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Sample records for non-resource based mating

  1. Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice.

    PubMed

    García-Navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaquín; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-08-22

    The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates, suggesting that blue tits may base their mating preferences on partner's heterozygosity. We found evidence that the observed heterozygosity-based assortative mating could be maintained by both direct and indirect benefits. Heterozygosity reflected individual quality in both sexes: egg production and quality increased with female heterozygosity while more heterozygous males showed higher feeding rates during the brood-rearing period. Further, estimated offspring heterozygosity correlated with both paternal and maternal heterozygosity, suggesting that mating with heterozygous individuals can increase offspring genetic quality. Finally, plumage crown coloration was associated with male heterozygosity, and this could explain unanimous mate preferences for highly heterozygous and more ornamented individuals. Overall, this study suggests that non-additive genetic traits may play an important role in the evolution of mating preferences and offers empirical support to the resolution of the lek paradox from the perspective of the heterozygous mate hypothesis. PMID:19474042

  2. Pheromone-based mating disruption in Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is a promising method of pest control in cranberries. Three moth species, cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sparganothis fruitworm, Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and black-headed fireworm, Rhopobota...

  3. Identification and structure of the mating-type locus and development of PCR-based markers for mating type in powdery mildew fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, mating compatibility is regulated by mating-type loci. The objectives of this study were to identify and sequence mating-type genes at the MAT1 locus in the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, to develop a PCR-based marker for determining mating type in E. necator, and to devel...

  4. Choosing mates based on the diet of your ancestors: replication of non-genetic assortative mating in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Najarro, Michael A; Sumethasorn, Matt; Lamoureux, Alexandra; Turner, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating has been a focus of considerable research because of its potential to influence biodiversity at many scales. Sharon et al. (2010) discovered that an inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster mated assortatively based on the diet of previous generations, leading to initial reproductive isolation without genetic evolution. This behavior was reproduced by manipulating the microbiome independently of the diet, pointing to extracellular bacterial symbionts as the assortative mating cue. To further investigate the biological significance of this result, we attempted to reproduce this phenomenon in an independent laboratory using different genotypes and additional mating assays. Supporting the previous result, we found that a different inbred strain also mated assortatively based on the diets of previous generations. However, we were unable to generate assortative mating in an outbred strain from North Carolina. Our results support the potential for non-genetic mechanisms to influence reproductive isolation, but additional work is needed to investigate the importance of this mechanism in natural populations of Drosophila. PMID:26339551

  5. Mate choice based on a key ecological performance trait.

    PubMed

    Snowberg, L K; Benkman, C W

    2009-04-01

    Mate preference for well-adapted individuals may strengthen divergent selection and thereby facilitate adaptive divergence. We performed mate choice experiments in which we manipulated male red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex) feeding rates. Using association time as a proxy for preference, we found that females preferred faster foragers, which reinforces natural selection because poorly adapted males would be less likely to obtain a mate as well as less likely to survive. Although theoretical models predict direct preference for adaptation and performance, to the best of our knowledge this experiment provides the first evidence of individuals directly assessing feeding performance in mate choice. In species where assessing the ecological adaptation of potential mates is possible, females may gain fitness benefits from choosing a well-adapted mate directly or indirectly, promoting the use of information about ecological adaptation in mate choice. PMID:19320795

  6. Sequence-based evidence for major histocompatibility complex-disassortative mating in a colonial seabird

    PubMed Central

    Juola, Frans A.; Dearborn, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a polymorphic gene family associated with immune defence, and it can play a role in mate choice. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, females choose mates that differ genetically from their own MHC genotypes, avoiding inbreeding and/or enhancing the immunocompetence of their offspring. We tested this hypothesis of disassortative mating based on MHC genotypes in a population of great frigatebirds (Fregata minor) by sequencing the second exon of MHC class II B. Extensive haploid cloning yielded two to four alleles per individual, suggesting the amplification of two genes. MHC similarity between mates was not significantly different between pairs that did (n = 4) or did not (n = 42) exhibit extra-pair paternity. Comparing all 46 mated pairs to a distribution based on randomized re-pairings, we observed the following (i): no evidence for mate choice based on maximal or intermediate levels of MHC allele sharing (ii), significantly disassortative mating based on similarity of MHC amino acid sequences, and (iii) no evidence for mate choice based on microsatellite alleles, as measured by either allele sharing or similarity in allele size. This suggests that females choose mates that differ genetically from themselves at MHC loci, but not as an inbreeding-avoidance mechanism. PMID:21613297

  7. Choosy Wolves? Heterozygote Advantage But No Evidence of MHC-Based Disassortative Mating.

    PubMed

    Galaverni, Marco; Caniglia, Romolo; Milanesi, Pietro; Lapalombella, Silvana; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    A variety of nonrandom mate choice strategies, including disassortative mating, are used by vertebrate species to avoid inbreeding, maintain heterozygosity and increase fitness. Disassortative mating may be mediated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important gene cluster controlling immune responses to pathogens. We investigated the patterns of mate choice in 26 wild-living breeding pairs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) that were identified through noninvasive genetic methods and genotyped at 3 MHC class II and 12 autosomal microsatellite (STR) loci. We tested for deviations from random mating and evaluated the covariance of genetic variables at functional and STR markers with fitness proxies deduced from pedigree reconstructions. Results did not show evidences of MHC-based disassortative mating. Rather we found a higher peptide similarity between mates at MHC loci as compared with random expectations. Fitness values were positively correlated with heterozygosity of the breeders at both MHC and STR loci, whereas they decreased with relatedness at STRs. These findings may indicate fitness advantages for breeders that, while avoiding highly related mates, are more similar at the MHC and have high levels of heterozygosity overall. Such a pattern of MHC-assortative mating may reflect local coadaptation of the breeders, while a reduction in genetic diversity may be balanced by heterozygote advantages. PMID:26610365

  8. Developing Wax-Based Granule Formulations for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to generate basic information about the volatility of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, synthetic mating pheromone, (Z) and (E)-7-tetradecen-2-one, in order to develop wax-based granule formulations to disrupt mating of this pest infesting turfgras...

  9. Multi-species pheromone-based mating disruption: Moth birth control in cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is a proven method of pest control, but in cranberries, tailoring this technology to modern production practices has been difficult. Using the wax carrier, SPLAT, we have overcome many of these difficulties and now have three years of data suggesting that mating dis...

  10. Female copying increases the variance in male mating success.

    PubMed

    Wade, M J; Pruett-Jones, S G

    1990-08-01

    Theoretical models of sexual selection assume that females choose males independently of the actions and choice of other individual females. Variance in male mating success in promiscuous species is thus interpreted as a result of phenotypic differences among males which females perceive and to which they respond. Here we show that, if some females copy the behavior of other females in choosing mates, the variance in male mating success and therefore the opportunity for sexual selection is greatly increased. Copying behavior is most likely in non-resource-based harem and lek mating systems but may occur in polygynous, territorial systems as well. It can be shown that copying behavior by females is an adaptive alternative to random choice whenever there is a cost to mate choice. We develop a statistical means of estimating the degree of female copying in natural populations where it occurs. PMID:2377613

  11. Optimization and cost-saving in tagmentation-based mate-pair library preparation and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Kaori; Nishimura, Osamu; Itomi, Kazu; Tanegashima, Chiharu; Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2015-05-01

    In de novo genome sequencing, mate-pair reads are crucial for scaffolding assembled contigs. However, preparation of mate-pair libraries is not a trivial task, even when using one of the latest approaches, the Nextera Mate Pair Sample Prep Kit from Illumina. To reduce cost and enhance library yield and fidelity when using this kit, we have modified the manufacturer's protocol based on (i) variable tagmentation conditions, (ii) intensive DNA shearing to decrease library insert length, and (iii) sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq with >150 cycles. Finally, we provide additional suggestions for further improvement in the application of this kit. PMID:25967904

  12. Where to find a mate? Resource-based sexual communication of webbing clothes moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine

    2002-02-01

    Mate location in moths typically entails long-range attraction of males to female-produced pheromone. Here, we show that male and female webbing clothes moths, Tineola bisselliella, seek larval habitats (dry carrion, animal lairs, etc) to encounter mates. With males seeking, and arriving at, larval habitat earlier at night than females, male-produced pheromonal and sonic signals enhance the habitat's attractiveness to females. This resource-based mating strategy of T. bisselliella differs from that known for most other moths. It may have evolved in response to larval habitats that are patchy and temporary, but that disseminate attractive semiochemicals so abundantly that T. bisselliella encounter them more readily than their own pheromones.

  13. Low-impact mating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Robertson, Brandan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An androgynous mating system for mating two exoatmospheric space modules comprising a first mating assembly capable of mating with a second mating assembly; a second mating assembly structurally identical to said first mating assembly, said first mating assembly comprising; a load ring; a plurality of load cell subassemblies; a plurality of actuators; a base ring; a tunnel; a closed loop control system; one or more electromagnets; and one or more striker plates, wherein said one or more electomagnets on said second mating assembly are capable of mating with said one or more striker plates on said first mating assembly, and wherein said one or more striker plates is comprised of a plate of predetermined shape and a 5-DOF mechanism capable of maintaining predetermined contact requirements during said mating of said one or more electromagnets and said one or more striker plates.

  14. Male mating biology

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

  15. Yerba Mate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Yerba mate contains caffeine. Caffeine might slow blood clotting. Taking yerba mate along with medications that also ...

  16. Yerba Mate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stopping yerba mate too quickly can increase the side effects of lithium.ModerateBe cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.Medications for asthma (Beta-adrenergic agonists)Yerba mate contains ...

  17. Pheromone-based mating disruption to control the historical top three insect pests of Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2012, the first 3-species pheromone mating disruption program was tested in Wisconsin cranberries. Preliminary data suggest that there was substantial disruption of blackheaded fireworm and Sparganothis fruitworm mating. The pheromone of cranberry fruitworm only contained a single component, and ...

  18. Applications and mechanisms of wax-based semiochemical dispenser technology for disruption of grape root borer mating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, is an important pest of cultivated grapes in the Eastern United States from North Carolina to Florida. There are few effective registered insecticides for effective control of this pest and their efficacy is limited. Pheromone-based mating disruption i...

  19. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration. PMID:22233462

  20. Integrating resource defence theory with a neural nonapeptide pathway to explain territory-based mating systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate-level factors that drive the evolution of mating systems have been well studied, but an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism involved in shaping behaviour and social organization across species has remained elusive. Here, we review studies that have investigated the role of neural arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasotocin (AVT), and their receptor V1a in mediating variation in territorial behaviour. First, we discuss how aggression and territoriality are a function of population density in an inverted-U relationship according to resource defence theory, and how territoriality influences some mating systems. Next, we find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression, especially in one particular neural circuit involving the lateral septum of the forebrain, are associated with territorial behaviour in males of diverse species, most likely due to their role in enhancing social cognition. Then we review studies that examined multiple species and find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression is associated with territory size in mammals and fishes. Because territoriality plays an important role in shaping mating systems in many species, we present the idea that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression that is selected to mediate territory size may also influence the evolution of different mating systems. Future research that interprets proximate-level neuro-molecular mechanisms in the context of ultimate-level ecological theory may provide deep insight into the brain-behaviour relationships that underlie the diversity of social organization and mating systems seen across the animal kingdom. PMID:26813803

  1. Integrating resource defence theory with a neural nonapeptide pathway to explain territory-based mating systems.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Ronald G; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate-level factors that drive the evolution of mating systems have been well studied, but an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism involved in shaping behaviour and social organization across species has remained elusive. Here, we review studies that have investigated the role of neural arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasotocin (AVT), and their receptor V1a in mediating variation in territorial behaviour. First, we discuss how aggression and territoriality are a function of population density in an inverted-U relationship according to resource defence theory, and how territoriality influences some mating systems. Next, we find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression, especially in one particular neural circuit involving the lateral septum of the forebrain, are associated with territorial behaviour in males of diverse species, most likely due to their role in enhancing social cognition. Then we review studies that examined multiple species and find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression is associated with territory size in mammals and fishes. Because territoriality plays an important role in shaping mating systems in many species, we present the idea that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression that is selected to mediate territory size may also influence the evolution of different mating systems. Future research that interprets proximate-level neuro-molecular mechanisms in the context of ultimate-level ecological theory may provide deep insight into the brain-behaviour relationships that underlie the diversity of social organization and mating systems seen across the animal kingdom. PMID:26813803

  2. Applications and mechanisms of wax-based semiochemical dispenser technology for disruption of grape root borer mating.

    PubMed

    Sanders, W R; Liburd, O E; Mankin, R W; Meyer, W L; Stelinski, L L

    2011-06-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is an important pest of cultivated grapes (Vitis spp.) in the eastern United States from Michigan to Florida. There are few registered insecticides for control of this pest, and their efficacy is limited. Pheromone-based mating disruption is a potential alternative to insecticides for management of V. polistiformis. Wax-based Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) was tested as a mating disruption method. Deployment densities of 150 dispensers per ha dosed with 5 mg of V. polistiformis pheromone were sufficient to achieve 95% mating disruption during a 7-wk trapping period. The disruption mechanism was determined to be competitive attraction. The release rate of pheromone from these dispensers was quantified to be approximately linear, 77.4 microg/g SPLAT/d. At this release rate, a minimum initial load of 5.4 mg of pheromone per dispenser would be needed to maintain disruption over a 9-10-wk V. polistiformis flight season, approximately 19 August to 21 October in central Florida. It should be noted, however, that the main pheromone component alone, (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate (ODDA), was effective (presumably by a noncompetitive mechanism) at higher loads per area of crop. Due to the cost of synthesis of highly pure isomers of the V. polistiformis pheromone components, mating disruption of V. polistiformis may be more practical with higher doses of commercially produced Zeuzera pyrina L. blend [95% (E,Z)-2,13-ODDA:5% (E,Z)-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol] or with (E,Z)-2,13-ODDA alone than with the V. polistiformis blend at lower rates. PMID:21735914

  3. Yeast Mating and Image-Based Quantification of Spatial Pattern Formation

    PubMed Central

    del Rio, Gabriel; Schröder, Andreas; Klipp, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Communication between cells is a ubiquitous feature of cell populations and is frequently realized by secretion and detection of signaling molecules. Direct visualization of the resulting complex gradients between secreting and receiving cells is often impossible due to the small size of diffusing molecules and because such visualization requires experimental perturbations such as attachment of fluorescent markers, which can change diffusion properties. We designed a method to estimate such extracellular concentration profiles in vivo by using spatiotemporal mathematical models derived from microscopic analysis. This method is applied to populations of thousands of haploid yeast cells during mating in order to quantify the extracellular distributions of the pheromone α-factor and the activity of the aspartyl protease Bar1. We demonstrate that Bar1 limits the range of the extracellular pheromone signal and is critical in establishing α-factor concentration gradients, which is crucial for effective mating. Moreover, haploid populations of wild type yeast cells, but not BAR1 deletion strains, create a pheromone pattern in which cells differentially grow and mate, with low pheromone regions where cells continue to bud and regions with higher pheromone levels and gradients where cells conjugate to form diploids. However, this effect seems to be exclusive to high-density cultures. Our results show a new role of Bar1 protease regulating the pheromone distribution within larger populations and not only locally inside an ascus or among few cells. As a consequence, wild type populations have not only higher mating efficiency, but also higher growth rates than mixed MAT a bar1Δ/MAT α cultures. We provide an explanation of how a rapidly diffusing molecule can be exploited by cells to provide spatial information that divides the population into different transcriptional programs and phenotypes. PMID:24967739

  4. The Evolutionary Consequences of Disrupted Male Mating Signals: An Agent-Based Modelling Exploration of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Guppy

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair McNair; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Females may select a mate based on signalling traits that are believed to accurately correlate with heritable aspects of male quality. Anthropogenic actions, in particular chemicals released into the environment, are now disrupting the accuracy of mating signals to convey information about male quality. The long-term prediction for disrupted mating signals is most commonly loss of female preference. Yet, this prediction has rarely been tested using quantitative models. We use agent-based models to explore the effects of rapid disruption of mating signals. In our model, a gene determines survival. Males signal their level of genetic quality via a signal trait, which females use to select a mate. We allowed this system of sexual selection to become established, before introducing a disruption between the male signal trait and quality, which was similar in nature to that induced by exogenous chemicals. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the system to recover from this disruption. We found that within a relatively short time frame, disruption of mating signals led to a lasting loss of female preference. Decreases in mean viability at the population-level were also observed, because sexual-selection acting against newly arising deleterious mutations was relaxed. The ability of the population to recover from disrupted mating signals was strongly influenced by the mechanisms that promoted or maintained genetic diversity in traits under sexual selection. Our simple model demonstrates that environmental perturbations to the accuracy of male mating signals can result in a long-term loss of female preference for those signals within a few generations. What is more, the loss of this preference can have knock-on consequences for mean population fitness. PMID:25047080

  5. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples

    PubMed Central

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  6. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  7. Phenolic compounds from yerba mate based beverages--A multivariate optimisation.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Tayse Ferreira Ferreira; Meinhart, Adriana Dillenburg; de Souza, Thais Cristina Lima; Teixeira Filho, José; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    This work used a central composite design to optimise a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous separation of gallic, syringic, 5-caffeoylquinic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinc acids, rutin in aqueous extracts of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis). The effect of the linear gradient time, the initial and the final methanol concentration in the mobile phase on the peak resolution and peak symmetry was evaluated. The 26 responses obtained were simultaneously optimised using the desirability method of Derringer and Suich. According to results, the increasing in the resolution and peak symmetry was achieved by using lesser levels of methanol in both initial and final gradient elution (-1.68, -1), as well as higher gradient times (+1, +1.68). The optimal condition (13.9-40% of methanol in 39.4 min) were successfully applied for analysis of chimarrão, tererê and mate tea aqueous extracts, which showed as excellent sources of chlorogenic acids. PMID:26213090

  8. Covariation and repeatability of male mating effort and mating preferences in a promiscuous fish

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Jean-Guy J; Auld, Heather L

    2013-01-01

    Although mate choice by males does occur in nature, our understanding of its importance in driving evolutionary change remains limited compared with that for female mate choice. Recent theoretical models have shown that the evolution of male mate choice is more likely when individual variation in male mating effort and mating preferences exist and positively covary within populations. However, relatively little is known about the nature of such variation and its maintenance within natural populations. Here, using the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model study system, we report that mating effort and mating preferences in males, based on female body length (a strong correlate of fecundity), positively covary and are significantly variable among subjects. Individual males are thus consistent, but not unanimous, in their mate choice. Both individual mating effort (including courtship effort) and mating preference were significantly repeatable. These novel findings support the assumptions and predictions of recent evolutionary models of male mate choice, and are consistent with the presence of additive genetic variation for male mate choice based on female size in our study population and thus with the opportunity for selection and further evolution of large female body size through male mate choice. PMID:23919148

  9. Females Choose Mates Based on Genetic Relatedness in a Small Dasyurid Marsupial, the Agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis).

    PubMed

    Parrott, Marissa L; Ward, Simon J; Temple-Smith, Peter D; Selwood, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus. PMID:25923325

  10. Do mate preferences influence actual mating decisions? Evidence from computer simulations and three studies of mated couples.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary research continues to discover new features of human mate preferences, but the downstream consequences of these preferences for mate selection have been insufficiently explored. Some have inferred that stated preferences have few behavioral consequences given seemingly weak effects of preferences in predicting mating outcomes. Here we test this inference with data from simulated mating markets as well as from real-world couples. We generate a series of agent-based models in which preferences either do or do not drive mate selection. We compare these simulations with 3 empirical studies of real-world couples (Study 1, n = 214; Study 2, n = 259; Study 3, n = 294). Preference-driven agent based models produce several effects that emerge in real couples, but not within random simulations. These include low-magnitude correlations between stated preferences and the individual traits of chosen partners; the novel finding that people with high mate value leverage that value into securing partners with more desirable traits; and the finding that couples assort based on overall mate value. Moreover, real-world mate choices correspond strongly with preference-driven simulations, but not to simulations in which mate selection is random with respect to preferences. Finally, we provide evidence that these effects are due to the causal role of stated preferences, and are not better explained by people updating their mate preferences to match chosen mates. These results provide new evidence that stated mate preferences guide actual mate selections under real mating-market constraints. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337140

  11. Assortative Mating and the Reversal of Gender Inequality in Education in Europe: An Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Grow, André; Van Bavel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    While men have always received more education than women in the past, this gender imbalance in education has turned around in large parts of the world. In many countries, women now excel men in terms of participation and success in higher education. This implies that, for the first time in history, there are more highly educated women than men reaching the reproductive ages and looking for a partner. We develop an agent-based computational model that explicates the mechanisms that may have linked the reversal of gender inequality in education with observed changes in educational assortative mating. Our model builds on the notion that individuals search for spouses in a marriage market and evaluate potential candidates based on preferences. Based on insights from earlier research, we assume that men and women prefer partners with similar educational attainment and high earnings prospects, that women tend to prefer men who are somewhat older than themselves, and that men prefer women who are in their mid-twenties. We also incorporate the insight that the educational system structures meeting opportunities on the marriage market. We assess the explanatory power of our model with systematic computational experiments, in which we simulate marriage market dynamics in 12 European countries among individuals born between 1921 and 2012. In these experiments, we make use of realistic agent populations in terms of educational attainment and earnings prospects and validate model outcomes with data from the European Social Survey. We demonstrate that the observed changes in educational assortative mating can be explained without any change in male or female preferences. We argue that our model provides a useful computational laboratory to explore and quantify the implications of scenarios for the future. PMID:26039151

  12. Different cognitive processes underlie human mate choices and mate preferences.

    PubMed

    Todd, Peter M; Penke, Lars; Fasolo, Barbara; Lenton, Alison P

    2007-09-18

    Based on undergraduates' self-reports of mate preferences for various traits and self-perceptions of their own levels on those traits, Buston and Emlen [Buston PM, Emlen ST (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8805-8810] concluded that modern human mate choices do not reflect predictions of tradeoffs from evolutionary theory but instead follow a "likes-attract" pattern, where people choose mates who match their self-perceptions. However, reported preferences need not correspond to actual mate choices, which are more relevant from an evolutionary perspective. In a study of 46 adults participating in a speed-dating event, we were largely able to replicate Buston and Emlen's self-report results in a pre-event questionnaire, but we found that the stated preferences did not predict actual choices made during the speed-dates. Instead, men chose women based on their physical attractiveness, whereas women, who were generally much more discriminating than men, chose men whose overall desirability as a mate matched the women's self-perceived physical attractiveness. Unlike the cognitive processes that Buston and Emlen inferred from self-reports, this pattern of results from actual mate choices is very much in line with the evolutionary predictions of parental investment theory. PMID:17827279

  13. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    PubMed

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PMID:23915041

  14. Human mate guarding.

    PubMed

    Buss, David M

    2002-12-01

    Long-term committed mating is a fundamental strategy in the human repertoire. Successful enactment of this strategy requires solving two related adaptive problems--fending off potential mate poachers and preventing a mates from defecting. Mate guarding adaptations evolved to solve these persistent problems. Those who failed in mate guarding risked suffering substantial reproductive costs ranging from genetic cuckoldry to reputational damage to the entire loss of a mate. Because the precise nature of the adaptive problems confronted differed historically for the sexes, men and women evolved corresponding differences in the underlying psychology of mate guarding. Men's mate guarding, relative to that of women's, is strongly triggered as a consequence of being mated to young and physically attractive women, being confronted by interested rivals who have superior economic resources or prospects, and having a mate who displays signs of sexual involvement with a rival. Women's mate guarding, relative to that of men's, is triggered as a consequence of being mated to men high in income and status striving, rivals who are more physically attractive, and having a partner who shows signs of emotional involvement with another woman. Behavioral output of mate guarding adaptations range from vigilance to violence. PMID:12496732

  15. MATE: The multi-agent test environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Cindy L.

    1992-01-01

    In this report we present the Multi-Agent Test Environment, MATE. MATE is a collection of experiment management tools for assisting in the design, testing, and evaluation of distributed problem-solvers. It provides the experimenter with an automated tool for executing and monitoring experiments choosing among rule bases, number of agents, communication strategies, and inference engines. Using MATE the experimenter can run a series of distributed problem-solving experiments without human intervention.

  16. Dual reproductive cost of aging in male medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Stella A.; Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Nakas, Christos T.; Carey, James R.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2011-01-01

    Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and non mated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and non mated males. PMID:21801728

  17. Using probability modelling and genetic parentage assignment to test the role of local mate availability in mating system variation.

    PubMed

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Lindenmayer, David B

    2012-02-01

    The formal testing of mating system theories with empirical data is important for evaluating the relative importance of different processes in shaping mating systems in wild populations. Here, we present a generally applicable probability modelling framework to test the role of local mate availability in determining a population's level of genetic monogamy. We provide a significance test for detecting departures in observed mating patterns from model expectations based on mate availability alone, allowing the presence and direction of behavioural effects to be inferred. The assessment of mate availability can be flexible and in this study it was based on population density, sex ratio and spatial arrangement. This approach provides a useful tool for (1) isolating the effect of mate availability in variable mating systems and (2) in combination with genetic parentage analyses, gaining insights into the nature of mating behaviours in elusive species. To illustrate this modelling approach, we have applied it to investigate the variable mating system of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) and compared the model expectations with the outcomes of genetic parentage analysis over an 18-year study. The observed level of monogamy was higher than predicted under the model. Thus, behavioural traits, such as mate guarding or selective mate choice, may increase the population level of monogamy. We show that combining genetic parentage data with probability modelling can facilitate an improved understanding of the complex interactions between behavioural adaptations and demographic dynamics in driving mating system variation. PMID:21899620

  18. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Kenyon B; Abou Chakra, Maria; Jones, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite-based “genetic-capture” techniques to match wild-caught females with female genotypes reconstructed from broods of pregnant males and use these data to explore patterns of size-assortative mating in these species. We also develop a simulation model to explore how positive, negative, and antagonistic preferences of each sex for body size affect size-assortative mating. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to find any evidence of size-assortative mating in either species at different geographic locations or at different sampling times. Furthermore, two traits that potentially confer a fitness advantage in terms of reproductive success, female mating order and number of eggs transferred per female, do not affect pairing patterns in the wild. Results from model simulations demonstrate that strong mating preferences are unlikely to explain the observed patterns of mating in the studied populations. Our study shows that individual mating preferences, as ascertained by laboratory-based mating trials, can be decoupled from realized patterns of mating in the wild, and therefore, field studies are also necessary to determine actual patterns of mate choice in nature. We conclude that this disconnect between preferences and assortative mating is likely due to ecological constraints and multiple mating that may limit mate choice in natural populations. PMID:24455162

  19. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Kenyon B; Abou Chakra, Maria; Jones, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite-based "genetic-capture" techniques to match wild-caught females with female genotypes reconstructed from broods of pregnant males and use these data to explore patterns of size-assortative mating in these species. We also develop a simulation model to explore how positive, negative, and antagonistic preferences of each sex for body size affect size-assortative mating. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to find any evidence of size-assortative mating in either species at different geographic locations or at different sampling times. Furthermore, two traits that potentially confer a fitness advantage in terms of reproductive success, female mating order and number of eggs transferred per female, do not affect pairing patterns in the wild. Results from model simulations demonstrate that strong mating preferences are unlikely to explain the observed patterns of mating in the studied populations. Our study shows that individual mating preferences, as ascertained by laboratory-based mating trials, can be decoupled from realized patterns of mating in the wild, and therefore, field studies are also necessary to determine actual patterns of mate choice in nature. We conclude that this disconnect between preferences and assortative mating is likely due to ecological constraints and multiple mating that may limit mate choice in natural populations. PMID:24455162

  20. Non-Density Dependent Pollen Dispersal of Shorea maxwelliana (Dipterocarpaceae) Revealed by a Bayesian Mating Model Based on Paternity Analysis in Two Synchronized Flowering Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Shinsuke; Tani, Naoki; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati; Kondo, Toshiaki; Numata, Shinya; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers). A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators – small beetles and weevils – effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event. PMID:24391712

  1. Inferences on mating and sexual systems of two Pacific Cinetorhynchus shrimps (Decapoda, Rhynchocinetidae) based on sexual dimorphism in body size and cheliped weaponry

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Raymond T.; Okuno, Junji; Thiel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sexual dimorphism in body size and weaponry was examined in two Cinetorhynchus shrimp species in order to formulate hypotheses on their sexual and mating systems. Collections of Cinetorhynchus sp. A and Cinetorhynchus sp. B were made in March, 2011 on Coconut Island, Hawaii, by hand dipnetting and minnow traps in coral rubble bottom in shallow water. Although there is overlap in male and female size, some males are much larger than females. The major (pereopod 1) chelipeds of males are significantly larger and longer than those of females. In these two Cinetorhynchus species, males and females have third maxillipeds of similar relative size, i.e., those of males are not hypertrophied and probably not used as spear-like weapons as in some other rhynchocinetid (Rhynchocinetes) species. Major chelae of males vary with size, changing from typical female-like chelae tipped with black corneous stout setae to subchelate or prehensile appendages in larger males. Puncture wounds or regenerating major chelipeds were observed in 26.1 % of males examined (N = 38 including both species). We interpret this evidence on sexual dimorphism as an indication of a temporary male mate guarding or “neighborhoods of dominance” mating system, in which larger dominant robustus males defend females and have greater mating success than smaller males. Fecundity of females increased with female size, as in most caridean species (500–800 in Cinetorhynchus sp. A; 300–3800 in Cinetorhynchus sp. B). Based on the sample examined, we conclude that these two species have a gonochoric sexual system (separate sexes) like most but not all other rhynchocinetid species in which the sexual system has been investigated. PMID:25561837

  2. Inversion of the Chromosomal Region between Two Mating Type Loci Switches the Mating Type in Hansenula polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and α mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also designated as Ogataea polymorpha). The H. polymorpha genome was found to harbor two MAT loci, MAT1 and MAT2, that are ∼18 kb apart on the same chromosome. MAT1-encoded α1 specifies α cell identity, whereas none of the mating type genes were required for a identity and mating. MAT1-encoded α2 and MAT2-encoded a1 were, however, essential for meiosis. When present in the location next to SLA2 and SUI1 genes, MAT1 or MAT2 was transcriptionally active, while the other was repressed. An inversion of the MAT intervening region was induced by nutrient limitation, resulting in the swapping of the chromosomal locations of two MAT loci, and hence switching of mating type identity. Inversion-deficient mutants exhibited severe defects only in mating with each other, suggesting that this inversion is the mechanism of mating type switching and homothallism. This chromosomal inversion-based mechanism represents a novel form of mating type switching that requires only two MAT loci. PMID:25412462

  3. Dual reproductive cost of aging in male Medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Stella A; Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Nakas, Christos T; Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2011-10-01

    Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and nonmated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and nonmated males. PMID:21801728

  4. Gasket Assembly for Sealing Mating Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Melvin A., III (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A pair of substantially opposed mating surfaces are joined to each other and sealed in place by means of an electrically-conductive member which is placed in proximity to the mating surfaces. The electrically-conductive member has at least one element secured thereto which is positioned to contact the mating surfaces, and which softens when the electrically-conductive member is heated by passing an electric current therethrough. The softened element conforms to the mating surfaces, and upon cooling of the softened element the mating surfaces are joined together in an effective seal. Of particular significance is an embodiment of the electrically-conductive member which is a gasket having an electrically-conductive gasket base and a pair of the elements secured to opposite sides of the gasket base. This embodiment is positioned between the opposed mating surfaces to be joined to each other. Also significant is an embodiment of the electrically-conductive member which is an electrically-conductive sleeve having an element secured to its inner surface. This embodiment surrounds cylindrical members the bases of which are the substantially opposed mating surfaces to be joined, and the element on the inner surface of the sleeve contacts the outer surfaces of the cylindrical members.

  5. Mate-sampling costs and sexy sons.

    PubMed

    Kokko, H; Booksmythe, I; Jennions, M D

    2015-01-01

    Costly female mating preferences for purely Fisherian male traits (i.e. sexual ornaments that are genetically uncorrelated with inherent viability) are not expected to persist at equilibrium. The indirect benefit of producing 'sexy sons' (Fisher process) disappears: in some models, the male trait becomes fixed; in others, a range of male trait values persist, but a larger trait confers no net fitness advantage because it lowers survival. Insufficient indirect selection to counter the direct cost of producing fewer offspring means that preferences are lost. The only well-cited exception assumes biased mutation on male traits. The above findings generally assume constant direct selection against female preferences (i.e. fixed costs). We show that if mate-sampling costs are instead derived based on an explicit account of how females acquire mates, an initially costly mating preference can coevolve with a male trait so that both persist in the presence or absence of biased mutation. Our models predict that empirically detecting selection at equilibrium will be difficult, even if selection was responsible for the location of the current equilibrium. In general, it appears useful to integrate mate sampling theory with models of genetic consequences of mating preferences: being explicit about the process by which individuals select mates can alter equilibria. PMID:25399634

  6. Age-Dependent Male Mating Investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    Dhole, Sumit; Pfennig, Karin S.

    2014-01-01

    Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old) to either young (4-day) or old (11-day) females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness. PMID:24586373

  7. The evolution of male-female sexual dimorphism predates the gender-based divergence of the mating locus gene MAT3/RB.

    PubMed

    Hiraide, Rintaro; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Hamaji, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Kawafune, Kaoru; Abe, Jun; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki; Umen, James; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2013-05-01

    The molecular bases for the evolution of male-female sexual dimorphism are possible to study in volvocine algae because they encompass the entire range of reproductive morphologies from isogamy to oogamy. In 1978, Charlesworth suggested the model of a gamete size gene becoming linked to the sex-determining or mating type locus (MT) as a mechanism for the evolution of anisogamy. Here, we carried out the first comprehensive study of a candidate MT-linked oogamy gene, MAT3/RB, across the volvocine lineage. We found that evolution of anisogamy/oogamy predates the extremely high male-female divergence of MAT3 that characterizes the Volvox carteri lineage. These data demonstrate very little sex-linked sequence divergence of MAT3 between the two sexes in other volvocine groups, though linkage between MAT3 and the mating locus appears to be conserved. These data implicate genetic determinants other than or in addition to MAT3 in the evolution of anisogamy in volvocine algae. PMID:23364323

  8. Mate Selection and Mating Behaviour in Spider Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. R.; Hartnoll, R. G.

    1997-02-01

    Female spider crabs can only mate after the terminal moult, which means that they must either mate whilst soft-shelled after moulting, or subsequently when hard-shelled. There is evidence that some, at least, do both, whereas the majority of crabs mate in only one or other of these states. The mating behaviour, and the means of detecting receptive females, have been studied in a spider crab, Inachus dorsettensis. In this species, mating is predominantly hard-shelled, and receptive females are recognized by their emission of chemical pheromones. The implications of the behaviour patterns for male mating efficiency, sperm competition and female reproductive success are discussed. Mate selection and mating behaviour in other spider crabs are compared with I. dorsettensis. Reasons for similarities and differences are reviewed.

  9. Alternative mating behaviors of the queen polymorphic ant Temnothorax longispinosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Kenneth J.; Kennedy, David

    2007-11-01

    Mating behaviors of ants fall into two categories: female calling, in which a female alate releases pheromones that attract males, and male swarming, in which large male aggregations attract females. Female calling is common in species with queens that return to their natal nest to found colonies dependently after mating, while male swarming is common in species with queens that disperse to found independently. In some species that display both founding strategies, a queen-size polymorphism has evolved in which dependent-founding queens are smaller than independent-founding queens. Dependent founding is likely difficult if gynes (virgin queens) are mating in distant swarms. Therefore, a queen may adopt one or the other mating strategy based on its size and founding behavior. We investigated mating behaviors in the queen-polymorphic ant, Temnothorax longispinosus. Observations in laboratory mating arenas indicated that small gynes exhibited significantly lower flight activity than large gynes. Both forms mated in male swarms, and neither form exhibited female calling. The reduced flight activity of the small morph may facilitate returning to the natal nest after mating, provided the mating swarm is located nearby. Therefore, alternative colony-founding behaviors may be possible without the evolution of female-calling behavior; however, the reduced flight activity of small morphs may require that mating swarms are not distant from the natal nest.

  10. Alternative mating behaviors of the queen polymorphic ant Temnothorax longispinosus.

    PubMed

    Howard, Kenneth J; Kennedy, David

    2007-11-01

    Mating behaviors of ants fall into two categories: female calling, in which a female alate releases pheromones that attract males, and male swarming, in which large male aggregations attract females. Female calling is common in species with queens that return to their natal nest to found colonies dependently after mating, while male swarming is common in species with queens that disperse to found independently. In some species that display both founding strategies, a queen-size polymorphism has evolved in which dependent-founding queens are smaller than independent-founding queens. Dependent founding is likely difficult if gynes (virgin queens) are mating in distant swarms. Therefore, a queen may adopt one or the other mating strategy based on its size and founding behavior. We investigated mating behaviors in the queen-polymorphic ant, Temnothorax longispinosus. Observations in laboratory mating arenas indicated that small gynes exhibited significantly lower flight activity than large gynes. Both forms mated in male swarms, and neither form exhibited female calling. The reduced flight activity of the small morph may facilitate returning to the natal nest after mating, provided the mating swarm is located nearby. Therefore, alternative colony-founding behaviors may be possible without the evolution of female-calling behavior; however, the reduced flight activity of small morphs may require that mating swarms are not distant from the natal nest. PMID:17653686

  11. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection. PMID:26648898

  12. Carotenoid availability affects the development of a colour-based mate preference and the sensory bias to which it is genetically linked

    PubMed Central

    Grether, Gregory F; Kolluru, Gita R; Rodd, F. Helen; de la Cerda, Jennifer; Shimazaki, Kaori

    2005-01-01

    Regardless of their origins, mate preferences should, in theory, be shaped by their benefits in a mating context. Here we show that the female preference for carotenoid colouration in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exhibits a phenotypically plastic response to carotenoid availability, confirming a key prediction of sexual selection theory. Earlier work indicated that this mate preference is genetically linked to, and may be derived from, a sensory bias that occurs in both sexes: attraction to orange objects. The original function of this sensory bias is unknown, but it may help guppies find orange-coloured fruits in the rainforest streams of Trinidad. We show that the sensory bias also exhibits a phenotypically plastic response to carotenoid availability, but only in females. The sex-specificity of this reaction norm argues against the hypothesis that it evolved in a foraging context. We infer instead that the sensory bias has been modified as a correlated effect of selection on the mate preference. These results provide a new type of support for the hypothesis that mate preferences for sexual characters evolve in response to the benefits of mate choice—the alternatives being that such preferences evolve entirely in a non-mating context or in response to the costs of mating. PMID:16191629

  13. Evaluation of the Mating Competitiveness of the Adult Oriental Fruit Fly Reared as Larvae in Liquid vs. Those Raised on Standard Wheat-based Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three strains (standard lab, DTWP pupal color sexing strain and wild strain) of adult oriental fruit flies, which were reared as larvae on a liquid diet, mill feed diet (Tanaka’s diet), or natural host fruit diet, were evaluated for mating competitiveness in both indoor and outdoor Boller’s mating c...

  14. Citrus Leafminer Mating Disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption targets a specific pest and has no negative impact on natural enemies, the environment, or agricultural workers. A flowable wax dispenser was tested for releasing the female sex pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella. These dispensers are biodegradable, inexpens...

  15. Female Fitness Optimum at Intermediate Mating Rates under Traumatic Mating

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Rolanda; Gerlach, Tobias; Beninde, Joscha; Werminghausen, Johanna; Reichel, Verena; Anthes, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner’s gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species. PMID:22937024

  16. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

  17. HOW MATE AVAILABILITY INFLUENCES FILIAL CANNIBALISM.

    PubMed

    Deal, Nicholas D S; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-03-01

    Parents sometimes eat their young to reduce the consequences of brood overcrowding, for nutritional gain, and/or to redirect investment toward future reproduction. It has been predicted that filial cannibalism should be more prevalent when mate availability is high as parents can more easily replace consumed young. Reviewing the available evidence--which comes almost exclusively from studies of paternal caring fish--we find support in some species, but not others. To explain this, we hypothesize that sexual selection against filial cannibalism and/or the tendency to acquire larger broods under conditions of high mate availability discourages filial cannibalism. Additionally, filial cannibalism might occur when mate availability is low to facilitate survival until access to mates improves. Since attractiveness can also influence remating opportunities, we review its effect on filial cannibalism, finding that attractive parents engage in less filial cannibalism. More research is needed to determine if this relationship is a result of individuals showing adaptive plasticity in filial cannibalism based on self-perceived attractiveness, or if the attractiveness of individuals is reduced by their propensity to commit filial cannibalism. More generally, to advance our understanding of how mate availability influences filial cannibalism, future studies should also focus on a wider range of taxa. PMID:27192779

  18. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars. PMID:25781331

  19. Identification and Expression Analysis of MATE Genes Involved in Flavonoid Transport in Blueberry Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477–517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10–12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1–84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars. PMID:25781331

  20. Unconscious Factors in Choice of a Mate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenheimer, Lilly

    1971-01-01

    If the selection of a spouse is based on the unconscious wish to correct disturbances which previously existed in the parent child relationship, the marriage is threatened from the start. This article examines motivations derived from early developmental phases which form convictions which later become the nucleus for mate choice. (Author/CJ)

  1. Photographer's Mate 1 & C. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual is one of a series written especially for the Photographer's Mate rating in the United States Navy; its contents are based directly on the qualifications for advancement to the first class petty officer and chief petty officer rates. The first three chapters of the manual cover topics related specifically to the Navy: photographer's…

  2. Reduced mating success of female tortricid moths following intense pheromone auto-exposure varies with sophistication of mating system.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2012-02-01

    Mating disruption is a valuable tool for the management of pest lepidopteran species in many agricultural crops. Many studies have addressed the effect of female pheromone on the ability of males to find calling females but, so far, fewer have addressed the effect of pheromone on the mating behavior of females. We hypothesized that mating of female moth species may be adversely affected following sex pheromone auto-exposure, due to abnormal behavioral activity and/or antennal sensitivity. Our results indicate that, for Grapholita molesta and Pandemis pyrusana females, copulation, but not calling, was reduced following pre-exposure to sex pheromone. In contrast, for Cydia pomonella and Choristoneura rosaceana, sex pheromone pre-exposure did not affect either calling or copulation propensity. Adaptation of female moth antennae to their own sex pheromone, following sex pheromone auto-exposure, as measured by electroantennograms, occurred in a species for which identical exposure reduced mating success (G. molesta) and in a species for which such exposure did not affect mating success (C. rosaceana). These results suggest that pre-exposure of female moths of certain species to sex pheromone may further contribute to the success of pheromone-based mating disruption. Therefore, we conclude that, in some species, mating disruption may include a secondary mechanism that affects the mating behavior of female moths, in addition to that of males. PMID:22350561

  3. Mating programs including genomic relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer mating programs have helped breeders minimize pedigree inbreeding and avoid recessive defects by mating animals with parents that have fewer common ancestors. With genomic selection, breed associations, AI organizations, and on-farm software providers could use new programs to minimize geno...

  4. Are high-quality mates always attractive?

    PubMed Central

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W

    2010-01-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources he can provide), and hence show directional preferences for indicators of male quality. This implies that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ in what they find attractive. New theoretical and empirical insights provide mounting evidence that a female’s own quality biases her judgement of male attractiveness, such that male quality and attractiveness do not always coincide. A recent experiment in songbirds demonstrated for the first time that manipulation of female condition can lead to divergent female preferences, with low-quality females actively preferring low-quality males over high-quality males. This result is in line with theory on state-dependent mate choice and is reminiscent of assortative mating preferences in humans. Here we discuss the implications of this work for the study of mate preferences. PMID:20714411

  5. Multi-species mating disruption in Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work has shown pheromone-based mating disruption to be a promising method of pest control in cranberries. Three moth species, cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sparganothis fruitworm, Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and black...

  6. MATES in Construction: Impact of a Multimodal, Community-Based Program for Suicide Prevention in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gullestrup, Jorgen; Lequertier, Belinda; Martin, Graham

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale workplace-based suicide prevention and early intervention program was delivered to over 9,000 construction workers on building sites across Queensland. Intervention components included universal General Awareness Training (GAT; general mental health with a focus on suicide prevention); gatekeeper training provided to construction worker volunteer ‘Connectors’; Suicide First Aid (ASIST) training offered to key workers; outreach support provided by trained and supervised MIC staff; state-wide suicide prevention hotline; case management service; and postvention support provided in the event of a suicide. Findings from over 7,000 workers (April 2008 to November 2010) are reported, indicating strong construction industry support, with 67% building sites and employers approached agreeing to participate in MIC. GAT participants demonstrated significantly increased suicide prevention awareness compared with a comparison group. Connector training participants rated MIC as helpful and effective, felt prepared to intervene with a suicidal person, and knew where to seek help for a suicidal individual following the training. Workers engaged positively with the after-hours crisis support phone line and case management. MIC provided postvention support to 10 non-MIC sites and sites engaged with MIC, but not yet MIC-compliant. Current findings support the potential effectiveness and social validity of MIC for preventing suicide in construction workers. PMID:22163201

  7. Cognitive processes underlying human mate choice: The relationship between self-perception and mate preference in Western society.

