages (microg/kg-day) were derived from spot urine specimens corrected for volume by an age-specific creatinine correction. Ultimately environmental residues may become useful elements of predictive residential exposure models, but their potential contribution to indirect exposure assessments must include careful determination of residue availability for contact transfer to clothing or skin and biological validation. When environmental data from monitoring studies reported here were used to estimate residential exposure according to Residential Exposure Assessment Standard Operating Procedures (SAP meeting, 1997), measured exposures were substantially less than assessments. Experimental and situational monitoring of exposed persons is essential for meaningful and responsible predictive resident exposure model building. PMID:11290360

  9. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust

    PubMed Central

    Bhagia, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

  10. Accumulation and Clearance of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Current and Former Residents of an Exposed Community

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Ryan; Bartell, Scott M.; Steenland, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid found in > 99% of Americans. Its health effects are unknown. Prior estimates of serum half-life range from 2.3 to 3.8 years. Objectives We assessed the impact of years of residence and years since residing in the study area on serum PFOA concentration in a sample of current and former residents who were exposed to PFOA emissions from an industrial facility in six water districts in West Virginia and Ohio. Methods Serum samples and questionnaires, including residential history, were collected in 2005–2006. We modeled log serum PFOA (nanograms per milliliter) for current residents as a function of years of residence in a water district, adjusted for a variety of factors. We modeled the half-life in former residents who lived in two water districts with high exposure levels using a two-segment log-linear spline. Results We modeled serum PFOA concentration in 17,516 current residents as a function of years of residence (R2 = 0.68). Years of residence was significantly associated with PFOA concentration (1% increase in serum PFOA/year of residence), with significant heterogeneity by water district. Half-life was estimated in two water districts comprising a total of 1,573 individuals. For the participants included in our analyses, we found that years since residing in a water district was significantly associated with serum PFOA, which yielded half-lives of 2.9 and 8.5 years for water districts with higher and lower exposure levels, respectively. Conclusion Years of residence in an exposed water district is positively associated with observed serum PFOA in 2005–2006. Differences in serum clearance rate between low- and high-exposure water districts suggest a possible concentration-dependent or time-dependent clearance process or inadequate adjustment for background exposures. PMID:20870569

  11. Psychosocial health of residents exposed to soil pollution in a Flemish neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Vandermoere, Frédéric

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study is to examine several major covariates of mental health among residents living on polluted soil. In the Kouterwijk community, Belgium, which is contaminated by heavy metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 109 residents were compared with a quasi-control group (n=161). The mental health of the exposed residents was much worse than in the matched group. To examine the residents' mental health in detail, site-specific variables were added in a binary logistic regression. The probability of distress did not covary with independently assessed or perceived danger of the contaminants, but with residents' sense of participation in consultation over the contamination problem, and with interaction of the latter with a perceived need for decontamination. This suggests that a disbelief in the necessity of risk mitigation, along with a perceived lack of participation, can be more stressful than actual and perceived contamination. PMID:18237836

  12. LEVELS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a compilation of information on chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution and found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents. Listed in tabular form for each of approximately 100 elements or compounds are: the tissue the compound was found in;...

  13. Preliminary FISH-based assessment of external dose for residents exposed on the Techa River.

    PubMed

    Vozilova, A V; Shagina, N B; Degteva, M O; Edwards, A A; Ainsbury, E A; Moquet, J E; Hone, P; Lloyd, D C; Fomina, J N; Darroudi, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility cytogenetic study using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay for residents of villages located on the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) contaminated with liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949-1956. The study was conducted with two groups of donors that differed in their main pathways of exposure. The first group comprised 18 residents of the middle Techa region who were exposed predominantly from ingestion of radionuclides (mostly (89,90)Sr) via the river water and local foodstuffs. The second group included 20 residents of Metlino, the closest village to the site of releases, who were exposed to external γ radiation from the contaminated river bank and exposed internally from dietary intake of radionuclides. A significant linear dependence between the radiation-induced translocation frequency and individual red bone marrow dose from incorporated (89,90)Sr, calculated with the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), was found in the first group of donors. This allowed us to take the contribution of (89,90)Sr to the total radiation-induced translocation frequency into account for the second group of donors and to analyze translocations resulting from external γ-ray exposure. Individual doses from external exposure derived from the corrected translocation frequency for the second group of donors (Metlino residents), using a linear dose-response coefficient of 0.015 translocation/cell/Gy recommended by Edwards et al. in 2005, were shown to vary up to 2.1 Gy, with an average value of 0.48 Gy, which was in agreement with TRDS-based external dose estimates for Metlino residents. PMID:22026585

  14. A biomarker found in cadmium exposed residents of Thailand by metabolome analysis.

    PubMed

    Suvagandha, Dhitiwass; Nishijo, Muneko; Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Honda, Ruymon; Ohse, Morimasa; Kuhara, Tomiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan

    2014-04-01

    First, the urinary metabolic profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was performed to compare ten cadmium (Cd) toxicosis cases from a Cd-polluted area in Mae Sot (Thailand) with gender-matched healthy controls. Orthogonal partial list square-discrimination analysis was used to identify new biomarker candidates in highly Cd exposed toxicosis cases with remarkable renal tubular dysfunction. The results of the first step of this study showed that urinary citrate was a negative marker and myo-inositol was a positive marker for Cd toxicosis in Thailand. In the second step, we measured urinary citrate in the residents (168 Cd-exposed subjects and 100 controls) and found significantly lower levels of urinary citrate and higher ratios of calcium/citrate and magnesium/citrate, which are risk factors for nephrolithiasis, in highly Cd-exposed residents. Additionally, this inverse association of urinary citrate with urinary Cd was observed after adjustment for age, smoking and renal tubular dysfunction, suggesting a direct effect of Cd on citrate metabolism. These results indicate that urinary citrate is a useful biomarker for the adverse health effects of Cd exposure in a Thai population with a high prevalence of nephrolithiasis. PMID:24699029

  15. Dual Functionality of Myeloperoxidase in Rotenone-Exposed Brain-Resident Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi Young; Song, Mi Jeon; Jeon, Sae-Bom; Yoon, Hee Jung; Lee, Dae Kee; Kim, In-Hoo; Suk, Kyungho; Choi, Dong-Kug; Park, Eun Jung

    2011-01-01

    Rotenone exposure has emerged as an environmental risk factor for inflammation-associated neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the harmful effects of rotenone in the brain remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that myeloperoxidase (MPO) may have a potential regulatory role in rotenone-exposed brain-resident immune cells. We show that microglia, unlike neurons, do not undergo death; instead, they exhibit distinctive activated properties under rotenone-exposed conditions. Once activated by rotenone, microglia show increased production of reactive oxygen species, particularly HOCl. Notably, MPO, an HOCl-producing enzyme that is undetectable under normal conditions, is significantly increased after exposure to rotenone. MPO-exposed glial cells also display characteristics of activated cells, producing proinflammatory cytokines and increasing their phagocytic activity. Interestingly, our studies with MPO inhibitors and MPO-knockout mice reveal that MPO deficiency potentiates, rather than inhibits, the rotenone-induced activated state of glia and promotes glial cell death. Furthermore, rotenone-triggered neuronal injury was more apparent in co-cultures with glial cells from Mpo−/− mice than in those from wild-type mice. Collectively, our data provide evidence that MPO has dual functionality under rotenone-exposed conditions, playing a critical regulatory role in modulating pathological and protective events in the brain. PMID:21704008

  16. Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

  17. Liver dysfunction in residents exposed to leachate from a toxic waste dump.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C R

    1983-02-01

    It has been estimated that there are some 30,000 chemical waste dumps in the United States. Many of these landfill operations were undertaken in the early 1950s and 1960s, when knowledge regarding the safe and prolonged containment of the waste buried was nonexistent or minimal at best. As a result, many of these dump sites were located in areas that were geologically unsuitable for toxic chemical wastes. The Love Canal area in Niagara Falls, NY, is probably the best known of these dump sites. While a few of these sites have attracted wide media coverage, the availability of objective scientific information regarding the health effects of such sites has been deficient. The present study of a large toxic waste dump located in Hardeman County, TN, its contamination of surface and underground aquifers and the health effects on the area residents exposed via ingestion of contaminated water, offers the first objective evidence of organ dysfunction in such a human population. During this study comprehensive evaluation of that population revealed multiple symptoms, evidence of hepatomegaly and elevated liver function tests apparently caused by ingestion of water contaminated by numerous organic chemicals, many of which are known to be hepatotoxins. PMID:6825641

  18. Contributions of non-occupational activities to total noise exposure of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Goldman, Bryan; Daniell, William

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two-hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure levels for these episodic exposures were determined from the published literature. Routine activities were assessed using activity cards filled out over 530 subject-days, along with noise dosimetry measurements made over 124 subject-days of measurement. Equivalent Leq exposure levels were then calculated for specific activities. These activity-specific Leq values were combined into estimated individual annual Leq exposure levels for the 6760 nominal annual non-occupational hours in a year (LAeq6760h), which were then transformed into equivalent levels for a 2000 h exposure period (LA2000hn) for comparison with occupational noise exposure risk criteria. The mean non-occupational LAeq6760h exposure values for the cohort ranged from 56 to 87 dBA (equivalent LA2000hn 62-93 dBA). At the mid range of the routine and episodic activity exposure level distribution, the mean LAeq6760h was 73 dBA (LA2000hn 78 dBA). Nineteen percent of the LA2000hn non-occupational exposures exceeded 85 dBA, the generally recommended occupational limit for a 2000 h workyear, at the mid-range of exposure levels. Due to a lack of available data, firearms use could not be incorporated into the total noise exposure estimates. However, firearms users reported more exposure to other noisy non-occupational activities and had statistically significantly higher estimated exposure levels even without including their firearms exposure than did non-shooters. When compared with the high levels of occupational noise found in construction, non-occupational noise exposures

  19. Pleural malignant mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos in Casale Monferrato, Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C; Terracini, B; Ivaldi, C; Botta, M; Mancini, A; Andrion, A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess and quantify the occurrence of pleural malignant mesotheliomas in people who neither experienced occupational exposure to asbestos nor were married to (or known to live with) workers exposed to asbestos in the workplace. The study was conducted in the area of the local health authority of Casale Monferrato, in north western Italy, where a large factory that produced asbestos cement was active up to 1985. No other major activities related to asbestos have ever been present in the area. METHODS--A retrospective survey covering the period 1980 to 1991 identified 126 incident pleural malignant mesotheliomas histologically diagnosed among residents in the local health authority (population at the 1981 census 98,000). Submission of 83 of 95 cases diagnosed during 1980-9 for revision by a panel of five expert pathologists led to the exclusion of 21. The 31 cases diagnosed in 1990-1 were not submitted for revision. For 64 of the 105 retained cases, information derived from different sources (rosters of the employees in the asbestos cement factory dated back to 1907, list of their spouses, clinical records) did not suggest occupational or paraoccupational exposure to asbestos. RESULTS--Incidence excludes cases for which there was some suggestion of occupational or paraoccupational exposure to asbestos. Incidence of histologically confirmed malignant mesothelioma among residents in the local health authority (annual x 100,000; age adjusted) was 4.2 in men and 2.3 in women (based on 26 and 18 cases respectively). In both sexes, rates in 1985-9 were higher than in the previous quinquennium. Corresponding estimates for 1990-1 (based on unrevised diagnoses) suggest similar rates in men and women. CONCLUSION--Rate ratios which are four to six times those measured by conventional Italian cancer registries can hardly be totally explained by bias produced by lack of recognition of occupational or paraoccupational exposure. The problem of proving this type of

  20. Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F.

    2008-10-15

    In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Biomonitoring of Farmers and Residents Exposed to Pesticides in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira Pasiani, Juliana; Torres, Priscila; Roniery Silva, Juciê; Zago Diniz, Bruno; Dutra Caldas, Eloisa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ≥18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective devices (PPDs). An association was found (p = 0.001) between the work regimen and the use of PPDs, with more frequent equipment use among hired laborers than those involved in family agriculture. A significant correlation (p = 0.027) was found between the reporting of adverse symptoms and the use of backpack sprayers. Mean AChE activities of farmers (n = 64) and residents (n = 18) during the exposure and non-exposure periods were significantly lower than their control groups. Mean BChE activities of farmers and residents were significantly lower than their controls during the exposure period. Among the 60 farmers that had blood samples collected in both the exposure and non-exposure (baseline) periods, 10 (16.7%) had AChE depletion of over 30% during the exposure period compared with the baseline level. Six residents living on the same farms also presented this depletion. AChE was over 30% higher than the baseline level for 19 farmers (31.7%), indicating a reboot effect. Special education programs are needed in these regions to promote the safe use of pesticides in the field to decrease the risks from exposure to pesticides for farmers, and from secondary exposure to these compounds for their families. PMID:23202670

  2. Health effects of non-occupational exposure to oil extraction.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Oil extraction may cause extensive environmental impact that can affect health of populations living in surrounding areas. Large populations are potentially exposed to oil extraction related contamination through residence in areas where oil extraction is conducted, especially in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Health effects among people residentially exposed to upstream oil industry contaminants have been poorly studied. Health effects of exposure to oil related contamination have been mainly studied among cleanup workers after oil spills from tankers or offshore platforms.In this paper we aim to identify the type and extension of residential exposures related to oil extraction activities and to comment on the few health studies available. We estimated that 638 million persons in LMICs inhabit rural areas close to conventional oil reservoirs. It is relevant to specifically study people residentially exposed to upstream oil industry for the following reasons: First, persons are exposed during long periods of time to oil related contamination. Second, routes of exposure differ between workers and people living close to oil fields, who can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated waters/foods and by dermal contact with contaminated water and/or land during daily activities (e.g. bathing, agricultural activities, etc.). Third, individuals potentially more susceptible to the effect of oil related contamination and not normally occupationally exposed, such as infants, children, pregnant women, elderly or people with previous health conditions, are also exposed.There are few papers studying the potential health effects of residential exposure to oil related contamination, and most of them share important limitations. There is a need for more research through the conduct of methodologically robust studies in exposed populations worldwide. Despite the difficulties in the conduct of studies in remote areas, novel approaches, such as measurement of individual

  3. Gene transcription reflects poor health status of resident European eel chronically exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Maes, G E; Raeymaekers, J A M; Hellemans, B; Geeraerts, C; Parmentier, K; De Temmerman, L; Volckaert, F A M; Belpaire, C

    2013-01-15

    Understanding the effects of chronic exposure to pollutants on the genome and transcriptome of diadromous fish populations is crucial for their resilience under combined anthropogenic and environmental selective pressures. The catadromous European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) has suffered a dramatic decline in recruitment for three decades, necessitating a thorough assessment of the transcriptional effects of environmental pollutants on resident and migrating eels in natural systems. We investigated the relationship between muscular bioaccumulation levels of metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, As and Se), PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (DDTs), the health status (condition factor and lipid reserves) and the associated transcriptional response in liver and gill tissues for genes involved in metal detoxification (metallothionein, MT) and oxidative metabolism (cytochrome P4501A, CYP1A) of xenobiotic compounds. In total 84 resident eels originating from three Belgian river basins (Scheldt, Meuse and Yzer) were analyzed along with five unpolluted aquaculture samples as control group. There was a large spatial variation in individual contaminant intensity and profile, while tissue pollution levels were strongly and negatively associated with condition indices, suggesting an important impact of pollution on the health of sub-adult resident eels. Gene transcription patterns revealed a complex response mechanism to a cocktail of pollutants, with a high variation at low pollution levels, but strongly down-regulated hepatic and gill gene transcription in highly polluted eels. Resident eels clearly experience a high pollution burden and seem to show a dysfunctional gene transcription regulation of detoxification genes at higher pollutant levels, correlated with low energy reserves and condition. To fully understand the evolutionary implications of pollutants on eel reproductive fitness, analyses of mature migrating eels and the characterization of their transcriptome

  4. Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, N

    1989-01-01

    Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan were determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) for about 100 air samples from various outdoor settings. Asbestos fibres (chrysotile) were found in almost all samples. The fibre (mass) concentrations were in the range of 4-367 fibres per litre (0.02-47.2 ng/m3) with a geometric mean of 18 f/1 (0.3 ng/m3). The mass concentrations were similar to the earlier data reported from other countries. Samples from main roads showed extremely high asbestos concentrations and short fibre lengths compared with those of the other samples. This strongly suggested that braking of vehicles was a significant emission source of airborne asbestos. Laboratory experiments using a brake testing machine demonstrated that asbestos fibres were released during braking. In addition, the present study found high levels of airborne asbestos in some highly polluted areas, such as a serpentine quarry, a town adjacent to an asbestos mine, and factories making asbestos slate-board. On the other hand, chrysotile fibres were also found in air samples from a small isolated island in the Pacific Ocean as well as in ice samples from ten thousand years ago in Antarctica. These facts suggest that chrysotile fibres have been liberated both by industrial activities and natural weathering, and have circulated around the earth. PMID:2744826

  5. Risk Factors for Non-Occupational Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Anshan Prefecture, Liaoning Province, China, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiang; Zhang, Lijie; Zhu, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    Background Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can be fatal but is preventable. From October 2010 to February 2011, Anshan Prefecture reported 57 cases of non-occupational CO poisoning in District A, with two deaths. We conducted an investigation to identify risk factors and recommend preventive measures. Methods We defined a possible case of non-occupational CO poisoning as onset of at least two of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma, and shock from October 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, in a resident of Anshan Prefecture with non-occupational exposure to CO poisoning. We defined a probable case as onset of at least one of the following symptoms: cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma and shock, plus at least one of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, among possible cases. A confirmed CO poisoning case was a possible case or probable case plus hemoglobin (Hb) CO higher than 10%. We searched for cases by reviewing medical records and records of hyperbaric oxygen tank usage. In a case-control investigation, we compared home heating practices of 30 case-persons and 120 control-persons who were individually matched to each case by neighborhood. Results Overall, 56% (39/70) of case-patients’ households burned coal for home-heating. In the case-control investigation, 40% (12/30) of case-persons’ households compared with 5.8% (7/120) of control-persons’ households placed stoves in bedrooms (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [ORM-H] = 11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0–41); 53% (16/30) of case-patients’ households and 33% (40/120) of control-patients’ households did not extinguish the fire before sleeping (ORM-H = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.1–12); 13% (4/30) of case-patients’ households and 3% (4/120) of control-patients’ households had not installed the ventilation pipe vertically (ORM-H = 7.3, 95% CI = 1.0–56). Overall, 77% (23/30) of case-patients’ households

  6. Psychological symptoms and quality of life among residents exposed to long-term, low-dose environmental manganese (Mn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Elevated levels of air manganese (air-Mn) exposure have been associated with adverse health effects. This study examined the relationship of air-Mn concentrations with mood and quality of life.Participants and methods: 185 residents (age mean (M)=55.13±10.88; ed...

  7. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis associated with genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and inflammatory genes among arsenic exposed residents in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Y.-C.; Hsieh, F.-I; Lien, L.-M.; Chou, Y.-L.; Chiou, H.-Y. Chen, C.-J.

    2008-02-15

    Arsenic had been reported to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, there were few studies to evaluate the association between the susceptible gene of lipid metabolism and inflammation and carotid atherosclerosis among arsenic exposure residents. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of APOE and MCP-1 and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis among residents of Lanyang Basin in Taiwan which was a newly confirmed arsenic-endemic area. In total, 479 residents who had been genotyped of these two genes and examined the severity of carotid atherosclerosis were included in this study. The study subjects with carotid intima media thickness (IMT) {>=} 1.0 mm or with the observable plaque in the extracranial carotid artery were diagnosed as carotid atherosclerosis. A significantly age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 2.0 for the development of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in study subjects with {epsilon}4 allele of APOE than those without {epsilon}4 allele. Compared with study subjects who carried wild genotypes of APOE and MCP-1, those with both risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 had 2.5-fold risk of carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age and gender, revealing a significant dose-response relationship between number of risk genotypes of these genes and risk of carotid atherosclerosis. Additionally, study subjects with two risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 and either had ingested well water contained arsenic level > 10 {mu}g/L or had arsenic exposure > 0.22 mg/L-year would have strikingly highest risk of 10.3-fold and 15.7-fold, respectively, for the development carotid atherosclerosis, showing significant joint effect of arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1.

