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1

Review of non-surgical treatment options for Peyronie's disease.  

PubMed

Non-surgical treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD) has come a long way since it was first described in 1743. A myriad of treatment options are currently available, including oral, intralesional and external energy therapies. The purpose of this article is to review the contemporary literature on non-surgical therapies for PD, and where possible, focus on randomized, placebo-controlled trials, as well as review the latest guidelines for the management of PD from the International Committee on Sexual Medicine, which conveyed its findings in July 2009. At this time, it appears that a combination of oral agents and/or intralesional injection with traction therapy may provide a synergy between the chemical effects of the drugs and the mechanical effects of traction. Until a reliable treatment emerges, it does appear that some of the non-surgical treatments discussed can be used to stabilize the scarring process and may result in some reduction of deformity with improved sexual function. PMID:21918530

Larsen, S M; Levine, L A

2012-01-01

2

[Non-surgical treatment of biliary lithiasis].  

PubMed

The usefulness of the treatment of the biliary lithiasis with chenodeoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acids is discussed, including the selection of patients, optimal doses, adverse effects and recurrence of stones. New treatment with methyl tertiary butyl ether and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is evaluated. Endoscopic procedures, eventually combined with ESWL, represent the preferred treatment for patients with bile duct stones. PMID:2700107

Conte, V P

1989-01-01

3

The non-surgical treatment of peyronie disease: 2013 update.  

PubMed

Peyronie disease is a common cause of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. Although surgery is regarded as the definitive management for this condition, there are many medical and minimally invasive therapies available, with widely varying efficacy reported in the literature. The purpose of this review is to describe the current state-of-the-art for each of the most commonly used as well as several developing non-surgical treatments. Further, we hope to offer perspectives that will aid practitioners in deciding among these treatments that are either already in use or have the potential to be used as alternatives to surgery in the management of this frustrating disease. PMID:24459651

Shaw, Eric James; Mitchell, Gregory Clyde; Tan, Ronny B; Sangkum, Premsant; Hellstrom, Wayne John G

2013-12-01

4

The Non-Surgical Treatment of Peyronie Disease: 2013 Update  

PubMed Central

Peyronie disease is a common cause of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. Although surgery is regarded as the definitive management for this condition, there are many medical and minimally invasive therapies available, with widely varying efficacy reported in the literature. The purpose of this review is to describe the current state-of-the-art for each of the most commonly used as well as several developing non-surgical treatments. Further, we hope to offer perspectives that will aid practitioners in deciding among these treatments that are either already in use or have the potential to be used as alternatives to surgery in the management of this frustrating disease. PMID:24459651

Shaw, Eric James; Mitchell, Gregory Clyde; Tan, Ronny B.; Sangkum, Premsant

2013-01-01

5

Non-surgical treatments for anal fissure in adults.  

PubMed

An anal fissure is defined as a linear tear or ulcer of the anal mucosa. Patients typically describe a sharp pain 'like passing broken glass' on defaecation, followed by a burning pain in the anus lasting a few hours. Pain and bleeding during and after the passage of stool are the usual presenting features. Fissures are most common in young to middle-aged adults and are also commonly seen in pregnant and postpartum women. The lifetime incidence of anal fissure is around 11%. Here, we review the evidence on the efficacy and safety of non-surgical treatments for anal fissure. PMID:24030967

2013-09-01

6

Non-surgical treatment of localised prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The non-surgical treatment of localised prostate cancer depends on a number of factors including: PSA, stage, Gleason score, age, fitness for treatment and life expectancy, and is individualised depending on risk. Patients who present with early localised (stage T1 or T2) tumours with low risk features (PSA <10 ng/ml, Gleason score 3+4 or below) and who have a life expectancy of more than 10 years may consider radiotherapy or active surveillance. Permanent brachytherapy seed implantation is suitable for low risk patients who have minimal lower urinary tract symptoms, with equivalent results to external beam radiotherapy Conformal high-dose external beam radiotherapy is effective for patients with high risk disease, and consideration should be given to the use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant anti-androgens. Prophylactic pelvic nodal irradiation is indicated for patients with high risk of lymph node disease, followed by a boost to the prostate using either a smaller external beam volume, or brachytherapy. The definitive treatment depends on both clinical parameters such as the clinical staging, prognostic risk, and the likelihood of acute and late toxicity and the patient's personal choice based on their life style. PMID:19442516

Moule, Russell N; Hoskin, Peter J

2009-09-01

7

Non-surgical treatment of primary female urethral cancer  

PubMed Central

Primary carcinomas of the female urethra are extremely rare, with an annual incidence of less than ten in one million. Currently, there is no consensus regarding management of this malignancy. However, there have been several case reports demonstrating the efficacy of chemoradiation in the treatment of female urethral cancer. In this report we present two cases of female primary urethral adenocarcinoma that were treated by concomitant chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy, followed by interstitial brachytherapy. PMID:21139970

Libby, Bruce; Chao, David; Schneider, Bernard F

2010-01-01

8

Non-surgical treatment of early breast cancer: techniques on the way  

PubMed Central

Trials are still on the way to evaluate different non-surgical techniques to treat early breast cancer with achieving maximum oncological control and aesthetic outcome. Also these techniques can help old patients to bypass surgical and radiation complications and facilitate the treatment of early breast cancer with minimum side effects. PMID:25207205

Elrefaey, Shymaa

2014-01-01

9

Non Surgical Treatment of Eagle's Syndrome - A Case Report -.  

PubMed

Eagle's syndrome is a disease without a clear lesion that is associated with repeated episodes of pharyngalgia, odynophagia, the sensation of a foreign body in the pharynx, tinnitus, and otalgia in which patients displaying these types of symptoms must be given a differential diagnosis. It is known to be characterized by styloid process elongation or increasing compression to adjacent anatomical structures through stylohyoid ligament calcification. In serious cases, continuous pressure to the carotid artery can lead to a stroke. Diagnosis is confirmed through clinical symptoms, radiological findings, and physical examinations. The most common type of treatment consists of a surgical excision of elongated styloid process. Nonetheless, this study presents a case of treating Eagle's syndrome with conservative management. PMID:23614080

Han, Min Kyu; Kim, Do Wan; Yang, Jong Yeun

2013-04-01

10

Non-surgical treatment of post-surgical bile duct injury: Clinical implications and outcomes  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prognostic factors determining the success rate of non-surgical treatment in the management of post-operative bile duct injuries (BDIs). METHODS: The study patients were enrolled from the pancreatobiliary units of a tertiary teaching hospital for the treatment of BDIs after hepatobiliary tract surgeries, excluding operations for liver transplantation and malignancies, from January 1999 to August 2010. A total of 5167 patients underwent operations, and 77 patients had BDIs following surgery. The primary end point was the treatment success rate according to different types of BDIs sustained using endoscopic or percutaneous hepatic approaches. The type of BDI was defined using one of the following diagnostic tools: endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance cholangiography. Patients with a final diagnosis of BDI underwent endoscopic and/or percutaneous interventions for the treatment of bile leak and/or stricture if clinically indicated. Patient consent was obtained, and study approval was granted by the Institutional Review Board in accordance with the legal regulations of the Human Clinical Research Center at the Seoul National University Hospital in Seoul, South Korea. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients were enrolled in the study. They were divided into three groups according to type of BDI. Among them, 55 patients (71%) underwent cholecystectomy. Thirty-six patients (47%) had bile leak only (type 1), 31 patients had biliary stricture only (type 2), and 10 patients had both bile leak and biliary stricture (type 3). Their initial treatment modalities were non-surgical. The success rate of non-surgical treatment in each group was as follows: BDI type 1: 94%; type 2: 71%; and type 3: 30%. Clinical parameters such as demographic factors, primary disease, operation method, type of operation, non-surgical treatment modalities, endoscopic procedure steps, type of BDI, time to diagnosis and treatment duration were evaluated to evaluate the prognostic factors affecting the success rate. The type of BDI was a statistically significant prognostic factor in determining the success rate of non-surgical treatment. In addition, a shorter time to diagnosis of BDI after the operation correlated significantly with higher success rates in the treatment of type 1 BDIs. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic or percutaneous hepatic approaches can be used as an initial treatment in type 1 and 2 BDIs. However, surgical intervention is a treatment of choice in type 3 BDI. PMID:24944484

Eum, Young Ook; Park, Joo Kyung; Chun, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sang-Hyub; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae; Yoon, Yong-Bum; Yoon, Chang Jin; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok

2014-01-01

11

Non-surgical management of stress urinary incontinence: ambulatory treatments for leakage associated with stress (ATLAS) trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Non-surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is recommended as first-line therapy, yet few prospective studies and no randomized trials compare the most common non-surgical treatments for SUI.Purpose To present the design and methodology of the ambulatory treatments for leakage associated with stress (ATLAS) trial, a randomized clinical trial comparing three interventions for predominant SUI in women: intravaginal continence

Holly E Richter; Kathryn L Burgio; Patricia S Goode; Diane Borello-France; Catherine S Bradley; Linda Brubaker; Victoria L Handa; Paul M Fine; Anthony G Visco; Halina M Zyczynski; John T Wei; Anne M Weber

2007-01-01

12

[Early effect of non-surgical treatment using betamethasone valerate ointment for phimosis in childhood].  

PubMed

We evaluated the early efficacy of non-surgical treatment using 0.07% betamethasone valerate ointment on, 34 boys with phimosis between January 2001 and June 2005. Patients were treated with 0.07% betamethasone valerate ointment applied to the distal aspect of the prepuce every other day for 2-6 weeks. During the treatment period, patients were instructed to retract the foreskin to penis root without overstraining. The overall success rate was 94.1% and therapeutic effects were observed in 58.8% of the patients in two weeks. There were no medical side effects. Treatment using betamethasone valerate ointment is very effective, easy and safe. We recommend this treatment for patients with phimosis and/or those with recurring balanoposthitis. PMID:16758721

Kitsukawa, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takaaki; Hosoda, Satoru; Samejima, Takeshi; Otsuru, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Noda, Kenjiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Aizawa, Taku

2006-05-01

13

Isokinetic muscle assessment after treatment of pectoralis major muscle rupture using surgical or non-surgical procedures  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle appears to be increasing in athletes. However, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been established. OBJECTIVES: To compare the isokinetic shoulder performance after surgical treatment to that after non-surgical treatment for pectoralis major muscle rupture. METHODS: We assessed 33 pectoralis major muscle ruptures (18 treated non-surgically and 15 treated surgically). Horizontal abduction and adduction as well as external and internal rotation at 60 and 120 degrees/s were tested in both upper limbs. Peak torque, total work, contralateral deficiency, and the peak torque agonist-to-antagonist ratio were measured. RESULTS: Contralateral muscular deficiency did not differ between the surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities. However, the surgical group presented twice the number of athletes with clinically acceptable contralateral deficiency (<20%) for internal rotators compared to the non-surgical group. The peak torque ratio between the external and internal rotator muscles revealed a similar deficit of the external rotation in both groups and on both sides (surgical, 61.60% and 57.80% and non-surgical, 62.06% and 54.06%, for the dominant and non-dominant sides, respectively). The peak torque ratio revealed that the horizontal adduction muscles on the injured side showed similar weakness in both groups (surgical, 86.27%; non-surgical, 98.61%). CONCLUSIONS: This study included the largest single series of athletes reported to date for this type of injury. A comparative analysis of muscular strength and balance showed no differences between the treatment modalities for pectoralis major muscle rupture. However, the number of significant clinical deficiencies was lower in the surgical group than in the non-surgical group, and both treatment modalities require greater attention to the rehabilitation process, especially for the recovery of muscle strength and balance. PMID:21484052

Fleury, Anna Maria; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; dos Santos Andrade, Marilia

2011-01-01

14

NON-SURGICAL TREATMENT OF A PROFESSIONAL HOCKEY PLAYER WITH THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SPORTS HERNIA: A CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

Study Design: Case Report Background: Injury or weakness of lower abdominal attachments and the posterior inguinal wall can be symptoms of a “sports hernia” and an underlying source of groin pain. Although several authors note conservative treatment as the initial step in the management of this condition, very little has been written on the specific description of non-surgical measures. Most published articles favoring operative care describe poor results related to conservative management; however they fail to report what treatment techniques comprise non-operative management. Case Presentation: The subject of this case report is a professional ice hockey player who sustained an abdominal injury in a game, which was diagnosed as a sports hernia. Following the injury, structured conservative treatment emphasized core control and stability with progressive peripheral demand challenges. Intrinsic core control emphasis continued throughout the treatment progression and during the functional training prior to return to sport. Outcome: The player completed his recovery with return to full competition seven weeks post injury, and continues to compete in the NHL seven years later. Discussion: Surgical intervention has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the “sports hernia.” However it is the authors' opinion that conservative care emphasizing evaluation of intrinsic core muscular deficits and rehabilitation directed at addressing these deficits is an appropriate option, and should be considered prior to surgical intervention. PMID:22319682

Woodward, J. Scott; Parker, Andrew; MacDonald, Robert M.

2012-01-01

15

Hospital type- and volume-outcome relationships in esophageal cancer patients receiving non-surgical treatments  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the “hospital type-outcome” and “volume-outcome” relationships in patients with esophageal cancer who receive non-surgical treatments. METHODS: A total of 6106 patients with esophageal cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2011 were identified from a national population-based cancer registry in Taiwan. The hospital types were defined as medical center and non-medical center. The threshold for high-volume hospitals was based on a median volume of 225 cases between 2008 and 2011 (annual volume, > 56 cases) or an upper quartile (> 75%) volume of 377 cases (annual volume > 94 cases). Cox regression analyses were used to determine the effects of hospital type and volume outcome on patient survival. RESULTS: A total of 3955 non-surgically treated patients were included in the survival analysis. In the unadjusted analysis, the significant prognostic factors included cT, cN, cM stage, hospital type and hospital volume (annual volume, > 94 vs ? 94). The 1- and 3-year overall survival rates in the non-medical centers (36.2% and 13.2%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the medical centers (33.5% and 11.3%, respectively; P = 0.027). The 1- and 3-year overall survival rates in hospitals with an annual volume of ? 94 (35.3% and 12.6%, respectively) were significantly higher than those with an annual volume of > 94 (31.1% and 9.4%, respectively; P = 0.001). However, in the multivariate analysis, the hospital type was not statistically significant. Only cT, cN, and cM stages and hospital volume (annual volume > 94 vs ? 94) were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Whether the treatment occurs in medical centers is not a significant prognostic factor. High-volume hospitals were not associated with better survival rates compared with low-volume hospitals.

Hsu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Hui-Shan; Wang, Bing-Yen; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Liu, Chao-Yu; Shih, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Chia-Chuan

2015-01-01

16

Complications related to midfacial fractures: operative versus non-surgical treatment.  

PubMed

The treatment of midfacial fractures depends on the dislocation of the fracture and patient-related limitations. Surgical treatment risks iatrogenic complications. In 740 patients with midfacial fractures, the age, sex, fracture type, concomitant injuries, cause of accident and the decision to use operative or non-surgical treatment were recorded. Follow-up was performed 6 and 12 months after the injury. In 41% the fractures were isolated; they were multiple in 59%. Initially, hypaesthesia of the infraorbital nerve was present in 10% of the single and 16% of the multiple fracture patients. Surgical treatment was performed in 57% of the single and in 75% of the multiple fracture patients. Women underwent surgical treatment considerably less frequently than men. After 6 and 12 months, significantly more complications were present in the surgically treated cohort. Nerve disturbances and 'meteorosensitivity' were most prominent. These results, together with previous findings, indicate that there is a need for prospective clinical investigations that fulfil the criteria of evidence-based medicine to generate guidelines for decision making in trauma surgery. In the meantime, the decision to use surgical treatment for midfacial fractures has to be made carefully. PMID:20870393

Kloss, F R; Stigler, R G; Brandstätter, A; Tuli, T; Rasse, M; Laimer, K; Hächl, O L; Gassner, R

2011-01-01

17

Trauma from instrumentation after non-surgical periodontal treatment with ultrasonic scalers and Nd:YAG laser.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Periodontal therapies aimed at altering the progression of periodontal diseases must include meticulous mechanical debridement during both the non-surgical and the surgical phases of periodontal treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the immediate effect of trauma from instrumentation on clinical attachment level after non-surgical periodontal treatment with ultrasonic scalers and a Nd:YAG laser. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients with untreated chronic periodontitis, presenting probing depths of 4-6 mm on anterior teeth, upper and lower, were entered into the study. The selected teeth were probed with a pressure-controlled probe, guided by stents. Each quadrant was randomly allocated in a split-mouth design either to treatment with Nd:YAG laser using an energy of 1W, 100mj, 1064nm (test group) or to periodontal treatment using ultrasonic scalers (control group). Clinical parameters, including plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and probing attachment level (PAL) were acquired prior to and immediately after treatment. Results. Statistical analysis demonstrated no differences between groups at baseline for all parameters (p > 0.05). Immediately after treatment, the control group showed a greater PAL loss than the test group (p < 0.05). For the control group, there were statistically significant differences between PAL immediately before and after treatment (p < 0.05), but not test group (p > 0.05). Conclusions. Within the limits of the present study, it may be concluded that non-surgical periodontal treatment with ultrasonic scalers causes a mean immediate attachment loss of 0.68 mm and that a Nd:YAG laser seems to reduce significantly the trauma the instrumentation produced. PMID:25252593

Dilsiz, Alparslan; Sevinc, Semanur

2015-02-01

18

Advances in non-surgical treatments for urinary tract infections in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  With growing antibiotics failure due to emerging resistance of bacteria, non-surgical management of pediatric UTI plays a\\u000a more important role because of its non-invasive characteristics and little adverse effects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We searched the Pubmed for management of UTI in children other than surgical correction and antibiotics using terms: risk\\u000a factor, prepuce\\/phimosis, steroid cream\\/steroid, behavioral therapy, urotherapy, biofeedback\\/pelvic floor exercise, adrenergic\\u000a antagonist,

Stephen Shei-Dei Yang; I-Ni Chiang; Chia-Da Lin; Shang-Jen Chang

19

Effectiveness of mechanical traction as a non-surgical treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome compared to care as usual: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common condition (prevalence of 4%) where the median nerve is compressed within the carpal tunnel resulting in numbness, tingling, and pain in the hand. Current non-surgical treatment options (oral medication, corticosteroid injections, splinting, exercise, and mobilization) show limited effects, especially in the long-term. Carpal tunnel release (CTR) surgery is effective in 70 to 75% of patients, but is relatively invasive and can be accompanied by complications. In an observational study, mechanical traction proved to be effective in up to 70% of patients directly after treatment and in 60% after two years follow-up. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) will examine the effectiveness of mechanical traction compared to care as usual in CTS. Methods/Design Patients diagnosed with CTS will be recruited from an outpatient neurology clinic and randomly assigned to the intervention group (mechanical traction) or the control group (care as usual). Participants in the intervention group will receive 12 treatments with mechanical traction during six consecutive weeks. Primary outcome is symptom severity and functional status, which are measured with the Boston Carpel Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Secondary outcomes are quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), health related resource utilization, and absenteeism from work. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 3, 6, and 12 months after inclusion. Linear mixed effect models will be used to determine the change from baseline at 12 months on the BCTQ, WHOQOL-BREF, absenteeism from work and health related resource utilization. The baseline measurement, change from baseline at three and six months, as well as duration of symptoms until inclusion, age, gender, and co-morbidity will be included as covariates The Pearson’s correlation coefficient will be generated to assess the correlation between depression and anxiety and treatment outcome. Discussion Since current non-surgical treatment options are not effective long-term and CTR is relatively invasive, there is a need for an effective and non-invasive treatment option. Mechanical traction is a safe treatment option that may provide a good alternative for the usual care. Considering the prevalence of CTS, the study is of great clinical value to a large patient population. Trial registration Clinical Trials NL44692.008.13 (registered on 19 September 2013). PMID:24886455

2014-01-01

20

Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Stories Who We Are Contact Us Donate Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options Jump to Topic Lifestyle changes Dietary changes ... November 19, 2014 at 04:33:10 PM Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback ...

21

Changing spectrum of Budd-Chiari syndrome in India with special reference to non-surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate patterns of obstruction, etiological spectrum and non-surgical treatment in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome in India. METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive cases of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) were prospectively evaluated. All patients with refractory ascites or deteriorating liver function were, depending on morphology of inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or hepatic vein (HV) obstruction, triaged for radiological intervention, in addition to anticoagulation therapy. Asymptomatic patients, patients with diuretic-responsive ascites and stable liver function, and patients unwilling for surgical intervention were treated symptomatically with anticoagulation. RESULTS: Mean duration of symptoms was 41.5 ± 11.2 (range = 1-240) mo. HV thrombosis (HVT) was present in 29 (59.1%), IVC thrombosis in eight (16.3%), membranous obstruction of IVC in two (4%) and both IVC-HV thrombosis in 10 (20.4%) cases. Of 35 cases tested for hypercoagulability, 27 (77.1%) were positive for one or more hypercoagulable states. Radiological intervention was technically successful in 37/38 (97.3%): IVC stenting in seven (18.9%), IVC balloon angioplasty in two (5.4%), combined IVC-HV stenting in two (5.4%), HV stenting in 11 (29.7%), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in 13 (35.1%) and combined TIPS-IVC stenting in two (5.4%). Complications encountered in follow-up: death in five, re-stenosis of the stent in five (17.1%), hepatic encephalopathy in two and hepatocellular carcinoma in one patient. Of nine patients treated medically, two showed complete resolution of HVT. CONCLUSION: In our series, HVT was the predominant cause of BCS. In the last five years with the availability of sophisticated tests for hypercoagulability, etiologies were defined in 85.7% of cases. Non-surgical management was successful in most cases. PMID:18186568

Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Punamiya, Sundeep J; Patel, Nikhil D

2008-01-01

22

Effect sizes of non-surgical treatments of non-specific low-back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous randomized trials have been published investigating the effectiveness of treatments for non-specific low-back pain\\u000a (LBP) either by trials comparing interventions with a no-treatment group or comparing different interventions. In trials comparing\\u000a two interventions, often no differences are found and it raises questions about the basic benefit of each treatment. To estimate\\u000a the effect sizes of treatments for non-specific LBP

A. Keller; J. Hayden; C. Bombardier; M. van Tulder

2007-01-01

23

Efect of periodontal disease and non surgical periodontal treatment on C-reactive protein. Evaluation of type 1 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze how anti-infectious periodontal treatment affects C reactive protein (CRP) values in patients with type 1 diabetes, and correlate baseline CRP levels with periodontal disease severity. Study Design: A cohort of fifty three subjects with type 1 diabetes and moderate to severe periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal parameters were measured, and blood samples were obtained to evaluate high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Group 1 was treated with scaling, root planning, and systemic administration of doxycycline. Group 2 received only scaling and root planning. Results: Hs-CRP was reduced after periodontal treatment in group 1 (-0.22 mg/l) and 2 (-0.21 mg/l ) but this reduction was not statistically significant, even in the patients with the best response to periodontal treatment. However, significant correlation appeared between hs-CRP and mean probing pocket depth (PPD) (p=0, 01) and mean clinical attachment level (CAL) (p=0,03). Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal treatment couldn’t reduce hs-CRP values, however, it was found an association between advanced periodontitis and elevated blood hs-CRP levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. It can be speculated that periodontal disease increases production of pro-inflammatory mediators in patients with type 1 diabetes, but other producing sources of these pro-inflammatory substances may exist. Key words:Periodontal disease, periodontitis, diabetes mellitus type 1, periodontal therapy, C reactive protein. PMID:22322513

Llambés, Fernando; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Guiha, Rami; Bautista, Daniel; Caffesse, Raúl

2012-01-01

24

New developments in diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis is progressive and irreversible, leading to digestive and absorptive disorders by destruction of the exocrine pancreas and to diabetes mellitus by destruction of the endocrine pancreas. When complications such as pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst occur, elevated pancreatic ductal pressure exacerbates pain and induces other complications, worsening the patient's general condition. Combined treatment with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and endoscopic lithotripsy is a useful, minimally invasive, first-line treatment approach that can preserve pancreatic exocrine function. Pancreatic duct stenosis elevates intraductal pressure and favor both pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst formation, making effective treatment vitally important. Endoscopic treatment of benign pancreatic duct stenosis stenting frequently decreases pain in chronic pancreatitis. Importantly, stenosis of the main pancreatic duct increases risk of stone recurrence after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. Recently, good results were reported in treating pancreatic duct stricture with a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent, which shows promise for preventing stone recurrence after lithotripsy in patients with pancreatic stricture. Chronic pancreatitis has many complications including pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatic atrophy, and loss of exocrine and endocrine function, as well as frequent recurrence of stones after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. As early treatment of chronic pancreatitis is essential, the new concept of early chronic pancreatitis, including characteristics findings in endoscopic ultrasonograms, is presented. PMID:24251715

Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Miyoshi, Hironao; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi

2013-12-01

25

Treatment of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by full-mouth disinfection: A non-surgical approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a common finding in the modern era. These gingival overgrowths are usually treated by various modalities namely substitution of drugs, surgical, and non-surgical treatment. The recent concept mainly involves full-mouth scaling and root planing (the entire dentition in two visits within 24 hours, i.e., two consecutive days) followed by chair side mouth rinsing by the patient with a 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and brushing the tongue of the patient with 1% chlorhexidine gel. This is followed by an additional subgingival irrigation (three times, repeated within 10 minutes) of all pockets with a 1% chlorhexidine gel. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients between the ages of 20 and 50 years with drug-induced gingival overgrowth were treated using the full-mouth disinfection approach. The patients were evaluated at 3 months and 6 months after therapy. The data obtained for plaque index, bleeding on probing index, probing pocket depth, and gingival overgrowth scores were tabulated and compared statistically using the one sample unpaired t test. Statistical Analysis: Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in PI GBI, PPD, and GO score between baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: All clinical parameters improved significantly after therapy without the need of further surgical treatment. Conclusions: Full-mouth disinfection might be a beneficial treatment concept in patients with drug-induced gingival overgrowth, thus decreasing the need for surgical therapy. PMID:25024543

Pundir, Aena Jain; Pundir, Siddharth; Yeltiwar, R. K.; Farista, Sana; Gopinath, V.; Srinivas, T. S.

2014-01-01

26

Effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and oxidative status in platelets.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested an increase of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk on periodontitis patients. An enhancement has been demonstrated on both platelet activation and oxidative stress on periodontitis patients, which may contribute for this association. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway and oxidative status in platelets. A total of eight periodontitis patients and eight controls were included in this study. Clinical, laboratory and experimental evaluations were performed on baseline and 90 days after periodontal treatment (except for western blot analysis). The clinical periodontal evaluation included measurements of probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), % of sites with plaque and % of sites with bleeding on probing. We evaluated: l-[(3)H]arginine influx; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase enzymes activity and expression; expression of guanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase-5 enzymes; cGMP levels; platelet aggregation; oxidative status through superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The initial results showed an activation of both l-arginine influx and via system y?(+?)L associated with reduced intraplatelet cGMP levels in periodontitis patients and increased systemic levels of CRP. After periodontal treatment, there was a significant reduction of the % of sites with PPD 4-5mm, % of sites with CAL 4-5?mm, and an enhancement in cGMP levels and SOD activity. Moreover, CRP levels were reduced after treatment. Therefore, alterations in the intraplatelet l-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway and oxidant-antioxidant balance associated with a systemic inflammatory response may lead to platelet dysfunction, which may contribute to a higher risk of CVD in periodontitis. PMID:23918883

Siqueira, Mariana Alves de Sá; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães; Pereira, Natália Rodrigues; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Moss, Monique Bandeira; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Cláudio; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo da Silva; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

2013-06-01

27

Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (<4 mm and <1/3 original root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes. PMID:25139200

Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

2014-01-01

28

ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

29

Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... is urinary incontinence (UI)? Taking Control (5-minute video) Click on the video above for an introduction ... Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens to women of all ages ...

30

Embryo retrieval after hormonal treatment to control ovarian function and non-surgical artificial insemination in African lions (Panthera leo).  

PubMed

Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for propagating endangered wild felids. Artificial insemination (AI) has been reported in several wild feline species, but pregnancy rates are low, partially owing to failures of current hormonal stimulation protocols. Therefore, this study describes the application of reliable methods to monitor ovarian activity and the development of an effective hormonal protocol to induce oestrus and ovulation in African lions. Application of porcine FSH and porcine LH was shown to be effective for inducing follicular growth and ovulation, and this regimen appeared to be superior to protocols described earlier in terms of ovulation and fertilization rates. Furthermore, non-surgical AI was performed successfully in lions, and uterine-stage embryos were collected and cryopreserved. African lions may serve as a valuable model to develop assisted reproduction for propagation of relic zoo populations in the critically endangered Asian lion or Barbary lion. PMID:23279488

Goeritz, F; Painer, J; Jewgenow, K; Hermes, R; Rasmussen, K; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B

2012-12-01

31

Assessment of maximum weight change and duration of therapeutic effect for non-surgical treatment of obesity using an exponential model.  

PubMed

Efficacy of weight loss and maintenance therapies in obesity is difficult to quantify due to continuous weight changes over time. We assessed a single exponential model of weight changes during selected non-surgical therapies of non-diabetic obese subjects. We analyzed published mean weight data from 6 studies of ?12 weeks duration, with comparable treatment groups, and ?4 weight measurements during very low carbohydrate or fat diets, or treatment with Lorcaserin, Sibutramine or Orlistat. We fit data to a single exponential model to estimate maximum predicted weight loss or regain and duration of weight loss or regain for each therapy. A single exponential is the appropriate model as determined by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, constant variance, and Durbin-Watson tests. Validity of parameter estimates was indicated by coefficients of variation <25%. Sensitivity analysis showed that weight regain at the end of the weight loss phase affected parameter estimates in some instances, with variations of weight loss of 0.2-0.7% of basal. Estimated weight loss and regain were similar to observed weight changes in all studies. The model could also be used to assess dose-response relationships. Estimates from the model were used to compare concurrent obesity regimens using 95% confidence intervals, taking into account pre-determined minimal clinically important differences. This exponential model may provide accurate estimates of maximum achievable weight loss or regain and optimal duration of efficacy for a variety of non-surgical weight loss and maintenance regimens from published mean weight data and may be useful to more accurately evaluate weight loss and maintenance regimens. PMID:23007276

Kaptein, E M; Chan, L S; Kaptein, J S

2012-12-01

32

Treatment Options for Scoliosis  

MedlinePLUS

... physical therapy to address your specific needs. Will chiropractic treatment help? Chiropractic is a controversial method of treatment that seems ... do not seem effectively managed by long-term chiropractic care. Patients who have scoliosis and choose chiropractic ...

33

IBS Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Take Part in Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS Relationships and IBS Pregnancy and IBS Travel and IBS IBS Patients' Experience and Unmet Needs ...

34

Anesthetic efficacy of Oraqix® versus Hurricaine® and placebo for pain control during non-surgical periodontal treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of Oraqix® during scaling and root planing (SRP) in comparison with 20% benzocaine and placebo. Study Design: 15 patients requiring 4 sessions of SRP were enrolled. For each patient, Oraqix®, Hurricaine®, vaseline or no anesthetic product were randomly assigned each to a quadrant. Treatment pain was evaluated on a 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and on a Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). The amount of product administered, the need to re-anesthetise, patient and operator satisfaction and the onset of side-effects were also recorded. Results: Oraqix® was significantly better than nothing, with a reduction of VAS score to 13.3 units, but without significant differences with Vaseline or Hurricaine®. Oraqix® was better in VRS reduction than not using any anesthetic (p=0.001) or using vaseline (p=0.024), but similar to Hurricaine® (p=0.232). Conclusions: Oraqix® effectively controls pain in SRP procedures, with few side-effects and a good acceptance on the part of patients and clinicians. Key words:Controlled clinical trial, topical anesthetic, scaling and root planing. PMID:24316699

Mayor-Subirana, Gemma; Yagüe-García, José; Arnabat-Domínguez, Josep; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

2014-01-01

35

[Treatment Options for Nystagmus.  

PubMed

The goal of treatment for nystagmus is to reduce or to abolish the typical symptoms associated with nystagmus. These are (i) reduction of visual acuity (and amblyopia in infantile nystagmus), (ii) abnormal head posture (with possible secondary changes of cervical spine) and (iii) oscillopsia (often connected with vertigo and disorders of gait and orientation). Treatment strategies include pharmacological treatment, surgical therapy and optical devices. Choice of treatment depends on the type of nystagmus and its characteristics. Surgical therapy: The following surgical procedures were successfully used as treatment of selected symptoms: (i) unilateral recess-resect surgery of the dominant eye in infantile esotropia with latent nystagmus for the relief of abnormal head posture, (ii) Kestenbaum operation of both eyes in infantile nystagmus syndrome with excentric null zone and abnormal head posture, (iii) recess-resect surgery to produce artificial exophoria in infantile nystagmus syndrome. Pharmacological treatment: Depending on the pathophysiology of different types of nystagmus, several drugs were effective in clinical application (off-label use): (i) gabapentin (non-selective GABAergic and anti-glutamatergic effect): up to 2400?mg/d in infantile nystagmus, acquired pendular nystagmus and oculopalatal tremor, (ii) nemantine (anti-glutamatergic effect): dosage up to 40?mg/d in infantile nystagmus, also in acquired pendular nystagmus and oculopalatal tremor, (iii) baclofen (GABA-B-receptor agonist): 3?×?5-10?mg/d in periodic alternating nystagmus and in upbeat nystagmus, (iv) 4-aminopyridine (non-selective blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels): 3?×?5?mg/d or 1-2?×?10?mg Fampridin in downbeat nystagmus and upbeat nystagmus, (v) acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor): in hereditary episodic ataxia type 2. Optical devices: (i) Contact lenses are used in infantile nystagmus in order to overcome negative effects of eye glasses in abnormal head posture, lateral gaze, and higher refractive errors, (ii) spectacle prisms are useful to induce an artificial exophoria (base-out prisms) or to shift an excentric null zone (base in direction of head posture) of infantile nystagmus with abnormal head posture, (iii) low vision aids may be necessary and should be prescribed according to magnification requirements. PMID:25121801

Tegetmeyer, H

2014-08-14

36

Advances in non-surgical management of primary liver cancer  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. There have been great improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC in recent years, but the problems, including difficult diagnosis at early stage, quick progression, and poor prognosis remain unsolved. Surgical resection is the mainstay of the treatment for HCC. However, 70%-80% of HCC patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage when most are ineligible for potentially curative therapies such as surgical resection and liver transplantation. In recent years, non-surgical management for unrespectable HCC, such as percutaneous ethanol injection, percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy, percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biotherapy, and hormonal therapy have been developed. These therapeutic options, either alone or in combination, have been shown to control tumor growth, prolong survival time, and improve quality of life to some extent. This review covers the current status and progress of non-surgical management for HCC. PMID:25469032

Chen, Xiao; Liu, Hai-Peng; Li, Mei; Qiao, Liang

2014-01-01

37

The Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis (QUID): Validity and Responsiveness to Change in Women Undergoing Non-Surgical Therapies for Treatment of Stress Predominant Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Aims The Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis (QUID), a 6-item urinary incontinence (UI) symptom questionnaire, was developed and validated to distinguish stress and urge UI. This study’s objective was to evaluate QUID validity and responsiveness when used as a clinical trial outcome measure. Methods Participants enrolled in a multi-center trial of non-surgical therapy (continence pessary, pelvic floor muscle training or combined) for stress-predominant UI completed baseline and 3-month diaries, the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI) and QUID. Data from all treatment groups were pooled. QUID internal consistency (Cronbach’s ?) and convergent/discriminant validity (Pearson correlations) were evaluated. Responsiveness to change was assessed with 3-month score outcomes and distribution-based measurements. Results 444 women (mean age 50) were enrolled with stress (N=200) and mixed (N=244) UI; 344 had 3-month data. Baseline QUID Stress and Urge scores (both scaled 0-15, larger values indicating worse UI) were 8.4 ± 3.2 and 4.5 ± 3.3, respectively. Internal consistency of QUID Total, Stress and Urge scores was 0.75, 0.64 and 0.87, respectively. QUID Stress scores correlated moderately with UDI-Stress scores (r=0.68, p<0.0001) and diary stress UI episodes (r=0.41, p<0.0001). QUID Urge scores correlated moderately with UDI-Irritative scores (r=0.68, p<0.0001) and diary urge UI episodes (r=0.45, p<0.0001). 3-month QUID Stress and Urge scores improved (4.1 ± 3.4 and 2.2 ± 2.7, both p<0.0001). QUID Stress score Effect Size (1.3) and Standardized Response Mean (1.2) suggested a large change after therapy. Conclusion The QUID has acceptable psychometric characteristics and may be used as a UI outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:19787711

Bradley, Catherine S.; Rahn, David D.; Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Barber, Matthew D.; Nager, Charles W.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Siddiqui, Nazema Y.; Abel, Robert B.; Spino, Cathie; Richter, Holly E.

2009-01-01

38

Current status in the treatment options for esophageal achalasia  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the treatment of achalasia include the use of high-resolution manometry to predict the outcome of patients and the introduction of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). The first multicenter randomized, controlled, 2-year follow-up study conducted by the European Achalasia Trial group indicated that laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) was not superior to pneumatic dilations (PD). Publications on the long-term success of laparoscopic surgery continue to emerge. In addition, laparoscopic single-site surgery is applicable to advanced laparoscopic operations such as LHM and anterior fundoplication. The optimal treatment option is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review, we provide an update of the current progress in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Unless new conclusive data prove otherwise, LHM is considered the most durable treatment for achalasia at the expense of increased reflux-associated complications. However, PD is the first choice for non-surgical treatment and is more cost-effective. Repeated PD according to an “on-demand” strategy based on symptom recurrence can achieve long-term remission. Decision making should be based on clinical evidence that identifies a subcategory of patients who would benefit from specific treatment options. POEM has shown promise but its long-term efficacy and safety need to be assessed further. PMID:24023484

Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Jyong-Hong; Lu, Hung-I; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Wu, Keng-Liang

2013-01-01

39

Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

Stringfield, J.G. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

40

The effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing treatment-related symptoms and improving emotional adjustment in acute non-surgical cancer treatment: a meta-analytical review  

Cancer.gov

Cancer patients often have to deal with severe side effects and psychological distress during cancer treatment, which have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Among psychosocial interventions for reducing treatment-related side effects, relaxation and imagery were most investigated in controlled trials.

41

Non-surgical and non-chemical attempts to treat echinococcosis: do they work?  

PubMed Central

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are chronic, complex and neglected diseases. Their treatment depends on a number of factors related to the lesion, setting and patient. We performed a literature review of curative or palliative non-surgical, non-chemical interventions in CE and AE. In CE, some of these techniques, like radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA), were shelved after initial attempts, while others, such as High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound, appear promising but are still in a pre-clinical phase. In AE, RFA has never been tested, however, radiotherapy or heavy-ion therapies have been attempted in experimental models. Still, application to humans is questionable. In CE, although prospective clinical studies are still lacking, therapeutic, non-surgical drainage techniques, such as PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, re-aspiration) and its derivatives, are now considered a useful option in selected cases. Finally, palliative, non-surgical drainage techniques such as US- or CT-guided percutaneous biliary drainage, centro-parasitic abscesses drainage, or vascular stenting were performed successfully. Recently, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-associated techniques have become increasingly used to manage biliary fistulas in CE and biliary obstructions in AE. Development of pre-clinical animal models would allow testing for AE techniques developed for other indications, e.g. cancer. Prospective trials are required to determine the best use of PAIR, and associated procedures, and the indications and techniques of palliative drainage. PMID:25531730

Tamarozzi, Francesca; Vuitton, Lucine; Brunetti, Enrico; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Koch, Stéphane

2014-01-01

42

Non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Convergence insufficiency is a common eye muscle co-ordination problem in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward (exophoria) when reading or doing close work. Symptoms may include eye strain, headaches, double vision, print moving on the page, frequent loss of place when reading, inability to concentrate, and short attention span. Objectives To systematically assess and synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency. Search strategy We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 7 October 2010. We manually searched reference lists and optometric journals. Selection criteria We included RCTs examining any form of non-surgical intervention against placebo, no treatment, sham treatment, or each other. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed meta-analyses when appropriate. Main results We included six trials (three in children, three in adults) with a total of 475 participants. We graded four trials at low risk of bias. Evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism reading glasses was no more effective than placebo reading glasses in improving clinical signs or symptoms in children. Evidence from one trial (graded at high risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism glasses using a progressive addition lens design was more effective than progressive addition lens alone in decreasing symptoms in adults. At three weeks of therapy, the mean difference in Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms Survey (CISS) score was ?10.24 points (95% confidence interval (CI) ?15.45 to ?5.03). Evidence from two trials (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that outpatient (or office-based as used in the US) vision therapy/orthoptics was more effective than home-based convergence exercises (or pencil push-ups as used in the US) in children. At 12 weeks of therapy, the mean difference in change in near point of convergence, positive fusional vergence, and CISS score from baseline was 3.99 cm (95% CI 2.11 to 5.86), 13.13 diopters (95% CI 9.91 to 16.35), and 9.86 points (95% CI 6.70 to 13.02), respectively. In a young adult population, evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) suggests outpatient vision therapy/orthoptics was more effective than home-based convergence exercises in improving positive fusional vergence at near (7.7 diopters, 95% CI 0.82 to 14.58), but not the other outcomes. Evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) comparing four interventions, also suggests that outpatient vision therapy/orthoptics was more effective than home-based computer vision therapy/orthoptics in children. At 12 weeks, the mean difference in change in near point of convergence, positive fusional vergence, and CISS score from baseline was 2.90 cm (95% CI 0.96 to 4.84), 7.70 diopters (95% CI 3.94 to 11.46), and 8.80 points (95% CI 5.26 to 12.34), respectively. Evidence was less consistent for other pair-wise comparisons. Authors’ conclusions Current research suggests that outpatient vision therapy/orthoptics is more effective than home-based convergence exercises or home-based computer vision therapy/orthoptics for children. In adult population, evidence of the effectiveness of various non-surgical interventions is less consistent. PMID:21412896

Scheiman, Mitchell; Gwiazda, Jane; Li, Tianjing

2014-01-01

43

Lewy Body Disease Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... may recommend a cautious trial of a newer antipsychotic medication. (Please see WARNING below. Of note, the ... publication, "Treatment of Behavioral Symptoms: When to Consider Antipsychotic Medications" . REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) RBD can ...