    PubMed

    Buston, Peter M; Emlen, Stephen T

    2003-07-22

    This study tested two hypotheses concerning the cognitive processes underlying human mate choice in Western society: (i) mate preference is conditional in that the selectivity of individuals' mate preference is based on their perception of themselves as long-term partners, and (ii) the decision rule governing such conditional mate preference is based on translating perception of oneself on a given attribute into a comparable selectivity of preference for the same attribute in a mate. Both hypotheses were supported. A two-part questionnaire was completed by 978 heterosexual residents of Ithaca, New York, aged 18-24; they first rated the importance they placed on 10 attributes in a long-term partner and then rated their perception of themselves on those same attributes. Both women and men who rated themselves highly were significantly more selective in their mate preference. When the 10 attributes were grouped into four evolutionarily relevant categories (indicative of wealth and status, family commitment, physical appearance, and sexual fidelity), the greatest amount of variation in the selectivity of mate preference in each category was explained by self-perception in the same category of attributes. We conclude that, in Western society, humans use neither an "opposites-attract" nor a "reproductive-potentials-attract" decision rule in their choice of long-term partners but rather a "likes-attract" rule based on a preference for partners who are similar to themselves across a number of characteristics. PMID:12843405

  8. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.)-based beverages: How successive extraction influences the extract composition and its capacity to chelate iron and scavenge free radicals.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Ana C; Rosa, Hemerson; Lima, Maria Eduarda; Pazzini, Camila Eliza F; de Camargo, Vanessa B; Bassante, Felipa E M; Puntel, Robson; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Mendez, Andreas; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2016-10-15

    Chimarrão or mate is a popular beverage from South America that is drank with successive infusions. Although yerba mate extracts have been widely studied, few studies have described the extract contents in beverages. Using yerba mate samples from Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, we examined the extract chromatographic profiles, total polyphenol content and their capacities to chelate iron. In addition, we analyzed antioxidant activity by examining the ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH and NO. Our results showed that the amount of extracted compound was highest in yerba mate extract from Uruguay, followed by Argentina, then Brazil. Herbs from all three areas had a significant capacity to inhibit DPPH and NO free radicals. The Brazilian and Uruguayan herbs had an 80% iron chelation capacity (p<0.001), while the iron chelation capacity of the Argentinean herb was lower but still significant (p⩽0.05). We conclude that the compound concentration decreases with successive extractions, while the antioxidant capacity is maintained at significant levels. PMID:27173551

  9. Computational Ranking of Yerba Mate Small Molecules Based on Their Predicted Contribution to Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Caroline S.; Burris, Kellie P.; Woo, Hannah L.; Goodrich, Benjamin; Gosnell, Denise Koessler; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2015-05-08

    We report that the aqueous extract of yerba mate, a South American tea beverage made from Ilex paraguariensis leaves, has demonstrated bactericidal and inhibitory activity against bacterial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of two unique fractions of yerba mate aqueous extract revealed 8 identifiable small molecules in those fractions with antimicrobial activity. For a more comprehensive analysis, a data analysis pipeline was assembled to prioritize compounds for antimicrobial testing against both MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus using forty-two unique fractions of the tea extract that were generated in duplicate, assayed for activity, and analyzed with GC-MS. As validation of our automated analysis, we checked our predicted active compounds for activity in literature references and used authentic standards to test for antimicrobial activity. 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde showed the most antibacterial activity against MRSA at low concentrations in our bioassays. In addition, quinic acid and quercetin were identified using random forests analysis and 5-hydroxy pipecolic acid was identified using linear discriminant analysis. We also generated a ranked list of unidentified compounds that may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of yerba mate against MRSA. Here we utilized GC-MS data to implement an automated analysis that resulted in a ranked list of compounds that likely contribute to the antimicrobial activity of aqueous yerba mate extract against MRSA.

  10. Computational Ranking of Yerba Mate Small Molecules Based on Their Predicted Contribution to Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rempe, Caroline S.; Burris, Kellie P.; Woo, Hannah L.; Goodrich, Benjamin; Gosnell, Denise Koessler; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2015-05-08

    We report that the aqueous extract of yerba mate, a South American tea beverage made from Ilex paraguariensis leaves, has demonstrated bactericidal and inhibitory activity against bacterial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of two unique fractions of yerba mate aqueous extract revealed 8 identifiable small molecules in those fractions with antimicrobial activity. For a more comprehensive analysis, a data analysis pipeline was assembled to prioritize compounds for antimicrobial testing against both MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus using forty-two unique fractions of the tea extract that were generated in duplicate, assayed for activity, andmore » analyzed with GC-MS. As validation of our automated analysis, we checked our predicted active compounds for activity in literature references and used authentic standards to test for antimicrobial activity. 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde showed the most antibacterial activity against MRSA at low concentrations in our bioassays. In addition, quinic acid and quercetin were identified using random forests analysis and 5-hydroxy pipecolic acid was identified using linear discriminant analysis. We also generated a ranked list of unidentified compounds that may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of yerba mate against MRSA. Here we utilized GC-MS data to implement an automated analysis that resulted in a ranked list of compounds that likely contribute to the antimicrobial activity of aqueous yerba mate extract against MRSA.« less

  11. Computational Ranking of Yerba Mate Small Molecules Based on Their Predicted Contribution to Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hannah L.; Goodrich, Benjamin; Gosnell, Denise Koessler; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous extract of yerba mate, a South American tea beverage made from Ilex paraguariensis leaves, has demonstrated bactericidal and inhibitory activity against bacterial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of two unique fractions of yerba mate aqueous extract revealed 8 identifiable small molecules in those fractions with antimicrobial activity. For a more comprehensive analysis, a data analysis pipeline was assembled to prioritize compounds for antimicrobial testing against both MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus using forty-two unique fractions of the tea extract that were generated in duplicate, assayed for activity, and analyzed with GC-MS. As validation of our automated analysis, we checked our predicted active compounds for activity in literature references and used authentic standards to test for antimicrobial activity. 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde showed the most antibacterial activity against MRSA at low concentrations in our bioassays. In addition, quinic acid and quercetin were identified using random forests analysis and 5-hydroxy pipecolic acid was identified using linear discriminant analysis. We also generated a ranked list of unidentified compounds that may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of yerba mate against MRSA. Here we utilized GC-MS data to implement an automated analysis that resulted in a ranked list of compounds that likely contribute to the antimicrobial activity of aqueous yerba mate extract against MRSA. PMID:25955847

  12. Mating Behaviour in Laevicaudatan Clam Shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) and Functional Morphology of Male Claspers in a Phylogenetic Context: A Video-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sigvardt, Zandra M. S.; Olesen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis) and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males). Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs) of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata). It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable “finger” of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable “finger”, possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the “finger” position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding. PMID

  13. Reversible frequency-dependent switches in male mate choice.

    PubMed

    van Gossum, H; Stoks, R; De Bruyn, L

    2001-01-01

    Current sexual-selection theories predict that mating should occur preferentially with the highest-quality partner, and assume that for distinguishing among potential mates the choosy sex applies an internal representation of the characteristics of the desired mate, i.e. a template. Binary choice experiments were performed to test male mate choice between two different female colour morphs in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Choice experiments were conducted before and after an habituation period, during which males were exposed to only one female colour morph. Given the choice between the two female morphs, males did exhibit a choice for the most recently experienced female morph. This is the first evidence for a reversible switch in mate choice in a frequency-dependent way. In contrast with previous studies on mate choice, template formation in male I. elegans seems not to be based on quality. Switching mate choice in a frequency-dependent manner, choosing the most common morph, probably allows males to minimize their search efforts and to maximize fitness. PMID:12123302

  14. Mate Preference of Female Blue Tits Varies with Experimental Photoperiod

    PubMed Central

    Reparaz, Laura B.; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc; Doutrelant, Claire; Visser, Marcel E.; Caro, Samuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D), using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits. PMID:24671133

  15. Assortative mating without assortative preference

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Cheng, Siwei; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating—marriage of a man and a woman with similar social characteristics—is a commonly observed phenomenon. In the existing literature in both sociology and economics, this phenomenon has mainly been attributed to individuals’ conscious preferences for assortative mating. In this paper, we show that patterns of assortative mating may arise from another structural source even if individuals do not have assortative preferences or possess complementary attributes: dynamic processes of marriages in a closed system. For a given cohort of youth in a finite population, as the percentage of married persons increases, unmarried persons who newly enter marriage are systematically different from those who married earlier, giving rise to the phenomenon of assortative mating. We use microsimulation methods to illustrate this dynamic process, using first the conventional deterministic Gale–Shapley model, then a probabilistic Gale–Shapley model, and then two versions of the encounter mating model. PMID:25918366

  16. Dopaminergic Circuitry Underlying Mating Drive.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Stephen X; Rogulja, Dragana; Crickmore, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    We develop a new system for studying how innate drives are tuned to reflect current physiological needs and capacities, and how they affect sensory-motor processing. We demonstrate the existence of male mating drive in Drosophila, which is transiently and cumulatively reduced as reproductive capacity is depleted by copulations. Dopaminergic activity in the anterior of the superior medial protocerebrum (SMPa) is also transiently and cumulatively reduced in response to matings and serves as a functional neuronal correlate of mating drive. The dopamine signal is transmitted through the D1-like DopR2 receptor to P1 neurons, which also integrate sensory information relevant to the perception of females, and which project to courtship motor centers that initiate and maintain courtship behavior. Mating drive therefore converges with sensory information from the female at the point of transition to motor output, controlling the propensity of a sensory percept to trigger goal-directed behavior. PMID:27292538

  17. 46 CFR 15.810 - Mates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... credentialed mates provided that the OSV meets the requirements in 46 CFR 15.1111 (except when on a voyage of... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mates. 15.810 Section 15.810 Shipping COAST GUARD....810 Mates. (a) The OCMI determines the minimum number of mates required for the safe operation...

  18. Mate retention tactics in Spain: personality, sex differences, and relationship status.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Adelia; Buss, David M

    2011-06-01

    Mate retention is an important problem in romantic relationships because of mate poachers, infidelity, and the risk of outright defection. The current study (N=892) represents the first study of mate retention tactics conducted in Spain. We tested hypotheses about the effects of gender, relationship commitment status, and personality on mate retention tactics. Women and men differed in the use of resource display, appearance enhancement, intrasexual violence, and submission/self-abasement as mate retention tactics. Those in more committed relationships reported higher levels of resource display, appearance enhancement, love, and verbal signals of possession. Those in less committed relationships more often reported intentionally evoking jealousy in their partner as a mate retention tactic. Personality characteristics, particularly Neuroticism and Agreeableness, correlated in coherent ways with mate retention tactics, supporting two evolution-based hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the implications, future research directions, and interdisciplinary syntheses emerging between personality and social psychology and evolutionary psychology. PMID:21534964

  19. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  20. Reciprocal herkogamy promotes disassortative mating in a distylous species with intramorph compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Barrett, Spencer C H; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Mating patterns in heterostylous species with intramorph compatibility have the potential to deviate from symmetrical disassortative mating owing to ecological and reproductive factors influencing pollen dispersal. Here, we investigate potential and realized patterns of mating in distylous Luculia pinceana (Rubiaceae), a species with intramorph compatibility. Our analysis provides an opportunity to test Darwin's hypothesis that reciprocal herkogamy promotes disassortative pollen transfer. We combined measurements of sex-organ reciprocity and pollen production to predict potential pollen transfer and mating patterns in a population from SW China. Marker-based paternity analysis was then used to estimate realized patterns of disassortative and assortative mating at the individual and floral morph levels. Both potential and realized mating patterns indicated a significant component of disassortative mating, satisfying theoretical conditions for the maintenance of floral dimorphism. Levels of assortative mating (37.7%) were significantly lower than disassortative mating (62.3%), but numerous offspring resulting from intramorph mating were detected in the majority of maternal seed families in both floral morphs. Our results provide empirical support for Darwin's cross-promotion hypothesis on the function of reciprocal herkogamy, but indicate that in most heterostylous species strong diallelic incompatibility may be a general requirement for complete disassortative mating. PMID:25664897

  1. Gamete signalling underlies the evolution of mating types and their number.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2016-10-19

    The gametes of unicellular eukaryotes are morphologically identical, but are nonetheless divided into distinct mating types. The number of mating types varies enormously and can reach several thousand, yet most species have only two. Why do morphologically identical gametes need to be differentiated into self-incompatible mating types, and why is two the most common number of mating types? In this work, we explore a neglected hypothesis that there is a need for asymmetric signalling interactions between mating partners. Our review shows that isogamous gametes always interact asymmetrically throughout sex and argue that this asymmetry is favoured because it enhances the efficiency of the mating process. We further develop a simple mathematical model that allows us to study the evolution of the number of mating types based on the strength of signalling interactions between gametes. Novel mating types have an advantage as they are compatible with all others and rarely meet their own type. But if existing mating types coevolve to have strong mutual interactions, this restricts the spread of novel types. Similarly, coevolution is likely to drive out less attractive mating types. These countervailing forces specify the number of mating types that are evolutionarily stable.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. PMID:27619695

  2. Mating strategy, disgust, and food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shawaf, Laith; Lewis, David M G; Alley, Thomas R; Buss, David M

    2015-02-01

    Food neophobia and disgust are commonly thought to be linked, but this hypothesis is typically implicitly assumed rather than directly tested. Evidence for the connection has been based on conceptually and empirically unsound measures of disgust, unpublished research, and indirect findings. This study (N = 283) provides the first direct evidence of a relationship between trait-level food neophobia and trait-level pathogen disgust. Unexpectedly, we also found that food neophobia varies as a function of sexual disgust and is linked to mating strategy. Using an evolutionary framework, we propose a novel hypothesis that may account for these previously undiscovered findings: the food neophilia as mating display hypothesis. Our discussion centers on future research directions for discriminatively testing this novel hypothesis. PMID:25450899

  3. Are high-quality mates always attractive?: State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans.

    PubMed

    Riebel, Katharina; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W

    2010-05-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources he can provide), and hence show directional preferences for indicators of male quality. This implies that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ in what they find attractive. New theoretical and empirical insights provide mounting evidence that a female's own quality biases her judgement of male attractiveness, such that male quality and attractiveness do not always coincide. A recent experiment in songbirds demonstrated for the first time that manipulation of female condition can lead to divergent female preferences, with low-quality females actively preferring low-quality males over high-quality males. This result is in line with theory on state-dependent mate choice and is reminiscent of assortative mating preferences in humans. Here we discuss the implications of this work for the study of mate preferences. PMID:20714411

  4. Male mate preference and size-assortative mating in convict cichlids: A role for female aggression?

    PubMed

    Bloch, A N; Estela, V J; Leese, J M; Itzkowitz, M

    2016-09-01

    Many monogamous species demonstrate size-assortative mating patterns within natural populations. To better understand the role of intersexual selection in this process, we examined the effect of male preference for female body size in the convict cichlid (Amatitlania siquia). We provided males with a choice between females that differed in size, relative to each other and in relation to the focal male. Based on previous work, we expected males to prefer the largest available female mates across all treatments. Surprisingly, males spent more time near the smaller of two available females, but only when the other female was larger than the male. Additionally, males spent little time with either of two potential female mates when both females were larger than the male. We hypothesized that while males might prefer the largest of available females, female behavior might limit males from acting on this preference. To test this, males were force paired with a smaller or larger female. Pair formation only occurred when the female was smaller than the male, and females that were larger than their male counterparts showed significantly more aggression when compared to smaller females. Together, these data suggest that in the absence of intrasexual competition, male mate preference for large females in convict cichlids might be limited by female aggression. PMID:27444247

  5. The evolution of mate choice and mating biases.

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Robert; Jennions, Michael D; Morley, Josephine

    2003-01-01

    We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the underlying genetics and evolutionary dynamics of these models. We then argue that progress in understanding the evolution of mate choice is currently hampered by spurious distinctions among models and a misguided tendency to test the processes underlying each model as mutually exclusive alternatives. Finally, we suggest potentially fruitful directions for future theoretical and empirical research. PMID:12769467

  6. 46 CFR 11.422 - Tonnage limitations and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of vessels of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... endorsements as master or mate of vessels of less than 200 GRT. 11.422 Section 11.422 Shipping COAST GUARD... requirements for endorsements as master or mate of vessels of less than 200 GRT. (a) Each national endorsement as master or mate of vessels of less than 200 GRT is issued with a tonnage limitation based on...

  7. 46 CFR 11.450 - Tonnage limitations and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels of not more than 200 gross tons. 11.450... and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels of... master or mate of vessels of not more than 200 gross tons are issued in 50 ton increments based on...

  8. 46 CFR 11.450 - Tonnage limitations and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels of less than 200 GRT. 11.450 Section 11.450... limitations and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels... for master or mate of vessels of less than 200 GRT are issued in 50 GRT increments based on...

  9. 46 CFR 11.450 - Tonnage limitations and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels of not more than 200 gross tons. 11.450... and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels of... master or mate of vessels of not more than 200 gross tons are issued in 50 ton increments based on...

  10. 46 CFR 11.450 - Tonnage limitations and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels of not more than 200 gross tons. 11.450... and qualifying requirements for endorsements as master or mate of Great Lakes and inland vessels of... master or mate of vessels of not more than 200 gross tons are issued in 50 ton increments based on...

  11. Nest-mate recognition in Manuelia postica (Apidae: Xylocopinae): an eusocial trait is present in a solitary bee

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Prado, Luis; Aguilera-Olivares, Daniel; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2007-01-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, females are more tolerant towards nest-mate than towards non-nest-mate females. In solitary Hymenoptera, females are generally aggressive towards any conspecific female. Field observations of the nest biology of Manuelia postica suggested nest-mate recognition. Experiments were performed involving two live interacting females or one live female interacting with a dead female. Live females from different nests were more intolerant to each other than females from the same nest. Females were more intolerant towards non-nest-mate than towards nest-mate dead females. When dead females were washed with pentane, no differences in tolerant and intolerant behaviours were detected between non-nest-mate and nest-mate females. Females were more intolerant towards nest-mate female carcasses coated with the cuticular extract from a non-nest-mate than towards non-nest-mate female carcasses coated with the cuticular extract from a nest-mate. The compositions of the cuticular extracts was more similar between females from the same nest than between females from different nests. The results demonstrate for the first time nest-mate recognition mediated by cuticular chemicals in a largely solitary species of Apidae. The position of Manuelia at the base of the Apidae phylogeny suggests that nest-mate recognition in eusocial species apical to Manuelia represents the retention of a primitive capacity in Apidae. PMID:18029302

  12. Structural basis for the blockade of MATE multidrug efflux pumps

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Radchenko, Martha; Symersky, Jindrich; Nie, Rongxin; Lu, Min

    2015-08-06

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters underpin multidrug resistance by using the H+ or Na+ electrochemical gradient to extrude different drugs across cell membranes. MATE transporters can be further parsed into the DinF, NorM and eukaryotic subfamilies based on their amino-acid sequence similarity. Here we report the 3.0 Å resolution X-ray structures of a protonation-mimetic mutant of an H+-coupled DinF transporter, as well as of an H+-coupled DinF and a Na+-coupled NorM transporters in complexes with verapamil, a small-molecule pharmaceutical that inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug extrusion. Combining structure-inspired mutational and functional studies, we confirm the biological relevance of our crystalmore » structures, reveal the mechanistic differences among MATE transporters, and suggest how verapamil inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug efflux. Our findings offer insights into how MATE transporters extrude chemically and structurally dissimilar drugs and could inform the design of new strategies for tackling multidrug resistance.« less

  13. Both Geography and Ecology Contribute to Mating Isolation in Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Amy K.; Weese, Dylan J.; Bentzen, Paul; Kinnison, Michael T.; Hendry, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Local adaptation to different environments can promote mating isolation – either as an incidental by-product of trait divergence, or as a result of selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Numerous recent empirical examples point to the common influence of divergent natural selection on speciation based largely on evidence of strong pre-mating isolation between populations from different habitat types. Accumulating evidence for natural selection's influence on speciation is therefore no longer a challenge. The difficulty, rather, is in determining the mechanisms involved in the progress of adaptive divergence to speciation once barriers to gene flow are already present. Here, we present results of both laboratory and field experiments with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from different environments, who do not show complete reproductive isolation despite adaptive divergence. We investigate patterns of mating isolation between populations that do and do not exchange migrants and show evidence for both by-product and reinforcement mechanisms depending on female ecology. Specifically, low-predation females discriminate against all high-predation males thus implying a by-product mechanism, whereas high-predation females only discriminate against low-predation males from further upstream in the same river, implying selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Our study thus confirms that mechanisms of adaptive speciation are not necessarily mutually exclusive and uncovers the complex ecology-geography interactions that underlie the evolution of mating isolation in nature. PMID:21179541

  14. Structural basis for the blockade of MATE multidrug efflux pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Radchenko, Martha; Symersky, Jindrich; Nie, Rongxin; Lu, Min

    2015-08-06

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters underpin multidrug resistance by using the H+ or Na+ electrochemical gradient to extrude different drugs across cell membranes. MATE transporters can be further parsed into the DinF, NorM and eukaryotic subfamilies based on their amino-acid sequence similarity. Here we report the 3.0 Å resolution X-ray structures of a protonation-mimetic mutant of an H+-coupled DinF transporter, as well as of an H+-coupled DinF and a Na+-coupled NorM transporters in complexes with verapamil, a small-molecule pharmaceutical that inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug extrusion. Combining structure-inspired mutational and functional studies, we confirm the biological relevance of our crystal structures, reveal the mechanistic differences among MATE transporters, and suggest how verapamil inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug efflux. Our findings offer insights into how MATE transporters extrude chemically and structurally dissimilar drugs and could inform the design of new strategies for tackling multidrug resistance.

  15. Structural basis for the blockade of MATE multidrug efflux pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, Martha; Symersky, Jindrich; Nie, Rongxin; Lu, Min

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters underpin multidrug resistance by using the H+ or Na+ electrochemical gradient to extrude different drugs across cell membranes. MATE transporters can be further parsed into the DinF, NorM and eukaryotic subfamilies based on their amino-acid sequence similarity. Here we report the 3.0 Å resolution X-ray structures of a protonation-mimetic mutant of an H+-coupled DinF transporter, as well as of an H+-coupled DinF and a Na+-coupled NorM transporters in complexes with verapamil, a small-molecule pharmaceutical that inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug extrusion. Combining structure-inspired mutational and functional studies, we confirm the biological relevance of our crystal structures, reveal the mechanistic differences among MATE transporters, and suggest how verapamil inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug efflux. Our findings offer insights into how MATE transporters extrude chemically and structurally dissimilar drugs and could inform the design of new strategies for tackling multidrug resistance.

  16. Spatial ecology of mating success in a sexually polymorphic plant

    PubMed Central

    Stehlik, Ivana; Caspersen, John P; Barrett, Spencer C.H

    2005-01-01

    The spatial context of reproduction is of crucial importance to plants because of their sessile habit. Since pollen and seed dispersal is often restricted, mating success is likely to depend on the quantity and quality of mates in local neighbourhoods. Here we use neighbourhood models to investigate the spatial ecology of pollination and mating in Narcissus assoanus, a sexually polymorphic plant with two mating morphs that differ in style length. By mapping individuals in eight populations from southwestern France, we investigated the influence of the density and morph identity of plants at different spatial scales on variation in female fertility. By using inferences on the expected patterns of pollen transfer based on floral morphology, we were able to predict the quantitative relations between local morph ratios and variation in fertility. Our analyses revealed differences in the spatial clustering of morphs and in their response to plant density and morph identity within local neighbourhoods. Mating success in N. assoanus was characterized by both density- and frequency-dependent processes, a condition that may be a general feature of the spatial ecology of plant mating. PMID:16615203

  17. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex determination (CSD) system is responsible for intraspecific allelic incompatibility in many species of ants, bees, and wasps. CSD may thus favour disassortative mating and in this, resembles the MHC of the vertebrate immune system, or the self-incompatibility (SI) system of higher plants. Results Here we show that in the monogamous parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis (Wesmael), females are able to reject partners with incompatible alleles. Forcing females to accept initially rejected partners resulted in sex ratio distortion and partial infertility of offspring. Conclusions CSD-disassortative mating occurred independent of kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in our experiment. The fitness consequences of mate choice are directly observable, not influenced by environmental effects, and more severe than in comparable systems (SI or MHC), on individuals as well as at the population level. Our results thus demonstrate the strong potential of female mate choice for maintaining high offspring fitness in this species. PMID:23895372

  18. Structural basis for the blockade of MATE multidrug efflux pumps

    PubMed Central

    Radchenko, Martha; Symersky, Jindrich; Nie, Rongxin; Lu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters underpin multidrug resistance by using the H+ or Na+ electrochemical gradient to extrude different drugs across cell membranes. MATE transporters can be further parsed into the DinF, NorM and eukaryotic subfamilies based on their amino-acid sequence similarity. Here we report the 3.0 Å resolution X-ray structures of a protonation-mimetic mutant of an H+-coupled DinF transporter, as well as of an H+-coupled DinF and a Na+-coupled NorM transporters in complexes with verapamil, a small-molecule pharmaceutical that inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug extrusion. Combining structure-inspired mutational and functional studies, we confirm the biological relevance of our crystal structures, reveal the mechanistic differences among MATE transporters, and suggest how verapamil inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug efflux. Our findings offer insights into how MATE transporters extrude chemically and structurally dissimilar drugs and could inform the design of new strategies for tackling multidrug resistance. PMID:26246409

  19. Mate preference and disease risk in Zootermopsis angusticollis (Isoptera: Termopsidae).

    PubMed

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; James, Lady-Thelma; Hartke, Tamara R; Brent, Colin S

    2011-12-01

    Termites face significant and chronic intranidal selection pressures from parasites and pathogens that colonize their nests. They also encounter microbes outside their nest while foraging and during dispersal of winged primary reproductives to establish new colonies. The latter run the additional risk of becoming infected by a mating partner. Indeed, death of reproductives because of disease is a major cause of incipient colony failure and may favor prescreening prospective mates for signs of illness. To determine the role of disease on mate preference in termites, female primary reproductives of the Pacific dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis (Hagen) simultaneously were presented with reproductive males that were either healthy or exhibiting a progression of symptoms associated with infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin). We compared duration and frequency of female visits to healthy and infected males. In addition, we determined the physiological consequences for females exposed to fungal conidia, either directly or indirectly through their mate. Females showed no preference for healthy rather than infected males. Moreover, only directly-exposed females experienced negative physiological effects, having a reduced chance of survival, gaining less weight, developing fewer functional ovarioles, and producing significantly fewer vitellogenic oocytes than controls. Although there are important fitness-related costs of direct exposure, the lack of mate selection based on disease risk suggests that more imminent ecological pressures (e.g., predators, desiccation) override the need for a careful and time-consuming assessment of a potential mate's health. PMID:22217773

  20. Inhibition of OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2-K as a possible mechanism of drug interaction between pazopanib and cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Sauzay, C; White-Koning, M; Hennebelle, I; Deluche, T; Delmas, C; Imbs, D C; Chatelut, E; Thomas, F

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesized that pazopanib is an inhibitor of cisplatin renal transporters OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2-K based on previous studies demonstrating an interaction between tyrosine kinase inhibitors and these transporters. Because several combinations of targeted therapies and cytotoxics are currently in development for cancer treatment, such an interaction is worth investigating. Experiments on HEK293 cells stably transfected to express OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K or an empty vector (EV) were conducted. The inhibitory effect of pazopanib on these transporters was measured using the uptake of fluorescent substrate ASP+ and cisplatin in the different cell lines. The effect of pazopanib on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity was also evaluated. A decrease of ASP+ uptake was observed in OCT2-HEK, MATE1-HEK and MATE2K-HEK cell lines after addition of pazopanib at increasing concentrations. Pazopanib inhibited cisplatin specific uptake in OCT2-HEK, MATE1-HEK and MATE2K-HEK lines. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that co-incubation of cisplatin with pazopanib multiplied up to 2.7, 2.4 and 1.6 times the EC50 values of cisplatin in OCT2-HEK, MATE1-HEK and MATE2K-HEK cell lines respectively, reaching about the same values as in EV-HEK cells. To conclude, pazopanib inhibits OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2-K, which are involved in cisplatin secretion into urine. The combination of these two drugs may lead to an interaction and increase the cisplatin-induced systemic toxicity. Given the wide variability of plasma pazopanib concentrations observed in vivo, the interaction may occur in a clinical setting, particularly in overexposed patients. The existence of a drug-drug interaction should be investigated when pazopanib is associated with a substrate of these transporters. PMID:27178732

  1. Plasticity of the mate choice mind: courtship evokes choice-like brain responses in females from a coercive mating system.

    PubMed

    Wang, S M T; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

    2014-04-01

    Female mate choice is fundamental to sexual selection, and determining molecular underpinnings of female preference variation is important for understanding mating character evolution. Previously it was shown that whole-brain expression of a synaptic plasticity marker, neuroserpin, positively correlates with mating bias in the female choice poeciliid, Xiphophorus nigrensis, when exposed to conspecific courting males, whereas this relationship is reversed in Gambusia affinis, a mate coercive poeciliid with no courting males. Here we explore whether species-level differences in female behavioral and brain molecular responses represent 'canalized' or 'plastic' traits. We expose female G. affinis to conspecific males and females, as well as coercive and courting male Poecilia latipinna, for preference assays followed by whole-brain gene expression analyses of neuroserpin, egr-1 and early B. We find positive correlations between gene expression and female preference strength during exposure to courting heterospecific males, but a reversed pattern following exposure to coercive heterospecific males. This suggests that the neuromolecular processes associated with female preference behavior are plastic and responsive to different male phenotypes (courting or coercive) rather than a canalized response linked to mating system. Further, we propose that female behavioral plasticity may involve learning because female association patterns shifted with experience. Compared to younger females, we found larger, more experienced females spend less time near coercive males but associate more with males in the presence of courters. We thus suggest a conserved learning-based neuromolecular process underlying the diversity of female mate preference across the mate choice and coercion-driven mating systems. PMID:24548673

  2. Mate Choice in Mus musculus Is Relative and Dependent on the Estrous State

    PubMed Central

    Zinck, Léa; Lima, Susana Q.

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is a critical behavioral decision process with profound impact on evolution. However, the mechanistic basis of mate choice is poorly understood. In this study we focused on assortative mate choice, which is known to contribute to the reproductive isolation of the two European subspecies of house mouse, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To understand the decision process, we developed both full mating and limited-contact paradigms and tested musculus females' preference for musculus versus domesticus males, mimicking the natural musculus/domesticus contact zone. As hypothesized, when allowed to mate we found that sexually receptive musculus females exhibited a robust preference to mate with musculus males. In contrast, when non-receptive, females did not exhibit a preference and rather alternated between males in response to male mount attempts. Moreover in a no-choice condition, females mated readily with males from both subspecies. Finally, when no physical contact was allowed, and therefore male's behavior could not influence female's behavior, female's preference for its own subspecies was maintained independently of the estrous state. Together, our results suggest that the assortative preference is relative and based on a comparison of the options available rather than on an absolute preference. The results of the limited-contact experiments highlight the interplay between female's internal state and the nature of the interaction with prospective mates in the full mating conditions. With these experiments we believe we established an assortative mate preference assay that is appropriate for the investigation of its underlying substrates. PMID:23762466

  3. Mating behavior of Cnephasia jactatana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important pest of kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Wang, Qiao; Arzuffi, R

    2013-06-01

    Understanding mating behavioral sequence helps us identify the mechanisms of mate assessment and choice, and better evaluate behavior-based pest control strategies. Here we describe the mating behavior of Cnephasia jactatana Walker whose females release a sex pheromone, and determine the effect of male mating status on reproductive success. The mating sequence starts when males approach females and display courtship behavior with antennation and fanning wings. Both males and females may end a mating attempt at any stage of the sequence. Both sexes assess their mates from the initial contact to copulation. Females appear to be choosier at the early and mid-stages than at the late stage of the sequence. Virgin males approach and court females significantly earlier than nonvirgin males. As compared with nonvirgin males, virgin males are approximately 1.6 times more likely to approach and 1.8 times more likely to court females, and four times more likely to achieve mating. This may be attributed to depletion of sperm and accessory gland materials and reduced ability to respond to female sex pheromones in nonvirgin males. The number of attempts by males to acquire mates may be one of the traits that females assess before choosing their mates. PMID:23865204

  4. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets toward the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors. PMID:24659970

  5. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets toward the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors. PMID:24659970

  6. Weather Specialist/Aerographer's Mate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…

  7. 46 CFR 15.810 - Mates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mates. 15.810 Section 15.810 Shipping COAST GUARD....810 Mates. (a) The OCMI determines the minimum number of mates required for the safe operation of inspected vessels. (b) The minimum number of mariners holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as...

  8. 46 CFR 11.497 - Mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mate (OSV). 11.497 Section 11.497 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.497 Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Mate (OSV), an applicant shall present evidence that...

  9. 46 CFR 15.810 - Mates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mates. 15.810 Section 15.810 Shipping COAST GUARD....810 Mates. (a) The OCMI determines the minimum number of mates required for the safe operation of inspected vessels. (b) The minimum number of mariners holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as...

  10. 46 CFR 11.497 - Mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mate (OSV). 11.497 Section 11.497 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.497 Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Mate (OSV), an applicant shall present evidence that...

  11. 46 CFR 12.711 - Apprentice mate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Apprentice mate. 12.711 Section 12.711 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Entry-Level National Ratings and Miscellaneous Ratings § 12.711 Apprentice mate. (a) A person enrolled in a mate training program approved by the Coast Guard, and who presents a letter or...

  12. 46 CFR 15.810 - Mates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mates. 15.810 Section 15.810 Shipping COAST GUARD....810 Mates. (a) The OCMI determines the minimum number of mates required for the safe operation of inspected vessels. (b) The minimum number of mariners holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as...

  13. 46 CFR 11.497 - Mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mate (OSV). 11.497 Section 11.497 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.497 Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Mate (OSV), an applicant shall present evidence that...

  14. 46 CFR 11.497 - Mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mate (OSV). 11.497 Section 11.497 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.497 Mate (OSV). (a) The minimum service required to qualify an applicant for an endorsement as mate (OSV) of offshore supply vessels is— (1)...

  15. Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

  16. Mate choice for neutral and MHC genetic characteristics in Alpine marmots: different targets in different contexts?

    PubMed

    Ferrandiz-Rovira, Mariona; Allainé, Dominique; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Cohas, Aurélie

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection through female mate choice for genetic characteristics has been suggested to be an important evolutionary force maintaining genetic variation in animal populations. However, the genetic targets of female mate choice are not clearly identified and whether female mate choice is based on neutral genetic characteristics or on particular functional loci remains an open question. Here, we investigated the genetic targets of female mate choice in Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a socially monogamous mammal where extra-pair paternity (EPP) occurs. We used 16 microsatellites to describe neutral genetic characteristics and two MHC loci belonging to MHC class I and II as functional genetic characteristics. Our results reveal that (1) neutral and MHC genetic characteristics convey different information in this species, (2) social pairs show a higher MHC class II dissimilarity than expected under random mate choice, and (3) the occurrence of EPP increases when social pairs present a high neutral genetic similarity or dissimilarity but also when they present low MHC class II dissimilarity. Thus, female mate choice is based on both neutral and MHC genetic characteristics, and the genetic characteristics targeted seem to be context dependent (i.e., the genes involved in social mate choice and genetic mate choice differ). We emphasize the need for empirical studies of mate choice in the wild using both neutral and MHC genetic characteristics because whether neutral and functional genetic characteristics convey similar information is not universal. PMID:27386072

  17. Density affects mating mode and large male mating advantage in a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pablo D; Daleo, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar O

    2010-12-01

    Fiddler crabs show two different mating modes: either females search and crabs mate underground in male burrows, or males search and crabs mate on the surface near female burrows. We explored the relationship between crab density, body size, the searching behavior of both sexes, and the occurrence of both mating modes in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis. We found that crabs change their mating mode depending on their size and crab density. Crabs mated mostly on the surface at low densities, and underground at high densities. The proportion of wandering receptive females but not courting males accounted for the variation in mating modes. This suggests that whether crabs mate underground (or on the surface) is determined by the presence (or absence) of searching females. We found that the change in the mating mode affected the level of assortative mating; males mating underground were bigger than those mating on the surface, suggesting active female choice. Given that fiddler crabs experience multiple reproductive cycles, they are prone to showing behavioral plasticity in their mating strategy whenever the payoffs of using different mating modes differ between reproductive events. Our results suggest that the incorporation of different levels of environmental variability may be important in theoretical models aimed at improving our understanding of the evolution of alternative mating tactics and strategies. PMID:20931233

  18. Strategic mating with common preferences.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

    2005-12-21

    We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

  19. Mating behavior of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Nardi, C; Luvizotto, R A; Parra, J R P; Bento, J M S

    2012-06-01

    Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) is an economically important pest of Neotropical cultures and represents a quarantine risk for Neartic and Paleartic Regions. Despite its agricultural importance, few studies have been done on mating behavior and chemical communication, which has delayed the development of behavioral techniques for population management, such as the use of pheromone traps. In this study, we determined 1) the age at first mating; 2) diel rhythm of matings; 3) number of matings over 7 d; 4) the sequence of D. speciosa activities during premating, mating, and postmating; 5) the duration of each activity; and 6) response to male and female conspecific volatiles in Y-tube olfactometer. The first mating occurred between the third and seventh day after adult emergence and the majority of pairs mated on the fourth day after emergence. Pairs of D. speciosa showed a daily rhythm of mating with greater sexual activity between the end of the photophase and the first half of the scotophase. During the 7 d of observation, most pairs mated only once, although 30% mated two, three, or four times. In a Y-tube olfactometer, males were attracted by virgin females as well as by the volatile compounds emitted by females. Neither males nor their volatiles were attractive to either sex. Our observation provide information about mating behavior of D. speciosa, which will be useful in future research in chemical communication, such as identification of the pheromone and development of management techniques for this species using pheromone traps. PMID:22732614

  20. 46 CFR 11.463 - General requirements for national endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels. 11.463 Section 11.463 Shipping COAST... national endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels. (a) The...) Master of towing vessels, limited. (3) Mate (pilot) of towing vessels. (4) Apprentice mate...

  1. Impact of nonrandom mating on genetic variance and gene flow in populations with mass selection.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Leopoldo; Woolliams, John A

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms by which nonrandom mating affects selected populations are not completely understood and remain a subject of scientific debate in the development of tractable predictors of population characteristics. The main objective of this study was to provide a predictive model for the genetic variance and covariance among mates for traits subjected to directional selection in populations with nonrandom mating based on the pedigree. Stochastic simulations were used to check the validity of this model. Our predictions indicate that the positive covariance among mates that is expected to result with preferential mating of relatives can be severely overpredicted from neutral expectations. The covariance expected from neutral theory is offset by an opposing covariance between the genetic mean of an individual's family and the Mendelian sampling term of its mate. This mechanism was able to predict the reduction in covariance among mates that we observed in the simulated populations and, in consequence, the equilibrium genetic variance and expected long-term genetic contributions. Additionally, this study provided confirmatory evidence on the postulated relationships of long-term genetic contributions with both the rate of genetic gain and the rate of inbreeding (deltaF) with nonrandom mating. The coefficient of variation of the expected gene flow among individuals and deltaF was sensitive to nonrandom mating when heritability was low, but less so as heritability increased, and the theory developed in the study was sufficient to explain this phenomenon. PMID:15020441

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Sexual Maturation and Mating in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R.; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest. PMID:22303464

  3. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Gilman, R Tucker; Kozak, Genevieve M

    2015-11-01

    Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth's biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other members of their populations. Mate preference learning can be biased if individuals also learn phenotypes to avoid in mates, and shift their preferences away from these avoided phenotypes. We used individual-based computational simulations to study whether biased and unbiased mate preference learning promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation. We found that ecological speciation can be rapid and repeated when mate preferences are biased, but is inhibited when mate preferences are learned without bias. Our results suggest that biased mate preference learning may play an important role in generating animal biodiversity through adaptive radiation. PMID:26459795

  4. Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Gomulski, Ludvik M; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest. PMID:22303464

  5. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Mérot, Claire; Frérot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. PMID:26513426

  6. Individual differences in mate poaching: an examination of hormonal, dispositional, and behavioral mate-value traits.

    PubMed

    Sunderani, Shafik; Arnocky, Steven; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-05-01

    The personality and hormonal correlates of mate poaching (attempting to steal another person's partner away) and of the target of the seducer (the mate poached) were examined in a sample 154 undergraduate university students (91 females; 63 males). Thirteen variables were modeled into two regression equations to predict and profile mate poachers and the mate poached. Findings revealed that (1) male mate poachers were better looking and had higher cortisol levels, lower levels of testosterone, and reported being higher on self-esteem, cold affect, and criminal tendencies and (2) female mate poachers and targets of mate poachers reported being more physically attractive, as did male targets of mate poachers. Sex differences in the context of mate poaching attraction as well as the characteristics of those who are successful in their attempts to lure away another person's romantic partner were discussed. PMID:22695642

  7. Females use self-referent cues to avoid mating with previous mates.

    PubMed

    Ivy, Tracie M; Weddle, Carie B; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-12-01

    Females of many species mate repeatedly throughout their lives, often with many different males (polyandry). Females can secure genetic benefits by maximizing their diversity of mating partners, and might be expected, therefore, to forego matings with previous partners in favour of novel males. Indeed, a female preference for novel mating partners has been shown in several taxa, but the mechanism by which females distinguish between novel males and previous mates remains unknown. We show that female crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) mark males with their own unique chemical signatures during mating, enabling females to recognize prior mates in subsequent encounters and to avoid remating with them. Because self-referent chemosensory cues provide females with a simple, but reliable mechanism of identifying individuals with whom they have mated without requiring any special cognitive ability, they may be a widespread means by which females across a broad range of animal mating systems maximize the genetic benefits of polyandry. PMID:16271971

  8. Females use self-referent cues to avoid mating with previous mates

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Tracie M; Weddle, Carie B; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-01-01

    Females of many species mate repeatedly throughout their lives, often with many different males (polyandry). Females can secure genetic benefits by maximizing their diversity of mating partners, and might be expected, therefore, to forego matings with previous partners in favour of novel males. Indeed, a female preference for novel mating partners has been shown in several taxa, but the mechanism by which females distinguish between novel males and previous mates remains unknown. We show that female crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) mark males with their own unique chemical signatures during mating, enabling females to recognize prior mates in subsequent encounters and to avoid remating with them. Because self-referent chemosensory cues provide females with a simple, but reliable mechanism of identifying individuals with whom they have mated without requiring any special cognitive ability, they may be a widespread means by which females across a broad range of animal mating systems maximize the genetic benefits of polyandry. PMID:16271971

  9. Simulation of mating disruption and mass trapping with competitive attraction and camouflage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass trapping and mating disruption of insects are similar methods that use semiochemical dispensers with and without traps, respectively, in the field to reduce mating by removing individuals and disrupting communication. Simulation models of these two methods were developed based on correlated ran...

  10. Field crickets change mating preferences using remembered social information

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Nathan W.; Zuk, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Plasticity in female mate choice can fundamentally alter selection on male ornaments, but surprisingly few studies have examined the role of social learning in shaping female mating decisions in invertebrates. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to show that females retain information about the attractiveness of available males based on previous social experience, compare that information with incoming signals and then dramatically reverse their preferences to produce final, predictable, mating decisions. Male ornament evolution in the wild may depend much more on the social environment and behavioural flexibility through learning than was previously thought for non-social invertebrates. The predictive power of these results points to a pressing need for theoretical models of sexual selection that incorporate effects of social experience. PMID:19411269

  11. Relational mate value: consensus and uniqueness in romantic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Hunt, Lucy L

    2014-05-01

    Classic evolutionary and social exchange perspectives suggest that some people have more mate value than others because they possess desirable traits (e.g., attractiveness, status) that are intrinsic to the individual. This article broadens mate value in 2 ways to incorporate relational perspectives. First, close relationships research suggests an alternative measure of mate value: whether someone can provide a high quality relationship. Second, person perception research suggests that both trait-based and relationship quality measures of mate value should contain a mixture of target variance (i.e., consensus about targets, the classic conceptualization) and relationship variance (i.e., unique ratings of targets). In Study 1, participants described their personal conceptions of mate value and revealed themes consistent with classic and relational approaches. Study 2 used a social relations model blocked design to assess target and relationship variances in participants' romantic evaluations of opposite-sex classmates at the beginning and end of the semester. In Study 3, a one-with-many design documented target and relationship variances among long-term opposite-sex acquaintances. Results generally revealed more relationship variance than target variance; participants' romantic evaluations were more likely to be unique to a particular person rather than consensual. Furthermore, the relative dominance of relationship to target variance was stronger for relational measures of mate value (i.e., relationship quality projections) than classic trait-based measures (i.e., attractiveness, resources). Finally, consensus decreased as participants got to know one another better, and long-term acquaintances in Study 3 revealed enormous amounts of relationship variance. Implications for the evolutionary, close relationships, and person-perception literatures are discussed. PMID:24611897

  12. Aviation: Boatswain's Mate E 1 and C; Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual has been prepared for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve who are studying for advancement in the Aviation Boatswain's Mate E rating. It is primarily based on the professional requirements or qualifications for ABE 1 and ABE C, as contained in the Manual of Qualifications for Advancement NavPers 18068…

  13. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. PMID:26068718

  14. Red and white Chinook salmon: genetic divergence and mate choice.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Sarah J; Pitcher, Trevor E; Devlin, Robert H; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-03-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibit extreme differences in coloration of skin, eggs and flesh due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition, where colour can range from white to bright red. A sympatric population of red and white Chinook salmon occurs in the Quesnel River, British Columbia, where frequencies of each phenotype are relatively equal. In our study, we examined evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the morphs, where we first tested whether morphs were reproductively isolated using microsatellite genotyping, and second, using breeding trials in seminatural spawning channels, we tested whether colour assortative mate choice could be operating to maintain the polymorphism in nature. Next, given extreme difference in carotenoid assimilation and the importance of carotenoids to immune function, we examined mate choice and selection between colour morphs at immune genes (major histocompatibility complex genes: MHC I-A1 and MHC II-B1). In our study, red and white individuals were found to interbreed, and under seminatural conditions, some degree of colour assortative mate choice (71% of matings) was observed. We found significant genetic differences at both MHC genes between morphs, but no evidence of MHC II-B1-based mate choice. White individuals were more heterozygous at MHC II-B1 compared with red individuals, and morphs showed significant allele frequency differences at MHC I-A1. Although colour assortative mate choice is likely not a primary mechanism maintaining the polymorphisms in the population, our results suggest that selection is operating differentially at immune genes in red and white Chinook salmon, possibly due to differences in carotenoid utilization. PMID:26836978

  15. Multiple mating reveals complex patterns of assortative mating by personality and body size.

    PubMed

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wey, Tina W; Chang, Ann T; Fogarty, Sean; Sih, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns of non-random mating is central to predicting the consequences of sexual selection. Most studies quantifying assortative mating focus on testing for correlations among partners' phenotypes in mated pairs. Few studies have distinguished between assortative mating arising from preferences for similar partners (expressed by all or a subset of the population) vs. from phenotypic segregation in the environment. Also, few studies have assessed the robustness of assortative mating against temporal changes in social conditions. We tracked multiple matings by stream water striders (Aquarius remigis) across variable social conditions to investigate mating patterns by both body size and behavioural type (personality). We documented temporal changes in partner availability and used a mixed model approach to analyse individual behaviours and changes in mating status recorded on an hourly basis. We assessed whether all or only a subset of individuals in the population expressed a tendency to mate with similar phenotypes. Our analyses took into account variation in the level of competition and in the phenotypes of available partners. Males and females exhibited significant assortative mating by body size: the largest males and females, and the smallest males and females mated together more often than random. However, individuals of intermediate size were equally likely to mate with small, intermediate or large partners. Individuals also displayed two contrasting patterns of assortative mating by personality (activity level). Individuals generally mated preferentially with partners of similar activity level. However, beyond that general trend, individuals with more extreme personalities tended to exhibit disassortative mating: the most active males mated disproportionately with less active females and the least active males tended to mate with more active females. Our analyses thus revealed multiple, distinct patterns of nonrandom mating. These mating

  16. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  17. Direct costs and benefits of multiple mating: Are high female mating rates due to ejaculate replenishment?