  8. DNA methylation differences in exposed workers and nearby residents of the Ma Ta Phut industrial estate, Rayong, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Marco; Bollati, Valentina; Munnia, Armelle; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Boffetta, Paolo; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse biological effects from airborne pollutants are a primary environmental concern in highly industrialized areas. Recent studies linked air pollution exposures with altered blood Deoxyribo-nucleic acid (DNA) methylation, but effects from industrial sources and underlying biological mechanisms are still largely unexplored. Methods The Ma Ta Phut industrial estate (MIE) in Rayong, Thailand hosts one of the largest steel, oil refinery and petrochemical complexes in south-eastern Asia. We measured a panel of blood DNA methylation markers previously associated with air pollution exposures, including repeated elements [long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) and Alu] and genes [p53, hypermethylated-in-cancer-1 (HIC1), p16 and interleukin-6 (IL-6)], in 67 MIE workers, 65 Ma Ta Phut residents and 45 rural controls. To evaluate the role of DNA damage and oxidation, we correlated DNA methylation measures with bulky DNA and 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine (M1dG) adducts. Results In covariate-adjusted models, MIE workers, compared with rural residents, showed lower LINE-1 (74.8% vs 78.0%; P < 0.001), p53 (8.0% vs 15.7%; P < 0.001) and IL-6 methylation (39.2% vs 45.0%; P = 0.027) and higher HIC1 methylation (22.2% vs 15.3%, P < 0.001). For all four markers, Ma Ta Phut residents exhibited methylation levels intermediate between MIE workers and rural controls (LINE-1, 75.7%, P < 0.001; p53, 9.0%, P < 0.001; IL-6, 39.8%, P = 0.041; HIC1, 17.8%, P = 0.05; all P-values vs rural controls). Bulky DNA adducts showed negative correlation with p53 methylation (P = 0.01). M1dG showed negative correlations with LINE-1 (P = 0.003) and IL-6 methylation (P = 0.05). Conclusions Our findings indicate that industrial exposures may induce alterations of DNA methylation patterns detectable in blood leucocyte DNA. Correlation of DNA adducts with DNA hypomethylation suggests potential mediation by DNA damage. PMID:23064502

  9. Relationship of Occupational and Non-Occupational Stress with Smoking in Automotive Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Somayeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Bahadori, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the second cause of death and first cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Smoking in the workplace is particularly concerning. Smoking-free workplaces decrease the risk of exposure of non-smoking personnel to cigarette smoke. Recent studies have mostly focused on the effect of daily or non-occupational stressors (in comparison with occupational stress) on prevalence of smoking. Occupational stress is often evaluated in workplaces for smoking cessation or control programs, but the role of non-occupational stressors is often disregarded in this respect. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing company. The response of automotive industry workers to parts of the validated, reliable, Farsi version of Musculoskeletal Intervention Center (MUSIC)-Norrtalje questionnaire was evaluated. A total of 3,536 factory workers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using SPSS and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The correlation of smoking with demographic factors, occupational stressors and life events was evaluated. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting for the confounding factors, cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with age, sex, level of education, job control and life events (P<0.05). Conclusion The results showed that of occupational and non-occupational stressors, only job control was correlated with cigarette smoking. Non-occupational stressors had greater effect on cigarette smoking. Consideration of both non-occupational and occupational stressors can enhance the success of smoking control programs. On the other hand, a combination of smoking control and stress (occupational and non-occupational) control programs can be more effective than smoking cessation interventions alone. PMID:25506374

  10. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis is associated with low serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity among arsenic exposed residents in Southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.-F.; Sun, C.-W.; Cheng, T.-J.; Chang, K.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-04-15

    To understand whether human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) would modulate the risk for arsenic-related atherosclerosis, we studied 196 residents from an arseniasis-endemic area in Southwestern Taiwan and 291 age- and sex-matched residents from a nearby control area where arsenic exposure was found low. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined by a carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (IMT) of > 1.0 mm. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was increased in the arseniasis-endemic area as compared to the control area after adjustment for conventional risk factors (OR = 2.20, p < 0.01). The prevalence was positively associated with cumulative arsenic exposure (mg/L-year) in a dose-dependent manner. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that in the endemic group, low serum PON1 activity was an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (OR = 4.18 low vs. high, p < 0.05). For those of low PON1 activity and high cumulative arsenic exposure, the odds ratio for the prevalence of atherosclerosis was further increased up to 5.68 (p < 0.05). No significant association was found between atherosclerosis and four polymorphisms of the PON gene cluster (PON1 - 108C/T, PON1 Q192R, PON2 A148G, PON2 C311S). However, genetic frequencies of certain alleles including PON1 Q192, PON2 G148 and PON2 C311 were found increased in the endemic group as compared to the controls and a general Chinese population, indicating a possible survival selection in the endemic group after a long arsenic exposure history. Our results showed a significant joint effect between arsenic exposure and serum PON1 activity on carotid atherosclerosis, suggesting that subjects of low PON1 activity may be more susceptible to arsenic-related cardiovascular disease.

  11. FINAL REPORT OF THE NON-OCCUPATIONAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (NOPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Non-occupational pesticide Exposure Study was the first attempt to develop a methodology for measuring the potential exposure of specified populations to pesticides. n this study, as in other studies utilizing the Tota1 Exposure Asessment Methodology (TEAM), the exposures wer...

  12. Epidemiological studies of Fukushima residents exposed to ionising radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant prefecture--a preliminary review of current plans.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-03-01

    screening in a year or two since the expected minimum latent period among those exposed in early childhood is about 4 years. Recently, local health authorities decided to start a thyroid screening programme for those aged 18 years or younger. Any scientific efforts in Fukushima, which need to gain the trust of study subjects about the objectivity of research, may suffer from the fact that residents in Fukushima Prefecture have begun to suspect that the Japanese government and local authorities are keeping important information from them. It seems necessary to make more effort to reflect the opinions of residents when planning health care programmes and to gain the understanding of the public for the programme. In summary, there are many problems that make the evaluation of cancer and non-cancer disease risk in Fukushima difficult. The help of international colleagues will be invaluable for overcoming those problems. In this paper, these efforts are briefly summarised and some comments are made. PMID:22327057

  13. A comparison of some of the characteristics of patients with occupational and non-occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Axon, E J; Beach, J R; Burge, P S

    1995-04-01

    Occupational asthma is the most frequently diagnosed occupational lung disease reported to the SWORD (Surveillance of Work-related and Occupational Respiratory Disease) scheme. However, diagnosing occupational asthma is not straightforward, and establishing a link with work may be difficult. This study was undertaken to determine the differences between patients with occupational asthma and those with non-occupational asthma which might help in their diagnosis. Information was collected using a self-completed questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to 30 subjects aged 18-65 years at each of two clinics--one for patients with occupational asthma and one for those with cryptogenic and environmental asthma. Replies were received from 26 patients with occupational asthma (87%) and 29 patients with non-occupational asthma (97%). The age of onset was significantly higher for those with occupational asthma (42.6 vs 20.7 years). Significantly more subjects with occupational asthma reported improvement on holiday, whereas no significant difference was found in the numbers reporting worsening of symptoms on work days. Those with occupational asthma were less likely to report seasonal variation in symptoms, exacerbation by allergies, pets and stress, or a family history of asthma. Subjects with occupational asthma were more likely to become unemployed (50% vs 3%). Recognition of some of these features in a patient's history may help in the difficult task of differentiating occupational from non-occupational asthma, potentially avoiding the need for exhaustive investigations in some patients. The high prevalence of holiday improvement among subjects with non-occupational asthma suggested that domestic or environmental allergies arising outside the workplace may have been making an important contribution to ongoing symptoms in these subjects. PMID:7718818

  14. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  15. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment—Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, T. J.; Dotson, G. S.; Williams, P. R.D.; Maier, A.; Gadagbui, B.; Pandalai, S. P.; Lamba, A.; Hearl, F.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  16. Ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos in non-occupational environments in Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Meshkani, Mohsen; Azam, Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations were monitored in the urban areas of Tehran, Iran during the period of 23 August to 21 September 2012. The airborne fiber concentrations of 110 air samples collected from 15 different sites in five regions of Tehran. The monitoring sites were located 2.5 m above ground nearby the main street and heavy traffic jam. The ambient air samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM). The geometric means of the airborne asbestos fiber concentrations in the outdoor living areas was 1.6 × 10-2 SEM f ml-1 (1.18 × 10-3 PCM f ml-1). This criteria is considerably higher than those reported for the levels of asbestos in outdoor living areas in the Europe and the non-occupational environment of the Korea. No clear correlation was found between asbestos fiber concentration and the relative humidity and temperature. The SEM and PLM analysis revealed that all samples examined contained only chrysotile asbestos. It can be concluded that several factor such as heavy traffic, cement sheet and pipe consumption of asbestos, and geographical conditions play an important role for the high airborne asbestos levels in the non-occupational environments.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis amongst first- and second-year medical students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Meintjes, Willem A.J.; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, with 68% of infected people residing in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy is used as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent infection in cases of occupational exposure, and use has recently been expanded to non-occupational exposure. Studies have demonstrated a lack of awareness of non-occupational PEP (NO-PEP) in the general population. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and attitudes towards availability of, access to and use of NO-PEP amongst first- and second-year medical students. Setting Participants were medical undergraduates of Stellenbosch University in the Western Cape of South Africa who were registered in 2013. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of 169 students was performed. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires handed out in a classroom in August 2013. Self-reported knowledge and attitudes towards NO-PEP and barriers to access to and use of NO-PEP were analysed using frequency tables. Associations between self-reported and objective knowledge of NO-PEP were analysed by odds ratios. Results Over 90% of students had good knowledge on HIV transmission, and about 75% knew how it can be prevented. Twenty eight per cent (n = 47) of students reported knowledge of NO-PEP; 67% reported hearing about it from lecturers, whilst 1% reported hearing about it from their partner. Students who knew the correct procedure to take when a dose is forgotten were 2.4 times more likely to report knowledge of NO-PEP than those who did not know what to do when a dose is forgotten (p = 0.029). No other associations were statistically significant. Conclusion Students had positive attitudes towards the use of NO-PEP and also identified barriers to its use. Despite good knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission, knowledge on NO-PEP was poor. PMID:26245421

  18. Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV: 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Seattle, Washington

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, Sarah J.; Alexander, Jeremiah; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Harrington, Robert D.; Stekler, Joanne D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite treatment guidelines in place since 2005, non-occupational post-exposure HIV prophylaxis (nPEP) remains an underutilized prevention strategy. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients presenting to a publicly-funded HIV clinic in Seattle, Washington for nPEP between 2000 and 2010 (N = 360). nPEP prescriptions were provided for 324 (90%) patients; 83% of prescription decisions were appropriate according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, but only 31% (N = 111/360) of patients were considered “high risk.” In order to use limited resources most efficiently, public health agencies should target messaging for this high-cost intervention to individuals with high-risk HIV exposures. PMID:25140868

  19. Design, Methods, and Population for a Study of PFOA Health Effects among Highly Exposed Mid-Ohio Valley Community Residents and Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Cathy; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Steenland, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: A cohort of community residents and workers is the basis for a series of epidemiologic studies of a Mid-Ohio Valley population with substantial perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure due to releases from a chemical plant. Objectives: We describe study design, methods, and study participants for a longitudinal cohort study of associations between PFOA exposure and adult chronic diseases. Methods: Two cohorts were formed, one recruited from community residents who participated in a previous community-wide survey, and one from plant workers. Study participants were interviewed during 2008–2011 regarding demographics, health-related behaviors, and personal history of chronic diseases. Reported diseases were validated through medical records review and registry matching. Here we describe cohort characteristics, compare survey respondents and nonrespondents, provide data on the number of diseases reported and validated, and describe historical estimates of serum PFOA concentrations over time. Results: The final combined cohort included 32,254 participants (28,541 community; 3,713 worker). Participation rates were high (community, 81.5%; worker, 72.9% of target population). The final population from each cohort was representative of the target population in terms of demographic characteristics and measured serum PFOA concentrations in 2005–2006. The study had a wide exposure range and the number of reported cases of chronic diseases was high, resulting in greater power to detect associations than has been the case for many previous studies. Conclusions: This is the largest study to date of the health effects of PFOA. The information from this cohort is being used to examine associations between PFOA exposure and multiple adult chronic diseases. PMID:23735518

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Highly Exposed PM2.5 Urbanites: The Risk of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases in Young Mexico City Residents.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Avila-Ramírez, José; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; González-Heredia, Tonatiuh; Acuña-Ayala, Hilda; Chao, Chih-Kai; Thompson, Charles; Ruiz-Ramos, Rubén; Cortés-González, Victor; Martínez-Martínez, Luz; García-Pérez, Mario Alberto; Reis, Jacques; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Lachmann, Ingolf

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, while Mn toxicity induces parkinsonism. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children have pre- and postnatal sustained and high exposures to PM2.5, O3, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. Young MCMA residents exhibit frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-β (Aβ)1 - 42 diffuse plaques, and aggregated and hyperphosphorylated α-synuclein in olfactory nerves and key brainstem nuclei. We measured total prion protein (TPrP), total tau (T-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-Tau), Aβ1-42, α-synuclein (t-α-syn and d-α-synuclein), BDNF, insulin, leptin, and/or inflammatory mediators, in 129 normal CSF samples from MCMA and clean air controls. Aβ1-42 and BDNF concentrations were significantly lower in MCMA children versus controls (p = 0.005 and 0.02, respectively). TPrP increased with cumulative PM2.5 up to 5 μg/m3 and then decreased, regardless of cumulative value or age (R2 = 0.56). TPrP strongly correlated with T-Tau and P-Tau, while d-α-synuclein showed a significant correlation with TNFα, IL10, and IL6 in MCMA children. Total synuclein showed an increment in childhood years related to cumulated PM2.5, followed by a decrease after age 12 years (R2 = 0.47), while d-α-synuclein exhibited a tendency to increase with cumulated PM2.5 (R2 = 0.30). CSF Aβ1-42, BDNF, α-synuclein, and TPrP changes are evolving in young MCMA urbanites historically showing underperformance in cognitive processes, odor identification deficits, downregulation of frontal cellular PrP, and neuropathological AD and PD hallmarks. Neuroprotection of young MCMA residents ought to be a public health priority. PMID:27567860

  1. Associations between the polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1 and methylation of arsenic in the residents exposed to low-level arsenic in drinking water in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinyou; Yan, Li; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Chun; Xiang, Quanyong

    2015-07-01

    We carry out a study to analyze the relation between polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1 and the capacity of arsenic methylation in a human population exposed to arsenic in drinking water. 230 randomly chose subjects were divided into four subgroups based on the arsenic levels, and then the associations between the polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1 and methylation of arsenic were investigated. The levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), dimethylated arsenic (DMA) and total arsenic (TAs) in urine were higher in males than that in females. Moreover, the levels of iAs and TAs in urine in the subjects with genotype of GSTM1(+) were significantly higher than those with GSTM1(-); the level of DMA in the subjects with GSTT1(+) and GSTM1(+) were higher than those with GSTT1(-) and GSTM1(-), although it is not statistically significant. Secondary methylation index (SMI) was significantly higher in the subjects with genotype of GSTT1(+) than those with GSTT1(-). The levels of TAs in urine, together with the genotypes of GSTT1/GSTM1 were associated with the levels of MMA and DMA. Our results suggested that the polymorphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 were associated with the methylation of arsenic, especially the levels of DMA and SMI. PMID:25876999

  2. Resident recruitment.

    PubMed

    Longmaid, H Esterbrook

    2003-02-01

    This article has introduced the reader to the critical components of successful recruitment of radiology residents. With particular attention to the ACGME institutional and program requirements regarding resident recruitment, and an explanation of the support systems (ERAS and NRMP) currently available to those involved in applicant review and selection, the article has sought to delineate a sensible approach to recruitment. Successful recruiters have mastered the essentials of these programs and have learned to adapt the programs to their needs. As new program directors work with their departments' resident selection committees, they will identify the factors that faculty and current residents cite as most important in the successful selection of new residents. By structuring the application review process, exploiting the power of the ERAS, and crafting a purposeful and friendly interview process, radiology residency directors can find and recruit the residents who best match their programs. PMID:12585436

  3. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to organic solvents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies. Organic solvents are also used in the home environments in paint products, but no study has investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. Methods We studied associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy and predefined subgroups of congenital anomalies, using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). During 2001 and 2003, a total of 20 103 pregnant women, enrolled in the DNBC, were interviewed in the 30th week of gestation about the use of paint in their residence during pregnancy. By the end of first trimester, information about smoking habits, alcohol consumption and occupation were collected. Information on congenital anomalies was obtained from national registers. Associations were examined by estimating odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression. Results In total 1404 women (7%) had been exposed to paint fumes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy and 1086 children were diagnosed with congenital anomalies; 73 children with congenital anomalies had been exposed to paint fumes in utero. Exposure to paint fumes seemed positively associated with congenital anomalies of the nervous system (OR 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 6.32), ear, face and neck (OR 2.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 5.55) and the renal system (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.58) after adjustment for maternal age, smoking, alcohol consumption and occupational solvent exposure. Congenital anomalies in the remaining subgroups were not associated with the exposure. Conclusions Our results suggest that in the general population, exposure to paint fumes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of some types of congenital anomalies, but the findings need to be confirmed. PMID:22892023

  4. A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia C.; Pereira, Gavin; Uhl, Sarah A.; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Climate change is likely to increase threat of wildfires, and little is known about how wildfires affect health in exposed communities. A better understanding of the impacts of the resulting air pollution has important public health implications for the present day and the future. Method We performed a systematic search to identify peer-reviewed scientific studies published since 1986 regarding impacts of wildfire smoke on health in exposed communities. We reviewed and synthesized the state of science of this issue including methods to estimate exposure, and identified limitations in current research. Results We identified 61 epidemiological studies linking wildfire and human health in communities. The U.S. and Australia were the most frequently studied countries (18 studies on the U.S., 15 on Australia). Geographic scales ranged from a single small city (population about 55,000) to the entire globe. Most studies focused on areas close to fire events. Exposure was most commonly assessed with stationary air pollutant monitors (35 of 61 studies). Other methods included using satellite remote sensing and measurements from air samples collected during fires. Most studies compared risk of health outcomes between 1) periods with no fire events and periods during or after fire events, or 2) regions affected by wildfire smoke and unaffected regions. Daily pollution levels during or after wildfire in most studies exceeded U.S. EPA regulations. Levels of PM10, the most frequently studied pollutant, were 1.2 to 10 times higher due to wildfire smoke compared to non-fire periods and/or locations. Respiratory disease was the most frequently studied health condition, and had the most consistent results. Over 90% of these 45 studies reported that wildfire smoke was significantly associated with risk of respiratory morbidity. Conclusion Exposure measurement is a key challenge in current literature on wildfire and human health. A limitation is the difficulty of estimating

  5. Permanent resident

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff. PMID:27193992

  6. Plutonium in Colorado residents: results of autopsy bone samples collected during 1975-1979.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Warren, G M; Whicker, F W; Efurd, D W

    2002-08-01

    Concentrations of (239,240)Pu and the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were measured in rib samples from 55 non-occupationally exposed Colorado residents. Samples were collected at autopsy during 1975-1979 under an earlier study intended to compare plutonium levels in liver and lung of people who lived at various proximities to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) near Denver. Overall, median (239,240)Pu concentrations from rib samples were 100, 80, and 57 microBq g(-1) ash weight for area locations A, B, and C, respectively. Area A encompassed subjects who lived within 25 km of RFETS, area B was between 25 and 50 km from RFETS, and area C included all of Colorado outside 50 km from the site and east of the continental divide. The corresponding median plutonium skeletal burdens estimated for these area locations were 146, 93, and 71 mBq, respectively. A statistically significant difference was noted only between plutonium concentrations in male rib samples and their skeletal burdens from area A compared to area C. However, based on a regression analysis of all study subjects, distance from RFETS was not statistically correlated to plutonium rib concentrations or skeletal burdens in this sample. Overall, median 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.17 for areas A, B, and C, respectively. Although higher (239,240)Pu concentrations and skeletal burdens were indicated in area A males than area C males, we cannot conclude that RFETS releases may have caused this difference. The decreasing trends in the 240Pu/239Pu ratios with distance from RFETS are contrary with such a conclusion and strongly indicate that the material was primarily global fallout rather than weapons-grade plutonium that was processed at RFETS. Furthermore, there are other plausible explanations for the differences observed between area A and C residents. These include a decreasing trend in global fallout from the Rocky Mountain foothills eastward, smoking history differences, sample

  7. Two cases of asbestosis and one case of rounded atelectasis due to non-occupational asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Candura, S M; Binarelli, A; Ragno, G; Scafa, F

    2008-03-01

    Asbestos is a well-known cause of several neoplastic (malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer) and non-neoplastic (asbestosis, pleuropathies) occupational diseases. Lower-level exposure in the general environment may induce pleural plaques and thickenings, and is associated with an increased mesothelioma risk. We present two patients (a 68-year-old man and a 72-year-old woman) who developed asbestosis (in association with pleural plaques and calcifications), and a 78-year-old man who developed rounded atelectasis (with pleural plaques and benign effusion), after living for several decades in the proximity of large Italian asbestos-cement plant. None of them had been exposed to asbestos occupationally. Besides living in a contaminated area, the woman used to clean the work clothes of her brother, who was employed in the local asbestos factory. The three cases indicate that non-neoplastic, long-latency asbestos-related diseases which are usually observed as a consequence of occupational exposures, may rarely develop in subjects living in contaminated geographical sites and buildings. These unusual environmental diseases raise the diagnostic problem of differentiating them from other, more common respiratory illnesses, and impose the duties of patient notification, assessment and follow-up, to assess the possibility of progression of disease and increased neoplastic risk. PMID:18507198

  8. [Pregnancy during residency].