44

Chiropractic: A Safe Treatment Option  

MedlinePLUS

Chiropractic is widely recognized as one of the safest drug-free, non-invasive therapies available for the ... or legs, headaches, and other neuromusculoskeletal complaints. Although chiropractic has an excellent safety record, no health treatment ...

45

Crohn's disease: current treatment options.  

PubMed

There is no known cure for Crohn's disease (CD), but a better understanding of the evidence base of both established treatments (such as enteral nutrition, corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates and immunosuppressive agents) and emerging treatments (such as the anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF-alpha) agents, infliximab and adalimumab) provides opportunities to improve and maintain the quality of life for children with the disease. This article provides an overview of the evidence base of current medical treatments that are used to induce and maintain remission in CD. Exclusive enteral nutrition is recommended as the first line of treatment for the induction of remission in paediatric CD. Corticosteroids are also effective for inducing remission but may be associated with significant adverse events. Patients with chronically active CD may benefit from immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and methotrexate. Infliximab is effective for inducing remission in patients who continue to have significant active disease despite the use of conventional treatments. Adalimumab may be indicated for patients who develop a severe allergic reaction to infliximab or those who initially respond to infliximab but subsequently lose their response. Treatments that have been shown to be effective for the maintenance of remission include azathioprine, methotrexate, infliximab and adalimumab. Recent evidence also suggests that long-term enteral nutritional supplementation with patients taking about half of their daily calorie requirements as enteral nutrition may be an effective strategy for the maintenance of remission in CD. The available evidence does not support the use of corticosteroids or 5-aminosalicylates as maintenance therapy for CD. PMID:18456695

Akobeng, A K

2008-09-01

46

Treatment Option Overview (Testicular Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein ... is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of ... therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the ...

47

Pseudotumor cerebri: An update on treatment options  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim was to identify Pseudotumor cerebri treatment options and assess their efficacy. Setting and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Existing literature and the authors’ experience were reviewed. Results: Treatment options range from observation to surgical intervention. Weight loss and medical treatment may be utilized in cases without vision loss or in combination with surgical treatment. Cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures and/or optic nerve sheath decompression is indicated for severe vision loss or headache unresponsive to medical management. The recent use of endovascular stenting of transverse sinus stenoses has also demonstrated benefit in patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Conclusion: While each treatment form may be successful individually, a multimodal approach is typically utilized with treatments selected on a case-by-case basis. PMID:25449933

Dave, Sarita B; Subramanian, Prem S

2014-01-01

48

Treatment options for acne rosacea.  

PubMed

Rosacea is a common chronic, and sometimes progressive, dermatosis. It is characterized, alone or in combination, by central facial erythema,symmetric flushing, stinging sensation, inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules), telangiectasias, and phymatous changes (tissue hyperplasia and nodules). Rosacea can occur in adults of any ethnicity,and adversely affects patients' quality of life. The condition can be effectively controlled with therapy tailored to the specific subtype of rosacea that is affecting the patient. Topical metronidazole, sulfacetamide/sulfur, and azelaic acid are generally effective for patients with mild rosacea. For moderate papulopustular rosacea, combination therapy with oral tetracyclines and topical agents is the first-line choice. Treatment with a topical agent, such as metronidazole, may help maintain remission. Patients with ocular involvement may benefit from long-term oral antibiotics and metronidazole gel. Referral to a subspecialist is necessary for patients who have ocular rosacea with ophthalmic complications, severe or recalcitrant rosacea, or phymatous changes. PMID:19725487

Goldgar, Constance; Keahey, David J; Houchins, John

2009-09-01

49

Chronic constipation: current treatment options.  

PubMed

Constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects patients of all ages. In 2007, a consensus group of 10 Canadian gastroenterologists developed a set of recommendations pertaining to the management of chronic constipation and constipation dominant irritable bowel syndrome. Since then, tegaserod has been withdrawn from the Canadian market. A new, highly selective serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonist, prucalopride, has been examined in several large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the management of patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies evaluating the use of stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation have also been published. The present review summarizes the previous recommendations and new evidence supporting different treatment modalities - namely, diet and lifestyle, bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, prucalopride and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation. A brief summary of lubiprostone and linaclotide is also presented. The quality of evidence is presented by adopting the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Finally, a management pyramid for patients with chronic constipation is proposed based on the quality of evidence, impact of each modality on constipation and on general health, and their availabilities in Canada. PMID:22114754

Liu, Louis Wing Cheong

2011-10-01

50

Chronic constipation: Current treatment options  

PubMed Central

Chronic constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects patients of all ages. In 2007, a consensus group of 10 Canadian gastroenterologists developed a set of recommendations pertaining to the management of chronic constipation and constipation-dominant irritable bowel syndrome. Since then, tegaserod has been withdrawn from the Canadian market. A new, highly selective serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonist, prucalopride, has been examined in several large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the management of patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies evaluating the use of stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation have also been published. The present review summarizes the previous recommendations and new evidence supporting different treatment modalities – namely, diet and lifestyle, bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, prucalopride and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation. A brief summary of lubiprostone and linaclotide is also presented. The quality of evidence is presented by adopting the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Finally, a management pyramid for patients with chronic constipation is proposed based on the quality of evidence, impact of each modality on constipation and on general health, and their availabilities in Canada. PMID:22114754

Liu, Louis Wing Cheong

2011-01-01

51

Treatment Options in Cushing’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is a grave disease that requires a multidisciplinary and individualized treatment approach for each patient. Approximately 80% of all patients harbour a corticotroph pituitary adenoma (Cushing’s disease) with excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropin-hormone (ACTH) and, consecutively, cortisol. The goals of treatment include normalization of hormone excess, long-term disease control and the reversal of comorbidities caused by the underlying pathology. The treatment of choice is neurosurgical tumour removal of the pituitary adenoma. Second-line treatments include medical therapy, bilateral adrenalectomy and radiation therapy. Drug treatment modalities target at the hypothalamic/pituitary level, the adrenal gland and at the glucocorticoid receptor level and are commonly used in patients in whom surgery has failed. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the second-line treatment for persistent hypercortisolism that offers immediate control of hypercortisolism. However, this treatment option requires a careful individualized evaluation, since it has the disadvantage of permanent hypoadrenalism which requires lifelong glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy and bears the risk of developing Nelson’s syndrome. Although there are some very promising medical therapy options it clearly remains a second-line treatment option. However, there are numerous circumstances where medical management of CD is indicated. Medical therapy is frequently used in cases with severe hypercortisolism before surgery in order to control the metabolic effects and help reduce the anestesiological risk. Additionally, it can help to bridge the time gap until radiotherapy takes effect. The aim of this review is to analyze and present current treatment options in Cushing’s disease. PMID:22346367

Rizk, Ahmed; Honegger, Juergen; Milian, Monika; Psaras, Tsambika

2012-01-01

52

Clinical nutrition guidelines of the French Speaking Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (SFNEP): Summary of recommendations for adults undergoing non-surgical anticancer treatment.  

PubMed

Up to 50% of patients with cancer suffer from weight loss and undernutrition (as called cachexia) even though it is rarely screened or properly handled. Patients' prognosis and quality of life could be greatly improved by simple and inexpensive means encompassing nutritional status assessment and effective nutritional care. These guidelines aim to give health professionals and patients practical and up-to-date advice to manage nutrition in the principal situations encountered during the cancer course according to the type of tumour and treatment (i.e. radio and/or chemotherapy). Specific suggestions are made for palliative and elderly patients because of specific risks of undernutrition and related comorbidities in this subset. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendations are detailed as stated by current literature and consensus opinion of clinical experts in each field. PMID:24794790

2014-08-01

53

Ultramorphology of the root surface subsequent to hand-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation during non-surgical periodontal treatments. An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultramorphology of the root surfaces induced by mechanical instrumentation performed using conventional curettes or piezoelectric scalers when used single-handedly or with a combined technique. Material and Methods Thirty single-rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 groups: Group A, instrumentation with curettes; Group B instrumentation with titanium nitride coated periodontal tip mounted in a piezoelectric handpiece; Group C, combined technique with curette/ultrasonic piezoelectric instrumentation. The specimens were processed and analyzed using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Differences between the different groups of instrumentation were determined using Pearson’s ? 2 with significance predetermined at ?=0.001. Results Periodontal scaling and root planing performed with curettes, ultrasonic or combined instrumentation induced several morphological changes on the root surface. The curettes produced a compact and thick multilayered smear layer, while the morphology of the root surfaces after ultrasonic scaler treatment appeared irregular with few grooves and a thin smear layer. The combination of curette/ultrasonic instrumentation showed exposed root dentin tubules with a surface morphology characterized by the presence of very few grooves and slender remnants of smear layer which only partially covered the root dentin. In some cases, it was also possible to observe areas with exposed collagen fibrils. Conclusion The curette-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation may combine the beneficial effects of each instrument in a single technique creating a root surface relatively free from the physical barrier of smear layer and dentin tubules orifices partial occlusion. PMID:21437474

D. ASPRIELLO, Simone; PIEMONTESE, Matteo; LEVRINI, Luca; SAURO, Salvatore

2011-01-01

54

Non-surgical pneumoperitoneum after oro-genital intercourse?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION In many cases, a pneumoperitoneum is due to air escaping from a perforated hollow viscus or surgical intervention but there are increasing reports of non-surgical causes. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case where a pneumoperitoneum was identified after oro-genital sexual intercourse. DISCUSSION There were nineteen reported cases of non-surgical pneumoperitoneum from gynaecologic causes up to May 2013. We report an additional case four hours after oro-genital intercourse. Close clinical observation and symptomatic treatment are usually all that is required but operative interventions should be considered if the patient develops abdominal pain, peritoneal signs, fever or leukocytosis during observation. CONCLUSION This adds to the world literature on non-surgical pneumoperitoneum from oro-genital intercourse. Clinicians should be aware of this condition and focus on medical-sexual history as this information could prevent a patient from being exposed to expensive diagnostics and invasive operative treatments. Patients should also be educated about the mechanisms to avoid future possible diagnostic dilemmas. PMID:24121052

Cawich, Shamir O.; Johnson, Peter B.; Williams, Eric; Naraynsingh, Vijay

2013-01-01

55

Current treatment options in vestibular migraine.  

PubMed

Approximately 1% of the general population in western industrialized countries suffers from vestibular migraine. However, it remains widely unknown and often under diagnosed despite the recently published diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine. Treatment trials that specialize on vestibular migraine are scarce and systematic randomized controlled clinical trials are now only emerging. This review summarizes the knowledge on the currently available treatment options that were tested specifically for vestibular migraine and gives an evidence-based, informed treatment recommendation with all its limitations. To date only two randomized controlled treatment trials provide limited evidence for the use of rizatriptan and zolmitriptan for the treatment of vestibular migraine attacks because of methodological shortcomings. There is an ongoing multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial testing metoprolol 95?mg vs. placebo (PROVEMIG-trial). Therefore, the therapeutic recommendations for the prophylactic treatment of vestibular migraine are currently widely based on the guidelines of migraine with and without aura as well as expert opinion. PMID:25538676

Obermann, Mark; Strupp, Michael

2014-01-01

56

Current Treatment Options in Vestibular Migraine  

PubMed Central

Approximately 1% of the general population in western industrialized countries suffers from vestibular migraine. However, it remains widely unknown and often under diagnosed despite the recently published diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine. Treatment trials that specialize on vestibular migraine are scarce and systematic randomized controlled clinical trials are now only emerging. This review summarizes the knowledge on the currently available treatment options that were tested specifically for vestibular migraine and gives an evidence-based, informed treatment recommendation with all its limitations. To date only two randomized controlled treatment trials provide limited evidence for the use of rizatriptan and zolmitriptan for the treatment of vestibular migraine attacks because of methodological shortcomings. There is an ongoing multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial testing metoprolol 95?mg vs. placebo (PROVEMIG-trial). Therefore, the therapeutic recommendations for the prophylactic treatment of vestibular migraine are currently widely based on the guidelines of migraine with and without aura as well as expert opinion. PMID:25538676

Obermann, Mark; Strupp, Michael

2014-01-01

57

Canine glaucoma: medical and surgical treatment options.  

PubMed

Canine glaucoma can be treated medically or surgically, depending on the underlying cause, disease stage, desired outcome, available equipment, and owner's financial limitations. Common medications for glaucoma include hyperosmotics, I(2)-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, cholinergics, and prostaglandin analogues. Surgical options include aqueous humor shunts, cyclodestructive procedures, enucleation, intrascleral prostheses, and chemical ablation. Each patient requires a customized treatment plan that generally includes a combination of medications and, potentially, surgical intervention. PMID:20180214

Reinstein, Shelby; Rankin, Amy; Allbaugh, Rachel

2009-10-01

58

Treatment Options for Brachial Plexus Injuries  

PubMed Central

The incidence of brachial plexus injuries is rapidly growing due to the increasing number of high-speed motor-vehicle accidents. These are devastating injuries leading to significant functional impairment of the patients. The purpose of this review paper is to present the available options for conservative and operative treatment and discuss the correct timing of intervention. Reported outcomes of current management and future prospects are also analysed. PMID:24967125

Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Badilas, Nikolaos K.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Mazis, George; Kotoulas, Helias K.; Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios; Tagkalegkas, Ioannis; Sofianos, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

59

Emerging treatment options for meibomian gland dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the most common diseases observed in clinics; it influences a great number of people, and is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye. Given the increased recognition of the importance of MGD, a great amount of attention has been paid to therapies targeting this condition. The traditional treatments of MGD consist of warm compresses and lid hygiene for removing an obstructed meibum, as well as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents to improve the quality of the meibum. However, each of these treatments has a different shortcoming and the treatment of MGD remains challenging. Despite the numerous possible treatment options for MGD, it is still difficult to obtain complete relief of signs and symptoms. This review focuses on current emerging treatment options for MGD including intraductal meibomian gland probing, emulsion eye drops containing lipids, the LipiFlow® thermal pulsation system, N-acetyl-cysteine, azithromycin, oral supplementation with omega-3 essential fatty acids, and cyclosporine A. PMID:24043929

Qiao, Jing; Yan, Xiaoming

2013-01-01

60

Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections  

PubMed Central

Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

2012-01-01

61

Fibroid growth and medical options for treatment.  

PubMed

Although fibroids are common benign tumors, their impact on women's quality of life can be considerable. The most frequent symptoms are uterine bleeding, resulting in anemia, and pelvic pain. Fibroids can be of genetic or hormonal origin or arise from intrauterine events. Current options for medical treatment include control of estradiol and progesterone production or action and are discussed in this review. Although curative treatment of fibroids relies on surgical strategies, the current trend is for uterine-sparing treatment to preserve fertility and avoid unnecessary surgery. Currently approved medical treatments include intrauterine progestin delivery to reduce uterine bleeding, GnRH analogues, and, more recently, selective progesterone receptor modulators to control uterine bleeding and reduce fibroid volume. PMID:25171950

Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Esber, Nathalie; Bouchard, Philippe

2014-09-01

62

Microabrasion: a treatment option for white spots.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to describe a clinical protocol for the treatment of white spots with the use of an abrasive material. A four-year-old patient presented with a white spot on tooth 51 and a white spot associated with a carious lesion in the cervical region of tooth 52. Treatment was planned with microabrasion and restoration of the upper right lateral incisor. Prophylaxis was first performed, followed by protection with a dental dam and the application of the abrasive material (silicon carbide and hydrochloric acid 6%). Five applications were needed to remove the spots. The restoration of the upper right lateral incisor was then performed with a resin composite. A good esthetic outcome was achieved and both the patient and her guardians were satisfied with the results. Microabrasion is a conservative treatment option that achieves satisfactory results with regard to tooth color. PMID:25631722

Souza de Barros Vasconcelos, M Q; Almeida Vieira, K; da Consolação Canuto Salgueiro, M; Almeida Alfaya, T; Santos Ferreira, C; Bussadori, S K

2014-01-01

63

Sacral perineural cysts: imaging and treatment options.  

PubMed

Perineural cysts are an uncommon radiological finding and a rare cause of radicular leg pain. We report the clinical findings, imaging and operative appearances of a patient who presented with radicular leg and perineal pain, which was found to be associated with multiple sacral perineural cysts. The diagnostic and treatment options are explored. In particular, the use of percutaneous fine-needle cyst drainage as a guide to the value of surgery is discussed. Postoperative complications, such as pseudomeningocoele can occur, but may be effectively treated with lumbar drainage. PMID:12046741

Landers, J; Seex, K

2002-04-01

64

Treatment Options for Stress Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women are designed to prevent the involuntary loss of urine from the urethra during increases in intraabdominal pressure that occur during physical activity, coughing, or sneezing. Effective nonsurgical therapies include behavioral therapy (eg, bladder training, fluid and dietary modification) and drug therapy. Surgical therapy for this condition has existed for well over 100 years. Currently, approximately 200 different surgical procedures have been described. Because of the physiologic risks inherent in surgical procedures, the cost of hospitalization, and the loss of productivity during convalescence, surgeons continue to modify their techniques to improve efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness, and to minimize invasiveness. No single procedure or intervention is optimal for all patients. Having a variety of treatment options offers the possibility of tailoring therapy to the desires and needs of the individual patient. The key to an optimal therapeutic outcome is an accurate diagnosis combined with the selection of an appropriate intervention that is acceptable to the patient after balancing multiple factors. PMID:16985862

Rovner, Eric S; Wein, Alan J

2004-01-01

65

ARSENIC REMOVAL TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR SINGLE FAMILY HOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation provides information on POU and POE arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems. The presentation provides information on the arsenic rule, arsenic chemistry and arsenic treatment. The arsenic treatment options proposed for POU and POE treatment consist prim...

66

EVALUATION OF ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A literature review of published and unpublished data was conducted to identify all conceivable alternative on-site systems, including wastewater manipulation, treatment and disposal options. Wastewater manipulation options included flow reduction, wasteload reduction and waste s...

67

Outcomes in non-surgical management for bowel dysfunction.  

PubMed

This retrospective review considers clinical outcomes of patients following non-surgical management of bowel dysfunction (faecal incontinence and constipation), within a tertiary centre's pelvic floor unit. Between November 2010 and January 2013, 443 patients were entered into a database and the results of their treatment were recorded. To capture the treatment modalities that patients received they were grouped into three categories: defaecatory techniques and/or pelvic floor exercises; dietary advice and/or medication recommendations; rectal irrigation or the use of anal plugs. Patients received a median number of three sessions with a specialist nurse or physiotherapist. After completing a programme of therapy, 81% of patients had an improved St Mark's incontinence score and 75% of patients had an improved Thompson's functional constipation score. Subjective symptom improvement was reported in 78% of patients. The majority of these patients were discharged in 2011 and 2012 and have not required follow-up, suggesting that non-surgical management is effective on a medium-term basis. PMID:25062312

Collins, Emma; Hibberts, Fiona; Lyons, Monica; Williams, Andrew B; Schizas, Alexis M P

68

Autogenous Tooth Transplantation as a Treatment Option  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Autogenous tooth transplantation is the surgical movement of a tooth from one location in the mouth to another in the same individual. Though done for years but it has achieved variable success rates. Although the indications for autotransplantation are narrow, careful patient selection coupled with an appropriate technique can lead to exceptional esthetic and functional results. This article discusses the reviews of previous works done and highlights the criteria and factors influencing the success of autotransplant along with reports of two cases of transplantation of impacted and malposed canine. How to cite this article: Chugh A, Aggarwal R, Chugh VK, Wadhwa P, Kohli M. Autogenous Tooth Transplantation as a Treatment Option. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):87-92. PMID:25206143

Aggarwal, Rashmi; Chugh, Vinay Kumar; Wadhwa, Puneet; Kohli, Munish

2012-01-01

69

College Student Receptiveness to Various Alcohol Treatment Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Heavy episodic drinking remains a significant problem on college campuses. Although most interventions for college students are behavioral, pharmacological treatments, such as naltrexone, could provide additional options. Participants: The authors evaluated receptivity to various alcohol treatment options in a general population of…

Epler, Amee J.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Loomis, Tiffany B.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

2009-01-01

70

Non-surgical therapy and radiologic assessment of stage I breast cancer treatment with novel enzyme-targeting radiosensitization: Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II)  

PubMed Central

The new enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, type II (KORTUC II), markedly enhances the radiotherapeutic effect of treatment for various types of locally advanced malignant neoplasms. Patients who had declined surgical treatment and systemic chemotherapy, as well as a total of 14 stage I breast cancer patients, were enrolled. A maximum of 6 ml of KORTUC II was injected into tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance, immediately prior to each administration of radiation therapy. The median observation period was 21.6 months with a range of 4–48 months, and the therapy was well tolerated. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography revealed that all primary breast tumors completely responded, and none of the subjects experienced local recurrence during the observation period. Ultrasonography depicted tumor-like findings in 2/14 cases after therapy. The intratumoral flow signal on color-Doppler sonography was positive in 4/14 cases before therapy, and the signal disappeared from all cases after therapy. The absence of a flow signal after therapy suggested that the tumor-like findings on ultrasonography were from scar tissue. Excellent local control based on accurate radiological evaluation implies that KORTUC II has the potential to replace surgery as a therapeutic option for stage I breast cancer. Precise evaluation by various radiological modalities helped to gage the success of this therapy. PMID:22993600

HITOMI, JIRO; KUBOTA, KEI; OGAWA, YASUHIRO; HAMADA, NORIHIKO; MURATA, YORIKO; NISHIOKA, AKIHITO

2010-01-01

71

Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

Sandhu, Jaspreet S

2009-01-01

72

What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications What treatment options are available for male infertility? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... deliver a live-born infant, in most cases, infertility has no other outward symptoms. The evaluation of ...

73

Alcohol use disorder: pathophysiology, effects, and pharmacologic options for treatment  

PubMed Central

Alcohol use disorders (AUD) continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved) treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence. PMID:24648792

Wackernah, Robin C; Minnick, Matthew J; Clapp, Peter

2014-01-01

74

Opioid Dependence Treatment: Options In Pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

The development of effective treatments for opioid dependence is of great importance given the devastating consequences of the disease. Pharmacotherapies for opioid addiction include opioid agonists, partial agonists, opioid antagonists, and alpha-2-adrenergic agonists, which are targeted toward either detoxification or long-term agonist maintenance. Agonist maintenance therapy is currently the recommended treatment for opioid dependence due to its superior outcomes relative to detoxification. Detoxification protocols have limited long term efficacy and patient discomfort remains a significant therapy challenge. Buprenorphine’s effectiveness relative to methadone remains a controversy and may be most appropriate for patients in need of low doses of agonist treatment. Buprenorphine appears superior to alpha-2 agonists, however, and office-based treatment with buprenorphine in the US is gaining support. Studies of sustained-release formulations of naltrexone suggest improved effectiveness for retention and sustained abstinence, however, randomized clinical trials are needed. PMID:19538000

Stotts, Angela L.; Dodrill, Carrie L.; Kosten, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

75

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Composting is an effective treatment option for  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Composting is an effective treatment option for sanitization of Phytophthora of California, Berkeley, CA, USA 2 Sonoma Compost, Sonoma, CA, USA 3 McEvoy Ranch, Marin, CA, USA Introduction.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.03008.x Abstract Aims: To determine the effects of heat and composting treatments

California at Berkeley, University of

76

Gynecomastia in patients with prostate cancer: update on treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy offers potential quality of life benefits over other treatment modalities in patients with prostate cancer. Nevertheless, gynecomastia and breast pain still represent the most bothersome side effects during this treatment. In this update article, recent advances in the management options for gynecomastia\\/breast pain caused by hormonal manipulation are reviewed and critically analyzed.

R Autorino; S Perdonà; M D'Armiento; M De Sio; R Damiano; L Cosentino; G Di Lorenzo

2006-01-01

77

The Evolving Treatment Options for Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss in working-age adults, and diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of visual impairment in individuals with DR. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, previous treatment paradigms, and emerging treatment options in the management of DME. PMID:24106640

Jain, Atul; Varshney, Neeta; Smith, Colin

2013-01-01

78

Treatment options for atypical optic neuritis  

PubMed Central

Context: Optic neuritis (ON) is defined as inflammation of the optic nerve and can have various etiologies. The most common presentation in the US is demyelinating, or “typical” ON, usually associated with multiple sclerosis. This is in contrast to “atypical” causes of ON, which differ in their clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. These atypical cases are characterized by lack of eye pain, exudates, and hemorrhages on exam, very severe, bilateral or progressive visual loss, or with failure to recover vision. Aims: The aim was to describe the clinical presentations of atypical ON and their treatments. Settings and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Literature review. Results: Types of atypical ON identified include neuromyelitis optica, autoimmune optic neuropathy, chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, idiopathic recurrent neuroretinitis, and optic neuropathy associated with systemic diseases. Atypical ON usually requires corticosteroid treatment and often will require aggressive immunosuppression. Conclusions: Unlike demyelinating ON, atypical ON requires treatment to preserve vision. PMID:25449930

Malik, Amina; Ahmed, Maryam; Golnik, Karl

2014-01-01

79

Fibromyalgia syndrome: the pharmacological treatment options.  

PubMed

Pharmacological treatment has been gradually enriched by a variety of compounds; however, no single drug is capable of fully managing the constellation of fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms. Currently, it is not possible to draw definite conclusions concerning the best pharmacological approach to managing FM because results of randomized clinical trials present methodological limitations and therapeutic programs are too heterogeneous for adequate comparison. However, a variety of pharmacological treatments including antidepressants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), opioids, sedatives, muscle relaxants and antiepileptics have been used to treat FM with varying results. In this review, we will evaluate those pharmacological therapies that have produced the most significant clinical results in treating FM patients. The nature of FM suggests that an individualized, multimodal approach that includes both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies seems to be the most appropriate treatment strategy to date. PMID:18852908

Sarzi-Puttini, P; Torta, R; Marinangeli, F; Biasi, G; Spath, M; Buskila, D; Gracely, R H; Giamberardino, M A; Bazzichi, L; Cazzola, M; Di Franco, M; Stisi, S; Salaffi, F; Casale, R; Leardini, G; Gorla, R; Marsico, A; Carignola, R; Altomonte, L; Ceccherelli, F; Cassisi, G; Arioli, G; Alciati, A; Atzeni, F

2008-01-01

80

Treatment options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The main goal in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is to maintain ambulation for as long as possible and to anticipate and manage the associated complications, such as joint contractures, scoliosis, cardiomyopathy, respiratory insufficiency, and weight gain. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms occur in about one third of patients, and it is important to recognize and manage them promptly, developing an individualized plan at school and at home to maximize the patient's cognitive abilities. In the late phase of the disease, palliative care is of paramount importance. Corticosteroid therapy (prednisone and deflazacort) is the only effective pharmacologic treatment for DMD. Daily prednisone treatment increases muscle strength and function, improves pulmonary function, and significantly slows the progression of weakness. Deflazacort has a similar effect on muscle strength, but it is not available in the United States. Treatment with corticosteroid should be offered to all patients with DMD, but the beneficial effects and potential adverse effects should be fully discussed before treatment begins. The optimal dose of prednisone is 0.75 mg/kg per day, up to a maximum of 40 mg/d. If adverse effects occur, a decrease in dosage is appropriate. Monitoring of muscle function and adverse effects by a neurologist or neuromuscular specialist is strongly recommended. Physical and occupational therapists should be involved early in the treatment of patients with DMD to develop a program that includes heel cord stretching and exercise. In the later phases, these therapists can recommend adaptive equipment and maximize independence. Orthopedic consultation is important in monitoring and managing scoliosis and joint contractures in the nonambulatory phase of the disease. Pulmonary evaluation for ventilatory care is important; pulmonary consultation is essential when vital capacity declines. The use of assistive cough devices, nasal bilevel positive airway pressure, and tracheostomy must be discussed with patients and their families. For all patients with DMD, particularly those receiving prednisone, consultation with a dietitian is very helpful to control weight and maintain a healthy diet. PMID:18334131

Ciafaloni, Emma; Moxley, Richard T

2008-03-01

81

Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)  

MedlinePLUS

... are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein ... is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of ... therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the ...

82

[Pain in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer - treatment options].  

PubMed

Treatment of pain is one of the main pillars of treatment of pancreatic diseases. Abdominal pain is a common and often debilitating symptom in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Treatment involves abstinence from tobacco, alcohol and analgetics and adjunctive agents. Surgical and endoscopic treatment requires careful patient selection based on a detailed analysis of ductal anatomy. The limited possibilities of this therapy are patients without dilatation of the main pancreatic duct. Results of randomized trials suggest that the effect of surgical treatment is sustained over time and more efficient than the endoscopic treatment. Less frequently used options include EUS - assisted celiac plexus blockade, thoracoscopic splanchniectomia or total pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation. These methods are rarely used when all other options have failed and only in carefully selected patients. PMID:24981695

Bojková, Martina; Klva?a, Pavel; Svoboda, Pavel; Kupka, Tomáš; Martínek, Arnošt; Bojko, Marian; Dít?, Petr

2014-03-01

83

Present treatment options for atrial fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation is the commonest sustained cardiac arrhythmia. It accounts for >35% of all hospital admissions for cardiac arrhythmias in the United States. The presence of atrial fibrillation increases the mortality of a population by up to twofold. The risk of stroke increases from 1.5% in patients with atrial fibrillation from 50–59 years of age to up to 23.5% for such patients aged 80–89 years. Although the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation is usually straightforward, effective treatment is not. This article will discuss how rhythm control of atrial fibrillation can best be achieved, the controversy over the rhythm versus rate control, the maintenance of sinus rhythm with antiarrhythmic drugs after cardioversion, and prevention of thromboembolism. Finally, the recent advances in various non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of atrial fibrillation will be highlighted. PMID:12612318

Lairikyengbam, S; Anderson, M; Davies, A

2003-01-01

84

Current treatment options for primary immune thrombocytopenia.  

PubMed

Traditional treatment of primary (idiopathic) immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) predominantly consists of immune suppression and/or modulation. In addition, many treated patients develop severe adverse effects, and approximately a third of patients do not respond. Two of the newly developed thrombopoietin-receptor agonists, romiplostim and eltrombopag, are now available for the treatment of ITP. Both drugs have been shown to increase the production of platelets in a dose-dependent manner, and to compensate, at least partly, for thrombocytopenia in the majority of ITP patients. The reported adverse effects are predominantly mild, although serious and long-term side effects cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, these drugs are increasingly used in the treatment of patients with thrombocytopenias. Thrombopoietin-receptor agonists do not appear to stop either the production of autoantibodies or the accelerated platelet destruction observed in ITP. Thus, the need for a specific therapy is essential, and the ultimate solution is to clarify and halt the mechanism(s) that lead to the development of ITP. PMID:21322783

Salama, Abdulgabar

2011-02-01

85

Bowen’s disease – a review of newer treatment options  

PubMed Central

Bowen’s disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ) has a 3%–5% risk to develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer among Caucasians and its incidence has increased during the last decades dramatically. Multiple treatment options for Bowen’s disease have been described and are established with advantages and disadvantages. Bowen’s disease occurs more often in elderly patients (with a higher risk of comorbidities) and is frequently located on body sites with poor wound healing. Therefore there is need for non-invasive/non-destructive but effective treatment options. We would like to give an overview of established therapies and more detailed information about the newer treatment options for Bowen’s disease with topical diclofenac, topical imiquimod and photodynamic therapy. PMID:19209288

Neubert, Thorsten; Lehmann, Percy

2008-01-01

86

Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis. PMID:22287857

Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker

2011-01-01

87

Treatment options for functional abdominal pain.  

PubMed

The successful treatment of pediatric FBD begins during the initial interaction among the patient, family, and physician. It is important that the physician establish a trusting relationship with the family. An early introduction of the concept of functional pain in the differential diagnosis avoids later problems convincing the family that further diagnostic testing is unnecessary. If diagnostic testing is warranted to exclude an organic disorder, it is useful to explain that these tests are being performed to rule out disorders that can present similarly to FBD. Thus, the patient and family recognize that the most likely diagnosis is FBD, and treatment can begin following negative testing. Physicians must account for the role of psychosocial and medical factors that contribute to the expression of illness so as to optimize diagnosis and care. Exploration into the child's psychosocial history can identify a comorbid condition such as anxiety or depression and help guide, specific therapy with psychological interventions, medication, or both. In cases where the abdominal pain is affecting the child's activities of daily living, such as school performance, referral to a psychologist skilled in the use of techniques such as cognitive behavioral therapy may be useful. Symptom-directed pharmacologic therapy can be useful in selected cases. PMID:14999943

Rudolph, Colin D; Miranda, Adrian

2004-02-01

88

Post-Treatment Options for the Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the post-treatment options for the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater. Initially, the main limitations\\u000a of anaerobic systems regarding carbon, nutrients and pathogen removal are presented. In sequence, the advantages of combined\\u000a anaerobic\\/aerobic treatment and the main \\u0009post-treatment options currently in use are discussed, including the presentation\\u000a of flowsheets and a comparison between various post-treatment systems. Lastly,

C. A. L. Chernicharo

2006-01-01

89

Treatment options in recurrent cervical cancer (Review)  

PubMed Central

The management of recurrent cervical cancer depends mainly on previous treatment and on the site and extent of recurrence. Concurrent cisplatin-based chemo-radiation is the treatment of choice for patients with pelvic failure after radical hysterectomy alone. However, the safe delivery of high doses of radiotherapy is much more difficult in this clinical setting compared with primary radiotherapy. Pelvic exenteration usually represents the only therapeutic approach with curative intent for women with central pelvic relapse who have previously received irradiation. In a recent series, the 5-year overall survival and operative mortality after pelvic exenteration ranged from 21 to 61% and from 1 to 10%, respectively. Free surgical margins, negative lymph nodes, small tumour size and long disease-free interval were associated with a more favourable prognosis. Currently, pelvic reconstructive procedures (continent urinary conduit, low colorectal anastomosis, vaginal reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps) are strongly recommended after exenteration. Concurrent cisplatin-based chemo-radiation is the treatment of choice for isolated para-aortic lymph node failure, with satisfactory chances of a cure in asymptomatic patients. Chemotherapy is administered with palliative intent to women with distant or loco-regional recurrences not amenable by surgery or radiotherapy. Cisplatin is the most widely used drug, with a response rate of 17–38% and a median overall survival of 6.1–7.1 months. Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy achieves higher response rates (22–68%) when compared with single-agent cisplatin, but median overall survival is usually less than one year. In a recent Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) trial the combination topotecan + cisplatin obtained a significantly longer overall survival than single-agent cisplatin in patients with metastatic or recurrent or persistent cervical cancer. A subsequent GOG study showed a trend in terms of longer overall survival and better quality of life for the doublet cisplatin + paclitaxel vs. the doublets cisplatin + topotecan, cisplatin + vinorelbine, and cisplatin + gemcitabine. Molecularly targeted therapy may represent a novel therapeutic tool, but its use alone or in combination with chemotherapy is still investigational. PMID:22966247

GADDUCCI, ANGIOLO; TANA, ROBERTA; COSIO, STEFANIA; CIONINI, LUCA

2010-01-01

90

Chronic constipation and treatment options (Review).  

PubMed

Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent heterogeneous disorder. Although CC is not known to be associated with the development of serious disease or with excess mortality, it considerably reduces the patients quality of life. In addition, it represents an economic burden to patients and society. The majority of patients with CC successfully manage the disorder by dietary management and the use of laxatives. Patients with functional CC (slow?transit and non?slow transit constipation) do not respond to laxatives and are a small fraction of the total population complaining of constipation. Regardless of the low number of these patients, the intractability of their symptoms causes psychological and social stress and greatly impairs their quality of life. Furthermore, these patients consume a disproportionate quantity of medical resources. It appears that these patients have a disturbance in the serotonin transmission system, which results in a cascade of alterations in a number of gut neuroendocrine hormones/transmitters. The effect of prucalopride, a serotonin receptor agonist, in this category of patients appears to be not only a pharmacological prokinetic action, but also a correction of a pre?existing disturbance. Linaclotide, a member of the guanylin peptide family, binds to the ligand?binding region of guanylate cyclase?C on the luminal surface of gastrointestinal epithelia resulting in increased fluid secretion. This drug has also been found to be effective for the treatment of functional CC. In addition, biofeedback and sacral nerve stimulation are effective in the treatment of CC caused by pelvic floor disorders. PMID:24189940

El-Salhy, Magdy; Svensen, Rune; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Gilja, Odd-Helge; Hausken, Trygve

2014-01-01

91

Degenerative meniscus: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment options.  

PubMed

The symptomatic degenerative meniscus continues to be a source of discomfort for a significant number of patients. With vascular penetration of less than one-third of the adult meniscus, healing potential in the setting of chronic degeneration remains low. Continued hoop and shear stresses upon the degenerative meniscus results in gross failure, often in the form of complex tears in the posterior horn and midbody. Patient history and physical examination are critical to determine the true source of pain, particularly with the significant incidence of simultaneous articular pathology. Joint line tenderness, a positive McMurray test, and mechanical catching or locking can be highly suggestive of a meniscal source of knee pain and dysfunction. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging are frequently utilized to examine for osteoarthritis and to verify the presence of meniscal tears, in addition to ruling out other sources of pain. Non-operative therapy focused on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy may be able to provide pain relief as well as improve mechanical function of the knee joint. For patients refractory to conservative therapy, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy can provide short-term gains regarding pain relief, especially when combined with an effective, regular physiotherapy program. Patients with clear mechanical symptoms and meniscal pathology may benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, but surgery is not a guaranteed success, especially with concomitant articular pathology. Ultimately, the long-term outcomes of either treatment arm provide similar results for most patients. Further study is needed regarding the short and long-term outcomes regarding conservative and surgical therapy, with a particular focus on the economic impact of treatment as well. PMID:25405088

Howell, Richard; Kumar, Neil S; Patel, Nimit; Tom, James

2014-11-18

92

Birdshot uveitis: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a relatively uncommon subtype of idiopathic posterior uveitis with distinct clinical characteristics and a strong genetic association with the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A29 allele. The diagnosis remains clinical and is based on the presence of typical clinical features, including multiple, distinctive, hypopigmented choroidal lesions throughout the fundus. The long-term visual prognosis of this disorder, however, remains guarded – central visual acuity can be preserved until late in the disease and it is not uncommon for patients to receive inadequate immunosuppressive treatment, leading to a poor long-term outcome in which peripheral retinal damage eventually leads to visual deterioration. Birdshot chorioretinopathy has proven a particularly attractive area of study within the field of uveitis, as it is a relatively easily defined disease with an associated human leukocyte antigen haplotype. Despite this, however, the immune mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis remain unclear, and some patients continue to lose retinal function despite therapy with corticosteroids and conventional immunosuppressive agents. Laboratory research continues to investigate the underlying mechanisms of disease, and clinical research is now being driven to improve the phenotyping and monitoring of this condition as, in the era of so-called personalized medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to identify patients at risk of visual loss early so that they can be treated more aggressively with targeted therapies such as the newer biological agents. This approach requires the formation of collaborative groups, as the relative rarity of the condition makes it difficult for one center to accumulate enough patients for worthwhile studies. Nevertheless, results obtained with newer therapies, such as biological agents directed against particular cytokines or cell-surface receptors, demonstrate ever improving control of the inflammation in refractory cases, providing hope that the outlook for visual function in this condition can only improve. PMID:24379650

Menezo, Victor; Taylor, Simon RJ

2014-01-01

93

TAILORx (Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment)  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about TAILORx -- the Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment (Rx) -- which was designed to determine whether adjuvant hormonal therapy alone is as effective as adjuvant hormonal therapy in combination with chemotherapy for certain women with early-stage breast cancer.