    PubMed

    Worthington, Amy M; Kelly, Clint D

    2016-03-01

    Females often mate more than is necessary to ensure reproductive success even when they incur significant costs from doing so. Direct benefits are hypothesized to be the driving force of high female mating rates, yet species in which females only receive an ejaculate from their mate still realize increased fitness from multiple mating. Using the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis, we experimentally test the hypothesis that multiple mating via monandry or polyandry increases female fitness by replenishing ejaculates, thereby allowing females to produce more offspring for a longer period of time. We found that higher rates of female mating significantly increased lifetime fecundity and oviposition independent of whether females mated with one or two males. Further, although interactions with males significantly increased rates of injury or death, females that replenished ejaculates experienced an increased rate and duration of oviposition, demonstrating that the immediate benefits of multiple mating may greatly outweigh the long-term costs that mating poses to female condition and survival. We suggest that ejaculate replenishment is a driving factor of high mating rates in females that do not receive external direct benefits from mating and that a comparative study across taxa will provide additional insight into the role that ejaculate size plays in the evolution of female mating rates. PMID:26772782

  18. Revisiting telegony: offspring inherit an acquired characteristic of their mother's previous mate

    PubMed Central

    Crean, Angela J; Kopps, Anna M; Bonduriansky, Russell; Marshall, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered non-genetic mechanisms break the link between genes and inheritance, thereby also raising the possibility that previous mating partners could influence traits in offspring sired by subsequent males that mate with the same female (‘telegony’). In the fly Telostylinus angusticollis, males transmit their environmentally acquired condition via paternal effects on offspring body size. We manipulated male condition, and mated females to two males in high or low condition in a fully crossed design. Although the second male sired a large majority of offspring, offspring body size was influenced by the condition of the first male. This effect was not observed when females were exposed to the first male without mating, implicating semen-mediated effects rather than female differential allocation based on pre-mating assessment of male quality. Our results reveal a novel type of transgenerational effect with potential implications for the evolution of reproductive strategies. PMID:25270393

  19. Polyandry and alternative mating tactics

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Bryan D.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2013-01-01

    Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research. PMID:23339236

  20. Mating reaction in yeast protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, A

    1976-11-01

    Protoplasts prepared from complementary haploid strains of Saccharomyces cervisiae were studied with regard to their ability of conjugating. Neither fresh protoplasts nor the growing protoplasts possessing fibrillar walls exhibited sex specific agglutination or fusion. However, they were capable of inducing sexual activation in normal cells of opposite mating type. After completing the regeneration of cell walls the protoplasts could conjugate either with each other or with cells of opposite sex. The frequency of conjugations was low, about 1%, and was largely dependent on the degree of completition of the wall during regeneration. From the results the following conclusions may be drawn: 1. The initiation of mating is dependent on the integrity of the cell wall. 2. The sex specific morphogenetic changes do not occur in wall-less protoplasts but may happen after the protoplasts have regenerated their cell walls. 3. The lysis of cell walls does not occur until the walls come into close contact. 4. The fusion of plasma membranes in sex-activated protoplasts cannot be induced by arteficial agglutination. PMID:797332

  1. Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Laboratory Rearing Affect Survival and Assortative Mating but Not Overall Mating Success in Anopheles gambiae Sensu Stricto

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies. PMID:24391719

  2. 46 CFR 15.810 - Mates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized under paragraph (e) of this section: (1) Vessels of 1000 gross tons or more (except MODUs)—three... destination—two mates). (2) MODUs of 1000 gross tons or more: (i) Three mates when on a voyage of more than...

  3. Machinist's Mate J 1 and C: Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Publications Center, Memphis, TN.

    The rate training manual is one of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve studying for advancement from the Aviation Machinist's Mate ADJ2 rating to ADJ1 to ADJC. Aviation Machinist's Mates J maintain aircraft jet engines and their related systems. Chpater 1 discusses the enlisted rating…

  4. Disrupting mating behavior of Diaphorina citri (Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe economic damage from citrus greening disease, caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ bacteria, has stimulated development of methods to reduce mating and reproduction in populations of its insect vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Male D. citri find mating partners by walk...

  5. Mate Choice: Charting Desire's Tangled Bank.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Gil G

    2016-04-01

    Choosing a mate requires a way to turn sexual arousal into sexual action. A recent paper identifies a hormone receptor that acts as a molecular gatekeeper in reproductive decisions. Focusing on mate-choice mechanisms may clarify longstanding evolutionary puzzles in sexual selection and speciation. PMID:27046819

  6. Electrician's Mate 3 & 2: Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual provides information related to the tasks assigned to the Electrician's Mate Third and Second Class who operate and maintain power and lighting systems and associated equipment. Individual chapters deal with: career challenges for the Electrician's Mate, safety precautions, test equipment, electrical installations, A-C power…

  7. 46 CFR 11.497 - Mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mate (OSV). 11.497 Section 11.497 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.497 Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b)...

  8. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera)

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Terry W; Shearer, Tonya L; Smith, Hilary A; Kubanek, Julia; Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David B Mark

    2009-01-01

    , suggests that the repeats are kept nearly identical through a process of concerted evolution. Information-rich molecules like surface glycoproteins are well adapted for chemical communication and aquatic animals may have evolved signaling systems based on these compounds, whereas insects use cuticular hydrocarbons. Conclusion Owing to its critical role in mating, the mate recognition pheromone gene will be a useful molecular marker for exploring the mechanisms and rates of selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation using rotifers as a model system. The phylogenetic variation in the mate recognition pheromone gene can now be studied in conjunction with the large amount of ecological and population genetic data being gathered for the Brachionus plicatilis species complex to understand better the evolutionary drivers of cryptic speciation. PMID:19740420

  9. Facultative mate choice drives adaptive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, Karin S

    2007-11-01

    Mating with another species (hybridization) is often maladaptive. Consequently, females typically avoid heterospecifics as mates. Contrary to these expectations, female spadefoot toads were more likely to choose heterospecific males when exposed to environmental conditions that favor hybridization. Indeed, those females with phenotypic characteristics for which hybridization is most favorable were most likely to switch from choosing conspecifics to heterospecifics. Moreover, environmentally dependent mate choice has evolved only in populations and species that risk engaging in, and can potentially benefit from, hybridization. Thus, when the benefits of mate choice vary, females may radically alter their mate selection in response to their own phenotype and their environment, even to the point of choosing males of other species. PMID:17991861

  10. The mating game: do opposites really attract?

    PubMed

    Gow, Jennifer L

    2008-03-01

    When selecting a mate, females of many species face a complicated decision: choosing a very closely related mate will lead to inbreeding, while choosing a mate who is too genetically dissimilar risks breaking up beneficial gene complexes or local genetic adaptations. To ensure the best genetic quality of their offspring, the perfect compromise lies somewhere in between: an optimally genetically dissimilar partner. Empirical evidence demonstrating female preference for genetically dissimilar mates is proof of the adage 'opposites attract'. In stark contrast, Chandler & Zamudio (2008) show in this issue of Molecular Ecology that female spotted salamanders often choose males that are genetically more similar to themselves (although not if the males are small). Along with other recent work, these field studies highlight the broad spectrum of options available to females with respect to relatedness in their choice of mate that belies this rule of thumb. PMID:18266628

  11. Resources, attractiveness, family commitment; reproductive decisions in human mate choice.

    PubMed

    Bereczkei, T; Voros, S; Gal, A; Bernath, L

    1997-08-01

    This study of reproductive decisions in human mate selection used data from "lonely hearts" advertisements to examine a series of predictions based on the mate preferences of male and females relating to age; physical appearance; financial condition and socioeconomic status; family commitment and personal traits; short- and long-term mating; and marital status and preexisting children. The sample consisted of 1000 personal advertisements (500 male) placed in two daily, national papers between February and October 1994 in Hungary. The research procedure included a pilot study of 150 advertisers (75 male) to refine the categories examined. Analysis was performed using 1) a matrix with one axis referring to offers and the other to demands of males and females separately; 2) a matrix of offers only to derive correlated traits of claims by males and females; and 3) a matrix with columns describing sex, offers, demands, advertiser's age, and required age and a row for each of the 1000 samples. It was found that men preferred younger mates, while women preferred older ones. Men were more likely to seek physical attractiveness, while women were more likely to seek financial resources (ranked 7th) and high status (ranked 6th). Women strongly preferred male domestic virtue and family commitment, and twice as many women as men demanded long-term relationships. Women more frequently declared preexisting children, and men exhibited a reluctance to accept these children. Both males and females employed "trade-off" strategies, making greater demands if they felt they had attractive offers. PMID:12293453

  12. Small zooplankton sensing their environment: feeding, mating, and predator avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihongi, Ai

    2004-03-01

    Since zooplankton play a significant role at the base of the food web in aquatic environments, it is important to understand their feeding behaviors, mating behaviors, and predator avoidance. First, I will present the water flow regime of Daphnia. Using a high-speed video, I filmed how water with algae particles enters and leaves Daphnia, how the water flows within Daphnia and how the appendages of Daphnia work to produce the water flow. Second, I will discuss mate-searching behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods and Daphnia. Male and female zooplankters have to encounter each other for successful mating in 3D environment. I have observed the behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods from Lake Michigan. As a result, they showed different behaviors from other species studied. Likewise, I have observed differences in mate-searching behaviors of D. pulex and D. magna. Last, I will show the results of predator-prey interactions in D. pulex with kairomone, a chemical cue, from predatory fish using 3-D near infrared optical system. As experimental conditions, we used the following treatments: (a) no light/ no kairomone, (b) no light/ kairomone, (c) light/ no kairomone, and (d) light/ kairomone. While it appears that light and kairomone have an interactive effect on the swimming behaviors of Daphnia, light seems to be the most influential factor. The observed frequent spinning movements of D. pulex in a darkened tank with a predatory fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were successful predator avoidance maneuvers.

  13. Influence of mate drinking, hot beverages and diet on esophageal cancer risk in South America.

    PubMed

    Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; De Stefani, E; Victora, C G; Castelletto, R; Rolón, P A

    2000-11-15

    To estimate the effects of consuming hot beverages, including mate (an infusion of the herb Ilex paraguayensis), tea, coffee and coffee with milk, and other food items on esophageal cancer risk, we analyzed data from 830 cases and 1,779 controls participating in a series of 5 hospital-based case-control studies of squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus conducted in high-risk areas of South America. After adjusting for the strong effects of tobacco and alcohol consumption, both heavy mate drinking (>1 l/day) and self-reported very hot mate drinking were significantly associated with esophageal cancer risk in men and women. The magnitude and strength of the association for mate amount and, to a lesser extent, mate temperature were higher for women than men. The joint effects of mate amount and mate temperature were more than multiplicative, following a statistically significant synergistic interaction (p = 0.02) which was particularly evident among heavy drinkers (>1.50 l/day) of very hot mate (odds ratio = 4.14, 95% confidence interval: 2.24-7.67) compared to light drinkers (<0.50 l/day) of cold/warm/hot mate. Consumption of other very hot beverages, such as tea and coffee with milk but not coffee alone, was also significantly associated with an increased risk, in the 2- to 4-fold range. Statistically significant protective associations were identified for high consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals and tea. In contrast, frequent consumption of meat, animal fats and salt was associated with a moderately increased risk. This pooled analysis adds evidence for a carcinogenic effect of chronic thermal injury in the esophagus induced by the consumption of very hot drinks, including mate. Our study further confirms the protective effect of a dietary pattern characterized by daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and low consumption of meat and animal fats. PMID:11058886

  14. The mating behavior of Iguana iguana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodda, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Over a 19 month period I observed the social behaviors of individually recognized green iguanas, Iguana iguana, at three sites in the llanos of Venezuela. The behavior of iguanas outside the mating season differed from that seen during the mating season in three major ways: (1) during normal waking hours outside the breeding season, adult iguanas spent the majority of time immobile, apparently resting; (2) their interactions involved fewer high intensity displays; and (3) their day to day movements were often nomadic. During the mating season, one site was watched continuously during daylight hours (iguanas sleep throughout the night), allowing a complete count of all copulation attempts (N = 250) and territorial interactions. At all sites, dominant males controlled access to small mating territories. Within the territories there did not appear to be any resources needed by females or their offspring. Thus, females could choose mates directly on the basis of male phenotype. Females aggregated in the mating territories of the largest males and mated preferentially with them. Territorial males copulated only once per day, although on several occasions more than one resident female was receptive on the same day. A few small nonterritorial males exhibited pseudofemale behavior (i.e., they abstained from sexual competition), but most nonterritorial males stayed on the periphery of mating territories and attempted to force copulations on unguarded females (peripheral male behavior). Uncooperative females were mounted by as many as three males simultaneously. Females resisted 95% of the 200 observed mating attempts by peripheral males, but only 56% of the attempts by territorial males (N = 43). The selectivity of the females probably increased the genetic representation of the territorial males in the next generation. During the mating season females maintained a dominance hierarchy among themselves. Low ranked females tended to be excluded from preferred

  15. MHC genotype predicts mate choice in the ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus.

    PubMed

    Baratti, M; Dessì-Fulgheri, F; Ambrosini, R; Bonisoli-Alquati, A; Caprioli, M; Goti, E; Matteo, A; Monnanni, R; Ragionieri, L; Ristori, E; Romano, M; Rubolini, D; Scialpi, A; Saino, N

    2012-08-01

    Females of several vertebrate species selectively mate with males on the basis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. As androgen-mediated maternal effects have long-lasting consequences for the adult phenotype, both mating and reproductive success may depend on the combined effect of MHC genotype and exposure to androgens during early ontogeny. We studied how MHC-based mate choice in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) was influenced by an experimental in ovo testosterone (T) increase. There was no conclusive evidence of in ovo T treatment differentially affecting mate choice in relation to MHC genotype. However, females avoided mating with males with a wholly different MHC genotype compared with males sharing at least one MHC allele. Females also tended to avoid mating with MHC-identical males, though not significantly so. These findings suggest that female pheasants preferred males with intermediate MHC dissimilarity. Male MHC heterozygosity or diversity did not predict the expression of ornaments or male dominance rank. Thus, MHC-based mating preferences in the ring-necked pheasant do not seem to be mediated by ornaments' expression and may have evolved mainly to reduce the costs of high heterozygosity at MHC loci for the progeny, such as increased risk of autoimmune diseases or disruption of coadapted gene pools. PMID:22591334

  16. The evolution of mating type switching.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Kuijper, Bram

    2016-07-01

    Predictions about the evolution of sex determination mechanisms have mainly focused on animals and plants, whereas unicellular eukaryotes such as fungi and ciliates have received little attention. Many taxa within the latter groups can stochastically switch their mating type identity during vegetative growth. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that mating type switching overcomes distortions in the distribution of mating types due to drift during asexual growth. Using a computational model, we show that smaller population size, longer vegetative periods and more mating types lead to greater distortions in the distribution of mating types. However, the impact of these parameters on optimal switching rates is not straightforward. We find that longer vegetative periods cause reductions and considerable fluctuations in the switching rate over time. Smaller population size increases the strength of selection for switching but has little impact on the switching rate itself. The number of mating types decreases switching rates when gametes can freely sample each other, but increases switching rates when there is selection for speedy mating. We discuss our results in light of empirical work and propose new experiments that could further our understanding of sexuality in isogamous eukaryotes. PMID:27271362

  17. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates

    PubMed Central

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates. PMID:20219732

  18. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-07-22

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates. PMID:20219732

  19. Evolution of mating systems in coral reef gobies and constraints on mating system plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernaman, V.; Munday, P. L.

    2007-09-01

    Social and mating systems can be influenced by the distribution, abundance, and economic defendability of breeding partners and essential resources. Polygyny is predicted where males can economically defend multiple females or essential resources used by females. In contrast, monogamy is predicted where neither sex can monopolise multiple partners, either directly or through resource control, but where one mate is economically defendable. The mating system and reproductive behaviour of five species of coral reef goby were investigated and contrasted with population density and individual mobility. The two most abundant species ( Asterropteryx semipunctatus and Istigobius goldmanni) were polygynous. In contrast, the less populous and more widely dispersed epibenthic species ( Amblygobius bynoensis, Amblygobius phalaena and Valenciennea muralis) were pair forming and monogamous. All five species had low mobility, mostly remaining within metres (3 epibenthic species) or centimetres (2 cryptobenthic species) of a permanent shelter site. Interspecific differences in the mating system may have been shaped by differences in population density and the ability of reproductive individuals to economically defend breeding partners/sites. However, in a test of mating system plasticity, males of the three monogamous species did not mate polygynously when given the opportunity to do so in experimental manipulations of density and sex ratio. Mate guarding and complex spawning characteristics, which have likely co-evolved with the monogamous mating system, could contribute to mating system inflexibility by making polygynous mating unprofitable for individuals of the pair forming species, even when presented with current-day ecological conditions that usually favour polygyny.

  20. The fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi uses colour vision in mate choice.

    PubMed

    Detto, Tanya

    2007-11-22

    Although the role of colour in mate choice is well known, few tests of colour vision have been based on mating behaviour. Females of the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi have recently been shown to use claw coloration to recognize conspecific males. In this study I demonstrate that the females use colour vision for this task; preferentially approaching yellow claws over grey claws regardless of their intensity while failing to discriminate between yellow claws differing in intensity. This is one of only a handful of studies confirming the involvement of colour vision in mate choice and the first conclusive evidence in fiddler crabs. PMID:17848366

  1. The fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi uses colour vision in mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Detto, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Although the role of colour in mate choice is well known, few tests of colour vision have been based on mating behaviour. Females of the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi have recently been shown to use claw coloration to recognize conspecific males. In this study I demonstrate that the females use colour vision for this task; preferentially approaching yellow claws over grey claws regardless of their intensity while failing to discriminate between yellow claws differing in intensity. This is one of only a handful of studies confirming the involvement of colour vision in mate choice and the first conclusive evidence in fiddler crabs. PMID:17848366

  2. Worthless and Nutritive Nuptial Gifts: Mating Duration, Sperm Stored and Potential Female Decisions in Spiders.

    PubMed

    Albo, Maria J; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-01-01

    In nuptial gift-giving species females sometimes select their potential mates based on the presence and size of the gift. But in some species, such as the Neotropical polyandrous spider Paratrechalea ornate male gifts vary in quality, from nutritive to worthless, and this male strategy can be in conflict with female nutritional benefits. In this species, males without gifts experience a reduction in mating success and duration, while males that offer worthless or genuine nutritive gifts mate with similar frequencies and durations. The female apparently controls the duration of copulation. Thus, there is scope for females to favour males offering gifts and further if these are nutritious, via post-copulatory processes. We first tested whether females differentially store sperm from males that offer the highest nutritional benefits by experimentally presenting females with males that offer either nutritive or worthless gifts (uninterrupted matings). Second, we carried out another set of experiments to examine whether females can select sperm based only on gift presence. This time we interrupted matings after the first pedipalp insertion, thus matching number of insertions and mating duration for males that: offered and did not offer gift. Our results showed that the amount of sperm stored is positive related to mating duration in all groups, except in matings with worthless gifts. Gift presence itself did not affect the sperm stored by females, while they store similar number of sperm in matings with males offering either nutritive or worthless gifts. We discuss whether females prefer males with gifts regardless, if content, because it represents an attractive and/or reliable signal. Or alternatively, they prefer nutritive nuptial gifts, as they are an important source of food supply and/or signal of male donor ability. PMID:26107397

  3. Worthless and Nutritive Nuptial Gifts: Mating Duration, Sperm Stored and Potential Female Decisions in Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Albo, Maria J.; Peretti, Alfredo V.

    2015-01-01

    In nuptial gift-giving species females sometimes select their potential mates based on the presence and size of the gift. But in some species, such as the Neotropical polyandrous spider Paratrechalea ornate male gifts vary in quality, from nutritive to worthless, and this male strategy can be in conflict with female nutritional benefits. In this species, males without gifts experience a reduction in mating success and duration, while males that offer worthless or genuine nutritive gifts mate with similar frequencies and durations. The female apparently controls the duration of copulation. Thus, there is scope for females to favour males offering gifts and further if these are nutritious, via post-copulatory processes. We first tested whether females differentially store sperm from males that offer the highest nutritional benefits by experimentally presenting females with males that offer either nutritive or worthless gifts (uninterrupted matings). Second, we carried out another set of experiments to examine whether females can select sperm based only on gift presence. This time we interrupted matings after the first pedipalp insertion, thus matching number of insertions and mating duration for males that: offered and did not offer gift. Our results showed that the amount of sperm stored is positive related to mating duration in all groups, except in matings with worthless gifts. Gift presence itself did not affect the sperm stored by females, while they store similar number of sperm in matings with males offering either nutritive or worthless gifts. We discuss whether females prefer males with gifts regardless, if content, because it represents an attractive and/or reliable signal. Or alternatively, they prefer nutritive nuptial gifts, as they are an important source of food supply and/or signal of male donor ability. PMID:26107397

  4. Do female Nicrophorus vespilloides reduce direct costs by choosing males that mate less frequently?

    PubMed

    Hopwood, P E; Mazué, G P F; Carter, M J; Head, M L; Moore, A J; Royle, N J

    2016-03-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when selection to maximize fitness in one sex does so at the expense of the other sex. In the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, repeated mating provides assurance of paternity at a direct cost to female reproductive productivity. To reduce this cost, females could choose males with low repeated mating rates or smaller, servile males. We tested this by offering females a dichotomous choice between males from lines selected for high or low mating rate. Each female was then allocated her preferred or non-preferred male to breed. Females showed no preference for males based on whether they came from lines selected for high or low mating rates. Pairs containing males from high mating rate lines copulated more often than those with low line males but there was a negative relationship between female size and number of times she mated with a non-preferred male. When females bred with their preferred male the number of offspring reared increased with female size but there was no such increase when breeding with non-preferred males. Females thus benefited from being choosy, but this was not directly attributable to avoidance of costly male repeated mating. PMID:26979560

  5. Variation in mate-recognition pheromones of the fungal genus Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    Xu, L; Petit, E; Hood, M E

    2016-01-01

    Mate recognition is an essential life-cycle stage that exhibits strong conservation in function, whereas diversification of mating signals can contribute directly to the integrity of species boundaries through assortative mating. Fungi are simple models, where compatibility is based on the recognition of pheromone peptides by corresponding receptor proteins, but clear patterns of diversification have not emerged from the species examined, which are few compared with mate signaling studies in plant and animal systems. In this study, candidate loci from Microbotryum species were used to characterize putative pheromones that were synthesized and found to be functional across multiple species in triggering a mating response in vitro. There is no significant correlation between the strength of a species' response and its genetic distance from the pheromone sequence source genome. Instead, evidence suggests that species may be strong or weak responders, influenced by environmental conditions or developmental differences. Gene sequence comparisons reveals very strong purifying selection on the a1 pheromone peptide and corresponding receptor, but significantly less purifying selection on the a2 pheromone peptide that corresponds with more variation across species in the receptor. This represents an exceptional case of a reciprocally interacting mate-recognition system in which the two mating types are under different levels of purifying selection. PMID:26306729

  6. Drosophila melanogaster virgins are more likely to mate with strangers than familiar flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ödeen, Anders; Moray, Clea M.

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence shows that females of many species can discriminate against males and/or male phenotypes they have mated with previously. However, these studies have not tested whether actual mating is necessary to induce the avoidance behaviour. A preference for strangers may have evolved because it avoids multiple matings with similar genotypes. Alternatively, there may be selection against mating with familiar individuals directly. By choosing its first mate among unfamiliar individuals (which are less likely close relatives than are those encountered early in life), a virgin might disentangle some of the potential benefits of avoiding genetic incompatibility and inbreeding in the offspring from the costs of remating. In this study, we test whether Drosophila melanogaster flies bias their mate choice towards strangers according to previous, non-copulatory, experience. Based on 173 trials over 12 weeks, virgin females presented with two virgin males were 59% more likely to mate with a novel male than the one which she had been housed with for 8 h the day before. Hence we present the first report showing that a dipteran can distinguish between previously encountered and not previously encountered conspecifics.

  7. Hotshots, hotspots, and female preference in the organization of lek mating systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beehler, B.M.; Foster, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    We critically review the female-preference and hotspot models, the two most widely accepted recent explanations of lek organization. On the basis of what we believe are the inadequacies of these models-too great a reliance on the presumed acuity of female discrimination, the assumption that females have full freedom of choice within the lek, and insufficient recognition of the importance of male-male interactions-we develop an alternative set of hypotheses, which we call the hotshot model, to explain the development and maintenance of lek behavior. Our model attributes strong male mating skew to the interaction between (1) simplified and conservative mating rules of females and (2) social dominance among males. We demonstrate the importance of male-male dominance relationships in lek and non-lek court mating systems. We then argue that a strong mating skew among males forces novice males entering a population to adopt a long-term mating strategy that involves delayed breeding (floating) and subordinate lek behavior. The structure of leks is created by a complex of malemale interactions, with conflict between hotshots (who attempt to control lek mating) and subordinates, who may benefit from disrupting lek activities. Explanations for the number of males in an arena and inter-arena distances are based on modifications of the hotspot and female-preference models. We suggest specific field tests to help distinguish which hypothesis best models the behavioral interactions that produce lek mating.

  8. Do female Nicrophorus vespilloides reduce direct costs by choosing males that mate less frequently?

    PubMed Central

    Mazué, G. P. F.; Carter, M. J.; Head, M. L.; Moore, A. J.; Royle, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when selection to maximize fitness in one sex does so at the expense of the other sex. In the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, repeated mating provides assurance of paternity at a direct cost to female reproductive productivity. To reduce this cost, females could choose males with low repeated mating rates or smaller, servile males. We tested this by offering females a dichotomous choice between males from lines selected for high or low mating rate. Each female was then allocated her preferred or non-preferred male to breed. Females showed no preference for males based on whether they came from lines selected for high or low mating rates. Pairs containing males from high mating rate lines copulated more often than those with low line males but there was a negative relationship between female size and number of times she mated with a non-preferred male. When females bred with their preferred male the number of offspring reared increased with female size but there was no such increase when breeding with non-preferred males. Females thus benefited from being choosy, but this was not directly attributable to avoidance of costly male repeated mating. PMID:26979560

  9. Testing for mating isolation between ecotypes: laboratory experiments with lake, stream and hybrid stickleback.

    PubMed

    Raeymaekers, J A M; Boisjoly, M; Delaire, L; Berner, D; Räsänen, K; Hendry, A P

    2010-12-01

    Mating isolation is a frequent contributor to ecological speciation - but how consistently does it evolve as a result of divergent selection? We tested for genetically based mating isolation between lake and stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) from the Misty watershed, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. We combined several design elements that are uncommon in the studies of stickleback mate choice: (i) we used second-generation laboratory-reared fish (to reduce environmental and maternal effects), (ii) we allowed for male-male competitive interactions (instead of the typical no-choice trials) and (iii) we included hybrids along with pure types. Males of different types (Lake, Inlet, hybrid) were paired in aquaria, allowed to build nests and then exposed sequentially to females of all three types. We found that Lake and Inlet males differed in behaviours thought to influence stickleback mate choice (inter- and intra-sexual aggression, display and nest activities), whereas hybrids were either intermediate or apparently 'inferior' in these behaviours. Despite these differences, Lake and Inlet fish did not mate assortatively and hybrid males did not have a mating disadvantage. Our study reinforces the noninevitability of mating isolation evolving in response to ecological differences and highlights the need to further investigate the factors promoting and constraining progress towards ecological speciation. PMID:20939859

  10. Male dominance, female mate choice, and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Casalini, Mara; Agbali, Muna; Reichard, Martin; Konecná, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, Carl

    2009-02-01

    An intersexual conflict arises when males and females differ in their reproductive interests. Although experimental studies have shown that females often mate with dominant males, it may not always be in the interest of a female to do so. Here we investigated the impact of male dominance on female mate choice and offspring growth and survival in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), a freshwater fish with a resource-based mating system. Three experimental mating trials were conducted using males of known dominance rank, but with different levels of constraint on male behavior. Thus, females were able to choose among; (1) males that were isolated from each other; (2) males that could see and smell each other, but could not directly interact; (3) males that could interact fully. Using a combination of behavioral observation and parentage analyses it was shown that female preferences did not correspond with male dominance and that male aggression and dominance constrained female mate choice, resulting in a potential intersexual conflict. The survival of offspring to independence was significantly correlated with female mate preferences, but not with male dominance. A lack of strong congruence in female preference for males suggested a role for parental haplotype compatibility in mate choice. PMID:19154367

  11. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene and dietary protein on male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating success.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Cáceres, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Teal, Peter; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Stauffer, Christian; Robinson, Alan S

    2010-11-01

    The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating success and influenced the mating behaviour. Treatment with methoprene (M+) to protein-deprived (P-) males had only a modest effect on the acceleration of sexual maturity, but application of methoprene (M+) to protein-fed (P+) males greatly accelerated sexual maturity. Protein diet (P+) increased mating success of males in comparison to protein-deprived (P-) males. Protein and methoprene have a synergistic effect on mating behaviour, since M+P+ treated males exhibit reduced mating latency and achieved higher mating in younger ages than methoprene and/or protein-deprived males. Copulation duration was correlated with nutritional status and M+P+ males copulated longer at the age of advanced sexual maturity than M-P+ males. Our results suggest that in this species with a lek mating system, females discriminate between the males based on their sexual signals, which were influenced by protein in the adult diet, methoprene application and age. The results are discussed in the light of mating competitiveness of precocious treated young males and their relevance to Sterile Insect Technique application against this pest species. PMID:20438735

  12. Soyuz TMA-05M Spacecraft Mating

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft and booster are seen at the Integration Facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan July 11, 2012 during the mating of the upper stages of the vehicle to the firs...

  13. 46 CFR 12.25-40 - Apprentice mate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Apprentice mate. 12.25-40 Section 12.25-40 Shipping... Department § 12.25-40 Apprentice mate. A person enrolled in an apprentice mate training program approved by... that he is so enrolled may be issued an endorsement as apprentice mate and may be signed on ships...

  14. 46 CFR 12.25-40 - Apprentice mate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Apprentice mate. 12.25-40 Section 12.25-40 Shipping... Department § 12.25-40 Apprentice mate. A person enrolled in an apprentice mate training program approved by... that he is so enrolled may be issued an endorsement as apprentice mate and may be signed on ships...

  15. 46 CFR 12.25-40 - Apprentice mate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Apprentice mate. 12.25-40 Section 12.25-40 Shipping... Department § 12.25-40 Apprentice mate. A person enrolled in an apprentice mate training program approved by... that he is so enrolled may be issued an endorsement as apprentice mate and may be signed on ships...

  16. The mating system of the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica: selfing and self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Marra, R E; Milgroom, M G

    2001-02-01

    Although the genetic components of mating systems in fungi are well understood as laboratory phenomena, surprisingly little is known about their function in nature or about their role in determining mating patterns and population genetic structure. Our study of the mating system of the haploid ascomycete fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, resulted in the following. (1) Laboratory crosses among 20 isolates, chosen randomly from North America and China, resolved into two incompatibility groups (occurring on both continents), confirming that C. parasitica has a diallelic, bipolar sexual self-incompatibility system, typical of other self-incompatible Ascomycetes, in which mating is only successful between isolates of opposite mating type. (2) PCR-based markers for mating-type alleles correlated perfectly with mating-type phenotypes of individual isolates. (3) Three genotypes, isolated from natural populations in Virginia and West Virginia, were inoculated onto chestnut trees in two sites in West Virginia and were confirmed to have self-fertilized and outcrossed in both sites. (4) Ten isolates, of a total of over 200 assayed, were confirmed to have self-fertilized in the laboratory, albeit at very low frequency. Five of these 10 isolates were ramets of a single genet, suggesting a genetic basis underlying the proclivity to self-fertilize in the laboratory. (5) Self-fertilization could not be induced in the laboratory with exudates (ostensibly containing pheromones) from isolates of opposite mating type. These results demonstrate that, a sexual self-incompatibility system notwithstanding, self-fertilization occurs under both laboratory and field conditions in C. parasitica. The disparity between observations of frequent selfing in nature and rare selfing in the laboratory suggests that the mating system is under ecological as well as genetic control. PMID:11380658

  17. Advanced Mating System Development for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of space flight sealing and the work required for the further development of a dynamic interface seal for the use on space mating systems to support a fully androgynous mating interface. This effort has resulted in the advocacy of developing a standard multipurpose interface for use with all modern modular space architecture. This fully androgynous design means a seal-on-seal (SOS) system.

  18. Likelihood of multiple mating in Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungkoo; Krupke, Christian H

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the mating ability of male western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), for 20 d after initial mating, using a series of laboratory experiments. Males mated an average of 2.24 times within 10 d after their first mating and averaged 0.15 matings between days 11 and 20 after their first mating. Because estimating the mating frequency in Bt/refuge cornfields is critical to developing robust and reliable models predicting Bt resistance development in this pest, we discuss how these laboratory findings may influence development and evaluation of current and future insect resistance management plans. PMID:20069837

  19. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples. PMID:9107005

  20. The Phytophthora mating hormone α2 is an antagonist of the counterhormone α1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yajima, Arata; Ojika, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    The crop destroyer Phytophthora uses mating hormones α1 and α2 to commence its sexual reproduction. The α1-induced sexual reproduction of the A2 mating type was unexpectedly found to be interfered with by the counterhormone α2 that the A2 type itself produces to induce the sexual reproduction of the A1 type. A plausible mechanism is proposed based on structure-activity relationships. PMID:27023077

  1. Honey Bee Mating Optimization Vector Quantization Scheme in Image Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Ming-Huwi

    The vector quantization is a powerful technique in the applications of digital image compression. The traditionally widely used method such as the Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm always generated local optimal codebook. Recently, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adapted to obtain the near-global optimal codebook of vector quantization. In this paper, we applied a new swarm algorithm, honey bee mating optimization, to construct the codebook of vector quantization. The proposed method is called the honey bee mating optimization based LBG (HBMO-LBG) algorithm. The results were compared with the other two methods that are LBG and PSO-LBG algorithms. Experimental results showed that the proposed HBMO-LBG algorithm is more reliable and the reconstructed images get higher quality than those generated form the other three methods.

  2. Simple Model of Mating Preference and Extinction Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PȨKALSKI, Andrzej

    We present a simple model of a population of individuals characterized by their genetic structure in the form of a double string of bits and the phenotype following from it. The population is living in an unchanging habitat preferring a certain type of phenotype (optimum). Individuals are unisex, however a pair is necessary for breeding. An individual rejects a mate if the latter's phenotype contains too many bad, i.e. different from the optimum, genes in the same places as the individual's. We show that such strategy, analogous to disassortative mating based on the major histocompatibility complex, avoiding inbreeding and incest, could be beneficial for the population and could reduce considerably the extinction risk, especially in small populations.

  3. Good mates retain us right: investigating the relationship between mate retention strategies, mate value, and relationship satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Salkicevic, Svjetlana; Stanic, Ajana L; Grabovac, Masa T

    2014-01-01

    Mate retention strategies are an important tool in keeping a partner, and their use is determined by the mate value (MV) of the partner one is trying to keep. The type of strategy used is also dependent on one's own MV: mates of lower MV are more prone to exhibiting strategies that are cost-inflicting for their partners, whereas partner-benefiting strategies are used by mates of higher value. The type of strategies used affects relationship satisfaction (RS), and is also affected by the perceived difference in MVs. However, it is unclear how someone's perception of their partner's MV is related to that partner's behavior and their own RS. To this aim, we investigated the relationship between these variables on a sample of 178 couples. Our results showed that benefit-inducing strategies were used more by--and towards--partners of higher MV, and were positively connected with RS. Cost-inflicting strategies were more used by--and towards--partners of lower MV, and were negatively connected with RS. Less MV difference was positively correlated with RS and benefiting strategies, and negatively correlated with cost-inflicting strategies. It seems that good mates use strategies that benefit their partners, which, in turn, make them more valuable and, consequently, their partner more satisfied. PMID:25481238

  4. The multiple signals assessed by female satin bowerbirds: could they be used to narrow down females' choices of mates?

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Timothy E; Goldizen, Anne W; Green, David J

    2005-01-01

    Female choice based on multiple male traits has been documented in many species but the functions of such multiple traits are still under debate. The satin bowerbird has a polygynous mating system in which males attract females to bowers for mating; females choose mates based on multiple aspects of males and their bowers. In this paper, we demonstrate that females use some cues to decide which males to examine closely and other cues to decide which males to mate with. Female visitation rates to bowers were significantly related to male size and the males' ‘solitary’ display rates, and, to a lesser extent, to the numbers of bower decorations. After controlling for female visitation rates, it was found that a male's mating success was significantly related to his size and the rate at which he ‘painted’ his bower with saliva and chewed up plant material. PMID:17148183

  5. Above and beyond short-term mating, long-term mating is uniquely tied to human personality.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Nicholas S; Strube, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To what extent are personality traits and sexual strategies linked? The literature does not provide a clear answer, as it is based on the Sociosexuality model, a one-dimensional model that fails to measure long-term mating (LTM). An improved two-dimensional model separately assesses long-term and short-term mating (STM; Jackson and Kirkpatrick, 2007). In this paper, we link this two-dimensional model to an array of personality traits (Big 5, Dark Triad, and Schizoid Personality). We collected data from different sources (targets and peers; Study 1), and from different nations (United States, Study 1; India, Study 2). We demonstrate for the first time that, above and beyond STM, LTM captures variation in personality. PMID:24342881

  6. Comprehensive View of the Human Mating Process Among Young Couples in Isfahan-Iran: An Explanatory Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Merghati Khoei, Effat; Ziaei, Tayebe; Salehi, Mehrdad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Heterosexual relationship is the main component of mate selection. Regardless of the importance of mate favorites, little is known about exact valued criteria in potential mates. Objectives: This study was designed to comprehensively explain the theoretical view of the human mating process. Materials and Methods: This was as an explanatory mixed–method study. The first phase was a cross-sectional quantitative study with two Farsi-modified versions of instruments: preferences concerning potential mates and factors of choosing a mate; content analysis was the second phase. The quantitative phase of this study consisted of 202 dating couples, decided to get married. The qualitative phase consisted of 28 participants who acquired the extreme scores (highest and lowest) in the first phase. Results: Average age of marriage for women and men was 23.04 and 26.41 respectively; the actual age difference was 3.37 years (women younger than men). The results of this study in support of evolution-based theory explained that, age is a preference and choosing an older husband and a younger wife is due to having reproductive capacity. Also, they mentioned that appearance is necessary for men because of sexual attraction, not as a prediction for the next generation appearance. In both phases of this study, both genders had a strong emphasis on “chastity” in a potential mate. Results showed that, men preferred a mate who was a good housewife, capable of cooking, and women preferred a mate with “Good earning capacity”, “Good financial prospect” “university education”, “Favorable social status” and “Industriousness”. Conclusions: The results confirmed that for a comprehensive view in human mating process, we need a combined theoretical approach as well as qualitative and quantitative study to explore the real meaning of each preference in a mate. PMID:24693380

  7. Targeting male mosquito mating behaviour for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Diabate, Abdoulaye; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Malaria vector control relies heavily on the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). These, together with the combined drug administration efforts to control malaria, have reduced the death toll to less than 700,000 deaths/year. This progress has engendered real excitement but the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is challenging our ability to sustain and consolidate the substantial gains that have been made. Research is required to discover novel vector control tools that can supplement and improve the effectiveness of those currently available. Here, we argue that recent and continuing progress in our understanding of male mating biology is instrumental in the implementation of new approaches based on the release of either conventional sterile or genetically engineered males. Importantly, further knowledge of male biology could also lead to the development of new interventions, such as sound traps and male mass killing in swarms, and contribute to new population sampling tools. We review and discuss recent advances in the behavioural ecology of male mating with an emphasis on the potential applications that can be derived from such knowledge. We also highlight those aspects of male mating ecology that urgently require additional study in the future. PMID:26113015

  8. Condition-dependent mate choice: A stochastic dynamic programming approach.

    PubMed

    Frame, Alicia M; Mills, Alex F

    2014-09-01

    We study how changing female condition during the mating season and condition-dependent search costs impact female mate choice, and what strategies a female could employ in choosing mates to maximize her own fitness. We address this problem via a stochastic dynamic programming model of mate choice. In the model, a female encounters males sequentially and must choose whether to mate or continue searching. As the female searches, her own condition changes stochastically, and she incurs condition-dependent search costs. The female attempts to maximize the quality of the offspring, which is a function of the female's condition at mating and the quality of the male with whom she mates. The mating strategy that maximizes the female's net expected reward is a quality threshold. We compare the optimal policy with other well-known mate choice strategies, and we use simulations to examine how well the optimal policy fares under imperfect information. PMID:24996205

  9. Exploration and mating range in African Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Hewlett, B

    1982-07-01

    The distributions of exploration range and of mating range were studied among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic. Exploration range is defined and methods of estimation for single individuals suggested. A simple exponential distribution is found for individual Aka Pygmies, with variation of exploration range (the parameter defining mobility) with sex, age and ethnic affiliation. Distribution of distances from birthplace and place of residence are compared and show modest differences. The frequency of visits to a given place has also been studied. The average distance between birthplaces of mates is very similar to the mean exploration range. Correlations between individual exploration and mating ranges suggest that it is the male who may be choosing a marriage partner among Pygmies. A theory by Boyce, Küchemann & Harrison (1967) on the relations between "neighbourhood knowledge" and mating distance is inapplicable because of its reliance on the Pareto distribution, which does not apply in the present case, and of other unnecessary assumptions, but the general principle of a close relationship between exploratory activity and mating distance seems valid, at least in the present case. Suggestions are made for causes for the difference between the present distributions and those with other shapes observed in less primitive economies. PMID:7125597

  10. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  11. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner’s mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  12. Identification of the Mating-Type (MAT) Locus That Controls Sexual Reproduction of Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Walton, Eric; Averette, Anna Floyd; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Cuomo, Christina A.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungal pathogen that primarily causes blastomycosis in the midwestern and northern United States and Canada. While the genes controlling sexual development have been known for a long time, the genes controlling sexual reproduction of B. dermatitidis (teleomorph, Ajellomyces dermatitidis) are unknown. We identified the mating-type (MAT) locus in the B. dermatitidis genome by comparative genomic approaches. The B. dermatitidis MAT locus resembles those of other dimorphic fungi, containing either an alpha-box (MAT1-1) or an HMG domain (MAT1-2) gene linked to the APN2, SLA2, and COX13 genes. However, in some strains of B. dermatitidis, the MAT locus harbors transposable elements (TEs) that make it unusually large compared to the MAT locus of other dimorphic fungi. Based on the MAT locus sequences of B. dermatitidis, we designed specific primers for PCR determination of the mating type. Two B. dermatitidis isolates of opposite mating types were cocultured on mating medium. Immature sexual structures were observed starting at 3 weeks of coculture, with coiled-hyphae-containing cleistothecia developing over the next 3 to 6 weeks. Genetic recombination was detected in potential progeny by mating-type determination, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses, suggesting that a meiotic sexual cycle might have been completed. The F1 progeny were sexually fertile when tested with strains of the opposite mating type. Our studies provide a model for the evolution of the MAT locus in the dimorphic and closely related fungi and open the door to classic genetic analysis and studies on the possible roles of mating and mating type in infection and virulence. PMID:23143684

  13. Mating-induced differential coding of plant odour and sex pheromone in a male moth.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, Romina B; Jarriault, David; Deisig, Nina; Gemeno, Cesar; Monsempes, Christelle; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2011-05-01

    Innate behaviours in animals can be influenced by several factors, such as the environment, experience, or physiological status. This behavioural plasticity originates from changes in the underlying neuronal substrate. A well-described form of plasticity is induced by mating. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, males experience a post-ejaculatory refractory period, during which they avoid new females. In the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, mating induces a transient inhibition of responses to the female-produced sex pheromone. To understand the neural bases of this inhibition and its possible odour specificity, we carried out a detailed analysis of the response characteristics of the different neuron types from the periphery to the central level. We examined the response patterns of pheromone-sensitive and plant volatile-sensitive neurons in virgin and mated male moths. By using intracellular recordings, we showed that mating changes the response characteristics of pheromone-sensitive antennal lobe (AL) neurons, and thus decreases their sensitivity to sex pheromone. Individual olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) recordings and calcium imaging experiments indicated that pheromone sensory input remains constant. On the other hand, calcium responses to non-pheromonal odours (plant volatiles) increased after mating, as reflected by increased firing frequencies of plant-sensitive AL neurons, although ORN responses to heptanal remained unchanged. We suggest that differential processing of pheromone and plant odours allows mated males to transiently block their central pheromone detection system, and increase non-pheromonal odour detection in order to efficiently locate food sources. PMID:21488987

  14. MATE-asizing existing test equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, R.

    MATE embodies the planned business approach of the Air Force for procuring test equipment, taking into account also a test system architecture and a set of standards to define interfaces between test system components. The procurement philosophy employed requires all interested system component suppliers to create components consistent with MATE requirements. The selected components must meet the testing requirements of a particular test system with the lowest projected Life Cycle Costs (LCC). The present investigation is concerned with the Test Modules and Test Module Adapters (TMAs). The test modules perform traditional stimulus and sensor test functions. Attention is given to major MATE test module requirements, the Control Interface Intermediate Language (CIIL), considerations regarding external vs internal TMA functions, LCC, and synchronization methods.