    PubMed

    Maas, S M; van 't Hoff, B W; Rings, E H; van der Waals, F W; Büller, H A

    1992-12-19

    The number of female residents in the Netherlands has steadily increased in recent years. Due to the increased time on waiting lists to enter residency programmes and to the increased duration of training, female residents will be older during their residencies. This will probably result in an increased number of pregnancies during residencies. A questionnaire regarding pregnancy during residency was sent to 191 residents in two university hospitals in the Netherlands. The response rate was 74.3%. Fifty percent of the male and only 19% of the female residents had children. No negative effects of a pregnancy on their training were experienced or anticipated by the residents. However, a negative effect on the functioning of the department was expected. No formal provisions, like replacements were available and many solutions to replace pregnant colleagues depended on the flexibility of the colleagues. The wish to have children was high and equally distributed among male and female residents, 92% and 96%, resp. Given the difficulty to seek a permanent position and to have children after residency, the choice of many female residents will be to have their children during residency. This increase in number of pregnancies requires anticipation of the residency programme directors. They should take the lead in proposing adequate regulations. PMID:1470257

  9. [MENTORING PROGRAM - ANOTHER FACET OF RESIDENT EDUCATION].

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ami; Kenet, Ron; Biron-Shental, Tal

    2015-08-01

    Medical residents are exposed to physical and emotional pressure and are required to cope with numerous demands during long working hours. Often, the intense workload leads to neglect of possible difficulties and professional and personal growth and empowerment. The Mentoring Program provides each resident with an attending physician mentor to help him or her adjust to the residency and to cope with its demands. The mentor guides the resident in career development and provides support in the event of difficulties. Attending physicians received professional guidance in the objectives and meaning of mentorship and were teamed with residents. The residents completed questionnaires regarding satisfaction and self-confidence before and a year after the mentoring program was established. The program significantly increased their feelings of support, confidence and satisfaction. As the program continued, the mentors' role in guiding the residents was expanded. The Mentoring Program has become an integral part of departmental teaching and team communication. It seems that the mentors, the residents and the department, all benefit from the program. PMID:26480614

  10. Prescription of Non-Occupational Post-Exposure HIV Prophylaxis by Emergency Physicians: An Analysis on Accuracy of Prescription and Compliance.

    PubMed

    Malinverni, Stefano; Libois, Agnès; Gennotte, Anne-Françoise; La Morté, Cécile; Mols, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective nPEP (non-Occupational Post Exposure Prophylaxis) registry based on patients consulting at one academic Emergency department located in Brussels, Belgium. We review here 1,357 cases consulting from January 2011 to December 2013.The objective of the study is to determine whether emergency physicians prescribe nPEP according to national guideline with support from IDS (infectious disease specialists). As this intervention has a high cost we wanted to verify correct allocation of treatment to high risk patients. Moreover we wanted to determine whether compliance to nPEP when prescribed by an Emergency Physician was different from literature reports. Finally we wanted to describe the population consulting for nPEP at our center. Emergency physicians prescribed nPEP more frequently in high risk exposures (98.6%) compared to intermediate risk exposures (53.2%); adequately allocating resources from a public health perspective. Appropriateness of prescription when evaluated according to nPEP Belgian guidelines was 98.8%.Compliance with nPEP prescribed by Emergency physicians was 60% in our study. Compliance was the highest in MSM (Men who have Sex with Men) while sexual assault victims showed the lowest compliance. Altogether this study suggests that Emergency physicians can safely and adequately prescribe nPEP when supported by a comprehensive guideline. Recognizing intrinsic differences within heterogeneous populations consulting for nPEP may improve compliance to this high-cost public health intervention. PMID:27070319

  11. An epidemiologic study of non-occupational lifting as a risk factor for herniated lumbar intervertebral disc. The Northeast Collaborative Group on Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Mundt, D J; Kelsey, J L; Golden, A L; Pastides, H; Berg, A T; Sklar, J; Hosea, T; Panjabi, M M

    1993-04-01

    An epidemiologic case-control study of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc was conducted in Springfield, Massachusetts, New Brunswick, New Jersey, and New York, New York, to evaluate the role of several possible risk factors in the etiology of this disorder. Patients with signs and symptoms of herniated lumbar disc (N = 287) were matched to control subjects without back pain by age, sex, source of care, and geographic area. Of the total case-subject group, 177 were confirmed by surgery, computed tomographic scan, myelogram, or magnetic resonance imaging. This article focuses on non-occupational lifting, an activity not previously reported on. Frequent lifting of objects or children weighing 25 or more pounds with knees straight and back bent was associated with increased risk of herniated lumbar disc. This association was particularly strong among confirmed case subjects (relative risk = 3.95). Positive associations among confirmed case subjects were also seen for frequent lifting with arms extended (relative risk = 1.87) and twisting while lifting (relative risk = 1.90). No associations were found for frequent stretching or carrying. If confirmed in other investigations, these data suggest that instruction in lifting techniques should be extended into the home. PMID:8484151

  12. Prescription of Non-Occupational Post-Exposure HIV Prophylaxis by Emergency Physicians: An Analysis on Accuracy of Prescription and Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Malinverni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective nPEP (non-Occupational Post Exposure Prophylaxis) registry based on patients consulting at one academic Emergency department located in Brussels, Belgium. We review here 1,357 cases consulting from January 2011 to December 2013.The objective of the study is to determine whether emergency physicians prescribe nPEP according to national guideline with support from IDS (infectious disease specialists). As this intervention has a high cost we wanted to verify correct allocation of treatment to high risk patients. Moreover we wanted to determine whether compliance to nPEP when prescribed by an Emergency Physician was different from literature reports. Finally we wanted to describe the population consulting for nPEP at our center. Emergency physicians prescribed nPEP more frequently in high risk exposures (98.6%) compared to intermediate risk exposures (53.2%); adequately allocating resources from a public health perspective. Appropriateness of prescription when evaluated according to nPEP Belgian guidelines was 98.8%.Compliance with nPEP prescribed by Emergency physicians was 60% in our study. Compliance was the highest in MSM (Men who have Sex with Men) while sexual assault victims showed the lowest compliance. Altogether this study suggests that Emergency physicians can safely and adequately prescribe nPEP when supported by a comprehensive guideline. Recognizing intrinsic differences within heterogeneous populations consulting for nPEP may improve compliance to this high-cost public health intervention. PMID:27070319

  13. Drug Information Residency Rotation with Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Program objectives of a drug information rotation at the Upjohn Company include improving communication between the pharmaceutical industry and hospital pharmacy/academia, exposing the resident to the challenges the industry encounters, improving proficiency in drug information practice, and providing insight into the working relationships of…

  14. HIV medical providers’ perceptions of the use of antiretroviral therapy as non-occupational post- exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) in two major metropolitan areas

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Allan; Castel, Amanda D.; Parish, Carrigan L.; Willis, Sarah; Feaster, Daniel J.; Kharfen, Michael; Cardenas, Gabriel A.; Villamizar, Kira; Kolber, Michael; Vázquez-Rivera, Liliana; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    Intro In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded its recommendation of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) use in the workplace to include non-occupational exposures (nPEP). The availability and extensive use of nPEP has not achieved widespread acceptance among health care providers of high-risk populations, and public health and primary care agencies have been sparse in their implementation of nPEP promotion, protocols, and practices. Methods We conducted a survey of HIV providers (n=142, response rate = 61%) in Miami-Dade County (Florida) and the District of Columbia (DC) that focused on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices related to the delivery of nPEP. We then analyzed differences in survey responses by site and by history of prescribing nPEP using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results More DC providers (59.7%) reported ever prescribing nPEP than in Miami (39.5%%, p < 0.048). The majority of practices in both cities did not have a written nPEP protocol and rarely or never had patients request nPEP. Multivariable analysis for history of prescribing nPEP was dominated by having patients request nPEP (OR = 21.53) and the belief that nPEP would lead to antiretroviral resistance (OR = 0.14), as well as having an nPEP written protocol (OR = 7.49). Discussion Our findings are consistent with earlier studies showing the underuse of nPEP as a prevention strategy. The significance of having an nPEP written protocol and of patient requests for nPEP speaks to the importance of using targeted strategies to promote widespread awareness of the use of HIV antiretroviral medications as a prevention intervention. PMID:24126450

  15. Subsequent HIV Infection Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Used Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis at a Boston Community Health Center: 1997–2013

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) has been recommended to prevent HIV acquisition for nearly 20 years. However, limited behavioral and clinical outcome data exist after men who have sex with men (MSM) present for NPEP. We reviewed the electronic medical records of HIV-uninfected adults who presented for NPEP at a large community health center in Boston between July, 1997 and August, 2013. Data from 894 patients were analyzed, 88.1% of whom were MSM. Consensual unprotected sex was the most common reason for NPEP visits among MSM (64.2%), followed by condom failure (30.6%). The HIV serostatus of the partner was unknown for 64.4% of the MSM, positive with unknown treatment status for 18.1%, positive and not on treatment for 4.1%, and positive and on treatment for 13.4%. Thirty-nine patients subsequently became HIV-infected (4.4%), all of whom were MSM. The MSM-specific HIV incidence after NPEP use was 2.2 cases per 100 person-years. Incident HIV infection was associated with younger age (AHR=0.94; p=0.003), being Latino (AHR=2.44; p=0.044), and/or being African American (AHR=3.43; p=0.046). Repeated NPEP use was not associated with incident HIV infection (AHR=0.67; p=0.26). Younger MSM of color who access NPEP, in particular, may benefit from early HIV risk-reduction and pre-exposure prophylaxis counseling. PMID:25369451

  16. Life After Residency.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Many residents don't receive any formal business training. The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School created a crash course to teach residents some of the business and job-hunting basics they'll need. PMID:27049910

  17. Rewarding the Resident Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Drake, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Residents routinely make significant contributions to the education of medical students. However, little attention has been paid to rewarding these individuals for their involvement in these academic activities. This report describes a program that rewards resident teachers with an academic appointment as a Clinical Instructor. The residents…

  18. Residency Decisions: Another Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Barry S.

    The process of determining student's residency status for fee payment at the University of Nevada-Reno is described and supplemental information forms that are used at the university are included. At the University of Nevada-Reno, residency decisions are the responsibility of admissions office professional staff. The university has a formal…

  19. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  20. Facilty Focus: Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnewell, James F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Western Ridge Residence at Colorado College and Beard Hall at Wheaton College. The buildings feature multiple levels that take advantage of views and also help create a "homey" feeling. (EV)

  1. Technology in Residence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jordan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the necessity for incorporating current technology in today's college residence halls to meet the more diverse and continued activities of its students. Technology addressed covers data networking and telecommunications, heating and cooling systems, and fire-safety systems. (GR)

  2. Development of residency program guidelines for interaction with the pharmaceutical industry. Education Council, Residency Training Programme in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Medical residency programs are likely to face increasing pressure to address their relations with the pharmaceutical industry. Our internal medicine residency program has developed guidelines that were adopted after extensive debate by residents and faculty members. The guidelines are based on the principles that residents and faculty should set the educational agenda and that the residency program should not allow gifts of any sort from industry to residents. Specific policies include obtaining and screening educational materials from the industry before residents are exposed to them, proscribing "drug lunches" and accepting industry sponsorship only when the residency program maintains complete control of the educational event being sponsored. The industry response to the guidelines was split; about half reacted negatively, and half found the guidelines acceptable. Our experience suggests that productive debate about guidelines for the interaction of residency programs with the pharmaceutical industry is possible and desirable and that explicit policies can clarify areas of ambiguity. PMID:8348422

  3. EXPOSE-R cosmic radiation time profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Horneck, Gerda; Häder, Donat-Peter; Schuster, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the time profile of cosmic radiation exposure obtained by the radiation risks radiometer-dosimeter (R3DR) during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-R mission (EXPOSE-R) in the EXPOSE-R facility outside the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS). Another aim is to make the obtained results available to other EXPOSE-R teams for use in their data analysis. R3DR is a low mass and small dimensions automated device, which measures solar radiation in four channels and in addition cosmic ionizing radiation. The main results of cosmic ionizing radiation measurements are: three different radiation sources were detected and quantified: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), energetic protons from the inner radiation belt (IRB) in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly and energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt (ORB). The highest daily averaged absorbed dose rate of 506 μGy day-1 came from IRB protons; GCR delivered much smaller daily absorbed dose rates of 81.4 μGy day-1 on average, and ORB source delivered on average a dose rate of 89 μGy day-1. The IRB and ORB daily averaged absorbed dose rates were higher than those observed during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-E mission (EXPOSE-E), whereas the GCR rate was smaller than that measured during the EXPOSE-E mission. The reason for this difference is much less surrounding constructions shielding of the R3DR instrument in comparison with the R3DE instrument.

  4. Teaching professionalism to residents.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eileen J; Jackson, J Craig; Kratz, Lyn; Marcuse, Edgar K; McPhillips, Heather A; Shugerman, Richard P; Watkins, Sandra; Stapleton, F Bruder

    2003-01-01

    The need to teach professionalism during residency has been affirmed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, which will require documentation of education and evaluation of professionalism by 2007. Recently the American Academy of Pediatrics has proposed the following components of professionalism be taught and measured: honesty/integrity, reliability/responsibility, respect for others, compassion/empathy, self-improvement, self-awareness/knowledge of limits, communication/collaboration, and altruism/advocacy. The authors describe a curriculum for introducing the above principles of professionalism into a pediatrics residency that could serve as a model for other programs. The curriculum is taught at an annual five-day retreat for interns, with 11 mandatory sessions devoted to addressing key professionalism issues. The authors also explain how the retreat is evaluated and how the retreat's topics are revisited during the residency, and discuss general issues of teaching and evaluating professionalism. PMID:12525406

  5. Financing Residency Training Redesign

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Waller, Elaine; Green, Larry A.; Crane, Steven; Garvin, Roger D.; Pugno, Perry A.; Kozakowski, Stanley M.; Douglass, Alan B.; Jones, Samuel; Eiff, M. Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background Redesign in the health care delivery system creates a need to reorganize resident education. How residency programs fund these redesign efforts is not known. Methods Family medicine residency program directors participating in the Preparing Personal Physicians for Practice (P4) project were surveyed between 2006 and 2011 on revenues and expenses associated with training redesign. Results A total of 6 university-based programs in the study collectively received $5,240,516 over the entire study period, compared with $4,718,943 received by 8 community-based programs. Most of the funding for both settings came from grants, which accounted for 57.8% and 86.9% of funding for each setting, respectively. Department revenue represented 3.4% of university-based support and 13.1% of community-based support. The total average revenue (all years combined) per program for university-based programs was just under $875,000, and the average was nearly $590,000 for community programs. The vast majority of funds were dedicated to salary support (64.8% in university settings versus 79.3% in community-based settings). Based on the estimated ratio of new funding relative to the annual costs of training using national data for a 3-year program with 7 residents per year, training redesign added 3% to budgets for university-based programs and about 2% to budgets for community-based programs. Conclusions Residencies undergoing training redesign used a variety of approaches to fund these changes. The costs of innovations marginally increased the estimated costs of training. Federal and local funding sources were most common, and costs were primarily salary related. More research is needed on the costs of transforming residency training. PMID:26140119

  6. An Assigned Teaching Resident Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-Brady, Catherine; Rieder, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors' adult psychiatry residency training program identified several educational needs for residents at their institution. Junior residents needed enhanced learning of clinical interviewing skills and learning connected to the inpatient psychiatry ward rotations, and senior residents needed opportunities to prepare for the…

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in residents around the river Krupa, Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, J.; Tratnik, M.

    1988-12-01

    The present investigation reports fairly high levels of PCBs in human blood and skin in the residents of the river Krupa gorge. The population was not occupationally exposed to PCBs. It is suggested that the river Krupa is the source of PCB pollution. Dermal absorption could be the predominant route of entry of PCBs for residents of this region. The concentration of PCBs was determined by high resolution GL chromatography.

  8. Selection of Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. David, III; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Selection data for all Medical University of South Carolina anesthesiology residency applicants (about 200 per year) and the 8 selected per year were compared for 4 years. Results showed standardized test scores, grades, and class ranks of those selected were not higher than of others, but interview and recommendation scores were higher.…

  9. The Residence Life Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungan, Jane Fidler; Elion, Audrey; Gusmano, Phil

    1997-01-01

    Explores the implementation, results, and the limitations of the Residence Life Cinema program at the University of Memphis. Claims that such programs offer an innovative method for fostering student development by utilizing movies to stimulate affective and cognitive processes in students--processes that may not occur without a catalyst. (RJM)

  10. Predictors of cadmium and lead concentrations in the blood of residents from the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece).