94

Trial Suggests New Treatment Option for Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Intermediate results from a phase II clinical trial presented at the 2010 American Society of Hematology annual meeting indicate that an investigational agent called brentuximab vedotin may be an effective alternative for some patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who have few viable treatment options.

95

Pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and treatment options of spontaneous pneumothorax.  

PubMed

An apical subpleural bleb is most common pathology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax however, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is most common cause of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The diagnosis is confirmed by physical examination, chest radiography and thoracoscopic examination. The typical person who present has an asthenic body, being taller and thinner than the average person. Spontaneous pneumothorax can seen in some special part of life such as; catamenial pneumothorax and during pregnancy. Therapeutic options of primary spontaneous pneumothorax is include the conservative, intermediate and invasive procedure. In conclusion we aimed the report pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and treatment options of spontaneous pneumothorax in the light of literatures with a review article. PMID:21038147

Yazkan, Rasih; Han, Serdar

2010-01-01

96

Update and insights into treatment options for chronic spontaneous urticaria.  

PubMed

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as itchy weals, angio-oedema, or both, arising spontaneously without external physical stimuli. Symptoms of the disease continue to develop for more than 6 weeks. It carries a high socioeconomic burden with considerable health care costs. Second generation H1-antihistamines are the mainstay of urticaria treatment and are the only licensed option. However, many patients are resistant to H1-antihistamine therapy. Omalizumab has proven to be an effective therapeutic option in patients with recalcitrant chronic urticaria. Ciclosporin appears to be more beneficial in patients with functional histamine releasing autoantibodies as a cause of their disease. This review article will highlight the major therapeutic options available today for the management of CSU knowing that good quality evidence for efficacy of many agents is scarce except for H1-antihistamines and omalizumab. PMID:24527948

Marrouche, Nadine; Grattan, Clive

2014-03-01

97

Non-Surgical Interventions for Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Overview of Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Objectives Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Design Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Methods Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute’s hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. Results From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Conclusions Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers labeled as systematic reviews need to be considered in terms of their methodological rigor; otherwise they may be mistakenly regarded as high quality sources of evidence. Protocol registry number CRD42013003538, PROSPERO PMID:25353954

P?aszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette

2014-01-01

98

Second and third line treatment options for Helicobacter pylori eradication.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful bacterium with a high global prevalence and the infection carries significant disease burden. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to eradicate and the main reason for this is growing primary antibiotic resistance rates in a world where antibiotics are frequently prescribed and readily available. Despite knowing much more about the bacterium since its discovery, such as its genomic makeup and pathogenesis, we have seen declining treatment success. Therefore, clinicians today must be prepared to face one, two or even multiple treatment failures, and should be equipped with sufficient knowledge to decide on the appropriate salvage therapy when this happens. This article discusses the factors contributing to treatment failure and reviews the second and third-line treatment strategies that have been investigated. Established empiric second line treatment options include both bismuth based quadruple therapy and levofloxacin based triple therapy. Antibiotic testing is recommended prior to initiating third line treatment. In the event that antibiotic susceptibility testing is unavailable, third line treatment options include rifabutin, rifaximin and sitafloxacin based therapies. PMID:24587627

Song, Mingjun; Ang, Tiing Leong

2014-02-14

99

Second and third line treatment options for Helicobacter pylori eradication  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful bacterium with a high global prevalence and the infection carries significant disease burden. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to eradicate and the main reason for this is growing primary antibiotic resistance rates in a world where antibiotics are frequently prescribed and readily available. Despite knowing much more about the bacterium since its discovery, such as its genomic makeup and pathogenesis, we have seen declining treatment success. Therefore, clinicians today must be prepared to face one, two or even multiple treatment failures, and should be equipped with sufficient knowledge to decide on the appropriate salvage therapy when this happens. This article discusses the factors contributing to treatment failure and reviews the second and third-line treatment strategies that have been investigated. Established empiric second line treatment options include both bismuth based quadruple therapy and levofloxacin based triple therapy. Antibiotic testing is recommended prior to initiating third line treatment. In the event that antibiotic susceptibility testing is unavailable, third line treatment options include rifabutin, rifaximin and sitafloxacin based therapies. PMID:24587627

Song, Mingjun; Ang, Tiing Leong

2014-01-01

100

Gastroparesis: a review of current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Gastroparesis is a motility disorder of the stomach causing delay in food emptying from the stomach without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. The majority of cases are idiopathic. Patients need to be diagnosed properly by formal testing, and the evaluation of the severity of the gastroparesis may assist in guiding therapy. Initially, dietary modifications are encouraged, which include frequent and small semisolid-based meals. Promotility medications, like erythromycin, and antiemetics, like prochlorperazine, are offered for symptom relief. In patients who are refractory to pharmacologic treatment, more invasive options, such as intrapyloric botulinum toxin injections, placement of a jejunostomy tube, or implantation of a gastric stimulator, can be considered. Hemin therapy and gastric electric stimulation are emerging treatment options that are still at different stages of research. Regenerative medicine and stem cell-based therapies also hold promise for gastroparesis in the near future. PMID:24039443

Enweluzo, Chijioke; Aziz, Fahad

2013-01-01

101

Treatment Options for Patellofemoral Instability in Sports Traumatology  

PubMed Central

Patellofemoral instability not only involves lateral patellar dislocation, patellar mal-tracking or subluxation but can also cause a limiting disability for sports activities. Its underlying causes are known as morphological anomalies of the patellofemoral joint or the mechanical axis, femorotibial malrotation, variants of the knee extensor apparatus, and ligamentous insufficiencies often accompanied by poor proprioception. Athletes with such predisposing factors are either suffering from unspecific anterior knee pain or from slightly traumatic or recurrent lateral patellar dislocation Treatment options of patellar instability are vast, and need to be tailored individually depending on the athlete’s history, age, complaints and physical demands. Different conservative and surgical treatment options are reviewed and discussed, especially limited expectations after surgery. PMID:24191183

M. Tscholl, Philippe; P. Koch, Peter; F. Fucentese, Sandro

2013-01-01

102

Carotid Stump Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Endovascular Treatment Options  

SciTech Connect

Carotid stump syndrome is one of the recognised causes of recurrent ipsilateral cerebrovascular events after occlusion of the internal carotid artery. It is believed that microemboli arising from the stump of the occluded internal carotid artery or the ipsilateral external carotid artery can pass into the middle cerebral artery circulation as a result of patent external carotid-internal carotid anastomotic channels. Different pathophysiologic causes of this syndrome and endovascular options for treatment are discussed.

Lakshminarayan, Raghuram; Scott, Paul M.; Robinson, Graham J.; Ettles, Duncan F., E-mail: duncan.ettles@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

103

Vaginitis: Making Sense of Over-the-Counter Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

Background. The FDA approved over-the-counter (OTC) use of vaginal antifungals in 1990. Subsequently, a plethora of OTC products have become available to women on drugstore shelves. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of OTC products marketed for the treatment of vaginitis and to determine if their efficacy had been confirmed by published prospective randomized control trials (RCTs). Materials and methods. The authors chose four retail locations frequented by women seeking vaginitis treatment. All products deemed a viable treatment option were purchased. Results. All intravaginal imidazoles purchased, regardless of treatment duration or active ingredient, were found to be of proven efficacy. We were unable to find an RCT confirming the effectiveness of vaginal anti-itch creams and homeopathic treatments for vaginitis. Conclusion. 45% of products available to women in the feminine hygiene section of the stores surveyed could not be confirmed to be effective for treating infectious vaginitis. PMID:18253469

B. Angotti, Lauren; C. Lambert, Lara; E. Soper, David

2007-01-01

104

Current options for the treatment of optic neuritis  

PubMed Central

Optic neuritis can be defined as typical (associated with multiple sclerosis, improving independent of steroid treatment), or atypical (not associated with multiple sclerosis, steroid-dependent improvement). Causes of atypical optic neuritis include connective tissue diseases (eg, lupus), vasculitis, sarcoidosis, or neuromyelitis optica. In this manuscript, updated treatment options for both typical and atypical optic neuritis are reviewed. Conventional treatments, such as corticosteroids, therapeutic plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are all discussed with commentary regarding evidence-based outcomes. Less commonly used treatments and novel purported therapies for optic neuritis are also reviewed. Special scenarios in the treatment of optic neuritis – pediatric optic neuritis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, and optic neuritis occurring during pregnancy – are specifically examined. PMID:22927730

Pula, John H; MacDonald, Christopher J

2012-01-01

105

Intracranial Aneurysms: Review of Current Treatment Options and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience. PMID:21779274

Seibert, Brad; Tummala, Ramachandra P.; Chow, Ricky; Faridar, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed A.; Divani, Afshin A.

2011-01-01

106

Treatment Options for Breast Cancer Resistant to Anthracycline and Taxane  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy among every major ethnic group of women in the United States. Anthracyclines and taxanes are the most active and widely used chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer, but the increased use of these agents at an early stage of disease often renders tumors resistant to these drugs by the time the disease recurs, thereby reducing the number of treatment options for metastatic disease. Moreover, even when these agents can be used in the metastatic setting, treatment failure occurs in most cases, and as a result the 5-year survival rates of patients with metastatic breast cancer are low. This outcome underscores the need for new, effective treatments of metastatic breast cancer and has led to investigation of novel ways to overcome the problem of drug resistance. This article reviews the current treatment options for breast cancer resistant to anthracycline and taxane and provides recommendations for disease management. Published sources for this review were found by searching PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) and congress Web sites. PMID:19483170

Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Perez, Edith A.

2009-01-01

107

Non-surgical management of a pediatric “intoed” gait pattern – a systematic review of the current best evidence  

PubMed Central

Background An intoed gait pattern is one of the most common referrals for children to an orthopedic consultation. Parental concern as to the aesthetics of the child’s gait pattern and/or its symptomatic nature will primarily drive these referrals during a child’s early developmental years. Whilst some of these referrals prove to be the result of a normal growth variant, some children will present with a symptomatic intoed gait pattern. Various treatments, both conservative and surgical, have been proposed including: braces, wedges, stretches and exercises, shoe modifications, and surgical procedures. However, which treatments are effective and justified in the management of this condition is not clear within the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to therefore identify and critique the best available evidence for the non-surgical management of an intoed gait pattern in a pediatric population. Method A systematic review was conducted of which only experimental studies investigating a management option for an intoeing gait pattern were included. Studies needed to be written in English, pertaining to a human pediatric population, and published within a peer reviewed journal. Electronic databases were searched: Ovid (Medline), EMBASE, AMED, PubMed, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. The National Health and Medical Research Council’s designation of levels of hierarchy and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme cohort studies critical appraisal tool were used. Results Five level IV studies were found. The studies were of varied quality and with mixed results. Gait plates, physiologic/standardized shoes, and orthotic devices (with gate plate extension) were shown to produce a statistically significant improvement to an intoed gait pattern. Shoe wedges, torqheels, and a leather counter splint were not able to reduce an intoed gait pattern. Conclusion There is limited evidence to inform the non-surgical management of a pediatric intoed gait pattern. The body of evidence that does exist is small (n = 5) and of varied quality, which means recommendations arising from this evidence base should be interpreted with caution. There is generally weak evidence that suggests that gait plates and orthotic devices with a gait plate extension may assist in the management of a pediatric intoed gait pattern. PMID:22328828

Uden, Hayley; Kumar, Saravana

2012-01-01

108

Effect of surgical and non-surgical periodontal debridement on vascular thrombotic markers in hypertensives  

PubMed Central

Background: Periodontal debridement has an impact on the vascular thrombotic markers in healthy individuals. This study aimed to investigate changes in several vascular thrombotic markers after surgical and non-surgical periodontal debridement in hypertensives with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 40 hypertensives, 27 males and 13 females, 37-68 year old, mean 51.2 years, with moderate to severe periodontitis, were divided into two groups, (n = 20 for each); the first received comprehensive one session non-surgical periodontal debridement, (pockets 4-6 mm), while the second received comprehensive supragingival scaling with surgical debridement at one quadrant, (Pockets > 6 mm). Periodontal parameters included; plaque index (PI), gingival inflammation (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth (PPD). Vascular thrombotic tests included; platelets count (Plt), fibrinogen (Fib), Von Willebrand factor antigen activity (vWF:Ag), and D-dimers (DD). Results: PI, GI, BOP, PPD, decreased significantly (P = 0.001) after 6 weeks of periodontal debridement in both groups, while BOP and PPD remained higher in the surgical one (P < 0.05). Thrombotic vascular markers changes through the three-time intervals were significant in each group (P = 0.001), and time-group interception effect was significant for vWF:Ag (P = 0.005), while no significant differences between groups after treatment (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal debridement, surgical and non-surgical, improved the periodontal status in hypertensives. Periodontal treatment activated the coagulation system in hypertensives and recessed later while the treatment modality did not affect the degree of activation. PMID:24049332

Albush, Muhammad M.; Razan, Khattab K.; Raed, Al Dieri M.

2013-01-01

109

Current and emerging options in the treatment of onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Currently approved options for the treatment of onychomycosis include systemic therapy (the antifungal agents fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine), topical agents (ciclopirox, which has been available since 1996, efinaconazole, currently pending approval), and laser systems. Phase III studies on another topical, tavaborole, have been completed and this medication also shows promise. Mechanical modalities are sometimes used but are seldom necessary. Recurrence of infection is common; the risk for recurrence may be reduced by adherence to preventive measures, especially avoiding (if possible) or promptly treating tinea pedis infections. PMID:24156162

Elewski, Boni; Pariser, David; Rich, Phoebe; Scher, Richard K

2013-06-01

110

40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements. 141.715 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium...

2012-07-01

111

40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements. 141.715 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium...

2013-07-01

112

Options for pharmacological treatment of refractory bipolar depression.  

PubMed

Bipolar disorders of types I and II, even when treated by currently standard options, show a marked excess of depressive morbidity. Treated, type I patients in mid-course or from the onset of illness are ill, overall, 50 % of weeks of follow-up, and 75 % of that unresolved morbidity is depressive. Currently widely held impressions are that bipolar depression typically is poorly responsive to antidepressants, that treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is characteristic of the disorder, and that risk of mania with antidepressant treatment is very high. However, none of these views is supported consistently by available research. TRD may be more prevalent in bipolar than unipolar mood disorders. Relatively intense research attention is directed toward characteristics and treatments of TRD in unipolar depression, but studies of bipolar TRD are uncommon. We found only five controlled trials, plus 10 uncontrolled trials, providing data on a total of 13 drug treatments, all of which involved one or two trials, in 87 % as add-ons to complex, uncontrolled regimens. In two controlled trials, ketamine was superior to placebo but it is short-acting and not orally active; pramipexole was weakly superior to placebo in one controlled trial; three other drugs failed to outperform controls. Other pharmacotherapies are inadequately evaluated and nonpharmacological options are virtually untested in bipolar TRD. The available research supports the view that antidepressants may be effective in bipolar depression provided that currently agitated patients are excluded, that risk of mania with antidepressants is only moderately greater than risk of spontaneous mania, and that bipolar TRD is not necessarily resistant to all treatments. PMID:24425269

Tondo, Leonardo; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Baldessarini, Ross J

2014-02-01

113

Non-surgical retreatment of a failed apicoectomy without retrofilling using white mineral trioxide aggregate as an apical barrier.  

PubMed

Root-end resected teeth with persistent apical periodontitis are usually retreated surgically or a combination of non-surgical and surgical retreatment is employed. However, patients are sometimes unwilling to be subjected to a second surgical procedure. The apical barrier technique that is used for apical closure of immature teeth with necrotic pulps may be an alternative to non-surgically retreat a failed apicoectomy. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has become the material of choice in such cases because of its excellent biocompatibility, sealing ability and osseoinductive properties. This case report describes the non-surgical retreatment of a failed apicoectomy with no attempt at retrofilling of a maxillary central incisor. White MTA was used to induce apical closure of the wide resected apical area. Four-year follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic, fully functional tooth with a satisfactory healing of the apical lesion. White MTA apical barrier may constitute a reliable and efficient technique to non-surgically retreat teeth with failed root-end resection. The predictability of such a treatment is of great benefit for the patient who is unwilling to be submitted to a second surgical procedure. PMID:22666776

Stefopoulos, Spyridon; Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G

2012-01-01

114

Melatonin receptor agonists: new options for insomnia and depression treatment.  

PubMed

The circadian nature of melatonin (MLT) secretion, coupled with the localization of MLT receptors to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has led to numerous studies of the role of MLT in modulation of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms in humans. Although much more needs to be understood about the various functions exerted by MLT and its mechanisms of action, three therapeutic agents (ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT, and agomelatine) are already in use, and MLT receptor agonists are now appearing as new promising treatment options for sleep and circadian-rhythm related disorders. In this review, emphasis has been placed on medicinal chemistry strategies leading to MLT receptor agonists, and on the evidence supporting therapeutic efficacy of compounds undergoing clinical evaluation. A wide range of clinical trials demonstrated that ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT and tasimelteon have sleep-promoting effects, providing an important treatment option for insomnia and transient insomnia, even if the improvements of sleep maintenance appear moderate. Well-documented effects of agomelatine suggest that this MLT agonist offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of depression, combining efficacy with a favorable side effect profile. Despite a large number of high affinity nonselective MLT receptor agonists, only limited data on MT? or MT? subtype-selective compounds are available up to now. Administration of the MT?-selective agonist IIK7 to rats has proved to decrease NREM sleep onset latency, suggesting that MT? receptor subtype is involved in the acute sleep-promoting action of MLT; rigorous clinical studies are needed to demonstrate this hypothesis. Further clinical candidates based on selective activation of MT? or MT? receptors are expected in coming years. PMID:21554566

Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco

2011-12-01

115

Current and emerging treatment options for Peyronie's disease.  

PubMed

Peyronie's disease (PD) is a condition of the penis, characterized by the presence of localized fibrotic plaque in the tunica albuginea. PD is not an uncommon disorder, with recent epidemiologic studies documenting a prevalence of 3-9% of adult men affected. The actual prevalence of PD may be even higher. It is often associated with penile pain, anatomical deformities in the erect penis, and difficulty with intromission. As the definitive pathophysiology of PD has not been completely elucidated, further basic research is required to make progress in the understanding of this enigmatic condition. Similarly, research on effective therapies is limited. Currently, nonsurgical treatments are used for those men who are in the acute stage of PD, whereas surgical options are reserved for men with established PD who cannot successfully penetrate. Intralesional treatments are growing in clinical popularity as a minimally invasive approach in the initial treatment of PD. A surgical approach should be considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative, medical, or minimally invasive therapies for approximately 1 year and cannot have satisfactory sexual intercourse. As scientific breakthroughs in the understanding of the mechanisms of this disease process evolve, novel treatments for the many men suffering with PD are anticipated. PMID:24400231

Gokce, Ahmet; Wang, Julie C; Powers, Mary K; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg

2013-01-01

116

Current and emerging treatment options for Peyronie’s disease  

PubMed Central

Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a condition of the penis, characterized by the presence of localized fibrotic plaque in the tunica albuginea. PD is not an uncommon disorder, with recent epidemiologic studies documenting a prevalence of 3–9% of adult men affected. The actual prevalence of PD may be even higher. It is often associated with penile pain, anatomical deformities in the erect penis, and difficulty with intromission. As the definitive pathophysiology of PD has not been completely elucidated, further basic research is required to make progress in the understanding of this enigmatic condition. Similarly, research on effective therapies is limited. Currently, nonsurgical treatments are used for those men who are in the acute stage of PD, whereas surgical options are reserved for men with established PD who cannot successfully penetrate. Intralesional treatments are growing in clinical popularity as a minimally invasive approach in the initial treatment of PD. A surgical approach should be considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative, medical, or minimally invasive therapies for approximately 1 year and cannot have satisfactory sexual intercourse. As scientific breakthroughs in the understanding of the mechanisms of this disease process evolve, novel treatments for the many men suffering with PD are anticipated. PMID:24400231

Gokce, Ahmet; Wang, Julie C; Powers, Mary K; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

2013-01-01

117

Surgical versus non-surgical management for primary patellar dislocations: an up-to-date meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this up-to-date meta-analysis was to compare the effects of surgical versus non-surgical treatment of patients following primary patellar dislocation and to provide the best evidence currently available. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using multiple databases, including Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Registry of Clinical Trials. All databases were searched from the earliest records to May 2013. Eligible studies were selected, and data were extracted by two independent investigators. The primary outcome variable was the frequency of recurrent patellar dislocation. The other outcomes included knee function scores, patient-rated outcomes, and radiographic examination. If appropriate, meta-analysis of these variables was performed. Nine independent trials were found to match the inclusion criteria. The pooled results demonstrated that the incidence of recurrent patellar dislocation and Hughston visual analog scale was significantly lower in the surgical treatment group than that in the non-surgical treatment group (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in frequency of subsequent surgical interventions, percentage of excellent or good subjective opinion, Kujala score, pain score on visual analog scale, and severity of patellofemoral joint osteoarthrosis (P > 0.05). This up-to-date meta-analysis indicates that surgical treatment was associated with a lower risk of recurrent patellar dislocation, but a lower Hughston VAS than non-surgical treatment for primary patellar dislocation. More large high-quality trials and further studies are needed to overcome the limitations of small sample sizes, and varieties of different surgical procedures or non-surgical management strategies adopted in the included trials. PMID:24390042

Zheng, Xiaozuo; Kang, Kai; Li, Tong; Lu, Bo; Dong, Jiangtao; Gao, Shijun

2014-12-01

118

An emerging treatment option for glaucoma: Rho kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors are a novel potential class of glaucoma therapeutics with multiple compounds currently in Phase II and III US Food and Drug Administration trials in the United States. These selective agents work by relaxing the trabecular meshwork through inhibition of the actin cytoskeleton contractile tone of smooth muscle. This results in increased aqueous outflow directly through the trabecular meshwork, achieving lower intraocular pressures in a range similar to prostaglandins. There are also animal studies indicating that ROCK inhibitors may improve blood flow to the optic nerve, increase ganglion cell survival, and reduce bleb scarring in glaucoma surgery. Given the multiple beneficial effects for glaucoma patients, ROCK inhibitors are certainly a highly anticipated emerging treatment option for glaucoma. PMID:24872673

Wang, Sean K; Chang, Robert T

2014-01-01

119

Current treatment options for colon cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis  

PubMed Central

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), the dissemination of cancer cells throughout the lining of the abdominal cavity, is the second most common presentation of colon cancer distant metastasis. Despite remarkable advances in cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy for colon cancer over the last 15 years, it has been repeatedly shown that these therapies remain ineffective for colon cancer PC. Recently, there has been a rapid accumulation of reports that cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) prolongs the life of colon cancer PC patients. Here, we will review the clinical presentation, the mechanisms of disease progression, and current treatment options for colon cancer PC, with a focus on the benefits and limitations of CRS-HIPEC. PMID:25253949

Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Terracina, Krista P; Raza, Ali; Takabe, Kazuaki

2014-01-01

120

Current and emerging treatment options for fecal incontinence.  

PubMed

Fecal incontinence (FI) is a multifactorial disorder that imposes considerable social and economic burdens. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of current and emerging treatment options for FI. A MEDLINE search was conducted for English-language articles related to FI prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment published from January 1, 1990 through June 1, 2013. The search was extended to unpublished trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and relevant publications cited in included articles. Conservative approaches, including dietary modifications, medications, muscle-strengthening exercises, and biofeedback, have been shown to provide short-term benefits. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation was considered ineffective in a randomized clinical trial. Unlike initial studies, sacral nerve stimulation has shown reasonable short-term effectiveness and some complications. Dynamic graciloplasty and artificial sphincter and bowel devices lack randomized controlled trials and have shown inconsistent results and high rates of explantation. Of injectable bulking agents, dextranomer microspheres in non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA Dx) has shown significant improvement in incontinence scores and frequency of incontinence episodes, with generally mild adverse effects. For the treatment of FI, conservative measures and biofeedback therapy are modestly effective. When conservative therapies are ineffective, invasive procedures, including sacral nerve stimulation, may be considered, but they are associated with complications and lack randomized, controlled trials. Bulking agents may be an appropriate alternative therapy to consider before more aggressive therapies in patients who fail conservative therapies. PMID:25014235

Rao, Satish S C

2014-10-01

121

Respiratory syncytial virus: current and emerging treatment options.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important respiratory pathogen in infants and children worldwide. Although RSV typically causes mild upper respiratory infections, it frequently causes severe morbidity and mortality, especially in premature infants and children with other chronic diseases. Treatment of RSV is limited by a lack of effective antiviral treatments; however, ribavirin has been used in complicated cases, along with the addition of intravenous immune globulin in specific patients. Vaccination strategies for RSV prevention are heavily studied, but only palivizumab (Synagis(®)) has been approved for use in the United States in very select patient populations. Research is ongoing in developing additional vaccines, along with alternative therapies that may help prevent or decrease the severity of RSV infections in infants and children. To date, we have not seen a decrement in RSV morbidity and mortality with our current options; therefore, there is a clear need for novel RSV preventative and therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss the current and evolving trends in RSV treatment for infants and children. PMID:24812523

Turner, Tiffany L; Kopp, Benjamin T; Paul, Grace; Landgrave, Lindsay C; Hayes, Don; Thompson, Rohan

2014-01-01

122

Respiratory syncytial virus: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important respiratory pathogen in infants and children worldwide. Although RSV typically causes mild upper respiratory infections, it frequently causes severe morbidity and mortality, especially in premature infants and children with other chronic diseases. Treatment of RSV is limited by a lack of effective antiviral treatments; however, ribavirin has been used in complicated cases, along with the addition of intravenous immune globulin in specific patients. Vaccination strategies for RSV prevention are heavily studied, but only palivizumab (Synagis®) has been approved for use in the United States in very select patient populations. Research is ongoing in developing additional vaccines, along with alternative therapies that may help prevent or decrease the severity of RSV infections in infants and children. To date, we have not seen a decrement in RSV morbidity and mortality with our current options; therefore, there is a clear need for novel RSV preventative and therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss the current and evolving trends in RSV treatment for infants and children. PMID:24812523

Turner, Tiffany L; Kopp, Benjamin T; Paul, Grace; Landgrave, Lindsay C; Hayes, Don; Thompson, Rohan

2014-01-01

123

Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Fecal Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Fecal incontinence (FI) is a multifactorial disorder that imposes considerable social and economic burdens. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of current and emerging treatment options for FI. A MEDLINE search was conducted for English-language articles related to FI prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment published from January 1, 1990 through June 1, 2013. The search was extended to unpublished trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and relevant publications cited in included articles. Conservative approaches, including dietary modifications, medications, muscle-strengthening exercises, and biofeedback, have been shown to provide short-term benefits. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation was considered ineffective in a randomized clinical trial. Unlike initial studies, sacral nerve stimulation has shown reasonable short-term effectiveness and some complications. Dynamic graciloplasty and artificial sphincter and bowel devices lack randomized controlled trials and have shown inconsistent results and high rates of explantation. Of injectable bulking agents, dextranomer microspheres in non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA Dx) has shown significant improvement in incontinence scores and frequency of incontinence episodes, with generally mild adverse effects. For the treatment of FI, conservative measures and biofeedback therapy are modestly effective. When conservative therapies are ineffective, invasive procedures, including sacral nerve stimulation, may be considered, but they are associated with complications and lack randomized, controlled trials. Bulking agents may be an appropriate alternative therapy to consider before more aggressive therapies in patients who fail conservative therapies. PMID:25014235

2014-01-01

124

Review article: current treatment options and management of functional dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background Functional dyspepsia (FD), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, is defined by the Rome III criteria as symptoms of epigastric pain or discomfort (prevalence in FD of 89–90%), postprandial fullness (75–88%), and early satiety (50–82%) within the last 3 months with symptom onset at least 6 months earlier. Patients cannot have any evidence of structural disease to explain symptoms and predominant symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are exclusionary. Symptoms of FD are non-specific and the pathophysiology is diverse, which explains in part why a universally effective treatment for FD remains elusive. Aim To present current management options for the treatment of FD (therapeutic gain/response rate noted when available). Results The utility of Helicobacter pylori eradication for the treatment of FD is modest (6–14% therapeutic gain), while the therapeutic efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) (7–10% therapeutic gain), histamine-type-2-receptor antagonists (8–35% therapeutic gain), prokinetic agents (18–45%), tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) (response rates of 64–70%), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (no better than placebo) is limited and hampered by inadequate data. This review discusses dietary interventions and analyses studies involving complementary and alternative medications, and psychological therapies. Conclusions A reasonable treatment approach based on current evidence is to initiate therapy with a daily PPI in H. pylori-negative FD patients. If symptoms persist, a therapeutic trial with a tricyclic antidepressant may be initiated. If symptoms continue, the clinician can possibly initiate therapy with an antinociceptive agent, a prokinetic agent, or some form of complementary and alternative medications, although evidence from prospective studies to support this approach is limited. PMID:22591037

Lacy, B. E.; Talley, N. J.; Locke, G. R.; Bouras, E. P.; DiBaise, J. K.; El-Serag, H. B.; Abraham, B. P.; Howden, C. W.; Moayyedi, P.; Prather, C.

2014-01-01

125

Pregnancy-associated breast cancer: optimal treatment options  

PubMed Central

Cancer is diagnosed approximately once per 1,000 pregnancies; most commonly due to the reproductive age of the women, these include breast, cervical, melanoma, thyroid, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma diagnoses. As a single diagnosis, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy. Cancer is expected to complicate pregnancy more often due to the trend for women to delay child bearing to later maternal ages. Delayed first birth is itself a risk factor for breast cancer. Termination of pregnancy has not been shown to afford a survival benefit. While protecting the interests of mother and unborn fetus, breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy with good outcomes for both. Some modification of the protocols used for nonpregnant women with suspicious palpable breast masses is required. This article reviews the challenges for physicians in making the diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy and upon diagnosis, counseling patients about treatment options. The consequences of diagnostic investigations and cancer treatment for the exposed fetus are also addressed. PMID:25395871

Cardonick, Elyce

2014-01-01

126

Cachexia and pancreatic cancer: Are there treatment options?  

PubMed Central

Cachexia is frequently described in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is associated with reduced survival and quality of life. Unfortunately, the therapeutic options of this multi-factorial and complex syndrome are limited. This is due to the fact that, despite extensive preclinical and clinical research, the underlying pathological mechanisms leading to PDAC-associated cachexia are still not fully understood. Furthermore, there is still a lack of consensus on the definition of cachexia, which complicates the standardization of diagnosis and treatment as well as the analysis of the current literature. In order to provide an efficient therapy for cachexia, an early and reliable diagnosis and consistent monitoring is required, which can be challenging especially in obese patients. Although many substances have been tested in clinical and preclinical settings, so far none of them have been proven to have a long-term effect in ameliorating cancer-associated cachexia. However, recent studies have demonstrated that multidimensional therapeutic modalities are able to alleviate pancreatic cancer-associated cachexia and ultimately improve patients’ outcome. In this current review, we propose a stepwise and pragmatic approach to facilitate and standardize the treatment of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients. This strategy consists of nutritional, dietary, pharmacological, physical and psychological methods. PMID:25071331

Mueller, Tara C; Burmeister, Marc A; Bachmann, Jeannine; Martignoni, Marc E

2014-01-01

127

How multidrug resistance in typhoid fever affects treatment options.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an enteric pathogen that causes typhoid fever. The infection can be severe, with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring antimicrobial therapy. Cases of S. Typhi infection in the United States and other developed countries are often associated with travel to endemic regions. The empirical use of first-line drugs for therapy, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, has resulted in transmissible multidrug resistance. With the global increase in multidrug-resistant S. Typhi, use of ciprofloxacin, with excellent oral absorption, few side effects, and cost-effectiveness, has become popular for treatment. However, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility due to point mutations in the S. Typhi genes gyrA and/or parC has caused treatment failures, necessitating alternative therapeutic options. S. Typhi is typically genetically homogenous, with phylogenetic and epidemiological studies showing that identical clones and diverse S. Typhi types often coexist in the same geographic region. Studies investigating point mutations have demonstrated that selective pressure from empirical use of first-line drugs and fluoroquinolones has led to the global emergence of haplotype H-58. Antibiotic resistance is subject to high selective pressure in S. Typhi and thus demands careful use of antimicrobials. PMID:25069595

Tatavarthy, Aparna; Luna, Vicki A; Amuso, Philip T

2014-09-01

128

An overview of seasonal affective disorder and its treatment options.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as a history of major depressive episodes that recur regularly at a particular time of year. Depending on the diagnostic instruments and criteria available, the reported prevalence (1%-10%) varies. Neurotransmitter abnormalities have been implicated in the pathophysiology, but they do not necessarily explain the seasonal pattern or the known chronobiological abnormalities in SAD compared with nonseasonal depression. Circadian rhythm abnormalies have been hypothesized to account for these aspects of SAD, and they provide a rationale for the therapeutic use of light therapy. Family history, twin, and molecular genetics studies suggest that hereditary factors are also involved. Light therapy and antidepressant medication are effective treatment options, with limited evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapy. Some studies demonstrate that narrow-band short wavelength "blue" light, naturalistic dawn simulation, and high-density negative air ionization are effective. Patients should be informed of the benefits of diet and exercise. Light therapy should be clinically monitored in the same manner, as it is done for other antidepressant treatments. PMID:20048547

Howland, Robert H

2009-12-01

129

Evolving treatment strategies for colorectal cancer: A critical review of current therapeutic options  

PubMed Central

Management of rectal cancer has markedly evolved over the last two decades. New technologies of staging have allowed a more precise definition of tumor extension. Refinements in surgical concepts and techniques have resulted in higher rates of sphincter preservation and better functional outcome for patients with this malignancy. Although, preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision has become the standard of care for locally advanced tumors, many controversial matters in management of rectal cancer still need to be defined. These include the feasibility of a non-surgical approach after a favorable response to neoadjuvant therapy, the ideal margins of surgical resection for sphincter preservation and the adequacy of minimally invasive techniques of tumor resection. In this article, after an extensive search in PubMed and Embase databases, we critically review the current strategies and the most debatable matters in treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:24574762

Damin, Daniel C; Lazzaron, Anderson R

2014-01-01

130

Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

2012-01-01

131

Novel Treatment Options for Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia first described by Jan Waldenström in 1944 is a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma characterized by the presence of an immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy in the blood and monoclonal small lymphocytes and lymphoplasmacytoid cells in the bone marrow. WM is a rare and indolent disease but remains incurable. In this review we discuss the pathogenesis of Waldenström macroglobulinemia and focus on novel treatment options that target pathways deregulated in this disease. Recent studies have helped us identify specific genetic mutations that are commonly seen in WM and may prove to be important therapeutic targets in the future. We discuss the role of epigenetics and the changes in the bone marrow microenvironment that are important in the pathogenesis of WM. The commonly used drugs are discussed with a focus on novel agents that are currently being used as single agents or in combinations to treat WM. We finally focus on some agents that have shown preclinical efficacy and may be available in the near future. PMID:24290218

Leblebjian, Houry; Agarwal, Amit; Ghobrial, Irene

2013-01-01

132

Post-traumatic epilepsy: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to many undesired problems and complications, including immediate and long-term seizures/epilepsy, changes in mood, behavioral, and personality problems, cognitive and motor deficits, movement disorders, and sleep problems. Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with acute TBI need to be aware of a number of issues, including the incidence and prevalence of early seizures and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), comorbidities associated with seizures and anticonvulsant therapies, and factors that can contribute to their emergence. While strong scientific evidence for early seizure prevention in TBI is available for phenytoin (PHT), other antiepileptic medications, eg, levetiracetam (LEV), are also being utilized in clinical settings. The use of PHT has its drawbacks, including cognitive side effects and effects on function recovery. Rates of recovery after TBI are expected to plateau after a certain period of time. Nevertheless, some patients continue to improve while others deteriorate without any clear contributing factors. Thus, one must ask, ‘Are there any actions that can be taken to decrease the chance of post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy while minimizing potential short- and long-term effects of anticonvulsants?’ While the answer is ‘probably,’ more evidence is needed to replace PHT with LEV on a permanent basis. Some have proposed studies to address this issue, while others look toward different options, including other anticonvulsants (eg, perampanel or other AMPA antagonists), or less established treatments (eg, ketamine). In this review, we focus on a comparison of the use of PHT versus LEV in the acute TBI setting and summarize the clinical aspects of seizure prevention in humans with appropriate, but general, references to the animal literature. PMID:25143737

Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Nazzal, Yara; Dreer, Laura E

2014-01-01

133

Post-traumatic epilepsy: current and emerging treatment options.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to many undesired problems and complications, including immediate and long-term seizures/epilepsy, changes in mood, behavioral, and personality problems, cognitive and motor deficits, movement disorders, and sleep problems. Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with acute TBI need to be aware of a number of issues, including the incidence and prevalence of early seizures and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), comorbidities associated with seizures and anticonvulsant therapies, and factors that can contribute to their emergence. While strong scientific evidence for early seizure prevention in TBI is available for phenytoin (PHT), other antiepileptic medications, eg, levetiracetam (LEV), are also being utilized in clinical settings. The use of PHT has its drawbacks, including cognitive side effects and effects on function recovery. Rates of recovery after TBI are expected to plateau after a certain period of time. Nevertheless, some patients continue to improve while others deteriorate without any clear contributing factors. Thus, one must ask, 'Are there any actions that can be taken to decrease the chance of post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy while minimizing potential short- and long-term effects of anticonvulsants?' While the answer is 'probably,' more evidence is needed to replace PHT with LEV on a permanent basis. Some have proposed studies to address this issue, while others look toward different options, including other anticonvulsants (eg, perampanel or other AMPA antagonists), or less established treatments (eg, ketamine). In this review, we focus on a comparison of the use of PHT versus LEV in the acute TBI setting and summarize the clinical aspects of seizure prevention in humans with appropriate, but general, references to the animal literature. PMID:25143737

Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Nazzal, Yara; Dreer, Laura E

2014-01-01

134

Non-Surgical Management of Cord Compression in Tuberculosis: A Series of Surprises  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We present a series of 50 patients with tuberculous cord compression who were offered systematic non-surgical treatment, and thereby, the author proposes that clinico-radiological soft tissue cord compression is not an emergency indication for surgery. Overview of Literature Spinal cord compression whether clinical or radiological has usually been believed to be an indication for emergency surgery in spinal tuberculosis. Methods Fifty adults were prospectively studied at our clinic for spinal cord compression due to tuberculous spondylitis, between May 1993 and July 2002. The inclusion criteria were cases with clinical and/or radiological evidence of cord compression (documented soft tissue effacement of the cord with complete obliteration of the thecal sac at that level on magnetic resonance imaging scan). Exclusion criteria were lesions below the conus level, presence of bony compression, severe or progressive neurological deficit (non-surgical protocol including hospital admission, antitubercular medications, baseline somatosensory evoked potentials and a regular clinico-radiological follow-up. Results At the time of presentation, 10 patients had a motor deficit, 18 had clinically detectable hyper-reflexia and 22 had normal neurology. Forty-seven of the 50 patients responded completely to non-operative treatment and healed with no residual neurological deficit. Three patients with progressive neurological deficit while on treatment were operated on with eventual excellent recovery. Conclusions Radiological evidence of cord compression and early neurological signs need not be an emergency surgical indication in the management of spinal tuberculosis. PMID:24967045

Patil, Sanganagouda Shivanagouda; Mohite, Sheetal; Varma, Raghuprasad; Bhojraj, Shekhar Y; Nene, Abhay Madhusudan

2014-01-01

135

ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: non-surgical oncology.  