  15. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes. PMID:26787874

  16. Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Clegg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    There is an evolutionary puzzle surrounding the persistence of schizophrenia, since it is substantially heritable and associated with sharply reduced fitness. However, some of the personality traits which are predictive of schizophrenia are also associated with artistic creativity. Geoffrey Miller has proposed that artistic creativity functions to attract mates. Here, we investigate the relationship between schizotypal personality traits, creative activity, and mating success in a large sample of British poets, visual artists, and other adults. We show that two components of schizotypy are positively correlated with mating success. For one component, this relationship is mediated by creative activity. Results are discussed in terms of the evolution of human creativity and the genesis of schizophrenia. PMID:16537133

  17. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-02-23

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes. PMID:26787874

  18. Tuber melanosporum: mating type distribution in a natural plantation and dynamics of strains of different mating types on the roots of nursery-inoculated host plants.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

    2011-02-01

    • In light of the recent finding that Tuber melanosporum, the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that produces the most highly prized black truffles, is a heterothallic species, we monitored the spatial distribution of strains with opposite mating types (MAT) in a natural truffle ground and followed strain dynamics in artificially inoculated host plants grown under controlled conditions. • In a natural truffle ground, ectomycorrhizas (ECMs), soil samples and fruit bodies were sampled and genotyped to determine mating types. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also used to fingerprint ECMs and fruit bodies. The ECMs from nursery-inoculated host plants were analysed for mating type at 6 months and 19 months post-inoculation. • In open-field conditions, all ECMs from the same sampling site showed an identical mating type and an identical haploid genotype, based on SSR analysis. Interestingly, the gleba of fruit bodies always demonstrated the same genotype as the surrounding ECMs. Although root tips from nursery-grown plants initially developed ECMs of both mating types, a dominance of ECMs of the same MAT were found after several months. • The present study deepens our understanding of the vegetative and sexual propagation modes of T. melanosporum. These results are highly relevant for truffle cultivation. PMID:20964691

  19. Is human mating adventitious or the result of lawful choice? A twin study of mate selection.

    PubMed

    Lykken, D T; Tellegen, A

    1993-07-01

    Pairs of middle-aged twins and their spouses provided data on 74 mainly psychological variables. Neither spousal similarity nor idiosyncratic criteria could account for specific mate selection in these 738 couples. Of the twins (and their spouses), 547 independently rated their initial attraction to their twin's mate (or to their spouse's twin): Findings suggest that characteristics both of the chooser and the chosen constrain mate selection only weakly. This article proposes that it is romantic infatuation that commonly determines the final choice from a broad field of potential eligibles and that this phenomenon is inherently random, in the same sense as is imprinting in precocial birds. PMID:8355143

  20. Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen E; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2006-01-01

    Mammals and birds regularly express mate preferences and make mate choices. Data on mate choice among mammals suggest that this behavioural ‘attraction system’ is associated with dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a human cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To begin to determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic attraction in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study 17 people who were intensely ‘in love’. Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the brainstem right ventral tegmental area and right postero-dorsal body of the caudate nucleus. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward and motivation pathways contribute to aspects of romantic love. We also used fMRI to study 15 men and women who had just been rejected in love. Preliminary analysis showed activity specific to the beloved in related regions of the reward system associated with monetary gambling for uncertain large gains and losses, and in regions of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex associated with theory of mind, obsessive/compulsive behaviours and controlling anger. These data contribute to our view that romantic love is one of the three primary brain systems that evolved in avian and mammalian species to direct reproduction. The sex drive evolved to motivate individuals to seek a range of mating partners; attraction evolved to motivate individuals to prefer and pursue specific partners; and attachment evolved to motivate individuals to remain together long enough to complete species-specific parenting duties. These three behavioural repertoires appear to be based on brain systems that are largely distinct yet interrelated, and they interact in specific ways to orchestrate reproduction, using both hormones and monoamines. Romantic attraction in humans and its antecedent in other mammalian species play a primary role: this neural mechanism

  1. Substrate-dependent inhibition of human MATE1 by cationic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guerrero, Lucy J; Wright, Stephen H

    2013-09-01

    The multidrug and toxin extruders 1- and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K) are expressed in the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubule cells and provide the active step in the secretion of molecules that carry a net positive charge at physiologic pH, so-called organic cations. The present study tested whether structurally distinct MATE substrates can display different quantitative profiles of inhibition when interacting with structurally distinct ligands. The tested ligands were three structurally similar cationic ionic liquids (ILs, salts in the liquid state: N-butylpyridinium, NBuPy; 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium, Bmim; and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, BmPy). Uptake was measured using Chinese hamster ovary cells that stably expressed MATE1 or MATE2-K. By trans-stimulation, all three ILs were transported by both MATE transporters. The three ILs also inhibited uptake of three structurally distinct MATE substrates: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), triethylmethylammonium (TEMA), and N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][1,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino]ethanaminium (NBD-MTMA). MATE1 displayed a higher affinity for the pyridinium-based NBuPy (IC50 values, 2-4 µM) than for either the pyrrolidinium- (BmPy; 20-70 µM) or imidazolium-based ILs (Bmim; 15-60 µM). Inhibition of MPP, TEMA, and NBD-MTMA transport by NBuPy was competitive, with comparable Ki values against all substrates. Bmim also competitively blocked the three substrates but with Ki values that differed significantly (20 µM against MPP and 30 µM against NBD-MTMA versus 60 µM against TEMA). Together, these data indicate that renal secretion of ILs by the human kidney involves MATE transporters and suggest that the mechanism of transport inhibition is ligand-dependent, supporting the hypothesis that the binding of substrates to MATE transporters involves interaction with a binding surface with multiple binding sites. PMID:23785176

  2. The evolution of female mate choice by sexual conflict.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilets, S.; Arnqvist, G.; Friberg, U.

    2001-01-01

    Although empirical evidence has shown that many male traits have evolved via sexual selection by female mate choice, our understanding of the adaptive value of female mating preferences is still very incomplete. It has recently been suggested that female mate choice may result from females evolving resistance rather than attraction to males, but this has been disputed. Here, we develop a quantitative genetic model showing that sexual conflict over mating indeed results in the joint evolution of costly female mate choice and exaggerated male traits under a wide range of circumstances. In contrast to tradition explanations of costly female mate choice, which rely on indirect genetic benefits, our model shows that mate choice can be generated as a side-effect of females evolving to reduce the direct costs of mating. PMID:11296866

  3. Molecular Determinants of Ligand Selectivity for the Human Multidrug and Toxin Extruder Proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Bethzaida; Ekins, Sean; Morales, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs had similar apparent affinities for MPP, with Ktapp values of 4.4 and 3.7 μM for MATE1 and MATE2-K, respectively. Selectivity was assessed for both transporters from IC50 values for 59 structurally diverse compounds. Whereas the two transporters discriminated markedly between a few of the test compounds, the IC50 values for MATE1 and MATE2-K were within a factor of 3 for most of them. For hMATE1 there was little or no correlation between IC50 values and the individual molecular descriptors LogP, total polar surface area, or pKa. The IC50 values were used to generate a common-features pharmacophore, quantitative pharmacophores for hMATE1, and a Bayesian model suggesting molecular features favoring and not favoring the interaction of ligands with hMATE1. The models identified hydrophobic regions, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor sites, and an ionizable (cationic) feature as key determinants for ligand binding to MATE1. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, MATE1 and MATE2-K were found to have markedly overlapping selectivities for a broad range of cationic compounds, including representatives from seven novel drug classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs. PMID:22419765

  4. Mate desertion in the snail kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beissinger, S.R.; Snyder, N.F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mate desertion during the breeding cycle was documented at 28 of 36 (78%) snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis nests in Florida between 1979 and 1983. Offspring mortality occurred at only one deserted nest, however. Parents that were deserted by their mates continued to care for their young until independence (3?5 additional weeks) and provided snails at a rate similar to that of both parents combined before desertion. Males and females deserted with nearly equal frequency, except in 1982 when more females deserted. No desertion occurred during drought years, whereas desertion occurred at nearly every nest during favourable conditions. The occurrence of mate desertion was generally related to indirect measures of snail abundance: foraging range, snail delivery rates to the young and growth rates. Small broods were deserted more frequently by females than by males and tended to be deserted earlier than large ones. After desertion, deserters had the opportunity to re-mate and nest again since breeding seasons were commonly lengthy, but whether they did so was impossible to determine conclusively in most cases. The deserted bird sometimes incurred increased energetic costs and lost breeding opportunities during periods of monoparental care.

  5. Mate loss in winter and mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lercel, B.A.; Kaminski, R.M.; Cox, R.R., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) frequently pair during winter, and duck hunting seasons have been extended until the end of January in several southern states in the Mississippi Flyway. Therefore, we simulated dissolution of pair bonds from natural or hunting mortality by removing mates of wild-strain, captive, yearling female mallards in late January 1996 and early February 1997 to test if mate loss in winter would affect subsequent pair formation and reproductive performance. Most (97%) widowed females paired again. Nesting and incubation frequencies, nest-initiation date, days between first and second nests, and egg mass did not differ (P > 0.126) between widowed and control (i.e., no mate loss experienced) females in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, widowed females laid 1.91 fewer eggs in first nests (P = 0.014) and 3.75 fewer viable eggs in second nests (P = 0.056). Computer simulations with a mallard productivity model (incorporating default parameters [i.e., average environmental conditions]) indicated that the observed decreased clutch size of first nests, fewer viable eggs in second nests, and these factors combined had potential to decrease recruitment rates of yearling female mallards 9%, 12%, and 20%. Our results indicate that winter mate loss could reduce reproductive performance by yearling female mallards in some years. We suggest caution regarding extending duck hunting seasons in winter without concurrent evaluations of harvest and demographics of mallard and other duck populations.

  6. Female mate choice in a neotropical frog.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M J

    1980-07-25

    Female Physalaemus pustulosus choose their mates and are more likely to choose larger males. There is a significant negative correlation between the size of the male and the fundamental frequency of one of the components of its advertisement call. Playback experiments demonstrate that females are capable of choosing larger males by distinguishing among differences in spectral components of the advertisement call. PMID:17831371

  7. Disruptive ecological selection on a mating cue.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Richard M; Wallbank, Richard W R; Bull, Vanessa; Salazar, Patricio C A; Mallet, James; Stevens, Martin; Jiggins, Chris D

    2012-12-22

    Adaptation to divergent ecological niches can result in speciation. Traits subject to disruptive selection that also contribute to non-random mating will facilitate speciation with gene flow. Such 'magic' or 'multiple-effect' traits may be widespread and important for generating biodiversity, but strong empirical evidence is still lacking. Although there is evidence that putative ecological traits are indeed involved in assortative mating, evidence that these same traits are under divergent selection is considerably weaker. Heliconius butterfly wing patterns are subject to positive frequency-dependent selection by predators, owing to aposematism and Müllerian mimicry, and divergent colour patterns are used by closely related species to recognize potential mates. The amenability of colour patterns to experimental manipulation, independent of other traits, presents an excellent opportunity to test their role during speciation. We conducted field experiments with artificial butterflies, designed to match natural butterflies with respect to avian vision. These were complemented with enclosure trials with live birds and real butterflies. Our experiments showed that hybrid colour-pattern phenotypes are attacked more frequently than parental forms. For the first time, we demonstrate disruptive ecological selection on a trait that also acts as a mating cue. PMID:23075843

  8. Regulation of Mating and Meiosis in Yeast by the Mating-Type Region

    PubMed Central

    Kassir, Yona; Simchen, Giora

    1976-01-01

    A supposed sporulation-deficient mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found to affect mating in haploids and in diploids, and to be inseparable from the mating-type locus by recombination. The mutation is regarded as a defective a allele and is designated a*. This is confirmed by its dominance relations in diploids, triploids, and tetraploids. Tetrad analysis of tetraploids and of their sporulating diploid progeny suggests the existence of an additional locus, RME, which regulates sporulation in yeast strains that can mate. Thus the recessive homozygous constitution rme/rme enables the diploids a*/α, a/a*, and α/α to go through meiosis. Haploids carrying rme show apparent premeiotic DNA replication in sporulation conditions. This new regulatory locus is linked to the centromere of the mating-type chromosome, and its two alleles, rme and RME, are found among standard laboratory strains. PMID:770230

  9. Mating First, Mating More: Biological Market Fluctuation in a Wild Prosimian

    PubMed Central

    Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    In biology, economics, and politics, distributive power is the key for understanding asymmetrical relationships and it can be obtained by force (dominance) or trading (leverage). Whenever males cannot use force, they largely depend on females for breeding opportunities and the balance of power tilts in favour of females. Thus, males are expected not only to compete within their sex-class but also to exchange services with the opposite sex. Does this mating market, described for humans and apes, apply also to prosimians, the most ancestral primate group? To answer the question, we studied a scent-oriented and gregarious lemur, Propithecus verreauxi (sifaka), showing female dominance, promiscuous mating, and seasonal breeding. We collected 57 copulations involving 8 males and 4 females in the wild (Berenty Reserve, South Madagascar), and data (all occurrences) on grooming, aggressions, and marking behaviour. We performed the analyses via exact Spearman and matrix correlations. Male mating priority rank correlated with the frequency of male countermarking over female scents but not with the proportion of fights won by males over females. Thus, males competed in an olfactory tournament more than in an arena of aggressive encounters. The copulation frequency correlated neither with the proportion of fights won by males nor with the frequency of male countermarking on female scents. Male-to-female grooming correlated with female-to-male grooming only during premating. Instead, in the mating period male-to-female grooming correlated with the copulation frequency. In short, the biological market underwent seasonal fluctuations, since males bargained grooming for sex in the mating days and grooming for itself in the premating period. Top scent-releasers gained mating priority (they mated first) and top groomers ensured a higher number of renewed copulations (they mated more). In conclusion, males maximize their reproduction probability by adopting a double tactic and by

  10. Sexual signals and mating patterns in Syngnathidae.

    PubMed

    Rosenqvist, G; Berglund, A

    2011-06-01

    Male pregnancy in the family Syngnathidae (pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons) predisposes males to limit female reproductive success; sexual selection may then operate more strongly on females and female sexual signals may evolve (sex-role reversal). A bewildering array of female signals has evolved in Syngnathids, e.g. skin folds, large body size, colouration, markings on the body and elaborate courtship. These female sexual signals do not seem quantitatively or qualitatively different from those that evolve in males in species with conventional sex roles where males provide females or offspring with direct benefits. In several syngnathid species, males also evolve ornaments, females are choosy in addition to being competitive and males compete as well as choosing partners. Thus, sex roles form a continuum, spanning from conventional to reversed within this group of fishes. Cases are presented here suggesting that stronger sexual selection on females may be most extreme in species showing classical polyandry (one male mates with several females, such as many species where males brood their eggs on the trunk), intermediate in polygynandrous species (males and females both mate with more than one partner, as in many species where males brood their eggs on the tail) and least extreme, even exhibiting conventional sex roles, in monogamous species (one male mates solely with one female, as in many seahorses and tropical pipefishes). At the same time caution is needed before unanimously establishing this pattern: first, the connection between mating patterns, strength of sexual selection, sex roles and ornament expression is far from simple and straightforward, and second, knowledge of the actual morphology, ecology and behaviour of most syngnathid species is scanty. Basically only a few Nerophis, Syngnathus and Hippocampus species have been studied in any detail. It is known, however, that this group of fishes exhibits a remarkable variation in sex roles and

  11. Female teneral mating in a monandrous species

    PubMed Central

    Monceau, Karine; van Baaren, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Schultesia nitor is a gregarious species living in Cacicus and Psarocolius ssp. pouch-like nests. Due to gregariousness, opportunities for multiple copulations in both sexes are not supposed to be restricted. Females produce only one brood during their life and die within a few days following the birth of their nymphs, but this unique brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating events (i.e., monandry vs. polyandry). In this study, we first determined the age of sexual receptivity of both males and females. Larval development in this species is shorter in males than in females and thus, this species is protandric. Males were not able to copulate the day after emergence. Contrary to males, teneral females (i.e., females achieving their imaginal molt but not yet fully sclerotised and colored) were attractive and were able to mate with males. In the second experiment, we tested the existence of multiple matings in both sexes. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous. Since we had observed that females were monoandrous, we expected them to be choosy and we determined their ability to discriminate between virgin and nonvirgin males. When given the choice, females preferred virgin males and overall, they were more successful at mating than experienced ones. Our results suggest that monandry may be primarily driven by the female’s short life-span fecundity. The occurrence of teneral mating in this species calls into question the existence of a male strategy for monopolizing females, and as well as the implication of female choice. Although further work is required, this species provides an interesting model for understanding sexual conflicts. PMID:22957151

  12. The Role of Scent Marking in Mate Selection by Female Pumas (Puma concolor)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Maximilian L.; Wittmer, Heiko U.; Houghtaling, Paul; Smith, Justine; Elbroch, L. Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Mate selection influences individual fitness, is often based on complex cues and behaviours, and can be difficult to study in solitary species including carnivores. We used motion-triggered cameras at 29 community scrapes (i.e. scent marking locations used by multiple individuals) and home range data from 39 GPS-collared pumas (Puma concolor) to assess the relevance of communication behaviours for mate selection by female pumas in California. Female pumas visited community scrapes irregularly and visitation bouts appeared to be correlated with oestrus. Female pumas on average selected from 1.7 collared males, and selection was based on multiple cues that varied among the different time periods measured (i.e. the female’s visitation bout and in 90 days previous to the consorting event). Female mate selection over the course of a visitation bout was based on frequency of the male visitation, mass, and age. In the 90 days previous to consorting, the number of scrapes a male created was the most important contributor to selection, which was likely related to his residency status. We also found that at least 14% of females mated with multiple males, thus possibly confusing paternity. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of how female pumas use scent and auditory communication at community scrapes to select dominant resident males to mate with. PMID:26489008

  13. Mating triggers dynamic immune regulations in wood ant queens.

    PubMed

    Castella, G; Christe, P; Chapuisat, M

    2009-03-01

    Mating can affect female immunity in multiple ways. On the one hand, the immune system may be activated by pathogens transmitted during mating, sperm and seminal proteins, or wounds inflicted by males. On the other hand, immune defences may also be down-regulated to reallocate resources to reproduction. Ants are interesting models to study post-mating immune regulation because queens mate early in life, store sperm for many years, and use it until their death many years later, while males typically die after mating. This long-term commitment between queens and their mates limits the opportunity for sexual conflict but raises the new constraint of long-term sperm survival. In this study, we examine experimentally the effect of mating on immunity in wood ant queens. Specifically, we compared the phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of mated and virgin Formica paralugubris queens. Queens had reduced levels of active phenoloxidase after mating, but elevated antibacterial activity 7 days after mating. These results indicate that the process of mating, dealation and ovary activation triggers dynamic patterns of immune regulation in ant queens that probably reflect functional responses to mating and pathogen exposure that are independent of sexual conflict. PMID:19170815

  14. Mated Flight Control Issues for Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Markley, F. Landis; Whorton, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.

  15. 46 CFR 11.495 - Chief Mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chief Mate (OSV). 11.495 Section 11.495 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.495 Chief Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Chief Mate (OSV), an applicant shall...

  16. 46 CFR 11.495 - Chief Mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chief Mate (OSV). 11.495 Section 11.495 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.495 Chief Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Chief Mate (OSV), an applicant shall...

  17. 46 CFR 11.495 - Chief mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chief mate (OSV). 11.495 Section 11.495 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.495 Chief mate (OSV). (a) The minimum service required to qualify an applicant for an endorsement as chief mate (OSV)...

  18. Development of the Attitudes about Romance and Mate Selection Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Nathan P.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Watson, Wendy L.

    2003-01-01

    The 32-item Attitudes about Romance and Mate Selection Scale (ARMSS) was developed to measure constraining beliefs about mate selection. Results of factor analysis showed few gender differences in the degree to which constraining beliefs about mate selection are held by single young adults. However, significant differences were found when age,…

  19. 46 CFR 11.495 - Chief Mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chief Mate (OSV). 11.495 Section 11.495 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.495 Chief Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Chief Mate (OSV), an applicant shall...

  20. The dance of male Anopheles gambiae in mating swarms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mating behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is of great interest from a fundamental and applied perspective. One of the most important elements of mating in this species is the crepuscular mating aggregation (swarm) composed almost entirely of males, where most coupling and inseminat...

  1. [Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success].

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Alberto M da; Dias, Vanessa S; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on five and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in field cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. PMID:19943002

  2. Characterization of assortative mating in medaka: Mate discrimination cues and factors that bias sexual preference.

    PubMed

    Utagawa, Umi; Higashi, Shoichi; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Fukamachi, Shoji

    2016-08-01

    Somatolactin alpha (SLα) is a peptide hormone that regulates skin color, and SLα-deficient and SLα-excess strains have been established in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Their skin colors differ conspicuously and males prefer to mate with females from the same strain. Pre-mating sexual isolation in this model vertebrate provides an ideal platform for investigating the molecular mechanisms of mate choice. Thus, we studied the sensory cues utilized by these fish to discriminate the same and different strains. When males were given a choice under monochromatic light, where the skin colors differed only in terms of brightness but not in hue, mating occurred but it was not assortative. This suggests that: (1) a visual cue is essential for mate discrimination rather than odor or acoustic cues; (2) the visual cue is color and not shape, size, or motion; and (3) the color cue needs to be perceived as the relative balance of brightness at multiple wavelengths rather than the brightness at a specific wavelength. In addition, we introduced another skin-color mutation into the SLα-excess strain and found that this new strain and the original SLα-excess strain, which also overexpressed SLα but exhibited distinct skin colors, preferred different colors. This demonstrates that SLα is not a primary determinant of sexual preference. The symmetrically biased sexual preferences of the SLα-deficient and SLα-excess strains may be acquired postnatally depending on their individual skin color or that of tank mates. PMID:27260680

  3. NOAA-L satellite is lifted for mating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the lifting and rotating of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite to allow for mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (AKM). NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri (Marasmiaceae) possesses biallelic A and B mating loci but reproduces clonally.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Valderrama, J R; Aime, M C

    2016-06-01

    The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri belongs to the mushroom-forming family Marasmiaceae, but it has never been observed to produce a fruiting body, which calls to question its capacity for sexual reproduction. In this study, we identified potential A (HD1 and HD2) and B (pheromone precursors and pheromone receptors) mating genes in M. roreri. A PCR-based method was subsequently devised to determine the mating type for a set of 47 isolates from across the geographic range of the fungus. We developed and generated an 11-marker microsatellite set and conducted association and linkage disequilibrium (standardized index of association, IA(s)) analyses. We also performed an ancestral reconstruction analysis to show that the ancestor of M. roreri is predicted to be heterothallic and tetrapolar, which together with sliding window analyses support that the A and B mating loci are likely unlinked and follow a tetrapolar organization within the genome. The A locus is composed of a pair of HD1 and HD2 genes, whereas the B locus consists of a paired pheromone precursor, Mr_Ph4, and receptor, STE3_Mr4. Two A and B alleles but only two mating types were identified. Association analyses divided isolates into two well-defined genetically distinct groups that correlate with their mating type; IA(s) values show high linkage disequilibrium as is expected in clonal reproduction. Interestingly, both mating types were found in South American isolates but only one mating type was found in Central American isolates, supporting a prior hypothesis of clonal dissemination throughout Central America after a single or very few introductions of the fungus from South America. PMID:26932308

  4. Assessing implicit mate preferences among Chinese and Japanese women by providing love, sex, or money cues.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheng; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Jiang, Lizhu

    2015-02-01

    Love, sex, and money are the most direct cues involved in the fundamental forms of mate preferences. These fundamental forms are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated. As a result, humans base their mate choices on multiple cues. In this study, 62 undergraduate women (M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.4) from China and Japan served as the participants. They performed a variation of the semantic priming task, in which they were instructed to decide by means of a key-press whether the target was human or non-human. The primes were images that portrayed potent evolutionary factors for mate preference (i.e., love, sex, and money), and the manipulation was based on whether the prime and target matched regarding gender, independent of the target decision task (human vs non-human). Participants gave faster responses to male targets than to female targets under priming. The results generally supported the evolutionary premises that assume mate preference is determined by fundamental forms of providing emotional (love), material (money), and fertility support (sex). The money priming effect was stronger in the Chinese women than in the Japanese women, suggesting that social context may influence mate preferences. PMID:25588065

  5. Female mate choice by chemical signals in a semi-terrestrial crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sal Moyano, María Paz; Silva, Paola; Luppi, Tomás; Gavio, María Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Information about the roles of both sexes in pair formation is required to better understand the mechanisms involved in sexual selection. Mate choice could depend on the courtship behavior, involving chemical, tactile and visual signals. We determined if Neohelice granulata mate choice is based on female or male choice, considering visual and chemical with contact and without contact signals between partners and different categories of individuals: receptive and unreceptive females; and large, small, mated or unmated males. Experiments showed that mate selection was based on receptive female's choice using chemical signals, but not visual ones. Since copulation occurs during high and low tides, water-borne chemical signals would be preferentially used during high tide, while contact ones during low tide. Females preferred large and unmated males, while males did not seem to recognize receptive females using chemical neither visual signals. Females were capable of detecting the presence of the chemical signals released by large and unmated males, but not its amount. It is proposed that small and mated males are probably releasing different types of chemical signals, not attractive to females, or that they are not emitting any signal.

  6. The relative importance of different direct benefits in the mate choices of a field cricket.

    PubMed

    Wagner, William E; Basolo, Alexandra L

    2007-03-01

    Discussions about the evolution of female mating preferences have often suggested that females should express multiple strong preferences when different male traits are correlated with different mating benefits, yet few studies have directly tested this hypothesis by comparing the strength of female preferences for male traits known to be correlated with different benefits. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females receive fecundity and fertility benefits from mating with males with higher chirp rates and life-span benefits from mating with males with longer chirp durations. Although females prefer higher chirp rates and longer chirp durations when the other trait is held constant, it is possible that they give priority to one of these song traits when both vary. In this study, we examined the relative importance of chirp rate and chirp duration in female mate choice using single-stimulus presentations of songs that varied in both chirp rate and chirp duration. Females expressed both directional and stabilizing preferences based on chirp rate, responding most strongly to a chirp rate approximately one standard deviation above the population mean. Females did not express preferences based on chirp duration, and did not express correlational preferences. These results suggest that females may give priority to the reproductive benefits provided by males that produce higher chirp rates. PMID:17348924

  7. The Air Force modular automatic test equipment (mate) maintenance concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, J.; Persans, D.; Caporale, J.

    The Air Force has developed the Modular Automatic Test Equipment (MATE) system as a disciplined approach to the definition, acquisition, and support of automatic test equipment. The system is expressed in a series of guides regarding the hardware, computer program, human factors, and documentation required to implement the considered approach. The present investigation is concerned with the facet of the guidelines which addresses the MATE maintenance concepts. Attention is given to maintenance problems in the field, a MATE system maintenance concept overview, maintenance-oriented tests, integrated diagnostics, the MATE system operational/confidence test scenario, and a MATE system optional self-test.

  8. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. PMID:26988852

  9. Molecular Genetic Analyses of Mating Pheromones Reveal Intervariety Mating or Hybridization in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Fan, Jinjiang; Stein, Birgit; Behr, Melissa J.; Samsonoff, William A.; Wickes, Brian L.; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2002-01-01

    The sexual mating of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is important for pathogenesis studies because the fungal virulence is linked to the α mating type (MATα). We characterized C. neoformans mating pheromones (MFα 1 and MFa1) from 122 strains to understand intervariety hybridization or mating and intervariety virulence. MFα 1 in three C. neoformans varieties showed (a) specific nucleotide polymorphisms, (b) different copy numbers and chromosomal localizations, and (c) unique deduced amino acids in two geographic populations of C. neoformans var. gattii. MFα 1 of different varieties cross-hybridized in Southern hybridizations. Their phylogenetic analyses showed purifying selection (neutral evolution). These observations suggested that MATα strains from any of the three C. neoformans varieties could mate or hybridize in nature with MATa strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans. A few serotype A/D diploid strains provided evidence for mating or hybridization, while a majority of A/D strains tested positive for haploid MFα 1 identical to that of C. neoformans var. grubii. MFα 1 sequence and copy numbers in diploids were identical to those of C. neoformans var. grubii, while their MFa1 sequences were identical to those of C. neoformans var. neoformans; thus, these strains were hybrids. The mice survival curves and histological lesions revealed A/D diploids to be highly pathogenic, with pathogenicity levels similar to that of the C. neoformans var. grubii type strain and unlike the low pathogenicity levels of C. neoformans var. neoformans strains. In contrast to MFα 1 in three varieties, MFa1 amplicons and hybridization signals could be obtained only from two C. neoformans var. neoformans reference strains and eight A/D diploids. This suggested that a yet undiscovered MFa pheromone(s) in C. neoformans var. gattii and C. neoformans var. grubii is unrelated to, highly divergent from, or rarer than that in C. neoformans var. neoformans. These

  10. Scratching around mating: factors affecting anxiety in wild Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Valentina; Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-07-01

    Scratching has been successfully used to detect anxiety, a proxy for stress, in primates, from strepsirrhines to Homo sapiens. Here, we investigated the fluctuation of scratching in Lemur catta during the mating season. In particular we evaluated whether scratching (1) varied according to sex and rank differences, (2) increased in the period of maximum stress (around the mating days), and (3) was reduced by grooming. At Berenty (South Madagascar), we followed two lemur groups (23 adult/subadult individuals) and gathered data on self-scratching, aggression, and grooming. Based on perineal area features, we recognized two periods: low swelling (LS), with no estrus female, and high swelling (HS), when at least one female was in estrus. We predicted that aggressive behaviors and anxiety-related scratching would covary. Indeed, scratching peaked in HS, when aggression was also highest. In agreement with previous literature, this result suggests that conflicts around estrus days may raise anxiety levels in the social group. We expected scratching levels to be highest in males because they aggressively compete for females and are subject to mate choice and repeated attacks by dominant females. Instead, the scratching rates were similar in males and females, probably because the high competition, which involves both sexes, dampened intersexual differences. In contrast to our prediction, scratching was not rank dependent, probably because animal ranking positions changed from LS to HS. Finally, we showed that, in ring-tailed lemurs, as well as in other primates, scratching decreases after reciprocal grooming in both periods. This finding provides the first evidence that grooming could assist in reducing anxiety in strepsirrhines. PMID:22278710

  11. Some evidence about character and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Hanko, Karlene; Master, Sarah; Sabini, John

    2004-06-01

    The authors conducted four studies (total N = 292) about character and mate desirability. In Study 1, undergraduates judged stimuli for attractiveness-physically and as a casual or longterm date. The target was described as faithful, having cheated but stayed with mates, or having cheated and left. Contrary to the hypothesis, men and women were equally affected by both kinds of cheaters. Study 2 replicated Study 1 with nonstudent adults. In Study 3, undergraduates rated a stimulus on the same attractiveness variables. This target had $14 million from winning a lottery or selling a dot-com company. Women, but not men, found the dot-com creator to be more physically attractive than the lottery winner. In Study 4, undergraduates rated someone who sold a cookie-making company or profited from a lucky real estate transaction. Both men and women preferred the cookie-company seller on all three measures of attractiveness. PMID:15155037

  12. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same

  13. Cell-cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller-detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  14. Sex recognition and mate choice by male Bufo gargarizans in central China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong Lei; Sharma, Manmohan D

    2012-06-01

    Mate choice is important for successful reproduction, and consequently species have evolved various ways to choose potential high-quality mates. Anuran mate choice and underlying processes have been the subject of several recent investigations, however we are far from a complete understanding of mate choice in this system. In the present study, when given a simultaneous choice between a male and a female of identical size, males did not discriminate between the sexes, and attempted to clasp a male or a female with equal frequency. Test males only released the stimulus toad when a release call was emitted by the stimulus male. When two males with distinct size differences were provided with a male, the male chose the larger one. Moreover, males discriminated between gravid females that differed in body size, choosing larger gravid females over smaller ones. These results suggest that male Bufo gargarizans can discriminate between the sexes, probably based on male release calls, and prefer to mate with larger individual using visual cues. PMID:22639803

  15. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that--for the first time--allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  16. Swarming and mating activity of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in semi-field enclosures.

    PubMed

    Achinko, D; Thailayil, J; Paton, D; Mireji, P O; Talesa, V; Masiga, D; Catteruccia, F

    2016-03-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major Afro-tropical vector of malaria. Novel strategies proposed for the elimination and eradication of this mosquito vector are based on the use of genetic approaches, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). These approaches rely on the ability of released males to mate with wild females, and depend on the application of effective protocols to assess the swarming and mating behaviours of laboratory-reared insects prior to their release. The present study evaluated whether large semi-field enclosures can be utilized to study the ability of males from a laboratory colony to respond to natural environmental stimuli and initiate normal mating behaviour. Laboratory-reared males exhibited spatiotemporally consistent swarming behaviour within the study enclosures. Swarm initiation, peak and termination time closely tracked sunset. Comparable insemination rates were observed in females captured in copula in the semi-field cages relative to females in small laboratory cages. Oviposition rates after blood feeding were also similar to those observed in laboratory settings. The data suggest that outdoor enclosures are suitable for studying swarming and mating in laboratory-bred males in field-like settings, providing an important reference for future studies aimed at assessing the comparative mating ability of strains for SIT and other vector control strategies. PMID:26508420

  17. Experimental tests of mate choice in nonhuman mammals: the need for an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2013-04-01

    Experimental studies of mate choice have normally focused on non-mammal animal species, in which female mating preferences are based on clearly defined male traits. Because mammals are invariably larger and behaviourally more complex, they are less suited to this type of experimentation. Nevertheless, numerous studies on nonhuman mammals have shown that females appear to actively choose their mates. In this Commentary, I review the current literature to reveal that most experimental tests of mate choice in mammals are unable to reveal the actual male phenotypic trait(s) of female preference, which is crucial for identifying male characteristics under sexual selection. In addition, very few studies take into account female oestrous stage, or quantify the fitness benefits to discriminating females. Future work should concentrate on demonstrating female preferences for specific male traits that are shown by genetic paternity analysis to be correlated with male reproductive success, using setups that control for the effects of male and female mating strategies and in which the actual experiments are performed during the female's peak oestrous period. PMID:23487265

  18. HERITABILITY OF AND EARLY ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS ON VARIATION IN MATING PREFERENCES

    PubMed Central

    Schielzeth, Holger; Bolund, Elisabeth; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Many species show substantial between-individual variation in mating preferences, but studying the causes of such variation remains a challenge. For example, the relative importance of heritable variation versus shared early environment effects (like sexual imprinting) on mating preferences has never been quantified in a population of animals. Here, we estimate the heritability of and early rearing effects on mate choice decisions in zebra finches based on the similarity of choices between pairs of genetic sisters raised apart and pairs of unrelated foster sisters. We found a low and nonsignificant heritability of preferences and no significant shared early rearing effects. A literature review shows that a low heritability of preferences is rather typical, whereas empirical tests for the relevance of sexual imprinting within populations are currently limited to very few studies. Although effects on preference functions (i.e., which male to prefer) were weak, we found strong individual consistency in choice behavior and part of this variation was heritable. It seems likely that variation in choice behavior (choosiness, responsiveness, sampling behavior) would produce patterns of nonrandom mating and this might be the more important source of between-individual differences in mating patterns. PMID:19895552

  19. Mate competition and evolutionary outcomes in genetically modified zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard D; Rohrer, Karl; Liu, Yiyang; Muir, William M

    2015-05-01

    Demonstrating relationships between sexual selection mechanisms and trait evolution is central to testing evolutionary theory. Using zebrafish, we found that wild-type males possessed a significant advantage in mate competition over transgenic RFP Glofish® males. In mating trials, wild-type males were aggressively superior to transgenic males in male-male chases and male-female chases; as a result, wild-type males sired 2.5× as many young as did transgenic males. In contrast, an earlier study demonstrated that female zebrafish preferred transgenic males as mates when mate competition was excluded experimentally. We tested the evolutionary consequence of this conflict between sexual selection mechanisms in a long-term study. The predicted loss of the transgenic phenotype was confirmed. More than 18,500 adults collected from 18 populations across 15 generations revealed that the frequency of the transgenic phenotype declined rapidly and was eliminated entirely in all but one population. Fitness component data for both sexes indicated that only male mating success differed between wild-type and transgenic individuals. Our predictive demographic model based on fitness components closely matched the rate of transgenic phenotype loss observed in the long-term study, thereby supporting its utility for studies assessing evolutionary outcomes of escaped or released genetically modified animals. PMID:25873489

  1. Cell–cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller–detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  2. The strength of a female mate preference increases with predation risk

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Won; Christy, John H.; Dennenmoser, Stefan; Choe, Jae C.

    2008-01-01

    When females search for mates and their perceived risk of predation increases, they less often express preferences for males that use conspicuous courtship signals, relaxing sexual selection on production of these signals. Here, we report an apparent exception to this general pattern. Courting male fiddler crabs Uca beebei sometimes build pillars of mud at the openings to their burrows in which crabs mate. Females visit several males before they choose a mate by staying and breeding in their burrows, and they preferentially visit males with pillars. Previous studies suggested that this preference is based on a visual orientation behaviour that may reduce females' risk of predation while searching for a mate. We tested this idea by determining whether the female preference for males with pillars increases with perceived predation risk. We attracted avian predators to where crabs were courting and measured the rates that sexually receptive females visited courting males with and without mud pillars. Under elevated risk, females continued to search for mates and they showed a stronger relative preference for males with pillars. Thus, when predation risk is high, females may continue to express preferences that are under natural selection because they help females avoid predation, strengthening sexual selection for use of the preferred signal. PMID:19019792

  3. The strength of a female mate preference increases with predation risk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Won; Christy, John H; Dennenmoser, Stefan; Choe, Jae C

    2009-02-22

    When females search for mates and their perceived risk of predation increases, they less often express preferences for males that use conspicuous courtship signals, relaxing sexual selection on production of these signals. Here, we report an apparent exception to this general pattern. Courting male fiddler crabs Uca beebei sometimes build pillars of mud at the openings to their burrows in which crabs mate. Females visit several males before they choose a mate by staying and breeding in their burrows, and they preferentially visit males with pillars. Previous studies suggested that this preference is based on a visual orientation behaviour that may reduce females' risk of predation while searching for a mate. We tested this idea by determining whether the female preference for males with pillars increases with perceived predation risk. We attracted avian predators to where crabs were courting and measured the rates that sexually receptive females visited courting males with and without mud pillars. Under elevated risk, females continued to search for mates and they showed a stronger relative preference for males with pillars. Thus, when predation risk is high, females may continue to express preferences that are under natural selection because they help females avoid predation, strengthening sexual selection for use of the preferred signal. PMID:19019792

  4. The role of model female quality in the mate choice copying behaviour of sailfin mollies

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Sarah E; Ryan, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Female mate choice copying is a socially mediated mate choice behaviour, in which a male's attractiveness to females increases if he was previously chosen by another female as a mate. Although copying has been demonstrated in numerous species, little is known about the specific benefits it confers to copying females. Here we demonstrate that the mate choice behaviour of female sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) is influenced by the phenotypic quality of model females with whom males are observed consorting. Test females choosing between two males of similar body length were found to significantly increase time spent with previously non-preferred males after having observed them with a relatively high-quality female. Conversely, females were found to significantly decrease time spent with previously preferred males after having observed them with a relatively low-quality female. Female mate choice copying might be maintained by selection based on the heuristic value it provides females choosing between males whose quality differences are not easily distinguishable. PMID:17148362

  5. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that – for the first time – allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  6. Power of sib-pair and sib-trio linkage analysis with assortative mating and multiple disease loci

    SciTech Connect

    Sribney, W.M.; Swift, M. )

    1992-10-01

    Sib-pair linkage analysis has been proposed for identifying genes that predispose to common diseases. The authors have shown that the presence of assortative mating and multiple disease-susceptibility loci (genetic heterogeneity) can increase the required sample size for affected-affected sib pairs several fold over the sample size required under random mating. They propose a new test statistic based on sib trios composed of either one unaffected and two affected siblings or one affected and two unaffected siblings. The sample-size requirements under assortative mating and multiple disease loci for these sib-trio statistics are much smaller, under most conditions, than the corresponding sample sizes for sib pairs. Study designs based on data from sib trios with one or two affected members are recommended whenever assortative mating and genetic heterogeneity are suspected. 31 refs.

  7. The Perfect Mate for Safe Fueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Referred to as the "lifeline for any space launch vehicle" by NASA Space Launch Initiative Program Manager Warren Wiley, an umbilical is a large device that transports power, communications, instrument readings, and fluids such as propellants, pressurization gases, and coolants from one source to another. Numerous launch vehicles, planetary systems, and rovers require umbilical "mating". This process is a driving factor for dependable and affordable space access. With future-generation space vehicles in mind, NASA recently designed a smart, automated method for quickly and reliably mating and demating electrical and fluid umbilical connectors. The new umbilical concept is expected to replace NASA s traditional umbilical systems that release at vehicle lift-off (T-0). The idea is to increase safety by automatically performing hazardous tasks, thus reducing potential failure modes and the time and labor hours necessary to prepare for launch. The new system will also be used as a test bed for quick disconnect development and for advance control and leak detection. It incorporates concepts such as a secondary mate plate, robotic machine vision, and compliant motor motion control, and is destined to advance usage of automated umbilicals in a variety of aerospace and commercial applications.

  8. Genetics and genomics of Drosophila mating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Heinsohn, Stefanie L.; Lyman, Richard F.; Moehring, Amanda J.; Morgan, Theodore J.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

    2005-01-01

    The first steps of animal speciation are thought to be the development of sexual isolating mechanisms. In contrast to recent progress in understanding the genetic basis of postzygotic isolating mechanisms, little is known about the genetic architecture of sexual isolation. Here, we have subjected Drosophila melanogaster to 29 generations of replicated divergent artificial selection for mating speed. The phenotypic response to selection was highly asymmetrical in the direction of reduced mating speed, with estimates of realized heritability averaging 7%. The selection response was largely attributable to a reduction in female receptivity. We assessed the whole genome transcriptional response to selection for mating speed using Affymetrix GeneChips and a rigorous statistical analysis. Remarkably, >3,700 probe sets (21% of the array elements) exhibited a divergence in message levels between the Fast and Slow replicate lines. Genes with altered transcriptional abundance in response to selection fell into many different biological process and molecular function Gene Ontology categories, indicating substantial pleiotropy for this complex behavior. Future functional studies are necessary to test the extent to which transcript profiling of divergent selection lines accurately predicts genes that directly affect the selected trait. PMID:15851659

  9. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-01-01

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  10. Mate choice and mate competition by a tropical hummingbird at a floral resource

    PubMed Central

    Temeles, Ethan J.; Kress, W. John

    2010-01-01

    The influence of male territorial and foraging behaviours on female choice has received little attention in studies of resource-defence mating systems even though such male behaviours are thought to affect variation in their territory quality and mating success. Here we show that female purple-throated carib hummingbirds Eulampis jugularis preferred to mate with males that had high standing crops of nectar on their flower territories. A male's ability to maintain high nectar standing crops on his territory not only depended on the number of flowers in his territory, but also on his ability to enhance his territory through the prevention of nectar losses to intruders. We observed that males defended nectar supplies that were two to five times greater than their daily energy needs and consistently partitioned their territories in order to provide some resources to attract intruding females as potential mates. Such territorial behaviour resulted in males defending some flowers for their own food and other flowers as food for intruding females. Collectively, our results suggest that variation in mating success among males is driven primarily by variation in territory quality, which ultimately depends on a male's fighting ability and size. PMID:20129990

  11. Mate choice and mate competition by a tropical hummingbird at a floral resource.

    PubMed

    Temeles, Ethan J; Kress, W John

    2010-05-22

    The influence of male territorial and foraging behaviours on female choice has received little attention in studies of resource-defence mating systems even though such male behaviours are thought to affect variation in their territory quality and mating success. Here we show that female purple-throated carib hummingbirds Eulampis jugularis preferred to mate with males that had high standing crops of nectar on their flower territories. A male's ability to maintain high nectar standing crops on his territory not only depended on the number of flowers in his territory, but also on his ability to enhance his territory through the prevention of nectar losses to intruders. We observed that males defended nectar supplies that were two to five times greater than their daily energy needs and consistently partitioned their territories in order to provide some resources to attract intruding females as potential mates. Such territorial behaviour resulted in males defending some flowers for their own food and other flowers as food for intruding females. Collectively, our results suggest that variation in mating success among males is driven primarily by variation in territory quality, which ultimately depends on a male's fighting ability and size. PMID:20129990

  12. Demography, environmental uncertainty, and the evolution of mate desertion in the snail kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beissinger, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis), an endangered hawk, has a unique mating system in Florida (Beissinger and Snyder 1987): when food is abundant, males or females desert their mates at nearly equal frequency (ambisexual mate desertion) in the midst of a nesting cycle. I examined the demographic and environmental constraints selecting for a clutch size that permits one parent to desert, yet optimizes the number of offspring produced by each parent. Demographic studies, conducted from 1979-1983, indicated that kites have (1) a very high nest failure rate (?= 68%) due most often to unstable nest sites and predation, (2) a variable nesting season (5-10 mo/yr), (3) an early age of first reproduction for a bird this size (10 mo), (4) a high degree of iteroparity (double and potentially triple clutching within a season), and (5) unstable populations. Both nesting success and population size were directly related to Everglades water levels and resultant snail densities. Kites responded to large annual changes in food abundance, not by adjusting clutch size but by deserting their mates and presumably attempting to renest. Kite demographic traits appear to be adaptations to or results of an uncertain environment. Based on 67 yr of Everglades water levels, environmental predictability, measured by spectral analysis and Colwell's (1974) index, was low and influenced by water management regimes: (1) water levels were lowered, (2) annual variation in levels increased and annual cycles became stronger, (3) the period length of long-term drought-flood cycles shifted from 10 or more yr toward 5 yr, and (4) levels became a less predictive cue for favorable nesting conditions. A potential evolutionary pathway from biparental care to mate desertion in Snail Kites is proposed. It is unlikely that mate desertion evolved solely from a context of conflict between the sexes, because kite nesting success is so low that it is probably maladaptive for a parent to desert and jeopardize

  13. The role of marker traits in the assortative mating within red crossbills, Loxia curvirostra complex.

    PubMed

    Snowberg, L K; Benkman, C W

    2007-09-01

    We conducted mate choice experiments to determine whether differences in calls or bill morphology might influence assortative mating between call types of red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) that have diverged in bill structure to specialize on different species of conifers. Females preferred males that gave calls that matched their own type, but did not prefer males that more closely approximated the average or optimal bill size of the female's call type. These results were consistent with our breeding simulations, which showed that females gained an indirect fitness benefit by choosing a male of her own call type because this reduced the production of offspring with morphologies that fell between adaptive peaks. However, choice based on bill morphology within a call type provided no further benefit. Calls, which crossbills learn from their parents, likely act as a marker trait indicative of the morphological adaptations of the group, allow for easy assessment of potential mates and facilitate rapid divergence under ecological selection. PMID:17714309

  14. A mate to die for? A model of conditional monogyny in cannibalistic spiders.

    PubMed

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M

    2012-10-01

    Monogynous males in various species actively limit themselves to mating with a single female in their lifetime. Whereas previous models have considered monogyny as an obligate mating strategy, here we explore the potential of monogyny to evolve as a context-specific (conditional) behavior. Using a state-dependent dynamic game model based on the biology of the cannibalistic spider Argiope bruennichi, we confirm that conditional monogyny can evolve under broad conditions, including an even sex ratio. We predict that males should make a terminal investment when mating with large, virgin females, especially if population density is low and the encounter occurs late in the season. We encourage empirical tests for the existence of conditional monogyny in all species where monogyny occurs in the absence of strict morphological constraints that would make it obligatory. PMID:23145342

  15. A mate to die for? A model of conditional monogyny in cannibalistic spiders

    PubMed Central

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M

    2012-01-01

    Monogynous males in various species actively limit themselves to mating with a single female in their lifetime. Whereas previous models have considered monogyny as an obligate mating strategy, here we explore the potential of monogyny to evolve as a context-specific (conditional) behavior. Using a state-dependent dynamic game model based on the biology of the cannibalistic spider Argiope bruennichi, we confirm that conditional monogyny can evolve under broad conditions, including an even sex ratio. We predict that males should make a terminal investment when mating with large, virgin females, especially if population density is low and the encounter occurs late in the season. We encourage empirical tests for the existence of conditional monogyny in all species where monogyny occurs in the absence of strict morphological constraints that would make it obligatory. PMID:23145342

  16. Behavioral Analysis and Ethogram of Mating in the Wasp Sphex latreillei (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae).