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Karavoltsos, Sotirios; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Dedoussis, George; Chrysohoou, Christina; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2016-10-15

    The Cd and Pb blood contents of healthy adult subjects who are non-occupationally exposed and living in the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece) have not been assessed thus far. Additionally, Greeks rank first among EU27 in terms of smoking habits. To fill the existing gap, we aimed to evaluate the predictors and propose reference values (RVs) of the Cd (CdB) and Pb (PbB) blood concentrations in residents of the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece). Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, educational status and nutritional habits were used as variables, with an emphasis on smoking. CdB and PbB determinations were performed directly by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the appropriate dilution of the samples with Triton-X-100. The RVs of CdB and PbB proposed for the general adult population of the Metropolitan area of Athens, Greece (upper limit of the 95% CI of the 95th percentile of the distribution of values), were 2.3 and 88μgL(-1) (P95: 1.8 and 77μgL(-1); 95% CI (P95): 1.5-2.3 and 70-88μgL(-1)), respectively. Males had a higher median CdB (0.69μgL(-1)) than females (0.55μgL(-1)). Subjects aged <40years had a lower median CdB (0.51μgL(-1)) than the elderly (≥60years; 0.60μgL(-1)). The CdB in smokers (1.2μgL(-1)) was almost threefold higher than in non-smokers (0.46μgL(-1)). The PbB levels were higher in males (31μgL(-1)) than females (20μgL(-1)). Subjects aged <40years had a lower median PbB (17μgL(-1)) than the elderly (≥60years; 32μgL(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the predictor variables for the CdB levels were the standardized beta weight, smoking, age, alcohol consumption, and intake of leafy vegetables, whereas for the PbB levels they were sex and age. PMID:27295597

  11. Violence against surgical residents.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, C B; Rizzo, A G

    1997-01-01

    Violence against hospital personnel is underreported (less than one in five assaults), and accurate statistics as to the rate of violence against hospital personnel are thus difficult to establish. In the psychiatric discipline, an abundance of information has been published regarding violence in the health care setting, but few studies have examined violence outside psychiatric hospitals or by patients not diagnosed with psychiatric ailments. Using a survey that elicits information about workplace violence, we sought to gauge the prevalence of violent acts affecting general hospital workers who treat victims of violence on a daily basis. The survey was completed by a cohort of surgical staff nationwide (475 responses from 57 residency programs). Two hundred and eighty residents reported having witnessed one or more physical attacks, and 179 reported having been attacked. Violent acts were more likely to be committed in a public hospital than a private institution (P = 0.05). As shown in previous research, most attacks occurred in the emergency room (P = 0.01); the wards and parking lot were next in frequency. Women residents were more likely than men to call hospital security to intervene in a potentially violent situation (P = 0.04), and junior residents (postgraduate years 1-4) were more likely to be attacked than senior residents (> or = 5 years) (P = 0.04). The attacker was most likely to be a young black male between ages 19 and 30 (P = 0.01). We found no statistical relationship between the attacker and the victim regarding sex or race. Of the 475 respondents, 470 reported that they carry a gun themselves or know someone in the hospital environment who carries a gun. Images Figure 1. PMID:9291743

  12. Global Health Simulation During Residency

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Jane R.; Fischer, Philip R.; Arteaga, Grace M.; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Butteris, Sabrina M.; Pitt, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs) has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR) curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%); 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88%) felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents. PMID:27583300

  13. Global Health Simulation During Residency.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Jane R; Fischer, Philip R; Arteaga, Grace M; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Butteris, Sabrina M; Pitt, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Resident participation in international health electives (IHEs) has been shown to be beneficial, yet not all residents have the opportunity to participate. We sought to determine whether participating in simulated global health cases, via the standardized Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR) curriculum, was useful for all pediatric residents, not merely those planning to go on an IHE. Pediatric residents in our program took part in 2 SUGAR cases and provided feedback via an online survey. Thirty-six of 40 residents participated (90%); 72% responded to the survey. Three of 10 residents not previously planning to work in resource-limited settings indicated participation in SUGAR made them more likely to do so. Nearly all residents (88%) felt SUGAR should be part of the residency curriculum. All felt better prepared for working cross-culturally. While designed to prepare trainees for work in resource-limited settings, SUGAR may be beneficial for all residents. PMID:27583300

  14. Tissue-resident macrophages: then and now.

    PubMed

    Davies, Luke C; Taylor, Philip R

    2015-04-01

    Macrophages have been at the heart of immune research for over a century and are an integral component of innate immunity. Macrophages are often viewed as terminally differentiated monocytic phagocytes. They infiltrate tissues during inflammation, and form polarized populations that perform pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory functions. Tissue-resident macrophages were regarded as differentiated monocytes, which seed the tissues to perform immune sentinel and homeostatic functions. However, tissue-resident macrophages are not a homogeneous population, but are in fact a grouping of cells with similar functions and phenotypes. In the last decade, it has been revealed that many of these cells are not terminally differentiated and, in most cases, are not derived from haematopoiesis in the adult. Recent research has highlighted that tissue-resident macrophages cannot be grouped into simple polarized categories, especially in vivo, when they are exposed to complex signalling events. It has now been demonstrated that the tissue environment itself is a major controller of macrophage phenotype, and can influence the expression of many genes regardless of origin. This is consistent with the concept that cells within different tissues have diverse responses in inflammation. There is still a mountain to climb in the field, as it evolves to encompass not only tissue-resident macrophage diversity, but also categorization of specific tissue environments and the plasticity of macrophages themselves. This knowledge provides a new perspective on therapeutic strategies, as macrophage subsets can potentially be manipulated to control the inflammatory environment in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:25684236

  15. Tissue-resident macrophages: then and now

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Luke C; Taylor, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages have been at the heart of immune research for over a century and are an integral component of innate immunity. Macrophages are often viewed as terminally differentiated monocytic phagocytes. They infiltrate tissues during inflammation, and form polarized populations that perform pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory functions. Tissue-resident macrophages were regarded as differentiated monocytes, which seed the tissues to perform immune sentinel and homeostatic functions. However, tissue-resident macrophages are not a homogeneous population, but are in fact a grouping of cells with similar functions and phenotypes. In the last decade, it has been revealed that many of these cells are not terminally differentiated and, in most cases, are not derived from haematopoiesis in the adult. Recent research has highlighted that tissue-resident macrophages cannot be grouped into simple polarized categories, especially in vivo, when they are exposed to complex signalling events. It has now been demonstrated that the tissue environment itself is a major controller of macrophage phenotype, and can influence the expression of many genes regardless of origin. This is consistent with the concept that cells within different tissues have diverse responses in inflammation. There is still a mountain to climb in the field, as it evolves to encompass not only tissue-resident macrophage diversity, but also categorization of specific tissue environments and the plasticity of macrophages themselves. This knowledge provides a new perspective on therapeutic strategies, as macrophage subsets can potentially be manipulated to control the inflammatory environment in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:25684236

  16. Interprofessional Integrative Medicine Training for Preventive Medicine Residents.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Virginia S; Thomas, Pauline A; Gould-Fogerite, Susan E; Passannante, Marian R; Mahon, Gwendolyn M

    2015-11-01

    Integrative medicine training was incorporated into the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Preventive Medicine residency at the Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences Newark Campus as a collaboration between the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School and the School of Health Related Professions. Beginning in 2012, an interdisciplinary faculty team organized an Integrative Medicine program in a Preventive Medicine residency that leveraged existing resources across Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences. The overarching aim of the programs was to introduce residents and faculty to the scope and practice of integrative medicine in the surrounding Newark community and explore evidence-based research on integrative medicine. The faculty team tapped into an interprofessional network of healthcare providers to organize rotations for the preventive medicine residents that reflected the unique nature of integrative medicine in the greater Newark area. Residents provided direct care as part of interdisciplinary teams at clinical affiliates and shadowed health professionals from diverse disciplines as they filled different roles in providing patient care. The residents also participated in research projects. A combination of formal and informal programs on integrative medicine topics was offered to residents and faculty. The Integrative Medicine program, which ran from 2013 through 2014, was successful in exposing residents and faculty to the unique nature of integrative medicine across professions in the community served by Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences. PMID:26477901

  17. A method for quantification of volatile organic compounds in blood by SPME-GC-MS/MS with broader application: From non-occupational exposure population to exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Cabecinha, Ashley; Harvie, Jeromy; Jin, Zhiyun; Marchand, Axelle; Tardif, Robert; Nong, Andy; Haddad, Sami

    2015-06-15

    Humans are continuously exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as these chemicals are ubiquitously present in most indoor and outdoor environments. In order to assess recent exposure to VOCs for population-based studies, VOCs are measured in the blood of participants. This work describes an improved method to detect 12 VOCs by head-space solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring mode (SPME-GC-MS/MS). This method was applied to the analysis of trihalomethanes, styrene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene) in a population-based biomonitoring study (Canadian Health Measures Survey). The method showed good linearity (>0.990) in the range of 0.010-10μg/L and detection limits between 0.007 and 0.027μg/L, precision better than 25% and good accuracy (±25%) based on proficiency testing materials. Quality Control data among runs over a 7 month period showed %RSD between 14 and 25% at low levels (∼0.03μg/L) and between 9 and 23% at high levels (∼0.4μg/L). The method was modified to analyze samples from a pharmacokinetic study in which 5 healthy volunteers were exposed to single, binary and quaternary mixtures of CTEX (chloroform, ethylbenzene, toluene and m-xylene), thus the expected concentration in blood was 1 order of magnitude higher than those found in the general population. The method was modified by reducing the sample size (from 3g to 0.5g) and increasing the upper limit of the concentration range to 395μg/L. Good linearity was found in the range of 0.13-395μg/L for toluene and ethylbenzene and 0.20-609μg/L for m/p-xylene. Quality control data among runs over the period of the study (n=13) were found to vary between 7 and 25%. PMID:25965874

  18. Victim or Initiator? Certified Nursing Assistants’ Perceptions of Resident Characteristics that Contribute to Resident-to-Resident Violence in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Cornelia; Green, Angela; McSweeney, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this portion of a larger qualitative study was to explore certified nursing assistants’ (CNA) perceptions of the characteristics of both the victims and initiators of resident-to-resident violence (RRV) in order to identify resident characteristics that influence the development of RRV. Data were collected using a demographic form and semi-structured interviews. Demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and interview data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. The results revealed that CNAs perceive initiators of RRV to be “more with it,” to have “stronger personalities,” “shorter fuses,” and “life history” that makes them prone to inflict harm on other residents. Certified nursing assistants described victims of RRV using phrases such as, “they don’t know,” “can’t communicate,” and “gets around good.” These results indicate that there are resident characteristics that may indicate whether a resident is likely to commit, or become involved as a victim in, RRV. The results also revealed that, in some situations, residents who were normally easy going and even tempered might strike out with violence if exposed to a large number of triggers over time. This study provides the first detailed description of nursing home residents who initiate violence against other residents. Knowledge gained from this study may be useful in developing models of RRV, a precursor to developing interventions for the prevention of RRV. PMID:21678883

  19. Stress in Family Practice Residents

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, Howard L.

    1986-01-01

    Sources and levels of stress, as well as coping mechanisms, perceived by residents in both years of a two-year family practice residency program in Toronto are described. In addition, differences between first- and second-year residents, and between women and men residents, regardless of year, are examined. Results of the survey indicate that the levels of stress are relatively high throughout the two years of residency training. The three most stressful aspects of being a resident are time pressures, fatigue, and lack of self-confidence. Female residents appear to report a higher level of stress than males, especially in trying to combine a personal and a professional life. Specific coping mechanisms include talking to others, adjusting attitudes and feelings, or strategic use of time. Recommendations aimed at helping family medicine residency programs deal with the problem of stress in residents are suggested. A current major province-wide research study including all interns and residents in Ontario is described. PMID:21267263

  20. Interactions between Medical Residents and Drug Companies: A National Survey after the Mediator® Affair

    PubMed Central

    Montastruc, François; Moulis, Guillaume; Palmaro, Aurore; Gardette, Virginie; Durrieu, Geneviève; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to describe exposure and attitudes of French medical residents towards pharmaceutical industry. The study was performed shortly after the Mediator affair which revealed several serious conflicts of interest inside the French health system. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was implemented among residents from 6 French medical faculties. Independent education in pharmacology, attitudes towards the practices of pharmaceutical sales representatives, opinions concerning the pharmaceutical industry, quality of information provided by the pharmaceutical industry, and opinions about pharmaceutical company sponsorship were investigated through a web-based questionnaire. We also assessed potential changes in resident attitudes following the Mediator affair. The mean value of exposure to drug companies was 1.9 times per month. Global opinions towards drug company information were negative for 42.7% of the residents and positive for only 8.2%. Surprisingly, 81.6% of residents claimed that they had not changed their practices regarding drug information since the Mediator affair. Multivariate analyses found that residents in anesthesiology were less likely to be exposed than others (OR = 0.17 CI95% [0.05–0.61]), exposure was significantly higher at the beginning of residence (p<0.001) and residents who had a more positive opinion were more frequently exposed to drug companies (OR = 2.12 CI95% [1.07–4.22]). Conclusions Resident exposure to drug companies is around 1 contact every 2 weeks. Global opinion towards drug information provided by pharmaceutical companies was negative for around 1 out of 2 residents. In contrast, residents tend to consider the influences of the Mediator affair on their practice as relatively low. This survey enabled us to identify profiles of residents who are obviously less exposed to pharmaceutical industry. Current regulatory provisions are not sufficient, indicating that further efforts are

  1. Resident Exposure to Peripheral Nerve Surgical Procedures During Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Gil, Joseph A; Daniels, Alan H; Akelman, Edward

    2016-05-01

    Background Variability in case exposures has been identified for orthopaedic surgery residents. It is not known if this variability exists for peripheral nerve procedures. Objective The objective of this study was to assess ACGME case log data for graduating orthopaedic surgery, plastic surgery, general surgery, and neurological surgery residents for peripheral nerve surgical procedures and to evaluate intraspecialty and interspecialty variability in case volume. Methods Surgical case logs from 2009 to 2014 for the 4 specialties were compared for peripheral nerve surgery experience. Peripheral nerve case volume between specialties was performed utilizing a paired t test, 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and linear regression was calculated to assess the trends. Results The average number of peripheral nerve procedures performed per graduating resident was 54.2 for orthopaedic surgery residents, 62.8 for independent plastic surgery residents, 84.6 for integrated plastic surgery residents, 22.4 for neurological surgery residents, and 0.4 for surgery residents. Intraspecialty comparison of the 10th and 90th percentile peripheral nerve case volume in 2012 revealed remarkable variability in training. There was a 3.9-fold difference within orthopaedic surgery, a 5.0-fold difference within independent plastic surgery residents, an 8.8-fold difference for residents from integrated plastic surgery programs, and a 7.0-fold difference within the neurological surgery group. Conclusions There is interspecialty and intraspecialty variability in peripheral nerve surgery volume for orthopaedic, plastic, neurological, and general surgery residents. Caseload is not the sole determinant of training quality as mentorship, didactics, case breadth, and complexity play an important role in training. PMID:27168883

  2. Cancer Incidence among Former Love Canal Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gensburg, Lenore J.; Pantea, Cristian; Kielb, Christine; Fitzgerald, Edward; Stark, Alice; Kim, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background The Love Canal was a rectangular 16-acre, 10-ft-deep chemical waste landfill situated in a residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. This seriously contaminated site came to public attention in 1978. Only one prior study examined cancer incidence in former residents of the Love Canal neighborhood (LC). Objective In this study we aimed to describe cancer incidence in former LC residents from 1979 to 1996 and to investigate whether it differs from that of New York State (NYS) and Niagara County (NC). Methods From 1978 to 1982, we interviewed 6,181 former residents, and 5,052 were eligible to be included in this study. In 1996, we identified 304 cancer diagnoses in this cohort using the NYS Cancer Registry. We compared LC cancer incidence with that of NYS and NC using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and we compared risks within the LC group by potential exposure to the landfill using survival analysis. Results SIRs were elevated for cancers of the bladder [SIRNYS = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91–2.16] and kidney (SIRNYS = 1.48; 95% CI, 0.76–2.58). Although CIs included 1.00, other studies have linked these cancers to chemicals similar to those found at Love Canal. We also found higher rates of bladder cancer among residents exposed as children, based on two cases. Conclusions In explaining these excess risks, the role of exposure to the landfill is unclear given such limitations as a relatively small and incomplete study cohort, imprecise exposure measurements, and the exclusion of cancers diagnosed before 1979. Given the relatively young age of the cohort, further surveillance is warranted. PMID:19672407

  3. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  4. Medical Residency Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, Beth; Gallucci, Chrysan; Swanson, Judy; Van Lare, Michelle; Yoon, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Highline School District, located roughly 10 miles south of Seattle, Washington, has begun to implement a residency model for professional learning. Like the medical model, current teachers often traveled from other schools to be "in residency" at a previously selected classroom for six half-day sessions during the 2005-06 school year. Some…

  5. Resident Care Guide. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbridge State School, NJ.

    The third edition of the Woodbridge State School Cottage Life Department Resident Care Guide is explained to be a developmental status scale devised in 1969 as part of a 5-year study for the purposes of measuring the entire population's self-help training abilities. The department is said to serve 954 residents; 424 are non-ambulatory and 530 are…

  6. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  7. Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality…

  8. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    PubMed

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. PMID:25995656

  9. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    PubMed Central

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people’s choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. PMID:25995656

  10. HIV-Negative Partnered Men's Willingness to Use Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Factors in a U.S. Sample of HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Sophus, Amber I.; Petroll, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is an underutilized biomedical option for HIV prevention. Few studies have assessed male couples' knowledge of and willingness to use nPEP. Methods: Cross-sectional dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant male couples were used to describe HIV-negative, partnered men's awareness of and willingness to use nPEP, and factors associated with their willingness to use nPEP. Data were analyzed with the use of multivariate multilevel modeling. Results: Less than a third of the men were aware of nPEP, yet 73% were very-to-extremely likely to use nPEP. Partnered men's willingness to use nPEP was positively associated with having an individual income less than $30,000 USD and serosorting within the relationship. Willingness to use nPEP was negatively associated with greater age difference between primary partners and with higher scores on measures of couples' investment in their relationship. Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase male couples' awareness of nPEP and how to access nPEP. Uptake of nPEP has the potential to help avert new HIV infections among male couples. PMID:26789400

  11. Learning styles of orthodontic residents.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Janeen M; Fallis, Drew W; Peel, Jennifer L; Murchison, David F

    2009-03-01

    Significant challenges face many orthodontic residency programs, particularly a shortage of full-time experienced faculty members. Due to this shortage, it is critical that program directors design comprehensive curricula that incorporate the most effective and efficient teaching methods. It is theorized that teaching effectiveness and efficiency are optimized when the course design and content closely match students' learning preferences. This survey study was designed to distinguish the learning preferences of orthodontic residents utilizing Felder and Soloman's Index of Learning Styles, which assesses student learning preferences in four dimensions using dichotomous scales, thereby providing insight into how teaching strategies can best be structured. As a secondary focus, additional questions on the survey were asked to gain information about residents' access to the Internet and comfort level with online learning so as to address acceptance of web-based courses in response to the shortage of full-time faculty members. Orthodontic residents, contacted via email, were requested to complete an online survey; 261 responses were collected. The results indicate that orthodontic residents are highly visual learners and show a preference for sensing and sequential learning strategies. In terms of information technology, the residents are comfortable with and have adequate access to current technological assets; therefore, they may be well suited for inclusion of computer-based teaching modules and other multimedia devices in their residency curriculum. PMID:19289721

  12. Trajectories of posttraumatic stress among urban residents.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro; Uddin, Monica; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-03-01

    Urban residents experience a wide range of traumatic events and are at increased risk of assaultive violence. Although previous research has examined trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) through latent class growth analysis (LCGA) among persons exposed to the same index events (e.g., a natural disaster), PTS trajectories have not been documented among urban residents. The aims of this study were to conduct LGCA with a sample of trauma survivors from Detroit, Michigan (N = 981), and to explore predictors of trajectory membership. Participants completed three annual telephone surveys, each of which included the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version. Four PTS trajectories were detected. Although the majority evidenced a trajectory of consistently few symptoms (Low: 72.5%), 4.6% were in a trajectory of chronic severe PTSD (High), and the remainder were in trajectories of consistently elevated, but generally subclinical, levels of PTS (Decreasing: 12.3%; Increasing: 10.6%). Socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., lower income), more extensive trauma history (e.g., childhood abuse), and fewer social resources (e.g., lower social support) were associated with membership in higher PTS trajectories, relative to the Low trajectory. The results suggest that efforts to reduce PTS in urban areas need to attend to socioeconomic vulnerabilities in addition to trauma history and risk for ongoing trauma exposure. PMID:24469249

  13. Mean sediment residence time in barchan dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Yang, X.; Rozier, O.; Narteau, C.

    2014-03-01

    When a barchan dune migrates, the sediment trapped on its lee side is later mobilized when exposed on the stoss side. Then sand grains may undergo many dune turnover cycles before their ejection along the horns, but the amount of time a sand grain contributes to the dune morphodynamics remains unknown. To estimate such a residence time, we analyze sediment particle motions in steady state barchans by tracking individual cells of a 3-D cellular automaton dune model. The overall sediment flux may be decomposed into advective and dispersive fluxes to estimate the relative contribution of the underlying physical processes to the barchan shape. The net lateral sediment transport from the center to the horns indicates that dispersion on the stoss slope is more efficient than the convergent sediment fluxes associated with avalanches on the lee slope. The combined effect of these two antagonistic dispersive processes restricts the lateral mixing of sediment particles in the central region of barchans. Then, for different flow strengths and dune sizes, we find that the mean residence time of sediment particles in barchans is equal to the surface of the central longitudinal dune slices divided by the input sand flux. We infer that this central slice contains most of the relevant information about barchan morphodynamics. Finally, we initiate a discussion about sediment transport and memory in the presence of bed forms using the advantages of the particle tracking technique.