PubMed

Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increasing or ensuring nutrient intake in patients in whom normal food intake is inadequate and enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. These guidelines are intended to provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of parenteral nutrition in cancer patients. They were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with accepted standards, are based on the most relevant publications of the last 30 years and share many of the conclusions of the ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition in oncology. Under-nutrition and cachexia occur frequently in cancer patients and are indicators of poor prognosis and, per se, responsible for excess morbidity and mortality. Many indications for parenteral nutrition parallel those for enteral nutrition (weight loss or reduction in food intake for more than 7-10 days), but only those who, for whatever reason cannot be fed orally or enterally, are candidates to receive parenteral nutrition. A standard nutritional regimen may be recommended for short-term parenteral nutrition, while in cachectic patients receiving intravenous feeding for several weeks a high fat-to-glucose ratio may be advised because these patients maintain a high capacity to metabolize fats. The limited nutritional response to the parenteral nutrition reflects more the presence of metabolic derangements which are characteristic of the cachexia syndrome (or merely the short duration of the nutritional support) rather than the inadequacy of the nutritional regimen. Perioperative parenteral nutrition is only recommended in malnourished patients if enteral nutrition is not feasible. In non-surgical well-nourished oncologic patients routine parenteral nutrition is not recommended because it has proved to offer no advantage and is associated with increased morbidity. A benefit, however, is reported in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Short-term parenteral nutrition is however commonly accepted in patients with acute gastrointestinal complications from chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and long-term (home) parenteral nutrition will sometimes be a life-saving maneuver in patients with sub acute/chronic radiation enteropathy. In incurable cancer patients home parenteral nutrition may be recommended in hypophagic/(sub)obstructed patients (if there is an acceptable performance status) if they are expected to die from starvation/under nutrition prior to tumor spread. PMID:19477052

Bozzetti, F; Arends, J; Lundholm, K; Micklewright, A; Zurcher, G; Muscaritoli, M

2009-08-01

136

Pelvic pain in urogynecology. Part II: treatment options in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.  

PubMed

Therapeutic options for chronic pelvic pain in women offer only a limited symptom relief. Especially in the patient with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), where overlap of pain, storage and voiding symptoms is common, data on the efficacy of treatment of pain are limited. We conducted a literature review to detect articles which pertained to female patients with LUTS and pelvic pain and we included articles which evaluated the efficacy of the treatment of pelvic pain. Forty-one articles were detected, which included nerve stimulation (sacral and pudendal), intravesical instillations and injections, oral pharmacological treatments, periurethral injections as well as physical and manual therapy as treatment options. Only five controlled trials were found, which did not show superiority of the active treatment versus placebo. Although some treatment options show promising results in the treatment of pelvic pain in patients with LUTS, more randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22270729

Kavvadias, Tilemachos; Baessler, Kaven; Schuessler, Bernhard

2012-05-01

137

Treatment Options for ADHD in Children and Teens: A Review of Research for Parents and Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Summary – Jun. 26, 2012 Treatment Options for ADHD in Children and Teens: A Review of Research ... adhdtreatment.cfm . Understanding Your Child’s Condition What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? ADHD is a disorder that has three ...

138

Conservative treatment options for carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common disorder, for which various conservative treatment options are available. The objective\\u000a of this study is to determine the efficacy of the various conservative treatment options for relieving the symptoms of CTS.\\u000a Computer-aided searches of MEDLINE (1\\/1966 to 3\\/2000), EMBASE (1\\/1988 to 2\\/2000) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register\\u000a (2000, issue 1) were conducted,

Annette A. M. Gerritsen; Marc C. T. F. M. de Krom; Margaretha A. Struijs; Rob J. P. M. Scholten; Henrica C. W. de Vet; Lex M. Bouter

2002-01-01

139

Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.  

PubMed

Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

2012-11-01

140

Treatment Option Overview (Mycosis Fungoides and the Sezary Syndrome)  

MedlinePLUS

... skin. High-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy with stem cell transplant This treatment is a method of giving ... blood-forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the bone ...

141

Treatment options for patients with triple-negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of different subtypes, characterized by their different clinicopathological characteristics, prognoses and responses to treatment. In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer sensitive to hormonal treatments, as well as in patients whose malignant cells overexpress or amplify HER2. In contrast, mainly due to the lack of

Rafael Santana-Davila; Edith A Perez

2010-01-01

142

Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic inflammatory response. Successful treatment requires adherence to a regime that is uncomfortable at best and at worst painful. Topical treatments can be successful in motivated adherent patients willing to accept these side effects. PMID:23788834

Weis, Stephen E

2013-01-01

143

Transdermal estradiol for postpartum depression: A promising treatment option  

PubMed Central

Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of childbirth and affects one out of seven childbearing women. While conventional pharmacological and psychotherapeutic antidepressant treatments are effective for PPD, a natural alternative may be preferred by postpartum women, especially those who breastfeed their infants. The treatment of PPD with synthetic forms of naturally occurring estrogen is mechanistically appealing because PPD occurs in the context of estrogen withdrawal at parturition. Preliminary evidence suggests that PPD is a disorder of hormone-related mood dysregulation (similar to perimenopausal depression) that can be effectively treated with estrogen. This review provides the basic science and clinical background as well as safety considerations to support the application of transdermal estradiol as a treatment for PPD. We conclude that estradiol treatment for PPD requires confirmation of efficacy in a randomized clinical trial prior to routine clinical use as monotherapy. Additional data regarding maternal tolerability of cyclic progestins, long-term safety of estradiol treatment, estradiol passage into breastmilk and infants, and interdisciplinary collaboration among psychiatrists and gynecologists is also needed before estradiol is used in women who decline or fail to respond to first-line antidepressant treatments, or as an augmentation of conventional antidepressant treatment. PMID:19661765

Moses-Kolko, Eydie L.; Berga, Sarah L.; Kalro, Brinda; Sit, Dorothy K.Y.; Wisner, Katherine L.

2009-01-01

144

Current and emerging options for the drug treatment of narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency (now called type 1 narcolepsy) is a lifelong neurologic disorder with well-established diagnostic criteria and etiology. Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and symptoms of dissociated rapid eye movement sleep such as cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone), hypnagogic hallucinations (sensory events that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep), sleep paralysis (inability to perform movements upon wakening or sleep onset), and nocturnal sleep disruption. As these symptoms are often disabling, most patients need life-long treatment. The treatment of narcolepsy is well defined, and, traditionally, amphetamine-like stimulants (i.e., dopaminergic release enhancers) have been used for clinical management to improve EDS and sleep attacks, whereas tricyclic antidepressants have been used as anticataplectics. However, treatments have evolved to better-tolerated compounds such as modafinil or armodafinil (for EDS) and adrenergic/serotonergic selective reuptake inhibitors (as anticataplectics). In addition, night-time administration of a short-acting sedative, c-hydroxybutyrate (sodium oxybate), has been used for the treatment for EDS and cataplexy. These therapies are almost always needed in combination with non-pharmacologic treatments (i.e., behavioral modification). A series of new drugs is currently being tested in animal models and in humans. These include a wide variety of hypocretin agonists, melanin- concentrating hormone receptor antagonists, antigenspecific immunopharmacology, and histamine H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists (e.g., pitolisant), which have been proposed for specific therapeutic applications, including the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and more recently, narcolepsy. Even though current treatment is strictly symptomatic, based on the present state of knowledge of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy, we expect that more pathophysiology-based treatments will be available in the near future. PMID:24122734

De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K; García-García, Fabio

2013-11-01

145

CAD/CAM options in dental implant treatment planning.  

PubMed

Several software platforms are available that use computerized tomography files and proprietary 3-D reformatting to aid in diagnosis, plan implant location, and complete the surgical placement and restoration of dental implants. This article will review traditional versus computerized model of surgical planning, advantages and disadvantages of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing planning, variability in treatment sequence, and a cost analysis of investment into this treatment modality. PMID:20572527

Morris, James B

2010-05-01

146

Metastatic bone cancer pain: Etiology and treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Painful metastatic bone disease remains a challenge for physicians. The treatment choices available are wide and varied, with\\u000a each having its appropriate place in the management of painful bone metastases. Radiotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment\\u000a with or without surgery. Advances in understanding the intricate pathway responsible for pain generation and the addition\\u000a of agents such as bisphosphonates to the

Gary C. O’Toole; Patrick Boland

2006-01-01

147

[Treatment options for serious infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci].  

PubMed

Complicated infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) represent a therapeutic challenge, since adequate treatment options are limited and antibiotic resistance to the available agents has already been described. The most frequently used antibiotic in VRE treatment is linezolid. Tigecycline is an alternative to linezolid, however, clinical data for severe infections such as sepsis or endocarditis are scarce. Daptomycin on the one hand is an option but has not yet been approved for the treatment of enterococcal infections in Germany on the other hand. The present review critically evaluates the clinical significance of the antibiotics in question for VRE therapy based on existing data. PMID:25580973

Mutters, Nico T; Werner, Guido; Tacconelli, Evelina; Mischnik, Alexander

2015-01-01

148

Increasing treatment options in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

There is currently no standard first-line treatment for indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) because there is no curative treatment. In asymptomatic patients, treatment with chemotherapy does not improve survival compared with a "watch and wait" approach. Improved treatment strategies, with curative intent, are thus required for indolent NHL. Rituximab is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of indolent NHL and can be considered for asymptomatic patients, where the side effects of chemotherapy may outweigh the benefits. In addition, rituximab does not compromise the use of subsequent chemotherapy in patients who relapse. A study of rituximab monotherapy in patients with low-tumor-burden follicular lymphoma has shown high rates of both clinical remission and molecular remission (clearance of bcl-2-positive cells from blood and/or bone marrow). After 2 years, half the patients relapsed, indicating that improved strategies are still required. Efforts to improve the efficacy of rituximab have included repeated administrations of the antibody and combined administration with chemotherapy or interferon-alpha2a. The optimal role of rituximab in first-line therapy for indolent NHL will be determined through randomized clinical trials. PMID:12040527

Solal-Céligny, Philippe

2002-04-01

149

Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease; Current Options for Surgical or Medical Treatment  

PubMed Central

Recently, intracranial atherosclerosis has become a major cause of ischemic stroke, appearing more frequently in Koreans than Caucasians. Symptomatic or asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis is a disease that could recur readily even during the treatment with anti-platelet agents. When the symptoms develop, ischemic stroke can not be recovered readily. Therefore, aggressive treatments such as endovascular therapy and bypass surgery are required in addition to medical treatment for the intracranial artery stenosis. Recent intracranial stenting and drug eluting stenting have shown as very advanced effective therapeutic modalities. Nevertheless, until now, a randomized controlled study has not been conducted. Regarding bypass surgery, since the failed EC-IC bypass surgery study performed 20 years ago, extensive studies on its efficacy has not been conducted yet, and thus it has to be performed strictly only in hemodynamically compromised patients. Unless breakthrough drugs that suppress the progression of intracranial atherosclerosis and the formation of thrombi, and facilitate the regression of the arterial stenosis, the treatment concept of the recovery of the blood flow of stenotic arterial territory by mechanical recanalization or bypass surgery would be remained for the prevention as well as treatment of ischemic stroke caused by intracranial atherosclerosis. PMID:19096584

Huh, Pil-Woo

2007-01-01

150

Treatment options for second-stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis.  

PubMed

Treatment of second-stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis relied on toxic arsenic-based derivatives for over 50 years. The availability and subsequent use of eflornithine, initially in monotherapy and more recently in combination with nifurtimox (NECT), has drastically improved the prognosis of treated patients. However, NECT logistic and nursing requirements remain obstacles to its deployment and use in peripheral health structures in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Two oral compounds, fexinidazole and SCYX-7158, are currently in clinical development. The main scope of this article is to discuss the potential impact of new oral therapies to improve diagnosis-treatment algorithms and patients' access to treatment, and to contribute to reach the objectives of the recently launched gambiense human African trypanosomiasis elimination program. PMID:25204360

Eperon, Gilles; Balasegaram, Manica; Potet, Julien; Mowbray, Charles; Valverde, Olaf; Chappuis, François

2014-11-01

151

Venous Ulcers: New Options in Treatment: Minimally Invasive Vein Surgery  

PubMed Central

Venous disease has a spectrum of presentations. The most advanced state of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) managed by wound care specialists being ulceration of the lower extremity. The goal of all treatments for advanced venous disease is to decrease ambulatory venous hypertension. Treatment can be divided into exogenous and endogenous methods. Exogenous methods include those applied externally such as compression, elevation, debridement and wound dressings. Endogenous methods treat the underlying venous pathology either due to venous valvular dysfunction or venous obstruction leading to venous hypertension. Recently, significant advances in endogenous methods have evolved. The development of a new concept, minimally invasive vein surgery (MIVS), has improved upon traditional, open, invasive treatments of venous disease. MIVS techniques are performed percutaneously, with minimal anesthesia, no incisions and rarely require hospital admission. This article summarizes the concept of MIVS, describes each method of MIVS and its complementary role in the management of venous leg ulcers patients. PMID:24527103

Poblete, Honesto; Elias, Steven

2009-01-01

152

Relapsed small cell lung cancer: treatment options and latest developments  

PubMed Central

According to recent analyses, there was a modest yet significant improvement in median survival time and 5-year survival rate of limited stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in North America, Europe, Japan and other countries over the last 30 years. The median survival time of limited stage SCLC is 15–20 months and 5-year survival rate is 15% or less. In terms of extensive stage SCLC, a median survival time of 9.4–12.8 months and 2-year survival of 5.2–19.5% are still disappointing. Despite being highly sensitive to first-line chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments, most patients with SCLC experience relapse within 2 years and die from systemic metastasis. While several clinical trials of cytotoxic chemotherapies and molecular targeting agents have been investigated in the treatment of relapsed SCLC, none showed a significant clinical activity to be able to exceed topotecan as second-line chemotherapy. There are problematic issues to address for relapsed SCLC, such as standardizing the treatment for third-line chemotherapy. Topotecan alone was the first approved therapy for second-line treatment for relapsed SCLC. Amrubicin is a promising drug and a variety of trials evaluating its efficacy have been carried out. Amrubicin has shown superiority to topotecan in a Japanese population, but was not superior in a study of western patients. There are some controversial issues for relapsed SCLC, such as treatment for older patients, third-line chemotherapy and efficacy of molecular targeting therapy. This article reviews current standard treatment, recent clinical trials and other topics on relapsed SCLC. PMID:24587832

Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Norihiro; Yamaguchi, Etsuro; Kubo, Akihito

2014-01-01

153

The intoeing child: etiology, prognosis, and current treatment options.  

PubMed

Intoeing, a common entrance complaint in infants, toddlers, and young children, is best defined as internal rotation of the long axis of the foot to the line of progression. Intoeing may be caused by primary deformities within the foot, issues with tibial torsion, and femoral antetorsion (anteversion). Problems within the foot include hallux varus, metatarsus adductus, talipes equinovarus, and pes cavus, each of which has specific treatments available. Treatment must be individualized, and the risks and complications weighed against the predictable morbidity of intoeing. PMID:24075135

Harris, Edwin

2013-10-01

154

Fungal infections of the skin and nail: new treatment options.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the currently available antifungal agents, along with clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic methods, can help the medical professional optimally manage skin and nail fungal infections. With regards to treatment of fungal disease of the skin or nail, there are a variety of systemic antifungal agents, including several newer agents that have different formulations, tolerability, adverse effect profiles and spectrum of activity. This review will highlight the clinically important fungal infections of the skin and nail and describe the activity and role of antifungal treatment. PMID:25241767

Eldridge, Matthew L; Chambers, Cindy J; Sharon, Victoria R; Thompson, George R

2014-11-01

155

Pretibial Myxedema: Case Presentation and Review of Treatment Options.  

PubMed

Pretibial myxedema (PM) is a rare autoimmune manifestation of Graves' disease, which commonly presents as diffuse, nonpitting edema of shins and less often as plaques, nodules, or elephantiasis lesions mimicking lymphedema. We present a 57-year-old woman with 12-month history of PM, which occurred a year after treatment of Graves' disease and improved with topical corticosteroids, support stockings, and intralesional steroid injections until recurrence with local erythema and woody edema. A literature review was undertaken of the evidence-based treatment modalities for symptomatic PM: although commonly asymptomatic and self-limited, severe cases of PM may be treated with topical corticosteroid, compressive therapy, and intralesional corticosteroid injections. PMID:24807996

Kim, Whan B; Mistry, Nisha; Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, Cathryn; Sibbald, Ronald G

2014-05-01

156

Novel treatment options in the management of metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Few breast cancer patients present with metastatic disease at the initial diagnosis. However, approximately one-quarter of patients with lymph node-negative disease and one half of patients with lymph node-positive tumors will ultimately develop distant recurrent breast cancer. Standard treatment of metastatic breast cancer generally includes systemic treatment and surgery or radiation as needed and when indicated for palliation of localized symptomatic metastases. Extending survival and improving quality of life are the primary focus of patient management; thus, there is a preference for the use of minimally toxic treatments. Taxanes have played a significant role in improving outcomes, but many patients still experience disease progression. Many new and emerging agents have been developed for metastatic breast cancer, including both biologic therapies and chemotherapies. A common theme among these therapies is their ability to target specific molecules or processes unique to cancer cells, enhancing the potency and reducing many of the toxicities typically observed with standard cytotoxic chemotherapies. Such agents include poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibitors (iniparib), trastuzumab-DM1, everolimus, the epothilones (ixabepilone), and eribulin. Although metastatic breast cancer remains incurable, the introduction of new agents and new treatment approaches has led to an incremental build-up in terms of survival benefits. PMID:21738118

Twelves, Christopher; Vahdat, Linda T; Cortés, Javier

2011-05-01

157

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors)  

MedlinePLUS

... is called adjuvant therapy . High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue is a way of giving high doses ... blood -forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood ...

158

Treatment Options for Low Back Pain in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Low back pain is one of the most common medical presentations in the general population. It is a common source of pain in athletes, leading to significant time missed and disability. The general categories of treatment for low back pain are medications and therapies. Evidence acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database from 1990 to 2010. A manual review of reference lists of identified sources was also performed. Results: It is not clear whether athletes experience low back pain more often than the general public. Because of a aucity of trials with athlete-specific populations, recommendations on treatments must be made from reviews of treatments for the general population. Several large systemic reviews and Cochrane reviews have compiled evidence on different modalities for low back pain. Superficial heat, spinal manipulation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, and skeletal muscle relaxants have the strongest evidence of benefit. Conclusions: Despite the high prevalence of low back pain and the significant burden to the athletes, there are few clearly superior treatment modalities. Superficial heat and spinal manipulation therapy are the most strongly supported evidence-based therapies. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and skeletal muscle relaxants have benefit in the initial management of low back pain; however, both have considerable side effects that must be considered. Athletes can return to play once they have recovered full range of motion and have the strength to prevent further injury. PMID:23016058

Petering, Ryan C.; Webb, Charles

2011-01-01

159

Treatment options for symptomatic carotid stenosis: Timing and approach.  

PubMed

Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and up to 15-20% of ischemic strokes can be attributed to atherosclerotic internal carotid artery disease. The treatment of carotid artery disease has been the subject of a wealth of literature in the past twenty years since the publication of the landmark randomized controlled trials, the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial and the European Carotid Surgery Trial, in the early 1990s. Although these landmark trials have helped establish the current guidelines for treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease, there have since been major advancements in the medical treatment of cardiovascular disease and there still remains a great deal of controversy regarding the timing and technical approach to carotid revascularization. In particular, there has been a wealth of literature to determine whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting should be used for revascularization and when this revascularization should occur following onset of symptoms. This update offers an overview of the standards for diagnosis and medical treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease, the indications for surgical revascularization and a review of the most pertinent literature as it pertains to the more controversial issues of technical approach and timing of surgical revascularization following onset of symptoms in patients with carotid artery disease. PMID:25439169

Vavra, Ashley K; Eskandari, Mark K

2014-11-17

160

Clinical significance of non-surgical periodontal therapy: an evidence-based perspective of scaling and root planing.  

PubMed

Analysis of Egyptian hieroglyphics and medical papyri indicate that non-surgical periodontal treatment was common 3000-4000 years ago. Even today, scaling and root planing (SRP) remains an essential part of successful periodontal therapy. The collective evidence from numerous clinical trials reveals a consistency of clinical response in the treatment of chronic periodontitis by SRP using manual, sonic, or ultrasonic instrumentation. Thus, SRP remains the 'gold standard' to which more recently developed therapeutic modalities must be compared. Inherent to the clinical evaluation of SRP are such concerns as manual versus sonic and ultrasonic instrumentation, control of sub-gingival bacterial populations, removal of calculus, root smoothness and changes in various clinical parameters, e.g. probing depth, attachment levels, bleeding on probing and gingival inflammation. Lastly, an abbreviated discussion is presented on a relatively new paradigm of complete mouth 'disinfection' in a compressed time-frame that includes SRP as a significant component of the treatment regimen. PMID:12010523

Cobb, Charles M

2002-05-01

161

Multidisciplinary Treatment Options of Tooth Avulsion Considering Different Therapy Concepts  

PubMed Central

Background: Avulsion of permanent front teeth is a rare accident, mostly affecting children between seven and nine years of age. Replanted and splinted, these teeth often develop inflammation, severe resorption or ankylosis affecting alveolar bone development and have to be extracted sooner or later. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate different therapy concepts to create a structured concept for the treatment of avulsions. Results: Based on existing therapy concepts, a concept for different initial conditions (dry time, age, growth, tooth, hard and soft tissues) was developed and is presented here. Conclusion: A great deal of research has been performed during recent years and guidelines for the management of avulsions have been published. With the help of this literature it is possible to identify the best treatment procedure for each tooth. Clinical Relevance: The prognosis of avulsed teeth can be improved by considering evidence-based therapy concepts. Resorption, ankylosis and tooth loss could be minimized. PMID:25352922

Kostka, Eckehard; Meissner, Simon; Finke, Christian H; Mandirola, Manlio; Preissner, Saskia

2014-01-01

162

Current and Emerging Therapeutic Options in Adrenocortical Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare endocrine tumour, with variable prognosis, depending on tumour stage and time of diagnosis. The overall survival is five years from detection. Radical surgery is considered the therapy of choice in the first stages of ACC. However postoperative disease-free survival at 5 years is only around 30% and recurrence rates are frequent. o,p'DDD (ortho-, para'-, dichloro-, diphenyl-, dichloroethane, or mitotane), an adrenolytic drug with significant toxicity and unpredictable therapeutic response, is used in the treatment of ACC. Unfortunately, treatment for this aggressive cancer is still ineffective. Over the past years, the growing interest in ACC has contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies in order to contrast the neoplastic spread. In this paper we discuss the most promising therapies which can be used in this endocrine neoplasia. PMID:22934112

Stigliano, Antonio; Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Bucci, Barbara; Toscano, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

163

Expanding therapeutic options: Devices and the treatment of refractory epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative treatments to anticonvulsants and resective surgery are needed for patients with refractory epilepsy. The renewed\\u000a interest in brain stimulation and device therapy is exciting and is based on expanding human and animal research. Many important\\u000a questions remain, such as where and how the stimuli should be applied. If we assume that neural networks are responsible for\\u000a seizure generation and

Steven Karceski; Paul Mullin

2004-01-01

164

Testosterone treatment comes of age: new options for hypogonadal men.  

PubMed

Male hypogonadism is one of the most frequent, but also most underdiagnosed, endocrinopathies. However, the required testosterone treatment is simple and very effective if properly administered. Although testosterone has been available for clinical use for seven decades, until quite recently the treatment modalities were far from ideal. Subdermal testosterone pellets require minor surgery for insertion and often cause local problems. The injectable testosterone enanthate, for a long period the most frequently used mode of administration, lasts for two to four weeks, but produces supraphysiological levels initially and low levels before the next injection. The oral testosterone undecanoate has to be taken three times daily, has an uncertain absorption pattern and results in peaks and valleys of serum testosterone levels throughout the day. With the advent of transdermal testosterone preparations, the desired physiological serum levels could be achieved for the first time. Scrotal testosterone patches were the first to fulfil this requirement. These were followed by nonscrotal skin patches, which, however, cause considerable skin reactions including erythema and blisters. Recently introduced, invisible transdermal testosterone gels increased the intervals of application and are now slowly replacing other modalities. A mucoadhesive buccal testosterone tablet with sustained release is also a recent competing modality. Finally, injectable testosterone undecanoate in castor oil was made into a real depot preparation requiring only four injections per year for replacement therapy. These new preparations with a desired pharmacokinetic testosterone profile give the patient a real choice and make treatment easier. Based on pharmacogenetic considerations taking the androgen receptor polymorphism into account, treatment may be individualized for each patient in the future. PMID:16918944

Nieschlag, Eberhard

2006-09-01

165

Treatment options for tank farms long-length contaminated equipment  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated a variety of treatment and disposal technologies for mixed waste (MW) meeting the following criteria: 1. Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank System (tank farms) equipment and other debris; 2. length greater than 12 feet; and contaminated with listed MW from the tank farms. This waste stream, commonly referred to as tank farms long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE), poses a unique and costly set of challenges during all phases of the waste management lifecycle.

Josephson, W.S.

1995-10-16

166

Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options  

SciTech Connect

The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

1984-09-01

167

Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Patients with Relapsed Myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic disorder. It results from proliferation of clonal plasma cells in bone marrow with production of monoclonal proteins, which are detectable in serum or urine. MM is clinically characterized by destructive bone lesions, anemia, hypercalcemia and renal insufficiency. Its prognosis is severe, with a median survival after diagnosis of approximately 3 years due to frequent relapses. Treatments for patients with relapsed/refractory MM include hematopoietic cell transplantation, a rechallenge using a previous chemotherapy regimen or a trial of a new regimen. The introduction of new drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib has markedly improved MM outcomes. When relapse occurs, the clinician’s challenge is to select the optimal treatment for each patient while balancing efficacy and toxicity. Patients with indolent relapse can be first treated with a 2-drug or a 3-drug combination. Patients with more aggressive relapse often require therapy with a combination of multiple active agents. Autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered as salvage therapy at first relapse for patients who have cryopreserved stem cells early in the disease course. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the pharmacological and molecular action of treatments used for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. PMID:24179412

Castelli, Roberto; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Orofino, Nicola; Losurdo, Agnese; Gandolfi, Sara; Cugno, Massimo

2013-01-01

168

Acquired hemophilia a: diagnosis, aetiology, clinical spectrum and treatment options.  

PubMed

Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 per million/year with a high mortality rate of more than 20%. The disease occurs due to autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) which neutralize its procoagulant function and result in severe, often life-threatening bleeding. The antibodies arise in individuals with no prior history of hemophilia A. AHA may be associated with pregnancy, autoimmune diseases, malignancy, infections or medication and occurs most commonly in the elderly. Approximately 50% of the patients remain idiopathic with no known underlying pathological condition. Clinical manifestations include spontaneous hemorrhages into the skin, muscles or soft tissues or excessive bleeding during surgery. Hemarthrosis which is the hallmark of congenital severe hemophilia A seldom occurs in AHA. The diagnosis of AHA is based on the isolated prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) which does not normalize after the addition of normal plasma along with reduced FVIII levels. The treatment involves two aspects-eradication of antibodies and maintaining effective hemostasis during a bleeding episode. The protocols for eradication of antibodies include immunoadsorption, immunosuppression or immune tolerance induction (ITI). The treatment of acute bleeding episodes involves use of different bypassing agents like recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa, NovoSeven®) and activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC, (FEIBA®) in case of patients with high titer inhibitors or with antifibrinolytics,1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) or FVIII concentrates in low titer inhibitor patients. The anti CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, has shown very good results either singly or in combination with immunosuppressive regimens in patients who do not respond to standard immunosuppressors. The present review summarizes the diagnostic, aetiological, clinical and treatment aspects of AHA focusing on the recent advances in this area. PMID:21115138

Shetty, Shrimati; Bhave, Manali; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

2011-04-01

169

Current and future systemic treatment options in metastatic pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Although pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer death, only modest improvement has been observed in the past two decades, single agent gemcitabine has been the only standard treatment in patients with advanced disease. Recently newer agents such as nab-paclitaxel, nimotuzumab and regimens such as FOLFIRINOX have been shown to have promising activity being superior to gemcitabine as a single agent. With better understanding of tumour biology coupled with the improvements in targeted and immunotherapies, there is increasing expectation for better response rates and extended survival in pancreatic cancer. PMID:25083302

Arslan, Cagatay

2014-01-01

170

Surgical treatment options for patella tendon rupture, part II: chronic.  

PubMed

Patella tendon rupture is a debilitating injury that often occurs in the setting of preexisting tendon degeneration. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent retraction of the patella with subsequent adhesions and quadriceps contractures. In the setting of a chronic rupture, augmentation with hamstring tendons or allograft reconstruction generally is necessary. Patients who undergo delayed repair are at risk for a compromised result secondary to loss of full knee flexion and decreased quadriceps strength, although a functional extensor mechanism is likely to be reestablished. Overall the results of chronic repair are less satisfactory than the acute repair, but still provide an extensor mechanism for the patient and thus provide function. PMID:16119741

Greis, Patrick E; Lahav, Amit; Holmstrom, Michael C

2005-08-01

171

New and emerging treatment options for chronic constipation.  

PubMed

Chronic constipation remains a therapeutic challenge for today's physicians. Traditional approaches include use of fiber, osmotic laxatives, stimulant laxatives, prokinetic agents, biofeedback training, and surgery. These often are tried sequentially and episodically and have little evidence of long-term efficacy. Patients often report inadequate relief of symptoms. There is room for improvement, therefore, in the therapy of chronic constipation. Future advances largely will be based on insights into the enteric nervous system (ENS), the structure and function of which is being revealed in great detail. Manipulating the ENS pharmacologically offers the opportunity to reprogram this key control system to improve bowel function. For example, interneurons in the ENS display 5-HT4 receptors, activation of which enhances the peristaltic reflex. Prokinetic agents that stimulate those receptors, such as tegaserod and prucalopride, have demonstrated efficacy as investigational agents for the treatment of chronic constipation in large studies. Less well studied investigational drugs with presumed activity in the ENS include opiate antagonists and the nerve growth factor neurotrophin-3. Both of these types of agents have been shown to be effective in small groups of patients with constipation. Another approach under development is to stimulate colonic fluid secretion by opening chloride channels in the epithelium pharmacologically. Existing non-pharmacological treatments that can be improved include biofeedback training for pelvic floor dysfunction and surgery. Future developments include investigation of electrical stimulation of the colon and use of stem cells to repopulate degenerated populations of neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal, or smooth muscle cells. PMID:15184816

Schiller, Lawrence R

2004-01-01

172

Dosimetric Study of Current Treatment Options for Radiotherapy in Retinoblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the best treatment technique for patients with retinoblastoma requiring radiotherapy to the whole eye. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for 3 patients with retinoblastoma were developed using 10 radiotherapy techniques including electron beams, photon beam wedge pair (WP), photon beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), photon volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and helical tomotherapy (HT). Dose-volume analyses were carried out for each technique. Results: All techniques provided similar target coverage; conformity was highest for VMAT, nine-field (9F) IMRT, and HT (conformity index [CI] = 1.3) and lowest for the WP and two electron techniques (CI = 1.8). The electron techniques had the highest planning target volume dose gradient (131% of maximum dose received [D{sub max}]), and the CRT techniques had the lowest (103% D{sub max}) gradient. The volume receiving at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20Gy}) for the ipsilateral bony orbit was lowest for the VMAT and HT techniques (56%) and highest for the CRT techniques (90%). Generally, the electron beam techniques were superior in terms of brain sparing and delivered approximately one-third of the integral dose of the photon techniques. Conclusions: Inverse planned image-guided radiotherapy delivered using HT or VMAT gives better conformity index, improved orbital bone and brain sparing, and a lower integral dose than other techniques.

Eldebawy, Eman [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Children's Cancer Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Parker, William, E-mail: william.parker@mcgill.ca [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Abdel Rahman, Wamied [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Freeman, Carolyn R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2012-03-01

173

Treatment Options: Biological Basis of Regenerative Endodontic Procedures  

PubMed Central

Dental trauma occurs frequently in children and often can lead to pulpal necrosis. The occurrence of pulpal necrosis in the permanent but immature tooth represents a challenging clinical situation since the thin and often short roots increase the risk of subsequent fracture. Current approaches for treating the traumatized immature tooth with pulpal necrosis do not reliably achieve the desired clinical outcomes, consisting of healing of apical periodontitis, promotion of continued root development and restoration of the functional competence of pulpal tissue. An optimal approach for treating the immature permanent tooth with a necrotic pulp would be to regenerate functional pulpal tissue. This review summarizes the current literature supporting a biological rationale for considering regenerative endodontic treatment procedures in treating the immature permanent tooth with pulp necrosis. PMID:23439043

Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Diogenes, Anibal; Teixeira, Fabricio B.

2013-01-01

174

Surgical treatment options for patella tendon rupture, Part I: Acute.  

PubMed

Patella tendon rupture is a debilitating injury. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent retraction of the patella with subsequent adhesions and quadriceps contractures. In a young patient with an acute rupture, primary repair usually is possible with various methods described to protect the repair. In acute injuries with inadequate tissue, augmentation with hamstring tendons or allograft generally is necessary. Because of the different types of rupture and the possibility for poor quality tissue, the surgeon should always be prepared to combine different techniques to obtain tthe best repair. Continuous passive motion generally can be initiated early with a secure repair. In patients with a patella tendon ruptured that is promptly diagnosed, securely repaired, and followed closely through their rehabilitation, good results can be expected. PMID:16119282

Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Lahav, Amit

2005-07-01

175

Oral antihyperglycemic treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Table 3 provides an overview of the oral antihyperglycemic drugs reviewed in this article. A 2011 meta-analysis by Bennett and colleagues found low or insufficient quality of evidence favoring an initial choice of metformin, SUs, glinides, TZDs, or (table see text) DPP-4 inhibitors (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, bromocriptine mesylate, and SGLT2 inhibitors were not included in this meta-analysis) with regard to the outcomes measures of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and mortality, and incidence of microvascular disease (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) in previously healthy individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM. Likewise, the Bennett and colleagues meta-analysis judged these drugs to be of roughly equal efficacy with regard to reduction of HbA1c (1%–1.6%) from the pretreatment baseline. The ADOPT clinical trial of 3 different and, at the time, popular, oral monotherapies for T2DM provides support for the consensus recommendation of metformin as first-line therapy. The ADOPT trial showed slightly superior HbA1c reduction for rosiglitazone compared with metformin, which was in turn superior to glyburide. However, significant adverse events, including edema, weight gain, and fractures, were more common in the rosiglitazone-treated patients. The implication of this trial is that the combination of low cost, low risk, minimal adverse effects, and efficacy of metformin justifies use of this agent as the cornerstone of oral drug treatment of T2DM. Judicious use of metformin in groups formerly thought to be at high risk for lactic acidosis (ie, those with CHF, chronic kidney disease [eGFR >30 mL/min/1.73 m2], and the elderly) may be associated with mortality benefit rather than increased risk. Secondary and tertiary add-on drug therapy should be individualized based on cost, personal preferences, and overall treatment goals, taking into account the wishes and priorities of the patient. PMID:25456645

Brietzke, Stephen A

2015-01-01

176

Three-year follow-up results for non-surgical root canal therapy of idiopathic external root resorption on a maxillary canine with MTA: a case report  

PubMed Central

External root resorption (ERR) is an uncommon and intractable disease. Treatment alternatives are case-dependant and aim for the repair of the resorptive lesion and long-term retention of the tooth. A forty-year-old Asian female was diagnosed with idiopathic ERR on tooth #11 (the left maxillary canine) by CBCT. Non-surgical root canal therapy was completed with the aid of an operating microscope. The apical third of the root canal was filled with warm gutta-percha and the resorption defect was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). The periapical radiographs were taken immediately after operation, one-month follow-up, six-month follow-up and three-year follow-up, respectively. Clinically, the canine was asymptomatic, and no evidence of any further resorption was found. The six-month follow-up radiograph showed initial healing of the bony lesion, while the three-year follow-up radiograph manifested almost complete healing. MTA can be a superior material to be successfully used in the non-surgical treatment of ERR. CBCT is very useful for evaluating the true nature and severity of absorption lesions in root resorption. It is the first complete case report from China about non-surgical treatment of severe ERR along with a relatively long term follow-up. PMID:25031758

Huang, Zheng; Chen, Li-Li; Wang, Cong-Yi; Dai, Lin; Cheng, Bo; Sun, Jun; Sun, Jun

2014-01-01

177

Treatment options for depression and psychosis in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Neuropsychiatric symptoms are a frequent feature of advancing Parkinson's disease (PD). The reported prevalence of depression varies greatly between different studies but there is general consensus that between 40 and 50% of patients will be affected. Depression may antedate motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease and is usually of moderate or mild intensity. However, depression is of major impact on the quality of life in PD patients according to a recent survey. Drug-induced psychosis is one of the major therapeutic challenges in Parkinson's disease and may occur in up to 6% in otherwise uncomplicated de novo patients when first receiving dopaminergic therapy. It increases in frequency, in advanced disease and particularly in patients with dementia where up to 22% may be affected. There is an amazing lack of controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of antidepressants in clinical trials including more than 20 patients and assessing efficacy of antidepressants specifically in the context of mood changes in Parkinson's disease. A comprehensive literature search yielded only a total of 17 articles of which a majority included less than 20 patients and/or did not use valid depression ratings. The only randomized controlled trial was conducted more than 20 years ago using nortryptiline while no controlled trials were available on the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Studies assessing the antidepressant action of dopaminergic therapies are few and inconclusive. Thus, while tricyclic antidepressants or SSRIs are widely used in clinical practice, there is still a need for controlled clinical trials proving their efficacy specifically in parkinsonian depression. Three randomized controlled trials are now available assessing the efficacy of the atypical neuroleptics clozapine and olanzapine in the treatment of drug-induced psychosis. While clozapine is of proven efficacy at least in the short-term management of this complication without negative impact on the motor symptoms, olanzapine in currently used doses of 2.5 to 15 mg/d seems to aggravate motor symptoms with lesser effect on psychosis compared to clozapine. Currently, clozapine is the atypical neuroleptic of choice for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. PMID:11697683

Poewe, W; Seppi, K

2001-09-01

178

Severe alcoholic hepatitis-current concepts, diagnosis and treatment options  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic manifestation occurring from heavy alcohol ingestion. Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is histologically characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. Despite the wide range of severity at presentation, those with severe ASH (Maddrey’s discriminant function ? 32) typically present with fever, jaundice, and abdominal tenderness. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for AH and, in the milder forms, is sufficient for clinical recovery. Severe ASH may progress to multi-organ failure including acute kidney injury and infection. Thus, infection and renal failure have a major impact on survival and should be closely monitored in patients with severe ASH. Patients with severe ASH have a reported short-term mortality of up to 40%-50%. Severe ASH at risk of early death should be identified by one of the available prognostic scoring systems before considering specific therapies. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for severe ASH. When corticosteroids are contraindicated, pentoxifylline may be alternatively used. Responsiveness to steroids should be assessed at day 7 and stopping rules based on Lille score should come into action. Strategically, future studies for patients with severe ASH should focus on suppressing inflammation based on cytokine profiles, balancing hepatocellular death and regeneration, limiting activation of the innate immune response, and maintaining gut mucosal integrity. PMID:25349640

Kim, Won; Kim, Dong Joon

2014-01-01

179

Infective endocarditis: a review of the best treatment options.  

PubMed

Despite significant advances in antimicrobial therapy and an enhanced ability to diagnose and treat complications, infective endocarditis is still associated with substantial morbidity and mortality today, and its incidence has not decreased over the past decades. This apparent paradox may be explained by a progressive change in risk factors, leading to an evolution in its epidemiological and clinical features. In fact, new risk factors for endocarditis have emerged, such as intravenous drug abuse, diffusion of heart surgery procedures and prosthetic valve implantation, atherosclerotic valve disease in elderly patients, and nosocomial disease. Recently identified microorganisms (including Bartonella spp., Abiotrophia defectiva, and the HACEK group of bacteria [including Haemophilus spp., Actinobacillus spp., Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae]) are sometimes the cause of culture-negative endocarditis, and emerging resistant bacteria (such as methicillin- or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci) are becoming a new challenge for conventional antibiotic therapy. New therapeutic approaches need to be developed for the treatment of infective endocarditis caused by drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci, and some antimicrobial compounds recently introduced in clinical practice (such as streptogramins and oxazolidinones) may be an effective alternative, but further clinical studies are needed in order to confirm their effectiveness and safety. This review should help redefine the best therapeutic and preventive strategies against infective endocarditis. PMID:15330728

Calza, Leonardo; Manfredi, Roberto; Chiodo, Francesco

2004-09-01

180

Ebola virus: Melatonin as a readily available treatment option.  