    PubMed

    Mandujano, V; Flores-Prado, L; Chiappa, E

    2016-08-01

    The present study reevaluates mating in Sphex latreillei (Lepeletier) based on the analysis of 69 filmed reproductive interactions from a population in central Chile. Behaviors recorded before, during, and after copulation were analyzed through Markov chains, identifying statistically significant behavioral transitions that are summarized in a mating ethogram. The results suggest that females exercise choice either during copulation by the means of an internal courtship, or via a post-copulation selection. Both types of inter-sexual selection proposed would explain, in both female and male, the dynamics of a sexual behavior crucial for a reproductive success. PMID:26921231

  17. Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Male eagerness to mate is a central paradigm of sexual selection theory. However, limited sperm supplies mean that male sexual restraint might sometimes be favored under promiscuous mating. Here, we demonstrate dynamic plasticity in male mating effort when females are encountered sequentially under varying sperm competition risk. Rather than showing consistent eagerness to mate, male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) instead tailor their mating effort according to likely reproductive payoffs. They are significantly less likely to mate when sperm competition is certain and potential reproductive payoffs low, but dramatically increase investment if they do choose to mate under such circumstances. By contrast, male mice are significantly more likely to mate in situations simulating extra-territorial copulations, where future risk of competition is high but so too are potential reproductive rewards. Differential mating propensity appears to be the primary mechanism by which male house mice allocate sperm adaptively under sperm competition risk because we find no evidence for facultative adjustment of sperm numbers per ejaculate or ejaculation frequency in response to female-related cues. We conclude that sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk could be a widespread but often unappreciated mechanism of strategic sperm allocation. PMID:24822023

  18. Localization of the Mating Type Gene in Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianping; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Horgen, Paul A.; Anderson, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus is secondarily homothallic. Most basidia produce two basidiospores, each of which receives two of the four postmeiotic nuclei. Usually, the two packaged nuclei carry compatible mating types. Previous studies suggested that there may be only a single mating type locus in A. bisporus. In this study, we determined whether the mating type segregated as a single Mendelian determinant in a cross marked with 64 segregating molecular markers. To score mating types, each of the 52 homokaryotic offspring from this cross was paired with each of the two progenitor homokaryons. Compatible matings were identified by the formation of genetically stable heterokaryons which were verified by assay of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Data for screening mycelial interactions on petri plates as well as fruit body formation were compared with the RFLP results. Mating types of 43 of the 52 homokaryotic offspring were determined on the basis of RFLP analysis. Our results indicate (i) there is a segregating mating type gene in A. bisporus, (ii) this mating type gene is on the largest linkage group (chromosome I), (iii) mycelial interactions on petri plates were associated with heterokaryon formation under selected conditions, (iv) fruit body formation was dependent upon the mating type gene, and (v) compatible mating types may not always be sufficient for fruiting. PMID:16349046

  19. Low-Impact Mating System for Docking Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.; Robertson, Brandan; Carroll, Monty B.; Le, Thang; Morales, Ray

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a low-impact mating system suitable for both docking (mating of two free-flying spacecraft) and berthing (in which a robot arm in one spacecraft positions an object for mating with either spacecraft). The low-impact mating system is fully androgynous: it mates with a copy of itself, i.e., all spacecraft and other objects to be mated are to be equipped with identical copies of the system. This aspect of the design helps to minimize the number of unique parts and to standardize and facilitate mating operations. The system includes a closed-loop feedback control subsystem that actively accommodates misalignments between mating spacecraft, thereby attenuating spacecraft dynamics and mitigating the need for precise advance positioning of the spacecraft. The operational characteristics of the mating system can be easily configured in software, during operation, to enable mating of spacecraft having various masses, center-of-gravity offsets, and closing velocities. The system design provides multi-fault tolerance for critical operations: for example, to ensure unmating at a critical time, a redundant unlatching mechanism and two independent pyrotechnic release subsystems are included.

  20. Resistance to mate guarding scale in women: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Alita J; Fugère, Madeleine A; Riggs, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    One individual's actions may affect the evolutionary fitness of another individual. Sexually antagonistic coevolution occurs when one partner's behavior decreases the fitness of the other partner (Rice, 1996). This conflict pressures the other partner to counter these disadvantageous actions. Mate guarding is a mate retention tactic aimed at keeping a partner from cheating. Mate guarding may reduce mate choice, especially for extra pair mates. Therefore, some individuals may resist their partner's mate guarding tactics. We developed a scale to measure resistance to mate guarding and tested it in women (N = 1069). Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), six theoretically sound factors emerged and explained 69% of the variance. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed strong support for the six original subscales as well as for the overall scale. The subscales had high reliability. The validity of the Resistance to Mate Guarding Scale was also excellent. Women who stated they used more resistance to mate guarding strategies also indicated that they had partners who mate guarded more, were less invested in their relationships, felt their partners were more controlling, had a more avoidant attachment style, and had a more unrestricted sociosexual orientation. PMID:25647785

  1. Spatial distribution and male mating success of Anopheles gambiae swarms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae mates in flight at particular mating sites over specific landmarks known as swarm markers. The swarms are composed of males; females typically approach a swarm, and leave in copula. This mating aggregation looks like a lek, but appears to lack the component of female choice. To investigate the possible mechanisms promoting the evolution of swarming in this mosquito species, we looked at the variation in mating success between swarms and discussed the factors that structure it in light of the three major lekking models, known as the female preference model, the hotspot model, and the hotshot model. Results We found substantial variation in swarm size and in mating success between swarms. A strong correlation between swarm size and mating success was observed, and consistent with the hotspot model of lek formation, the per capita mating success of individual males did not increase with swarm size. For the spatial distribution of swarms, our results revealed that some display sites were more attractive to both males and females and that females were more attracted to large swarms. While the swarm markers we recognize help us in localizing swarms, they did not account for the variation in swarm size or in the swarm mating success, suggesting that mosquitoes probably are attracted to these markers, but also perceive and respond to other aspects of the swarming site. Conclusions Characterizing the mating system of a species helps understand how this species has evolved and how selective pressures operate on male and female traits. The current study looked at male mating success of An. gambiae and discussed possible factors that account for its variation. We found that swarms of An. gambiae conform to the hotspot model of lek formation. But because swarms may lack the female choice component, we propose that the An. gambiae mating system is a lek-like system that incorporates characteristics pertaining to other mating systems such as scramble

  2. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  3. Crozier’s paradox revisited: maintenance of genetic recognition systems by disassortative mating

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Organisms are predicted to behave more favourably towards relatives, and kin-biased cooperation has been found in all domains of life from bacteria to vertebrates. Cooperation based on genetic recognition cues is paradoxical because it disproportionately benefits individuals with common phenotypes, which should erode the required cue polymorphism. Theoretical models suggest that many recognition loci likely have some secondary function that is subject to diversifying selection, keeping them variable. Results Here, we use individual-based simulations to investigate the hypothesis that the dual use of recognition cues to facilitate social behaviour and disassortative mating (e.g. for inbreeding avoidance) can maintain cue diversity over evolutionary time. Our model shows that when organisms mate disassortatively with respect to their recognition cues, cooperation and recognition locus diversity can persist at high values, especially when outcrossed matings produce more surviving offspring. Mating system affects cue diversity via at least four distinct mechanisms, and its effects interact with other parameters such as population structure. Also, the attrition of cue diversity is less rapid when cooperation does not require an exact cue match. Using a literature review, we show that there is abundant empirical evidence that heritable recognition cues are simultaneously used in social and sexual behaviour. Conclusions Our models show that mate choice is one possible resolution of the paradox of genetic kin recognition, and the literature review suggests that genetic recognition cues simultaneously inform assortative cooperation and disassortative mating in a large range of taxa. However, direct evidence is scant and there is substantial scope for future work. PMID:24070498

  4. Mating advantage for rare males in wild guppy populations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kimberly A; Houde, Anne E; Price, Anna C; Rodd, F Helen

    2013-11-01

    To understand the processes that maintain genetic diversity is a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology, with implications for predicting disease resistance, response to environmental change, and population persistence. Simple population genetic models are not sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic diversity sometimes observed in ecologically important traits. In guppies (Poecilia reticulata), male colour pattern is both diverse and heritable, and is arguably one of the most extreme examples of morphological polymorphism known. Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), a form of selection in which genotypes are favoured when they are rare, can potentially maintain such extensive polymorphism, but few experimental studies have confirmed its operation in nature. Here we use highly replicated experimental manipulations of natural populations to show that males with rare colour patterns have higher reproductive fitness, demonstrating NFDS mediated by sexual selection. Rare males acquired more mates and sired more offspring compared to common males and, as previously reported, had higher rates of survival. Orange colour, implicated in other studies of sexual selection in guppies, did predict male reproductive success, but only in one of three populations. These data support the hypothesis that NFDS maintains diversity in the colour patterns of male guppies through two selective agents, mates and predators. Similar field-based manipulations of genotype frequencies could provide a powerful approach to reveal the underlying ecological and behavioural mechanisms that maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:24172904

  5. Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male–female interactions

    PubMed Central

    Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or

  6. Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male-female interactions.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-10-01

    Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or

  7. Aviation Electrician's Mate 1 & C. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    One of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel in the Navy and Naval Reserve who are studying for advancement in the Aviation Electrician's Mate (AE) rating, this text is based upon the Navy's professional occupational standards for AEI and AEC. Contents include a 10-chapter text followed by a subject index and the associated…

  8. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  9. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  10. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider.

    PubMed

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female. PMID:16075265

  11. DNA Loss at the Ceratocystis fimbriata Mating Locus Results in Self-Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Wilken, P. Markus; Steenkamp, Emma T.; Wingfield, Michael J.; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi have evolved a remarkable diversity of reproductive strategies. Some of these, most notably those of the model fungi, have been well studied but others are poorly understood. The latter is also true for uni-directional mating type switching, which has been reported in only five fungal genera, including Ceratocystis. Mating type switching allows a self-fertile fungal isolate to produce both self-fertile and self-sterile offspring. This study considered the molecular nature of uni-directional mating type switching in the type species of Ceratocystis, C. fimbriata. To do this, the genome of C. fimbriata was first examined for the presence of mating type genes. Three mating genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-1-2) were found in an atypical organisation of the mating type locus. To study the effect that uni-directional switching has on this locus, several self-sterile offspring were analysed. Using a combination of next generation and conventional Sanger sequencing, it was shown that a 3581 base pair (bp) region had been completely deleted from the MAT locus. This deletion, which includes the entire MAT1-2-1 gene, results in the permanent loss of self-fertility, rendering these isolates exclusively self-sterile. Our data also suggest that the deletion mechanism is tightly controlled and that it always occurs at the same genomic position. Two 260 bp direct repeats flanking the deleted region are strongly implicated in the process, although the exact mechanism behind the switching remains unclear. PMID:24651494

  12. Mating asymmetry and the direction of evolution in the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K L; Lugo, E

    2001-03-01

    Based on studies from native Hawaiian Drosophila, a model was proposed to explain sexual isolation and mating asymmetry, from which one could potentially infer the 'direction of evolution'. We examined sexual isolation between allopatric cricket species of the genus Laupala, another endemic Hawaiian insect with an elaborate mating system, to begin to explore the nature of sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in closely related Hawaiian organisms. We studied sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in two contrasts. First, an inter-island comparison, including L. makaio from the older island of Maui and L. paranigra from the younger island of Hawaii, and second, an intra-island (Hawaii) comparison, including L. nigra from the older volcano of Mauna Kea and L. paranigra with a primary distribution on the younger volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea. We used a 'no-choice' experimental design, pairing individual males and females in homospecific or heterospecific combinations. Several behavioural aspects of courtship (proportion of male singing, latency to male singing, production of spermatophores and courtship initiation speed) were quantified as well as the success or failure of matings. We demonstrate asymmetry in sexual isolation between reciprocal combinations of L. makaio and L. paranigra. This result is examined in light of the differences in courtship behaviour manifest in the experiments with these two species. We did not find evidence of asymmetry in sexual isolation between L. nigra and L. paranigra, although differences in courtship initiation speed were evident between reciprocal combinations of these two species. In addition to the geological argument that species on older islands and older volcanoes give rise to species on younger islands and younger volcanoes, we discuss phylogenetic evidence consistent with these biogeographic hypotheses of relationships among the focal taxa. The patterns of asymmetrical sexual isolation and mating asymmetry are

  13. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  14. Divorce in the barn owl: securing a compatible or better mate entails the cost of re-pairing with a less ornamented female mate.

    PubMed

    Dreiss, A N; Roulin, A

    2014-06-01

    Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses can explain why divorce is an adaptive strategy to improve reproductive success. Under the 'better option hypothesis', only one of the two partners initiates divorce to secure a higher-quality partner and increases reproductive success after divorce. Under the 'incompatibility hypothesis', partners are incompatible and hence they may both increase reproductive success after divorce. In a long-term study of the barn owl (Tyto alba), we address the question of whether one or the two partners derive fitness benefits by divorcing. Our results support the hypothesis that divorce is adaptive: after a poor reproductive season, at least one of the two divorcees increase breeding success up to the level of faithful pairs. By breeding more often together, faithful pairs improve coordination and thereby gain in their efficiency to produce successful fledglings. Males would divorce to obtain a compatible mate rather than a mate of higher quality: a heritable melanin-based signal of female quality did not predict divorce (indicating that female absolute quality may not be the cause of divorce), but the new mate of divorced males was less melanic than their previous mate. This suggests that, at least for males, a cost of divorce may be to secure a lower-quality but compatible mate. The better option hypothesis could not be formally rejected, as only one of the two divorcing partners commonly succeeded in obtaining a higher reproductive success after divorce. In conclusion, incompatible partners divorce to restore reproductive success, and by breeding more often together, faithful partners improve coordination. PMID:24773174

  15. Sexually transmitted infections in polygamous mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Ben; Gupta, Sunetra

    2013-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are often associated with chronic diseases and can have severe impacts on host reproductive success. For airborne or socially transmitted pathogens, patterns of contact by which the infection spreads tend to be dispersed and each contact may be of very short duration. By contrast, the transmission pathways for STIs are usually characterized by repeated contacts with a small subset of the population. Here we review how heterogeneity in sexual contact patterns can influence epidemiological dynamics, and present a simple model of polygyny/polyandry to illustrate the impact of biased mating systems on disease incidence and pathogen virulence. PMID:23339239

  16. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  17. Identification and Characterization of a Candida albicans Mating Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Richard J.; Uhl, M. Andrew; Miller, Mathew G.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2003-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, has recently been shown to undergo mating. Here we describe a mating pheromone produced by C. albicans α cells and show that the gene which encodes it (MFα) is required for α cells, but not a cells, to mate. We also identify the receptor for this mating pheromone as the product of the STE2 gene and show that this gene is required for the mating of a cells, but not α cells. Cells of the a mating type respond to the α mating pheromone by producing long polarized projections, similar to those observed in bona fide mating mixtures of C. albicans a and α cells. During this process, transcription of approximately 62 genes is induced. Although some of these genes correspond to those induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by S. cerevisiae α-factor, most are specific to the C. albicans pheromone response. The most surprising class encode cell surface and secreted proteins previously implicated in virulence of C. albicans in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. This observation suggests that aspects of cell-cell communication in mating may have been evolutionarily adopted for host-pathogen interactions in C. albicans. PMID:14585977

  18. Mating types and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, E; Debuchy, R; Arnaise, S; Picard, M

    1997-01-01

    The progress made in the molecular characterization of the mating types in several filamentous ascomycetes has allowed us to better understand their role in sexual development and has brought to light interesting biological problems. The mating types of Neurospora crassa, Podospora anserina, and Cochliobolus heterostrophus consist of unrelated and unique sequences containing one or several genes with multiple functions, related to sexuality or not, such as vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. The presence of putative DNA binding domains in the proteins encoded by the mating-type (mat) genes suggests that they may be transcriptional factors. The mat genes play a role in cell-cell recognition at fertilization, probably by activating the genes responsible for the hormonal signal whose occurrence was previously demonstrated by physiological experiments. They also control recognition between nuclei at a later stage, when reproductive nuclei of each mating type which have divided in the common cytoplasm pair within the ascogenous hyphae. How self is distinguished from nonself at the nuclear level is not known. The finding that homothallic species, able to mate in the absence of a partner, contain both mating types in the same haploid genome has raised more issues than it has resolved. The instability of the mating type, in particular in Sclerotinia trifolorium and Botrytinia fuckeliana, is also unexplained. This diversity of mating systems, still more apparent if the yeasts and the basidiomycetes are taken into account, clearly shows that no single species can serve as a universal mating-type model. PMID:9409146

  19. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.

    PubMed

    Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

    2013-12-22

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

  20. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.

    2011-01-01

    Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay. PMID:21822482

  1. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Senar, J. C.; Mateos-Gonzalez, F.; Uribe, F.; Arroyo, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

  2. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex

    PubMed Central

    Morgado-Santos, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation) or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation). In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction. PMID:26181664

  3. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids.

    PubMed

    Sefc, Kristina M

    2011-01-01

    Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay. PMID:21822482

  4. Precopulatory mate guarding and mating behaviour in the rotifer Epiphanes senta (Monogononta: Rotifera).

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Epiphanes senta is a littoral rotifer species that occurs in temporary waters and displays a mating behaviour which has not, to my knowledge, so far been described for monogonont rotifers. Monogonont rotifers show distinctive periods within their life cycle during which mictic females appear. Mictic females produce haploid eggs that develop into males or into diapausing eggs if fertilized. The females of E. senta are mostly stationary on the substrate while males are more active swimmers. If they encounter eggs with female embryos of their own species, they attend them and mate with the hatching female. Experiments showed that males are able to discriminate between male, female and diapausing eggs. They exhibit a strong preference for female eggs that are only a few hours away from hatching compared with eggs in early developmental stages. Further experiments did not show any significant differences in male attendance of mictic and amictic eggs. It is hypothesized that males judge the age of a female egg by sensing a chemical that is produced by the growing embryo and diffuses through the egg shell. The male mating behaviour is similar to precopulatory mate guarding known from arthropods but it lacks the monopolization of the female by the male. PMID:14561311

  5. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most ‘model’ species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions. PMID:25411448

  6. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most 'model' species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions. PMID:25411448

  7. Interspecific Cross-Mating Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Laboratory Strains: Implication of Population Density on Mating Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Marcela, P; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Dieng, H; Kumara, T K

    2015-12-01

    Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs. PMID:26675452

  8. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Pierre R; Klein, Etienne K; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Fernández-Manjarrés, Juan F; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

    2006-01-01

    Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash) and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash), which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears to maintain this hybrid

  9. Centurion in Flight over Lakebed with STS Mate-DeMate Device in Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Centurion remotely piloted flying wing in flight during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The special Mate-DeMate structure used by NASA to attach Space Shuttle orbiters to the back of modified Boeing 747s for transport to other locations can be seen in the background of this photo. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For

  10. Pheromonal Cues Deposited by Mated Females Convey Social Information about Egg-Laying Sites in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Duménil, Claire; Woud, David; Pinto, Francesco; Alkema, Jeroen T; Jansen, Ilse; Van Der Geest, Anne M; Roessingh, Sanne; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Individuals can make choices based on information learned from others, a phenomenon called social learning. How observers differentiate between which individual they should or should not learn from is, however, poorly understood. Here, we showed that Drosophila melanogaster females can influence the choice of egg-laying site of other females through pheromonal marking. Mated females mark territories of high quality food by ejecting surplus male sperm containing the aggregation pheromone cis-11-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) and, in addition, deposit several sex- and species-specific cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) pheromones. These pheromonal cues affect the choices of other females, which respond by preferentially laying eggs on the marked food. This system benefits both senders and responders, as communal egg laying increases offspring survival. Virgin females, however, do not elicit a change in the egg-laying decision of mated females, even when food has been supplemented with ejected sperm from mated females, thus indicating the necessity for additional cues. Genetic ablation of either a female's CHC pheromones or those of their mate results in loss of ability of mated females to attract other females. We conclude that mated females use a pheromonal marking system, comprising cVA acquired from male ejaculate with sex- and species-specific CHCs produced by both mates, to indicate egg-laying sites. This system ensures information reliability because mated, but not virgin, females have both the ability to generate the pheromone blend that attracts other flies to those sites and a direct interest in egg-laying site quality. PMID:26994611

  11. Male wing color properties predict the size of nuptial gifts given during mating in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly ( Battus philenor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajyaguru, Parth K.; Pegram, Kimberly V.; Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; Rutowski, Ronald L.

    2013-06-01

    In many animals, males bear bright ornamental color patches that may signal both the direct and indirect benefits that a female might accrue from mating with him. Here we test whether male coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, predicts two potential direct benefits for females: brief copulation duration and the quantity of materials the male passes to the female during mating. In this species, males have a bright iridescent blue field on the dorsal hindwing surface, while females have little or no dorsal iridescence. Females preferentially mate with males who display a bright and highly chromatic blue field on their dorsal hindwing. In this study, we show that the chroma of the blue field on the male dorsal hindwing and male body size (forewing length) significantly predict the mass of material or spermatophore that a male forms within the female's copulatory sac during mating. We also found that spermatophore mass correlated negatively with copulation duration, but that color variables did not significantly predict this potential direct benefit. These results suggest that females may enhance the material benefits they receive during mating by mating with males based on the coloration of their dorsal hindwing.

  12. Substrate specificity of MATE1 and MATE2-K, human multidrug and toxin extrusions/H(+)-organic cation antiporters.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Yuko; Masuda, Satohiro; Sato, Tomoko; Katsura, Toshiya; Ogawa, Osamu; Inui, Ken-Ichi

    2007-07-15

    The substrate specificities of human (h) multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) 1 and hMATE2-K were examined to find functional differences between these two transporters by the transfection of the cDNA of hMATE1 and hMATE2-K into HEK293 cells. Western blotting revealed specific signals for hMATE1 and hMATE2-K consistent with a size of 50 and 40kDa, respectively, in the transfectants as well as human renal brush-border membranes under reducing conditions. In the presence of oppositely directed H(+)-gradient, the transport activities of various compounds such as tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, cimetidine, metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, and topotecan were stimulated in hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. In addition to cationic compounds, anionic estrone sulfate, acyclovir, and ganciclovir were also recognized as substrates of these transporters. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the Michaelis-Menten constants for the hMATE1-mediated transport of tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, cimetidine, metformin, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acycrovir, and ganciclovir to be (in mM) 0.38, 0.10, 0.17, 0.78, 2.10, 1.23, 0.07, 0.47, 2.64, and 5.12, respectively. Those for hMATE2-K were 0.76, 0.11, 0.12, 1.98, 4.20, 1.58, 0.06, 0.85, 4.32, and 4.28, respectively. Although their affinity for hMATE1 and hMATE2-K was similar, the zwitterionic cephalexin and cephradine were revealed to be specific substrates of hMATE1, but not of hMATE2-K. Levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were not transported, but were demonstrated to be potent inhibitors of these transporters. These results suggest that hMATE1 and hMATE2-K function together as a detoxication system, by mediating the tubular secretion of intracellular ionic compounds across the brush-border membranes of the kidney. PMID:17509534

  13. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) courtship and mating behavior

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758), is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9 ± 0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance) was 8.2 ± 1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive. PMID:23062236

  14. Leveling the Playing Field: Longer Acquaintance Predicts Reduced Assortative Mating on Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Lucy L; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2015-07-01

    Clear empirical demonstrations of the theoretical principles underlying assortative mating remain elusive. This article examines a moderator of assortative mating--how well couple members knew each other before dating--suggested by recent findings related to market-based (i.e., competition) theories. Specifically, competition is pervasive to the extent that people achieve consensus about who possesses desirable qualities (e.g., attractiveness) and who does not. Because consensus is stronger earlier in the acquaintance process, assortative mating based on attractiveness should be stronger among couples who formed a relationship after a short period rather than a long period of acquaintance. A study of 167 couples included measures of how long partners had known each other before dating and whether they had been friends before dating, as well as coders' ratings of physical attractiveness. As predicted, couples revealed stronger evidence of assortative mating to the extent that they knew each other for a short time and were not friends before initiating a romantic relationship. PMID:26068893

  15. Mating system of the Amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare.

    PubMed

    Cacho, M S R F; Yamamoto, M E; Chellappa, S

    2007-02-01

    The species, Pterophyllum scalare distinguishes itself by its breeding behavior, involving competition for territory, sexual partners, courtship and parental care. The purpose of this study was to identify the mating system adopted by this species of fish. Twenty males and twenty females were observed under semi-natural and experimental conditions to test the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Under semi-natural conditions, after the third breeding cycle, the couples changed mates. Under experimental conditions, the couples changed partners after the first breeding cycle. Under experimental conditions, mate recognition was investigated through the preference of the females, indicated by the time they spent with the males. The females were available or not for courtship from new males, depending on their aggressiveness or submission. The larger and more aggressive males obtained new mating opportunities while the submissive males were rejected by the females. The mated fish were aggressive towards intruders in the presence of the mate, protecting their pair bond. In the interval between breeding cycles, the couples did not display aggression towards intruders, confirming the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Best mate selection by the females and the opportunity of new matings for both sexes influenced the reproductive success of this species. PMID:17505764

  16. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  17. Mating programs including genomic relationships and dominance effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed associations, artificial-insemination organizations, and on-farm software providers need new computerized mating programs for genomic selection so that genomic inbreeding could be minimized by comparing genotypes of potential mates. Efficient methods for transferring elements of the genomic re...

  18. Mating programs including genomic relationships and dominance effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer mating programs have helped breeders minimize pedigree inbreeding and avoid recessive defects by mating animals with parents that have fewer common ancestors. With genomic selection, breed associations, AI organizations, and on-farm software providers could use new programs to minimize geno...

  19. Formal Mate Selection Networks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Davor

    1980-01-01

    Mate selection barriers beyond individuals' control are presented as reasons for development of formal mate selection networks. Network processes are described and classified according to the degree of third-party involvement and the degree to which anonymity of participants is protected. (Author)

  20. Human mate selection and addiction: a conceptual critique.

    PubMed

    Heath, Andrew C; Waldron, Mary C; Martin, Nicholas G; Nelson, Elliot C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F

    2014-09-01

    The authors review past work on modeling human mate selection, and suggest, using illustrations from existing literature on the impact of alcoholism on relationship formation and dissolution and reproduction, that the challenges of adequately characterizing human mate selection have not yet been overcome. Some paths forwards are suggested. PMID:25138372

  1. The malleability of mate selection in speed-dating events.

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Karremans, Johan; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-10-01

    This study examined to what extent individual mate selectivity could be explained by characteristics of the mating market. Specifically, we hypothesized that females' selectivity would be more malleable, or context-dependent, than males' mate selectivity (cf. Baumeister, 2000; Gangestad & Simpson, 2000). In a series of 22 speed-dating events in which 546 adults aged 22-42 years participated, we investigated whether the proportion of available potential mates (i.e., male-female ratio), which sex rotated during the speed-date event (i.e., approached the other sex), and mate qualities of same-sex competitors affected individuals' selectivity, as indexed by the proportion of no's given during the speed-dating events. Results from multilevel analyses demonstrated that, as hypothesized, event characteristics explained mate selectivity only for females. Specifically, women with a lower facial attractiveness and more deviant body mass index (BMI) values were overall less selective, but this trend was only present in speed-dating events characterized by higher intrasex competition--when females rotated or when other females in the event were more attractive or had healthier BMI. The findings partially support the idea of "erotic plasticity" in females, demonstrating that females' mate selectivity is more malleable and dependent on context than males' mate selectivity. PMID:23358858

  2. Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

  3. 46 CFR 11.495 - Chief Mate (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chief Mate (OSV). 11.495 Section 11.495 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.495 Chief Mate (OSV). (a) Except as provided...

  4. The Role of Ego-Identity Status in Mating Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Papini, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the role ego-identity plays in the mating preferences of late adolescents. In addition to examining the variance in mating preferences explained by ego-identity status, it was hoped that the results could assist in testing the competing Sexual Strategies (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) and Social Role (Eagly & Wood, 1999)…

  5. Gunner's Mate G 3 and 2; Rate Training Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual has been prepared for men of the regular Navy and of the Naval Reserve for the purpose of advancement to increase knowledge in the various aspects of the Gunner's Mate rating (G 3 and 2). Chapters 1 through 14 deal with the following topics: the requirements of the Gunner's Mate G Rating, explosives and pyrotechnics,…

  6. ModelMate - A graphical user interface for model analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    ModelMate is a graphical user interface designed to facilitate use of model-analysis programs with models. This initial version of ModelMate supports one model-analysis program, UCODE_2005, and one model software program, MODFLOW-2005. ModelMate can be used to prepare input files for UCODE_2005, run UCODE_2005, and display analysis results. A link to the GW_Chart graphing program facilitates visual interpretation of results. ModelMate includes capabilities for organizing directories used with the parallel-processing capabilities of UCODE_2005 and for maintaining files in those directories to be identical to a set of files in a master directory. ModelMate can be used on its own or in conjunction with ModelMuse, a graphical user interface for MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST.

  7. Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Wong, Bob B M; Jennions, Michael D

    2003-08-01

    It is well known that female mate choice decisions depend on the direct costs of choosing (either because of search costs or male-imposed costs). Far less is known about how direct fitness costs affect male mate choice. We conducted an experiment to investigate male mate choice in a fish, the Pacific blue-eye (Pseudomugil signifer). Preferred females were larger, probably because larger females are also more fecund. Males, however, were consistent in their choice of female only when the costs of associating with prospective mates were equal. By contrast, males were far less consistent in their choice when made to swim against a current to remain with their initially preferred mate. Our results suggest that males may also respond adaptively to changes in the costs of choosing. PMID:12952630

  8. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    DOEpatents

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  9. The evolution and significance of male mate choice.

    PubMed

    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2011-12-01

    The distinct reproductive roles of males and females, which for many years were characterised in terms of competitive males and choosy females, have remained a central focus of sexual selection since Darwin's time. Increasing evidence now shows that males can be choosy too, even in apparently unexpected situations, such as under polygyny or in the absence of male parental care. Here, we provide a synthesis of the theory on male mate choice and examine the factors that promote or constrain its evolution. We also discuss the evolutionary significance of male mate choice and the contrasts in male versus female mate choice. We conclude that mate choice by males is potentially widespread and has a distinct role in how mating systems evolve. PMID:21890230

  10. Widespread positive but weak assortative mating by diet within stickleback populations

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Travis; Jiang, Yuexin; Rangel, Racine; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating – correlation between male and female traits – is common within populations and has the potential to promote genetic diversity and in some cases speciation. Despite its importance, few studies have sought to explain variation in the extent of assortativeness across populations. Here, we measure assortative mating based on an ecologically important trait, diet as inferred from stable isotopes, in 16 unmanipulated lake populations of three-spine stickleback. As predicted, we find a tendency toward positive assortment on the littoral–pelagic axis, although the magnitude is consistently weak. These populations vary relatively little in the strength of assortativeness, and what variation occurs is not explained by hypothesized drivers including habitat cosegregation, the potential for disruptive selection, costs to choosiness, and the strength of the relationship between diet and body size. Our results support recent findings that most assortative mating is positive, while suggesting that new approaches may be required to identify the environmental variables that drive the evolution of nonrandom mating within populations. PMID:26380669

  11. Odour cues from suitors' nests determine mating success in a fish.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-05-01

    Animals use a range of sensory cues for finding food, avoiding predators and choosing mates. In this regard, the aquatic environment is particularly suitable for the use of olfactory and other chemical cues. Nevertheless, mate choice research, even on aquatic organisms, has focused on visual signals, while chemical cues relevant in sexual selection have been assumed to be 'intrinsic' excretions of mate candidates. Here, using the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small fish with paternal egg care, we investigated the possibility that 'extrinsic' chemical cues in the males' nests could also have a significant contribution to mating success. We found that females strongly avoided laying eggs into nests subject to the odour of Saprolegnia water moulds (an egg infection) and that this effect was independent of the females' initial, visually based preference for males. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that chemical cues related to parental failure can play a large role in sexual selection. PMID:25948566

  12. Female mating preference for bold males in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Godin, J G; Dugatkin, L A

    1996-09-17

    Although females prefer to mate with brightly colored males in numerous species, the benefits accruing to such females are virtually unknown. According to one hypothesis of sexual selection theory, if the expression of costly preferred traits in males (such as conspicuous colors) is proportional to the male's overall quality or reveals his quality, a well-developed trait should indicate good condition and/or viability for example. A female choosing such a male would therefore stand to gain direct or indirect fitness benefits, or both. Among potential phenotypic indicators of an individual's quality are the amount and brightness of its carotenoid-based colors and its boldness, as measured by its willingness to risk approaching predators without being killed. Here, we show experimentally that in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) the visual conspicuousness of the color pattern of males correlates positively with boldness toward, and with escape distance from, a cichlid fish predator. Bold individuals are thus more informed about nearby predators and more likely to survive encounters with them. Mate-choice experiments showed that females prefer colorful males as mates, but prefer bolder males irrespective of their coloration when given the opportunity to observe their behavior toward a potential fish predator. By preferentially mating with colorful males, female guppies are thus choosing on average, relatively bold, and perhaps more viable, individuals. In doing so, and to the extent that viability is heritable, they potentially gain indirect fitness benefits by producing more viable offspring than otherwise. PMID:11607706

  13. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  14. The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  15. Relationship between Monokaryotic Growth Rate and Mating Type in the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gúmer; Iribarren, Iñaki; Blanco, Juan A.; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2001-01-01

    The edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is an industrially produced heterothallic homobasidiomycete whose mating is controlled by a bifactorial tetrapolar genetic system. Two mating loci (matA and matB) control different steps of hyphal fusion, nuclear migration, and nuclear sorting during the onset and progress of the dikaryotic growth. Previous studies have shown that the segregation of the alleles present at the matB locus differs from that expected for a single locus because (i) new nonparental B alleles appeared in the progeny and (ii) there was a distortion in the segregation of the genomic regions close to this mating locus. In this study, we pursued these observations by using a genetic approach based on the identification of molecular markers linked to the matB locus that allowed us to dissect it into two genetically linked subunits (matBα and matBβ) and to correlate the presence of specific matBα and matA alleles with differences in monokaryotic growth rate. The availability of these molecular markers and the mating type dependence of growth rate in monokaryons can be helpful for marker-assisted selection of fast-growing monokaryons to be used in the construction of dikaryons able to colonize the substrate faster than the competitors responsible for reductions in the industrial yield of this fungus. PMID:11472908

  16. Odour cues from suitors’ nests determine mating success in a fish

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Topi K.; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a range of sensory cues for finding food, avoiding predators and choosing mates. In this regard, the aquatic environment is particularly suitable for the use of olfactory and other chemical cues. Nevertheless, mate choice research, even on aquatic organisms, has focused on visual signals, while chemical cues relevant in sexual selection have been assumed to be ‘intrinsic’ excretions of mate candidates. Here, using the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small fish with paternal egg care, we investigated the possibility that ‘extrinsic’ chemical cues in the males’ nests could also have a significant contribution to mating success. We found that females strongly avoided laying eggs into nests subject to the odour of Saprolegnia water moulds (an egg infection) and that this effect was independent of the females’ initial, visually based preference for males. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that chemical cues related to parental failure can play a large role in sexual selection. PMID:25948566

  17. Prediction of expected genetic variation within groups of offspring for innovative mating schemes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Experience from progeny-testing indicates that the mating of popular bull sires that have high estimated breeding values with excellent dams does not guarantee the production of offspring with superior breeding values. This is explained partly by differences in the standard deviation of gamete breeding values (SDGBV) between animals at the haplotype level. The SDGBV depends on the variance of the true effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the degree of heterozygosity. Haplotypes of 58 035 Holstein animals were used to predict and investigate expected SDGBV for fat yield, protein yield, somatic cell score and the direct genetic effect for stillbirth. Results Differences in SDGBV between animals were detected, which means that the groups of offspring of parents with low SDGBV will be more homogeneous than those of parents with high SDGBV, although the expected mean breeding values of the progeny will be the same. SDGBV was negatively correlated with genomic and pedigree inbreeding coefficients and a small loss of SDGBV over time was observed. Sires that had relatively low mean gamete breeding values but high SDGBV had a higher probability of producing extremely positive offspring than sires that had a high mean gamete breeding value and low SDGBV. Conclusions An animal’s SDGBV can be estimated based on genomic information and used to design specific genomic mating plans. Estimated SDGBV are an additional tool for mating programs, which allows breeders to identify and match mating partners using specific haplotype information. PMID:24990472

  18. From the bedroom to the budget deficit: mate competition changes men's attitudes toward economic redistribution.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew Edward; Kenrick, Douglas T; Neel, Rebecca; Neuberg, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    How do economic recessions influence attitudes toward redistribution of wealth? From a traditional economic self-interest perspective, attitudes toward redistribution should be affected by one's financial standing. A functional evolutionary approach suggests another possible form of self-interest: That during periods of economic threat, attitudes toward redistribution should be influenced by one's mate-value-especially for men. Using both lab-based experiments and real-world data on voting behavior, we consistently find that economic threats lead low mate-value men to become more prosocial and supportive of redistribution policies, but that the same threats lead high mate-value men to do the opposite. Economic threats do not affect women's attitudes toward redistribution in the same way, and, across studies, financial standing is only weakly associated with attitudes toward redistribution. These findings suggest that during tough economic times, men's attitudes toward redistribution are influenced by something that has seemingly little to do with economic self-interest-their mating psychology. PMID:23895267

  19. Male mating behaviour and sperm production characteristics under varying sperm competition risk in guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans; Magurran

    1999-11-01

    Since natural populations of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, often differ from one another in social structure, the intensity of sperm competition is likely to vary between localities. Guppies are promiscuous, with female choice for colourful males playing a central role in the mating system. In addition, male guppies use forced copulations to circumvent female choice. Both methods of copulation are used interchangeably by individual males, but the degree to which either is used may depend on the social environment into which males are born. Here we show that male mating behaviour varies according to the rearing sex ratio: when reared in male-biased groups, males performed more forced copulations and fewer courtship displays but showed the opposite pattern of behaviour when reared in female-biased groups. Our prediction, based on sperm competition theory, that stripped sperm number would reflect social structure was not supported by our results. Instead, the overall level of sexual activity (gonopodial thrusts+sigmoid displays) was a better predictor of sperm number in the different groups of males. Rearing density, where sex ratio was controlled, did not significantly affect male mating behaviour or sperm traits. Males reared under the different sex ratios continued to show their characteristic behaviour patterns when placed in equal sex ratio tanks. We conclude, therefore, that males adopt mating strategies to suit their social environment, and that these strategies remain fixed, for short periods at least, if population structure changes. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10564602

  20. MHC diversity and mate choice in the magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus.

    PubMed

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee; Bouzat, Juan L

    2012-01-01

    We estimated levels of diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRß1 gene in 50 breeding pairs of the Magellanic penguin and compared those to estimates from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins. We tested for positive selection and 2 conditions required for the evolution of MHC-based disassortative mating: 1) greater MHC diversity between breeding pairs compared to random mating, and 2) associations between MHC genotype and fitness. Cloning and sequencing of the DRß1 gene showed that Magellanic penguins had higher levels of genetic variation than Galapagos and Humboldt penguins. Sequence analysis revealed 45 alleles with 3.6% average proportion of nucleotide differences, nucleotide diversity of 0.030, and observed heterozygosity of 0.770. A gene phylogeny showed 9 allelic lineages with interspersed DRß1 sequences from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins, indicating ancestral polymorphisms. d (N)/d (S) ratios revealed evidence for positive selection. Analysis of breeding pairs showed no disassortative mating preferences. Significant MHC genotype/fitness associations in females suggest, however, that selection for pathogen resistance plays a more important role than mate choice in maintaining diversity at the MHC in the Magellanic penguin. The differential effect of MHC heterozygosity on fitness between the sexes is likely associated with the relative role of hatching and fledging rates as reliable indicators of overall fitness in males and females. PMID:22952272

  1. Biodegradability and plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract on cassava starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Medina Jaramillo, Carolina; Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Goyanes, Silvia; Bernal, Celina; Famá, Lucía

    2016-10-20

    Biodegradable and edible cassava starch-glycerol based films with different concentrations of yerba mate extract (0, 5 and 20wt.%) were prepared by casting. The plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract when it was incorporated into the matrix as an antioxidant was investigated. Thermal degradation and biodegradability of the obtained biofilms were also studied. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), water absorbance, stability in different solutions and biodegradability studies were performed. The clear correlation among the results obtained from the different analysis confirmed the plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract on the starch-glycerol matrix. Also, the extract led to a decrease in the degradation time of the films in soil ensuring their complete biodegradability before two weeks and to films stability in acidic and alkaline media. The plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract makes it an attractive additive for starch films which will be used as packaging or coating; and its contribution to an earlier biodegradability will contribute to waste reduction. PMID:27474554

  2. Female mating preference for bold males in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed Central

    Godin, J G; Dugatkin, L A

    1996-01-01

    Although females prefer to mate with brightly colored males in numerous species, the benefits accruing to such females are virtually unknown. According to one hypothesis of sexual selection theory, if the expression of costly preferred traits in males (such as conspicuous colors) is proportional to the male's overall quality or reveals his quality, a well-developed trait should indicate good condition and/or viability for example. A female choosing such a male would therefore stand to gain direct or indirect fitness benefits, or both. Among potential phenotypic indicators of an individual's quality are the amount and brightness of its carotenoid-based colors and its boldness, as measured by its willingness to risk approaching predators without being killed. Here, we show experimentally that in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) the visual conspicuousness of the color pattern of males correlates positively with boldness toward, and with escape distance from, a cichlid fish predator. Bold individuals are thus more informed about nearby predators and more likely to survive encounters with them. Mate-choice experiments showed that females prefer colorful males as mates, but prefer bolder males irrespective of their coloration when given the opportunity to observe their behavior toward a potential fish predator. By preferentially mating with colorful males, female guppies are thus choosing on average, relatively bold, and perhaps more viable, individuals. In doing so, and to the extent that viability is heritable, they potentially gain indirect fitness benefits by producing more viable offspring than otherwise. PMID:11607706

  3. Target-site resistance mutations (kdr and RDL), but not metabolic resistance, negatively impact male mating competiveness in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Naomi; Kwiatkowska, Rachel M.; Irving, Helen; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Dabire, Roch; Wondji, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of successful insecticide resistance management strategies for malaria control is currently hampered by poor understanding of the fitness cost of resistance on mosquito populations, including their mating competiveness. To fill this knowledge gap, coupled and uncoupled An. gambiae s.l. males [all M form (An. coluzzii)] were collected from mating swarms in Burkina Faso. This multiple insecticide resistant population exhibited high 1014F kdrR allele frequencies (>60%) and RDLR (>80%) in contrast to the Ace-1R allele (<6%). Kdr heterozygote males were more likely to mate than homozygote resistant (OR=2.36; P<0.001), suggesting a negative impact of kdr upon An. coluzzii mating ability. Interestingly, heterozygote males were also more competitive than homozygote susceptible (OR=3.26; P=0.006), suggesting a heterozygote advantage effect. Similarly, heterozygote RDLR/RDLS were also more likely to mate than homozygote resistant males (OR=2.58; P=0.007). Furthermore, an additive mating disadvantage was detected in male homozygotes for both kdr/RDL resistant alleles. In contrast, no fitness difference was observed for the Ace-1 mutation. Comparative microarray-based genome-wide transcription analysis revealed that metabolic resistance did not significantly alter the mating competitiveness of male An. coluzzii mosquitoes. Indeed, no significant difference of expression levels was observed for the main metabolic resistance genes, suggesting that metabolic resistance has a limited impact on male mating competiveness. Additionally, specific gene classes/GO terms associated with mating process were detected including sensory perception and peroxidase activity. The detrimental impact of insecticide resistance on mating competiveness observed here suggests that resistance management strategies such as insecticide rotation could help reverse the resistance, if implemented early. PMID:25899013

  4. Target-site resistance mutations (kdr and RDL), but not metabolic resistance, negatively impact male mating competiveness in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Platt, N; Kwiatkowska, R M; Irving, H; Diabaté, A; Dabire, R; Wondji, C S

    2015-09-01

    The implementation of successful insecticide resistance management strategies for malaria control is currently hampered by poor understanding of the fitness cost of resistance on mosquito populations, including their mating competiveness. To fill this knowledge gap, coupled and uncoupled Anopheles gambiae s.l. males (all M form (Anopheles coluzzii)) were collected from mating swarms in Burkina Faso. This multiple insecticide resistant population exhibited high 1014F kdr(R) allele frequencies (>60%) and RDL(R) (>80%) in contrast to the Ace-1(R) allele (<6%). Kdr heterozygote males were more likely to mate than homozygote resistant (OR=2.36; P<0.001), suggesting a negative impact of kdr on An. coluzzii mating ability. Interestingly, heterozygote males were also more competitive than homozygote susceptible (OR=3.26; P=0.006), suggesting a heterozygote advantage effect. Similarly, heterozygote RDL(R)/RDL(S) were also more likely to mate than homozygote-resistant males (OR=2.58; P=0.007). Furthermore, an additive mating disadvantage was detected in male homozygotes for both kdr/RDL-resistant alleles. In contrast, no fitness difference was observed for the Ace-1 mutation. Comparative microarray-based genome-wide transcription analysis revealed that metabolic resistance did not significantly alter the mating competitiveness of male An. coluzzii mosquitoes. Indeed, no significant difference of expression levels was observed for the main metabolic resistance genes, suggesting that metabolic resistance has a limited impact on male mating competiveness. In addition, specific gene classes/GO terms associated with mating process were detected including sensory perception and peroxidase activity. The detrimental impact of insecticide resistance on mating competiveness observed here suggests that resistance management strategies such as insecticide rotation could help reverse the resistance, if implemented early. PMID:25899013

  5. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  6. Potential of synthetic sex pheromone blend for mating disruption of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii.