  14. Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Among Urban Residents

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Uddin, Monica; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Urban residents experience a wide range of traumatic events and are at increased risk of assaultive violence. Although previous research has examined trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) through latent class growth analysis (LCGA) among persons exposed to the same index events (e.g., a natural disaster), PTS trajectories have not been documented among urban residents. The aims of this study were to conduct LGCA with a sample of trauma survivors from Detroit, Michigan (N = 981), and to explore predictors of trajectory membership. Participants completed three annual telephone surveys, each of which included the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Check-list-Civilian Version. Four PTS trajectories were detected. Although the majority evidenced a trajectory of consistently few symptoms (Low: 72.5 %), 4.6 % were in a trajectory of chronic severe PTSD (High), and the remainder were in trajectories of consistently elevated, but generally subclinical, levels of PTS (Decreasing: 12.3 %; Increasing: 10.6 %). Socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., lower income), more extensive trauma history (e.g., childhood abuse), and fewer social resources (e.g., lower social support) were associated with membership in higher PTS trajectories, relative to the Low trajectory. The results suggest that efforts to reduce PTS in urban areas need to attend to socioeconomic vulnerabilities in addition to trauma history and risk for ongoing trauma exposure. PMID:24469249

  15. Measuring "humanism" in medical residents.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Boisaubin, E V; Laux, L; Lynch, E C; Roessler, R; Thornby, J I

    1986-02-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) has charged directors of residency programs with evaluating "humanistic attributes" in residents seeking certification. To investigate whether traditional measures of residents' performance assess humanistic attributes, 38 second- and third-year medical residents completed the Totalitarian-Authoritarian-Dogmatism (TAD) and Rokeach tests for attitudinal assessment. Five primary sources were used to measure performance. When the measures of performance and attitude were correlated, two negative correlations with "antipathy toward patients" were found: professional maturity (r = -.43, P less than .01) and compassion and concern for patients (r = -.35, P less than .04). The TAD Opinionnaire and the special performance evaluation detect "nonhumanistic dimensions" that routine faculty assessments do not. Since the new Likert scale distributed by ABIM does not differ materially from the rating form used at Baylor for 2 1/2 years, it is unlikely that "humanistic attributes" will be measured by the ABIM's new scale. PMID:3945843

  16. The Optometric Residency: Its Bloom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleything, Willard B.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines for proposed residencies in optometry are presented for pediatric, rehabilitative, and hospital optometry. Their significance in terms of costs, patient population, faculty expertise, and critical mass are discussed. (JMF)

  17. [Vaccines and exposed occupations].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The use of safe and efficacious vaccines in occupational settings to protect workers from diseases to which they may be exposed is obvious and has been included in the employment law. Healthcare workers are particular exposed. Immunization has two purposes : protect the worker from contracting a disease, but also prevent him from disseminating the disease to weakened patients. It is important not only to take into account existing recommendations for immunization, but also to envisage their extension to teachers and staff of nurseries and primary schools. Routine vaccination against whooping cough, varicella, measles and hepatitis A is particularly warranted in these categories. Recommendations should also extend to medical students who are too often poorly protected and insufficiently warned against potential occupational exposure to pathogens and dissemination to their patients. PMID:17433233

  18. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  19. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  20. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  1. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  2. 38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.70 Resident rights. The resident has a...; (iii) Physicians of the resident's choice (to provide care in the nursing home, physicians must...

  3. 24 CFR 964.140 - Resident training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: (1) Community organization and leadership training; (2) Organizational development training for Resident Management Corporations and duly elected Resident Councils; (3) Public housing policies,...

  4. 24 CFR 964.140 - Resident training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: (1) Community organization and leadership training; (2) Organizational development training for Resident Management Corporations and duly elected Resident Councils; (3) Public housing policies,...

  5. High levels of concomitant behavioral health disorders among patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis at a Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sachin; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of information regarding mental health exists for patients presenting for HIV non occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP). We reviewed electronic medical records of 894 adult nPEP patients seen at a large Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013. Of 821 patients with consensual sexual exposures, 88.3% were men who have sex with men, and 40.0% had a mental health diagnosis. Diagnoses included: depression (24.4%), anxiety (21.9%), attention deficit disorder (7.8%), post-traumatic stress disorder (3.3%), and psychotic disorders (3.3%). Of 129 patients with substance use disorders, alcohol dependence (65.9%) and crystal methamphetamine (43.4%) predominated. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse was associated with psychotic disorders (aOR=4.86;95%CI:1.76–13.5) and substance use disorders (aOR=1.89;95%CI:1.28–2.80). Substance use at the time of exposure was associated with: depression (aOR=1.95;95%CI:1.36–2.80), anxiety (aOR=2.22;95%CI:1.51–3.25), attention deficit disorder (aOR=1.96;95%CI:1.18–3.27), and substance use disorder (aOR=4.78;95%CI:3.30–6.93). Mental illness should be screened for and addressed at nPEP visits to optimize HIV risk-reduction. PMID:25689892

  6. High Levels of Concomitant Behavioral Health Disorders Among Patients Presenting for HIV Non-occupational Post-exposure Prophylaxis at a Boston Community Health Center Between 1997 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sachin; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    A paucity of information regarding mental health exists for patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP). We reviewed electronic medical records of 894 adult nPEP patients seen at a large Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013. Of 821 patients with consensual sexual exposures, 88.3 % were men who have sex with men, and 40.0 % had a mental health diagnosis. Diagnoses included: depression (24.4 %), anxiety (21.9 %), attention deficit disorder (7.8 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (3.3 %), and psychotic disorders (3.3 %). Of 129 patients with substance use disorders, alcohol dependence (65.9 %) and crystal methamphetamine (43.4 %) predominated. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse was associated with psychotic disorders (aOR = 4.86; 95 %CI:1.76-13.5) and substance use disorders (aOR = 1.89; 95 %CI:1.28-2.80). Substance use at the time of exposure was associated with: depression (aOR = 1.95; 95 %CI:1.36-2.80), anxiety (aOR = 2.22; 95 %CI:1.51-3.25), attention deficit disorder (aOR = 1.96; 95 %CI:1.18-3.27), and substance use disorder (aOR = 4.78; 95 %CI:3.30-6.93). Mental illness should be screened for and addressed at nPEP visits to optimize HIV risk-reduction. PMID:25689892

  7. Use of Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis does not Lead to an Increase in High Risk Sex Behaviors in Men Who have Sex with Men Participating in the EXPLORE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth; Chesney, Margaret; Koblin, Beryl; Coates, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) use is an HIV prevention strategy that has been recommended by the CDC to prevent HIV infection after a high risk sexual exposure since 1997. In a behavioral intervention trial of 4,295 MSM we assessed perceptions and use of nPEP over 4 years in six cities across the United States. Overall, 1.9% of MSM reported use of nPEP prior to enrollment, and 6.3% at least once during the trial. Awareness of nPEP was reported by 47.5%, with higher awareness in two sites with funded nPEP programs. Three seroconversions occurred in the 384 visits where nPEP courses were reported, with no effect of nPEP on risk of HIV acquisition in this cohort (hazard ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [0.29, 2.86]). NPEP users were a riskier group: increased odds of nPEP use were observed in association with multiple partners and unprotected receptive and insertive anal sex with HIV infected partners and partners with unknown HIV status. NPEP use was also associated with use of illicit drugs (injection drugs, crack cocaine, hallucinogens, and amphetamines). Importantly, willingness to use nPEP after high risk sex was associated with lower odds of high risk sex. After an episode of nPEP use, nPEP users remained more likely to report high risk sex than those in this cohort who had not previously used nPEP. However, within the subset of people who had previously reported high risk sex, previous nPEP use was not associated with higher odds of high risk sex, thus allaying fears that availability of nPEP would lead to an increase in high risk sex. PMID:20490908

  8. Use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis does not lead to an increase in high risk sex behaviors in men who have sex with men participating in the EXPLORE trial.

    PubMed

    Donnell, Deborah; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth; Chesney, Margaret; Koblin, Beryl; Coates, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) use is an HIV prevention strategy that has been recommended by the CDC to prevent HIV infection after a high risk sexual exposure since 1997. In a behavioral intervention trial of 4,295 MSM we assessed perceptions and use of nPEP over 4 years in six cities across the United States. Overall, 1.9% of MSM reported use of nPEP prior to enrollment, and 6.3% at least once during the trial. Awareness of nPEP was reported by 47.5%, with higher awareness in two sites with funded nPEP programs. Three seroconversions occurred in the 384 visits where nPEP courses were reported, with no effect of nPEP on risk of HIV acquisition in this cohort (hazard ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [0.29, 2.86]). NPEP users were a riskier group: increased odds of nPEP use were observed in association with multiple partners and unprotected receptive and insertive anal sex with HIV infected partners and partners with unknown HIV status. NPEP use was also associated with use of illicit drugs (injection drugs, crack cocaine, hallucinogens, and amphetamines). Importantly, willingness to use nPEP after high risk sex was associated with lower odds of high risk sex. After an episode of nPEP use, nPEP users remained more likely to report high risk sex than those in this cohort who had not previously used nPEP. However, within the subset of people who had previously reported high risk sex, previous nPEP use was not associated with higher odds of high risk sex, thus allaying fears that availability of nPEP would lead to an increase in high risk sex. PMID:20490908

  9. Biomarker monitoring of a population residing near uranium mining activities.

    PubMed Central

    Au, W W; Lane, R G; Legator, M S; Whorton, E B; Wilkinson, G S; Gabehart, G J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether residents residing near uranium mining operations (target population), who are potentially exposed to toxicants from mining waste, have increased genotoxic effects compared with people residing elsewhere (reference population). Population surveys were conducted, and 24 target and 24 reference residents were selected. The selected subjects and controls were matched on age and gender and they were nonsmokers. Blood samples were collected for laboratory studies. The standard cytogenetic assay was used to determine chromosome aberration frequencies, and the challenge assay was used to investigate DNA repair responses. We found that individuals who resided near uranium mining operations had a higher mean frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and higher deletion frequency but lower dicentric frequency than the reference group, although the difference was not statistically significant. After cells were challenged by exposure to gamma-rays, the target population had a significantly higher frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and deletion frequency than the reference group. The latter observation is indicative of abnormal DNA repair response in the target population. PMID:7656876

  10. Community partners as co-teachers in resident continuity clinics.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Lynne A; Shultz, Janet; Kirby, Rebecca; Stelzner, Sarah M

    2011-12-01

    Standard approaches to teaching the management of psychosocial issues in pediatrics--visits to community-based organizations and stand-alone block rotations in developmental-behavioral pediatrics and community pediatrics--neither expose residents to models of interdisciplinary collaboration between faculty preceptors and community providers nor take advantage of the efficacy of learning in continuity clinics. The authors describe their project, developed from an existing Community Pediatrics Training Initiative with long-standing relationships with a domestic violence shelter, a community center for Latino families, and a special needs resource organization for parents. They lay out in detail the project's innovative use of partners from community-based organizations, colocated within pediatric continuity clinics, who teach both residents and faculty about community resources and linkages with multidisciplinary providers. The authors present lessons learned by faculty preceptors, residents, the community partners, and project staff that can guide future applications of this model in other residency training programs. Faculty and residents indicated an increased awareness of available community resources and how linkages can be incorporated into pediatric outpatient visits. Community partners identified keys to successful co-teaching, including readiness to adopt an assertive communication style and frequent presence in the clinics. Project staff recognized the challenges of staff turnover at community-based organizations and the need to choose community partners with expertise that fits the sociodemographic issues of the clinic's patients. PMID:22030765

  11. Overwork Among Residents in India: A Medical Resident's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Gulrez S.; Azhar, Abdullah Z.; Azhar, Ahmad S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that medical residents who do most of the hard work in big hospitals and medical colleges are overworked. A hierarchical organizational structure, staffing patterns, and fear of failure in examinations leads to overwork among residents going unreported. This can lead to poor academic performance and research work. Gaps in communication have serious implications on patient health. Undesirable practices like LAMA (leave against medical advice) also result from overwork. Issues of pay and contracts including mandatory service need to be looked into carefully. National and international recommendations on work hours have consistently been ignored. The solutions suggested are simple and easy to implement. PMID:24479024

  12. Ethics education for dermatology residents.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Lionel; Long, Thomas P

    2009-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada both require the teaching and demonstration of general competencies, which include professionalism and ethics as a condition of training program accreditation and specialty certification, respectively. Residents in dermatology and other specialties perceive their training in ethics is inadequate in numerous areas. Residents and specialists in dermatology encounter numerous ethical and professional issues throughout their workday. A dermatoethics curriculum was developed at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University in 2001 to address the need for training in bioethics and professionalism. The subject matter of the curriculum and didactic methods are reviewed. Guidelines for effective teaching of ethics and professionalism to dermatology residents are presented. It is important to make the teaching sessions relevant to the residents' day-to-day work experiences and personal needs. Honesty and openness on the part of faculty and trainees is important. Although informality fosters such exchanges, the sessions should be a learning experience. Resources outside the residency program should be used as necessary. Evaluation of ethics and professionalism in trainees is addressed. PMID:19539170

  13. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. PMID:20795597

  14. 28 CFR 115.233 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident education. 115.233 Section 115... STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Training and Education § 115.233 Resident education... resident is transferred to a different facility. (c) The agency shall provide resident education in...

  15. 28 CFR 115.233 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident education. 115.233 Section 115... STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Training and Education § 115.233 Resident education... resident is transferred to a different facility. (c) The agency shall provide resident education in...

  16. 28 CFR 115.233 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident education. 115.233 Section 115... STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Training and Education § 115.233 Resident education... resident is transferred to a different facility. (c) The agency shall provide resident education in...

  17. Predictors of Success in an Anesthesiology Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, Shirley S.; Crumrine, Robert S.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that contributed to successful residency performance by anesthesiology residents were examined in order to assist the program's selection committee in developing selection criteria. The best predictor of a resident's academic average in the anethesiology program was the number of years the resident had spent in other specialities.…

  18. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights. The resident has a right to a dignified existence, self...) Exercise of rights. (1) The resident has the right to exercise his or her rights as a resident of...

  19. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights. The resident has a right to a dignified existence, self...) Exercise of rights. (1) The resident has the right to exercise his or her rights as a resident of...

  20. Exposures to Transit and Other Sources of Noise among New York City Residents

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Gershon, Robyn R. M.; McAlexander, Tara P.; Magda, Lori A.; Pearson, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of common noise sources to total annual noise exposures among urban residents and workers, we estimated exposures associated with five common sources (use of mass transit, occupational and non-occupational activities, MP3 player and stereo use, and time at home and doing other miscellaneous activities) among a sample of over 4500 individuals in New York City (NYC). We then evaluated the contributions of each source to total noise exposure and also compared our estimated exposures to the recommended 70 dBA annual exposure limit. We found that one in ten transit users had noise exposures in excess of the recommended exposure limit from their transit use alone. When we estimated total annual exposures, 90% of NYC transit users and 87% of nonusers exceeded the recommended limit. MP3 player and stereo use, which represented a small fraction of the total annual hours for each subject on average, was the primary source of exposure among the majority of urban dwellers we evaluated. Our results suggest that the vast majority of urban mass transit riders may be at risk of permanent, irreversible noise-induced hearing loss and that, for many individuals, this risk is driven primarily by exposures other than occupational noise. PMID:22088203

  1. Impaired colour discrimination among workers exposed to styrene: relevance of a urinary metabolite.

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, T; Kishi, R; Harabuchi, I; Yuasa, J; Arata, Y; Katakura, Y; Miyake, H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To survey the loss of colour vision among Japanese workers who have been exposed to styrene concentrations currently considered low (about 20 ppm). Also to assess the effects of styrene by examination of the nature of the relation between disorder of colour vision and age, alcohol consumption, and other variables. METHODS--Colour discrimination was examined in 64 male workers exposed to styrene (mean age; 38.0, mean exposed years; 7.0) and in 69 controls (mean age; 38.0). A standardised questionnaire was adopted to collect work history, occupational or non-occupational solvent exposure, alcohol consumption, and drug use. Colour vision was evaluated by the Lanthony desaturated panel D-15 test. The results of the test were expressed as the colour confusion index (CCI). RESULTS--The mean atmospheric styrene concentration was about 20 ppm. The mean urinary concentration of mandelic acid was 0.22 g/l. There was a significant difference in CCI between exposed workers and age matched controls. Colour vision of workers whose concentration of urinary mandelic acid was > or = 0.42 g/l was significantly impaired when compared with workers whose concentration was < 0.42 g/l. Multiple linear regression analysis that controlled confounding variables such as age, alcohol consumption, smoking, and educational attainment showed that the CCI was significantly related to the concentration of urinary mandelic acid. In both exposed workers and controls, the types of defects were mostly blue-yellow loss, although a few subjects showed complex loss. No one showed only red-green loss. CONCLUSIONS--These findings suggest that exposure to moderate styrene concentrations can lead to impairment of colour vision, and that there is a significant correlation with the urinary metabolite of styrene. PMID:7663639

  2. Predictors of Residence Hall Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboleda, Ana; Wang, Yongyi; Shelley, Mack C., II; Whalen, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    Residence hall students' (N = 1,186, 52% male, 90% White, 66% freshmen) involvement in their living community is influenced significantly by precollege student characteristics (gender, ethnicity), classification, attitudes (toward hall director, house cabinet, academic comfort, social environment, group study), and environmental variables (noise,…

  3. Cleaner in Hall of Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for cleaners in halls of residence. Its main objective is to produce fully trained cleaners, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introduction to Housekeeping Employees, and Tasks Performed by the Majority…

  4. Aspiring Teachers Take up Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishall

    2008-01-01

    The Boston Teacher Residency program is a yearlong, selective preparation route that trains aspiring teachers, many of them career-changers, to take on jobs in some of the city's highest-needs schools. The program, which fits neither of the two most common types of teacher preparation--alternative routes and traditional teacher education…

  5. Increased medication use in a community environmentally exposed to chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Gysens, Sabine; Hartney, Christopher; Ngo, Long; Rauch, Stephen S; Midtling, John

    2002-10-01

    An epidemiological health study compared the health status of residents of a town exposed to an accidental Catacarb chemical release from an adjacent oil refinery, with the health status of demographically similar residents of an unexposed town in the region. Few studies of Catacarb's effects on humans exist; however, animal studies have shown it to be a respiratory, gastro-intestinal, dermatological and visual irritant. As part of the study, health questionnaires assessing pre- and post exposure symptoms, illnesses and medication use were mailed to residents in both towns. Medication use is sometimes reported to be a more objective and reliable measure of health outcomes. The current paper compared medication use of exposed and unexposed residents. Significant increases after exposure were found in the use of the following medications: antacid, asthma medication, cough and cold medication, eye medication, headache medication and sleep medication. These increases were consistent with reported symptoms, albeit of greater magnitude; no increase in medication use for other illnesses was reported. Medication use in this sample was consistent with patients' report of symptoms and may be a better measure of outcome. PMID:12502236

  6. Can we address the shortage of psychiatrists in the correctional setting with exposure during residency training?

    PubMed

    Fuehrlein, Brian S; Jha, Manish K; Brenner, Adam M; North, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Psychiatry residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center were surveyed to investigate their attitudes towards inmates, towards various aspects of correctional psychiatry and whether rotating at the local jail is associated with these attitudes. The overall opinion towards correctional psychiatry was fairly neutral though significantly more negative than towards inpatient psychiatry. While citing a high need for psychiatrists at correctional facilities, residents reported they are not likely to work there when they complete residency. No statistical differences were found between those residents who had rotated at the local jail and those who had not. Given the severe shortage of mental health providers in correctional facilities it is important to expose residents to this and understand ways to promote correctional psychiatry as a career. PMID:22447346

  7. Ethics education for pediatric residents: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Khan, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethics education and research on medical residents is needed because, unlike medical students or experienced doctors, medical residents have to perform multiple roles simultaneously – student, teacher and clinician – thus exposing them to unique ethical stressors. In this paper we reviewed the literature concerning ethics education in postgraduate pediatrics training programs. Our goal was not to simply describe educational strategies and programs, but also to explore measurements and experiences of current practices to address gaps in ethics education during residency. Method We conducted a structured literature review to explore the extent of ethics education in pediatric residency programs. Results Twelve relevant studies were found. The studies suggest that existing training regimens are insufficient to meet the real life ethical challenges experienced in actual practice, particularly with respect to palliative care and the commission of clinical errors. Conclusions The increasing diversity of culture and beliefs in the clinical workplace is also serving to complicate educational needs. An interdisciplinary approach, spread over the entirety of a physician’s training, is a proposed solution worthy of more attention. PMID:26451231

  8. Redesigning journal club in residency

    PubMed Central

    Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2016-01-01

    The gap between production and implementation of knowledge is the main reason for the suboptimal quality of health care. To eliminate this gap and improve the quality of patient care, journal club (JC) in graduate medical education provides an opportunity for learning the skills of evidence-based medicine. JC, however, continues to face many challenges mainly due to poorly defined goals, inadequate preparation, and lack of interest. This article presents an innovative model to prepare and present JC based on three pillars: dialogical learning through group discussion, mentored residents as peer teachers, and including JC as part of a structured curriculum to learn evidence-based medicine. This engaging model has the potential to transform JC from a moribund session that is daunting for residents into a lively discussion to redefine clinical practice using the most current evidence. PMID:27313486

  9. Redesigning journal club in residency.

    PubMed

    Al Achkar, Morhaf

    2016-01-01

    The gap between production and implementation of knowledge is the main reason for the suboptimal quality of health care. To eliminate this gap and improve the quality of patient care, journal club (JC) in graduate medical education provides an opportunity for learning the skills of evidence-based medicine. JC, however, continues to face many challenges mainly due to poorly defined goals, inadequate preparation, and lack of interest. This article presents an innovative model to prepare and present JC based on three pillars: dialogical learning through group discussion, mentored residents as peer teachers, and including JC as part of a structured curriculum to learn evidence-based medicine. This engaging model has the potential to transform JC from a moribund session that is daunting for residents into a lively discussion to redefine clinical practice using the most current evidence. PMID:27313486

  10. [Medical ethics in residency training].