PubMed

There is currently an urgent need for a viable, cheap, and readily available treatment for the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa. Here, it is proposed that melatonin may have significant utility in helping the management of this outbreak. Optimizing natural killer (NK) cell responses seems crucial to surviving Ebola virus infection. Melatonin increases NK cell cytotoxicity significantly, suggesting efficacy in managing the Ebola virus. Under conditions of challenge, melatonin increases heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which inhibits Ebola virus replication. Melatonin also has protective effects in cases of septic shock, which, although bacterial, has similar end-point presentations involving blood vessel leakage. Melatonin's effects on haemorrhage are mediated primarily by a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines. By optimizing the appropriate immune response, melatonin is likely to afford protection to those at high risk of Ebola viral infection, as well as having direct impacts on the course of infection per se. Although no direct data pertain to the utility of melatonin in the management of the Ebola virus, convergent bodies of data suggest its utility, which is reviewed in this article. J. Med. Virol. 87:537-543, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25611054

Anderson, George; Maes, Michael; Markus, Regina P; Rodriguez, Moses

2015-04-01

181

Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake  

SciTech Connect

Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

Lee, Hom-Ti [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

1996-04-01

182

Severe alcoholic hepatitis-current concepts, diagnosis and treatment options.  

PubMed

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic manifestation occurring from heavy alcohol ingestion. Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is histologically characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. Despite the wide range of severity at presentation, those with severe ASH (Maddrey's discriminant function ? 32) typically present with fever, jaundice, and abdominal tenderness. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for AH and, in the milder forms, is sufficient for clinical recovery. Severe ASH may progress to multi-organ failure including acute kidney injury and infection. Thus, infection and renal failure have a major impact on survival and should be closely monitored in patients with severe ASH. Patients with severe ASH have a reported short-term mortality of up to 40%-50%. Severe ASH at risk of early death should be identified by one of the available prognostic scoring systems before considering specific therapies. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for severe ASH. When corticosteroids are contraindicated, pentoxifylline may be alternatively used. Responsiveness to steroids should be assessed at day 7 and stopping rules based on Lille score should come into action. Strategically, future studies for patients with severe ASH should focus on suppressing inflammation based on cytokine profiles, balancing hepatocellular death and regeneration, limiting activation of the innate immune response, and maintaining gut mucosal integrity. PMID:25349640

Kim, Won; Kim, Dong Joon

2014-10-27

183

Mechanisms, risks, and new treatment options for hyponatremia.  

PubMed

Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and longer hospital stays. Because patients with this disorder are often asymptomatic, hyponatremia is frequently undiagnosed and untreated. Serious neurologic complications may ensue when hyponatremia develops too rapidly or the serum sodium concentration ([Na(+)]) falls below 120 mEq/l. Hypotonic dilutional hyponatremia is the most common form of this disorder, which may present as euvolemic [e.g., due to failure to suppress secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP)] or hypervolemic (due to edema-forming conditions such as heart failure). Hypovolemic hyponatremia is due to conditions promoting renal or extrarenal sodium loss. Because AVP, which is intimately involved in regulating osmolar homeostasis, is often elevated in patients with hypervolemic and euvolemic hyponatremia, treatments that directly target the effects of this hormone may provide a more predictable correction of serum [Na(+)] than those traditionally used. The AVP receptor antagonists (conivaptan, tolvaptan, lixivaptan, and satavaptan) are a new class of agents that have been shown to normalize serum [Na(+)] by promoting aquaresis - the electrolyte-sparing excretion of free water. PMID:18434717

Ghali, Jalal K

2008-01-01

184

Targeting metastatic colorectal cancer – present and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Metastatic colorectal cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and around the world. While several novel cytotoxic and biologic therapies have been developed and proven efficacious in the past two decades, their optimal use in terms of patient selection, drug combinations, and regimen sequences has yet to be defined. Recent investigations regarding anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapies include the comparison of single-agent panitumumab and cetuximab, the benefit of adding cetuximab to chemotherapy in the conversion therapy setting, the comparison of cetuximab and bevacizumab when added to first-line chemotherapy, and predictive biomarkers beyond KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13) mutations. With respect to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies, new data on continuing bevacizumab beyond disease progression on a bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy regimen, the addition of bevacizumab to triplet chemotherapy in the first-line setting, maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus either capecitabine or erlotinib, the addition of aflibercept to chemotherapy, and regorafenib as monotherapy have emerged. Recent scientific and technologic advances in the field of metastatic colorectal cancer promise to elucidate the biological underpinnings of this disease and its therapies for the goal of improving personalized treatments for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:25045279

Ciombor, Kristen K; Berlin, Jordan

2014-01-01

185

Distal biceps tendon injuries--current treatment options.  

PubMed

Three percent of all biceps tendon ruptures occur at the distal aspect, where the tendon inserts into the radial tuberosity. Distal bicep tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males after an eccentric extension load is applied to the elbow. Patients usually complain of a sudden, sharp, and painful tearing sensation in the antecubital region, with a palpable defect. The biceps squeeze and hook tests are specific maneuvers by which to diagnose distal biceps ruptures on physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound maybe be helpful to distinguish between partial and complete tears. Anatomic studies suggest there are two distinct insertions for the short and long heads of the distal biceps. The short head may be a more powerful flexor, and the long head may be a more powerful supinator. Nonoperative treatment typically results in loss of flexion and supination strength and endurance. Early anatomic re-attachment is the goal. Surgical approaches include one- or two-incision techniques, and tendon fixation methods include the use of suture anchors, bone tunnels, an endobutton, or biotenodesis screws. Biomechanical studies have shown that endobuttons have higher load-to-failure strengths, compared to the other fixation methods. However, clinical studies have demonstrated that patients do well regardless of surgical approach or fixation method. Possible complications include nerve injuries, heterotopic ossification, postoperative fracture, tendon rerupture, complex regional pain syndrome, and wound infection. Partial ruptures are significantly less common and initially can be treated conservatively. Chronic tears are more difficult to treat because of possible tendon retraction and poor tissue quality. Tendon grafts using semitendinosus, fascia lata, hamstring, Achilles (calcaneal), or flexor carpi radialis have been successfully used for length restoration in these cases. PMID:20632985

Quach, Tony; Jazayeri, Reza; Sherman, Orrin H; Rosen, Jeffrey E

2010-01-01

186

Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update  

PubMed Central

In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

2012-01-01

187

Update on the pathogenic potential and treatment options for Blastocystis sp  

PubMed Central

Although Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites, there is still much controversy surrounding the pathogenicity and potential treatment options for this parasite. In this review we look at the evidence supporting Blastocystis as an intestinal pathogen as shown by numerous case studies and several in vivo studies and the evidence against. We describe the chronic nature of some infections and show the role of Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients and the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and Blastocystis infection. There have been several studies that have suggested that pathogenicity may be subtype related. Metronidazole is the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis but several cases of treatment failure and resistance have been described. Other treatment options which have been suggested include paromomycin and trimethroprim- sulfamethoxazole. PMID:24883113

2014-01-01

188

Treatment Options for Cardiovascular Disease Balaj Rai, Shaul Kushinsky, Eric Schott, Daniel Lee  

E-print Network

Treatment Options for Cardiovascular Disease Balaj Rai, Shaul Kushinsky, Eric Schott, Daniel Lee. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in America, causing approximately 33% of all deaths. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent type of CVD, accounting for approximately 66% of heart

Auerbach, Scott M.

189

Clinical review of treatment options for select nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a host of nonmotor symptoms, including psychosis, cognitive impairment, depression, sleep disturbance, swallowing disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, and autonomic dysfunction. The nonmotor symptoms of PD have the potential to be more debilitating than the motor features of the disorder.Objective: The aim of this article was to review treatment options for the nonmotor manifestations of

Lindy D. Wood; Joshua J. Neumiller; Stephen M. Setter; Erin K. Dobbins

2010-01-01

190

Current and emerging treatment options in triple-negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triple-negative breast cancer is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 expression with\\u000a immunohistochemical analysis. Triple-negative breast cancers are poorly differentiated, characterized by high histological\\u000a grade and occur at a younger age. Treatment options are limited as these tumors are naturally resistant to existing targeted\\u000a therapies, i.e., endocrine treatment and trastuzumab. An improved understanding of the

Omer Dizdar; Kadri Altundag

2010-01-01

191

Are You Blue? What Can You Do? A Case Study on Treatment Options for Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study introduces students to treatment alternatives for depression using a jigsaw method in which groups of students are divided up so that each member of the “home group” becomes the “resident expert” in one of five possible treatment options. Designed for a course in abnormal psychology, this case could be adapted for courses in physiological psychology, pharmacy, and neurobiology.

Grossman, Robert W.; Pettigrew, Amy; Walsh, Linda; Boje, Kathleen

2002-01-01

192

New treatment option for an incomplete vertical root fracture--a preliminary case report.  

PubMed

Instead of extraction this case report presents an alternative treatment option for a maxillary incisor with a vertical root fracture (VRF) causing pain in a 78-year-old patient. After retreatment of the existing root canal filling the tooth was stabilized with a dentine adhesive and a composite restoration. Then the tooth was extracted, the VRF gap enlarged with a small diamond bur and the existing retrograde root canal filling removed. The enlarged fracture line and the retrograde preparation were filled with a calcium-silicate-cement (Biodentine). Afterwards the tooth was replanted and a titanium trauma splint was applied for 12d. A 24 months clinical and radiological follow-up showed an asymptomatic tooth, reduction of the periodontal probing depths from 7 mm prior to treatment to 3 mm and gingival reattachment in the area of the fracture with no sign of ankylosis. Hence, the treatment of VRF with Biodentine seems to be a possible and promising option. PMID:24670232

Hadrossek, Paul Henryk; Dammaschke, Till

2014-01-01

193

Therapeutic Success of the Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Option for Epilepsy: a Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically evaluate therapeutic success of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a treatment option for epilepsy. Methods Using MEDLINE and Google Scholar search, we searched for studies investigating the therapeutic success of ketogenic diet for epilepsy. We estimated therapeutic success rate for ketogenic diet as a treatment option for epilepsy and its 95% CIs using generic inverse variance method. Findings A total of 38 studies met the inclusion criteria. In retrospective studies, the weighted success rate of the patients who take the KD as a treatment option for epilepsy was 58.4% (95% confidence interval (95%CI)=48.7% – 69.9%) at 3 months (n=336); 42.8% (95%CI =36.3% – 50.3%) at 6 months (n=492), and 30.1% (95%CI =24.3% – 37.2%) at 12 months (n=387); in prospective studies, weighted success rate was 53.9% (95%CI 45.5% – 63.8%) at 3 months (n=474); 53.2% (95%CI =44.0% – 64.2%) at 6 months (n=321), and 55.0% (95%CI =45.9% – 65.9%) at 12 months (n=347). Conclusion This meta-analysis provides formal statistical support for the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic patients. PMID:24910737

Li, Hai-feng; Zou, Yan; Ding, Gangqiang

2013-01-01

194

Operative and nonoperative treatment options for ACL tears in the adult patient: a conceptual review.  

PubMed

Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common among athletic individuals. Both nonoperative and operative treatment options exist. The optimal treatment of an adult with an ACL tear depends on several patient-specific factors, including age, occupation, and desired activity level. In less active patients with sedentary jobs, nonoperative management, consisting of physical therapy, bracing, and activity modification can yield successful results. In active patients who want to resume participation in jumping, cutting, or pivoting sports, patients who have physically demanding occupations, or patients who fail a trial of nonoperative management, ACL reconstruction is recommended. Reconstruction utilizing autograft tissue is preferred over allograft, especially in the younger athlete, but allograft tissue is a reasonable option in the older (aged > 40 years) and less active adult, as well. Successful results have been achieved with both patellar tendon and hamstring grafts. The optimal treatment in adult patients with ACL tears should be based on careful consideration of the patient's goals for return to activity, knee-specific comorbidities, such as coexistent meniscal pathology or osteoarthritis, and his or her willingness to follow a detailed rehabilitation regimen. Our article provides an overview of current nonoperative and operative treatment options for adults with ACL tears, considers the outcomes of both nonoperative and operative strategies, and provides general recommendations as to the ideal management for a given patient. PMID:24231595

Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Matava, Matthew J

2013-11-01

195

Current options and future possibilities for the treatment of dyskinesia and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Dyskinesia and motor fluctuations affect up to 90% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) within ten years of L-DOPA pharmacotherapy, and represent a major challenge to a successful clinical management of this disorder. There are currently two main treatment options for these complications, namely, deep brain electrical stimulation or continuous infusion of dopaminergic agents. The latter is achieved using either subcutaneous apomorphine infusion or enteric L-DOPA delivery. Some patients also benefit from the antidyskinetic effect of amantadine as an adjunct to L-DOPA treatment. Ongoing research in animal models of PD aims at discovering additional, novel treatment options that can either prevent or reverse dyskinesia and motor fluctuations. Alternative methods of continuous L-DOPA delivery (including gene therapy), and pharmacological agents that target nondopaminergic receptor systems are currently under intense experimental scrutiny. Because clinical response profiles show large individual variation in PD, an increased number of treatment options for dyskinesia and motor fluctuations will eventually allow for antiparkinsonian and antidyskinetic therapies to be tailor-made to the needs of different patients and/or PD subtypes. PMID:21838677

Cenci, M A; Ohlin, K E; Odin, P

2011-09-01

196

Informing patients about emerging treatment options: creating "saviour siblings" for haemopoietic stem cell transplant.  

PubMed

In June 2008, the ABC screened a television documentary involving a couple who decided to have an additional child in the hope of obtaining umbilical cord blood to treat their daughter who had leukaemia. The couple conceived naturally, meaning that there was a one in four chance that their child would be suitably matched. They seemed to be unaware of technologies that, if successful, could provide a near certainty that the next child would be a matched "saviour sibling". This story raises questions about whether clinicians have an obligation to discuss emerging and morally contentious treatment options. Ignorance of technology, assumptions about availability, and medical assessment of burdens and benefits may affect attitudes towards treatment options, but they do not justify non-disclosure of information. PMID:19413524

Strong, Kimberly A

2009-05-01

197

Arthroscopic treatment options for irreparable rotator cuff tears of the shoulder.  

PubMed

The management of patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons with the final treatment option in many algorithms being either a reverse shoulder arthroplasty or a tendon transfer. The long term results of these procedures are however still widely debated, especially in younger patients. A variety of arthroscopic treatment options have been proposed for patients with an irreparable rotator cuff tear without the presence of arthritis of the glenohumeral joint. These include a simple debridement with or without a biceps tenotomy, partial rotator cuff repair with or without an interval slide, tuberplasty, graft interposition of the rotator cuff, suprascapular nerve ablation, superior capsule reconstruction and insertion of a biodegradable spacer (Inspace) to depress the humeral head. These options should be considered as part of the treatment algorithm in patients with an irreparable rotator cuff and could be used as either as an interim procedure, delaying the need for more invasive surgery in the physiologically young and active, or as potential definitive procedures in the medically unfit. The aim of this review is to highlight and summarise arthroscopic procedures and the results thereof currently utilised in the management of these challenging patients. PMID:25405083

Anley, Cameron M; Chan, Samuel Kl; Snow, Martyn

2014-11-18

198

Current and emerging therapeutic options for the treatment of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Chagas’ disease is an endemic disease in Latin America caused by a unicellular parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi) that affects almost 18 million people. This condition involves the heart, causing heart failure, arrhythmias, heart block, thromboembolism, stroke, and sudden death. In this article, we review the current and emerging treatment of Chagas’ cardiomyopathy focusing mostly on management of heart failure and arrhythmias. Heart failure therapeutical options including drugs, stem cells and heart transplantation are revised. Antiarrhythmic drugs, catheter ablation, and intracardiac devices are discussed as well. Finally, the evidence for a potential role of specific antiparasitic treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular disease is reviewed. PMID:20730015

Muratore, Claudio A; Baranchuk, Adrian

2010-01-01

199

An update on new and emerging options for the treatment of vitiligo.  

PubMed

Vitiligo is an acquired leukoderma that results from the loss of epidermal melanocytes, and is characterized by macules and patches of depigmented skin. With a relatively high rate of prevalence, vitiligo occurs in localized, generalized, or segmental patterns; it can run a rapidly progressive course or remain stationary. The pathogenesis of vitiligo is not yet fully understood, but the autoimmune hypothesis is the most commonly accepted one, based on which, many treatment modalities have been described. Although many therapeutic options exist and new modalities are still emerging, treatment challenges persist, as not all patients respond to available therapies. Variables that affect the choice of treatment include the extent, distribution, and progression rate of the lesions. Another challenge is the lack of a standardized scoring system, which hampers the production of level 1a evidence studies for the treatment of this condition. PMID:18373041

Mahmoud, B H; Hexsel, C L; Hamzavi, I H

2008-03-01

200

A systematic review of active treatment options in patients with desmoid tumours  

PubMed Central

Introduction We conducted a systematic review to determine the optimal treatment options in patients with desmoid tumours who have declined observational management. Methods A search was conducted of the medline and embase databases (1990 to September 2012), the Cochrane Library, and relevant guideline Web sites and conference materials. Results One systematic review and forty-six studies met the preplanned study selection criteria; data from twenty-eight articles were extracted and analyzed. For local control, three studies reported a statistically significant difference in favour of surgery plus radiotherapy (rt) compared with surgery alone, and one study did not; two studies reported the lack of a statistical difference between surgery plus rt and rt alone in maintaining local control. Multivariate risk factors for local recurrence included positive surgical margins and young patient age. Single-agent imatinib led to a progression-free survival rate of 55% at 2 years and 58% at 3 years. Methotrexate plus vinblastine led to a progression-free survival rate of 67% at 10 years. Significant toxicities were reported for all treatment modalities, including surgical morbidity, and rt- and chemotherapy-related toxicities. Conclusions In patients who have declined observational management, the local control rate was higher with surgery plus rt than with surgery alone. However, the additional rt-related complications should be considered in treatment decision-making. Surgery, rt, and systemic therapy are all reasonable treatment options for patients with desmoid tumours. PMID:25089111

Yao, X.; Corbett, T.; Gupta, A.A.; Kandel, R.A.; Verma, S.; Werier, J.; Ghert, M.

2014-01-01

201

Treatment options of untreatable traumatized anterior maxillary teeth for future use of dental implantation.  

PubMed

The anterior maxilla is the most traumatized region during childhood. Posttraumatic complications occasionally lead to tooth loss as well as the need for future implants. Unfortunately, it is contraindicated to place dental implants during childhood. A waiting period of approximately 8 to 10 years before completion of growth is required. For this patient to become a candidate for future dental implants, it is necessary to ensure the continuous growth and to preserve the dimensions of the alveolar process until growth has ceased from time of injury until joint maturation. To achieve these goals, it is essential to coordinate the treatment sequence at the time of trauma. After loss of a traumatized anterior permanent maxillary incisor in young adults, treatment options are limited: orthodontic closure of the gap and reshaping the adjacent teeth, or tooth extraction and maintaining the gap with a temporary restoration. Orthodontic space closure has limited indications and requires prosthetic restoration of at least 2 teeth. Extraction and temporary restoration will usually lead to bone augmentation before implantation. Other possible treatment options include orthodontic extrusion of the root remnant (in cases of untreatable root fracture or complicated crown-root fracture) and a temporary crown to serve the patient until the completion of growth and development, autogenous tooth transplantation, intentional extraction and immediate tooth replantation, distraction osteogenesis, and decoronation. Because general rules do not apply, individual treatment plans are necessary. PMID:15017299

Schwartz-Arad, Devorah; Levin, Liran; Ashkenazi, Malka

2004-03-01

202

Treatment options of untreatable traumatized anterior maxillary teeth for future use of dental implantation.  

PubMed

The anterior maxilla is the most traumatized region during childhood. Posttraumatic complications occasionally lead to tooth loss as well as the need for future implants. Unfortunately, it is contraindicated to place dental implants during childhood. A waiting period of approximately 8 to 10 years before completion of growth is required. For this patient to become a candidate for future dental implants, it is necessary to ensure the continuous growth and to preserve the dimensions of the alveolar process until growth has ceased from time of injury until joint maturation. To achieve these goals, it is essential to coordinate the treatment sequence at the time of trauma. After loss of a traumatized anterior permanent maxillary incisor in young adults, treatment options are limited: orthodontic closure of the gap and reshaping the adjacent teeth, or tooth extraction and maintaining the gap with a temporary restoration. Orthdontic space closure has limited indications and requires prosthetic restoration of at least 2 teeth. Extraction and temporary restoration will usually lead to bone augmentation before implantation. Other possible treatment options include orthodontic extrusion of the root remnant (in cases of untreatable root fracture or complicated crown-root fracture) and a temporary crown to serve the patient until the completion of growth and development, autogenous tooth transplantation, intentional extraction and immediate tooth replantation, distraction osteogenesis, and decoronation. Because general rules do not apply, individual treatment plans are necessary. PMID:15179087

Schwartz-Arad, Devorah; Levin, Liran; Ashkenazi, Malka

2004-06-01

203

Comparison of treatment options for removal of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter from paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

Recycling paper mill effluent by conventional water treatment is difficult due to the persistence of salt and recalcitrant organics. Elimination of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from paper mill effluent was studied using three treatment options, ion exchange resin (IER), granular activated carbon (GAC) and nanofiltration (NF). The removal efficiency was analysed based on hydrophobicity, molecular weight and fluorogenic origin of the DOM fractions. For IER, GAC and NF treatments, overall removal of dissolved organic carbon was 72%, 76% and 91%, respectively. Based on the hydrophobicity, all the three treatment methods majorly removed hydrophobic acid fractions (HPhoA). Further, IER acted on all fractions, 57% of HPhoA, 44% of transphilic acid and 18% of hydrophilics, substantiating that the removal is by both ion exchange and adsorption. Based on the molecular weight, IER and GAC treatments acted majorly on the high molecular weight fractions, whereas NF eliminated all molecular weight fractions. After GAC adsorption, some amount of humic hydrolysates and low molecular weight neutrals persisted in the effluent. After IER treatment, amount of low molecular weight compounds increased due to resin leaching. Qualitative analysis of fluorescence excitation emission matrices showed that the fulvic acid-like fluorophores were more recalcitrant among the various DOM fractions, considerable amount persisted after all the three treatment methods. Three treatment methods considerably differed in terms of removing different DOM fractions; however, a broad-spectrum process like NF would be needed to achieve the maximum elimination. PMID:20630562

Ciputra, Sandra; Antony, Alice; Phillips, Ross; Richardson, Des; Leslie, Greg

2010-09-01

204

Surgical treatment of trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis is a common cause of radial-sided wrist pain that prevalently affects women. It is diagnosed on the basis of a thorough history, physical examination, and radiographic evaluation. While radiographs are used to determine the stage of disease, treatment is dependent on the severity of the symptoms. Non-surgical treatment frequently consists of activity modification, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, splinting and corticosteroid injections. After failure of conservative treatment, various surgical options exist depending on the stage of the disease. These options range from ligament reconstruction or osteotomy, for early painful laxity, to trapeziectomy, arthrodesis and arthroplasty for more severe osteoarthritis. This article reviews the literature supporting the various surgical treatment options and analyzes the surgical techniques most frequently used in the different disease stages.

TACCARDO, GIUSEPPE; DE VITIS, ROCCO; PARRONE, GIUSEPPE; MILANO, GIUSEPPE; FANFANI, FRANCESCO

2013-01-01

205

Integrating algaculture into small wastewater treatment plants: process flow options and life cycle impacts.  

PubMed

Algaculture has the potential to be a sustainable option for nutrient removal at wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this study was to compare the environmental impacts of three likely algaculture integration strategies to a conventional nutrient removal strategy. Process modeling was used to determine life cycle inventory data and a comparative life cycle assessment was used to determine environmental impacts. Treatment scenarios included a base case treatment plant without nutrient removal, a plant with conventional nutrient removal, and three other cases with algal unit processes placed at the head of the plant, in a side stream, and at the end of the plant, respectively. Impact categories included eutrophication, global warming, ecotoxicity, and primary energy demand. Integrating algaculture prior to activated sludge proved to be most beneficial of the scenarios considered for all impact categories; however, this scenario would also require primary sedimentation and impacts of that unit process should be considered for implementation of such a system. PMID:24834441

Steele, Muriel M; Anctil, Annick; Ladner, David A

2014-05-01

206

Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis and Its Treatment Options: Case Reports and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Generalized aggressive periodontitis results in rapid destruction of the periodontium and can lead to early tooth loss in the affected individuals if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. The diagnostic features of the disease are characteristic, but the clinical presentation and patterns of destructions may vary between patients. Successful management of the disease is challenging especially if diagnosed at advanced stages of the disease, but not impossible with the current therapeutic choices for the disease. A vast array of treatment modalities is available which can be employed in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis with varying success rates, but a definite guideline for the management is yet to be formulated. However, with the exponential rate of developments in periodontal research, regenerative therapy, tissue engineering, and genetic technologies, the future seems promising in regard to options at managing the disease. This paper attempts to describe the clinical and radiographic diagnostic features and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol for comprehensive management of generalized aggressive periodontitis patients with case reports and a brief review. PMID:22291715

Roshna, T.; Nandakumar, K.

2012-01-01

207

All Roads Lead to Rome: Update on Rome III Criteria and New Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

The recently published Rome III criteria reflect current understanding of functional gastrointestinal disorders. These criteria include definitions of these conditions and their pathophysiologic subtypes and offer guidelines for their management. At the 2006 Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology, a panel of experts discussed these criteria as they pertain to irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and chronic constipation. This article reviews the panel’s findings, highlights the differences between the Rome II and III criteria, and summarizes best treatment options currently available to practitioners and their patients. PMID:21544252

Shih, David Q.; Kwan, Lola Y.

2010-01-01

208

Current endovascular treatment options for central retinal arterial occlusion: a review.  

PubMed

Central retinal artery occlusion, although relatively rare, is an ophthalmological emergency. If left untreated, complete blindness will ensue. Conventional therapies have not significantly improved outcomes compared with the natural history of the disease. Several case series of more recent endovascular approaches, such as intraarterial fibrinolysis, report successful outcomes. Still other studies regarding intraarterial fibrinolysis do not demonstrate any significantly better outcomes, with some even indicating increased complication rates. Therefore, the authors present a review of the current endovascular treatment options for central retinal artery occlusion. PMID:24380484

Agarwal, Nitin; Gala, Nihar B; Karimi, Reza J; Turbin, Roger E; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

2014-01-01

209

Cancer in pregnancy. Part II: treatment options of breast and other non-gynecological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In case of non-gynecological solid tumors and hematological malignancies diagnosed during pregnancy, individual diagnostic\\u000a and treatment options must be established by an interdisciplinary team.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In part II of the present review we report on diagnostic and therapeutic principles in distinct entities of solid and hematological\\u000a malignancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  On the basis of a review of the current literature, clinical guidelines and algorithms

Friederike Hoellen; Roland Reibke; Katrin Hornemann; Marc Thill; Doerte W. Luedders; Katharina Kelling; Amadeus Hornemann; Michael K. Bohlmann

210

Are we taking full advantage of the growing number of pharmacological treatment options for osteoporosis?  

PubMed

We are becoming increasingly aware that the manner in which our skeleton ages is not uniform within and between populations. Pharmacological treatment options with the potential to combat age-related reductions in skeletal strength continue to become available on the market, notwithstanding our current inability to fully utilize these treatments by accounting for an individual's unique biomechanical needs. Revealing new molecular mechanisms that improve the targeted delivery of pharmaceuticals is important; however, this only addresses one part of the solution for differential age-related bone loss. To improve current treatment regimes, we must also consider specific biomechanical mechanisms that define how these molecular pathways ultimately impact whole bone fracture resistance. By improving our understanding of the relationship between molecular and biomechanical mechanisms, clinicians will be better equipped to take full advantage of the mounting pharmacological treatments available. Ultimately this will enable us to reduce fracture risk among the elderly more strategically, more effectively, and more economically. In this interest, the following review summarizes the biomechanical basis of current treatment strategies while defining how different biomechanical mechanisms lead to reduced fracture resistance. It is hoped that this may serve as a template for the identification of new targets for pharmacological treatments that will enable clinicians to personalize care so that fracture incidence may be globally reduced. PMID:24747363

Jepsen, Karl J; Schlecht, Stephen H; Kozloff, Kenneth M

2014-06-01

211

Systemic antimicrobial therapy (minocycline) as an adjunct to non-surgical approach to recurrent chronic generalized gingival hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Systemic antibiotic treatment has emerged as a powerful adjunct to conventional mechanical debridement for therapeutic management of the periodontal diseases. The conceptual basis for treating periodontal diseases as infections is particularly attractive in part because of substantial data indicating that these diseases may be associated with specific putative pathogens. Further, discrete groups of patients respond well to systemic antibiotics and exhibit improvement of clinical parameters, including attachment level and inflammation. This bacterial-host interaction, which is ever-so-present in periodontitis, directs us toward utilizing antimicrobial agents along with the routine mechanical debridement. This case report presents a case of a female patient with recurrence of the chronic generalized periodontitis with gingival enlargement, which is treated thrice by referral dentist. A through clinical examination was carried out pre-operatively and treatment was planned with systemic minocycline in conjunction with the conventional non-surgical approach. There was a significant reduction of pocket depth, gain in attachment with dramatic improvement clinically. PMID:24872639

Khatri, Parag M.; Bacha, Shraddanand

2014-01-01

212

Evaluation of nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne vulgaris according to treatment options.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne during treatments with tetracycline and isotretinoin. Swab specimens were taken from the right and left nasal cavities and oropharynx of 55 patients with acne and 20 healthy volunteers who were admitted to the dermatology department (Etlik Educational and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey) before the administration of treatment and in the third month of treatment. Study participants were divided into four groups as follows: patients with acne on topical treatment only, systemic isotretinoin, and systemic tetracycline, and the control group. Of 55 patients with acne, 18 were male and 37 were female. The mean age of the patients and the control group was 22.21 ± 4.22 and 21.95 ± 7.64, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the nasal flora of five patients, normal flora was suppressed in the oropharyngeal cultures of seven patients, and normal flora grew in the cultures of the other 20 patients who were on tetracycline treatment. On the other hand, normal flora grew in the nasal and oropharyngeal cultures of all the patients who were on isotretinoin treatment. Treatment options and follow-up procedures for acne vulgaris may lead to the development of bacterial resistance and damage to flora. In particular, systemic tetracycline treatment leads to changes in flora of the nose and throat in patients with acne with an increased carriage of S. aureus. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to the duration of tetracycline treatment in order to not increase the risk of disturbance of microbial flora. PMID:24961291

Ozuguz, P?nar; Callioglu, Elif E; Tulaci, Kamil G; Kacar, Seval D; Balta, Ilknur; Asik, Gulsah; Karatas, Serap; Karaca, Semsettin

2014-11-01

213

Hastening death by selective disclosure of treatment options--beneficence or "euthanasia by deception"?  

PubMed

In this paper I make a radical claim regarding selective non-disclosure of treatment options that have some hope of prolonging a patient's life. I suggest that selective non-disclosure under such circumstances is tantamount to what might be called "euthanasia by deception." I offer a case to test the validity of my claim and to demonstrate how the failure to offer or, at least, to discuss renal dialysis in this case (and, by inference, any other form of treatment which has some hope of prolonging a patient's life) qualifies as paternalism in its most egregious form. I discuss the actions of the health care team and try to find some plausible reasons why they acted as they did. I conclude that there must be greater emphasis placed on teaching clinicians how better to incorporate frank, open and on-going discussion about the central elements of the therapeutic relationship with patients long before they lose decisional capacity. PMID:15565978

Loewy, Roberta Springer

2004-09-01

214

Hand infections: anatomy, types and spread of infection, imaging findings, and treatment options.  

PubMed

Infections of the hand are common, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and can lead to significant morbidity, including amputation, if not treated properly. Hand infection can spread far and wide from the original site of inoculation through interconnections between the synovium-lined and nonsynovial potential spaces. Because surgery is the mainstay of treatment, knowledge of the pertinent anatomy is imperative for accurately describing the presence, location, and extent of infection. The authors review the pertinent anatomy of the spaces of the hand and describe different types of infection-including cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, paronychia, felon, pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis, deep space infections, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis-and common causative organisms of these infections. They also describe various modes of spread; the common radiologic appearances of hand infections, with emphasis on findings at magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography; and the role of radiology in the management of these infections, along with a brief overview of treatment options. PMID:25384296

Patel, Dakshesh B; Emmanuel, Neelmini B; Stevanovic, Milan V; Matcuk, George R; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; White, Eric A

2014-01-01

215

Surgical Treatment Options for the Young and Active Middle-Aged Patient with Glenohumeral Arthritis  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic chondral lesions in young and active middle-aged patients continues to be a challenging issue. Surgeons must differentiate between incidental chondral lesions from symptomatic pathology that is responsible for the patient's pain. A thorough history, physical examination, and imaging work up is necessary and often results in a diagnosis of exclusion that is verified on arthroscopy. Treatment of symptomatic glenohumeral chondral lesions depends on several factors including the patient's age, occupation, comorbidities, activity level, degree of injury and concomitant shoulder pathology. Furthermore, the size, depth, and location of symptomatic cartilaginous injury should be carefully considered. Patients with lower functional demands may experience success with nonoperative measures such as injection or anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. When conservative management fails, surgical options are broadly classified into palliative, reparative, restorative, and reconstructive techniques. Patients with lower functional demands and smaller lesions are best suited for simpler, lower morbidity palliative procedures such as debridement (chondroplasty) and cartilage reparative techniques (microfracture). Those with higher functional demands and large glenohumeral defects will usually benefit more from restorative techniques including autograft or allograft osteochondral transfers and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Reconstructive surgical options are best suited for patients with bipolar lesions. PMID:22536515

Bhatia, Sanjeev; Hsu, Andrew; Lin, Emery C.; Chalmers, Peter; Ellman, Michael; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.

2012-01-01

216

Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods  

SciTech Connect

The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

Dziewinski, J.J.

1998-09-28

217

Treatment options in recurrent ovarian cancer: latest evidence and clinical potential.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women. Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of OC, the majority of patients experience disease recurrence and receive second-line and sometimes several lines of treatment. Here we review the options available for the treatment of recurrent disease and discuss how different agents are selected, combined and offered in a rationale sequence in the context of multidisciplinary care. We reviewed published work between 1990 and 2013 and meeting abstracts related to the use of chemotherapy and surgery in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. We discuss treatment regimens, efficacy endpoints and safety profiles of the different therapies. Platinum-based drugs are the most active agents and are selected on the basis of a probability of response to retreatment. Nonplatinum-based chemotherapy regimens are usually given in the 'platinum-resistant' setting and have a modest effect on outcome. Molecular targeted therapy of ovarian cancer given alone or integrated with chemotherapy is showing promising results. Many patients are now receiving more than one line of therapy for recurrent disease, usually platinum based until platinum resistance emerges. The sequential use of chemotherapy regimens and the incorporation of molecularly targeted treatments, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, have over the last decade significantly extended the median survival of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:25342990

Luvero, Daniela; Milani, Andrea; Ledermann, Jonathan A

2014-09-01

218

Thermal tolerance of the invasive oyster Crassostrea gigas: feasibility of heat treatment as an antifouling option.  

PubMed

Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas are traditionally considered shellfish of great fishery and aquaculture value. For these reasons they are introduced worldwide. Recently there has been increasing reports about the prevalence of C. gigas as biofouling organism in cooling water systems. In the absence of relevant data on the susceptibility of oysters to commonly employed antifouling techniques such as heat treatment, it was presumed that oysters would be controlled by treatment programmes directed against other major fouling organisms. The present study was carried out to test the above hypothesis, and results showed that C. gigas has an upper temperature tolerance that is much higher than other major marine fouling animals including blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Apparently, temperature regimes presently used in heat treatment of cooling water systems fouled by mussels need to be increased, if C. gigas are to be controlled effectively. Our results also indicate that previous exposure of C. gigas to sublethal high temperatures could make them more resistant to subsequent thermal treatment, an aspect that should be taken into account when heat treatment is used as a fouling control option against oyster fouling. PMID:16216297

Rajagopal, Sanjeevi; van der Velde, Gerard; Jansen, Jeroen; van der Gaag, Marinus; Atsma, Guido; Janssen-Mommen, Joke P M; Polman, Harry; Jenner, Henk A

2005-11-01

219

Nitroglycerin patch for the treatment of chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis: a new therapeutic option.  

PubMed

Chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis (CNH) is an inflammatory process that affects the skin and cartilage of the ear. At present, there are many treatment options, although they are not always effective. Based on previous studies where nitroglycerin 2% gel was used, we propose the use of nitroglycerin patches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nitroglycerin patches in treating CNH. We performed a prospective study in 11 patients diagnosed with CNH treated with nitroglycerin patches 5?mg, 12 hours a day for 2 months. The therapeutic effectivity was determined by the improvement in the appearance and symptoms of the lesion. Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) had a complete response. One of 11 patients (9%) did not respond completely and surgical treatment was performed. Two of 11 patients (18.1%) stopped the treatment because of headache. One of 11 patients (9%) did not complete the treatment because the said patient forgot to apply the patch every night. Transdermal nitroglycerin has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of the symptoms and lesional appearance of CNH noninvasive manner. The success rate is comparable with other published methods and the rate of adverse effects is acceptable. PMID:24909052

Garrido Colmenero, Cristina; Martínez García, Eliseo; Blasco Morente, Gonzalo; Tercedor Sánchez, Jesús

2014-01-01

220

Surgical strategies and modern therapeutic options in the treatment of craniopharyngiomas.  

PubMed

The optimal treatment of patients with craniopharyngioma remains controversial. In particular, the role of aggressive treatment compared to less aggressive therapeutic options is poorly understood. Radical resection is the therapy of choice at any age, because it is associated with the best outcome in terms of survival. Nevertheless, aggressive behaviour, location, involvement of critical structures, tumour size, calcifications, and patient age may limit the extent of resection. Surgery can also carry significant morbidity in terms of visual, hypothalamic, and endocrinological disturbances. Long term sequelae reduce the quality of life in 50% of long-term survivors, notably obesity and neurobehavioral impairment due to hypthalamic involvement and iatrogenic induced lesions. The quality of life should be considered as a clinically important endpoint in patients, who currently experience good overall survival rates, regardless of the degree of surgical resection. Tendency to recur despite negative postoperative imaging led many authors to advocate a less aggressive surgical treatment followed by radiation therapy. We review the data reported in the literature, especially early outcome after surgical treatment and factors affecting the risk of tumour recurrence, to elucidate the role of attempted radical resection in the treatment of craniopharyngioma and to identify the clinical and morphological characteristics predictive for the best surgical prognosis. PMID:23932582

Mortini, Pietro; Gagliardi, Filippo; Boari, Nicola; Losa, Marco

2013-12-01

221

Treatment options in recurrent ovarian cancer: latest evidence and clinical potential  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women. Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of OC, the majority of patients experience disease recurrence and receive second-line and sometimes several lines of treatment. Here we review the options available for the treatment of recurrent disease and discuss how different agents are selected, combined and offered in a rationale sequence in the context of multidisciplinary care. We reviewed published work between 1990 and 2013 and meeting abstracts related to the use of chemotherapy and surgery in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. We discuss treatment regimens, efficacy endpoints and safety profiles of the different therapies. Platinum-based drugs are the most active agents and are selected on the basis of a probability of response to retreatment. Nonplatinum-based chemotherapy regimens are usually given in the ‘platinum-resistant’ setting and have a modest effect on outcome. Molecular targeted therapy of ovarian cancer given alone or integrated with chemotherapy is showing promising results. Many patients are now receiving more than one line of therapy for recurrent disease, usually platinum based until platinum resistance emerges. The sequential use of chemotherapy regimens and the incorporation of molecularly targeted treatments, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, have over the last decade significantly extended the median survival of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:25342990

Luvero, Daniela; Milani, Andrea

2014-01-01

222

Treatment of midportion Achilles tendinopathy: an evidence-based overview.  