    PubMed

    Samietz, Jörg; Baur, Robert; Hillbur, Ylva

    2012-09-01

    The potential for pheromone-based mating disruption of the Brassica pest Contarinia nasturtii was tested, both in small-scale plots with Brussels sprouts and in commercial-scale fields with either broccoli or cauliflower. Experiments in the small-scale plots used laboratory-reared insects released into a previously uninfested area, whereas large-scale experiments used a high natural population of C. nasturtii. Effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by the reduction of male captures in pheromone traps, and by reduction of crop damage caused by C. nasturtii. Dental cotton rolls (small-scale experiment) and polyethylene caps (large-scale experiment), containing 50 μg (2S, 9S)-diacetoxyundecane, 100 μg (2S,10S)-diacetoxyundecane, and 1 μg (2S)-acetoxyundecane, spaced 2 m apart, served as dispensers in the test plots. In both experiments, mean catches of C. nasturtii males in pheromone traps were reduced to near zero in treated plots, with control plots averaging 71 males/trap. In the large-scale experiments, no males were caught in pheromone traps over a period of 41 days after mating disruption was applied; one male was caught from days 42-60. In the small-scale trials, crop damage was reduced by 59 %, compared to the untreated control plot. In the large-scale experiments, damage was reduced on average by 91 %. This study shows successful field application of the mating disruption technique for control of a member of the dipteran family Cecidomyiidae, and demonstrates that pheromone-based mating disruption has potential for management of C. nasturtii populations. PMID:22914960

  7. Stochasticity in the yeast mating pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Li; Fu, Zheng-Ping; Xu, Xin-Hang; Ouyang, Qi

    2009-05-01

    We report stochastic simulations of the yeast mating signal transduction pathway. The effects of intrinsic and external noise, the influence of cell-to-cell difference in the pathway capacity, and noise propagation in the pathway have been examined. The stochastic temporal behaviour of the pathway is found to be robust to the influence of inherent fluctuations, and intrinsic noise propagates in the pathway in a uniform pattern when the yeasts are treated with pheromones of different stimulus strengths and of varied fluctuations. In agreement with recent experimental findings, extrinsic noise is found to play a more prominent role than intrinsic noise in the variability of proteins. The occurrence frequency for the reactions in the pathway are also examined and a more compact network is obtained by dropping most of the reactions of least occurrence.

  8. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-09-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

  9. Expression of OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 alters development, stress responses and pathogen susceptibility in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manish; Sharma, Deepika; Singh, Munna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and Toxic compound Extrusion proteins (MATE) are a group of secondary active transporters with ubiquitous occurrences in all domains of life. This is a newly characterized transporter family with limited functional knowledge in plants. In this study, we functionally characterised two members of rice MATE gene family, OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 through expression in heterologous system, Arabidopsis. Expression of OsMATEs in Arabidopsis altered growth and morphology of transgenic plants. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed modulation of genes involved in plant growth, development and biotic stress in transgenic lines. Transgenic plants displayed sensitivity for biotic and abiotic stresses. Elevated pathogen susceptibility of transgenic lines was correlated with reduced expressions of defence related genes. Promoter and cellular localization studies suggest that both MATEs express in developing and reproductive organs and are plasma-membrane localised. Our results reveal that OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 regulate plant growth and development as well as negatively affect disease resistance. PMID:24492654

  10. 46 CFR 11.463 - General requirements for endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements for endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels. 11.463 Section 11.463 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.463 General requirements for endorsements as master,...

  11. 46 CFR 11.463 - General requirements for endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements for endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels. 11.463 Section 11.463 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.463 General requirements for endorsements as master,...

  12. 46 CFR 11.463 - General requirements for endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for endorsements as master, mate (pilot), and apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels. 11.463 Section 11.463 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.463 General requirements for endorsements as master,...

  13. Mating system shifts on the trailing edge

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The trailing edges of species ranges are becoming a subject of increasing interest as the environment changes due to global warming. Trailing edge populations are likely to face extinction because of a decline in numbers and an inability to evolve new adaptations with sufficient speed. Discussions of character change in the trailing edge have focused on physiological, exomorphic and phenological traits. The mating pattern within populations has not been part of the discourse, in spite of the fact that the mating pattern may affect the ability of populations to respond to environmental change and to maintain their sizes. In this paper, the case is made that a substantial increase in self-fertilization rates may occur via plastic responses to stress. Scope and Conclusions Small populations on the trailing edge are especially vulnerable to environmental change because of inadequate levels of cross-fertilization. Evidence is presented that a deficiency of cross-seed production is due to inadequate pollinator services and a paucity of self-incompatibility alleles within populations. Evidence also is presented that if plants are self-compatible, self-fertilization may compensate in part for this deficiency through a stress-induced increase in levels of self-compatibility and stress-induced alterations in floral morphology that elevate self-pollination. Whereas increased self-fertility may afford populations the time to adapt to their changing environments, it can be concluded that increased selfing is not a panacea for the ills of environmental change, because it will lead to substantial reductions in genetic diversity, which may render adaptation unlikely. PMID:21980190

  14. Courtship and mating in free-living spotted hyenas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szykman, M.; Van Horn, R. C.; Engh, A.L.; Boydston, E.E.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    Female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are larger and more aggressive than males, and their genitalia are heavily 'masculinized'. These odd traits in females pose unusual challenges for males during courtship and copulation. Here our goals were to describe and quantify the behavior patterns involved in courtship and copulation in Crocuta, and determine whether rates of affiliative behavior directed toward females by males vary with female age, social rank, or time to conception. We also inquired whether consort formation with a particular female was necessary for a male to sire that female's cubs. Behavioral observations and paternity data based on 12 microsatellite loci were collected over 11 years from free-ranging hyenas in Kenya. Several of the courtship displays exhibited by male hyenas differed from those found in other carnivores, and appeared to reflect intense motivational conflict between tendencies to approach and flee from females. Most male advances were either ignored by females or elicited aggression from females toward males. Rates of male affiliative behavior toward females peaked around the time of conception. Although males behaved similarly toward young and old females in the highest social rank category, males directed more affiliative behavior toward older than younger females that were mid- and low-ranking. Multiple short mounts usually preceded a long mount, but intromission and ejaculation appeared to occur only during long mounts. Female receptivity was indicated by inhibited aggression toward the male and assumption of a distinctive receptive stance. The only behavior indicative of female proceptivity was following of the male by the female in mating contexts. Some males who sired cubs formed consortships with females whereas others did not, suggesting that individual male hyenas may adopt alternative reproductive tactics to attract and acquire mates. Our results also suggest that low fertility may be an important cost of female

  15. Physiological resonance between mates through calls as possible evidence of empathic processes in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Perez, Emilie C; Elie, Julie E; Boucaud, Ingrid C A; Crouchet, Thomas; Soulage, Christophe O; Soula, Hédi A; Theunissen, Frédéric E; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-09-01

    Physiological resonance - where the physiological state of a subject generates the same state in a perceiver - has been proposed as a proximate mechanism facilitating pro-social behaviours. While mainly described in mammals, state matching in physiology and behaviour could be a phylogenetically shared trait among social vertebrates. Birds show complex social lives and cognitive abilities, and their monogamous pair-bond is a highly coordinated partnership, therefore we hypothesised that birds express state matching between mates. We show that calls of male zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata produced during corticosterone treatment (after oral administration of exogenous corticosterone and during visual separation from the partner) provoke both an increase in corticosterone concentrations and behavioural changes in their female partner compared to control calls (regular calls emitted by the same male during visual separation from the partner only), whereas calls produced during corticosterone treatment by unfamiliar males have no such effect. Irrespective of the caller status (mate/non-mate), calls' acoustic properties were predictive of female corticosterone concentration after playback, but the identity of mate calls was necessary to fully explain female responses. Female responses were unlikely due to a failure of the call-based mate recognition system: in a discrimination task, females perceive calls produced during corticosterone treatment as being more similar to the control calls of the same male than to control calls of other males, even after taking acoustical differences into account. These results constitute the first evidence of physiological resonance solely on acoustic cues in birds, and support the presence of empathic processes. PMID:26407661

  16. No evidence for assortative mating within a willow warbler migratory divide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In contact zones, genetic mixing of two taxa can be restricted by prezygotic (e.g. assortative mating) or postzygotic (lower fitness of hybrid offspring) barriers, or a combination of the two. A hybrid zone between two willow warbler subspecies (Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus, P. t. acredula) with distinctive migratory strategies occurs in central Sweden. These subspecies exhibit differences in migratory direction and distance, resulting in geographically distinct wintering areas in Africa. The subspecies may have diverged from a common refuge after the last ice age, and neutral genetic markers are homogeneous across their range. By contrast, several phenotypic traits and genetic markers of two chromosomal regions previously identified show steep clines across the divide. The evolutionary forces that maintain this migratory divide remain unknown. Here we use plumage colour, morphology, genetic markers and feather stable nitrogen-isotopes (δ15N) to assess if assortative mating between migratory phenotypes could be acting as a possible mechanism for keeping the two forms genetically separate and maintaining the migratory divide. We colour-ringed a willow warbler breeding population in the central part of the hybrid zone and observed the breeding population to assess phenotypic and genotypic traits of social pairs. Results Our data suggest that wintering area and genetic ancestry had an effect on male arrival time to the breeding grounds which could contribute to assortment. However, evidence for assortative mating could not be detected based on a comparison of plumage colour, morphology and δ15N between social mates. Conclusion This finding was strengthened by analyses of subspecies-specific genetic markers, which allowed us to identify the presence of a large proportion of potential hybrids and backcrosses at the study site. Our results supported the hypothesis that pre-mating isolation in willow warblers is weak, resulting in extensive

  17. Evolution of mating isolation between populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Schug, Malcolm D; Baines, John F; Killon-Atwood, Amanda; Mohanty, Sujata; Das, Aparup; Grath, Sonja; Smith, Shelly G; Zargham, Shiva; McEvey, Shane F; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    Prezygotic mating isolation has been a major interest of evolutionary biologists during the past several decades because it is likely to represent one of the first stages in the transition from populations to species. Mate discrimination is one of the most commonly measured forms of prezygotic isolation and appears to be relatively common among closely related species. In some cases, it has been used as a measure to distinguish populations from subspecies, races, and sister species, yet the influences of various evolutionary mechanisms that may generate mate discrimination are largely unknown. In this study, we measured the level and pattern of mate discrimination among 18 populations of a cosmopolitan drosophilid species, Drosophila ananassae, from throughout its geographical range and its sister species, Drosophila pallidosa, which has a restricted geographical distribution in the South Pacific Islands. In addition, we measured genetic differentiation between all 18 populations using mitochondrial DNA polymorphism data. Mate discrimination varies considerably throughout the species range, being higher among populations outside the ancestral Indonesian range, and highest in the South Pacific. Our results suggest that colonization and genetic differentiation may have an influence on the evolutionary origin of mate discrimination. Our phylogeographical approach clarifies the ancestral relationships of several populations from the South Pacific that show particularly strong mate discrimination and suggests that they may be in the early stages of speciation. Furthermore, both the genetic and behavioral results cast doubt on the status of D. pallidosa as a good species. PMID:18466237

  18. Post-mating clutch piracy in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Vieites, David R; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Barluenga, Marta; Palanca, Antonio; Vences, Miguel; Meyer, Axel

    2004-09-16

    Female multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition is often the outcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in many animals, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple paternity without associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is also seen in simultaneously spawning amphibians and fishes that release gametes into water. Here we report 'clutch piracy' in a montane population of the common frog Rana temporaria, a reproductive behaviour previously unknown in vertebrates with external fertilization. Males of this species clasp the females and the pair deposits one spherical clutch of eggs. No parental care is provided. 'Pirate' males search for freshly laid clutches, clasp them as they would do a female and fertilize the eggs that were left unfertilized by the 'parental' male. This behaviour does not seem to be size-dependent, and some males mate with a female and perform clutch piracy in the same season. Piracy affected 84% of the clutches and in some cases increased the proportion of eggs fertilized, providing direct fitness benefits both for the pirate males and the females. Sexual selection--probably caused by a strong male-biased sex ratio--occurs in this population, as indicated by size-assortative mating; however, clutch piracy may reduce its impact. This provides a good model to explore how alternative mating strategies can affect the intensity of sexual selection. PMID:15372032

  19. Age-related mate choice in the wandering albatross.

    PubMed

    Jouventin; Lequette; Dobson

    1999-05-01

    We studied mate choice in the wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, using data from 32 years of banding returns in the population of the Crozet Islands. We studied mating choices in a single year, when the Crozet Islands population was male biased (8:5, males:females). Thus, we expected that females might show great flexibility of choice of partners. Because age and experience might influence mate choice, we tested the expectation that females would choose the oldest and most experienced males for pair bonding. Pair bonds usually last until one member of the pair dies (0.3% of the birds 'divorce'), so mate choice should be especially important. We found that the ages of males and females in both displaying and bonded (breeding) pairs were significantly correlated. These age-associated pairings were not a passive phenomenon, but appeared to be due to an active process of selection of mates of similar age. First-time breeders sought mates of similar age, but preferred those with the most experience. Remating, experienced birds whose mates had died did not pair with individuals of significantly similar age, but predominantly paired with other widowed birds that, on average, were also relatively old. Mate fidelity in wandering albatrosses may be due to the cost of finding and bonding with a new mate. Pair bonds, and thus breeding, took an average of 3.2 and 2.3 years to establish, for males and females, respectively. Thus, remating exerts a potential average reproductive cost of about 15% of lifetime reproductive success. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328796

  20. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  1. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  2. A generic, MATE compatible electro-optic tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David W.

    In order to enhance the testing of electrooptic systems, a US Air Force Modular Automatic Test Equipment (MATE)-compatible electrooptic test station is proposed. This ATE station would consist of two sections; the first section consisting of a MATE-compatible analog, digital, radio frequency (RF), or radar/electronic warfare (R/EW) ATE station, and the second section consisting of a roll-up, reconfigurable, electrooptic subassembly. The author discusses these two sections, along with the electrooptic ATE components involved, and how these electrooptic ATE components are integrated into a MATE-compatible test station.

  3. Description of a novel mating plug mechanism in spiders and the description of the new species Maeota setastrobilaris (Araneae, Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Garcilazo-Cruz, Uriel; Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reproduction in arthropods is an interesting area of research where intrasexual and intersexual mechanisms have evolved structures with several functions. The mating plugs usually produced by males are good examples of these structures where the main function is to obstruct the female genitalia against new sperm depositions. In spiders several types of mating plugs have been documented, the most common ones include solidified secretions, parts of the bulb or in some extraordinary cases the mutilation of the entire palpal bulb. Here, we describe the first case of modified setae, which are located on the cymbial dorsal base, used directly as a mating plug for the Order Araneae in the species Maeota setastrobilaris sp. n. In addition the taxonomic description of Maeota setastrobilaris sp. n. is provided and based on our findings the geographic distribution of this genus is extended to the Northern hemisphere. PMID:26175601

  4. EVIDENCE FOR TUBULAR MATING STRUCTURES INDUCED IN EACH MATING TYPE OF HETEROTHALLIC GONIUM PECTORALE (VOLVOCALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Mogi, Yuko; Hamaji, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Ferris, Patrick; Mori, Toshiyuki; Kabeya, Yukihiro; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Gametes were induced separately in cultures of each mating type of the heterothallic, isogamous colonial volvocalean Gonium pectorale O. F. Müll. to examine the tubular mating structure (TMS) of both mating types plus and minus (plus and minus), referred to as "bilateral mating papillae." Addition of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DcAMP or db-cAMP) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to approximately 3-week-old cultures of each mating type induced immediate release of naked gametes from the cell walls. Both plus and minus gametes formed a TMS in the anterior region of the protoplasts. Accumulation of actin was visualized by antibody staining in the TMS of both mating types as occurs in the TMS (fertilization tubule) of the plus gametes of the unicellular volvocalean Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. A. Dang. Induction of naked gametes with a TMS in each mating type will be useful for future cell biological and evolutionary studies of the isogametes of colonial volvocalean algae. PMID:27011083

  5. Size-assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism are predictable from simple mechanics of mate-grasping behavior

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the typically complex interactions between diverse counter-balancing factors of Darwinian selection for size assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism. It appears that rarely a simple mechanism could provide a major explanation of these phenomena. Mechanics of behaviors can predict animal morphology, such like adaptations to locomotion in animals from various of taxa, but its potential to predict size-assortative mating and its evolutionary consequences has been less explored. Mate-grasping by males, using specialized adaptive morphologies of their forelegs, midlegs or even antennae wrapped around female body at specific locations, is a general mating strategy of many animals, but the contribution of the mechanics of this wide-spread behavior to the evolution of mating behavior and sexual size dimorphism has been largely ignored. Results Here, we explore the consequences of a simple, and previously ignored, fact that in a grasping posture the position of the male's grasping appendages relative to the female's body is often a function of body size difference between the sexes. Using an approach taken from robot mechanics we model coercive grasping of females by water strider Gerris gracilicornis males during mating initiation struggles. We determine that the male optimal size (relative to the female size), which gives the males the highest grasping force, properly predicts the experimentally measured highest mating success. Through field sampling and simulation modeling of a natural population we determine that the simple mechanical model, which ignores most of the other hypothetical counter-balancing selection pressures on body size, is sufficient to account for size-assortative mating pattern as well as species-specific sexual dimorphism in body size of G. gracilicornis. Conclusion The results indicate how a simple and previously overlooked physical mechanism common in many taxa is

  6. Exploring the Genes of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) by NGS and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Patricia M.; Bubillo, Rosana E.; Otegui, Mónica B.; Ducasse, Daniel A.; Zapata, Pedro D.; Marti, Dardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) is an important subtropical tree crop cultivated on 326,000 ha in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, with a total yield production of more than 1,000,000 t. Yerba mate presents a strong limitation regarding sequence information. The NCBI GenBank lacks an EST database of yerba mate and depicts only 80 DNA sequences, mostly uncharacterized. In this scenario, in order to elucidate the yerba mate gene landscape by means of NGS, we explored and discovered a vast collection of I. paraguariensis transcripts. Total RNA from I. paraguariensis was sequenced by Illumina HiSeq-2000 obtaining 72,031,388 pair-end 100 bp sequences. High quality reads were de novo assembled into 44,907 transcripts encompassing 40 million bases with an estimated coverage of 180X. Multiple sequence analysis allowed us to predict that yerba mate contains ∼32,355 genes and 12,551 gene variants or isoforms. We identified and categorized members of more than 100 metabolic pathways. Overall, we have identified ∼1,000 putative transcription factors, genes involved in heat and oxidative stress, pathogen response, as well as disease resistance and hormone response. We have also identified, based in sequence homology searches, novel transcripts related to osmotic, drought, salinity and cold stress, senescence and early flowering. We have also pinpointed several members of the gene silencing pathway, and characterized the silencing effector Argonaute1. We predicted a diverse supply of putative microRNA precursors involved in developmental processes. We present here the first draft of the transcribed genomes of the yerba mate chloroplast and mitochondrion. The putative sequence and predicted structure of the caffeine synthase of yerba mate is presented. Moreover, we provide a collection of over 10,800 SSR accessible to the scientific community interested in yerba mate genetic improvement. This contribution broadly expands the limited knowledge of yerba mate genes

  7. Multigene phylogeny and mating tests reveal three cryptic species related to Calonectria pauciramosa

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Calonectria pauciramosa is a pathogen of numerous plant hosts worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that it included cryptic species, some of which are identified in this study. Isolates from various geographical origins were collected and compared based on morphology, DNA sequence data of the β-tubulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor-1α regions and mating compatibility. Comparisons of the DNA sequence data and mating compatibility revealed three new species. These included Ca. colombiana sp. nov. from Colombia, Ca. polizzii sp. nov. from Italy and Ca. zuluensis sp. nov. from South Africa, all of which had distinguishing morphological features. Based on DNA sequence data, Ca. brasiliensis is also elevated to species level. PMID:20806004

  8. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms.

    PubMed

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  9. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  10. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  11. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    PubMed Central

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  12. Mate Choice and the Origin of Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Richard A.; Stone, Jonathan R.; Singh, Rama S.

    2013-01-01

    Human menopause is an unsolved evolutionary puzzle, and relationships among the factors that produced it remain understood poorly. Classic theory, involving a one-sex (female) model of human demography, suggests that genes imparting deleterious effects on post-reproductive survival will accumulate. Thus, a ‘death barrier’ should emerge beyond the maximum age for female reproduction. Under this scenario, few women would experience menopause (decreased fertility with continued survival) because few would survive much longer than they reproduced. However, no death barrier is observed in human populations. Subsequent theoretical research has shown that two-sex models, including male fertility at older ages, avoid the death barrier. Here we use a stochastic, two-sex computational model implemented by computer simulation to show how male mating preference for younger females could lead to the accumulation of mutations deleterious to female fertility and thus produce a menopausal period. Our model requires neither the initial assumption of a decline in older female fertility nor the effects of inclusive fitness through which older, non-reproducing women assist in the reproductive efforts of younger women. Our model helps to explain why such effects, observed in many societies, may be insufficient factors in elucidating the origin of menopause. PMID:23785268

  13. Simulated spaceflight effects on mating and pregnancy of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Howard, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The mating of rats was studied to determine the effects of: simulated reentry stresses at known stages of pregnancy, and full flight simulation, consisting of sequential launch stresses, group housing, mating opportunity, diet, simulated reentry, and postreentry isolation of male and female rats. Uterine contents, adrenal mass and abdominal fat as a proportion of body mass, duration of pregnancy, and number and sex of offspring were studied. It is found that: (1) parturition following full flight simulation was delayed relative to that of controls; (2) litter size was reduced and resorptions increased compared with previous matings in the same group of animals; and (3) abdominal fat was highly elevated in animals that were fed the Soviet paste diet. It is suggested that the combined effects of diet, stress, spacecraft environment, and weightlessness decreased the probability of mating or of viable pregnancies in the Cosmos 1129 flight and control animals.

  14. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  15. Female mate choice and male behaviour in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Leonard; Zanette

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to use paired choice tests to examine mate selection by female domestic chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus. We examined five behavioural and six morphological traits of 34 pairs of males to determine which male features influenced female mate choice. The frequency of a behavioural display known as wingflapping was the only variable that differed significantly between males that were chosen and males that were not. Within trials, females selected males with the highest wingflapping rate. Across trials, the wingflapping rate of chosen males ranged widely (3-82 wingflaps/h) suggesting that females used a relative choice mechanism when selecting a mate. These results differ from earlier work on the closely related red junglefowl, G. g. murghi, in which females use morphological traits and a threshold choice mechanism when selecting mates. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9819324

  16. Sensory regulation of C. elegans male mate-searching behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Arantza; Nurrish, Stephen; Emmons, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary How do animals integrate internal drives and external environmental cues to coordinate behaviours? We address this question studying mate-searching behaviour in C. elegans. C. elgans males explore their environment in search of mates (hermaphrodites) and will leave food if mating partners are absent. However, when mates and food coincide, male exploratory behaviour is suppressed and males are retained on the food source. We show that the drive to explore is stimulated by male specific neurons in the tail, the ray neurons. Periodic contact with the hermaphrodite detected through ray neurons changes the male’s behaviour during periods of no contact and prevents the male from leaving the food source. The hermaphrodite signal is conveyed by male-specific interneurons that are post-synaptic to the rays and that send processes to the major integrative center in the head. This study identifies key parts of the neural circuit that regulates a sexual appetitive behaviour in C. elegans. PMID:19062284

  17. 3. Buoy tender crew mates work to bring a navigational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Buoy tender crew mates work to bring a navigational buoy aboard for servicing. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF CONNECTOR FOR MATING THE MLP TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CONNECTOR FOR MATING THE MLP TO THE CRAWLER. - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF CONNECTOR FOR MATING TO THE CRAWLER TRANSPORTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CONNECTOR FOR MATING TO THE CRAWLER TRANSPORTER - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. The necessities and luxuries of mate preferences: testing the tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Li, Norman P; Bailey, J Michael; Kenrick, Douglas T; Linsenmeier, Joan A W

    2002-06-01

    Social exchange and evolutionary models of mate selection incorporate economic assumptions but have not considered a key distinction between necessities and luxuries. This distinction can clarify an apparent paradox: Status and attractiveness, though emphasized by many researchers, are not typically rated highly by research participants. Three studies supported the hypothesis that women and men first ensure sufficient levels of necessities in potential mates before considering many other characteristics rated as more important in prior surveys. In Studies 1 and 2, participants designed ideal long-term mates, purchasing various characteristics with 3 different budgets. Study 3 used a mate-screening paradigm and showed that people inquire 1st about hypothesized necessities. Physical attractiveness was a necessity to men, status and resources were necessities to women, and kindness and intelligence were necessities to both. PMID:12051582

  1. Mate choice and genetic monogamy in a biparental, colonial fish

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Wouter F.D.; Wagner, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, in which both sexes provide essential parental care, males as well as females are expected to be choosy. Whereas hundreds of studies have examined monogamy in biparental birds, only several such studies exist in fish. We examined mate choice in the biparental, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus caudopunctatus in Lake Tanganyika, Zambia. We genotyped more than 350 individuals at 11 microsatellite loci to investigate their mating system. We found no extrapair paternity, identifying this biparental fish as genetically monogamous. Breeders paired randomly according to their genetic similarity, suggesting a lack of selection against inbreeding avoidance. We further found that breeders paired assortatively by body size, a criterion of quality in fish, suggesting mutual mate choice. In a subsequent mate preference test in an aquarium setup, females showed a strong preference for male size by laying eggs near the larger of 2 males in 13 of 14 trials. PMID:26023276

  2. Soyuz TMA-06M Spacecraft Mated to Rocket

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the Integration Facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, the Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft is mated to its Soyuz booster rocket. The Soyuz is being prepared for its launch to the Internatio...

  3. Incest versus abstinence: reproductive trade-offs between mate limitation and progeny fitness in a self-incompatible invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Swain, Stephen M; Young, Andrew G

    2013-12-01

    Plant mating systems represent an evolutionary and ecological trade-off between reproductive assurance through selfing and maximizing progeny fitness through outbreeding. However, many plants with sporophytic self-incompatibility systems exhibit dominance interactions at the S-locus that allow biparental inbreeding, thereby facilitating mating between individuals that share alleles at the S-locus. We investigated this trade-off by estimating mate availability and biparental inbreeding depression in wild radish from five different populations across Australia. We found dominance interactions among S-alleles increased mate availability relative to estimates based on individuals that did not share S-alleles. Twelve of the sixteen fitness variables were significantly reduced by inbreeding. For all the three life-history phases evaluated, self-fertilized offspring suffered a greater than 50% reduction in fitness, while full-sib and half-sib offspring suffered a less than 50% reduction in fitness. Theory indicates that fitness costs greater than 50% can result in an evolutionary trajectory toward a stable state of self-incompatibility (SI). This study suggests that dominance interactions at the S-locus provide a possible third stable state between SI and SC where biparental inbreeding increases mate availability with relatively minor fitness costs. This strategy allows weeds to establish in new environments while maintaining a functional SI system. PMID:24455137

  4. Mating with the wrong species can be right.

    PubMed

    Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2008-06-01

    The evolutionary importance of interspecific hybridisation has been a controversial issue for quite some time. Some view mating between different species as a maladaptive process; others stress the adaptive value of choosing heterospecific mates under ecological conditions that favour hybrids. A recent paper by Pfennig is the first study to make a priori predictions of how adaptive choice between con- and heterospecific partners should vary with ecological conditions, and then testing these predictions experimentally. PMID:18440091

  5. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  6. Stress responsiveness predicts individual variation in mate selectivity.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael

    2013-06-15

    Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids, mediate a variety of behavioral and physiological processes. Circulating hormone concentrations vary substantially within populations, and although hormone titers predict reproductive success in several species, little is known about how individual variation in circulating hormone concentrations is linked with most reproductive behaviors in free-living organisms. Mate choice is an important and often costly component of reproduction that also varies substantially within populations. We examined whether energetically costly mate selection behavior in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) was associated with individual variation in the concentrations of hormones previously shown to differ between reproductive and non-reproductive females during the breeding season (corticosterone and testosterone). Stress-induced corticosterone levels - which are suppressed in female marine iguanas during reproduction - were individually repeatable throughout the seven-week breeding period. Mate selectivity was strongly predicted by individual variation in stress-induced corticosterone: reproductive females that secreted less corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor assessed more displaying males. Neither baseline corticosterone nor testosterone predicted variation in mate selectivity. Scaled body mass was not significantly associated with mate selectivity, but females that began the breeding period in lower body condition showed a trend towards being less selective about potential mates. These results provide the first evidence that individual variation in the corticosterone stress response is associated with how selective females are in their choice of a mate, an important contributor to fitness in many species. Future research is needed to determine the functional basis of this association, and whether transient acute increases in circulating corticosterone directly mediate mate choice behaviors. PMID

  7. Positively Verifying Mating of Previously Unverifiable Flight Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandipati R. K. Chetty

    2011-01-01

    Current practice is to uniquely key the connectors, which, when mated, could not be verified by ground tests such as those used in explosive or non-explosive initiators and pyro valves. However, this practice does not assure 100-percent correct mating. This problem could be overcome by the following approach. Errors in mating of interchangeable connectors can result in degraded or failed space mission. Mating of all flight connectors considered not verifiable via ground tests can be verified electrically by the following approach. It requires two additional wires going through the connector of interest, a few resistors, and a voltage source. The test-point voltage V(sub tp) when the connector is not mated will be the same as the input voltage, which gets attenuated by the resistor R(sub 1) when the female (F) and male (M) connectors are mated correctly and properly. The voltage at the test point will be a function of R(sub 1) and R(sub 2). Monitoring of the test point could be done on ground support equipment (GSE) only, or it can be a telemetry point. For implementation on multiple connector pairs, a different value for R(sub 1) or R(sub 2) or both can be selected for each pair of connectors that would result in a unique test point voltage for each connector pair. Each test point voltage is unique, and correct test point voltage is read only when the correct pair is mated correctly together. Thus, this design approach can be used to verify positively the correct mating of the connector pairs. This design approach can be applied to any number of connectors on the flight vehicle.

  8. Model of Exploratory Search for Mating Partners by Fission Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Daniel; Bendezu, Felipe; Martin, Sophie; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    During conditions of nitrogen starvation, the model eukaryote S. pombe (fission yeast) undergoes sexual sporulation. Because fission yeast are non-motile, contact between opposite mating types during spore formation is accomplished by polarizing growth, via the Rho GTP-ase Cdc42, in each mating type towards the selected mate, a process known as shmooing. Recent findings showed that cells pick one of their neighboring compatible mates by randomizing the position of the Cdc42 complex about the cell membrane, such that the complex is stabilized near areas of high concentration of the opposite mating type pheromone. We developed Monte Carlo simulations to model partner finding in populations of mating cells and in small cell clusters. We assume that pheromones are secreted at the site of Cdc42 accumulation and that the Cdc42 dwell time increases in response to increasing pheromone concentration. We measured the number of cells that succeed in successful reciprocal pairing, the number of cells that were unable to find a partner, and the number of cells that picked a partner already engaged with another cell. For optimal cell pairing, we find the pheromone concentration decay length is around 1 micron, of order the cell size. We show that non-linear response of Cdc42 dwell time to pheromone concentration improves the number of successful pairs for a given spatial cell distribution. We discuss how these results compare to non-exploratory pairing mechanisms.

  9. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

  10. The costs of parental and mating effort for male baboons

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Dorothy L.; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L.; Wittig, Roman M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that males in polygynous species of mammals will invest more reproductive effort in mate competition than parental investment. A corollary to this prediction is that males will mount a stress response when their access to mates is threatened. Indeed, numerous studies have shown that males exhibit elevated stress hormones, or glucocorticoids (GCs), when their access to females, or a proxy to this access like dominance rank, is challenged. In contrast, the relationship between stress hormones and paternal effort is less obvious. We report results from a study of wild male chacma baboons indicating that males experienced elevated GC levels during periods of social instability following the immigration of a dominant male. These effects were strongest in males whose mating opportunities were at greatest risk: high-ranking males and males engaged in sexual consortships. Males involved in friendships with lactating females, a form of paternal investment, also experienced high GC levels during these periods of instability. There was a tendency for males with lactating female friends to reduce their time spent in consortships during unstable periods, when the risk of infanticide was high. Thus, even in a highly polygynous mammal, males may have to balance paternal effort with mating effort. Males who invest entirely in mating effort risk losing the infants they have sired to infanticide. Males who invest in paternal care may enhance their offspring's survival, but at the cost of elevated GC levels, the risk of injury, and the loss of mating opportunities. PMID:25620835

  11. Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions.

  12. Same-sex gaze attraction influences mate-choice copying in humans.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Platt, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Mate-choice copying occurs when animals rely on the mating choices of others to inform their own mating decisions. The proximate mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying remain unknown. To address this question, we tracked the gaze of men and women as they viewed a series of photographs in which a potential mate was pictured beside an opposite-sex partner; the participants then indicated their willingness to engage in a long-term relationship with each potential mate. We found that both men and women expressed more interest in engaging in a relationship with a potential mate if that mate was paired with an attractive partner. Men and women's attention to partners varied with partner attractiveness and this gaze attraction influenced their subsequent mate choices. These results highlight the prevalence of non-independent mate choice in humans and implicate social attention and reward circuitry in these decisions. PMID:20161739

  13. Reproductive consequences of mate quantity versus mate diversity in a wind-pollinated plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandepitte, K.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Honnay, O.

    2009-07-01

    Since most pollen travels limited distances in wind-pollinated plants, both the local quantity and diversity of mates may limit female reproductive success. Yet little evidence exists on their relative contribution, despite the importance of viable seed production to population dynamics. To study how variation in female reproductive success is affected by the quantity versus the diversity of surrounding mates contributing pollen, we integrated pollination experiments, data on natural seed set and seed viability, and AFLP genetic marker data in the wind-pollinated dioecious clonal forest herb Mercurialis perennis. Pollination experiments indicated weak quantitative pollen limitation effects on seed set. Among-population crosses showed reduced seed viability, suggesting outbreeding depression due to genetic divergence. Pollination with pollen from a single source did not negatively affect reproductive success. These findings were consistent with results of the survey of natural female reproductive success. Seed set decreased with the distance to males in a female plants' local neighborhood, suggesting a shortage of pollen in isolated female plants, and increased with the degree of local genetic diversity. Spatial isolation to other populations and population size did not affect seed set. None of these variables were related to seed viability. We conclude that pollen movement in M. perennis is likely very limited. Both male proximity and the local degree of genetic diversity influenced female reproductive success.

  14. Description of the mitochondrial genome of yellowtail scad Atule mate (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi

    2016-05-01

    The yellowtail scad Atule mate is an economic fish species distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical oceans of the Indo-Pacific region. In the present study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of A. mate from contiguous, overlapping segments amplified by PCR. The mitogenome sequence was 16,565 bp in length, consisting of 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 control region, same with the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.4% for A, 27.6% for T, 16.3% for G, and 27.7% for C. Phylogenetic analyses using the protein-coding gene sequences reveal that genus Atule was most closely related to Alepes. PMID:25423509

  15. Host mating system and the spread of a disease-resistant allele in a population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Koslow, Jennifer M.; Jiang, J.; Ruan, S.

    2008-01-01

    The model presented here modifies a susceptible-infected (SI) host-pathogen model to determine the influence of mating system on the outcome of a host-pathogen interaction. Both deterministic and stochastic (individual-based) versions of the model were used. This model considers the potential consequences of varying mating systems on the rate of spread of both the pathogen and resistance alleles within the population. We assumed that a single allele for disease resistance was sufficient to confer complete resistance in an individual, and that both homozygote and heterozygote resistant individuals had the same mean birth and death rates. When disease invaded a population with only an initial small fraction of resistant genes, inbreeding (selfing) tended to increase the probability that the disease would soon be eliminated from a small population rather than become endemic, while outcrossing greatly increased the probability that the population would become extinct due to the disease.

  16. Arrhenotoky and oedipal mating in the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The northern fowl mite (NFM; Ornithonyssus sylviarum) is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and a major pest of poultry in the United States. Mite populations spread rapidly in commercial flocks, reach peak burdens of >70,000 mites per bird and have developed resistance to many pesticides. Despite decades as a pest in the United States, the reproductive biology of NFM remains unclear. Based on karyotypes, the NFM has haplodiploid sex determination, which suggests unmated females could produce male offspring (arrhenotoky). Thus, unmated females could disseminate to a new host and initiate an infestation by producing and mating with sons (oedipal mating). Methods We used small capsules to isolate and recover NFM on host chickens. Mites in capsules could blood feed, develop and reproduce, but could not contact other mites. Individual larvae were matured in isolation to produce known, unmated females. We evaluated reproduction of (I) previously mated females (i) in isolation, or (ii) paired with a male, and (II) unmated (virgin) females in isolation. In each treatment we recorded the number and sexes of offspring produced over time. Results Mated NFM produced female and male offspring in isolation, or when paired with a male. When paired with a male, females produced a female-biased sex ratio of the offspring (F:M ratio ~5:1). Unmated, female NFM produced exclusively male offspring when in isolation. When paired with their sons that had developed to maturity, the "virgin" females were able to mate and subsequently produce female offspring. Conclusions This study found that females with immediate access to sperm produced mostly female offspring. Virgin female NFM initially produced only male offspring and subsequently used oedipal mating to produce female offspring. Using this reproductive system NFM could successfully colonize new hosts as immature, or unmated females. The strong female-biased sex ratio of NFM populations suggests a large proportion of

  17. Long-term fitness consequences of female extra-pair matings in a socially monogamous passerine.

    PubMed

    Schmoll, Tim; Dietrich, Verena; Winkel, Wolfgang; Epplen, Jörg T; Lubjuhn, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Whether female birds choose extra-pair mating partners to obtain genetic fitness benefits is intensely debated. The most straightforward and crucial test of 'good genes' models of female extra-pair mating is the comparison of naturally 'cross-fostered' maternal half-siblings sharing the same rearing environment as any systematic differences in performance between the two categories of offspring phenotype can be attributed to differential paternal genetic contribution. We analysed local recruitment and first-year reproductive performance of maternal half-siblings in the coal tit (Parus ater), a passerine bird with high levels of extra-pair paternity. We provide a highly comprehensive measure of the long-term fitness consequences of female extra-pair matings based on a large sample of 736 within-pair offspring (WPO) and 368 extra-pair offspring (EPO) from 91 first and 55 second broods, from which 132 breeders recruited into the study population. In contrast to predictions derived from 'good genes' models, we found no differences in local recruitment and seven parameters of first-year reproductive performance when comparing WPO and EPO. These results question the universal validity of findings in other bird species supporting 'good genes' models, particularly as they are based on the best approximation to female fitness obtained so far. PMID:12614574

  18. Likelihood of mated females of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) entering an area from infested grapefruits discarded onto backyard compost piles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Backyard composting of infested fruit is a pathway for entry of exotic fruit flies. Experimentally infested grapefruits were discarded onto forty compost pile replicates. Males and possibly-mated females emerged from 43% (17) of the piles. From this experiment, based on the number of fruit discar...

  19. Sexual conflict arising from extrapair matings in birds.

    PubMed

    Chaine, Alexis S; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    The discovery that extrapair copulation (EPC) and extrapair paternity (EPP) are common in birds led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. The prevalence of extrapair matings in pair-bonded species sets the stage for sexual conflict, and a recent focus has been to consider how this conflict can shape variation in extrapair mating rates. Here, we invert the causal arrow and consider the consequences of extrapair matings for sexual conflict. Extrapair matings shift sexual conflict from a simple two-player (male vs. female) game to a game with three or more players, the nature of which we illustrate with simple diagrams that highlight the net costs and benefits of extrapair matings to each player. This approach helps identify the sorts of traits that might be under selection because of sexual conflict. Whether EPP is driven primarily by the extrapair male or the within-pair female profoundly influences which players are in conflict, but the overall pattern of conflict varies little among different mating systems. Different aspects of conflict are manifest at different stages of the breeding cycle and can be profitably considered as distinct episodes of selection caused by conflict. This perspective is illuminating both because conflict between specific players can change across episodes and because the traits that evolve to mediate conflict likely differ between episodes. Although EPP clearly leads to sexual conflict, we suggest that the link between sexual conflict and multiple paternity might be usefully understood by examining how deviations from lifetime sexual monogamy influence sexual conflict. PMID:25605708

  20. Anomalous diffusion and multifractality enhance mating encounters in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Seuront, Laurent; Stanley, H Eugene

    2014-02-11

    For millimeter-scale aquatic crustaceans such as copepods, ensuring reproductive success is a challenge as potential mates are often separated by hundreds of body lengths in a 3D environment. At the evolutionary scale, this led to the development of remote sensing abilities and behavioral strategies to locate, to track, and to capture a mate. Chemoreception plays a crucial role in increasing mate encounter rates through pheromone clouds and pheromone trails that can be followed over many body lengths. Empirical evidence of trail following behavior is, however, limited to laboratory experiments conducted in still water. An important open question concerns what happens in the turbulent waters of the surface ocean. We propose that copepods experience, and hence react to, a bulk-phase water pheromone concentration. Here we investigate the mating behavior of two key copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora affinis, to assess the role of background pheromone concentration and the relative roles played by males and females in mating encounters. We find that both males and females react to background pheromone concentration and exhibit both innate and acquired components in their mating strategies. The emerging swimming behaviors have stochastic properties that depend on pheromone concentration, sex, and species, are related to the level of reproductive experience of the individual tested, and significantly diverge from both the Lévy and Brownian models identified in predators searching for low- and high-density prey. Our results are consistent with an adaptation to increase mate encounter rates and hence to optimize reproductive fitness and success. PMID:24469823

  1. Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Sjouke A; Hall, Michelle L; Segelbacher, Gernot; Peters, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Background Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP) mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may contribute substantially to observed EP mating patterns. However, the relative importance of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints on the incidence of EP mating remains largely unknown. Results We here demonstrate very low levels of EPP (4.4% of offspring) in the purple-crowned fairy-wren Malurus coronatus, a member of the genus with the highest known levels of EPP in birds. In addition, we show absence of the suite of distinctive behavioral and morphological adaptations associated with EP mating that characterize other fairy-wrens. Phylogenetic parsimony implies that these characteristics were lost in one speciation event. Nonetheless, many life-history and breeding parameters that are hypothesized to drive interspecific variation in EPP are not different in the purple-crowned fairy-wren compared to its promiscuous congeners. Conclusion Such radical loss of an extreme EP mating system with all associated adaptations from a lineage of biologically very similar species indicates that evolutionary inertia does not necessarily constrain interspecific variation in EPP. Moreover, if apparently minor interspecific differences regularly cause large differences in EPP, this may be one reason why the evolution of EP mating is still poorly understood. PMID:19454026

  2. Variable mating behaviors and the maintenance of tropical biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Charles H.; Lerdau, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical studies on mechanisms promoting species co-existence in diverse communities assume that species are fixed in their mating behavior. Each species is a discrete evolutionary unit, even though most empirical evidence indicates that inter-specific gene flow occurs in plant and animal groups. Here, in a data-driven meta-community model of species co-existence, we allow mating behavior to respond to local species composition and abundance. While individuals primarily out-cross, species maintain a diminished capacity for selfing and hybridization. Mate choice is treated as a variable behavior, which responds to intrinsic traits determining mate choice and the density and availability of sympatric inter-fertile individuals. When mate choice is strongly limited, even low survivorship of selfed offspring can prevent extinction of rare species. With increasing mate choice, low hybridization success rates maintain community level diversity for extended periods of time. In high diversity tropical tree communities, competition among sympatric congeneric species is negligible, because direct spatial proximity with close relatives is infrequent. Therefore, the genomic donorship presents little cost. By incorporating variable mating behavior into evolutionary models of diversification, we also discuss how participation in a syngameon may be selectively advantageous. We view this behavior as a genomic mutualism, where maintenance of genomic structure and diminished inter-fertility, allows each species in the syngameon to benefit from a greater effective population size during episodes of selective disadvantage. Rare species would play a particularly important role in these syngameons as they are more likely to produce heterospecific crosses and transgressive phenotypes. We propose that inter-specific gene flow can play a critical role by allowing genomic mutualists to avoid extinction and gain local adaptations. PMID:26042148

  3. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  4. The Long and the Short of Mate Attraction in a Psylloid: do Semiochemicals Mediate Mating in Aacanthocnema dobsoni Froggatt?