    PubMed

    Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Balcioğlu, Harun

    2009-04-01

    Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed. PMID:19357056

  11. Genetic Predisposition for Dermal Problems in Hexavalent Chromium Exposed Population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic susceptibility on hexavalent chromium induced dermal adversities. The health status of population was examined from the areas of Kanpur (India) having the elevated hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater. Blood samples were collected for DNA isolation to conduct polymorphic determination of genes, namely: NQO1 (C609T), hOGG1 (C1245G), GSTT1, and GSTM1 (deletion). Symptomatic exposed subjects (n = 38) were compared with asymptomatic exposed subjects (n = 108) along with asymptomatic controls (n = 148) from a non contaminated reference community. Exposed symptomatic group consisted of 36.8% subjects who were GSTM1 null genotyped as compared to asymptomatic where only 19.4% subjects were null. The exposed subjects with GSTM1 null genotype were more susceptible to dermal adversities in comparison with wild genotyped subjects (OR = 2.42; 95% CI = 1.071–5.451). Age, smoking, gender or duration of residence were not found to have any confounding effect towards this association. Association with other genes was not statistically significant, nonetheless, possible contribution by these genes cannot be ruled out. In conclusion, variation in the polymorphic status of GSTM1 gene may influence dermal outcomes among residents from Cr(VI) contaminated areas. Further studies are therefore, needed to examine these observations among different population groups. PMID:22919465

  12. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    SciTech Connect

    Sancini, A.; Fioravanti, M.; Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P.; Tomei, G.; Tomei, F.

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  13. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  14. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  15. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  16. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  17. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The...) Review of assessments. The nursing facility management must examine each resident no less than once...

  18. Clinical Evaluation in a Family Medicine Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, James M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study assessed (1) the validity of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine evaluation instrument regarding the occurrence of halo effects and (2) possible relationships between the faculty's evaluations of the residents and the residents' cognitive knowledge and productivity. (MLW)

  19. 8 CFR 325.3 - Residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Residence. 325.3 Section 325.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.3 Residence. (a) For purposes of applying...

  20. 8 CFR 325.3 - Residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residence. 325.3 Section 325.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.3 Residence. (a) For purposes of applying...

  1. Residency and In-State Tuition. Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Persons classified as residents for higher education purposes under Texas law may pay in-state tuition. Although Texas does not have any programs specifically for undocumented students, some undocumented persons are among those who are eligible for in-state tuition under current residency statutes. The residency statutes for higher education…

  2. Toolbox for Evaluating Residents as Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, John H.; Ismail, Nadia; Mian, Ayesha; Dewey, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors review existing assessment tools related to evaluating residents' teaching skills and teaching effectiveness. Methods: PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched using combinations of keywords including "residents," "residents as teachers," "teaching skills," and "assessments" or "rating scales." Results: Eleven evaluation…

  3. Recommendations for nurse practitioner residency programs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kameka; Poppe, Anne; Kaminetzky, Catherine; Wipf, Joyce; Woods, Nancy Fugate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and prioritize critical aspects needed in the design and execution of new nurse practitioner (NP) residency programs. Subjects answered a series of questions on formulating residency programs and on key outcomes and cost measures related to their sustainability. These results serve as potential guideposts for future work in NP residency standardization and sustainability development. PMID:25501654

  4. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  5. 42 CFR 483.20 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.20 Resident assessment. The facility must conduct initially and periodically a... resident's immediate care. (b) Comprehensive assessments—(1) Resident assessment instrument. A...

  6. Otolaryngology residency and fellowship training. The resident's perspective.

    PubMed

    Miller, R H

    1994-10-01

    Based on the success rate of US otolaryngology graduates on the American Board of Otolaryngology Certification Examination, it would appear that otolaryngology training is quite good. However, it is not clear that all aspects of training are equal in quality, not only between programs but also within a single program. One indication that there may be areas of weakness is the fact that despite the perceived national shortages of primary care physicians in the United States and the overabundance of specialists, 25% of the approximately 260 graduating otolaryngology residents extend their training beyond specialty training to subspecialty levels (Manpower Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, unpublished data obtained from chief resident questionnaires, 1990-1992). The most popular area of fellowship training is facial plastic surgery, followed by neurotology and head and neck oncology. Pediatric otolaryngology fellowships make up most of the balance. Most of the fellowships are well structured and are 1 year in duration. Others are more like apprenticeships and may be of shorter duration. A few are 2 years long and include a significant research commitment reserved for individuals entering academic practice. PMID:7917188

  7. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  8. Dormitory Residents Reduce Electricity Consumption when Exposed to Real-Time Visual Feedback and Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, John E.; Shunturov, Vladislav; Janda, Kathryn; Platt, Gavin; Weinberger, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In residential buildings, personal choices influence electricity and water consumption. Prior studies indicate that information feedback can stimulate resource conservation. College dormitories provide an excellent venue for controlled study of the effects of feedback. The goal of this study is to assess how different resolutions of…

  9. Guidelines for the sound insulation of residences exposed to aircraft operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Information presented in this guide is based on fundamental acoustic principles supported by practical experience gained in numerous residential sound insulation projects across the country. The most successful solutions to problems typically encountered in these projects have been incorporated. The two primary goals of a residential sound insulation projects across the country. The most successful solutions to problems typically encountered in these projects have been incorporated. The two primary goals of a residential sound insulation project are the improvement of the noise environment for community members and better relations between the installation and its neighbors. These goals, and the methods used to achieve them, must take into account the sometimes conflicting needs of the parties concerned. The existence of federal recommendations for noise exposure provides clear-cut, objective noise goals which can be aimed toward and complied with.

  10. Motor and Executive Function Profiles in Adult Residents Environmentally Exposed to Manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) may be associated with tremor, motor and executive dysfunction (EF), clinically resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD research has identified tremor-dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) profiles. NTD PD pres...

  11. EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

    Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space

  12. Public Health Education for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Marian E.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Gutman, Deborah; Tibbles, Carrie D.; Joyce, Nina; Lipton, Robert; Schweigler, Lisa; Fisher, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national regional public health–medicine education centers-graduate medical education (RPHMEC-GM) initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health–oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  13. Public health education for emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Bernstein, Steven L; Gutman, Deborah C; Tibbles, Carrie D; Joyce, Nina R; Lipton, Robert I; Schweigler, Lisa M; Fisher, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national Regional Public Health-Medicine Education Centers-Graduate Medical Education initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health-oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  14. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Don . E-mail: donyee@cancerboard.ab.ca; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada.

  15. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. Adam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  16. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. Adam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  17. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  18. Radiogenic Risk of Malignant Neoplasms for Techa Riverside Residents

    SciTech Connect

    Akleyev, A. V.; Krestinina, L. Y.; Preston, D. L.; Davis, Faith; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Startsev, N. V.; Napier, Bruce A.; Ron, E.

    2008-11-01

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste into the Techa River from the Mayak PA in the 1950s, residents of the riverside villages were for decades exposed to external and internal radiation resulting from consumption of locally produced food and river water. Presented in the paper is a brief description of the radiation conditions, organization of medical follow-up of the exposed population, principles for dose estimation, epidemiological analyses of cancer mortality and incidence for residents of the Techa RIverside villages. The estimates of excess relative risk of radiation-related leukemia and solid cancer mortality and incidence obtained for members of the Techa River cohort point to a clear-cut dependence of the rates on radiation exposure. Attributive risk of cancer incidence characterizing the proportion of radiation-related cancer cases among the total cancers was comparable with that for mortality: 3.2% derived for cancer incidence and 2.5% for cancer mortality. Based on the non-CLL leukemia excess relative risk (ERR) estimates calculated using the linear dose-effect model and the nature of the cohort, it was estimated that 31 (60%) out of 49 leukemia death cases (with the exclusion of 12 cases of chronic lymphatic leukemia) can be related to a long-term radiation exposure due to the contamination of the Techa River.

  19. Variable residence time vortex combustor

    DOEpatents

    Melconian, Jerry O.

    1987-01-01

    A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

  20. Costs Associated With Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Bready, Lois L; Luber, M Philip

    2016-02-01

    Texas needs more physicians to care for a rapidly growing population, and new physicians who complete medical training in Texas are likely to remain in the state to practice. The expansion of existing Texas medical schools, along with the development of new schools, has created a need for a corresponding increase in residency and fellowship (graduate medical education, or GME) positions in Texas, and the 2013 and 2015 legislative sessions have funded expanded GME support. While the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services pays for the majority of GME positions nationally, those numbers were capped in 1997. Growing populations, particularly in the southern states, have led many institutions--when funds are available--to increase GME positions "over the cap." Texas physicians need to be aware of costs associated with development of accredited GME positions, as well as other measures being taken to support the growth of the physician workforce in the state. PMID:26859373

  1. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E.; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  2. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  3. Residency Work-Hours Reform

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Escarce, José J

    2005-01-01

    Background In response to proposed federal legislation, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education limited resident work-hours in July 2003. The cost may be substantial but, if successful, the reform might lower preventable adverse event costs in hospital and after discharge. Objectives This study sought to estimate the reform's net cost in 2001 dollars, and to determine the reduction in preventable adverse events needed to make reform cost neutral from teaching hospital and societal perspectives. Design Cost analysis using published literature and data. Net costs were determined for 4 reform strategies and over a range of potential effects on preventable adverse events. Results Nationwide, transferring excess work to task-tailored substitutes (the lowest-level providers appropriate for noneducational tasks) would cost $673 million; mid-level providers would cost $1.1 billion. Reform strategies promoting adverse events would increase net teaching hospital and societal costs as well as mortality. If task-tailored substitutes decrease events by 5.1% or mid-level providers decrease them by 8.5%, reform would be cost neutral for society. Events must fall by 18.5% and 30.9%, respectively, to be cost neutral for teaching hospitals. Conclusions Because most preventable adverse event costs occur after discharge, a modest decline (5.1% to 8.5%) in them might make residency work-hours reform cost neutral for society but only a much larger drop (18.5% to 30.9%) would make it cost neutral for teaching hospitals, unless additional funds are allocated. Future research should evaluate which reform approaches prevent adverse events and at what cost. PMID:16191130

  4. The obstetrics and gynaecology resident as teacher.

    PubMed

    Cullimore, Amie J; Dalrymple, John L; Dugoff, Lorraine; Hueppchen, Nancy A; Casey, Petra M; Chuang, Alice W; Espey, Eve L; Hammoud, Maya M; Kaczmarczyk, Joseph M; Katz, Nadine T; Nuthalapaty, Francis S; Peskin, Edward G

    2010-12-01

    In this article we discuss the role residents play in the clinical training and evaluation of medical students. A literature search was performed to identify articles dealing with research, curriculum, and the evaluation of residents as teachers. We summarize the importance of resident educators and the need to provide appropriate resources for house staff in this role, and we review evidence-based literature in the area of residents as teachers. Specific attention is given to the unique circumstances of the obstetrics and gynaecology resident, who is often faced with teaching in an emotionally charged and stress-filled environment. We present examples of curricula for residents as teachers and describe barriers to their implementation and evaluation. PMID:21176331

  5. 26 CFR 1.884-5 - Qualified resident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of which the foreign corporation is a resident or a citizen or resident of the United States; (B) The... an individual who is not a U.S. citizen or resident, also obtains a certificate of residency... foreign country of which the foreign corporation is a resident and who are not citizens or residents...

  6. Selecting Residents in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shofler, David

    2015-01-01

    Limited information exists to guide students of podiatric medicine and residency directors through the resident selection process. The present study aimed to evaluate the podiatric medicine and surgery resident selection process using an online survey. Residency directors of podiatric medicine and surgery programs across the United States and fourth-year students across all 9 colleges of podiatric medicine were contacted for participation. Two separate surveys were created, one for the directors and one for the students. The directors and students were asked the relative importance of 21 items considered in resident selection on a 7-point importance scale. Subsequent questions covered an array of related topics. The directors, compared with the students, identified the following items as more important (p < .05): previous disciplinary actions against the student, number of classes failed during school, undergraduate experiences and activities, number of Part I board attempts, class rank, involvement in research, and grade point average during podiatric medical school. The manual dexterity portion of the residency interview was considered significantly more important by the students than the directors. The directors more satisfied with their residents placed greater importance on the following items (p < .05): opinions of current residents, opinions of other attending physicians, and letters of recommendation. Additional trends and differences were also discovered. The results of the present study provide baseline data on the selection of podiatric medicine and surgery residents. PMID:25459090

  7. Reducing dehydration in residents of care homes.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Whitelock, Suzan; Bunn, Diane

    Dehydration can have serious consequences for older people and is a particular problem for residents of nursing and care homes. This article, the second in a two-part series, describes how a specialist care home for people with dementia in Great Yarmouth introduced high-quality hydration care to frail residents. By involving all staff and ensuring residents take a litre of fluid by the end of a relaxed and extended breakfast, staff have reduced anxiety and aggression and created a calmer and more sociable atmosphere. This has benefitted residents, visitors and staff, and is reflected in low levels of unplanned hospital admissions and paramedic call-outs. PMID:26492664

  8. Survey of resident education in intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Malik, Renuka; Oh, Julia L; Roeske, John C; Mundt, Arno J

    2005-06-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been gaining increasing popularity among practicing physicians in the U.S., but the extent to which radiation oncology residents are taught the principles of this technology and are trained to use IMRT remains unknown. In this paper, we assessed the current level of resident education in IMRT in the United States. Chief residents at all 77 accredited radiation oncology programs were sent a 13-question survey addressing formal didactics and hands-on experience in IMRT. The survey assessed the frequency, subject, and format of IMRT didactics. Questions also addressed the number of IMRT patients and anatomical sites treated, resident involvement in the IMRT process, and the intent of IMRT use. Finally, residents were asked for their opinions on their IMRT education. Sixty-one surveys (79%) were completed. Overall, forty-three respondents (71%) reported receiving formal IMRT didactics, with nearly one-third reporting extensive didactics (> or = 3 lectures/seminars et cetera per year). The most common didactic formats were lectures (95%) and journal clubs (63%), most commonly supervised by physicists (98%). Involvement by physicians and radiobiologists were reported by 63% and 7% of respondents, respectively. Overall, 87% of respondents had hands-on IMRT training, with nearly one-half having treated > 25 patients. The most common sites treated were head and neck (94%) and prostate (81%). Involvement in all aspects of the IMRT process was common, particularly target and tissue delineation (98%) and plan evaluation (93%). Most respondents (79%) with hands-on experience reported receiving formal didactics. However, nearly one-third received no or only minimal formal didactics. The percentage of respondents desiring increased IMRT didactics and hands-on experience were 70% and 47%, respectively. Our results suggest that the great majority of radiation oncology residents in the United States are currently exposed to didactics

  9. Trends in Serious Emotional Disturbance among Youths Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fairbank, John A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Jones, Russell T.; Osofsky, Joy D.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns and predictors of trends in "DSM-IV" serious emotional disturbance (SED) among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Method: A probability sample of adult pre-hurricane residents of the areas affected by Katrina completed baseline and follow-up telephone surveys 18 to 27 months post-hurricane and 12 to 18 months…

  10. Serious Emotional Disturbance among Youths Exposed to Hurricane Katrina 2 Years Postdisaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fairbank, John A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Jones, Russell T.; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of serious emotional disturbance (SED) among children and adolescents exposed to Hurricane Katrina along with the associations of SED with hurricane-related stressors, sociodemographics, and family factors 18 to 27 months after the hurricane. Method: A probability sample of prehurricane residents of areas…

  11. Blood cadmium concentration of residents living near abandoned metal mines in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jung-Duck; Sakong, Joon; Choi, Jae-Wook; Moon, Jai-Dong; Kim, Dae-Seon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate demographic and lifestyle variables and blood cadmium concentrations in residents living near abandoned metal mines in Korea. Blood cadmium concentrations were measured in 15,161 subjects living around abandoned metal mines (exposed group, n = 14,464) and compared with those living in designated control areas (control group, n = 697). A questionnaire was provided to all subjects to determine age, gender, mine working history, times of residence, smoking habits and dietary water type. The geometric mean (95% confidence intervals) of blood cadmium concentration (1.25 [1.24-1.27] µg/L) in the exposed group was significantly higher than in the control group (1.17 [1.13-1.22] µg/L). Mean residence time and mine working history in the exposed group were significantly higher than in the control group. Blood cadmium concentrations increased with increasing age, and residence time in both groups, and blood cadmium concentrations were higher in current-smokers than in non-smokers in both groups. This study shows the geometric mean of blood cadmium concentration in abandoned mining areas are higher than in non-mining areas in the general adult Korean population. PMID:24851017

  12. Putting Residents First: Strategies Developed by CNAs to Prevent and Manage Resident-to-Resident Violence in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Snellgrove, Susan; Beck, Cornelia; Green, Angela; McSweeney, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Resident-to-resident violence (RRV) in nursing homes (NHs) is common and threatens the safety and quality of life of both residents and caregivers. The purpose of this portion of a larger qualitative study was to explore strategies developed by certified nurses’ assistants (CNAs) to prevent and manage RRV in NHs. Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed utilizing content analysis and constant comparison. Results: Analysis revealed one overriding theme, “Putting Residents First” which the CNAs described as a conscious effort to put themselves or a beloved family member in the place of the resident while administering care. Within this theme, there were three related subthemes: (a) Knowing the Residents, (b) Keeping Residents Safe, and (c) Spending Quality Time. Implications: Together, these themes suggest that the formulation of strategies for decreasing and managing RRV was influenced significantly by the ability of the CNAs to empathize with the residents for whom they were caring. The results indicate that in the absence of evidence-based interventions, CNAs have developed their own strategies for the management and prevention of RRV. These strategies may provide a foundation for the development and testing of interventions aimed at preventing and managing RRV in NHs. PMID:26055786

  13. Resident mesenchymal cells and fibrosis✩

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Nicol; Fligny, Cécile; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is a major clinical problem associated with as many as 45% of all natural deaths in developed nations. It can affect all organs and accumulating evidence indicates that fibrogenesis is not merely a bystander product of injury, but is a central pathological problem directly contributing to loss of organ function. In the majority of clinical cases, fibrogenesis is strongly associated with the recruitment of leukocytes, even in the absence of infection. Although chronic infections are a significant cause of fibrogenesis, in most cases fibrotic disease occurs in the context of sterile injury, such as microvascular disease, toxic epithelial injury or diabetes mellitus. Fibrogenesis is a direct consequence of the activation of extensive, and previously poorly appreciated, populations of mesenchymal cells in our organs which are either wrapped around capillaries and known as ‘pericytes’, or embedded in interstitial spaces between cell structures and known as resident ‘fibroblasts’. Recent fate-mapping and complementary studies in several organs indicate that these cells are the precursors of the scar-forming myofibroblasts that appear in our organs in response to injury. Here we will review the literature supporting a central role for these cells in fibrogenesis, and highlight some of the critical cell to cell interactions that are necessary for the initiation and continuation of the fibrogenic process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fibrosis: Translation of basic research to human disease. PMID:23220259

  14. Using Indices of Happiness to Examine The Influence of Environmental Enhancements for Nursing Home Residents With Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kimberly; Delaney, Jennifer A; Dixon, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    The present study extends the growing behavioral literature on indices of happiness for persons with developmental disabilities to the geriatric population. Data on indices of emotional affect (i.e., happiness) were collected prior to, during, and after each resident was exposed to environmental enhancement activities of various durations. Results showed that every activity improved each resident's level of happiness when compared to pre- and postactivity levels. These outcomes suggest that indexing affect may be as useful for nursing home residents as it has been for individuals with developmental disabilities. PMID:17970267

  15. A Rural Primary Care Pediatric Residency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kairys, Steven; Newell, Priscilla

    1985-01-01

    The primary care pediatric residency program at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center has developed a training program in rural primary care. Residents experience the many facets of rural practice and are introduced to community-oriented approaches to child health care. (Author/MLW)

  16. 28 CFR 115.333 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident education. 115.333 Section 115.333 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL... provide comprehensive age-appropriate education to residents either in person or through video...