PubMed

In Achilles tendinopathy, differentiation should be made between paratendinopathy, insertional- and midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Midportion Achilles tendinopathy is clinically characterized by a combination of pain and swelling at the affected site, with impaired performance as an important consequence. The treatment of midportion Achilles tendinopathy contains both non-surgical and surgical options. Eccentric exercise has shown to be an effective treatment modality. Promising results are demonstrated for extracorporeal shockwave therapy. In terms of the surgical treatment of midportion Achilles tendinopathy, no definite recommendations can be made. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV. PMID:25366192

Zwiers, Ruben; Wiegerinck, Johannes I; van Dijk, C Niek

2014-11-01

223

The retina dose-area histogram: a metric for quantitatively comparing rival eye plaque treatment options  

PubMed Central

Purpose Episcleral plaques have a history of over a half century in the delivery of radiation therapy to intraocular tumors such as choroidal melanoma. Although the tumor control rate is high, vision-impairing complications subsequent to treatment remain an issue. Notable, late complications are radiation retinopathy and maculopathy. The obvious way to reduce the risk of radiation damage to the retina is to conform the prescribed isodose surface to the tumor base and to reduce the dose delivered to the surrounding healthy retina, especially the macula. Using a fusion of fundus photography, ultrasound and CT images, tumor size, shape and location within the eye can be accurately simulated as part of the radiation planning process. In this work an adaptation of the dose-volume histogram (DVH), the retina dose-area histogram (RDAH) is introduced as a metric to help compare rival plaque designs and conformal treatment planning options with the goal of reducing radiation retinopathy. Material and methods The RDAH is calculated by transforming a digitized fundus-photo collage of the tumor into a rasterized polar map of the retinal surface known as a retinal diagram (RD). The perimeter of the tumor base is digitized on the RD and its area computed. Area and radiation dose are calculated for every pixel in the RD. Results The areal resolution of the RDAH is a function of the pixel resolution of the raster image used to display the RD and the number of polygon edges used to digitize the perimeter of the tumor base. A practical demonstration is presented. Conclusions The RDAH provides a quantitative metric by which episcleral plaque treatment plan options may be evaluated and compared in order to confirm adequate dosimetric coverage of the tumor and margin, and to help minimize dose to the macula and retina. PMID:23634152

2013-01-01

224

Addressing the unmet needs of patients with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia: emerging pharmacological treatment options.  

PubMed

The negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent an impairment of normal emotional responses, thought processes and behaviors, and include blunting or flattening of affect, alogia/aprosody, avolition/apathy, anhedonia, and asociality. Negative symptoms contribute to a reduced quality of life, increased functional disability, increased burden of illness, and poorer long-term outcomes, to a greater degree than positive symptoms. Primary negative symptoms are prominent and persistent in up to 26% of patients with schizophrenia, and they are estimated to occur in up to 58% of outpatients at any given time. Negative symptoms respond less well to medications than positive symptoms, and to date treatment options for negative symptoms have been limited, with no accepted standard treatment. Modest benefits have been reported with a variety of different agents, including second-generation antipsychotics and add-on therapy with antidepressants and other pharmacological classes. Recent clinical research focusing on negative symptoms target novel biological systems, such as glutamatergic neurotransmission. Different approaches include: enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function with agents that bind directly to the glycine ligand site or with glycine reuptake inhibitors; influencing the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) with positive allosteric modulators; and stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In conclusion, the lack of clearly efficacious pharmacological treatments for the management of negative symptoms represents a significant unmet need, especially considering the importance of these symptoms on patient outcomes. Hence, further research to identify and characterize novel pharmacological treatments for negative symptoms is greatly needed. PMID:24855363

Chue, Pierre; Lalonde, Justine K

2014-01-01

225

Addressing the unmet needs of patients with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia: emerging pharmacological treatment options  

PubMed Central

The negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent an impairment of normal emotional responses, thought processes and behaviors, and include blunting or flattening of affect, alogia/aprosody, avolition/apathy, anhedonia, and asociality. Negative symptoms contribute to a reduced quality of life, increased functional disability, increased burden of illness, and poorer long-term outcomes, to a greater degree than positive symptoms. Primary negative symptoms are prominent and persistent in up to 26% of patients with schizophrenia, and they are estimated to occur in up to 58% of outpatients at any given time. Negative symptoms respond less well to medications than positive symptoms, and to date treatment options for negative symptoms have been limited, with no accepted standard treatment. Modest benefits have been reported with a variety of different agents, including second-generation antipsychotics and add-on therapy with antidepressants and other pharmacological classes. Recent clinical research focusing on negative symptoms target novel biological systems, such as glutamatergic neurotransmission. Different approaches include: enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function with agents that bind directly to the glycine ligand site or with glycine reuptake inhibitors; influencing the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) with positive allosteric modulators; and stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In conclusion, the lack of clearly efficacious pharmacological treatments for the management of negative symptoms represents a significant unmet need, especially considering the importance of these symptoms on patient outcomes. Hence, further research to identify and characterize novel pharmacological treatments for negative symptoms is greatly needed. PMID:24855363

Chue, Pierre; Lalonde, Justine K

2014-01-01

226

Horticultural Therapy: A Psychosocial Treatment Option at the Stephen D. Hassenfeld Children's Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality psychosocial care for patients undergoing treatment for hematol- ogy\\/oncology disorders and their families serves to reduce the inevitable disruptions in life experienced during treatment. Horticultural therapy, a process through which plants and gardening activities are used as vehicles in professionally conducted programs of therapy, is a program option that can address the psychosocial needs of patients in numerous medical

Gwenn G. Fried; Matthew J. Wichrowski

227

Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use.  

PubMed

Treatment of primarily-domestic sewage wastewater involves on-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal (BNR). BNR causes both direct emissions and loss of fertilizer value, thus eliminating possible reduction of emissions caused by fertilizer manufacture. In this study, we estimated on-site GHG emissions under different treatment scenarios, and present options for emission reduction by changing treatment methods, avoiding BNR and by recovering energy from biogas. Given a typical Israeli wastewater strength (1050mg CODl(-1)), the direct on-site GHG emissions due to energy use were estimated at 1618 and 2102g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively, at intermediate and tertiary treatment levels. A potential reduction of approximately 23-55% in GHG emissions could be achieved by fertilizer preservation and VS conversion to biogas. Wastewater fertilizers constituted a GHG abatement potential of 342g CO(2)-eq m(-3). The residual component that remained in the wastewater effluent following intermediate (oxidation ponds) and enhanced (mechanical-biological) treatments was 304-254g CO(2)-eq m(-3) and 65-34g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively. Raw sludge constituted approximately 47% of the overall wastewater fertilizers load with an abatement potential of 150g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (385kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)). Inasmuch as anaerobic digestion reduced it to 63g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (261kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)), the GHG abatement gained through renewable biogas energy (approx. 428g CO(2)-eq m(-3)) favored digestion. However, sludge composting reduced the fertilizer value to 17g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (121kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)) or less (if emissions, off-site inputs and actual phytoavailability were considered). Taking Israel as an example, fully exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential could reduce the State overall GHG emissions by almost 1%. This demonstrates the possibility of optional carbon credits which might be exploited in the construction of new wastewater treatment facilities, especially in developing countries. PMID:22209373

Fine, Pinchas; Hadas, Efrat

2012-02-01

228

Towards a complete recycling of phosphorus in wastewater treatment--options in Germany.  

PubMed

Global reserves of mineral phosphorus are finite and the recycling of phosphorus from wastewater, a significant sink for phosphorus, can contribute to a more sustainable use. In Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, an increasing percentage of municipal sewage sludge is incinerated and the contained phosphorus is lost. This paper reviews current technologies and shows that a complete phosphorus recovery from wastewater is technically feasible. Depending on the composition of the sewage sludge ash (SSA), there are various options for phosphorus recovery that are presented. Iron-poor SSAs can be used directly as substitute for phosphate rock in the electrothermal phosphorus process. SSAs with low heavy metal contents can be used as fertilizer without prior metal elimination. Ashes not suitable for direct recycling can be processed by thermal processes. Operators of wastewater treatment plants can additionally influence the ash composition via the selection of precipitants and the control of (indirect) dischargers. This way, they can choose the most suitable phosphorus recovery option. For sewage sludge that is co-incinerated in power plants, municipal waste incinerators or cement kilns phosphorus recovery is not possible. The phosphorus is lost forever. PMID:22053454

Petzet, S; Cornel, P

2011-01-01

229

Malignant melanoma in a grey horse: case presentation and review of equine melanoma treatment options  

PubMed Central

A 15 year-old grey Thoroughbred gelding presented for investigation of chronic weight loss and recent onset of respiratory difficulty. Clinical examination confirmed tachypnoea with increased respiratory effort. Thoracic ultrasound examination detected pleural effusion. The dyspnoea was related to the large volume of pleural effusion and, following post-mortem examination, to the presence of a large mediastinal mass. Multiple pigmented masses, likely melanomas, were detected peri-anally. Thoracic radiography, cytological examination of the pleural fluid and a fine needle aspirate of a thoracic mass led to a presumptive diagnosis of malignant melanoma and this was confirmed at post mortem examination. Further metastatic spread to the central nervous system and right guttural pouch was also identified. In conclusion this case manifests the potential malignant behaviour of equine melanomas, and a review of proposed therapies for melanoma treatment highlights the therapeutic options and current areas of research. PMID:24196087

2013-01-01

230

A review of the current management and treatment options for superficial venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

The recognition of lower extremity venous disease as a significant cause of morbidity and lower quality of life, afflicting up to 25 % of Western populations, has led to rapid and drastic improvements in treatment options as well as an increasing awareness of the disease. Superficial venous disease, a frequent medical problem encountered in clinical practices, is now a common reason for referral to providers offering a spectrum of interventions. Venous guidelines have been set forth by the American Venous Forum and Society for Vascular Surgery covering simple spider veins to chronic venous ulcerations. (Gloviczki et al. J Vas Surg 53:2S-48S, 2011) This review provides an overview of the modern management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency. PMID:24803347

Zhan, Henry T; Bush, Ruth L

2014-10-01

231

INVO Procedure: Minimally Invasive IVF as an Alternative Treatment Option for Infertile Couples  

PubMed Central

Intravaginal culture (IVC), also called INVO (intravaginal culture of oocytes), is an assisted reproduction procedure where oocyte fertilization and early embryo development are carried out within a gas permeable air-free plastic device, placed into the maternal vaginal cavity for incubation. In the present study we assessed the outcome of the INVO procedure, using the recently designed INVOcell device, in combination with a mild ovarian stimulation protocol. A total of 125 cycles were performed. On average 6.5 oocytes per cycle were retrieved, and a mean of 4.2 were placed per INVOcell device. The cleavage rate obtained after the INVO culture was 63%. The procedure yielded 40%, 31.2%, and 24% of clinical pregnancy, live birth, and single live birth rates per cycle, respectively. Our results suggest that the INVO procedure is an effective alternative treatment option in assisted reproduction that shows comparable results to those reported for existing IVF techniques. PMID:22645435

Lucena, Elkin; Saa, Angela M.; Navarro, Doris E.; Pulido, Carlos; Lombana, Oscar; Moran, Abby

2012-01-01

232

Should we continue to offer extrapleural pneumonectomy to selected mesothelioma patients? A single center experience comparing surgical and non-surgical management.  

PubMed

Malignant pleural mesothelioma remains an incurable disease for which the optimal therapeutic approach remains an extremely debated issue. Though not yet clearly defined, a subset of patients may benefit from a surgery-based multimodal treatment plan, beyond what would be expected with non-surgical therapies only. Indeed, despite some disappointing results on the feasibility of a multimodality treatment (chemotherapy ± surgery and post-operative radiation therapy) based on a lung sacrificing surgery (extrapleural pleuropnemonectomy) have been recently reported, the question concerning the role of extrapleural pneumonectomy in selected mesothelioma patients is still unanswered. In the light of this, we have reviewed our mono-institutional retrospective experience in the mesothelioma management, discussing on the role of extrapleural pneumonectomy in the multimodality treatment. PMID:25187665

Baud, Mariette; Bobbio, Antonio; Lococo, Filippo; Regnard, Jean-François; Alifano, Marco

2014-11-01

233

HER2-directed therapy: current treatment options for HER2-positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, the management of HER2-positive breast cancer has evolved dramatically. In addition to advances in screening, genetic testing, imaging, surgical and radiation techniques, innovations in medical therapy including widespread use of HER2-directed therapy in early and advanced breast cancer have revolutionized breast cancer care and changed the natural history of HER2-positive breast cancer. A substantial number of HER2-targeted agents are being developed including monoclonal antibodies, small molecule inhibitors, and antibody drug conjugates. Trastuzumab is the prototype HER2-directed therapy that was introduced in the late 1990s for the management of metastatic breast cancer and later showed efficacy in early stage disease. Despite the practice changing impact of trastuzumab and improvement in outcomes of women with HER2-positive breast cancer resistance to trrastuzumab is a major clinical issue, occurring in both early stage and advanced disease, and new treatment strategies are clearly required. Combining HER2-targeted agents and dual HER2 blockade has been successful in early and advanced breast cancer. Furthermore, selected delivery of potent chemotherapeutic agent coupled with HER2 inhibition promises new treatment options. This review is focused on current HER2-directed treatments for women with HER2-positive breast cancer including monoclonal antibodies, small molecule inhibitors, and antibody drug conjugates. PMID:25634227

Ahmed, Shahid; Sami, Amer; Xiang, Jim

2015-03-01

234

Can science meet the challenges of the HCV pandemic: new treatment options for chronic hepatitis C.  

PubMed

New treatment options for chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection are examined. Studies show the efficacy of interferon alfa-2b in normalization of serum alanine aminotransferase and histological improvement in necroinflammatory liver disease. However, 70 to 80 percent experiencing normalization usually relapse within 1 year after treatment. Ten to 20 percent will have a sustained response lasting at least 3 years. Ideas for improving treatment response include longer initial treatment regimens, increasing dosages of interferon alpha, or adding another agent to interferon alpha. Based on encouraging study results, the interferon/ribavirin combination has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in HCV patients relapsing following interferon alpha monotherapy. So far the FDA has approved interferon alfa-2b, interferon alfa-2a, alfacon-1, and interferon alfa-2b/ribavirin as treatments for HCV; ribavirin alone is not effective against HCV infection. Other drugs are being tested with interferon alpha but have not generated enough substantive data. Thymosin, an immune modulator that enhances the body's production of interferon and interleukin rather than attacking HCV directly, is also being investigated. Oral dosing of interferon is in clinical trials for hepatitis B, and the results may be applicable to HCV. Alternative therapies are gaining wider interest such as using milk thistle for liver regeneration or using licorice root for quelling liver inflammation. As for transmission risk, there is little evidence supporting sexual activity as a major risk factor, however, some risk is reported with anal intercourse, sex during the menstrual cycles, and years of cohabitation with an infected partner. PMID:11365638

Roehr, B

1998-07-01

235

Non-surgical treatment of osteoarthritis-related pain in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA), the third most common diagnosis in the elderly [1], causes significant pain leading to disability and decreased quality of life in subjects 65 years and older [2]. Traditionally, clinicians have relied heavily on the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat the\\u000a pain of OA, as numerous studies have proven these agents to be effective. The cardiovascular, gastrointestinal,

Saulat Mushtaq; Rabeea Choudhary; Carla R. Scanzello

236

Non-Surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence: A Review of the Research for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... operated unit that sends a small amount of electricity into the tube and the muscles surrounding it. ... that is inserted near the ankle. Pulses of electricity are sent into the needle to travel through ...

237

Characteristics of clinicians likely to refer clients to 12Step programs versus a diversity of post-treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most clients in substance abuse treatment are referred for continuing care. However, post-treatment services vary widely in their approaches to helping individuals achieve better substance use outcomes. This study examined the attitudes of outpatient treatment staff who refer clients exclusively to 12-Step groups (12-Step subgroup) and staff who refer clients both to 12-Step groups and to other continuing care options

Judy Fenster

2006-01-01

238

Men at low-risk of dying from their prostate cancer increasingly opting for advanced treatment options  

Cancer.gov

For men with a low risk of dying from their prostate cancer, advanced treatment options may offer little to no benefit, yet more and more patients are opting for these procedures. A new study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center examined Medicare data between 2004 and 2009 for men with prostate cancer whose disease was low-risk or those who were at a high risk to die from other causes. The researchers found that these men increasingly underwent advanced treatment options, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and robotic prostatectomy.

239

A non-surgical approach for male germ cell mediated gene transmission through transgenesis  

PubMed Central

Microinjection of foreign DNA in male pronucleus by in-vitro embryo manipulation is difficult but remains the method of choice for generating transgenic animals. Other procedures, including retroviral and embryonic stem cell mediated transgenesis are equally complicated and have limitations. Although our previously reported technique of testicular transgenesis circumvented several limitations, it involved many steps, including surgery and hemicastration, which carried risk of infection and impotency. We improved this technique further, into a two step non-surgical electroporation procedure, for making transgenic mice. In this approach, transgene was delivered inside both testes by injection and modified parameters of electroporation were used for in-vivo gene integration in germ cells. Using variety of constructs, germ cell integration of the gene and its transmission in progeny was confirmed by PCR, slot blot and immunohistochemical analysis. This improved technique is efficient, requires substantially less time and can be easily adopted by various biomedical researchers. PMID:24305437

Usmani, Abul; Ganguli, Nirmalya; Sarkar, Hironmoy; Dhup, Suveera; Batta, Suryaprakash R.; Vimal, Manoj; Ganguli, Nilanjana; Basu, Sayon; Nagarajan, P.; Majumdar, Subeer S.

2013-01-01

240

A new optional recycled water pre-treatment system prior to use in the household laundry.  

PubMed

With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550 mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance. PMID:24496024

Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; Miechel, Clayton; Halloran, Kelly O'; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel

2014-04-01

241

Triple-negative breast cancers: an updated review on treatment options  

PubMed Central

Morphologic features of tumour cells have long been validated for the clinical classification of breast cancers and are regularly used as a “gold standard” to ascertain prognostic outcome in patients. Identification of molecular markers such as expression of the receptors for estrogen (er) and progesterone (pgr) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2) has played an important role in determining targets for the development of efficacious drugs for treatment and has also offered additional predictive value for the therapeutic assessment of patients with breast cancer. More recent technical advancements in identifying several cancer-related genes have provided further opportunities to identify specific subtypes of breast cancer. Among the subtypes, tumours with triple-negative cells are identified using specific staining procedures for basal markers such as cytokeratin 5 and 6 and the absence of er, pgr, and her2 expression. Patients with triple-negative breast cancers therefore have the disadvantage of not benefiting from currently available receptor-targeted systemic therapy. Optimal conditions for the therapeutic assessment of women with triple-negative breast tumours and for the management of their disease have yet to be validated in prospective investigations. The present review discusses the differences between triple-negative breast tumours and basal-like breast tumours and also the role of mutations in the BRCA genes. Attention is also paid to treatment options available to patients with triple-negative breast tumours. PMID:21874107

Reddy, K.B.

2011-01-01

242

Trabectedin for desmoplastic small round cell tumours: a possible treatment option?  

PubMed Central

Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT) is a rare sarcoma typically affecting young males and usually widely metastatic at presentation. Despite multimodal treatment approaches, the prognosis for DSRCT is extremely poor. Alkylator- and anthracyclines- based regimens are widely used as therapy and an initial response is common. Durable responses are exceptionally rare so further systemic treatment options for these patients represent an unmet medical need. We report two cases of metastatic, pretreated DSRCT patients achieving disease stabilisation with Trabectedin. Methods Retrospective review of 2 patients with progressive DSRCT, treated with Trabectedin. Results Two males aged 19 and 23 years treated with Trabectedin, 1.5 mg/m2 over 24 hours 3 weekly for 6 and 5 cycles respectively. Best responses were stable disease in patient 1 and partial response (RECIST 1.1) in patient 2. Progression free survival was 4 months in both cases. Persistent neutropenia required 4 weekly administration in one patient but no other grade 3-4 toxicities occurred. Conclusions This report supports Trabectedin to be active and safe in pre-treated DSRCT patients. Further prospective and collaborative efforts are desirable to better define its role in the management of this disease. PMID:24829745

2014-01-01

243

Current and emerging treatment options for the elderly patient with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

The objective of this article is to review the current and emerging treatments of CKD prior to dialysis in the elderly. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of people who are aged over 65 years. In parallel, there are increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in the more advanced stages. The elderly have quite different health care needs related to their associated comorbidity, frailty, social isolation, poor functional status, and cognitive decline. Clinical trials assessing treatments for CKD have usually excluded patients older than 70–75 years; therefore, it is difficult to translate current therapies recommended for younger patients with CKD across to the elderly. Many elderly people with CKD progress to end-stage kidney disease and face the dilemma of whether to undertake dialysis or accept a conservative approach supported by palliative care. This places pressure on the patient, their family, and on health care resources. The clinical trajectory of elderly CKD patients has in the past been unclear, but recent evidence suggests that many patients over 75 years of age with multiple comorbidities have greatly reduced life expectancies and quality of life, even if they choose dialysis treatment. Offering a conservative pathway supported by palliative care is a reasonable option for some patients under these circumstances. The elderly person who chooses to have dialysis will frequently have different requirements than younger patients. Kidney transplantation can still result in improved life expectancy and quality of life in the elderly, in carefully selected people. There is a genuine need for the inclusion of the elderly in CKD clinical trials in the future so we can produce evidence-based therapies for this group. In addition, new therapies to treat and slow CKD progression are needed for all age groups. PMID:24477220

Fassett, Robert G

2014-01-01

244

Locoregional Treatment for Breast Carcinoma After Hodgkin's Lymphoma: The Breast Conservation Option  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report clinical and pathologic characteristics and outcome of breast cancer (BC) after irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in women treated at the Institut Curie, with a special focus on the breast-conserving option. Methods and Materials: Medical records of 72 women who developed either ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-III invasive carcinoma of the breast after HL between 1978 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Median age at HL diagnosis was 23 years (range, 14-53 years). Median total dose received by the mediastinum was 40 Gy, mostly by a mantle-field technique. Breast cancers occurred after a median interval of 21 years (range, 5-40 years). Ductal invasive carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ represented, respectively, 51 cases (71%) and 14 cases (19%). Invasive BCs consisted of 47 cT0-2 tumors (82%), 5 cN1-3 tumors (9%), and 20 Grade 3 tumors (35%). Locoregional treatment for BCs consisted of mastectomy with (3) or without (36) radiotherapy in 39 patients and lumpectomy with (30) or without (2) adjuvant radiotherapy in 32 patients. The isocentric lateral decubitus radiation technique was used in 17 patients after breast-conserving surgery (57%). With a median follow-up of 7 years, 5-year overall survival rate and locoregional control rate were, respectively, 74.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64-88%) and 82% (95% CI, 72-93%) for invasive carcinoma and 100% (95% CI, 100 -100%) and 92% (95% CI, 79-100%) for in situ carcinoma. In patients with invasive tumors, the 5-year distant disease-free survival rate was 79% (95% CI, 69-91%), and 13 patients died of progressive BC. Contralateral BC was diagnosed in 10 patients (14%). Conclusions: Breast-conserving treatment can be an option for BCs that occur after HL, despite prior thoracic irradiation. It should consist of lumpectomy and adjuvant breast radiotherapy with use of adequate techniques, such as the lateral decubitus isocentric position, to protect the underlying heart and lung.

Haberer, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.haberer@wanadoo.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Belin, Lisa [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Le Scodan, Romuald; Kirova, Youlia M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Savignoni, Alexia; Stevens, Denise [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Moisson, Patricia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Decaudin, Didier; Pierga, Jean-Yves [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Reyal, Fabien [Department of Surgery, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Campana, Francois; Fourquet, Alain; Bollet, Marc A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France)

2012-02-01

245

Solar Lentigines: Evaluating Pulsed Dye Laser (PDL) as an Effective Treatment Option  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Solar lentigines are among commonest cosmetic problems. There are many topical therapies suggested to treat these lesions including cryotherapy, chemical peeling with tri chloro acetic acid (TCA) and laser therapy with q-switched lasers as well as long pulsed lasers. Considering possible treatment side effects (PIH, scar) with cryotherapy and peeling in Iranian patients (darker skin types) it seems necessary to try to find alternative measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effect of long pulsed dye laser (LPDL) on lentigines via an objective method (computerized dermoscopy). Methods: Patients with pathologically confirmed lentigines were selected if they agreed to participate in the study,were not treated before, hadn’t history of psoriasis, vitiligo, scar formation and were not pregnant. Letigines were dermoscopied before and after treatment with PDL (V-beam, 595nm, Candela Corp. Wayland, USA) using fluence of 10 joules,without DCD (dynamic cooling device) via extra compress lens provided with laser system.The resulting figures were compared by two academic unrelated dermatologists as well as by computerized analysis. Post laser side effects were treated with topical antibiotics and mild topical steroids. Patients were followed for six months after the end of the study to determine the rate of recurrence via dermoscopy of sites of previous lesions and also delayed side effects. Results: A total of 21 patients with the same number of lesions, were included in the study.Mean age of patients was 54.2 years (±23.3) ranging from 39 to 71 years. Included patient swere 18 females and three males. From 21 treated lesions, 11 were located on the hands and 10 on the face. Comparing before and after photographs taken through dermoscopy system,revealed that approximately 57% of patients had more than 75% improvement. Mean pigment analysis score (calculated by computerized dermoscope software) was respectively 8 and 2 before and after PDL therapy, showing noticeable decrease in pigment density of lesions.Side effects were mild erythema and local irritation responding to topical mild steroids.No hypo or persistent hyper pigmentation or other delayed side effects was seen after six months follow up. One patient experienced transient hyper pigmentation of treatment site after treatment. During six months follow up, no recurrences were seen. Conclusion: In conclusion, PDL is a safe and effective option to treat lentigines if applied properly using compression method, especially in Iranian patients. However, further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm these results.

Ghaninejhadi, Hayedeh; Ehsani, Amirhooshang; Edrisi, Ladan; Gholamali, Fatemeh; Akbari, Zahra; Noormohammadpour, Pedram

2013-01-01

246

When is high-dose intravenous iron repletion needed? Assessing new treatment options.  

PubMed

High doses of intravenous iron have a role in the treatment of a number of clinical situations associated with iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and blood loss. In the presence of functioning erythropoiesis, iron supplementation alone may be adequate to replenish iron stores and restore blood loss. Where hormone replacement with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent is required, iron adequacy will optimize treatment. Intravenous iron offers a rapid means of iron repletion and is superior to oral iron in many circumstances, especially in the presence of anemia of chronic disease, where it appears to overcome the block to absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and immobilization of stored iron. The clinical situations where high doses of iron are commonly required are reviewed. These include nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, obstetrics, menorrhagia, and anemia associated with cancer and its treatment. The literature indicates that high doses of iron are required, with levels of 1500 mg in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease and up to 3600 mg in inflammatory bowel disease. New formulations of intravenous iron have recently been introduced that allow clinicians to administer high doses of iron in a single administration. Ferumoxytol is available in the US, has a maximum dose of 510 mg iron in a single administration, but is limited to use in chronic kidney disease. Ferric carboxymaltose can be rapidly administered in doses of 15 mg/kg body weight, up to a ceiling dose of 1000 mg. A test dose is not required, and it can be used more widely across a spectrum of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia indications. The latest introduction is iron isomaltoside 1000. Again, a test dose is not required, and it can be delivered rapidly as an infusion (in an hour), allowing even higher doses of iron to be administered in a single infusion, ie, 20 mg/kg body weight with no ceiling. This will allow clinicians to achieve high-dose repletion more frequently as a single administration. Treatment options for iron repletion have taken a major leap forward in the past two years, especially to meet the demand for high doses given as a single administration. PMID:21340038

Gozzard, David

2011-01-01

247

Interventions for Children and Youth with Autism: Prudent Choices in a World of Exaggerated Claims and Empty Promises. Part I: Intervention and Treatment Option Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses intervention and treatment options being used with the population of children and youth who have autism spectrum disorders. The discussion includes interventions based on relationship formation (including holding therapy, gentle teaching, options, and floor time), skill-based treatments, physiologically oriented intervention, and…

Heflin, L. Juane; Simpson, Richard L.

1998-01-01

248

A rapid and non-surgical procedure for jugular catheterization of pigs.  

PubMed

A rapid and non-surgical method for jugular catheterization in pigs was set up in 30 piglets of 6.2 kg, 23 pigs of 46 kg and 84 kg and two lactating multiparous sows. The animal was restrained on a V-shaped table (piglets) or with a rope around the mandible (slaughter pigs and sows). The vein was located with the Vacutainer system and a wire guide was inserted into the Vacutainer needle up to the vein lumen. When the needle was removed, the catheter was inserted over the wire guide and advanced until it penetrated the skin and thereafter, the vein wall. The catheter was fixed outside by a large tape and coiled inside a patch just behind the ears. The technique utilizes readily available material and is no more risky for the animal than a single blood sampling. Moreover, it can be performed within 15 to 20 min (including animal restraint) within pens. This new approach might have important implications not only for research purposes by facilitating repeated blood samplings but also for projects which require a rapid and easy method for testing of any kind of pharmaceutical or other type of products under husbandry conditions. PMID:10780845

Matte, J J

1999-07-01

249

Low-dose bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide: an option in first-line, antihypertensive treatment.  

PubMed

Two recent, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies established the efficacy and safety of low-dose bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Bisoprolol, a cardioselective beta-blocker, was used in a dose of 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg. HCTZ was used at a dose of 6.25 mg. This low-dose compound was developed to minimize dose-related adverse effects. The addition of HCTZ to each of the doses of bisoprolol was compared with monotherapy and placebo. Results of both studies demonstrated that this once-a-day, low-dose option effectively reduced sitting diastolic and systolic blood pressure measured at the end of the 24-hour dosing period. Drug-related adverse effects, including those generally associated with traditional beta-blocker therapy, were infrequent in individuals who received the low-dose bisoprolol/HCTZ regimen. Dose-related side effects were minimized because of the low doses of the two agents used together. There were no significant changes in mean total cholesterol, triglycerides, or serum glucose with bisoprolol/HCTZ 6.25 mg therapy versus placebo (analysis of variance statistical methods). The incidence of treatment-induced hypokalemia with bisoprolol/HCTZ 6.25 mg was not significant; uric acid elevations were minimized, and the incidence of hyperuricemia was significantly (P < 0.01) less with bisoprolol/HCTZ 6.25 mg than with 25 mg of HCTZ. Once-a-day dosing with the low-dose agent controlled (defined as a sitting diastolic blood pressure < or = 90 mmHg and/or a decrease from baseline > or = 10 mmHg) blood pressure in up to 80% of patients for a full 24 hours after dosing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8269444

Zachariah, P K; Messerli, F H; Mroczek, W

1993-01-01

250

Characteristics of clinicians likely to refer clients to 12-Step programs versus a diversity of post-treatment options.  

PubMed

Most clients in substance abuse treatment are referred for continuing care. However, post-treatment services vary widely in their approaches to helping individuals achieve better substance use outcomes. This study examined the attitudes of outpatient treatment staff who refer clients exclusively to 12-Step groups (12-Step subgroup) and staff who refer clients both to 12-Step groups and to other continuing care options (Diversity subgroup) toward seven mutual-aid and professional psychosocial post-treatment options: Twelve-Step Programs (12-Step), Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Moderation Management (MM), Smart Recovery((R)) (SMART), Psychodynamic-oriented Therapy (PSY), Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS), and Women for Sobriety (WFS). A large percentage of clinicians lacked knowledge about the effectiveness of all alternatives to 12-Step programs with the exception of CBT. Clinicians in the 12-Step subgroup were more likely than those in the Diversity subgroup to be unfamiliar with alternatives to 12-Step programs and to believe less strongly in the effectiveness of CBT and PSY. A logistic regression found beliefs about CBT effectiveness and clinician preference for the 12-Step model to be related to the likelihood of referring exclusively to 12-Step groups. Findings suggest that clinicians could benefit from information and training on assessing and referring clients to various options for continuing care. PMID:16376025

Fenster, Judy

2006-07-27

251

Assessing Patient Preferences for Treatment Options and Process of Care in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Critical Review of Quantitative Data  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of both Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestinal tract. As there is no cure for either CD or UC, these patients face numerous treatment decisions regarding their disease. The aims of this review are to evaluate literature regarding quantitative studies of patient preferences in therapy for IBD with a focus on the emerging technique of stated preference and its application in IBD. Numerous simple survey-based studies have been performed evaluating IBD patients’ preferences for medication frequency, mode of delivery, potential adverse events etc., as well as variations in these preferences. These studies are limited, however, as they are purely descriptive in nature with limited quantitative information on the relative value of treatment alternatives. Time trade-off and standard gamble studies have also been utilized to quantify patient utility for various treatment options or outcomes. However, these types of studies suffer from inaccurate assumptions regarding patient choice behavior. Stated preference is an emerging robust methodology increasingly utilized in health care that can determine the relative utility for a therapy option as well as its specific attributes (such as efficacy or adverse side effects). Stated preference techniques have begun to be applied in IBD and offer an innovative way of examining the numerous therapy options these patients and their providers face. PMID:24127239

Bewtra, Meenakshi; Johnson, F. Reed

2013-01-01

252

The Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Importance Chronic periodontitis, a destructive inflammatory disorder of the supporting structures of the teeth, is prevalent in patients with diabetes. Limited evidence suggests that periodontal therapy may improve glycemic control. Objective To determine if non-surgical periodontal treatment reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in persons with type 2 diabetes (DM) and moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. Design, Setting and Participants The Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT) is a 6-month, single-masked, randomized, multi-center clinical trial. Participants had DM, were taking stable doses of medications, had HbA1c ?7% and <9%, and untreated periodontitis. Five hundred fourteen participants were enrolled between November 2009 and March 2012 from diabetes and dental clinics and communities affiliated with five academic medical centers. Intervention The treatment group (n=257) received scaling and root planing plus chlorhexidine oral rinse at baseline, and supportive periodontal therapy at three and six months. The control group (n=257) received no treatment for six months. Main Outcome Measure Difference in HbA1c change from baseline between groups at six months. Secondary outcomes included changes in probing pocket depths, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, gingival index, fasting glucose, and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2). Results Enrollment was stopped early due to futility. At 6 months, the periodontal therapy group increased HbA1c 0.17% (1.0) (mean (SD)) compared to 0.11% (1.0) in the control group, with no significant difference between groups based on a linear regression model adjusting for clinical site (mean difference = -0.05%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.23%, 0.12%; p=0.55). Probing depth, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing and gingival index measures improved in the treatment group compared to the control group at six months with adjusted between-group differences of 0.33mm (95% CI: 0.26, 0.39), 0.31mm (95% CI: 0.23, 0.39), 16.5% (95% CI: 12.9, 20.0) and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.35), respectively; all p values <0.0001). Conclusions and Relevance Non-surgical periodontal therapy did not improve glycemic control in patients with DM and moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. These findings do not support the use of nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with diabetes for the purpose of lowering HbA1c. PMID:24346989

Engebretson, Steven P.; Hyman, Leslie G.; Michalowicz, Bryan S.; Schoenfeld, Elinor R.; Gelato, Marie C.; Hou, Wei; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.; Reddy, Michael S.; Lewis, Cora E.; Oates, Thomas W.; Tripathy, Devjit; Katancik, James A.; Orlander, Philip R.; Paquette, David W.; Hanson, Naomi Q.; Tsai, Michael Y.

2014-01-01

253

Distal femur fractures of the elderly—Different treatment options in a biomechanical comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFractures of the distal femur, especially in the elderly patient, are an unsolved problem in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. Poor bone stock quality caused by osteoporosis often results in bad implant anchorage in the distal part with a high risk of secondary failures such as cutout. This study investigates the biomechanical characteristics of four implants with different distal locking options

Dirk Wähnert; Konrad Hoffmeier; Rosemarie Fröber; Gunther O. Hofmann; Thomas Mückley

2011-01-01

254

40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...criteria are in § 141.716(b). Pre Filtration Toolbox Options (3) Presedimentation...in § 141.717(b). (5) Bank filtration 0.5-log credit for 25-foot...NTU. Systems using wells followed by filtration when conducting source water...

2011-07-01

255

Postsurgical meningitis complicated by severe refractory intracranial hypertension with limited treatment options: the role of mild therapeutic hypothermia.  

PubMed

Intracranial hypertension is a commonly encountered neurocritical care problem. If first-tier therapy is ineffective, second-tier therapy must be initiated. In many cases, the full arsenal of established treatment options is available. However, situations occasionally arise in which only a narrow range of options is available to neurointensivists. We present a rare clinical scenario in which therapeutic hypothermia was the only available method for controlling intracranial pressure and that demonstrates the efficacy and safety of the Thermogard (Zoll, Chelmsford, Massachusetts, United States) cooling system in creating and maintaining a prolonged hypothermic state. The lifesaving effect of hypothermia was overshadowed by the unfavorable neurologic outcome observed (minimally conscious state on intensive care unit discharge). These results add further evidence to support the role of therapeutic hypothermia in managing intracranial pressure and provide motivation for finding new strategies in combination with hypothermia to improve neurologic outcomes. PMID:25485219

Popugaev, Konstantin A; Savin, Ivan A; Oshorov, Andrew V; Kurdumova, Natalia V; Ershova, Olga N; Lubnin, Andrew U; Kadashev, Boris A; Kalinin, Pavel L; Kutin, Maxim A; Killeen, Tim; Cesnulis, Evaldas; Melieste, Ronald

2014-12-01

256

Management of patients with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer with visceral disease: challenges and treatment options  

PubMed Central

Endocrine therapy is an important treatment option for women with hormone receptor–positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer (ABC), yet many tumors are either intrinsically resistant or develop resistance to these therapies. Treatment of patients with ABC presenting with visceral metastases, which is associated with a poor prognosis, is also problematic. There is an unmet need for effective treatments for this patient population. Although chemotherapy is commonly perceived to be more effective than endocrine therapy in managing visceral metastases, patients who are not in visceral crisis might benefit from endocrine therapy, avoiding chemotherapy-associated toxicities that might affect quality of life. To improve outcomes, several targeted therapies are being investigated in combination with endocrine therapy for patients with endocrine-resistant, HR+ ABC. Although available data have considered patients with HR+ ABC as a whole, there are promising data from a prespecified analysis of a Phase III study of everolimus (Afinitor®), a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, in combination with exemestane (Aromasin®) in patients with visceral disease progressing after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy. In this review, challenges and treatment options for management of HR+ ABC with visceral disease, including consideration of therapeutic approaches undergoing clinical investigation, will be assessed. PMID:25653556

Harb, Wael A

2015-01-01

257

Cost-effectiveness of available treatment options for patients suffering from severe COPD in the UK: a fully incremental analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Frequent exacerbations which are both costly and potentially life-threatening are a major concern to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite the availability of several treatment options. This study aimed to assess the lifetime costs and outcomes associated with alternative treatment regimens for patients with severe COPD in the UK setting. Patients and methods A Markov cohort model was developed to predict lifetime costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of various combinations of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), a long-acting beta agonist (LABA), an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), and roflumilast in a fully incremental analysis. Patients willing and able to take ICS, and those refusing or intolerant to ICS were analyzed separately. Efficacy was expressed as relative rate ratios of COPD exacerbation associated with alternative treatment regimens, taken from a mixed treatment comparison. The analysis was conducted from the UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Parameter uncertainty was explored using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results Based on the results of the fully incremental analysis a cost-effectiveness frontier was determined, indicating those treatment regimens which represent the most cost-effective use of NHS resources. For ICS-tolerant patients the cost-effectiveness frontier suggested LAMA as initial treatment. Where patients continue to exacerbate and additional therapy is required, LAMA + LABA/ICS can be a cost-effective option, followed by LAMA + LABA/ICS + roflumilast (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] versus LAMA + LABA/ICS: £16,566 per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained). The ICER in ICS-intolerant patients, comparing LAMA + LABA + roflumilast versus LAMA + LABA, was £13,764/QALY gained. The relative rate ratio of exacerbations was identified as the primary driver of cost-effectiveness. Conclusion The treatment algorithm recommended in UK clinical practice represents a costeffective approach for the management of COPD. The addition of roflumilast to the standard of care regimens is a clinical and cost-effective treatment option for patients with severe COPD, who continue to exacerbate despite existing bronchodilator therapy. PMID:22500119

Hertel, Nadine; Kotchie, Robert W; Samyshkin, Yevgeniy; Radford, Matthew; Humphreys, Samantha; Jameson, Kevin

2012-01-01

258

26 CFR 1.1234-3 - Special rules for the treatment of grantors of certain options granted after September 1, 1976.  

...2014-04-01 false Special rules for the treatment of grantors of certain options granted after September 1, 1976. 1.1234-3 Section 1.1234-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

2014-04-01

259

High revision rate after treatment of femoral neck fractures with an optionally (un)cemented stem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The advantages of uncemented and cemented components in hip arthroplasty have been subject of debate. We have studied on a\\u000a hemiprosthesis, which can be optionally implanted with or without cement. Since the stem geometry and surface in cemented\\u000a arthroplasty differs from the uncemented one and cannot be fused into one general design, we hypothesised that this hemiprosthesis\\u000a used without cement

Jon H. M. Goosen; Marieke C. Mulder; Karst J. Bongers; Cees C. P. M. Verheyen

2009-01-01

260

Environmental and cost life cycle assessment of disinfection options for municipal drinking water treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the data collection, analysis, and results for a base case drinking water treatment (DWT) plant reference model and alternative disinfection technologies. The base case is modeled after the Greater Cincinnati Water Works (GCWW) Richard Miller Treatment Pl...