    PubMed

    Lubanga, Umar K; Drijfhout, Falko P; Farnier, Kevin; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2016-02-01

    Mating is preceded by a series of interdependent events that can be broadly categorized into searching and courtship. Long-range signals convey species- and sex-specific information during searching, while short-range signals provide information specific to individuals during courtship. Studies have shown that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can be used for mate recognition in addition to protecting insects from desiccation. In Psylloidea, four species rely on semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Psyllid mating research has focused on long-range mate attraction and has largely ignored the potential use of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as mate recognition cues. This study investigated whether CHCs of Aacanthocnema dobsoni have semiochemical activity for long- and short-range communication prior to mating. Using a solid sampler for solvent-less injection of whole psyllids into coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found quantitative, sex- and age-related differences in CHC profiles. Males had higher proportions of 2-MeC28, 11,15-diMeC29, and n-C33 alkanes, while females had higher proportions of 5-MeC27, 3-MeC27, 5,15-diMeC27, n-C29 and n-C30 alkanes. In males and females, 84 and 68 % of CHCs varied with age, respectively. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays provided no evidence that males or females responded to odors emanating from groups of conspecifics of the opposite sex. Tests of male and female psyllids for attraction to branchlets previously occupied by conspecifics showed no evidence of attraction to possible semiochemical residues. Our short-range chemoreception bioassay showed that males were as indifferent to freshly killed individuals of either sex with intact CHC profiles as to those treated with hexane (to remove CHCs). Aacanthocnema dobsoni utilizes substrate-borne vibrations (SBVs) for communication. Therefore, our results indicate that SBVs are probably more important than semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Furthermore

  5. Do male breeding displays function to attract mates or defend territories? The explanatory role of mate and site fidelity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Sandercock, B.K.; Kempenaers, B.

    2000-01-01

    Many shorebirds show elaborate breeding displays that include aerial flights and ground displays accompanied by song. The mate attraction hypothesis suggests that breeding displays function to attract mates and maintain pair bonds, whereas the territory defense hypothesis suggests breeding displays function in defining and defending nesting and feeding territories. We tested these hypotheses in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) by contrasting the duration and level of male breeding displays among pairs that differed in their mate and site fidelity. As predicted by the mate attraction hypothesis, males performed the highest number of song sequences during pair formation, and males paired with their mate of a prior year sang less than males paired to new mates. Further, site-faithful males mated to a new but experienced mate displayed significantly more than remated males or males new to the area. This suggests a male's prior familiarity with an area and his neighbors does not lessen his display rate as was predicted under the territory defense hypothesis. Limited support for the territory defense hypothesis came from observations of males performing breeding displays with neighboring males along nest territory boundaries. This behavior was short-lived, however, as males abandoned nesting areas after pair-formation and used adjacent or disjointed feeding areas during egg-laying and incubation. Male aggression (i.e., aerial and ground chases), as opposed to breeding displays, appeared to be the principal means of maintaining territory boundaries. Indeed, the rate at which males chased other males remained fairly constant and high throughout the breeding season. Male chasing behavior may also serve as a paternity guard to protect against extra-pair copulations. Our study also found that a female's prior breeding experience in an area correlated with a reduced display rate by her mate, particularly if that mate was new to the area. This indicates female

  6. Do orgasms give women feedback about mate choice?

    PubMed

    Gallup, Gordon G; Ampel, Benjamin C; Wedberg, Nicole; Pogosjan, Arutjun

    2014-01-01

    The current study represents a preliminary investigation of the extent to which female orgasm functions to promote good mate choices. Based on a survey of heterosexual female college students in committed relationships, how often women experienced orgasm as a result of sexual intercourse was related to their partner's family income, his self-confidence, and how attractive he was. Orgasm intensity was also related to how attracted they were to their partners, how many times they had sex per week, and ratings of sexual satisfaction. Those with partners who their friends rated as more attractive also tended to have more intense orgasms. Orgasm frequency was highly correlated (r = .82) with orgasm intensity, and orgasm intensity was a marginally better predictor of sexual satisfaction than orgasm frequency. Sexual satisfaction was related to how physically attracted women were to their partner and the breadth of his shoulders. Women who began having sexual intercourse at earlier ages had more sex partners, experienced more orgasms, and were more sexually satisfied with their partners. We also identified an ensemble of partner psychological traits (motivation, intelligence, focus, and determination) that predicted how often women initiated sexual intercourse. Their partner's sense of humor not only predicted his self-confidence and family income, but it also predicted women's propensity to initiate sex, how often they had sex, and it enhanced their orgasm frequency in comparison with other partners. PMID:25376054

  7. Detecting copy number variation with mated short reads

    PubMed Central

    Medvedev, Paul; Fiume, Marc; Dzamba, Misko; Smith, Tim; Brudno, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies has opened the door to novel methods for detecting copy number variants (CNVs) in the human genome. While in the past CNVs have been detected based on array CGH data, recent studies have shown that depth-of-coverage information from HTS technologies can also be used for the reliable identification of large copy-variable regions. Such methods, however, are hindered by sequencing biases that lead certain regions of the genome to be over- or undersampled, lowering their resolution and ability to accurately identify the exact breakpoints of the variants. In this work, we develop a method for CNV detection that supplements the depth-of-coverage with paired-end mapping information, where mate pairs mapping discordantly to the reference serve to indicate the presence of variation. Our algorithm, called CNVer, combines this information within a unified computational framework called the donor graph, allowing us to better mitigate the sequencing biases that cause uneven local coverage and accurately predict CNVs. We use CNVer to detect 4879 CNVs in the recently described genome of a Yoruban individual. Most of the calls (77%) coincide with previously known variants within the Database of Genomic Variants, while 81% of deletion copy number variants previously known for this individual coincide with one of our loss calls. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CNVer can reconstruct the absolute copy counts of segments of the donor genome and evaluate the feasibility of using CNVer with low coverage datasets. PMID:20805290

  8. Mechanisms of kin discrimination inferred from pedigrees and the spatial distribution of mates.

    PubMed

    Waser, Peter M; Berning, Melissa L; Pfeifer, Allison

    2012-02-01

    Where animals avoid inbreeding, different mechanisms of kin discrimination can leave different 'signatures' in the patterns of observed mate relationship. For example, consider a species with no paternal care. If a female avoids mating with familiar individuals, one would expect a deficit of offspring whose parents are maternal half-siblings, but paternal half-siblings would be unfamiliar with each other and thus have offspring at the frequency expected by chance. If spatial cues are used to avoid inbreeding, a female would be expected to produce few offspring with males (even unrelated males) living near her birth site. We searched for these and other signatures with data from a long-term study of banner-tailed kangaroo rats, Dipodomys spectabilis, in Arizona, USA, using a combination of intensive censusing, mapping of available dens, microsatellite-based parentage determination, and a randomization routine that determines the numbers of offspring expected if females in the population mate indiscriminately among the males available to them. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that kangaroo rats discriminate kin by familiarity developed via association early in life, rather than by using spatial cues or self-referential phenotype matching. Our approach should be widely applicable as a means of assessing the degree to which kin discrimination exists (in contexts like nepotism as well as inbreeding avoidance) and in inferring what cues animals use to assess categories of relationship. PMID:21883584

  9. Pollination Mode and Mating System Explain Patterns in Genetic Differentiation in Neotropical Plants.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Lima, Natácia E; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-01-01

    We studied genetic diversity and differentiation patterns in Neotropical plants to address effects of life history traits (LHT) and ecological attributes based on an exhaustive literature survey. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to test the effects as fixed and random factors of growth form, pollination and dispersal modes, mating and breeding systems, geographical range and habitat on patterns of genetic diversity (HS, HeS, π and h), inbreeding coefficient (FIS), allelic richness (AR) and differentiation among populations (FST) for both nuclear and chloroplast genomes. In addition, we used phylogenetic generalized least squares (pGLS) to account for phylogenetic independence on predictor variables and verify the robustness of the results from significant GLMMs. In general, GLMM revealed more significant relationships among LHTs and genetic patterns than pGLS. After accounting for phylogenetic independence (i.e., using pGLS), FST for nuclear microsatellites was significantly related to pollination mode, mating system and habitat. Plants specifically with outcrossing mating system had lower FST. Moreover, AR was significantly related to pollination mode and geographical range and HeS for nuclear dominant markers was significantly related to habitat. Our findings showed that different results might be retrieved when phylogenetic non-independence is taken into account and that LHTs and ecological attributes affect substantially the genetic pattern in Neotropical plants, hence may drive key evolutionary processes in plants. PMID:27472384

  10. A Scaffold Analysis Tool Using Mate-Pair Information in Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pan-Gyu; Cho, Hwan-Gue; Park, Kiejung

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a Windows-based program, ConPath, as a scaffold analyzer. ConPath constructs scaffolds by ordering and orienting separate sequence contigs by exploiting the mate-pair information between contig-pairs. Our algorithm builds directed graphs from link information and traverses them to find the longest acyclic graphs. Using end read pairs of fixed-sized mate-pair libraries, ConPath determines relative orientations of all contigs, estimates the gap size of each adjacent contig pair, and reports wrong assembly information by validating orientations and gap sizes. We have utilized ConPath in more than 10 microbial genome projects, including Mannheimia succiniciproducens and Vibro vulnificus, where we verified contig assembly and identified several erroneous contigs using the four types of error defined in ConPath. Also, ConPath supports some convenient features and viewers that permit investigation of each contig in detail; these include contig viewer, scaffold viewer, edge information list, mate-pair list, and the printing of complex scaffold structures. PMID:18414585

  11. Pollination Mode and Mating System Explain Patterns in Genetic Differentiation in Neotropical Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Lima, Natácia E.; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.

    2016-01-01

    We studied genetic diversity and differentiation patterns in Neotropical plants to address effects of life history traits (LHT) and ecological attributes based on an exhaustive literature survey. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to test the effects as fixed and random factors of growth form, pollination and dispersal modes, mating and breeding systems, geographical range and habitat on patterns of genetic diversity (HS, HeS, π and h), inbreeding coefficient (FIS), allelic richness (AR) and differentiation among populations (FST) for both nuclear and chloroplast genomes. In addition, we used phylogenetic generalized least squares (pGLS) to account for phylogenetic independence on predictor variables and verify the robustness of the results from significant GLMMs. In general, GLMM revealed more significant relationships among LHTs and genetic patterns than pGLS. After accounting for phylogenetic independence (i.e., using pGLS), FST for nuclear microsatellites was significantly related to pollination mode, mating system and habitat. Plants specifically with outcrossing mating system had lower FST. Moreover, AR was significantly related to pollination mode and geographical range and HeS for nuclear dominant markers was significantly related to habitat. Our findings showed that different results might be retrieved when phylogenetic non-independence is taken into account and that LHTs and ecological attributes affect substantially the genetic pattern in Neotropical plants, hence may drive key evolutionary processes in plants. PMID:27472384

  12. Mating rates between sterile and wild codling moths (Cydia pomonella) in springtime: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Tyson, R; Newton, K D; Thistlewood, H; Judd, G

    2008-09-21

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) can be a powerful method for pest control without the negative environmental effects of conventional pesticides. The goal is to induce pest population collapse by arranging conditions where wild females mate only with sterile males and thus do not produce offspring. In applying the SIT, it can be important to understand both how subtle alterations of sterile and wild insect behaviour alter the effectiveness of the SIT in different applications, and how this is reflected in the data gathered through associated monitoring devices, often pheromone traps. Our work in this paper is motivated by the use of SIT against orchard pests, particularly the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). We investigate how individual behaviours affect the mating rate between wild females and sterile males, and the corresponding sterile to wild trap catch ratio, through a preliminary individual-based model. Our analysis suggests that the sterile males may not be effective at interfering with mating between wild moths during springtime releases, while at the same time monitoring information gathered from trap catches may give no indication of reduced effectiveness of the SIT. PMID:18597787

  13. Interspecific mating in the Piriqueta caroliniana (Turneraceae) complex: effects of pollen load size and composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Cruzan, M

    1998-08-01

    Two taxa of Piriqueta (P. caroliniana and P. viridis) form a broad hybrid zone that extends over much of the central Florida peninsula. We used genetic markers to examine the strength of the isolation barriers between these taxa and the patterns of mating at the initial stages of hybridization. Regression models were employed to analyze the effects of pollen load size and the proportions of intra- and interspecific pollen on the frequency of first-generation (F1) hybrid formation. Overall, the postpollination mating barriers between these two taxa were relatively weak. However, there were significant effects of pollen load composition and size on the patterns of hybridization in both taxa with frequency-dependent responses to composition in both taxa. The frequency of F1 hybrid formation was generally lower than expected based on the frequency of each pollen type on the stigma for P. caroliniana recipients. The lower frequencies of F1 seeds in this taxon were apparently due to a greater competitive ability for intraspecific pollen, since hybrid seed formation decreased with increasing pollen load size. Pollen from P. caroliniana donors was also competitively superior on P. viridis recipients, leading to higher than expected frequencies of hybrid seed formation. Pollen from P. caroliniana did suffer higher rates of pollen-tube attrition than intraspecific pollen on P. viridis recipients, so the frequency of hybrid seed formation would be lower when pellen load sizes were small. In general, reproductive isolation mechanisms were stronger in P. caroliniana, suggesting that introgression should occur into P. viridis when these taxa come into close contact. Comparison of these expected patterns of mating to the distribution of hybrid genotypes in Florida provides insights into the relative roles of mating and selection in the evolution of hybrid populations of Piriqueta. PMID:21685002

  14. Mating behaviour and vibratory signalling in non-hearing cave crickets reflect primitive communication of Ensifera.

    PubMed

    Stritih, Nataša; Čokl, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    In Ensifera, the lack of well-supported phylogeny and the focus on acoustic communication of the terminal taxa hinders understanding of the evolutionary history of their signalling behaviour and the related sensory structures. For Rhaphidophoridae, the most relic of ensiferans following morphology-based phylogenies, the signalling modes are still unknown. Together with a detailed description of their mating process, we provide evidence on vibratory signalling for the sympatric European species Troglophilus neglectus and T. cavicola. Despite their temporal shift in reproduction, the species' behaviours differ significantly. Signalling by abdominal vibration constitutes an obligatory part of courtship in T. neglectus, while it is absent in T. cavicola. Whole-body vibration is expressed after copulation in both species. While courtship signalling appears to stimulate females for mating, the function of post-copulation signals remains unclear. Mating and signalling of both species were found to take place in most cases on bark, and less frequently on other available substrates, like moss and rock. The signals' frequency spectra were substrate dependent, but with the dominant peak always expressed below 120 Hz. On rock, the intensity of T. neglectus courtship signals was below the species' physiological detection range, presumably constraining the evolution of such signalling in caves. The species' behavioural divergence appears to reflect their divergent mating habitats, in and outside caves. We propose that short-range tremulation signalling in courtship, such as is expressed by T. neglectus, represents the primitive mode and context of mechanical signalling in Ensifera. The absence of high-frequency components in the signals may be related to the absence of the crista acoustica homologue (CAH) in the vibratory tibial organ of Rhaphidophoridae. This indirectly supports the hypothesis proposing that the CAH, as an evolutionary precursor of the ear, evolved in Ensifera

  15. Transitions in Sexuality: Recapitulation of an Ancestral Tri- and Tetrapolar Mating System in Cryptococcus neoformans▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Fraser, James A.; Heitman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Sex is orchestrated by the mating-type locus (MAT) in fungi and by sex chromosomes in plants and animals. In fungi, two patterns of sexuality occur: bipolar with a single, typically biallelic sex determinant that promotes inbreeding, and tetrapolar with two unlinked, often multiallelic sex determinants that restrict inbreeding. Multiallelism in either bipolar or tetrapolar mating systems promotes outcrossing. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic bipolar yeast with two unusually large MAT alleles (a/α) spanning >100 kb, ∼100-fold larger than many other fungal MAT loci. Based on comparative genomic analysis, this unusual MAT locus is hypothesized to have evolved from an ancestral tetrapolar system. In this model, the unlinked homeodomain (HD) transcription factor and pheromone/receptor tetrapolar loci acquired additional sex-related genes and then fused via chromosomal translocation, forming an intermediate transitional mating system (which we term tripolar), which then underwent recombination and gene conversion to fashion the extant bipolar MAT alleles. To experimentally validate this model, C. neoformans was engineered to have a tetrapolar mating system by relocating the MAT SXI1α and SXI2a HD genes to an unlinked genomic locale. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that this modified organism could complete a tetrapolar sexual cycle. Analysis of progeny generated from bipolar, tripolar, and tetrapolar crosses provides direct experimental evidence that the tripolar state confers decreased fertility and therefore may represent an unstable evolutionary intermediate. These findings illustrate how transitions between outcrossing and inbreeding preference occur by involving sex determinant linkage and collapse from multiallelic to biallelic sex determination, providing insights into both fungal sex evolution and early steps in sex chromosome evolution. PMID:18723606

  16. Molecular Mechanism of Flocculation Self-Recognition in Yeast and Its Role in Mating and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Katty V. Y.; Ielasi, Francesco S.; Nookaew, Intawat; Stals, Ingeborg; Alonso-Sarduy, Livan; Daenen, Luk; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E.; Stassen, Catherine; van Eijsden, Rudy G. E.; Siewers, Verena; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Kasas, Sandor; Nielsen, Jens; Devreese, Bart

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We studied the flocculation mechanism at the molecular level by determining the atomic structures of N-Flo1p and N-Lg-Flo1p in complex with their ligands. We show that they have similar ligand binding mechanisms but distinct carbohydrate specificities and affinities, which are determined by the compactness of the binding site. We characterized the glycans of Flo1p and their role in this binding process and demonstrate that glycan-glycan interactions significantly contribute to the cell-cell adhesion mechanism. Therefore, the extended flocculation mechanism is based on the self-interaction of Flo proteins and this interaction is established in two stages, involving both glycan-glycan and protein-glycan interactions. The crucial role of calcium in both types of interaction was demonstrated: Ca2+ takes part in the binding of the carbohydrate to the protein, and the glycans aggregate only in the presence of Ca2+. These results unify the generally accepted lectin hypothesis with the historically first-proposed “Ca2+-bridge” hypothesis. Additionally, a new role of cell flocculation is demonstrated; i.e., flocculation is linked to cell conjugation and mating, and survival chances consequently increase significantly by spore formation and by introduction of genetic variability. The role of Flo1p in mating was demonstrated by showing that mating efficiency is increased when cells flocculate and by differential transcriptome analysis of flocculating versus nonflocculating cells in a low-shear environment (microgravity). The results show that a multicellular clump (floc) provides a uniquely organized multicellular ultrastructure that provides a suitable microenvironment to induce and perform cell conjugation and mating. PMID:25873380

  17. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male–male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus. Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis; medium level in N. californicus). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus, consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male–male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive (‘Napoleon complex’) in male–male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour. PMID:25673881

  18. Chemical characterization of candy made of Erva-Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) residue.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Manoela A; Rovaris, Angela A; Maraschin, Marcelo; De Simas, Karina N; Pagliosa, Cristiane M; Podestá, Rossana; Amboni, Renata D M C; Barreto, Pedro L M; Amante, Edna R

    2008-06-25

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical properties of the residues from erva-mate processing and also to determine the candy-making performance with addition of residues from erva-mate on consumers' acceptance and purchase intent of this new product. The candies containing different amounts of mate powder were evaluated through overall acceptability test and purchase intent. Mate powder showed high contents of dietary fiber, total ash, and total polyphenols. The total dietary fiber content of the mate candies ranged from 5.7 to 6.29% on a dry matter basis. Supplementation with mate powder caused significant increases in polyphenol and mineral contents of mate candies. The incorporation of mate powder increased the hardness of the candies and produced desirable results in their nutritional characteristics. The sensory tests indicated that mate candies were acceptable and approved in relation to purchase intent. PMID:18500809

  19. What do women's advertised mate preferences reveal? An analysis of video dating profiles.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Cari D

    2013-01-01

    This study examined women's video dating profiles to determine what their advertised mate preferences revealed about their mate value and relationship interests. Women created a one-minute long video dating profile for a hypothetical dating website. The videos were content analyzed into four categories of stated mate preferences: 1) "good genes" indicators 2) good resource investment potential indicators 3) good parenting indicators and 4) good partner indicators. Long-term mating interest was positively correlated with describing good partner indicators and self-perceived mate value was positively correlated with describing good genes indicators. Short-term mating interest was negatively correlated with describing any mate preferences while attractiveness was positively correlated with doing so. Results suggest that women's advertised mate preferences provide clues to their underlying relationship interests and mate value. PMID:23718946

  20. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  1. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference

    PubMed Central

    Saveer, Ahmed M.; Kromann, Sophie H.; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S.; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G.; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-01-01

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores. PMID:22319127

  2. Coevolution of parasite virulence and host mating strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Ben; Boots, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Parasites are thought to play an important role in sexual selection and the evolution of mating strategies, which in turn are likely to be critical to the transmission and therefore the evolution of parasites. Despite this clear interdependence we have little understanding of parasite-mediated sexual selection in the context of reciprocal parasite evolution. Here we develop a general coevolutionary model between host mate preference and the virulence of a sexually transmitted parasite. We show when the characteristics of both the host and parasite lead to coevolutionarily stable strategies or runaway selection, and when coevolutionary cycling between high and low levels of host mate choosiness and virulence is possible. A prominent argument against parasites being involved in sexual selection is that they should evolve to become less virulent when transmission depends on host mating success. The present study, however, demonstrates that coevolution can maintain stable host mate choosiness and parasite virulence or indeed coevolutionary cycling of both traits. We predict that choosiness should vary inversely with parasite virulence and that both relatively long and short life spans select against choosy behavior in the host. The model also reveals that hosts can evolve different behavioral responses from the same initial conditions, which highlights difficulties in using comparative analysis to detect parasite-mediated sexual selection. Taken as a whole, our results emphasize the importance of viewing parasite-mediated sexual selection in the context of coevolution. PMID:26430236

  3. Sexual conflict over mating and fertilization: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G.A

    2006-01-01

    Sexual conflict is a conflict between the evolutionary interests of individuals of the two sexes. The sexes can have different trait optima but this need not imply conflict if their optima can be attained simultaneously. Conflict requires an interaction between males and females (e.g. mating or parental care), such that the optimal outcomes for each sex cannot be achieved simultaneously. It is important to distinguish between battleground models, which define the parameter space for conflict and resolution models, which seek solutions for how conflicts are resolved. Overt behavioural conflict may or may not be manifest at resolution. Following Fisherian principles, an immediate (i.e. direct) benefit to a male that has a direct cost to his female partner can have an indirect benefit to the female via her male progeny. Female resistance to mating has been claimed to represent concurrence rather than conflict, due to female benefits via sons (males with low mating advantage are screened out by resistance). However, the weight of current evidence (both theoretical and empirical) supports sexual conflict for many cases. I review (i) conflicts over mate quality, encounters between males and females of genetically diverged subpopulations, mating rate and inbreeding, (ii) the special features of postcopulatory sexual conflict and (iii) some general features of importance for conflict resolution. PMID:16612884

  4. Relationship dealbreakers: traits people avoid in potential mates.

    PubMed

    Jonason, Peter K; Garcia, Justin R; Webster, Gregory D; Li, Norman P; Fisher, Helen E

    2015-12-01

    Mate preference research has focused on traits people desire in partners (i.e., dealmakers) rather than what traits they avoid (i.e., dealbreakers), but mate preferences calibrate to both maximize benefits and minimize costs. Across six studies (N > 6,500), we identified and examined relationship dealbreakers, and how they function across relationship contexts. Dealbreakers were associated with undesirable personality traits; unhealthy lifestyles in sexual, romantic, and friendship contexts; and divergent mating strategies in sexual and romantic contexts. Dealbreakers were stronger in long-term (vs. short-term) relationship contexts, and stronger in women (vs. men) in short-term contexts. People with higher mate value reported more dealbreakers; people with less-restricted mating strategies reported fewer dealbreakers. Consistent with prospect and error management theories, people weighed dealbreakers more negatively than they weighed dealmakers positively; this effect was stronger for women (vs. men) and people in committed relationships. These findings support adaptive attentional biases in human social cognition. PMID:26445853

  5. Do assortative preferences contribute to assortative mating for adiposity?

    PubMed

    Fisher, Claire I; Fincher, Corey L; Hahn, Amanda C; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-11-01

    Assortative mating for adiposity, whereby levels of adiposity in romantic partners tend to be positively correlated, has implications for population health due to the combined effects of partners' levels of adiposity on fertility and/or offspring health. Although assortative preferences for cues of adiposity, whereby leaner people are inherently more attracted to leaner individuals, have been proposed as a factor in assortative mating for adiposity, there have been no direct tests of this issue. Because of this, and because of recent work suggesting that facial cues of adiposity convey information about others' health that may be particularly important for mate preferences, we tested the contribution of assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity to assortative mating for adiposity (assessed from body mass index, BMI) in a sample of romantic couples. Romantic partners' BMIs were positively correlated and this correlation was not due to the effects of age or relationship duration. However, although men and women with leaner partners showed stronger preferences for cues of low levels of adiposity, controlling for these preferences did not weaken the correlation between partners' BMIs. Indeed, own BMI and preferences were uncorrelated. These results suggest that assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity contribute little (if at all) to assortative mating for adiposity. PMID:24168811

  6. Women selectively guard their (desirable) mates from ovulating women.

    PubMed

    Krems, Jaimie Arona; Neel, Rebecca; Neuberg, Steven L; Puts, David A; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2016-04-01

    For women, forming close, cooperative relationships with other women at once poses important opportunities and possible threats-including to mate retention. To maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of same-sex social relationships, we propose that women's mate guarding is functionally flexible and that women are sensitive to both interpersonal and contextual cues indicating whether other women might be likely and effective mate poachers. Here, we assess one such cue: other women's fertility. Because ovulating (i.e., high-fertility) women are both more attractive to men and also more attracted to (desirable) men, ovulating women may be perceived to pose heightened threats to other women's romantic relationships. Across 4 experiments, partnered women were exposed to photographs of other women taken during either their ovulatory or nonovulatory menstrual-cycle phases, and consistently reported intentions to socially avoid ovulating (but not nonovulating) women-but only when their own partners were highly desirable. Exposure to ovulating women also increased women's sexual desires for their (highly desirable) partners. These findings suggest that women can be sensitive to subtle cues of other women's fertility and respond (e.g., via social exclusion, enhanced sexual attention to own mate) in ways that may facilitate their mate retention goals while not thwarting their affiliative goals. PMID:26766112

  7. Sexual selection and the opportunity cost of free mate choice.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The model of sexual selection under parental choice has been proposed to account for the control that parents exercise over their children's mating decisions. The present paper attempts to formalize and advance this model with the purpose of providing a better understanding of how parental choice mandates the course of sexual selection. In particular, in the proposed formulation, free mate choice involves an opportunity cost which motivates parents to place their children's mate choices under their control. When they succeed in doing so, they become a significant sexual selection force, as traits that appeal to parents in an in-law are selected and increase in frequency in the population. The degree of parental control over mating, and thus the strength of sexual selection under parental choice, is positively predicted by the size of the opportunity cost of free mate choice. The primary factors that affect the level of opportunity cost vary between society types, affecting the strength of parental choice as a sexual selection force. PMID:26921247

  8. Mating Damages the Cuticle of C. elegans Hermaphrodites

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Gavin C.; Knauss, Christine M.; Maugel, Timothy K.; Haag, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Lifespan costs to reproduction are common across multiple species, and such costs could potentially arise through a number of mechanisms. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, it has been suggested that part of the lifespan cost to hermaphrodites from mating results from physical damage owing to the act of copulation itself. Here, we examine whether mating damages the surface of the hermaphrodite cuticle via scanning electron microscopy. It is found that mated hermaphrodites suffered delamination of cuticle layers surrounding the vulva, and that the incidence of such damage depends on genetic background. Unmated hermaphrodites demonstrated almost no such damage, even when cultured in soil with potentially abrasive particles. Thus, a consequence of mating for C. elegans hermaphrodites is physical cuticle damage. These experiments did not assess the consequences of cuticle damage for lifespan, and the biological significance of this damage remains unclear. We further discuss our results within the context of recent studies linking the lifespan cost to mating in C. elegans hermaphrodites to male secretions. PMID:25105881

  9. Assessing the mating 'health' of commercial honey bee queens.

    PubMed

    Tarpy, David R; Keller, Jennifer J; Caren, Joel R; Delaney, Deborah A

    2012-02-01

    Honey bee queens mate with multiple males, which increases the total genetic diversity within colonies and has been shown to confer numerous benefits for colony health and productivity. Recent surveys of beekeepers have suggested that 'poor queens' are a top management concern, thus investigating the reproductive quality and mating success of commercially produced honey bee queens is warranted. We purchased 80 commercially produced queens from large queen breeders in California and measured them for their physical size (fresh weigh and thorax width), insemination success (stored sperm counts and sperm viability), and mating number (determined by patriline genotyping of worker offspring). We found that queens had an average of 4.37 +/- 1.446 million stored sperm in their spermathecae with an average viability of 83.7 +/- 13.33%. We also found that the tested queens had mated with a high number of drones (average effective paternity frequency: 17.0 +/- 8.98). Queen "quality" significantly varied among commercial sources for physical characters but not for mating characters. These findings suggest that it may be more effective to improve overall queen reproductive potential by culling lower-quality queens rather than systematically altering current queen production practices. PMID:22420250

  10. Balancing sexual selection through opposing mate choice and male competition

    PubMed Central

    Moore, A. J.; Moore, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Male–male competition and female mate choice act contemporaneously in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea and the social pheromone of males influences the outcome of both forms of sexual selection. We therefore examined the joint and separate effects of male–male competition and female mate choice to determine if the selective optima for the pheromone were the same or different. Dominant males in a newly established hierarchy mated more frequently, but not exclusively. Manipulations of the multi-component social pheromone produced by males of N. cinerea showed that both long- and close-range attraction of females by males were influenced by the quantity and composition of the pheromone. The most attractive composition, however, differed from that which was most likely to confer high status to males. Since the outcome of male–male competition can conflict with mating preferences exhibited by females, there is balancing sexual selection on the social pheromone of N. cinerea. Such balancing selection might act to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits. We suggest that the different forms of sexual selection conflict in N. cinerea because females prefer a blend different to that which is most effective in male–male competition in order to avoid mating with overly aggressive males.

  11. Mating opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna females: Costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Hernández Duran, Linda C; Fajardo Medina, Gonzalo E; Fuentes Quinter, Luz S; Martin, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. PMID:25368058

  12. Mating Opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna Females: Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Linda C. Hernández; Quintero, Luz S. Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. PMID:25205137

  13. Extreme costs of mating for male two-spot ladybird beetles.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer C; Tse, Crystal T

    2013-01-01

    Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata) has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice. PMID:24339980

  14. The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Hope, Neva B; Wares, John P

    2016-05-01

    Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating advantage. A male mating advantage makes androdioecy more likely to persist over evolutionary times. Androdioecious barnacles, however, appear to persist as an outlier with a different evolutionary trajectory: they originate from hermaphroditic species. Although sexual systems of androdioecious barnacles are known, no information on the mating system of androdioecious barnacles is available. This study assessed the mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. In contrast to other androdioecious species, C. testudinaria does not self-fertilize, males do not have a mating advantage over hermaphrodites, and the average mating group is quite small, averaging only three individuals. Mating success is increased by proximity to the mate and penis length. Taken together, the mating system of C. testudinaria is unusual in comparison with other androdioecious plants and animals, and the lack of a male mating advantage suggests that the mating system alone does not provide an explanation for the maintenance of androdioecy in this species. Instead, we propose that sex-specific life history equalizes male and hermaphroditic overall fitness. PMID:26923636

  15. Energy-Based Pharmacophore and Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) Modeling Combined with Virtual Screening To Identify Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Silent Mating-Type Information Regulation 2 Homologue 1 (SIRT1).

    PubMed

    Pulla, Venkat Koushik; Sriram, Dinavahi Saketh; Viswanadha, Srikant; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal

    2016-01-25

    Silent mating-type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1), being the homologous enzyme of silent information regulator-2 gene in yeast, has multifaceted functions. It deacetylates a wide range of histone and nonhistone proteins; hence, it has good therapeutic importance. SIRT1 was believed to be overexpressed in many cancers (prostate, colon) and inflammatory disorders (rheumatoid arthritis). Hence, designing inhibitors against SIRT1 could be considered valuable. Both structure-based and ligand-based drug design strategies were employed to design novel inhibitors utilizing high-throughput virtual screening of chemical databases. An energy-based pharmacophore was generated using the crystal structure of SIRT1 bound with a small molecule inhibitor and compared with a ligand-based pharmacophore model that showed four similar features. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model was developed and validated to be employed in the virtual screening protocol. Among the designed compounds, Lead 17 emerged as a promising SIRT1 inhibitor with IC50 of 4.34 μM and, at nanomolar concentration (360 nM), attenuated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells (LnCAP). In addition, Lead 17 significantly reduced production of reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing pro inflammatory cytokines such as IL6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory potential of the compound was ascertained using an animal paw inflammation model induced by carrageenan. Thus, the identified SIRT1 inhibitors could be considered as potent leads to treat both cancer and inflammation. PMID:26636371

  16. Antioxidant effect of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and mate tea (Ilex paraguensys) on quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation of cryopreserved boar epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Luño, V; Gil, L; Olaciregui, M; Jerez, R A; de Blas, I; Hozbor, F

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective ability of the addition of two antioxidant herb extracts, mate tea and lemon balm, on boar epididymal frozen-thawed spermatozoa quality. Testes from mature boars were collected at local slaughterhouse, and sperm samples from epididymis were recovered by flushing. Spermatozoa were cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with various concentrations of lemon balm and mate tea (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 g l(-1) ) using the straw-freezing procedure. Motion parameters, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, lipoperoxidation levels and DNA oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine base lesion) were evaluated. There were no differences among experimental groups with regard to motility characteristics, viability, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity; however, the highest concentration of lemon balm produced significant (P < 0.05) improvement in curvilinear trajectory, straightness and amplitude of lateral head displacement after thawing. The supplementation of freezing extender with mate tea and lemon balm reduced sperm lipid membrane peroxidation, and only mate tea protected DNA against oxidative damage during cryopreservation at 120 min post-thawing (P < 0.05). Mate tea experimental extender at concentration of 10 g l(-1) showed the lowest percentage of sperm oxidised DNA and malondialdehyde generation; thus, mate tea is a potential candidate such as antioxidant compound on boar sperm cryopreservation medium. PMID:25382606

  17. Sexually selected lip colour indicates male group-holding status in the mating season in a multi-level primate society

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Cyril C.; Zhu, Pingfen; Allen, William L.; Higham, James P.; Ren, Baoping; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection typically produces ornaments in response to mate choice, and armaments in response to male–male competition. Unusually among mammals, many primates exhibit colour signals that may be related to one or both processes. Here, we document for the first time correlates of facial coloration in one of the more brightly coloured primates, the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). Snub-nosed monkeys have a one-male unit (OMU) based social organization, but these units aggregate semi-permanently into larger bands. This form of mating system causes many males to become associated with bachelor groups. We quantified redness of the prominent lower lip in 15 males (eight bachelors, seven OMU holders) in a group at Xiangguqing, China. Using mixed models, our results show that lip redness increases with age. More interestingly, there is a significant effect of the interaction of group-holding status and mating season on redness; that is, lip colour of OMU males undergoes reddening in the mating season, whereas the lips of subadult and juvenile bachelor males become paler at that time of year. These results indicate that lip coloration is a badge of (group-holding) status during the mating season, with non-adults undergoing facial differentiation, perhaps to avoid the costs of reproductive competition. Future research should investigate whether lip coloration is a product of male–male competition, and/or female mate choice. PMID:27019735

  18. Genetic and educational assortative mating among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Benjamin W.; Fletcher, Jason; Conley, Dalton; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social and biological mechanisms that lead to homogamy (similar individuals marrying one another) has been a long-standing issue across many fields of scientific inquiry. Using a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic white US adults from the Health and Retirement Study and information from 1.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we compare genetic similarity among married couples to noncoupled pairs in the population. We provide evidence for genetic assortative mating in this population but the strength of this association is substantially smaller than the strength of educational assortative mating in the same sample. Furthermore, genetic similarity explains at most 10% of the assortative mating by education levels. Results are replicated using comparable data from the Framingham Heart Study. PMID:24843128

  19. Mating of Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta) revisited.

    PubMed

    Beani, L; Giusti, F; Mercati, D; Lupetti, P; Paccagnini, E; Turillazzi, S; Dallai, R

    2005-09-01

    The controversial mating of the strepsipteran Xenos vesparum was studied to investigate the possible sperm routes for fertilization. The female, which is a neotenic permanent endoparasite of Polistes wasps, extrudes only its anterior region, the "cephalothorax," from the host abdomen. This region has an opening where both mating and larval escape occur. Observations with scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed spermatozoa not only in the hemocoel, but also in the "ventral canal" (an extragenital duct peculiar to strepsipteran females) and in the "genital ducts" (ectodermal invaginations connecting the ventral canal to the hemocoel) of recently mated females. Xenos vesparum spermatozoa can reach the oocytes either through the hemocoel as a result of a hypodermic insemination, or by moving along the extragenital ducts, which are later used by first instar larvae to escape. The hypothesis of hypodermic insemination is reconsidered in the light of behavioral and ultrastructural evidence. PMID:16047336

  20. Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.

    PubMed

    Castrezana, Sergio J; Markow, Therese Ann

    2008-07-01

    Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017

  1. Mate preferences and infectious disease: theoretical considerations and evidence in humans

    PubMed Central

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Gangestad, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Mate preferences may operate in part to mitigate the threats posed by infectious disease. In this paper, we outline various ways in which preferring healthy mates can offer direct benefits in terms of pathogen avoidance and indirect benefits in terms of heritable immunity to offspring, as well as the costs that may constrain mate preferences for health. We then pay special attention to empirical work on mate preferences in humans given the depth and breadth of research on human mating. We review this literature and comment on the degree to which human mate preferences may reflect preferences for health. PMID:22042915

  2. Social exclusion and female mating behavior: rejected women show strategic enhancement of short-term mating interest.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Donald F; Young, Steven G; Brown, Christina M; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Because cost asymmetries in sexual reproduction have historically enabled women to exchange sexual access for other resources, including social resources, we tested the possibility that social exclusion would lead women to display an elevated preference for short-term mating strategies in the service of reaffiliation. In Study 1, women were given false feedback to manipulate social inclusion or exclusion prior to indicating their endorsement of short and long-term mating behaviors. Socially excluded women indicated greater interest in short-term mating and reduced interest in long-term mating. In Study 2, women wrote about a social inclusion, social exclusion, or control experience and then indicated their preference for different male body types. Women in the social exclusion condition preferred more muscular male partners--a pattern of preference typical of short-term mating--than women in the other conditions. Collectively, these results are consistent with a social exchange theory of women's sexual behavior following social exclusion. PMID:22947679

  3. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina).

    PubMed

    Drury, J P; Grether, G F

    2014-12-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  4. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina)

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J. P.; Grether, G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  5. Mate choice for genetic compatibility in the house mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, Anna K; Musolf, Kerstin; Weidt, Andrea; König, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In house mice, genetic compatibility is influenced by the t haplotype, a driving selfish genetic element with a recessive lethal allele, imposing fundamental costs on mate choice decisions. Here, we evaluate the cost of genetic incompatibility and its implication for mate choice in a wild house mice population. In laboratory reared mice, we detected no fertility (number of embryos) or fecundity (ability to conceive) costs of the t, and yet we found a high cost of genetic incompatibility: heterozygote crosses produced 40% smaller birth litter sizes because of prenatal mortality. Surprisingly, transmission of t in crosses using +/t males was influenced by female genotype, consistent with postcopulatory female choice for + sperm in +/t females. Analysis of paternity patterns in a wild population of house mice showed that +/t females were more likely than +/+ females to have offspring sired by +/+ males, and unlike +/+ females, paternity of their offspring was not influenced by +/t male frequency, further supporting mate choice for genetic compatibility. As the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is physically linked to the t, we investigated whether females could potentially use variation at the MHC to identify male genotype at the sperm or individual level. A unique MHC haplotype is linked to the t haplotype. This MHC haplotype could allow the recognition of t and enable pre- and postcopulatory mate choice for genetic compatibility. Alternatively, the MHC itself could be the target of mate choice for genetic compatibility. We predict that mate choice for genetic compatibility will be difficult to find in many systems, as only weak fertilization biases were found despite an exceptionally high cost of genetic incompatibility. PMID:23762510

  6. Caste determination through mating in primitively eusocial societies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Eric R; Field, Jeremy

    2013-10-21

    Eusocial animal societies are typified by the presence of a helper (worker) caste which predominantly cares for young offspring in a social group while investing little in their own direct reproduction. A key question is what determines whether an individual becomes a worker or leaves to initiate her own reproduction. In some insects, caste is determined nutritionally during development. In others, and in vertebrate societies, adults are totipotent and the cues that determine caste are less well known. The mate limitation hypothesis (MLH) states that a female's mating status acts as a cue for caste determination: females that mate become reproductives, while those that fail to mate become workers. The MLH is consistent with empirical observations in sweat bees showing that over the course of the nesting season, there are increases in both the proportion of females that become reproductives and the frequency of males in the mating pool. We modelled a foundress's offspring sex-ratio strategy to investigate whether an increasingly male-biased operational sex-ratio over time is evolutionarily stable under the MLH. Our results indicate that such a pattern could occur if early workers were more valuable than late workers. This pattern was then more likely if male mortality was high, if worker mortality was low, if the value of a worker was high and if the period over which workers can help was short. Our results suggest that the MLH can be evolutionarily stable, but only under restrictive conditions. Manipulative experiments are now required to investigate whether mating determines caste in nature. PMID:23770404

  7. Blackmailing: the keystone in the human mating system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The human mating system is characterized by bi-parental care and faithful monogamy is highly valued in most cultures. Marriage has evolved as a social institution and punishment for extra pair mating (EPM) or adultery is common. However, similar to other species with bi-parental care, both males and females frequently indulge in EPM in secrecy since it confers certain gender specific genetic benefits. Stability of faithful monogamy is therefore a conundrum. We model human mating system using game theory framework to study the effects of factors that can stabilize or destabilize faithful committed monogamy. Results Although mate guarding can partly protect the genetic interests, we show that it does not ensure monogamy. Social policing enabled by gossiping is another line of defense against adultery unique to humans. However, social policing has a small but positive cost to an individual and therefore is prone to free riding. We suggest that since exposure of adultery can invite severe punishment, the policing individuals can blackmail opportunistically whenever the circumstances permit. If the maximum probabilistic benefit of blackmailing is greater than the cost of policing, policing becomes a non-altruistic act and stabilizes in the society. We show that this dynamics leads to the coexistence of different strategies in oscillations, with obligate monogamy maintained at a high level. Deletion of blackmailing benefit from the model leads to the complete disappearance of obligate monogamy. Conclusions Obligate monogamy can be maintained in the population in spite of the advantages of EPM. Blackmailing, which makes policing a non-altruistic act, is crucial for the maintenance of faithful monogamy. Although biparental care, EPM, mate guarding and punishment are shared by many species, gossiping and blackmailing make the human mating system unique. PMID:22122975

  8. Emergence of Polymorphic Mating Strategies in Robot Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Elfwing, Stefan; Doya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphism has fascinated evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. Biologists have observed discrete alternative mating strategies in many different species. In this study, we demonstrate that polymorphic mating strategies can emerge in a colony of hermaphrodite robots. We used a survival and reproduction task where the robots maintained their energy levels by capturing energy sources and physically exchanged genotypes for the reproduction of offspring. The reproductive success was dependent on the individuals' energy levels, which created a natural trade-off between the time invested in maintaining a high energy level and the time invested in attracting mating partners. We performed experiments in environments with different density of energy sources and observed a variety in the mating behavior when a robot could see both an energy source and a potential mating partner. The individuals could be classified into two phenotypes: 1) forager, who always chooses to capture energy sources, and 2) tracker, who keeps track of potential mating partners if its energy level is above a threshold. In four out of the seven highest fitness populations in different environments, we found subpopulations with distinct differences in genotype and in behavioral phenotype. We analyzed the fitnesses of the foragers and the trackers by sampling them from each subpopulation and mixing with different ratios in a population. The fitness curves for the two subpopulations crossed at about 25% of foragers in the population, showing the evolutionary stability of the polymorphism. In one of those polymorphic populations, the trackers were further split into two subpopulations: (strong trackers) and (weak trackers). Our analyses show that the population consisting of three phenotypes also constituted several stable polymorphic evolutionarily stable states. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate the emergence of polymorphic evolutionarily stable strategies within a

  9. The impact of plant and flower age on mating patterns

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Diane L.; Avritt, Joy J.; Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Shaner, Marieken G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over a season, plant condition, amount of ongoing reproduction and biotic and abiotic environmental factors vary. As flowers age, flower condition and amount of pollen donated and received also vary. These internal and external changes are significant for fitness if they result in changes in reproduction and mating. Scope Literature from several fields was reviewed to provide a picture of the changes that occur in plants and flowers that can affect mating over a season. As flowers age, both the entire flower and individual floral whorls show changes in appearance and function. Over a season, changes in mating often appear as alteration in seed production vs. pollen donation. In several species, older, unpollinated flowers are more likely to self. If flowers are receiving pollen, staying open longer may increase the number of mates. In wild radish, for which there is considerable information on seed paternity, older flowers produce fewer seeds and appear to discriminate less among pollen donors. Pollen donor performance can also be linked to maternal plant age. Different pollinators and mates are available across the season. Also in wild radish, maternal plants appear to exert the most control over paternity when they are of intermediate age. Conclusions Although much is known about the characters of plants and flowers that can change over a season, there is less information on the effects of age on mating. Several studies document changes in self-pollination over time, but very few, other than those on wild radish, consider more subtle aspects of differential success of pollen donors over time. PMID:19875519

  10. Mating pheromones of Nematoda: olfactory signaling with physiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Daniel Hw; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-06-01

    Secreted pheromones have long been known to influence mating in the phylum Nematoda. The study of nematode sexual behavior has greatly benefited in the last decade from the genetic and neurobiological tools available for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as from the chemical identification of many pheromones secreted by this species. The discovery that nematodes can influence one another's physiological development and stress responsiveness through the sharing of pheromones, in addition to simply triggering sexual attraction, is particularly striking. Here we review recent research on nematode mating pheromones, which has been conducted predominantly on C. elegans, but there are beginning to be parallel studies in other species. PMID:27213246

  11. Assortative mating and mutation diffusion in spatial evolutionary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paley, C. J.; Taraskin, S. N.; Elliott, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of spatial structure on the equilibrium properties of a sexual population model defined on networks is studied numerically. Using a small-world-like topology of the networks as an investigative tool, the contributions to the fitness of assortative mating and of global mutant spread properties are considered. Simple measures of nearest-neighbor correlations and speed of spread of mutants through the system have been used to confirm that both of these dynamics are important contributory factors to the fitness. It is found that assortative mating increases the fitness of populations. Quick global spread of favorable mutations is shown to be a key factor increasing the equilibrium fitness of populations.