  17. 28 CFR 115.333 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident education. 115.333 Section 115.333 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL... provide comprehensive age-appropriate education to residents either in person or through video...

  18. 28 CFR 115.333 - Resident education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident education. 115.333 Section 115.333 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL... provide comprehensive age-appropriate education to residents either in person or through video...

  19. Delinking resident duty hours from patient safety.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Roisin; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a powerful motivating force for change in modern medicine, and is often cited as a rationale for reducing resident duty hours. However, current data suggest that resident duty hours are not significantly linked to important patient outcomes. We performed a narrative review and identified four potential explanations for these findings. First, we question the relevance of resident fatigue in the creation of harmful errors. Second, we discuss factors, including workload, experience, and individual characteristics, that may be more important determinants of resident fatigue than are duty hours. Third, we describe potential adverse effects that may arise from--and, therefore, counterbalance any potential benefits of--duty hour reductions. Fourth, we explore factors that may mitigate any risks to patient safety associated with using the services of resident trainees. In summary, it may be inappropriate to justify a reduction in working hours on the grounds of a presumed linkage between patient safety and resident duty hours. Better understanding of resident-related factors associated with patient safety will be essential if improvements in important patient safety outcomes are to be realized through resident-focused strategies. PMID:25561349

  20. Residents as Educators: A Modern Model.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Clark D; McMaster, William G; Vella, Michael A; Sexton, Kevin W; Snyder, Rebecca A; Terhune, Kyla P

    2015-01-01

    Education during surgical residency has changed significantly. As part of the shifting landscape, the importance of an organized and structured curriculum has increased. However, establishing this is often difficult secondary to clinical demands and pressure both on faculty and residents. We present a peer-assisted learning model for academic institutions without professional non-clinical educations. The "resident as educator" (RAE) model empowers residents to be the organizers of the education curriculum. RAE is built on a culture of commitment to education, skill development and team building, allowing the upper level residents to develop and execute the curriculum. Several modules designed to address junior level residents and medical students' educational needs have been implemented, including (1) intern boot camp, (2) summer school, (3) technical skill sessions, (4) trauma orientation, (5) weekly teaching conferences, and (4) a fourth year medical student surgical preparation course. Promoting residents as educators leads to an overall benefit for the program by being cost-effective and time-efficient, while simultaneously promoting professional development of residents and a culture of education. PMID:26143515

  1. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  2. A Clinical Evaluation System for Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viets, J. L.; Foster, Scot D.

    1988-01-01

    Baylor College of Medicine's system for evaluating the clinical progress of anesthesiology residents, developed in response to problems of standards, staff cooperation, and student dissatisfaction with evaluation, assesses resident progress in terms of performance levels based on case complexity and degree of staff intervention. (Author/MSE)

  3. Teaching Psychiatric Administration to Senior Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, John A.; Sacks, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Describes a course in psychiatric administration which is part of a "standard" psychiatric residency training program. The course combined both didactic and experiential learning for senior residents performing administrative duties for the first time. Includes details of each week's seminar. Discusses course evaluation by both teachers and…

  4. Delinking resident duty hours from patient safety

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a powerful motivating force for change in modern medicine, and is often cited as a rationale for reducing resident duty hours. However, current data suggest that resident duty hours are not significantly linked to important patient outcomes. We performed a narrative review and identified four potential explanations for these findings. First, we question the relevance of resident fatigue in the creation of harmful errors. Second, we discuss factors, including workload, experience, and individual characteristics, that may be more important determinants of resident fatigue than are duty hours. Third, we describe potential adverse effects that may arise from – and, therefore, counterbalance any potential benefits of – duty hour reductions. Fourth, we explore factors that may mitigate any risks to patient safety associated with using the services of resident trainees. In summary, it may be inappropriate to justify a reduction in working hours on the grounds of a presumed linkage between patient safety and resident duty hours. Better understanding of resident-related factors associated with patient safety will be essential if improvements in important patient safety outcomes are to be realized through resident-focused strategies. PMID:25561349

  5. Current Perspectives on Chief Residents in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Christopher H.; Rachal, James; Breitbach, Jill; Higgins, Michael; Warner, Carolynn; Bobo, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine qualitative data from outgoing chief residents in psychiatry from the 2004-2005 academic year to 1) determine common characteristics between programs, 2) examine the residents' perspectives on their experiences, and 3) determine their common leadership qualities. Method: The authors sent out self-report surveys via…

  6. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was less expensive…

  7. Current Practices in Resident Assistant Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Virginia Albaneso

    2016-01-01

    Developing resident assistant (RA) training is a challenge for most housing and residence life staff. Grounded in the author's doctoral research on the curricular design of RA training programs, this study summarizes current practices in three types of RA training programs--preservice training, in-service training, and academic courses--and…

  8. Suicide Intervention Skills among Japanese Medical Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kato, Takahiro A.; Hashimoto, Naoki; Sato, Ryoko; Aoyama-Uehara, Kumi; Fukasawa, Maiko; Tomita, Masayuki; Watanabe, Koichiro; Kashima, Haruo; Otsuka, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Patient suicide is a tragic occurrence, and it can be a demoralizing experience for medical residents. Few studies, however, have assessed suicide management skills among these front-line healthcare professionals. This study evaluated the self-assessed competence and confidence of medical residents with regard to the management of…

  9. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  10. Assessment of Residents' Attitudes toward Patient Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, Donna; Wright, W. Russel

    1981-01-01

    A questionnaire was developed at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine to elicit information from residents regarding their perceptions of and expectations of patient education. Responding residents generally felt patient education was an asset to total medical care, and that the physician should determine what information should be…

  11. 19th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The construction of residence hall facilities at colleges and universities continues to be strong, as institutions scramble to meet the housing needs and varied demands of a growing student population. This article presents data collected from 39 new residence hall projects completed in 2007. According to American School & University's 19th annual…

  12. Teaching Psychiatry to Family Practice Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huzij, Teodor J.; Warner, Christopher H.; Lacy, Timothy; Rachal, James

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article outlines a psychiatry curriculum developed for family practice residents by family practice-psychiatry residents. Methods: A literature review, needs assessment, planning, implementation, and initial assessment were conducted. Conclusion: Early results demonstrated improved general psychiatric knowledge and a high level of…

  13. 28 CFR 115.351 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.351 Section 115.351 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.351 Resident reporting. (a) The agency...

  14. 28 CFR 115.251 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.251 Section 115.251 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.251 Resident reporting. (a)...

  15. 28 CFR 115.351 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.351 Section 115.351 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.351 Resident reporting. (a) The agency...

  16. 28 CFR 115.251 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.251 Section 115.251 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.251 Resident reporting. (a)...

  17. 28 CFR 115.251 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.251 Section 115.251 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Reporting § 115.251 Resident reporting. (a)...

  18. 28 CFR 115.351 - Resident reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resident reporting. 115.351 Section 115.351 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Reporting § 115.351 Resident reporting. (a) The agency...

  19. 42 CFR 436.403 - State residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... State of residence is the State in which the individual is living. (3) For any other non... “foster care homes”, licensed as set forth in 45 CFR 1355.20, and providing food, shelter and supportive... of indicating intent, the State of residence is the State where the individual is living with...

  20. Resident Performance and Sleep Deprivation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asken, Michael J.; Raham, David C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the literature on resident performance and sleep deprivation suggests that current research is sparse and inconclusive, and existing research suggests potentially severe negative effects. It is proposed that justifications for sleep-depriving night call schedules remain untested, and their use as part of residency training should be…

  1. Psychiatry Residency Training around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Balon, Richard; Bjorksten, Karin S.; Everall, Ian; Dunn, Laura; Ganadjian, Krauz; Jin, Hua; Parikh, Sagar; Sciolla, Andres; Sidhartha, Tanuj; Yoo, Tai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors compare and contrast psychiatry residency training in the United States to that in Canada and selected countries in South America, Europe, and Asia. Method: Nine individuals who are intimately familiar with psychiatry residency training in the United States (primarily chairs, training directors, associate training directors,…

  2. Selected Health Practices Among Ohio's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, G. Howard; Pugh, Albert

    Using a stratified random sample of 12 of Ohio's 88 counties, this 1967 study had as its objectives (1) to measure the level of participation in selected health practices by Ohio's rural residents, (2) to compare the level of participation in selected health practices of farm and rural nonfarm residents, and (3) to examine levels of participation…

  3. A Sexuality Curriculum for Gynecology Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Stephen B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The summary report of an educational research program conducted with the obstetrics and gynecology residents at University Hospitals of Cleveland in 1976 is presented. The goals were to provide residents with basic knowledge about female sexual problems, assess skill and comfort in interviewing patients with sexual problems, document the effects…

  4. Accommodating to Restrictions on Residents' Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Henry W., Jr.; Seltzer, Vicki L.

    1991-01-01

    In response to New York State legislation limiting house staff working hours, a survey of obstetrics and gynecology resident programs (n=26) was conducted. Results were used to construct a prototype call schedule and a hypothetical monthly schedule indicating how a single resident would function without violating any state regulations. (MSE)

  5. Study of Teaching Residents How to Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a teaching skills program for residents at Louisiana State University Medical Center was evaluated among 22 residents in obstetrics and gynecology, medicine, and family medicine who were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. There was greater increase in the scores of the experimental than the control groups.…

  6. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resident rights. 483.10 Section 483.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights....

  7. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resident rights. 483.10 Section 483.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights....

  8. 42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resident rights. 483.10 Section 483.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.10 Resident rights....

  9. 42 CFR 435.403 - State residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... State placement, the term also includes foster care homes, licensed as set forth in 45 CFR 1355.20, and... accordance with 45 CFR 233.40, the rules governing residence under the AFDC program. (4) For any..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA General Eligibility Requirements § 435.403 State residence. (a) Requirement....

  10. The Social Ecology of University Student Residences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerst, Marvin S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    The development, initial standardization and substantive data of the University Residence Environment Scale (URES) is presented. The URES is a true-false perceived environment scale composed of 10 subscales (e.g., affiliation, innovation) which discriminates among the 74 student residences in the current norm group. The URES has high internal…

  11. 19 CFR 141.38 - Resident corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident corporations. 141.38 Section 141.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.38 Resident corporations. A power...

  12. 19 CFR 141.38 - Resident corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resident corporations. 141.38 Section 141.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.38 Resident corporations. A power...

  13. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a project sponsor, are covered in 43 CFR part 17 which implements the provisions of Title VI of the... discrimination on the basis of residence, including preferential reservation or membership systems, except to the... assisted programs and services on the basis of residence, except in reasonable fee differentials....

  14. Survey of Residence Hall Life at NCSU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolin, Nancy C.

    A 1977 North Carolina State University survey of a sample of on-campus students determined their attitudes toward residence hall activities, facilities, and staff. Information is shown by sex, class, and residence hall, and totals are weighted to reflect actual proportions in each dorm. Among the findings are the following: cookouts, movies, beer…

  15. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES § 59.4 Residency requirements....

  16. Residence Hall Furnishings Top 20 List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampke, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Provides advice on how to best meet the furniture needs of student residents now and in the future to ensure their privacy and value from the residence hall experience. Twenty tips are highlighted that include considering fire safety, upholstering, lifecycle costs, input from stakeholders, the Americans with Disabilities Act, comfort, lighting,…

  17. Community Residences for Mentally Retarded People: A Study of Seven Community Residences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehbring, Kurt; Ogren, Ciele

    The report describes the distinctive characteristics and styles of seven community residences for retarded children or adults and provides a comparative analysis with emphasis on common themes of successful group homes. The homes are compared in terms of original initiation of the residence; the development of the residence; operations (such as…

  18. Feedback from Chief Residents about Proposed Revisions of the Special Requirements for Internal Medicine Residencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, P. Preston; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 272 medical school chief residents concerning proposed revisions of internal medicine residency requirements found the most strongly supported changes were: enhanced training in interviewing, interpersonal, and physical examination skills; increased emphasis on residency as an educational experience and on general internal medicine in…

  19. Resident Assistants and Students on Leadership, Residence Hall Climate and Student Brinkmanship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn Hagan; Licata, Joseph W.

    Student brinkmanship in residence halls, resident assistant (RA) leadership, and residence social climate are discussed. In "brinking" the system, students challenge authority in ways that provide scant grounds for the institution to apply punishment. The study looks at relationships between: the RA's leadership behavior and student perceptions of…

  20. New oil era prompts unique resid refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.E.; Sliger, A.G.; Kain, G.E.

    1982-03-22

    Flowsheets and a process description are given for a refinery that will employ resid desulfurization and the Heavy Oil Cracking (HOC) process to upgrade the bottom of the crude barrel. The key processing concept in the new Saber facility is the combination of HOC, a proven process, that has been employed since the early 1960's, with resid hydrodesulfurization (HDS) a newer process but one that is well proven and that has found widespread application. Design feedstock for the complex is heavy Arabian 650+/degree/ F. atmospheric resid, but flexibility to run light Arabian atmospheric resid or any intermediate resid also has been incorporated into the design. Rated Capacity is 46,100 b/sd. 9 refs.

  1. Simulation and resident education in spinal neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Bohm, Parker E.; Arnold, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A host of factors have contributed to the increasing use of simulation in neurosurgical resident education. Although the number of simulation-related publications has increased exponentially over the past two decades, no studies have specifically examined the role of simulation in resident education in spinal neurosurgery. Methods: We performed a structured search of several databases to identify articles detailing the use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education in an attempt to catalogue potential applications for its use. Results: A brief history of simulation in medicine is given, followed by current trends of spinal simulation utilization in residency programs. General themes from the literature are identified that are integral for implementing simulation into neurosurgical residency curriculum. Finally, various applications are reported. Conclusion: The use of simulation in spinal neurosurgery education is not as ubiquitous in comparison to other neurosurgical subspecialties, but many promising methods of simulation are available for augmenting resident education. PMID:25745588

  2. Embryo- and fetotoxicity of chromium in pregestationally exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Junaid, M.; Murthy, R.C.; Saxena, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Chromium, an essential element in the human body required for proper carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, is reported to impair gestational development of offspring of workers chronically exposed to this metal in the work place. Workers in chromium based industries can be exposed to concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than the general population. Among the general population, residents living near chromate production sites may be exposed to high levels of chromium (VI) in air or to elevated levels (40 - 50,000 ppm) of chromium in effluents. Shmitova reported afterbirth and puerperal hemorrhages in women industrially exposed to this metal and observed high chromium levels in blood and urine of pregnant women and in fetal and cord blood. Chromium readily passes the placental barrier and reaches the growing fetus. Exposure of mice to chromium during various gestational periods resulted in embryo and fetotoxic effects. This study looks at the role of body chromium accumulated pregestationally on embryo and fetal development and its subsequent transfer to feto-placental sites. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Resident Research and Scholarly Activity in Internal Medicine Residency Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Rachel B; Hebert, Randy S; Wright, Scott M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES 1) To describe how internal medicine residency programs fulfill the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) scholarly activity training requirement including the current context of resident scholarly work, and 2) to compare findings between university and nonuniversity programs. DESIGN Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING ACGME-accredited internal medicine residency programs. PARTICIPANTS Internal medicine residency program directors. MEASUREMENTS Data were collected on 1) interpretation of the scholarly activity requirement, 2) support for resident scholarship, 3) scholarly activities of residents, 4) attitudes toward resident research, and 5) program characteristics. University and nonuniversity programs were compared. MAIN RESULTS The response rate was 78%. Most residents completed a topic review with presentation (median, 100%) to fulfill the requirement. Residents at nonuniversity programs were more likely to complete case reports (median, 40% vs 25%; P =.04) and present at local or regional meetings (median, 25% vs 20%; P =.01), and were just as likely to conduct hypothesis-driven research (median, 20% vs 20%; P =.75) and present nationally (median, 10% vs 5%; P =.10) as residents at university programs. Nonuniversity programs were more likely to report lack of faculty mentors (61% vs 31%; P <.001) and resident interest (55% vs 40%; P =.01) as major barriers to resident scholarship. Programs support resident scholarship through research curricula (47%), funding (46%), and protected time (32%). CONCLUSIONS Internal medicine residents complete a variety of projects to fulfill the scholarly activity requirement. Nonuniversity programs are doing as much as university programs in meeting the requirement and supporting resident scholarship despite reporting significant barriers. PMID:15836549

  4. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  5. Effectiveness of iterative interventions to increase research productivity in one residency program

    PubMed Central

    Alweis, Richard; Wenderoth, Suzanne; Donato, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to expose residents to research opportunities. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a series of iterative interventions to increase scholarly activity in one internal medicine residency. Methods Retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of a series of interventions to increase resident and faculty scholarly productivity over a 14-year period was performed using quality improvement methodology. Outcomes measured were accepted regional and national abstracts and PubMed indexed manuscripts of residents and faculty. Results Initially, regional meeting abstracts increased and then were supplanted by national meeting abstracts. Sustained gains in manuscript productivity occurred in the eighth year of interventions, increasing from a baseline of 0.01 publications/FTE/year to 1.57 publications/FTE/year in the final year measured. Run chart analysis indicated special cause variation associated with the interventions performed. Conclusions Programs attempting to stimulate research production among faculty and residents can choose among many interventions cited in the literature. Since success of any group of interventions is likely additive and may take years to show benefit, measuring outcomes using quality improvement methodology may be an effective way to determine success. PMID:26653689

  6. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Feasibility of Psychological First Aid for Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa M.; Bruce, Martha L.; Hyer, Kathryn; Mills, Whitney L.; Vongxaiburana, Elizabeth; Polivka-West, LuMarie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the pilot study were to modify existing psychological first aid (PFA) materials so they would be appropriate for use with institutionalized elders, evaluate the feasibility of using nursing home staff to deliver the intervention to residents, and solicit feedback from residents about the intervention. The STORM Study, an acronym for “services for treating older residents’ mental health”, is the first step in the development of an evidence-based disaster mental health intervention for this vulnerable and underserved population. Method Demographic characteristics were collected on participating residents and staff. Program evaluation forms were completed by staff participants during the pilot test and nurse training session. Staff and resident discussion groups were conducted during the pilot test to collect qualitative data on the use of PFA in nursing homes. Results Results demonstrate the feasibility of the PFA program to train staff to provide residents with PFA during disasters. Conclusions Future research should focus on whether PFA improves coping and reduces stress in disaster exposed nursing home residents. PMID:20592947

  7. Littering dynamics in a coastal industrial setting: the influence of non-resident populations.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Marnie L; Paterson de Heer, Chloe; Kinslow, Amber

    2014-03-15

    We examined if there is truth to the preconceptions that non-resident workers (including FIFO/DIDO's) detract from communities. We used marine debris to test this, specifically focussing on littering behaviour and evidence of awareness of local environmental programs that focus on marine debris. Littering was most common at recreational areas, then beaches and whilst boating. Twenty-five percent of respondents that admit to littering, reported no associated guilt with their actions. Younger respondents litter more frequently. Thus, non-resident workers litter at the same rate as permanent residents, visitors and tourists in this region, within this study. Few respondents are aware of the environmental programs that operate in their local region. Awareness was influenced by a respondent's residency (non-residents are less aware), age, and level of education. To address this failure we recommend that industries, that use non-resident workers, should develop inductions that expose new workers to the environmental programs in their region. PMID:24486045

  8. Genotoxicity and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene: Attenuation by quercetin and curcumin

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahendra P.; Mishra, M.; Sharma, A.; Shukla, A.K.; Mudiam, M.K.R.; Patel, D.K.; Ram, K. Ravi; Chowdhuri, D. Kar

    2011-05-15

    Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) such as benzene, toluene and xylene are being extensively used for various industrial and household purposes. Exposure to these hydrocarbons, occupationally or non-occupationally, is harmful to organisms including human. Several studies tested for toxicity of benzene, toluene and xylene, and interestingly, only a few studies looked into the attenuation. We used Drosophila model to test the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of these compounds and subsequently evaluated the efficiency of two phytochemicals, namely, quercetin and curcumin in attenuating test chemical induced toxicity. We exposed third instar larvae of wild type Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon R{sup +}) to 1.0-100.0 mM benzene, toluene or xylene, individually, for 12, 24 and 48 h and examined their apoptotic and genotoxic potential. We observed significantly (P < 0.001) increased apoptotic markers and genotoxicity in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in organisms exposed to benzene, toluene or xylene. We also observed significantly (P < 0.001) increased cytochrome P450 activity in larvae exposed to test chemicals and this was significantly reduced in the presence of 3',4'-dimethoxyflavone, a known Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) blocker. Interestingly, we observed a significant reduction in cytochrome P450 activity, GST levels, oxidative stress parameters, genotoxic and apoptotic endpoints when organisms were exposed simultaneously to test chemical along with quercetin or curcumin. The study further suggests the suitability of D. melanogaster as an alternate animal model for toxicological studies involving benzene, toluene and xylene and its potential in studying the protective role(s) of phytochemicals.