261

Endoscopic ultrasonography: an advancing option with duality in both diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal oncology  

PubMed Central

Since their introduction into the clinical practices in 1980s, techniques of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) have been rapidly developing and are now in widespread use in gastrointestinal oncology. Evolving from the classical option, EUS today has been much innovated with addition of a variety of novel ideation which makes it a powerful tool with encouraging duality for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. There is a dire need for physicians in this field to understand the status quo of EUS as related to the management and detection of gastrointestinal tumors, which is globally reviewed in this paper.

2014-01-01

262

Sexual Functioning and Sex Hormones in Persons with Extreme Obesity and Seeking Surgical and Non-Surgical Weight Loss  

PubMed Central

Background Many individuals with obesity are motivated to lose weight to improve weight-related comorbidities or psychosocial functioning, including sexual functioning. Few studies have documented rates of sexual dysfunction in persons with obesity. Objectives This study investigated sexual functioning, sex hormones, and relevant psychosocial constructs in individuals with obesity who sought surgical and non-surgical weight loss. Setting University based health systems. Methods One hundred forty-one bariatric surgery patients (median BMI [25th percentile, 75th percentile] 44.6 [41.4, 50.1]) and 109 individuals (BMI = 40.0 [38.0, 44.0]) who sought nonsurgical weight loss participated. Sexual functioning was assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Hormones were assessed by blood assay. Quality of life, body image, depressive symptoms and marital adjustment were assessed by validated questionnaires. Results Fifty-one percent of women presenting for bariatric surgery reported a sexual dysfunction; 36% of men presenting for bariatric surgery reported erectile dysfunction (ED). This is in contrast to 41% of women who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported a sexual dysfunction and 20% of men who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported ED. These differences were not statistically significant. Sexual dysfunction was strongly associated with psychosocial distress in women; these relationships were less strong and less consistent among men. Sexual dysfunction was unrelated to sex hormones, except for sex hormone binding globulin (SHGB) in women. Conclusion Women and men who present for bariatric surgery, as compared to individuals who sought non-surgical weight loss, were not significantly more likely to experience a sexual dysfunction. There were few differences in reproductive hormones and psychosocial constructs between candidates for bariatric surgery and individuals interested in non-surgical weight loss. PMID:24120985

Sarwer, David B.; Spitzer, Jacqueline C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Mitchell, James E.; Lancaster, Kathy; Courcoulas, Anita; Gourash, William; Christian, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

263

Opioids in the treatment of postoperative pain: old drugs with new options?  

PubMed

New approved options with opioids in the postoperative setting may include new ways of administration, new combinations with other drugs and new opioid drugs. Newly approved devices for administration include sublingual sufentanil dispenser and transdermal iontophoretic fentanyl, with the purpose of almost mimicking the rapid and reliable onset of intravenous (IV) administration, without the problems of an ongoing IV cannula and cumbersome equipment. Still, potential problems of overdosing and misuse must be in focus when these devices come into use. Tapentadol is a new partial µ-receptor opioid agonist with a combined action on norepinephrine-induced analgesia, representing a promising drug in terms of less side effects at equianalgesic doses compared with pure agonists. The mixture of different opioids given together, such as oxycodone and morphine, for oral use may also have some analgesic synergy with an improved side-effect profile, although more studies are needed. Oral oxycodone is a reliable oral opioid option, but when combined with paracetamol in the same tablet or mixture, care should also be taken to avoid serious side effects from inadvertent paracetamol overdose. PMID:24437530

Raeder, Johan

2014-03-01

264

Atypical Cogan's syndrome: A case report and summary of current treatment options.  

PubMed

Cogan's syndrome is a rare chronic vasculitis, characterized in its typical form by progressive sensorineural bilateral hearing loss, vestibular symptoms and non-syphilitic interstitial keratitis. Only a few cases have been reported in children, most of whom have been diagnosed with the typical form. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure a favorable prognosis. Systemic treatment usually begins with high dosage corticosteroids. In case the initial treatment fails, other immunosuppressive drugs are used (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, cyclosporine A and azathioprine). Additional treatment possibilities, such as plasmapheresis, TNF-alpha blockers (etanercept and infliximab), rituximab, tocilizumab and mycophenolate mofetil have been described over the past few years. PMID:25600284

Jan?atová, Debora; Zeleník, Karol; Komínek, Pavel; Matoušek, Petr

2015-03-01

265

LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

BYRNES ME

2008-06-05

266

Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

2008-01-01

267

Eliciting patient preferences for hormonal therapy options in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment choices for metastatic prostate cancer are complex and can involve men balancing survival versus quality of life. The present study aims to elicit patient preferences with respect to the attributes of treatments for metastatic prostate cancer through a discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire. Men with recently diagnosed localized prostate cancer were asked to envisage that they had metastatic disease

A Lloyd; D Penson; S Dewilde; L Kleinman

2008-01-01

268

Characteristics and clinical application of a treatment simulator with Ct-option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: The integration of a scanner for computed tomography (CT) and a treatment simulator (Sim-CT, Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) has been studied in a clinical situation. Image quality, hounsfield units (HU) and linearity have been evaluated as well as the implications for treatment planning. The additional dose to the patient has also been highlighted.Material and methods: Image

D. Verellen; V. Vinh-Hung; P. Bijdekerke; F. Nijs; N. Linthout; A. Bel; G. Storme

1999-01-01

269

Options and Limitations of the Cognitive Psychological Approach to the Treatment of Dyslexia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes how cognitive psychology defines and treats dyslexia. Shows how behaviorism and connectionism can function as supplements in areas in which cognitive psychology has displayed weaknesses and limitations. Characteristics of cognitive psychology, cognitive treatment, and behavioristic and connectionistic treatment are discussed. (CR)

Tonnessen, Finn Egil

1999-01-01

270

The fertility-sparing treatment in patients with endometrial atypical hyperplasia and early endometrial cancer: a debated therapeutic option.  

PubMed

Fertility-sparing treatment may represent a realist option for accurately selected young patients with endometrial atypical hyperplasia or well differentiated, early endometrial cancer. Oral progestins, and especially medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and megestrol acetate with different doses and schedules, represent the most commonly used hormone agents in this clinical setting. Approximately three fourths of the women achieve a histologically documented complete response, with an mean response time of 12 weeks, but about one third of these subsequently developed a recurrence after a mean time of 20 months. The expression of receptor for progesterone receptor (PR), PTEN gene, DNA mismatch repair gene MLH1 and phospho-AKT on tissue specimens may be useful for selecting patients fit for a conservative management. Several successful pregnancies have occurred after a fertility-sparing treatment of endometrial atypical hyperplasia or endometrial cancer, more frequently with assisted reproductive technologies. The implementation of in vitro fertilisation techniques not only increases the chance of conception, but it may also decrease the interval to conception. The opportunity of a demolitive surgery after delivery or after childbearing being no longer required is a still debated issue. Large multicenter trials are strongly warranted to better define the selection criteria for a conservative treatment, endocrine regimen of choice, the optimal dosing, the duration of treatment and follow-up protocols. In any case, the patient should be accurately informed about the relatively high recurrence rates after complete response to hormone treatment and expectations for pregnancy. PMID:19562604

Gadducci, Angiolo; Spirito, Nicoletta; Baroni, Elena; Tana, Roberta; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

2009-10-01

271

A new multiple sclerosis spasticity treatment option: effect in everyday clinical practice and cost-effectiveness in Germany.  

PubMed

Sativex® (GW Pharmaceuticals PLC, Porton Down, UK; Laboratorios Almirall, SA, Barcelona, Spain), a cannabinoid oromucosal spray containing a 1:1 ratio of 9-?-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, has been licensed in Germany since July 2011 as add-on therapy for moderate-to-severe multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment-resistant spasticity symptoms. The 'MOVE 2' study evaluated clinical outcomes, treatment satisfaction, quality of life (QoL) and provision of care in MS patients with spasticity receiving Sativex in everyday clinical practice. Data from 300 patients were collected from 42 specialized MS centers across Germany and were available for this analysis. Assessments, including the MS spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale, modified Ashworth scale, patients' and physicians' clinical impressions, and QoL scales were rated at baseline and at 1 and 3 months after starting treatment with Sativex. Sativex provided relief of MS-related spasticity in the majority of patients who were previously resistant to treatment. In addition, clear improvements were noted in MS spasticity-associated symptoms (e.g., sleep quality, bladder function and mobility), activities of daily living and QoL. Sativex was generally well tolerated. The majority of patients (84%) reported no adverse events, and there was only a limited risk of serious adverse reactions. Furthermore, based on data from Sativex clinical trials, a Markov model-based analysis has shown that Sativex is a cost-effective treatment option for patients with MS spasticity in Germany. PMID:23369055

Flachenecker, Peter

2013-02-01

272

Brachytherapy, A viable option of globe salvage in treatment of large ciliary body melanocytoma  

PubMed Central

We report a case of large histopathologically proven melanocytoma of the ciliary body in a 15-year-old male, presented with rapid extraocular growth following incisional biopsy with scleral patch graft. We chose brachytherapy with Ruthenium 106 plaque over enucleation as the later was refused by the parents. The initial apical height of the tumor was 14.2 mm on ultrasonography. Two weeks after brachytherapy, the mass regressed to a size of 8.1 mm and 1 year later to 6.7 mm. This is the first case report showing the response of brachytherapy to ciliary body melanocytoma, which results in ocular and visual acuity salvation with considerable decreased in size of the tumor. The authors conclude that brachytherapy is an option in the management of non-resectable melanocytoma of the ciliary body. PMID:25370406

Shanmugam, Mahesh P.; Saxena, Manish; Ramanjulu, Rajesh; Tekwani, Pradeep

2014-01-01

273

Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost  

E-print Network

A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

2008-01-01

274

Treatment options in acute porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda, and erythropoietic protoporphyria.  

PubMed

The porphyrias are a group of uncommon metabolic diseases caused by enzyme deficiencies within heme biosynthesis that lead to neurotoxic or phototoxic heme precursor accumulation. There are four acute porphyrias characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms: acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Treatment includes elimination of any porphyrogenic factor and symptomatic treatment. Carbohydrate and intravenous heme administration constitute specific therapies in the disorders' acute phase. The mainstay treatment in the cutaneous porphyrias is avoidance of sunlight exposure. In porphyria cutanea tarda and the two acute porphyrias with skin manifestations, variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria, care of the vulnerable skin is important. In porphyria cutanea tarda, specific treatment is accomplished by a series of phlebotomies and/or by low-dose chloroquine administration. In erythropoietic protoporphyria, light-protective beta-carotene is prescribed. PMID:18221605

Harper, Pauline; Wahlin, Staffan

2007-12-01

275

Treatment options in acute porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda, and erythropoietic protoporphyria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The porphyrias are a group of uncommon metabolic diseases caused by enzyme deficiencies within heme biosynthesis that lead\\u000a to neurotoxic or phototoxic heme precursor accumulation. There are four acute porphyrias characterized by neuropsy-chiatric\\u000a symptoms: acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase\\u000a deficiency porphyria. Treatment includes elimination of any porphyrogenic factor and symptomatic treatment. Carbohydrate and

Pauline Harper; Staffan Wahlin

2007-01-01

276

Should medical treatment options be exhausted before splenectomy is performed in adult ITP patients? A debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) may require treatment to reduce the risk of serious bleeding if platelets\\u000a remain consistently below 30?×?109\\/L. While approximately 70–80% of patients respond to an initial course of corticosteroids, relapse is common. For steroid-refractory\\u000a patients, there is a choice between surgical splenectomy and further medical treatments, based on many factors including the\\u000a patient’s bleeding history,

Roberto Stasi; Adrian Newland; Patrick Thornton; Ingrid Pabinger

2010-01-01

277

Cannabis dependence as a primary drug use-related problem: the case for harm reduction-oriented treatment options.  

PubMed

Few studies have focused on cannabis dependence as compared to other drugs more commonly acknowledged as presenting a substantial need for treatment. This paper presents findings from a 2004-2005 study of drug user treatment clients in Southern Ontario, Canada. Clients with cannabis (n = 128) or cocaine (n = 300) as their primary drug problem were compared on psychosocial and demographic characteristics, drug effects, and clinical impairment. There are more similarities than differences between groups, with DAST and DSM scores showing high rates of "dependence" and reported symptoms of "abuse." However, cannabis consistently scored lower on these items, supporting the idea of a continuum of risk on which its rank compared with other potentially misused drugs holds across a wide range of symptoms of impairment. The less disruptive nature of cannabis use-related problems poses greater challenges for drug user treatment providers guided by strict abstinence agendas. The authors call for the expansion of harm reduction treatment options and educational initiatives beyond primary prevention that acknowledge benefits of moderate controlled use when addressing cannabis misuse. PMID:19938940

Hathaway, A D; Callaghan, R C; Macdonald, S; Erickson, P G

2009-01-01

278

New Therapy Option for Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis: Tigecycline.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topically applied tigecycline for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rabbit model. Methods: Experimental bacterial keratitis was induced in rabbits by a corneal intrastromal injection of 100 colony-forming units (CFUs) of MRSA bacteria. Sixteen hours after the injection, 28 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups of 7 rabbits each. In each group, the rabbits' eyes were treated topically with 19 doses of topical tigecycline (10 or 50?mg/mL), vancomycin (50?mg/mL), or isotonic saline. Slit lamp examinations were performed before and after the inoculation by two observers masked to the study for the determination of clinical severity. Corneas were harvested for bacterial quantitation and histopathologic examination. Results: No significant differences were observed in the clinical scores between pretreatment and posttreatment in the 4 groups (P>0.05). The mean difference between the pretreatment and posttreatment clinical scores from the 4 treatment groups was also not significant (P>0.05). All treatment groups had significantly lower CFUs compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the bacterial load among the treatment groups. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for tigecycline was 0.12??g/mL, whereas the MIC for vancomycin was 2.2??g/mL. The tigecycline 10?mg/mL group had the lowest mean epithelial erosion values among the treatment groups. Conclusions: Topical tigecycline significantly reduced the bacterial load in infected rabbit corneas and may be as effective as vancomycin for the topical treatment of MRSA keratitis. PMID:25330310

Goktas, Sertan; Kurtoglu, Muhammet Guzel; Sakarya, Yasar; Ugurluoglu, Ceyhan; Ozcimen, Muammer; Sakarya, Rabia; Alpfidan, Ismail; Ivac?k, Ismail Senol; Erdogan, Erkan; Bukus, Abdulkadir

2014-10-20

279

International clinical trials, cardiovascular disease and treatment options in the Russian Federation: Research and treatment in practice.  

PubMed

The issue of balance between research and treatment in clinical trials conduct has been surrounded by controversies. Scientific characteristics of trials may compromise medical care available to participants, while conceiving research participation as having therapeutic value may foster the therapeutic misconception. However, it has also been questioned whether research can and should always be separated from medical care provision. In this paper we analyze how these concerns played out in practice settings of the three trial sites in Russia, specialized in trials in cardiovascular diseases. Using in-depth interviews with participants of phase II and III trials (n = 21) and discussions with physician-investigators (n = 7), we found that trial enrollment allowed participants to establish continuous supportive relationships with the physician-investigators. In the context of unresponsive health care, chronically ill participants received regular monitoring, treatment recommendations and help in case of problems and emergencies through such relationships. The trial designs in the three sites did not preclude the provision of individualized treatment. We suggest that debates about the research/treatment interface in trials need to become more attuned to the conditions in locations of their conduct, views and experiences of actors involved and evolving trial methodologies. Too much focus on categorical differentiation of research and treatment may obscure the fact that globalizing clinical trials proceed amidst profound health disparities, dismiss diverse concerns of people on the ground and risk attenuating responsibilities of trial organizers, sponsors and investigators towards research participants. PMID:25635372

Zvonareva, Olga; Engel, Nora; Martsevich, Sergey; de Wert, Guido; Horstman, Klasien

2015-03-01

280

Economic evaluation of alternative wastewater treatment plant options for pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

Excessive water consumption in pulp and paper industry results in high amount of wastewater. Pollutant characteristics of the wastewater vary depending on the processes used in production and the quality of paper produced. However, in general, high organic material and suspended solid contents are considered as major pollutants of pulp and paper industry effluents. The major pollutant characteristics of pulp and paper industry effluents in Turkey were surveyed and means of major pollutant concentrations, which were grouped in three different pollution grades (low, moderate and high strength effluents), and flow rates within 3000 to 10,000m(3)/day range with 1000m(3)/day steps were used as design parameters. Ninety-six treatment plants were designed using twelve flow schemes which were combinations of physical treatment, chemical treatment, aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. Detailed comparative cost analysis which includes investment, operation, maintenance and rehabilitation costs was prepared to determine optimum treatment processes for each pollution grade. The most economic and technically optimal treatment processes were found as extended aeration activated sludge process for low strength effluents, extended aeration activated sludge process or UASB followed by an aeration basin for medium strength effluents, and UASB followed by an aeration basin or UASB followed by the conventional activated sludge process for high strength effluents. PMID:20870270

Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Koken, Emre

2010-11-15

281

Contemporary treatment options for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.  

PubMed

The prostate gland, about the size a walnut, forms part of the male reproductive system and sits directly underneath the bladder surrounding the urethra. It is a fibromuscular exocrine gland that secretes a complex proteolytic fluid which constitutes one-third of the volume of the seminal fluid. Prostatitis refers to a group of disorders that affect the prostate and cause genitourinary pain, dysuria, urinary frequency and sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of prostatitis in the United States has been estimated to be around 9%, while the worldwide prevalence ranges from 2 to 10%, and 15% of men experience prostatitis-like symptoms at some point in their lives. There are a number of treatments which have been used for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), with only a small amount of high-level evidence. The current recommended treatment for CP/CPPS is predominantly a multimodal approach using a combination of antibiotics, ?-blockers, antimuscarinic and anti-inflammatory drugs. The response to treatment and improvement in symptoms is very variable; therefore, as the evidence evolves, it is likely that treatment will become symptom specific rather than a generic, 'one strategy fits all' treatment for CP/CPPS. PMID:23914354

Ismail, M; Mackenzie, K; Hashim, H

2013-07-01

282

Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy  

PubMed Central

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms. PMID:21072280

Kingsberg, SA; Kellogg, S; Krychman, M

2010-01-01

283

New options for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (narrative review).  

PubMed

Moderate weight loss (>5%), which has been associated with improvements in glycemic parameters in patients with dysglycemia, also reduces the presence of other comorbidities, including dyslipidemia and hypertension, culminating in a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle changes are the recommended preliminary approach to weight loss, with an initial weight-loss goal of 10% of body weight achieved over 6 months at a rate of 1-2 pounds per week selected as an appropriate target to decrease the severity of obesity-related risk factors. Implementing and maintaining the lifestyle changes associated with weight loss can, however, be challenging for many patients. Therefore, additional interventions sometimes may be necessary. Bariatric surgery can also be a highly effective option for weight loss and comorbidity reduction, but surgery carries considerable risks and is still applicable only to selected patients with type 2 diabetes. Thus, attention is turning to the use of weight-loss medications, including 2 recently approved compounds: twice-daily lorcaserin and a once-daily combination of phentermine and topiramate extended-release, both shown to be safe and effective therapies in the management of obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23726071

Henry, Robert R; Chilton, Robert; Garvey, W Timothy

2013-01-01

284

New options for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (narrative review) ?, ? ?, ?  

PubMed Central

Moderate weight loss (>5%), which has been associated with improvements in glycemic parameters in patients with dysglycemia, also reduces the presence of other comorbidities, including dyslipidemia and hypertension, culminating in a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle changes are the recommended preliminary approach to weight loss, with an initial weight-loss goal of 10% of body weight achieved over 6 months at a rate of 1–2 pounds per week selected as an appropriate target to decrease the severity of obesity-related risk factors. Implementing and maintaining the lifestyle changes associated with weight loss can, however, be challenging for many patients. Therefore, additional interventions sometimes may be necessary. Bariatric surgery can also be a highly effective option for weight loss and comorbidity reduction, but surgery carries considerable risks and is still applicable only to selected patients with type 2 diabetes. Thus, attention is turning to the use of weight-loss medications, including 2 recently approved compounds: twice-daily lorcaserin and a once-daily combination of phentermine and topiramate extended-release, both shown to be safe and effective therapies in the management of obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23726071

Henry, Robert R.; Chilton, Robert; Garvey, W. Timothy

2014-01-01

285

Future options in the treatment of ErbB2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article overviews future trends for the treatment of ErbB2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. It is based on a presentation given at the ECCO 14 congress, September 2007.Novel ErbB2-targeted agents and\\/or treatment combinations have shown promise in treating ErbB2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Combinations include two agents that both inhibit ErbB2 and existing\\/novel ErbB2 inhibitors with chemotherapy and\\/or vascular endothelial growth factor

Pierre Fumoleau

2008-01-01

286

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women: treatment options beyond testosterone and approaches to communicating with patients on sexual health.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) affects nearly 1 in 10 women. Thus, it is essential for pharmacists and other health care providers to be comfortable when discussing a patient's sexual health to ensure appropriate triage so that the specific causes of HSDD can be identified and potential recommendations provided. HSDD is defined as the absence or deficiency of sexual interest and/or desire, leading to significant distress and interpersonal difficulties. As health care providers, pharmacists have a critical role in assessing the presence of HSDD and providing education on available treatment options. This article will review the potential causes of HSDD and low sexual desire, the screening tools available, and the significant role of health care professionals in communicating with patients about their sexual health. An overview of the importance of behavioral modifications, the current pharmacologic options being investigated, and the use of complementary and alternative therapies will also be explored. Currently, buproprion is the primary pharmacologic agent that has shown positive results in treating patients with HSDD. The use of testosterone therapy will not be addressed in this article, as this therapy is described in greater detail elsewhere. PMID:23553810

Lodise, Nicole M

2013-04-01

287

[Non-surgical approach for symptomatic fibroids. Physical methods: selective embolization].  

PubMed

The approach to symptomatic uterine fibroids has seen a marked evolution in recent years thanks to the emergence of minimally invasive techniques that allow for uterine preservation. Selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) consists of the complete occlusion of the 2 uterine arteries with embolic particles in order to produce ischemic necrosis of the fibroids without permanently affecting the normal uterine tissue. This technique significantly reduces the amount of bleeding and causes a reduction in uterine volume at 3 months postprocedure, which is maintained over time, allowing for 70% of patients to avoid surgery. Moreover, UAE entails shorter surgical times, reduced hospital stays and fewer days needed to return to work when compared with traditional surgical techniques (hysterectomy and fibroidectomy), without any differences in the quality-of-life scales at 5 years. UAE should therefore be included in the therapeutic options offered to patients with symptomatic fibroid uteri. PMID:24314563

Tarriel, Josep Estadella; Moreno, Cristina Soler; Ajenjo, Marta Campillo; Vara, Rubén Guerrero

2013-07-01

288

Topical Pimecrolimus as a New Optional Treatment in Cutaneous Sarcoidosis of Lichenoid Type  

PubMed Central

We report the case of cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type successfully treated with pimecrolimus. For the first time in the literature, we propose the use of this topical calcineurin inhibitor for the treatment of the cases refractory to common therapy regimens. PMID:24826355

Tammaro, Antonella; Abruzzese, Claudia; Narcisi, Alessandra; Cortesi, Giorgia; Parisella, Francesca Romana; Di Russo, Pier Paolo; De Marco, Gabriella; Persechino, Severino

2014-01-01

289

Environmental and cost life cycle assessment of disinfection options for municipal wastewater treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the data collection, analysis, and results for a base case wastewater treatment (WWT) plant reference model. The base case is modeled after the Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati (MSDGC) Mill Creek Plant. The plant has an activated sludge s...

290

Fungal biosorption — an alternative treatment option for heavy metal bearing wastewaters: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common filamentous fungi can sorb heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The sorption of heavy metals, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Ag, Th, Ra and U, by fungal biomass has been observed to varying extents. Fungal biosorption largely depends on parameters such as pH, metal ion and biomass concentration, physical or chemical pre-treatment of biomass, presence of various ligands

A. Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1995-01-01

291

Transposition of maxillary canine to central incisor site: aetiology, treatment options and case report.  

PubMed

Dental transposition is relatively infrequent anomaly of the developing dentition. This article focuses on canine transposition and explores the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of this challenging anomaly. Specifically, the management of a case of canine transposition involving an unerupted maxillary central incisor is described. PMID:24521750

Ali, Zohaib; Jaisinghani, Aneel C; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais

2014-09-01

292

Impacts, recovery rates, and treatment options for spilled oil in marshes.  

PubMed

In a review of the literature on impacts of spilled oil on marshes, 32 oil spills and field experiments were identified with sufficient data to generate recovery curves and identify influencing factors controlling the rate of recovery. For many spills, recovery occurred within 1-2 growing seasons, even in the absence of any treatment. Recovery was longest for spills with the following conditions: Cold climate; sheltered settings; thick oil on the marsh surface; light refined products with heavy loading; oils that formed persistent thick residues; and intensive treatment. Recovery was shortest for spills with the following conditions: Warm climate; light to heavy oiling of the vegetation only; medium crude oils; and less-intensive treatment. Recommendations are made for treatment based on the following oiling conditions: Free-floating oil on the water in the marsh; thicker oil (>0.5 cm) on marsh surface; thinner oil (<0.5 cm) on marsh surface; heavy oil loading on vegetation; and light to moderate oil loading on vegetation. PMID:24703808

Michel, Jacqueline; Rutherford, Nicolle

2014-05-15

293

Selective dorsal rhizotomy as a treatment option for children with spastic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disorder originating in childhood and spasticity is the most frequent manifestation. The treatment strategies to reduce spasticity and thereby ameliorate the attendant gait abnormalities have included physiotherapy, orthoses, antispastic medications, orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery. Of these, the neurosurgical procedure known as selective dorsal rhizotomy has gained widespread exposure, and indeed acceptance, over the

Christopher L. Vaughan; Nivedita Subramanian; Monica E. Busse

294

Selective dorsal rhizotomy as a treatment option for children with spastic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disorder originating in childhood and spasticity is the most frequent manifestation. The treatment strategies to reduce spasticity and thereby ameliorate the attendant gait abnormalities have included physiotherapy, orthoses, antispastic medications, orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery. Of these, the neurosurgical procedure known as selective dorsal rhizotomy has gained widespread exposure, and indeed acceptance, over the

Christopher L Vaughan; Nivedita Subramanian; Monica E Busse

1998-01-01

295

The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

2007-01-01

296

The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

2007-01-01

297

Current treatment options and drug delivery systems as potential therapeutic agents for ovarian cancer: a review.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common and deadliest gynecologic cancer with about 75% of the patients presenting in advanced stages. The introduction of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in 2006 had led to a 16 month improvement in the overall survival. However, catheter-related complication and the complexity of the procedure had deterred intraperitoneal route as the preferred route of treatment. Other alternative treatments had been developed by incorporating other FDA-approved agents or procedures such as pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and the administration of bevacizumab. Various clinical trials were conducted on these alternatives as both the first-line treatment and second- or third-line therapy for the recurrent disease. The outcome of these studies were summarized and discussed. A prospective improvement in the treatment of ovarian cancer could be done through the use of a drug delivery system. Selected promising recent developments in ovarian cancer drug delivery systems using different delivery vehicles, surface modifications, materials and drugs were also reviewed. PMID:25491871

Ye, Hongye; Karim, Anis Abdul; Loh, Xian Jun

2014-12-01

298

Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment Options for Localized and Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life considerations are becoming increasingly important in prostate cancer management, particularly with the trend for patients to be diagnosed at an earlier age and at an earlier stage of disease. A rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in the absence of symptoms can cause anxiety to many patients. Patients in this situation must weigh the benefits of treatment,

J. Anderson

2001-01-01

299

Emerging treatment options for recurrent ovarian cancer: the potential role of olaparib  

PubMed Central

Olaparib has shown promising anticancer activity as a single agent in the treatment and maintenance of recurrent ovarian cancer in early clinical trials, but it is far from standard therapy. This article outlines the problem of relapsed ovarian cancer and the mechanisms of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors and reviews the recent literature pertaining to olaparib in ovarian cancer. PMID:24043945

Shaw, Heather M; Hall, Marcia

2013-01-01

300

New surgical treatment options in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of Laser techniques such as interstitial Laser cogaulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that Laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for Laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after Laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately, and therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0 - 10%) compared to TUR-P (> 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after Laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used Laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

de Riese, Werner T. W.; Nelius, Thomas; Aronoff, David R.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

2003-06-01

301

Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: new etiologic insights and treatment options.  

PubMed

This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: a recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle--a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders. PMID:22110274

Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E

2011-10-28

302

Linaclotide: A New Option for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation in Adults  

PubMed Central

Chronic idiopathic constipation (CC) and irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation (IBS-C) are the 2 most common conditions among functional gastrointestinal disorders. Despite current multiple therapeutic options, treatment remains challenging and dissatisfactory to many patients. Linaclotide is a novel therapeutic agent, which is a guanylate cyclase receptor agonist that stimulates water secretion from the intestinal epithelium by promoting chloride and bicarbonate efflux into the lumen through activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Clinical trials have demonstrated that linaclotide is effective, safe and well tolerated in patients with CC and IBS-C. This review article highlights the mechanism of action of linaclotide, reviews published literature based on a search of databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), up to February 2013, and compares its utility with other currently available agents. PMID:24833940

Parker, Colleen H.; Yuan, Yuhong; Liu, Louis Wing Cheong

2013-01-01

303

The effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser in non-surgical periodontal therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laser treatment may serve as an alternative or adjunctive treatment to conventional mechanical therapy in periodontics. The neodymium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has been used in periodontics. Systematic reviews aid in clinical decision-making. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a systematic manner and after a comprehensive search of the literature, the (additional) therapeutic effects of

D. E. Slot; A. A. Kranendonk; S. Paraskevas; Weijden van der F

2009-01-01

304

Coccygectomy as a Surgical Option in the Treatment of Chronic Traumatic Coccygodynia: A Single-Center Experience and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Purpose Trauma is the most common cause for chronic coccygodynia. The present study aims at presenting our results after complete removal of the coccyx for refractory traumatic coccygodynia in terms of pain level, complication rates, and patients' overall satisfaction. Overview of Literature There is limited extant literature describing the success rate and complications in refractory isolated traumatic coccygodynia. Methods From January 2011 to January 2012, 10 consecutive patients with posttraumatic coccygodynia (six males and four females; mean age, 42 years) were enrolled in our study. Conservative treatment of the condition had failed in all patients. The same surgeon performed a complete coccygectomy on all patients. Postoperative outcomes included measurements of pain relief and degree of patient satisfaction with the procedure's results. Results In our selected cohort, all patients indicated complete pain relief or significant pain improvement in follow up-care and would recommend this procedure. One patient developed a subcutaneous hematoma that required surgical intervention. Conclusions Our results suggest that complete removal of the coccyx relieves pain in patients with refractory chronic traumatic coccygodyniaand is therefore a reasonable treatment option after conservative treatment failure.

Antoniadis, Alexander; Ulrich, Nils Harry-Bert

2014-01-01

305

Posterior dislocation of the Oxford knee meniscal bearing: a treatment option.  

PubMed

Unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) is now established as a treatment for medial compartment arthritis. The Oxford UKR (Biomet Orthopedics, Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) has a mobile-bearing system, which minimizes wear. This has been shown to provide excellent long-term results. Dislocation of the mobile-bearing device is rare with an incidence of 1 in 200 (0.5 %). The treatment usually involves exploration of the knee through the original anteromedial incision, removal of the dislocated bearing and rectification of the underlying cause for the dislocation. We describe two cases of a posterior dislocation in which the mobile bearing could not be retrieved and was left in situ. In both cases a good outcome was achieved. We conclude that in extremely rare cases where a dislocated bearing has migrated posteromedially and cannot be retrieved, it can be left in place rather than exploring the joint acutely through a separate posterior incision. PMID:23797388

Tibrewal, S; Pandit, H; McLardy-Smith, P; Tibrewal, S B; Murray, D W

2014-03-01

306

Treatment options and flow sheets for ORNL low-level liquid waste supernate  

SciTech Connect

Low-level liquid waste (LLLW) is currently contained in ten 50,000-gal storage and process tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and as residual heels in an number of older tanks that are no longer in active use. Plans are being formulated to treat these wastes, along with similar LLLW that will be generated in the future, to yield decontaminated effluents that can be disposed of and stable solid waste forms that can be permanently stored. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the performance of the most promising separations processes that are appropriate for treatment of the LLLW supernate solution to remove the two dominant radionuclides, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr; to indicate how they can be integrated into an effective flowsheet; and to estimate the expected performance of such flowsheets in comparison to waste treatment requirements.

Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.

1991-12-01

307

Embolization—An optional treatment for intractable hemorrhage from a malignant rectovaginal fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Patients rarely have intractable hemorrhage from rectovaginal fistulas, which usually require surgical intervention. This report presents our experience with nonsurgical treatment of a high-risk patient with uncontrolled hemorrhage originating from a malignant rectovaginal fistula. METHODS: A 74-year-old female developed uncontrolled hemorrhage from a malignant rectovaginal fistula. Because of her poor physical condition, an embolization with metal clips of the

T. Dushnitsky; Y. Ziv; A. Peer; A. Halevy

1999-01-01

308

New treatment option for young women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

A drug used for treating breast cancer, known as exemestane, is more effective than a common breast cancer prevention drug, tamoxifen, in preventing breast cancer recurrence in young women who also receive post-surgical treatment to suppress ovarian function. The combined results of the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial and Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial were presented at the 2014 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago.

309

Intraspinal neuroblastoma: Treatment options and neurological outcome of spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a common complication of cancer. Paraspinal neuroblastoma (NB) in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions may extend into the neural foramina causing compression of nerve roots and even the spinal cord. The prompt initiation of specific treatment can improve the neurological outcome. The aim of the present study was to review the clinical features, the management received and the factors that may affect the outcome of patients with MSCC caused by paraspinal NB. During a period between July 2007 and December 2012, a total of 576 NB patients were treated at the Children’s Cancer Hospital (Cairo, Egypt). Intraspinal disease extension was present in 51 patients (9%). The children with intraspinal disease extension were reviewed for disease pattern, neurological manifestations and treatment outcome. Children with intraspinal disease extension had an equal male to female ratio (1:1), and approximately two-thirds of patients (34/51) had a clinically manifested cord compression. The duration of neurological manifestations was >4 weeks in 58.8% (20/34) of symptomatic patients and ?4 weeks in 41.2% (14/34). Subsequent to starting treatment, neurological manifestations showed a complete recovery in 16 patients (47.1%), partial in 11 (32.4%), and stationary course was found in 7 (20.6%). Manifestations of ?4 weeks in duration carried an improved outcome compared with longer time compression, with a complete recovery in 78.6%, versus 25% for patients with a longer symptom duration (P=0.008). The upfront treatment, patient age and site of the primary tumor did not significantly affect the neurological outcome. Spinal cord compression in NB can be effectively managed with upfront chemotherapy. Initial surgical decompression should be reserved for benign variants only, including ganglioneuroma. Neurological manifestations of <4 weeks duration upon presentation are usually reversible.

FAWZY, MOHAMED; EL-BELTAGY, MOHAMED; SHAFEI, MAGED EL; ZAGHLOUL, MOHAMED SAAD; KINAAI, NAGLAA AL; REFAAT, AMAL; AZMY, SARAH

2015-01-01

310

Treatment Options in Alzheimer’s Disease: Maximizing Benefit, Managing Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is becoming an increasingly heavy burden on the society of developed countries, and physicians now face the challenge of providing efficient treatment regimens to an ever-higher number of individuals affected by the disease. Currently approved anti-AD therapies – the cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine – offer modest symptomatic relief, which can be enhanced using

Martin R. Farlow; Michael L. Miller; Vojislav Pejovic

2008-01-01

311

Evidence-based assessment of treatment options for children with IgA nephropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an evidence-based evaluation of published data on therapy for children with various presentations of the IgA nephropathies\\u000a – idiopathic IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and Henoch-Schnlein purpura nephritis (HSPN). Particular attention has been paid to the\\u000a outcome markers used in the studies reviewed, with the best evidence provided by markers highly associated with progressive\\u000a renal failure. No treatment modality for

Robert J. Wyatt; Ronald J. Hogg

2001-01-01

312

Surgical treatment for acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis: patient selection, surgical options, complications, and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of pain originating from the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. An awareness of\\u000a appropriate diagnostic techniques is necessary in order to localize clinical symptoms to the AC joint. Initial treatments\\u000a for AC joint osteoarthritis, which include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and corticosteroids, are recommended\\u000a prior to surgical interventions. Distal clavicle excision, the main surgical

Salvatore Docimo Jr; Dellene Kornitsky; Bennett Futterman; David E. Elkowitz

2008-01-01

313

Successful Non-Surgical Deep Uterine Transfer of Porcine Morulae after 24 Hour Culture in a Chemically Defined Medium  

PubMed Central

Excellent fertility and prolificacy have been reported after non-surgical deep uterine transfers of fresh in vivo-derived porcine embryos. Unfortunately, when this technology is used with vitrified embryos, the reproductive performance of recipients is low. For this reason and because the embryos must be stored until they are transferred to the recipient farms, we evaluated the potential application of non-surgical deep uterine transfers with in vivo-derived morulae cultured for 24 h in liquid stage. In Experiment 1, two temperatures (25°C and 37°C) and two media (one fully defined and one semi-defined) were assessed. Morulae cultured in culture medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 in air were used as controls. Irrespective of medium, the embryo viability after 24 h of culture was negatively affected (P<0.05) at 25°C but not at 37°C compared with the controls. Embryo development was delayed in all experimental groups compared with the control group (P<0.001). Most of the embryos (95.7%) cultured at 37°C achieved the full or expanded blastocyst stage, and unlike the controls, none of them hatched at the end of culture. In Experiment 2, 785 morulae were cultured in the defined medium at 37°C for 24 h, and the resulting blastocysts were transferred to the recipients (n?=?24). Uncultured embryos collected at the blastocyst stage (n?=?750) were directly transferred to the recipients and used as controls (n?=?25). No differences in farrowing rates (91.7% and 92.0%) or litter sizes (9.0±0.6 and 9.4±0.8) were observed between the groups. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that high reproductive performance can be achieved after non-surgical deep uterine transfers with short-term cultured morulae in a defined medium, which opens new possibilities for the sanitary, safe national and international trade of porcine embryos and the commercial use of embryo transfer in pigs. PMID:25118944

Martinez, Emilio A.; Angel, Miguel Angel; Cuello, Cristina; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Gomis, Jesus; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vila, Jordi; Colina, Ignaci; Diaz, Marta; Reixach, Josep; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria Antonia

2014-01-01

314

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: natural history, diagnosis, and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Sleep apnea is an entity characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction resulting in nocturnal hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. It is estimated that 2%–4% of the middle-aged population has sleep apnea with a predilection in men relative to women. Risk factors of sleep apnea include obesity, gender, age, menopause, familial factors, craniofacial abnormalities, and alcohol. Sleep apnea has been increasingly recognized as a major health burden associated with hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Increased airway collapsibility and derangement in ventilatory control responses are the major pathological features of this disorder. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard method for diagnosis of sleep apnea and assessment of sleep apnea severity; however, portable sleep monitoring has a diagnostic role in the setting of high pretest probability sleep apnea in the absence of significant comorbidity. Positive pressure therapy is the mainstay therapy of sleep apnea. Other treatment modalities, such as upper airway surgery or oral appliances, may be used for the treatment of sleep apnea in select cases. In this review, we focus on describing the sleep apnea definition, risk factor profile, underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, associated adverse consequences, diagnostic modalities, and treatment strategies. PMID:23616712

Gharibeh, Tarek; Mehra, Reena

2010-01-01

315

Expanding the role of perfusionists in the era of new treatment options for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Treatment for cardiovascular disease has dramatically changed the surgical patient population over the past 10 years. Advances in medical management and interventional cardiovascular procedures have delayed surgery in many adults, and the surgical pool has begun to decrease despite an aging population. This affects perfusionists in terms of new psychological and technical challenges, and has serious consequences and implications for the future of the profession. This study will review the changing patterns of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease in the USA over the past 10 years by examining the annual surgical procedure rates and correlating them with the number of practicing perfusionists and new student graduates. The purpose of this review is to project the future employment opportunities for perfusionists. The second part of the paper will look at the alternative roles perfusionists have expanded into as a result of changes in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The results of an e-mail survey of perfusionists will be presented to identify new applications of perfusion technology. PMID:14575414

Sistino, Joseph J

2003-07-01

316

Treatment Options for Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Sexual dysfunction is very common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but treatment options are limited. The benefits and harms of existing interventions for treatment of sexual dysfunction were assessed in patients with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: MEDLINE (1966 to December 2008), EMBASE (1980 to December 2008), and the Cochrane Trial Registry (Issue 4 2008) were searched for parallel and crossover randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Treatment effects were summarized as mean differences (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random effects model. Results: Fourteen trials (328 patients) were included. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5i) compared with placebo significantly increased the overall International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) score (three trials, 101 patients, MD 1.81, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.10), all of its individual domains, and the complete 15-item IIEF-5 (two trials, 80 patients, MD 10.64, 95% CI 5.32 to 15.96). End-of-treatment testosterone levels were not significantly increased by addition of zinc to dialysate (two trials, 22 patients, SMD 0.19 ng/dl, 95% CI ?2.12 to 2.50), but oral zinc improved end-of-treatment testosterone levels. There was no difference in plasma luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone level at the end of the study period with zinc therapy. Conclusions: PDE5i and zinc are promising interventions for treating sexual dysfunction in CKD. Evidence supporting their routine use in CKD patients is limited. There is an unmet need for studying interventions for male and female sexual dysfunction in CKD considering the significant disease burden. PMID:20498250

Vecchio, Mariacristina; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Johnson, David W.; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Graziano, Giusi; Querques, Marialuisa; Saglimbene, Valeria; Ruospo, Marinella; Bonifati, Carmen; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

2010-01-01

317

Economic aspects of treatment options in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review informing the EULAR recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo review the cost effectiveness of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatments and inform the clinical recommendations by the European League Against Rheumatism.MethodsA systematic literature search and review of the health economic evidence on RA treatment options was performed.ResultsDespite diverse methodological approaches, health economic analyses are concordant: at onset of disease, traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are cost effective—that is, treatment merits

Monika Schoels; John Wong; David L Scott; Angela Zink; Pamela Richards; Robert Landewé; Josef S Smolen; Daniel Aletaha

2010-01-01

318

Lidocaine 8 mg sore throat lozenges in the treatment of acute pharyngitis. A new therapeutic option investigated in comparison to placebo treatment.  