  12. Performance estimates of a Boeing 747-100 transport mated with an outsize cargo pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernell, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    The design mission performance of a Boeing 747-100 aircraft mated with an outsize cargo pod was studied. The basic design requirement was the rapid deployment of a combat loaded mobile bridge launcher from a United States east coast staging base to Europe. Weight was minimized by stripping the aircraft of unneeded, quick removal items and by utilizing graphite-epoxy composite materials for most pod components. The mission analysis was based on wind tunnel data and full scale carrier aircraft and engine data. The results are presented in tabular and graphic form.

  13. Effects of mating dynamics and crowding on sex ratio variance in mice.

    PubMed

    Krackow, S

    1997-05-01

    Mating units of six virgin females and one adult stud male were established to test for the effects of timing of mating and crowding of pregnant females on litter sex ratios in mice. Females either copulated during periods when no other female of the mating unit copulated simultaneously (single mating condition) or when more than one female copulated (multiple matings condition). Two crowding conditions were imposed on the animals: the females of 14 mating units were placed into individual cages after mating (isolated condition), while females of the other 13 mating units remained in the original group until shortly before littering (crowded condition). Sex ratio variance did not deviate from random expectation in litters arising from the multiple matings periods. However, in litters arising from single mating periods, extreme sex ratios were found significantly less frequently than expected by chance. Higher sex ratio variance in litters arising from multiple matings periods is attributed to the timing of mating being at higher variance under this condition, which is known to affect sex ratios in other rodents. Crowding significantly reduced sex ratio variance further. Reduced sex ratio variance under single mating and crowded conditions is speculated to follow from competition for resources between preimplantation embryos, which may be further increased by stressful effects of crowding. Loss of embryos after implantation appeared not to be responsible for the above effects. PMID:9227361

  14. Female mate preference and sexual conflict: females prefer males that have had fewer consorts.

    PubMed

    Harris, W Edwin; Moore, Patricia J

    2005-05-01

    Different aspects of male quality as a mate can vary independently. When this is the case, females may need to use multiple cues to accurately assess overall mate quality. We examined the pattern of mating preference in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. Sexual conflict occurs in this species because male manipulation of female mating receptivity can result in reduced female fitness. We predicted that since females cannot remate within a single reproductive bout because of male manipulation, females should assess male mating history to avoid mating with males with low fertility caused by sperm exhaustion. In a mate-preference experiment, we found that females discriminated against males who had mated multiple times. Females also discriminated against males who had consorted with several females but had been prevented from mating with those females. Thus, females appeared to be able to detect cues on males that were derived from previous mates and to use this information to avoid mating with sperm-exhausted males. We suggest that females may commonly use multiple cues to assess different aspects of mate quality, especially when male quality changes over time. This is an under-studied phenomenon that could help explain individual variation in female mating preferences. PMID:15795863

  15. Determinants of natural mating success in the cannibalistic orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Stefanie M; Welke, Klaas W; Schneider, Jutta M

    2012-01-01

    Monogynous mating systems (low male mating rates) occur in various taxa and have evolved several times independently in spiders. Monogyny is associated with remarkable male mating strategies and predicted to evolve under a male-biased sex ratio. While male reproductive strategies are well documented and male mating rates are easy to quantify, especially in sexually cannibalistic species, female reproductive strategies, the optimal female mating rate, and the factors that affect the evolution of female mating rates are still unclear. In this study, we examined natural female mating rates and tested the assumption of a male-biased sex ratio and female polyandry in a natural population of Argiope bruennichi in which we controlled female mating status prior to observations. We predicted variation in female mating frequencies as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mature females and males. Females had a low average mating rate of 1.3 and the majority copulated only once. Polyandry did not entirely result from a male-biased sex-ratio but closely matched the rate of male bigamy. Male activity and the probability of polyandry correlated with factors affecting pheromone presence such as virgin females' density. We conclude that a strong sex ratio bias and high female mating rates are not necessary components of monogynous mating systems as long as males protect their paternity effectively and certain frequencies of bigyny stabilise the mating system. PMID:22319628

  16. Determinants of Natural Mating Success in the Cannibalistic Orb-Web Spider Argiope bruennichi

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Stefanie M.; Welke, Klaas W.; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2012-01-01

    Monogynous mating systems (low male mating rates) occur in various taxa and have evolved several times independently in spiders. Monogyny is associated with remarkable male mating strategies and predicted to evolve under a male-biased sex ratio. While male reproductive strategies are well documented and male mating rates are easy to quantify, especially in sexually cannibalistic species, female reproductive strategies, the optimal female mating rate, and the factors that affect the evolution of female mating rates are still unclear. In this study, we examined natural female mating rates and tested the assumption of a male-biased sex ratio and female polyandry in a natural population of Argiope bruennichi in which we controlled female mating status prior to observations. We predicted variation in female mating frequencies as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mature females and males. Females had a low average mating rate of 1.3 and the majority copulated only once. Polyandry did not entirely result from a male-biased sex-ratio but closely matched the rate of male bigamy. Male activity and the probability of polyandry correlated with factors affecting pheromone presence such as virgin females' density. We conclude that a strong sex ratio bias and high female mating rates are not necessary components of monogynous mating systems as long as males protect their paternity effectively and certain frequencies of bigyny stabilise the mating system. PMID:22319628

  17. Lonely hearts or sex in the city? Density-dependent effects in mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Hanna; Rankin, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    Two very basic ideas in sexual selection are heavily influenced by numbers of potential mates: the evolution of anisogamy, leading to sex role differentiation, and the frequency dependence of reproductive success that tends to equalize primary sex ratios. However, being explicit about the numbers of potential mates is not typical to most evolutionary theory of sexual selection. Here, we argue that this may prevent us from finding the appropriate ecological equilibria that determine the evolutionary endpoints of selection. We review both theoretical and empirical advances on how population density may influence aspects of mating systems such as intrasexual competition, female choice or resistance, and parental care. Density can have strong effects on selective pressures, whether or not there is phenotypic plasticity in individual strategies with respect to density. Mating skew may either increase or decrease with density, which may be aided or counteracted by changes in female behaviour. Switchpoints between alternative mating strategies can be density dependent, and mate encounter rates may influence mate choice (including mutual mate choice), multiple mating, female resistance to male mating attempts, mate searching, mate guarding, parental care, and the probability of divorce. Considering density-dependent selection may be essential for understanding how populations can persist at all despite sexual conflict, but simple models seem to fail to predict the diversity of observed responses in nature. This highlights the importance of considering the interaction between mating systems and population dynamics, and we strongly encourage further work in this area. PMID:16612890

  18. Mating system and size advantage of male mating in the protogynous swamp eel Monopterus albus with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Masanori

    2011-05-01

    In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females. After spawning inside nests, caring males continued to perform courtship activities, and multiple breeding was observed. These observations suggest that the M. albus mating system is male-territory-visiting (MTV)-polygamy. Larger males had nests, and mated more frequently compared with small males. Because small initial males of this species are not found in nature, and because M. albus does not engage in sneaking tactics, larger nesting males do not suffer from reproductive parasitism. Thus, protogyny in this fish is likely consistent with the predictions of the size-advantage model. Biting attacks by territorial males of this predatory fish seriously wounded intruding males, occasionally resulting in the death of the intruder. We discuss the possibility that sexual differences in mortality rates in small fish may facilitate the evolution of protogyny in this species. Protogyny of the swamp eel is, to our knowledge, the first example of an MTV-polygamous mating system in a fish with paternal care. PMID:21557660

  19. Putting the Biological Species Concept to the Test: Using Mating Networks to Delimit Species

    PubMed Central

    Lagache, Lélia; Leger, Jean-Benoist; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Petit, Rémy J.; Vacher, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Although interfertility is the key criterion upon which Mayr’s biological species concept is based, it has never been applied directly to delimit species under natural conditions. Our study fills this gap. We used the interfertility criterion to delimit two closely related oak species in a forest stand by analyzing the network of natural mating events between individuals. The results reveal two groups of interfertile individuals connected by only few mating events. These two groups were largely congruent with those determined using other criteria (morphological similarity, genotypic similarity and individual relatedness). Our study, therefore, shows that the analysis of mating networks is an effective method to delimit species based on the interfertility criterion, provided that adequate network data can be assembled. Our study also shows that although species boundaries are highly congruent across methods of species delimitation, they are not exactly the same. Most of the differences stem from assignment of individuals to an intermediate category. The discrepancies between methods may reflect a biological reality. Indeed, the interfertility criterion is an environment-dependant criterion as species abundances typically affect rates of hybridization under natural conditions. Thus, the methods of species delimitation based on the interfertility criterion are expected to give results slightly different from those based on environment-independent criteria (such as the genotypic similarity criteria). However, whatever the criterion chosen, the challenge we face when delimiting species is to summarize continuous but non-uniform variations in biological diversity. The grade of membership model that we use in this study appears as an appropriate tool. PMID:23818990

  20. 46 CFR 11.465 - Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 CFR 11.429 and 11.456, then you may obtain an endorsement as mate (pilot) of towing vessels by... appropriate TOAR; (3) Successfully completing the appropriate apprentice mate exam; and (4) Having a...

  1. Mate locating and access behaviour of the parasitic pea crab, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae, an important parasite of the mussel Perna canaliculus

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Oliver; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Pea crabs are globally ubiquitous symbionts in the marine environment that cause serious economic impact in the aquaculture production of several major bivalve species. However, little is known about their host-parasite interactions, especially the mating behaviour of these parasites that could prove useful for controlling their infestation in aquaculture. In this study, the mate location behaviour of male New Zealand pea crabs, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae (Filhol, 1885), was observed when dwelling in its preferred host, the commercially important green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus. Given the cryptic behaviour of the male crabs, a novel trapping system was developed to determine whether male crabs would exit their mussel hosts in response to an upstream female crab. The presence of receptive female crabs placed upstream successfully attracted 60% of male crabs from their host over 24 h. Observations of the nocturnal mate-finding behaviour of male crabs were made in darkness using infrared video recordings. Males spent on average 49 min on empty hosts and never left a mussel containing a female conspecific once found, spending 200 min on average to gain entry to the mussel. Male crabs were often observed stroking the mantle edge of the mussel whilst attempting to gain entry, successfully increasing mussel valve gape during entry from 3.7 to 5.5 mm. A pheromone-based mate location system is likely used by this crab to greatly reduce the risks associated with the location of females. PMID:25786327

  2. Mate locating and access behaviour of the parasitic pea crab, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae, an important parasite of the mussel Perna canaliculus.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Oliver; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Pea crabs are globally ubiquitous symbionts in the marine environment that cause serious economic impact in the aquaculture production of several major bivalve species. However, little is known about their host-parasite interactions, especially the mating behaviour of these parasites that could prove useful for controlling their infestation in aquaculture. In this study, the mate location behaviour of male New Zealand pea crabs, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae (Filhol, 1885), was observed when dwelling in its preferred host, the commercially important green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus. Given the cryptic behaviour of the male crabs, a novel trapping system was developed to determine whether male crabs would exit their mussel hosts in response to an upstream female crab. The presence of receptive female crabs placed upstream successfully attracted 60% of male crabs from their host over 24 h. Observations of the nocturnal mate-finding behaviour of male crabs were made in darkness using infrared video recordings. Males spent on average 49 min on empty hosts and never left a mussel containing a female conspecific once found, spending 200 min on average to gain entry to the mussel. Male crabs were often observed stroking the mantle edge of the mussel whilst attempting to gain entry, successfully increasing mussel valve gape during entry from 3.7 to 5.5 mm. A pheromone-based mate location system is likely used by this crab to greatly reduce the risks associated with the location of females. PMID:25786327

  3. Personal Characteristics Important in Mate Preference among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne; Hudson, John W.

    1981-01-01

    Compared college students' values in mate selection held today with those of earlier generations. Responses to a questionnaire (N=316) reflected changes in sex roles, influence of the mass media, increased idealization of romantic love, and current social and economic conditions. (Author/RC)

  4. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P < 0.01). Age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of AI were all non-significant (P > 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI. PMID:10090564

  5. Sex Attraction and Mating in Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis and B. xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Ryoji; Chen, Anthony; Sternberg, Paul W

    2015-09-01

    The fungal feeding, hermaphroditic Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis is a laboratory model to understand the biology of Bursaphelenchus. The extent to which B. okinawaensis can be used to model Bursaphelenchus xylophilus mating was investigated. A chemotaxis assay was conducted to examine whether B. xylophilus and B. okinawaensis produce and respond to volatile sex attractants. Unmated B. xylophilus females were found to attract B. xylophilus males. Similarly, old (sperm depleted) but not young (sperm repleted) B. okinawaensis hermaphrodites attract B. okinawaensis males. Thus, in both species, sperm status corresponds to its ability to attract males. B. xylophilus males also produce a volatile pheromone that attracts both mated and unmated females. A second assay, in which the behavior of males on petri plates in the presence of different females or hermaphrodites of Bursaphelenchus was observed, revealed that B. xylophilus unmated females attract B. okinawaensis males, and B. okinawaensis old hermaphrodites attract B. xylophilus males. These observations suggested that the pheromones of Bursaphelenchus work to some extent across species. Mating behavior through spicule insertion occurs across species, suggesting that postcopulatory mechanisms prevent production of interspecific progeny. The hermaphroditic B. okinawaensis will be a useful model to conduct genetic studies for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mating behavior in Bursaphelenchus nematodes. PMID:26527838

  6. Sex Attraction and Mating in Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis and B. xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Ryoji; Chen, Anthony; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    The fungal feeding, hermaphroditic Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis is a laboratory model to understand the biology of Bursaphelenchus. The extent to which B. okinawaensis can be used to model Bursaphelenchus xylophilus mating was investigated. A chemotaxis assay was conducted to examine whether B. xylophilus and B. okinawaensis produce and respond to volatile sex attractants. Unmated B. xylophilus females were found to attract B. xylophilus males. Similarly, old (sperm depleted) but not young (sperm repleted) B. okinawaensis hermaphrodites attract B. okinawaensis males. Thus, in both species, sperm status corresponds to its ability to attract males. B. xylophilus males also produce a volatile pheromone that attracts both mated and unmated females. A second assay, in which the behavior of males on petri plates in the presence of different females or hermaphrodites of Bursaphelenchus was observed, revealed that B. xylophilus unmated females attract B. okinawaensis males, and B. okinawaensis old hermaphrodites attract B. xylophilus males. These observations suggested that the pheromones of Bursaphelenchus work to some extent across species. Mating behavior through spicule insertion occurs across species, suggesting that postcopulatory mechanisms prevent production of interspecific progeny. The hermaphroditic B. okinawaensis will be a useful model to conduct genetic studies for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mating behavior in Bursaphelenchus nematodes. PMID:26527838

  7. Boatswain's Mate F1 and C: Naval Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that enables Aviation Boatswain's Mate F to fulfill the requirements for advancement to ABF1 and the ABF1 for advancement to the rank of ABFC. In preparing for advancement examinations, the manual should be studied in conjunction with Military Requirements…

  8. Aviation Machinist's Mate R 1 and C: Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The profusely illustrated rate training manual is one of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve who are studying for advancement in the Aviation Machinist's Mate R rating (ADR 1 and ADRC). Chapter one provides information helpful for use in advancement. Chapters two through ten consist of units…

  9. The energetic cost of mating in a promiscuous cephalopod.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Amanda Michelle; Squires, Zoe Elizabeth; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2012-10-23

    Costs that individuals incur through mating can play an important role in understanding the evolution of life histories and senescence, particularly in promiscuous species. Copulation costs, ranging from energy expenditure to reduced longevity, are widely studied in insects but have received substantially less attention in other taxa. One cost of mating, the energetic cost, is poorly studied across all taxa despite its potential importance for the many species where copulation is physically demanding and/or frequent. Here, we investigated the energetic cost of mating in both male and female dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica). In this species, copulation can last up to 3 h and requires that the male physically restrains the female. We report that the act of copulation halves the swimming endurance of both sexes, and that they take up to 30 min to recover. Such a reduction in post-copulatory performance may have important implications for predator avoidance, foraging ability and energy allocation. Therefore, quantifying this cost is essential to understand the evolution of reproductive strategies and behaviours such as female receptivity and male and female mating frequency. PMID:22809722

  10. Mating System Transitions Drive Life Span Evolution in Pristionchus Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Weadick, Cameron J; Sommer, Ralf J

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between the sexes influence evolution at many scales, but not all animal species conform to the familiar male-female (dioecious) mating system; such taxa are powerful tools for studying the evolutionary importance of sexual selection and conflict on all manner of life-history traits, including longevity. We tested for an effect of mating system on adult life span in Pristionchus nematodes, where self-fertile hermaphrodites have replaced females multiple times independently throughout the genus (androdioecy). By measuring adult life span for 11 species (6 dioecious, 5 androdioecious), we found that life span is considerably shorter in hermaphrodites relative to closely related females. This effect is not a cost of reproduction; brood size did not reliably trade off with life span in self-fertilizing hermaphrodites or in mated females. Furthermore, we found that sexual dimorphism in life span varied among dioecious species, with females generally outliving males. Finally, we documented intraspecific variation for life span and cuticular disease (blistering) prevalence in Pristionchus pacificus, a model system for evolutionary-developmental biology. This work demonstrates that mating system transitions and life span evolution are linked in Pristionchus nematodes and provides a foundation for future comparative and mechanistic studies of aging in this genus. PMID:27028079

  11. Sexual dimorphism and mating behavior in Anomala testaceipennis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

    2014-01-01

    The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis. Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male's last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found. PMID:25502043

  12. Daughter's Tolerance of Mom Matters in Mate Choice

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Jeffrey R.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2015-01-01

    Mendelian genetics presumes inheritance of fitness through DNA. Kinder et al. find that maternal microchimerism induces stable immune tolerance to non-inherited maternal antigens in offspring. Female offspring that share these antigens with their mate experience reduced fetal wasting, establishing a role for vertical transmission of non-genetic information in reproductive fitness. PMID:26232215

  13. New perspectives on the evolution of plant mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Karron, Jeffrey D.; Ivey, Christopher T.; Mitchell, Randall J.; Whitehead, Michael R.; Peakall, Rod; Case, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The remarkable diversity of mating patterns and sexual systems in flowering plants has fascinated evolutionary biologists for more than a century. Enduring questions about this topic include why sexual polymorphisms have evolved independently in over 100 plant families, and why proportions of self- and cross-fertilization often vary dramatically within and among populations. Important new insights concerning the evolutionary dynamics of plant mating systems have built upon a strong foundation of theoretical models and innovative field and laboratory experiments. However, as the pace of advancement in this field has accelerated, it has become increasingly difficult for researchers to follow developments outside their primary area of research expertise. Scope In this Viewpoint paper we highlight three important themes that span and integrate different subdisciplines: the changes in morphology, phenology, and physiology that accompany the transition to selfing; the evolutionary consequences of pollen pool diversity in flowering plants; and the evolutionary dynamics of sexual polymorphisms. We also highlight recent developments in molecular techniques that will facilitate more efficient and cost-effective study of mating patterns in large natural populations, research on the dynamics of pollen transport, and investigations on the genetic basis of sexual polymorphisms. This Viewpoint also serves as the introduction to a Special Issue on the Evolution of Plant Mating Systems. The 15 papers in this special issue provide inspiring examples of recent discoveries, and glimpses of exciting developments yet to come. PMID:22210849

  14. Mating disruption of oriental beetle with sprayable sex pheromone formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle (OB), Anomala orientalis, with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of the major component of its sex pheromone, was evaluated in turfgrass. The effect of the applications was measured by monitoring male OB captures in pheromone-baited ...

  15. EFFECTS OF EXTROGENOUS ESTROGEN ON MATE SELECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of exogenous estrogen on mate selection of house finches. Clark, J., Fairbrother, A*. Parametrix, Inc., Corvallis, OR; Brewer, L., EBA, Inc., Sisters, OR; Bennett, R.S., USEPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, Duluth, MN.

    Concern about the potential for endocrine...

  16. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  17. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly in the process of being mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly being transported from the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS ESTROGEN ON MATE SELECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about the potential for endocrine disrupting chemicals to interfere with normal breeding behaviors of wildlife has prompted this study of effects of exogenous estrogen on mate selection in songbirds. The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was selected as a model as it is ...

  20. Daughter's Tolerance of Mom Matters in Mate Choice.

    PubMed

    Singer, Jeffrey R; Weaver, Casey T

    2015-07-30

    Mendelian genetics presumes inheritance of fitness through DNA. Kinder et al. find that maternal microchimerism induces stable immune tolerance to non-inherited maternal antigens in offspring. Female offspring that share these antigens with their mate experience reduced fetal wasting, establishing a role for vertical transmission of non-genetic information in reproductive fitness. PMID:26232215

  1. Why do female mice mate with multiple males?

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Hettyey, Attila; Beissmann, Helmut; Penn, Dustin J

    2013-01-01

    Females often show multi-male mating (MMM), but the adaptive functions are unclear. We tested whether female house mice (Mus musculus musculus) show MMM when they can choose their mates without male coercion. We released 32 females into separate enclosures where they could choose to mate with two neighboring males that were restricted to their own territories. We also tested whether females increase MMM when the available males appeared unable to exclude intruders from their territories. To manipulate territorial intrusion, we introduced scent-marked tiles from the neighboring males into males' territories, or we rearranged tiles within males' own territories as a control. Each female was tested in treatment and control conditions and we conducted paternity analyses on the 57 litters produced. We found that 46 % of litters were multiply sired, indicating that multiple paternity is common when females can choose their mates. Intrusion did not increase multiple paternity, though multiple paternity was significantly greater in the first trial when the males were virgins compared to the second trial. Since virgin male mice are highly infanticidal, this finding is consistent with the infanticide avoidance hypothesis. We also found that multiple paternity was higher when competing males showed small differences in their amount of scent marking, suggesting that females reduce MMM when they can detect differences in males' quality. Finally, multiple paternity was associated with increased litter size but only in the intrusion treatment, which suggests that the effect of multiple paternity on offspring number is dependent on male-male interactions. PMID:24273373

  2. Gunner's Mate M 1&C. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This document is one of a series of manuals designed to provide enlisted men with background information that will be useful in preparing for advancement in rating and necessary in the proper performance of their duties. The manual serves as an aid for enlisted men who are preparing for advancement to Gunner's Mate Missles 1 and C and covers the…

  3. Two Simple and Effective Simulations on Mate Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, F. Dale; Hendrix, Lewellyn

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of simulation as a technique of increasing student awareness of the unconscious choices in dating and mate selection. The simulations are useful in arousing curiosity and interest and stimulating and focusing class discussion in courses which deal with marriage and family relationships. (Author)

  4. Aesthetic evolution by mate choice: Darwin's really dangerous idea

    PubMed Central

    Prum, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin proposed an explicitly aesthetic theory of sexual selection in which he described mate preferences as a ‘taste for the beautiful’, an ‘aesthetic capacity’, etc. These statements were not merely colourful Victorian mannerisms, but explicit expressions of Darwin's hypothesis that mate preferences can evolve for arbitrarily attractive traits that do not provide any additional benefits to mate choice. In his critique of Darwin, A. R. Wallace proposed an entirely modern mechanism of mate preference evolution through the correlation of display traits with male vigour or viability, but he called this mechanism natural selection. Wallace's honest advertisement proposal was stridently anti-Darwinian and anti-aesthetic. Most modern sexual selection research relies on essentially the same Neo-Wallacean theory renamed as sexual selection. I define the process of aesthetic evolution as the evolution of a communication signal through sensory/cognitive evaluation, which is most elaborated through coevolution of the signal and its evaluation. Sensory evaluation includes the possibility that display traits do not encode information that is being assessed, but are merely preferred. A genuinely Darwinian, aesthetic theory of sexual selection requires the incorporation of the Lande–Kirkpatrick null model into sexual selection research, but also encompasses the possibility of sensory bias, good genes and direct benefits mechanisms. PMID:22777014

  5. Lovesick: immunological costs of mating to male sagebrush crickets.

    PubMed

    Leman, J C; Weddle, C B; Gershman, S N; Kerr, A M; Ower, G D; St John, J M; Vogel, L A; Sakaluk, S K

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that resources invested in reproduction often come at the expense of the ability to mount an immune response. During mating, female sagebrush crickets, Cyphoderris strepitans, consume the ends of the male's hind wings and ingest his haemolymph. Previous research has shown that this behaviour impairs the ability of males to secure additional matings. One hypothesis to account for this effect is that wing wounding triggers an energetically costly immune response, such that nonvirgin males are unable to sustain the costly acoustical signalling needed to attract additional females. To test this hypothesis, we injected virgin males with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to provoke an immune response, and monitored their mating success in the field. LPS-injected virgin males took significantly longer to mate than sham-injected virgin males, and spent significantly less time calling. We also compared virgin, nonvirgin and experimentally wing-wounded virgin males with respect to: (1) their ability to encapsulate a foreign invader via the accumulation of haemocytes and deposition of melanin and (2) baseline levels of phenoloxidase (PO), a key enzyme in the biochemical cascade leading to the production of melanin. Although encapsulation ability did not differ with reproductive experience, virgin males had significantly higher levels of PO than either nonvirgin or experimentally wing-wounded virgin males. These results suggest that wing-wounding alone is sufficient to impair male immunity, and that males trade-off investment in reproduction and immunity. PMID:19127612

  6. Aesthetic evolution by mate choice: Darwin's really dangerous idea.

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O

    2012-08-19

    Darwin proposed an explicitly aesthetic theory of sexual selection in which he described mate preferences as a 'taste for the beautiful', an 'aesthetic capacity', etc. These statements were not merely colourful Victorian mannerisms, but explicit expressions of Darwin's hypothesis that mate preferences can evolve for arbitrarily attractive traits that do not provide any additional benefits to mate choice. In his critique of Darwin, A. R. Wallace proposed an entirely modern mechanism of mate preference evolution through the correlation of display traits with male vigour or viability, but he called this mechanism natural selection. Wallace's honest advertisement proposal was stridently anti-Darwinian and anti-aesthetic. Most modern sexual selection research relies on essentially the same Neo-Wallacean theory renamed as sexual selection. I define the process of aesthetic evolution as the evolution of a communication signal through sensory/cognitive evaluation, which is most elaborated through coevolution of the signal and its evaluation. Sensory evaluation includes the possibility that display traits do not encode information that is being assessed, but are merely preferred. A genuinely Darwinian, aesthetic theory of sexual selection requires the incorporation of the Lande-Kirkpatrick null model into sexual selection research, but also encompasses the possibility of sensory bias, good genes and direct benefits mechanisms. PMID:22777014

  7. General view of the Orbiter Discovery mated to the External ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Orbiter Discovery mated to the External Tank and Solid Rocket Booster assembly in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Post-mating Enhancement of Fecundity in Females Lygus hesperus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although mated females of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus, are known to produce more eggs than virgins, the nature of the inducing stimuli and the specific changes occuring in the female required additional elucidation. Compared to virgin females isolated from males, those exposed to...

  9. Mating disruption for control of navel orangeworm in Central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research showed that mating disruption can significantly reduce navel orangeworm damage to almonds at harvest. However, that research was conducted in Kern County and primarily in the variety Nonpareil and a few varieties, such as Monterey and Caramel, commonly used as pollenizers for Nonpa...

  10. Sexual Display and Mate Choice in an Energetically Costly Environment

    PubMed Central

    Head, Megan L.; Wong, Bob B. M.; Brooks, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Sexual displays and mate choice often take place under the same set of environmental conditions and, as a consequence, may be exposed to the same set of environmental constraints. Surprisingly, however, very few studies consider the effects of environmental costs on sexual displays and mate choice simultaneously. We conducted an experiment, manipulating water flow in large flume tanks, to examine how an energetically costly environment might affect the sexual display and mate choice behavior of male and female guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We found that male guppies performed fewer sexual displays and became less choosy, with respect to female size, in the presence of a water current compared to those tested in still water. In contrast to males, female responsive to male displays did not differ between the water current treatments and females exhibited no mate preferences with respect to male size or coloration in either treatment. The results of our study underscore the importance of considering the simultaneous effects of environmental costs on the sexual behaviors of both sexes. PMID:21151610

  11. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MATα. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MATα1, and MATα2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HMLα and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. PMID:22555442

  12. Effects of temperature variation on male behavior and mating success in a montane beetle.

    PubMed

    Dick, Cynthia A; Rank, Nathan E; McCarthy, Meagan; McWeeney, Stephen; Hollis, Daniel; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion and mating ability are crucial for male reproductive success yet are energetically costly and susceptible to physiological stress. In the Sierra willow beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis, male mating success depends on locating and mating with as many females as possible. Variation at the glycolytic enzyme locus phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) is concordant with a latitudinal temperature gradient in these populations, with Pgi-1 frequent in the cooler north, Pgi-4 in the warmer south, and alleles 1 and 4 in relatively equal frequency in areas intermediate in geography and climate. Beetles experience elevated air temperatures during a mating season that causes differential physiological stress among Pgi genotypes, and running speeds of individuals homozygous for Pgi-4 are more tolerant of repeated thermal stress than individuals possessing Pgi-1. Here the importance of running behavior for male mating activity was examined, and differential effects of thermal stress among Pgi genotypes on male mating activity were measured. In nature, males run more than females, and nearly half of males mate or fight for a mate after running. In the laboratory, mating activity was positively correlated with running speed, and repeated mating did not reduce running speed or subsequent mating activity. Males homozygous for Pgi-4 mated longer and more frequently after heat treatment than 1-1 and 1-4 males. All heat-treated males had lower mating frequencies and higher heat shock protein expression than control males; however, mating frequency of recovering 4-4 males increased throughout mating trials, while treated 1-1 and 1-4 males remained low. These results suggest that effects of stress on mating activity differ between Pgi genotypes, implying a critical role for energy metabolism in organisms' response to stressful temperatures. PMID:23799837

  13. Breeding Experience and the Heritability of Female Mate Choice in Collared Flycatchers

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Wilson, Alastair J.; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Rosivall, Balázs; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2010-01-01

    Background Heritability in mate preferences is assumed by models of sexual selection, and preference evolution may contribute to adaptation to changing environments. However, mate preference is difficult to measure in natural populations as detailed data on mate availability and mate sampling are usually missing. Often the only available information is the ornamentation of the actual mate. The single long-term quantitative genetic study of a wild population found low heritability in female mate ornamentation in Swedish collared flycatchers. One potentially important cause of low heritability in mate ornamentation at the population level is reduced mate preference expression among inexperienced individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Applying animal model analyses to 21 years of data from a Hungarian collared flycatcher population, we found that additive genetic variance was 50 percent and significant for ornament expression in males, but less than 5 percent and non-significant for mate ornamentation treated as a female trait. Female breeding experience predicted breeding date and clutch size, but mate ornamentation and its variance components were unrelated to experience. Although we detected significant area and year effects on mate ornamentation, more than 85 percent of variance in this trait remained unexplained. Moreover, the effects of area and year on mate ornamentation were also highly positively correlated between inexperienced and experienced females, thereby acting to remove difference between the two groups. Conclusions/Significance The low heritability of mate ornamentation was apparently not explained by the presence of inexperienced individuals. Our results further indicate that the expression of mate ornamentation is dominated by temporal and spatial constraints and unmeasured background factors. Future studies should reduce unexplained variance or use alternative measures of mate preference. The heritability of mate preference in the wild

  14. Evolution of the mating system in colonizing plants.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R

    2015-05-01

    Colonization is likely to be more successful for species with an ability to self-fertilize and thus to establish new populations as single individuals. As a result, self-compatibility should be common among colonizing species. This idea, labelled 'Baker's law', has been influential in discussions of sexual-system and mating-system evolution. However, its generality has been questioned, because models of the evolution of dispersal and the mating system predict an association between high dispersal rates and outcrossing rather than selfing, and because of many apparent counter examples to the law. The contrasting predictions made by models invoking Baker's law versus those for the evolution of the mating system and dispersal urges a reassessment of how we should view both these traits. Here, I review the literature on the evolution of mating and dispersal in colonizing species, with a focus on conceptual issues. I argue for the importance of distinguishing between the selfing or outcrossing rate and a simple ability to self-fertilize, as well as for the need for a more nuanced consideration of dispersal. Colonizing species will be characterized by different phases in their life pattern: dispersal to new habitat, implying an ecological sieve on dispersal traits; establishment and a phase of growth following colonization, implying a sieve on reproductive traits; and a phase of demographic stasis at high density, during which new trait associations can evolve through local adaptation. This dynamic means that the sorting of mating-system and dispersal traits should change over time, making simple predictions difficult. PMID:25611580

  15. The mating type-like loci of Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Carrillo, Patricia; Robledo-Márquez, Karina A; Ramírez-Zavaleta, Candy Y; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid and opportunistic fungal pathogen that has not known sexual cycle, has conserved the majority of the genes required for mating and cell type identity. The C. glabrata genome contains three mating-type-like loci called MTL1, MTL2 and MTL3. The three loci encode putative transcription factors, a1, α1 and α2 that regulate cell type identity and sexual reproduction in other fungi like the closely related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTL1 can contain either a or α information. MTL2, which contains a information and MTL3 with α information, are relatively close to two telomeres. MTL1 and MTL2 are transcriptionally active, while MTL3 is subject to an incomplete silencing nucleated at the telomere that depends on the silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, yKu70/80, Rif1, Rap1 and Sum1. C. glabrata does not seem to maintain cell type identity, as cell type-specific genes are expressed regardless of the type (or even absence) of mating information. These data highlight important differences in the control of mating and cell type identity between the non-pathogenic yeast S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which might explain the absence of a sexual cycle in C. glabrata. The fact that C. glabrata has conserved the vast majority of the genes involved in mating might suggest that some of these genes perhaps have been rewired to control other processes important for the survival inside the host as a commensal or as a human pathogen. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24252826

  16. Mating behaviour in a slave-making ant, Rossomyrmex minuchae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Francisca; Tinaut, Alberto

    2005-07-01

    The mating behaviour of the ant Rossomyrmex minuchae, a rare, protected slave-making species in Spain, seems to be significantly affected by its particular life history and patchy habitat. The mating behaviour of the entire genus Rossomyrmex is virtually unknown. We present here the results of a 3-year study of mating behaviour in R. minuchae.

  17. 46 CFR 11.462 - Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing... Officers § 11.462 Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels. (a) This section applies to endorsements for masters and mates of all vessels, however propelled navigating the high...

  18. 46 CFR 15.610 - Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels. 15.610... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Uninspected Vessels § 15.610 Master and mate (pilot) of towing... of a person holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as master or mate (pilot) of towing...

  19. The Mating Game: A Classroom Activity for Undergraduates that Explores the Evolutionary Basis of Sex Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dani; Holbrook, C. Tate; Meadows, Melissa G.; Taylor, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    In species that reproduce sexually, an individual's fitness depends on its ability to secure a mate (or mates). Although both males and females are selected to maximize their reproductive output, the mating strategies of the two sexes can differ dramatically. We present a classroom simulation that allows undergraduates to actively experience how…

  20. 46 CFR 11.459 - Requirements for national endorsement as master or mate on rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for national endorsement as master or mate... Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.459 Requirements for national endorsement as master or mate on rivers.... (b) An applicant for an endorsement as master or mate of river self-propelled vessels, with...

  1. 46 CFR 11.462 - Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing... Officers § 11.462 Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels. (a) This section applies to endorsements for masters and mates of all vessels, however propelled navigating the high...

  2. 46 CFR 11.459 - Service requirements for master or mate of rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service requirements for master or mate of rivers. 11... requirements for master or mate of rivers. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as master of river steam or... motor vessels of any gross tons. (b) An applicant for an endorsement as master or mate of river steam...

  3. 46 CFR 15.610 - Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels. 15.610... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Uninspected Vessels § 15.610 Master and mate (pilot) of towing... and control of a person holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as master or mate (pilot)...

  4. 46 CFR 11.466 - Requirements for national endorsements as apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mate (steersman) of towing vessels. 11.466 Section 11.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels. (a) As Table 1 to § 11.466(a) shows, to obtain an endorsement as apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels listed in column 1, endorsed with a route listed...

  5. 46 CFR 11.465 - Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 CFR 11.429 and 11.456, then you may obtain an endorsement as mate (pilot) of towing vessels by... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing....465 Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels. (a) If you would like to...

  6. 46 CFR 15.610 - Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels. 15.610... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Uninspected Vessels § 15.610 Master and mate (pilot) of towing... and control of a person holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as master or mate (pilot)...

  7. 46 CFR 11.465 - Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 CFR 11.429 and 11.456, then you may obtain an endorsement as mate (pilot) of towing vessels by... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing....465 Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels. (a) If you would like to...

  8. 46 CFR 11.462 - Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing... Officers § 11.462 Endorsements for master or mate of uninspected fishing industry vessels. (a) This section applies to endorsements for masters and mates of all vessels, however propelled navigating the high...

  9. 46 CFR 15.610 - Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Master and mate (pilot) of towing vessels. 15.610... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Uninspected Vessels § 15.610 Master and mate (pilot) of towing... and control of a person holding a license or MMC officer endorsement as master or mate (pilot)...

  10. 46 CFR 11.459 - Service requirements for master or mate of rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service requirements for master or mate of rivers. 11... requirements for master or mate of rivers. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as master of river steam or... motor vessels of any gross tons. (b) An applicant for an endorsement as master or mate of river steam...

  11. 46 CFR 11.465 - Requirements for national endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for national endorsements as mate (pilot... National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.465 Requirements for national endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels. (a) To obtain an endorsement as mate (pilot) of towing vessels endorsed with a...

  12. 46 CFR 11.459 - Service requirements for master or mate of rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service requirements for master or mate of rivers. 11... requirements for master or mate of rivers. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as master of river steam or... motor vessels of any gross tons. (b) An applicant for an endorsement as master or mate of river steam...

  13. 46 CFR 11.465 - Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 CFR 11.429 and 11.456, then you may obtain an endorsement as mate (pilot) of towing vessels by... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing....465 Requirements for endorsements as mate (pilot) of towing vessels. (a) If you would like to...

  14. Female and male genetic contributions to post-mating immune defence in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah M; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2010-12-01

    Post-mating reduction in immune defence is common in female insects, and a trade-off between mating and immunity could affect the evolution of immunity. In this work, we tested the capacity of virgin and mated female Drosophila melanogaster to defend against infection by four bacterial pathogens. We found that female D. melanogaster suffer post-mating immunosuppression in a pathogen-dependent manner. The effect of mating was seen after infection with two bacterial pathogens (Providencia rettgeri and Providencia alcalifaciens), though not after infection with two other bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). We then asked whether the evolution of post-mating immunosuppression is primarily a 'female' or 'male' trait by assaying for genetic variation among females for the degree of post-mating immune suppression they experience and among males for the level of post-mating immunosuppression they elicit in their mates. We also assayed for an interaction between male and female genotypes to test the specific hypothesis that the evolution of a trade-off between mating and immune defence in females might be being driven by sexual conflict. We found that females, but not males, harbour significant genetic variation for post-mating immunosuppression, and we did not detect an interaction between female and male genotypes. We thus conclude that post-mating immune depression is predominantly a 'female' trait, and find no evidence that it is evolving under sexual conflict. PMID:20573620

  15. Misleading mollies: The effect of an audience on the expression of mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    An increasing body of literature considers the question of how mate choice is influenced by the social environment of the choosing individual (non-independent mate choice). For example, individuals may copy the mate choice of others. A very simple form of socially influenced mate choice, however, remained comparatively little investigated: choosing individuals may adjust their mate choice to the mere presence of rivals. Recent studies in our groups1-4 have examined this question. Using live bearing fish (mollies, Poecilia spp.) as a model, we could show that (a) males will copy the mate choice of other males,5 (b) males cease expressing mating preferences in the presence of a conspecific rival male,1,2 whereas (c) females copy each other's mate choice, but are otherwise not affected by an audience.3 (d) Most importantly, males, when presented with an audience (potential rival), first approached the previously non-preferred female, suggesting that males attempt to lead the rival away from their preferred mate, thereby exploiting male mate choice copying behavior.4 We discuss that these effects are best explained as male adaptations to reduce the risk of sperm competition in a highly dynamic mating system with frequent multiple mating. PMID:19513259

  16. Registration of RMUP-C5, a random mated population of Upland cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RMUP-C5 (Random Mated Upland Population Cycle 5) is a unique random mated germplasm population of Upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., involving six cycles of random mating beginning with an 11 parent half diallel. It has been assigned Reg. No.________: PI _________. This germplasm was developed ...

  17. 46 CFR 11.466 - Requirements for endorsements as apprentice mate (steersman) of towing vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Endorsement as Apprentice Mate (Steersman) of Towing Vessels Endorsement Route endorsed Total service 1 TOS 2 on T/V TOS 2 on particular route Pass examination 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 (1) APPRENTICE MATE (STEERSMAN...) APPRENTICE MATE (STEERSMAN) (LIMITED) NOT APPLICABLE 18 12 of 18 3 of 18 YES. 1 Service is in months. 2...

  18. NOAA-L satellite is mated to Apogee Kick Motor at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (below) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite above. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. Neighbours' breeding success and the sex ratio of their offspring affect the mate preferences of female zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Drullion, Dominique; Dubois, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses on divorce predict that monogamous pairs should split up more frequently after a breeding failure. Yet, deviations from the expected pattern "success-stay, failure-leave" have been reported in several species. One possible explanation for these deviations would be that individuals do not use only their own breeding performance (i.e., private information) but also that of others (i.e., public information) to decide whether or not to divorce. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relative importance of private and public information for mate choice decisions in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).We manipulated the reproductive performance of breeding pairs and measured females' preferences for their mate and the neighbouring male first following pair formation and then seven weeks later when all females had laid eggs and the young were independent. Although all females reduced their preference for their mate after a breeding failure, the decrease was significant only when the neighbouring pair had reproduced successfully. Furthermore, there was no evidence that females biased the sex ratio of their offspring according to their mate's attractiveness. On the other hand, after reproduction, both successful and unsuccessful females increased their preferences for males who had produced a larger proportion of sons. Despite the fact that other mechanisms may have also contributed to our findings, we suggest that females changed their mate preferences based on the proportion of sons produced by successful males, because offspring sex ratio reflects the male's testosterone level at the moment of fertilization and hence is an indicator of his immune condition. PMID:22216351

  19. Neighbours' Breeding Success and the Sex Ratio of Their Offspring Affect the Mate Preferences of Female Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Drullion, Dominique; Dubois, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses on divorce predict that monogamous pairs should split up more frequently after a breeding failure. Yet, deviations from the expected pattern “success-stay, failure-leave” have been reported in several species. One possible explanation for these deviations would be that individuals do not use only their own breeding performance (i.e., private information) but also that of others (i.e., public information) to decide whether or not to divorce. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relative importance of private and public information for mate choice decisions in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).We manipulated the reproductive performance of breeding pairs and measured females' preferences for their mate and the neighbouring male first following pair formation and then seven weeks later when all females had laid eggs and the young were independent. Although all females reduced their preference for their mate after a breeding failure, the decrease was significant only when the neighbouring pair had reproduced successfully. Furthermore, there was no evidence that females biased the sex ratio of their offspring according to their mate's attractiveness. On the other hand, after reproduction, both successful and unsuccessful females increased their preferences for males who had produced a larger proportion of sons. Despite the fact that other mechanisms may have also contributed to our findings, we suggest that females changed their mate preferences based on the proportion of sons produced by successful males, because offspring sex ratio reflects the male's testosterone level at the moment of fertilization and hence is an indicator of his immune condition. PMID:22216351