  9. Resident physician interactions with surrogate decision-makers: the resident experience.

    PubMed

    Reckrey, Jennifer M; McKee, M Diane; Sanders, Justin J; Lipman, Hannah I

    2011-12-01

    This study explored interactions between medical residents and patient surrogates in order to clarify resident understanding of roles and relationships, resident emotional experience, and resident learning processes. Qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews were used involving three family medicine residency programs serving culturally diverse, urban, underserved patient populations. Eighteen second- and third-year trainees described a memorable interaction with a surrogate and then were prompted to discuss their learning experience and their role in the interaction. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed through an iterative process. Residents experienced significant emotional burden during interactions yet continued to value their relationships with surrogates. Despite their reservations about giving recommendations, residents adopted a variety of roles with surrogates as they gave support, information, and advice. Although residents reported little formal education about surrogate decision-making, they relied on passive role modeling and their own previous experiences to help surrogates make decisions. Residents have complex and emotionally significant interactions with surrogates despite minimal formal education about surrogate decision-making. Educational efforts should seek to help residents understand their own emotions and the ethical beliefs that underlie the roles they adopt with surrogates. This will help residents to facilitate value-based conversations with surrogates and better support surrogates in the decision-making process. PMID:22092192

  10. Neurosurgery resident leadership development: an innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Jeffrey E; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Albert, Gregory W; Greenlee, Jeremy D

    2011-02-01

    A great deal of time and resources go into the development and training of neurosurgeons. One area that has minimal literature and assessment is leadership development. Under the core competency of interpersonal and communication skills, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has indicated that residents are expected to work effectively as a member or leader of a healthcare team. This article reveals how a structured leadership program was developed so that residents are better prepared for the role of chief resident and future leadership roles. Beginning in October 2006, residents attended a series of 1-hour workshops conducted monthly. Topics included leadership style, conflict management, effective feedback, team building, team leadership, motivation, and moving from peer to leader. A retrospective pretest was conducted at the end of the program. Residents reported a significant knowledge gain for the majority of topics. Resident comments indicated a greater awareness of the impact of leading and ways to improve their personal leadership. Quantitatively and qualitatively, residents and faculty reported that the leadership program made a significant impact on the development of future neurosurgical leaders. PMID:21135732

  11. Environmental exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among older residents of upper Hudson River communities.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Edward F; Belanger, Erin E; Gomez, Marta I; Hwang, Syni-an; Jansing, Robert L; Hicks, Heraline E

    2007-07-01

    The upper Hudson River has been heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to discharges from former electrical capacitor plants in Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, NY. An epidemiologic study was conducted to assess the impact of dietary and residential exposure on PCB body burden among older, long-term, non-occupationally exposed adults living in the vicinity of these former capacitor plants. The study population consisted of 133 persons 55-74 years of age who had lived in Hudson Falls or Fort Edward for 25 years or more. The comparison group consisted of 120 persons from Glens Falls, which is upriver. Both groups were interviewed, and blood samples were obtained for congener-specific PCB analysis. Persons from the study area reported greater past consumption of Hudson River fish than did the comparison area, but current rates were very low in both areas. The geometric mean serum PCB concentrations for the study and comparison populations did not differ significantly (3.07 ppb wet weight and 3.23 ppb, respectively, for total PCB). Serum PCB concentrations increased with cumulative lifetime exposure to PCBs from Hudson River fish consumption (p<0.10). Persons who lived within 800 m of the river did not have significantly greater serum PCB concentrations than the control population, nor did persons who lived downwind and within 800 m of a PCB-contaminated site. The results indicate no detectable differences in serum PCB levels according to proximity or wind direction relative to local point sources, but lifetime consumption of Hudson River fish was positively associated with serum PCB concentrations. PMID:17382313

  12. Tuition fees for residents: one physician's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, B

    1999-01-01

    Although the education, expertise and guidance of Canada's academic physicians cannot be overlooked, individual universities appear to see tuition fees for residents as an easy source of much needed revenue. If tuition should "rise to market levels," perhaps residents' wages should similarly rise to reflect the amount of training received, skills required, responsibilities discharged and time expended. Unfortunately, tuition fees will be an area of contention for some time. Support of provincial resident associations and medical societies may lend both moral and, possibly, financial support to future members of the profession. PMID:10530300

  13. Teaching pediatric residents about child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, H; Black, M

    1991-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a growing problem faced by pediatricians; however, there are many deficiencies in pediatricians' relevant knowledge and skills. Residency programs typically have included limited teaching in the area of child maltreatment. Fifty pediatric residents participated in an evaluation of a model educational course in child maltreatment developed by an interdisciplinary faculty. The course resulted in significant short-term improvements in knowledge and skills as well as a greater sense of competence in managing cases of child maltreatment. The importance of teaching pediatric residents about the "new morbidity" is discussed. PMID:1939686

  14. Teaching practice management skills to pediatric residents.

    PubMed

    Babitch, Leland A

    2006-11-01

    To satisfy the core competencies required by the Pediatric Residency Review Committee, the author describes an educational program for the residents in a large pediatric training program. The course provides a year-long overview of multiple medical management topics. The sessions cover nonclinical subjects usually missed in other educational settings, with particular focus on areas of finance, compliance, personnel management, career advancement, and leadership. The series is currently in its third year, with a positive response from the participants, and demonstrated improvement in resident knowledge of the covered areas. PMID:17041173

  15. Mercury in scalp hair of healthy Singapore residents.

    PubMed

    Foo, S C; Ngim, C H; Phoon, W O; Lee, J

    1988-06-15

    Two hundred and twenty-five hair samples (150 Chinese, 44 Malays and 31 Indians) from healthy residents not occupationally exposed to mercury were analyzed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine their total, inorganic and organic mercury levels. The arithmetic means of total mercury levels in hair were 6.1, 5.2 and 5.4 ppm for the Chinese, Malays and Indians, respectively. Factors contributing to the amount of mercury in hair, including consumption of fish and marine products, use of traditional ethnic medicines, artificial hair waving, age, sex and ethnicity were analyzed. Fish consumption, sex and ethnicity are factors found to contribute significantly (p less than 0.05) to mercury levels in hair. PMID:3406725

  16. 26 CFR 1.884-5 - Qualified resident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... an individual who is not a U.S. citizen or resident, also obtains a certificate of residency... a certificate of residency shall not be required in the case of an individual who is a shareholder...) Certificate of residency. A certificate of residency must be signed by the relevant authorities (as...

  17. 26 CFR 1.884-5 - Qualified resident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an individual who is not a U.S. citizen or resident, also obtains a certificate of residency... a certificate of residency shall not be required in the case of an individual who is a shareholder...) Certificate of residency. A certificate of residency must be signed by the relevant authorities (as...

  18. 26 CFR 1.884-5 - Qualified resident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an individual who is not a U.S. citizen or resident, also obtains a certificate of residency... a certificate of residency shall not be required in the case of an individual who is a shareholder...) Certificate of residency. A certificate of residency must be signed by the relevant authorities (as...

  19. The Chief Resident in Psychiatry: Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Russell F.; Schwartz, Eric; Servis, Mark; Cox, Paul D.; Lai, Alan; Hales, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric residency programs have had chief residents for many years, and several articles previously published describe the chief residents' unique role as both faculty and resident. This article describes chief resident roles and responsibilities and explores trends in academic psychiatry departments from 1995 to 2006. Methods: The…

  20. Migratory and resident blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus differ in their reaction to a novel object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Anna L. K.; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan

    2010-11-01

    Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural reactions towards novel objects and new situations. Reaction to novelty is one part of a suit of individually consistent behaviours called coping strategies or personalities and is often summarised as bold or shy behaviour. Coping strategies could be particularly important for migrating birds exposed to novel environments on their journeys. We compared the average approach latencies to a novel object among migrants and residents in partially migratory blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. In this test, we found migrating blue tits to have shorter approach latencies than had resident ones. Behavioural reactions to novelty can affect the readiness to migrate and short approach latency may have an adaptive value during migration. Individual behaviour towards novelty might be incorporated among the factors associated with migratory or resident behaviour in a partially migratory population.

  1. Characterization of dioxin exposure in residents of Chapaevsk, Russia.

    PubMed

    Akhmedkhanov, Arslan; Revich, Boris; Adibi, Jennifer J; Zeilert, Vladimir; Masten, Scott A; Patterson, Donald G; Needham, Larry L; Toniolo, Paolo

    2002-11-01

    Since 1967, a chemical plant in the town of Chapaevsk (Samara province, Russia) has produced large amounts of chlorinated compounds and is suspected to be a major source of local environmental dioxin contamination. Dioxins have been detected in the local air, soil, drinking water, vegetables, and cow's milk. Human exposure to dioxins is suspected as a factor in the deteriorating local public health. In an effort to characterize nonoccupational dioxin exposure among local residents, during the summer of 1998, 24 volunteers were recruited to donate blood and to provide information about their residence, employment, demographics, medical history, and dietary habits. Selected polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and coplanar biphenyls were measured in blood serum samples. The mean concentration of total dioxin World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ(98)) based on polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was 61.2 (range 16.4-168.1) pg/g lipid. Subjects living in close proximity to the plant (less than 5 km) had significantly higher dioxin levels (mean WHO-TEQ(98), 75.7 pg/g lipid), as compared to subjects living more than 5 km from the plant (mean WHO-TEQ(98), 44.1 pg/g lipid) (P<0.04). Comparisons of the study results with available published data indicate that average blood dioxin levels were substantially higher in Chapaevsk residents than in nonoccupationally exposed populations of other parts of Russia, Europe, and North America. Chronic exposures of such magnitude may have appreciable adverse effects on public health. PMID:12415489

  2. 27-Hydroxycholesterol accelerates cellular senescence in human lung resident cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yuichiro; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Togo, Shinsaku; Koarai, Akira; Abe, Kyoko; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Ichikawa, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Numakura, Tadahisa; Onodera, Katsuhiro; Tanaka, Rie; Sato, Kei; Yanagisawa, Satoru; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Tamada, Tsutomu; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Okada, Yoshinori; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2016-06-01

    Cellular senescence is reportedly involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We previously showed that 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) is elevated in the airways of COPD patients compared with those in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lung fibroblasts of COPD patients are senescent and to determine the effects of 27-OHC on senescence of lung resident cells, including fibroblasts and airway epithelial cells. Localization of senescence-associated proteins and sterol 27-hydroxylase was investigated in the lungs of COPD patients by immunohistochemical staining. To evaluate whether 27-OHC accelerates cellular senescence, lung resident cells were exposed to 27-OHC. Senescence markers and fibroblast-mediated tissue repair were investigated in the 27-OHC-treated cells. Expression of senescence-associated proteins was significantly enhanced in lung fibroblasts of COPD patients. Similarly, expression of sterol 27-hydroxylase was significantly upregulated in lung fibroblasts and alveolar macrophages in these patients. Treatment with the concentration of 27-OHC detected in COPD airways significantly augmented expression of senescence-associated proteins and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, and delayed cell growth through the prostaglandin E2-reactive nitrogen species pathway. The 27-OHC-treated fibroblasts impaired tissue repair function. Fibroblasts from lungs of COPD patients showed accelerated senescence and were more susceptible to 27-OHC-induced cellular senescence compared with those of healthy subjects. In conclusion, 27-OHC accelerates cellular senescence in lung resident cells and may play a pivotal role in cellular senescence in COPD. PMID:27036870

  3. Resident and attending physician perception of maladaptive response to stress in residents

    PubMed Central

    Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Berg, Katherine; Berg, Dale; Morgan, Charity J.; Davis, Joshua; Davis, Robyn; Schaeffer, Arielle; Hargraves, Robert; Little, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Residency stress has been shown to interfere with resident well-being and patient safety. We developed a survey research study designed to explore factors that may affect perception of a maladaptive response to stress. Methods A 16-item survey with 12 Likert-type perception items was designed to determine how often respondents agreed or disagreed with statements regarding the resident on the trigger tape. A total of 438 respondents from multiple institutions completed surveys. Results Attending physicians were more likely than residents to agree that the resident on the trigger tape was impaired, p<0.0001; needed to seek professional counseling, p=0.0003; should be removed from the service, p=0.002; was not receiving adequate support from the attending physician, p=0.007; and was a risk to patient safety, p=0.02. Attending physicians were also less likely to agree that the resident was a good role model, p=0.001, and that the resident should be able to resolve these issues herself/himself, p<0.0001. Conclusion Our data suggest that resident physicians may not be able to adequately detect maladaptive responses to stress and that attending physicians may be more adept at recognizing this problem. More innovative faculty and resident development workshops should be created to teach and encourage physicians to better observe and detect residents who are displaying maladaptive responses to stress. PMID:25407054

  4. Residency and Beyond: Subspecialization Trends Among Graduating Physiatry Residents and the Musculoskeletal Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aaron Jay; Brakke, Rachel A; Boimbo, Sandra; Sauerwein, Kelly; Coronado, Rogelio A; Schumacher, Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies and informal surveys have demonstrated a trend among graduating physiatry residents who desired to practice in an outpatient musculoskeletal (MSK)- or spine-type setting. However, there has been no updated information on the current trend among graduating residents as well as sparse information on gauging if current trainees feel prepared on graduation to treat patients with such disorders. This article describes a prospective survey of graduating chief residents during the 2013-2014 academic year in which 72% of chief residents planned to pursue a fellowship. A total of 54% of those chief residents planned to pursue a pain, sports, or spine fellowship. Seventy-five percent of the responding chief residents reported that most of the residents in their program felt that the current amount of required rotations in MSK, sports, spine, or pain medicine was adequate and 85% felt comfortable practicing in a noninterventional spine or MSK position after graduation without a fellowship. The results of this survey provide an updated perspective on the current trends among graduating residents as well as how residents perceive their MSK curriculum. These results may prove useful when evaluating MSK curriculums and shaping resident education to maximize career goals. PMID:26259054

  5. Surgical residency training and international volunteerism: a national survey of residents from 2 surgical specialties

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Wadih Y.; Trottier, Daniel C.; Balaa, Fady; Fairful-Smith, Robin; Moroz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lack basic surgical resources, resulting in avoidable disability and mortality. Recently, residents in surgical training programs have shown increasing interest in overseas elective experiences to assist surgical programs in LMICs. The purpose of this study was to survey Canadian surgical residents about their interest in international volunteerism. Methods We sent a web-based survey to all general and orthopedic surgery residents enrolled in surgical training programs in Canada. The survey assessed residents’ interests, attitudes and motivations, and perceived barriers and aids with respect to international volunteerism. Results In all, 361 residents completed the survey for a response rate of 38.0%. Half of the respondents indicated that the availability of an international surgery elective would have positively influenced their selection of a residency program. Excluding the 18 residents who had volunteered during residency, 63.8% of the remaining residents confirmed an interest in international volunteering with “contributing to an important cause,” “teaching” and “tourism/cultural enhancement” as the leading reasons for their interest. Perceived barriers included “lack of financial support” and “lack of available organized opportunities.” All (100%) respondents who had done an international elective during residency confirmed that they would pursue such work in the future. Conclusion Administrators of Canadian surgical programs should be aware of strong resident interest in global health care and accordingly develop opportunities by encouraging faculty mentorships and resources for global health teaching. PMID:22854155

  6. The Radiology Resident iPad Toolbox: an educational and clinical tool for radiology residents.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Emerson E; Kendrick, Michael; Strickland, Colin; Dodd, Gerald D

    2013-07-01

    Tablet computing and mobile resources are the hot topics in technology today, with that interest spilling into the medical field. To improve resident education, a fully configured iPad, referred to as the "Radiology Resident iPad Toolbox," was created and implemented at the University of Colorado. The goal was to create a portable device with comprehensive educational, clinical, and communication tools that would contain all necessary resources for an entire 4-year radiology residency. The device was distributed to a total of 34 radiology residents (8 first-year residents, 8 second-year residents, 9 third-year residents, and 9 fourth-year residents). This article describes the process used to develop and deploy the device, provides a distillation of useful applications and resources decided upon after extensive evaluation, and assesses the impact this device had on resident education. The Radiology Resident iPad Toolbox is a cost-effective, portable, educational instrument that has increased studying efficiency; improved access to study materials such as books, radiology cases, lectures, and web-based resources; and increased interactivity in educational conferences and lectures through the use of audience-response software, with questions geared toward the new ABR board format. This preconfigured tablet fully embraces the technology shift into mobile computing and represents a paradigm shift in educational strategy. PMID:23647869

  7. A rural primary care pediatric residency program.

    PubMed

    Kairys, S; Newell, P

    1985-10-01

    Rural primary care is often reported in the medical literature as frustrating, lonely, and nonrewarding. Many graduating residents who choose small town practice become quickly disenchanted with the life-style and leave for a more populous territory or subspecialty training. Opportunities to learn how to take advantage of rural settings and establish rewarding community practices are few. The Primary Care Pediatric Residency Program at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center has developed a training program in rural primary care. Residents experience over a three-year period the many facets of rural practice and are introduced to community-oriented approaches to child health care. Selected rural pediatric practices within a 45-mile radius of the medical center serve as teaching laboratories in which residents develop the skills necessary to manage children's problems related to school, behavioral disorders, and chronic diseases. PMID:4045973

  8. Residence Hall Furniture: What's on the Horizon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Describes what leading manufacturers are saying about the future of residence hall furniture design, explaining that fabrics, frames, colors, materials, and other factors are combining to give college officials numerous choices. (EV)

  9. 42 CFR 483.20 - Resident assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... condition as described in 42 CFR 435.1010 of this chapter. ... comprehensive, accurate, standardized, reproducible assessment of each resident's functional capacity. (a... Medicaid in part 483, subpart C to the maximum extent practicable to avoid duplicative testing and...

  10. The Residency Application Abyss: Insights and Advice

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Douglas P.; Oatts, Julius T.; Fields, Barry G.; Huot, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Most medical students apply for residency training upon completion of medical school. The choice of specialty is one of a student’s first major career decisions, and the application process often results in considerable anxiety, as it is competitive, unpredictable, and requires a significant investment of time and money. This article, which addresses several important facets of the residency application using both experiential and evidence-based data, is organized chronologically into sections that describe a logical approach to applying for residency: choice of a specialty, the personal statement, the interview day, and developing a rank list. A list of relevant websites is also included. This paper is a resource that provides timely and tangible guidance to medical students applying for residency training. PMID:21966036