PubMed

An acute pharyngitis is characterised by mild to severe sore throat mostly accompanied by inflammation, throat pain, pain on swallowing, and burning. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study was conducted for comparison of the efficacy and safety of a newly developed lidocaine (2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl) acetamide, CAS 137-58-6) 8 mg lozenge formulation (Trachisan Halsschmerztabletten) for the treatment of acute sore throat not necessarily to be treated with antibiotics. 240 patients of both genders were enrolled. The study was performed in a single centre setting and consisted of two parts. A 2-h stationary phase (single dose treatment) was directly followed by a 46-h ambulatory phase, where patients were allowed to take up to a maximum of 11 further lozenges (multiple dose treatment). Pain intensity was assessed via Visual Analogue Scale during the course of the study. Moreover, the global efficacy and tolerability of the treatments were assessed. Lidocaine 8 mg sore throat lozenges were found to be superior to placebo for all efficacy parameters investigated. For the primary efficacy parameter, area under the curve of pain intensity from baseline over 2 h (AUC(0-2h)), i.e. after single-dose treatment, a significant treatment difference with a p-value of p < 0.001 in favour of the verum treatment could be demonstrated. Significant superiority could also be demonstrated for the descriptive AUC(0-48h) values, reflecting the treatment effect during the ambulatory multiple dose phase. Pain relief, minimum pain intensity, meaningful pain relief and the time of onset of meaningful pain relief as well as the assessments of global efficacy underlined the superiority of the treatment with lidocaine 8 mg sore throat lozenges. Global tolerability of the verum treatment was rated as "good" or "very good" in the majority of cases, the number of study drug related adverse events was low and evenly distributed to both treatment groups. Therefore, the results of the trial emphasise lidocaine 8 mg sore throat lozenges to be a favourable option in the treatment of pain symptoms of an acute sore throat. PMID:18193690

Wonnemann, Meinolf; Helm, Ilka; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela; Röttger-Luer, Patricia; Tran, Cam-Tuan; Canenbley, Rainer; Donath, Frank; Nowak, Horst; Schug, Barbara S; Blume, Henning H

2007-01-01

319

Management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: prevalence, and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

An excess amount of glucocorticoids represents the primary and most frequent etiological factor influencing secondary osteoporosis. Patients receiving glucocorticoids, but also those with the endogenous form of hypercorticism, are at high risk for the loss of bone density, with the subsequent occurrence of pathological fractures. In this review, we summarize the currently available methods of prevention and the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. We also include a proposal for both a prophylactic and therapeutic approach that takes into account the risk factors typical for long-term users of glucocorticoids. PMID:21701617

Payer, Juraj; Brazdilova, Kristina; Jackuliak, Peter

2010-01-01

320

Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED), an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research. PMID:22654518

McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; O’Melia, Anne M

2012-01-01

321

Investigation of treatment options to minimize the effects of acid erosion on enamel.  

PubMed

This in vitro study investigated 4 products (containing calcium, phosphate, and/or fluoride) and their ability to reharden enamel softened by hydrochloric acid as compared to hardening with saliva alone. Extracted human molars were embedded and polished, and baseline Vickers hardness (VH) of enamel was measured. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests (P = 0.05). For all groups, VH decreased significantly after immersion in hydrochloric acid. Fluoride in combination with casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate was the most effective treatment for enamel hardness recovery. PMID:24983182

Dehghan, M; Stanley, P J; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A

2014-01-01

322

Ketogenic diet: an early option for epilepsy treatment, instead of a last choice only.  

PubMed

Ketogenic diet (KD) was usually tried as a last resort in the treatment of intractable epilepsy after failure of many antiepileptics and even epilepsy surgery. Glucose transporter-1 deficiency and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency must be treated with KD as the first choice because of inborn errors of glucose metabolism. Infantile spasms, tuberous sclerosis complex, Rett syndrome, Doose syndrome, Dravet syndrome, etc., appear to respond to KD, and it has been suggested by the international consensus statement to use KD early. We believe that all patients with epilepsy, except those with contraindicated situations such as pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, porphyria, ?-oxidation defects, primary carnitine deficiency, etc., may try KD before trying other regimens. PMID:23515149

Wang, Huei-Shyong; Lin, Kuang-Lin

2013-01-01

323

Investigations of the endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue: effects of obesity/ weight loss and treatment options.  

PubMed

Obesity is a world wide epidemic; it is becoming more usual to be overweight or obese than to be normal weight. Obesity increases the risk of an extensive range of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, depression and some types of cancer. Adipose tissue is more than a storage organ for surplus energy - it is also a setting for complex metabolic processes and adipose tissue releases substances that interact with other parts of the body to influence several systems including food intake and energy metabolism. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is one of the signalling systems that control feeding behaviour. The ECS is implicated in many functions, such as pain, memory, addiction, inflammation, and feeding, and could be considered a stress recovery system. It also seems to integrate nutrient intake, metabolism and storage maintaining homeostatic balance. The ECS is a recently discovered system, and research indicates hyperactivity in obesity. The aim of this thesis is to elaborate on the relationships of this widespread system and its elements in adipose tissue in obesity. Study I is a 4 weeks rat intervention study to investigate whether weight independent effect of Rimonabant treatment exists. We found that food intake-tolerance development could be circumvented by cyclic administration of Rimonabant and implications of weight independent effects of treatment. Study II is a cross-sectional study to establish the expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 from various adipose tissue depots of lean and obese persons. In this study we conclude, that the subcutaneous adipose tissue express more CBR1 than the visceral depot in lean, but comparable levels in obese. Study III is a 10 weeks human intervention study to asses the effects on the ECS of 10% weight loss. We found reduction in the ECS in obesity that normalised with weight loss. Our results clearly show the presence of all the components of the ECS in human adipose tissue, and suggest that the ECS is reduced in adipose tissue in obesity. Our results do not support the hypothesis of hyperactivity of the ECS in human obesity. Possible future treatment of obesity with CBR1 antagonist could involve cyclic treatment of specific peripheral compounds. PMID:21466769

Bennetzen, Marianne Faurholt

2011-04-01

324

Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Irritability in Autistic Children  

PubMed Central

Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed. PMID:24932108

Kirino, Eiji

2014-01-01

325

Treatment options in patients with metastatic gastric cancer: Current status and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in the treatment of gastric cancer, it remains the world’s second highest cause of cancer death. As gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, systemic chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for these patients. However, no standard palliative chemotherapy regimen has been accepted for patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Palliative chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidine, platin compounds, docetaxel and epirubicin prolongs survival, and improves a high quality of life to a greater extent than best supportive care. The number of clinical investigations associated with targeted agents has recently increased. Agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have been widely tested. Trastuzumab was the first target drug developed, and pivotal phase III trials showed improved survival when trastuzumab was integrated into cisplatin/fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy was thus approved to be a new standard of care for patients with HER2-positive advanced esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. Thus, the evaluation of HER2 status in all patients with metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma should be considered. Other agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, mammalian target of rapamycin, and other biological pathways have also been investigated in clinical trials, but showed little impact on the survival of patients. In this review, systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapies for metastatic gastric cancer in the first- and second-line setting are summarized in the light of recent advances. PMID:24744580

Bilici, Ahmet

2014-01-01

326

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a review of the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment options in skin of color.  

PubMed

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is a common sequelae of inflammatory dermatoses that tends to affect darker skinned patients with greater frequency and severity. Epidemiological studies show that dyschromias, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, are among the most common reasons darker racial/ethnic groups seek the care of a dermatologist. The treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation should be started early to help hasten its resolution and begins with management of the initial inflammatory condition. First-line therapy typically consists of topical depigmenting agents in addition to photoprotection including a sunscreen. Topical tyrosinase inhibitors, such as hydroquinone, azelaic acid, kojic acid, arbutin, and certain licorice extracts, can effectively lighten areas of hypermelanosis. Other depigmenting agents include retinoids, mequinol, ascorbic acid, niacinamide, N-acetyl glucosamine, and soy with a number of emerging therapies on the horizon. Topical therapy is typically effective for epidermal postinflammatory hyperpigmentation; however, certain procedures, such as chemical peeling and laser therapy, may help treat recalcitrant hyperpigmentation. It is also important to use caution with all of the above treatments to prevent irritation and worsening of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. PMID:20725554

Davis, Erica C; Callender, Valerie D

2010-07-01

327

Erosion of the medial compartment of the canine elbow: occurrence, diagnosis and currently available treatment options.  

PubMed

Erosion of the medial compartment of the elbow joint refers to full thickness cartilage loss with exposure of the subchondral bone (modified Outerbridge grades 4-5) of the medial part of the humeral condyle (MHC) and the corresponding ulnar contact area. This finding may appear in the absence of an osteochondral fragment or a cartilage flap, or in combination with fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (MCP) or osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the MHC. With regard to the prognosis, it is important to diagnose these severe erosions. Imaging of cartilage lesions by means of radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is challenging in dogs. In contrast, direct arthroscopic inspection provides detailed information about the cartilage. The treatment of these severe erosions is difficult because of the limited regenerative capacity of cartilage and presumed mechanical or physical triggering factors. Several conservative and surgical treatment methods have been proposed to treat elbows with severe cartilage defects. However, due to irreversible loss of cartilage, the prognosis in these cases remains guarded. PMID:25396224

Coppieters, E; Gielen, I; Verhoeven, G; Van Vynckt, D; Van Ryssen, B

2015-01-12

328

Strontium Chloride: Can It Be a New Treatment Option for Ulcerative Colitis?  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims. Patients with ulcerative colitis still need effective therapy without major side effects. It has been found that strontium can suppress NF?B activation induced by TNF-?. This opens a gate to a new anti-TNF agent which is cheap and can be given orally. We for the first time aimed to investigate the effect of strontium chloride (SrCl2) on inflammation in experimental colitis. Methods. Thirty female Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups each containing 6 rats. The rats in groups 1 and 2 served as the healthy control and colitis group, respectively. The rats in groups 3, 4, and 5 had colitis and received 40?mg/kg?SrCl2, 160?mg/kg?SrCl2, and 1?mg/kg prednisolone by oral gavage, respectively. The rats were sacrificed for histological evaluation and determination of serum neopterin, TNF-?, and IFN-? levels. Results. The neopterin, TNF-? and IFN? levels of group 2 was significantly higher than the other groups. The neopterin, TNF-?, and IFN-? levels of controls and other treatment groups were comparable. There were a significant difference in macroscopic and microscopic healing between group 2 and other groups histologically. But there was not a significant difference within treatment receiving groups. Conclusion. SrCl2 had comparable therapeutic efficiency with prednisolone. PMID:25032214

Topal, Firdevs; Yonem, Ozlem; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Ataseven, Hilmi; Akyol, Melih

2014-01-01

329

Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity is a serious health concern affecting over 155 million children in developed countries worldwide. Childhood obesity is associated with significantly increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychosocial functioning problems (i.e., depression and decreased quality of life). The two major strategies for management of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy. This paper will provide the background rationale and methods of the REACH childhood obesity treatment program. Methods/design The REACH study is a 2-year multidisciplinary, family-based, childhood obesity treatment program. Seventy-two obese adolescents (aged 10-16 years) and their parents are being recruited to participate in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomized to receive either metformin or placebo, and are then randomized to a moderate or a vigorous intensity supervised exercise program for the first 12-weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, participants engage in weekly exercise sessions with an exercise facilitator at a local community center. Participants engage in treatment sessions with a dietitian and social worker monthly for the first year, and then every three months for the second year. The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index and the secondary outcome measures are changes in body composition, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, changes in diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life). It is hypothesized that participants who take metformin and engage in vigorous intensity exercise will show the greatest improvements in body mass index. In addition, it is hypothesized that participants who adhere to the REACH program will show improvements in body composition, physical activity, diet, psychosocial functioning and risk factor profiles for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These improvements are expected to be maintained over the 2-year program. Discussion The findings from this study will advance the knowledge regarding the long-term efficacy and sustainability of interventions for childhood obesity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00934570 PMID:19943971

2009-01-01

330

Pelvic colorectal recurrence: crucial role of radiologists in oncologic and surgical treatment options  

PubMed Central

Abstract Radical resection is the only potential cure for patients with locally advanced primary and recurrent rectal cancer and is considered curative only when the histologic margins are clear of tumour. Early diagnosis of the disease is essential as it increases the likelihood of a potentially curative resection and prevention of dissemination. Clinical examination, tumour markers and radiologic modalities such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography are routinely used in an effort to accurately stage these patients and provide useful information for the selection of patients for further treatment/management. This review describes the methods of staging patients with locally advanced primary and recurrent rectal cancer prior to surgery emphasizing the role that radiologists have in this process. PMID:22186112

Georgiou, P.A.; Tekkis, P.P.

2011-01-01

331

Clinical options for the treatment of urinary tract infections in children.  

PubMed

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) are a common cause of childhood febrile illness with 7% of girls and 2% of boys having a symptomatic culture positive UTI by the age of six years. Although there are conflicting views on the long term sequelae of UTI, as well as the place of prophylaxis, the universal aims of treatment of childhood UTI remain those of symptom alleviation, prevention of systemic infection and short and longer term complications. There is good evidence of historical and emerging resistance patterns, therefore rationalisation of prescription patterns by knowledge of sensitivities coupled with re-examination of empirical antibiotic choices is clearly important. Local formularies should reflect geographical resistance patterns along with best evidence on the duration and choice of antibiotic in order to maximize therapeutic effect, while minimizing the development of resistant strains. PMID:25210486

Ramlakhan, Shammi; Singh, Virendra; Stone, Joanne; Ramtahal, Alicia

2014-01-01

332

Subcutaneous application of levothyroxine as successful treatment option in a patient with malabsorption  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Hypothyroidism can usually be treated effectively by oral levothyroxine supplementation. There are, however, some rare circumstances, when oral levothyroxine application is not sufficient, for example malabsorption, interactions with food or other medications, or various gastrointestinal diseases. Case Report: We present a 42 year old woman with refractory and severe symptomatic hypothyroidism after subtotal thyroidectomy in spite of high dose oral levothyroxine supplementation. By stepwise increasing oral levothyroxine dosage up to 2200 micrograms plus 80 micrograms of thyronine, no sufficient substitution could be achieved. After suspicion of enteral malabsorption due to a pathological D-Xylose-test, subcutaneous levothyroxine supplementation was started. Finally, a sustained euthyroid state could be achieved. Conclusions: For selected patients who do not respond to oral treatment subcutaneous application of levothyroxine can be a suitable and effective therapy. PMID:23569562

Groener, Jan B.; Lehnhoff, Daniel; Piel, David; Nawroth, Peter P.; Schanz, Jurik; Rudofsky, Gottfried

2013-01-01

333

Turmeric - A new treatment option for lichen planus: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Turmeric is dried rhizome of the perennial herbs curcumalonga. It is called Haldi in Hindi, turmeric in English, ukon in Japanese. It has been used in Asian Medicine since the second millennium BC. It's utility is referred to in the ancient Hindu script the Ayurveda. Pathogenesis of the OLP should be taken in consideration for the treatment point of view. The Cell mediated immunity to secondary antigenic change in oral mucous membrane is thought to play a major role in its pathogenesis modified keratocyte surface antigens are the primary target for cytotoxic cellular response. Curcumin also been shown to have immune modulatory effect involving activation of host macrophages and natural killer cells and modulation of lymphocytes mediated function. PMID:24665176

Singh, Vibha; Pal, Mahesh; Gupta, Shalini; Tiwari, S K; Malkunje, Laxman; Das, Somdipto

2013-07-01

334

Clinical Options for the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Children  

PubMed Central

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) are a common cause of childhood febrile illness with 7% of girls and 2% of boys having a symptomatic culture positive UTI by the age of six years. Although there are conflicting views on the long term sequelae of UTI, as well as the place of prophylaxis, the universal aims of treatment of childhood UTI remain those of symptom alleviation, prevention of systemic infection and short and longer term complications. There is good evidence of historical and emerging resistance patterns, therefore rationalisation of prescription patterns by knowledge of sensitivities coupled with re-examination of empirical antibiotic choices is clearly important. Local formularies should reflect geographical resistance patterns along with best evidence on the duration and choice of antibiotic in order to maximize therapeutic effect, while minimizing the development of resistant strains. PMID:25210486

Ramlakhan, Shammi; Singh, Virendra; Stone, Joanne; Ramtahal, Alicia

2014-01-01

335

Wet Oxidation: A Promising Option for the Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wet oxidation (WO) is used to degrade persistent organic or inorganic impurities present in industrial wastewater. The process utilizes severe oxidation conditions (i.e., high temperature and pressures) to achieve the efficient degradation of pollutants. To obtain high degradation at lower operation conditions, catalytic WO process is being suggested. The wastewater generated from a pulp and paper mill contains several recalcitrant compounds like lignin, hemi-cellulose, phenols, sulfides etc. Therefore, pulp and paper mill effluent have low biodegradability and are not amenable for conventional biological process. With the implementation of stringent regulations, pulp and paper mill operators need a cleaner disposal route for the wastewater. In this mini-review, the results obtained from the recently published studies on WO treatment for pulp and paper mill effluent are compiled and presented. Finally, the recommendations for the future work are also given.

Garg, A.

2012-05-01

336

Topical calcipotriol as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of clear cell acanthoma.  

PubMed

Although uncommonly diagnosed, clear cell acanthoma represents an original source of speculative interest for dermatologists. Due to its clinical variability, it is often only recognized accidentally after histology. Dermoscopy has improved the reliability of clinical diagnosis of typical clear cell acanthoma thanks to the vascular pinpoint pattern and desquamative, peripheral collarette. Generally, therapy of clear cell acanthoma is oriented towards ablative solutions, such as surgery or cryotherapy. We propose a conservative therapy, based on the application of topical calcipotriol, which has produced complete regression after 2 months and no relapse one year after the end of treatment. A dermatoscope monitored all changes of clear cell acanthoma, showing its utility not only in diagnosis but also in therapeutic follow-up. This new therapeutic approach should support an inflammatory etiology of clear cell acanthoma, although further observations are needed to confirm this. PMID:25184922

Scanni, Gaetano; Pellacani, Giovanni

2014-01-01

337

Turmeric - A new treatment option for lichen planus: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Turmeric is dried rhizome of the perennial herbs curcumalonga. It is called Haldi in Hindi, turmeric in English, ukon in Japanese. It has been used in Asian Medicine since the second millennium BC. It's utility is referred to in the ancient Hindu script the Ayurveda. Pathogenesis of the OLP should be taken in consideration for the treatment point of view. The Cell mediated immunity to secondary antigenic change in oral mucous membrane is thought to play a major role in its pathogenesis modified keratocyte surface antigens are the primary target for cytotoxic cellular response. Curcumin also been shown to have immune modulatory effect involving activation of host macrophages and natural killer cells and modulation of lymphocytes mediated function. PMID:24665176

Singh, Vibha; Pal, Mahesh; Gupta, Shalini; Tiwari, S. K.; Malkunje, Laxman; Das, Somdipto

2013-01-01

338

Tooth auto-transplantation as an alternative treatment option: A literature review  

PubMed Central

Rapidly evolving implantation and alveolar ridge reconstruction techniques created a new area in modern dentistry where tooth loss is no longer a problem. Endless variations of implant's length, diameter, surface, and design along with autogenous, alogenous, aloplastic, or xenogenous bone substitutes made it possible to recreate physiological occlusion, esthetic and masticatory function. However, none of nowadays technologies in implant dentistry have the potential to adapt to a growth and development changes of a child's jaw. Therefore, patient's young age is a restriction for implantation and a particular challenge for a dentist willing to restore missing tooth. Thus, tooth auto-transplantation can be a good choice for treatment. The objective of this review is to underline the biologic principles required for successful auto-transplantation of teeth. Limits, indications, technique, and prognosis will be analyzed. PMID:23878556

Nim?enko, Tatjana; Omerca, Gražvydas; Varinauskas, Vaidas; Bramanti, Ennio; Signorino, Fabrizio; Cicciù, Marco

2013-01-01

339

Untreated atrial fibrillation in the United States of America: Understanding the barriers and treatment options  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly treated arrhythmia in the United States of America. Stroke is the most devastating consequence of atrial fibrillation. For decades, warfarin has been the most recommended treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke and systemic emboli. However, many patients at risk are not treated with anticoagulants. Several reasons exist, including physician underestimation of patient stroke risk, physician overestimation of bleeding risk, and patients’ reluctance to take chronic warfarin due to the difficulties of this medication in relation to its pharmacokinetics and interactions with food and other medications. Risk scores have helped to better define patient risks and benefits from chronic anticoagulation. Novel anticoagulants (NOACs) have improved the ability for patients to be compliant with anticoagulation. PMID:25561824

Verdino, Ralph J.

2014-01-01

340

Cytomegalovirus in human brain tumors: Role in pathogenesis and potential treatment options  

PubMed Central

During the last years increasing evidence implies that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be attributed to human malignancies arising from numerous tissues. In this perspective, we will review and discuss the potential mechanisms through which CMV infection may contribute to brain tumors by affecting tumor cell initiation, progression and metastasis formation. Recent evidence also suggests that anti-CMV treatment results in impaired tumor growth of CMV positive xenografts in animal models and potentially increased survival in CMV positive glioblastoma patients. Based on these observations and the high tumor promoting capacity of this virus, the classical and novel antiviral therapies against CMV should be revisited as they may represent a great promise for halting tumor progression and lower cancer deaths.

Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia; Johnsen, John Inge

2015-01-01

341

Pre-treatment options for halophytic microalgae and associated methane production.  

PubMed

Methane production from lipid extracted, pre-treated disrupted and non-pretreated Tetraselmis spp. microalgae was investigated. The results demonstrated that 122mLpergVS methane was produced for the lipid extracted Tetraselmis spp., demonstrating that lipid free Tetraselmis can be effectively digested in an anaerobic environment. A total of 252mLpergVS and 248mLpergVS of methane was reported for non-disrupted and pre-treated disrupted Tetraselmis sp. respectively. It was also observed that the microbial community caused cell lysis of Tetraselmis spp. during the anaerobic digestion process. Cell lyses can offer a direct conversion pathway of intact Tetraselmis spp. for energy production, thus negating the need for pre-treatment. PMID:25515151

Ward, Andrew; Lewis, David

2015-02-01

342

Implant Supported Mandibular Overdenture: A Viable Treatment Option for Edentulous Mandible  

PubMed Central

The prosthetic management of the edentulous patient has long been a major challenge. Complete maxillary and mandibular dentures have been the traditional standard of care. However, most of the patients report problems adapting to their mandibular denture due to a lack of comfort, retention, stability and inability to masticate. Implant-supported overdentures have been a common treatment for edentulous patients for the past 20 years and predictably achieve good clinical results. Implant supported overdentures offer many practical advantages over conventional complete dentures and removable partial dentures. These include decreased bone resorption, reduced prosthesis movement, better esthetics, improved tooth position, better occlusion, increased occlusal function and maintenance of the occlusal vertical dimension. This article presents a design and fabrication technique of the implant-retained overdenture that uses four freestanding mandibular implants. PMID:24995252

Lambade, Pravin; Gundawar, Sham

2014-01-01

343

Management of treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients: a cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment options.  

PubMed

New and more promising therapies for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 (G1) naive patients have recently been approved in the United States and Europe, and several more regimens are expected to become available within the next several years. While this scenario unfolds, it is necessary to develop a rational method to allocate current treatment in CHC G1 patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of boceprevir (BOC)- and telaprevir (TVR)-based triple therapy according to different patients' selection strategies. A semi-Markov model of CHC natural history and progression towards end-stage liver disease was built. We considered 3 selection strategies based on METAVIR fibrosis stage: (i) treat all patients with F1-F4 fibrosis, (ii) only F2-F4 and (iii) only F3-F4. For each strategy, TVR interleukin-28B-guided (IL28B-guided) and BOC rapid virologic response-guided (RVR-guided) therapies were applied. The model assessed the costs and outcomes, using a lifetime and 5-year time horizon, and adopting the Italian National Health System perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for F1-F4 strategy relative to F3-F4 was €5132 per quality-adjusted life years gained, across TVR IL-28B-guided therapy, and €7042 in the BOC RVR-guided therapy. Conversely, in the 5-year scenario, the ICER for F1-F4 strategy relative to F3-F4 was €1 818 679 (TVR IL28B-guided) and €1 866 437 (BOC RVR-guided) per end-stage liver disease or death (ESLD-D) avoided. In view of anticipated improvement in the efficacy of future regimens, selective treatment of only patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis with TVR or BOC could represent the most cost-effective strategy to optimize resource utilization. PMID:25040391

Cortesi, P A; Ciaccio, A; Rota, M; Lim, J K; De Salvia, S; Okolicsanyi, S; Vinci, M; Belli, L S; Mantovani, L G; Strazzabosco, M

2015-02-01

344

Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option.  

PubMed

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

2013-12-01

345

Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option?  

PubMed Central

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

2013-01-01

346

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is dependent on the confidence that DOE has in the long term mission for T Plant, is proposed: (1) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is high, then the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) would continue to implement the path forward previously described in the Alternatives Report (HNF-39744). Risks to the sludge project can be minimized through the establishment of an Interface Control Document (ICD) defining agreed upon responsibilities for both the STP and T Plant Operations regarding the transfer and storage of sludge and ensuring that the T Plant upgrade and operational schedule is well integrated with the sludge storage activities. (2) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is uncertain, then the ASF conceptual design should be pursued on a parallel path with preparation of T Plant for sludge storage until those uncertainties are resolved. (3) Finally, if the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is low, then the ASF design should be selected to provide independence from the T Plant mission risk.

RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

2009-04-29

347

Update on the management of constipation in the elderly: new treatment options.  

PubMed

Constipation disproportionately affects older adults, with a prevalences of 50% in community-dwelling elderly and 74% in nursing-home residents. Loss of mobility, medications, underlying diseases, impaired anorectal sensation, and ignoring calls to defecate are as important as dyssynergic defecation or irritable bowel syndrome in causing constipation. Detailed medical history on medications and co-morbid problems, and meticulous digital rectal examination may help identify causes of constipation. Likewise, blood tests and colonoscopy may identify organic causes such as colon cancer. Physiological tests such as colonic transit study with radio-opaque markers or wireless motility capsule, anorectal manometry, and balloon expulsion tests can identify disorders of colonic and anorectal function. However, in the elderly, there is usually more than one mechanism, requiring an individualized but multifactorial treatment approach. The management of constipation continues to evolve. Although osmotic laxatives such as polyethylene glycol remain mainstay, several new agents that target different mechanisms appear promising such as chloride-channel activator (lubiprostone), guanylate cyclase agonist (linaclotide), 5HT(4) agonist (prucalopride), and peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists (alvimopan and methylnaltrexone) for opioid-induced constipation. Biofeedback therapy is efficacious for treating dyssynergic defecation and fecal impaction with soiling. However, data on efficacy and safety of drugs in elderly are limited and urgently needed. PMID:20711435

Rao, Satish S C; Go, Jorge T

2010-01-01

348

Preterm labor: current tocolytic options for the treatment of preterm labor.  

PubMed

While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more effective agents. A reduction in the rate of neonatal mortality and morbidity using tocolysis has not been shown but no tocolytic study has been powered by numbers sufficient to demonstrate such an effect. Tocolytics can delay delivery long enough to administer a course of antepartum glucocorticoids and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (??-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most tocolytics have multi-organ adverse effects. Currently, based on the evidence of safety and efficacy, atosiban should be the first-choice tocolytic for the treatment of SPTL to prevent or delay preterm birth. PMID:24456411

Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

2014-04-01

349

Imepitoin as novel treatment option for canine idiopathic epilepsy: pharmacokinetics, distribution, and metabolism in dogs  

PubMed Central

Imepitoin is a novel anti-epileptic licensed in the European Union for the treatment of canine idiopathic epilepsy. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of imepitoin in dogs and to evaluate the interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes. Upon administration of imepitoin tablets at a dose of 30 mg/kg to beagle dogs, high plasma levels were observed within 30 min following oral dosing, with maximal plasma concentrations of 14.9–17.2 ?g/mL reached after 2–3 h. In a crossover study, co-administration of imepitoin tablets with food reduced the total AUC by 30%, but it did not result in significant changes in Tmax and Cmax, indicating lack of clinical relevance. No clinically relevant effects of sex and no accumulation or metabolic tolerance were observed upon twice daily dosing. Following single dose administration of 10–100 mg/kg, dose linearity was found. Administering [14C] imepitoin, high enteral absorption of 92% and primary fecal excretion were identified. Plasma protein binding was only 55%. At therapeutic plasma concentrations, imepitoin did not inhibit microsomal cytochrome P450 family liver enzymes in vitro. In rats, no relevant induction of liver enzymes was found. Therefore, protein binding or metabolism-derived drug–drug interactions are unlikely. Based on these data, imepitoin can be dosed twice daily, but the timing of tablet administration in relation to feeding should be kept consistent. PMID:24611573

Rundfeldt, C; Gasparic, A; Wla?, P

2014-01-01

350

Hospital effluents as a source of emerging pollutants: An overview of micropollutants and sustainable treatment options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryHospital wastewaters contain a variety of toxic or persistent substances such as pharmaceuticals, radionuclides, solvents and disinfectants for medical purposes in a wide range of concentrations due to laboratory and research activities or medicine excretion. Most of these compounds belong to the so called emerging contaminants; quite often unregulated pollutants which may be candidates for future regulation depending on research on their potential health effects and monitoring of their occurrence. Their main characteristic is that they do not need to persist in the environment to cause negative effects since their high transformation/removal rates can be compensated for by their continuous introduction into the environment. Some of these compounds, most of them pharmaceuticals and personal care products may also be present in urban wastewaters. Their concentrations in the effluents may vary from ng L -1 to ?g L -1. In this paper, hospital effluents and urban wastewaters are compared in terms of quali-quantitative characteristics. On the basis of an in-depth survey: (i) hospital average specific daily water consumptions (L patient -1 day -1) are evaluated and compared to urban ones (L person -1 day -1), (ii) conventional parameters concentrations in hospital effluents are compared to urban ones and (iii) main pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds contents are compared in the two wastewaters. Finally, an overview of the removal capacity of the different treatments is reported.

Verlicchi, P.; Galletti, A.; Petrovic, M.; Barceló, D.

2010-08-01

351

Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

1992-09-01

352

First experience with the ATOMS® implant, a new treatment option for male urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any complaint of involuntary urine leakage. A description is provided of our experience with the ATOMS® (Adjustable Transobturator Male System. Agency for Medical Innovations. A.M.I.) adjustable implant in patients with mild to moderate UI. Material and methods A retrospective study was made of the data referring to 13 patients treated with this adjustable system. Demographic and personal data were collected along with information on the etiology, severity, characteristics, duration of UI, complementary tests, surgery times, complications and results obtained. Results The full continence (no use of pad) recovery rate at the close of the study was 12/13 (92.3%). Three cases required a single filling during the mean 16 months of follow–up (range 4–32; median 14 months). A complication in the form of perineal hematoma was resolved with conservative treatment and a case of urinary retention was resolved by placing a bladder catheter for the duration of one week. Three patients experienced perineal–scrotal dysesthesias that disappeared spontaneously in the first three months. Conclusions The described adjustable continence system has been found to be very effective in males with mild to moderate UI. In our experience, the ATOMS® implant offers excellent results over the middle term with a very low rate of complications that were easily resolved in all cases. PMID:25667760

Cansino, Jose Ramón; Portilla, María Alejandra; Rodriguez, Simón Claudio; Hidalgo, Luis; De la Peña, Javier

2014-01-01

353

Evidence-based approach of treatment options for postoperative knee pain.  

PubMed

Optimal pain management is critical after knee surgery to avoid adverse events and to improve surgical outcomes. Pain may affect surgical outcomes by contributing to limitations in range of motion, strength, and functional recovery. The causes of postoperative pain are multifactorial; therefore, an appropriate pain management strategy must take into account preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors to create a comprehensive and individualized plan for the patient. Preoperative assessment includes management of patient expectations, recognition of conditions and early counseling for high-risk patients (ie, opioid dependence, psychiatric comorbidities), and use of preemptive analgesia techniques (ie, preoperative IV medications, peripheral nerve blocks, incisional field blocks). Intraoperative strategies include meticulous surgical technique, limiting the use of tourniquets (ie, duration and pressure), and using preventive analgesia methods (ie, postoperative field block, continuous nerve catheters, intra-articular injection). Postoperative analgesia may be facilitated by cryotherapy, early mobilization, bracing, and rehabilitation. Certain modalities (ie, continuous passive motion devices, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation units, iontophoresis) may be important adjuncts in the perioperative period as well. There may be an evolving role for alternative medicine strategies. Early recognition and treatment of exaggerated postoperative pain responses may mitigate the effects of complex regional pain syndrome or the development of chronic pain. PMID:24875973

Farr, Jack; Jaggers, Ryan; Lewis, Hal; Plackis, Andreas; Sim, Seung B; Sherman, Seth L

2014-05-01

354

Update on the management of constipation in the elderly: new treatment options  

PubMed Central

Constipation disproportionately affects older adults, with a prevalences of 50% in community-dwelling elderly and 74% in nursing-home residents. Loss of mobility, medications, underlying diseases, impaired anorectal sensation, and ignoring calls to defecate are as important as dyssynergic defecation or irritable bowel syndrome in causing constipation. Detailed medical history on medications and co-morbid problems, and meticulous digital rectal examination may help identify causes of constipation. Likewise, blood tests and colonoscopy may identify organic causes such as colon cancer. Physiological tests such as colonic transit study with radio-opaque markers or wireless motility capsule, anorectal manometry, and balloon expulsion tests can identify disorders of colonic and anorectal function. However, in the elderly, there is usually more than one mechanism, requiring an individualized but multifactorial treatment approach. The management of constipation continues to evolve. Although osmotic laxatives such as polyethylene glycol remain mainstay, several new agents that target different mechanisms appear promising such as chloride-channel activator (lubiprostone), guanylate cyclase agonist (linaclotide), 5HT4 agonist (prucalopride), and peripherally acting ?-opioid receptor antagonists (alvimopan and methylnaltrexone) for opioid-induced constipation. Biofeedback therapy is efficacious for treating dyssynergic defecation and fecal impaction with soiling. However, data on efficacy and safety of drugs in elderly are limited and urgently needed. PMID:20711435

Rao, Satish SC; Go, Jorge T

2010-01-01

355

Imepitoin as novel treatment option for canine idiopathic epilepsy: pharmacokinetics, distribution, and metabolism in dogs.  

PubMed

Imepitoin is a novel anti-epileptic licensed in the European Union for the treatment of canine idiopathic epilepsy. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of imepitoin in dogs and to evaluate the interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes. Upon administration of imepitoin tablets at a dose of 30 mg/kg to beagle dogs, high plasma levels were observed within 30 min following oral dosing, with maximal plasma concentrations of 14.9-17.2 ?g/mL reached after 2-3 h. In a crossover study, co-administration of imepitoin tablets with food reduced the total AUC by 30%, but it did not result in significant changes in Tmax and Cmax , indicating lack of clinical relevance. No clinically relevant effects of sex and no accumulation or metabolic tolerance were observed upon twice daily dosing. Following single dose administration of 10-100 mg/kg, dose linearity was found. Administering [(14) C] imepitoin, high enteral absorption of 92% and primary fecal excretion were identified. Plasma protein binding was only 55%. At therapeutic plasma concentrations, imepitoin did not inhibit microsomal cytochrome P450 family liver enzymes in vitro. In rats, no relevant induction of liver enzymes was found. Therefore, protein binding or metabolism-derived drug-drug interactions are unlikely. Based on these data, imepitoin can be dosed twice daily, but the timing of tablet administration in relation to feeding should be kept consistent. PMID:24611573

Rundfeldt, C; Gasparic, A; Wla?, P

2014-10-01

356

Treatment options and patient perspectives in the management of fibromyalgia: future trends  

PubMed Central

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common, complex, and difficult to treat chronic widespread pain disorder, which usually requires a multidisciplinary approach using both pharmacological and non-pharmacological (education and exercise) interventions. It is a condition of heightened generalized sensitization to sensory input presenting as a complex of symptoms including pain, sleep dysfunction, and fatigue, where the pathophysiology could include dysfunction of the central nervous system pain modulatory systems, dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system, and dysautonomia. A cyclic model of the pathophysiological processes is compatible with the interrelationship of primary symptoms and the array of postulated triggers associated with FM. Many of the molecular targets of current and emerging drugs used to treat FM have been focused to the management of discrete symptoms rather than the condition. Recently, drugs (eg, pregabalin, duloxetine, milnacipran, sodium oxybate) have been identified that demonstrate a multidimensional efficacy in this condition. Although the complexity of FM suggests that monotherapy, non-pharmacological or pharmacological, will not adequately address the condition, the outcomes from recent clinical trials are providing important clues for treatment guidelines, improved diagnosis, and condition-focused therapies. PMID:19337451

Lawson, Kim

2008-01-01

357

Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome.  

PubMed

Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval. PMID:20668713

Farbu, Elisabeth

2010-01-01

358

Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome  

PubMed Central

Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval. PMID:20668713

Farbu, Elisabeth

2010-01-01

359

Oral antiplatelet therapy for atherothrombotic disease: overview of current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Clinical presentations of atherothrombotic vascular disease, such as acute coronary syndromes, ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a seminal role in the arterial thrombus formation that precipitates acute manifestations of atherothrombotic disease. As a result, antiplatelet therapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for the prevention and treatment of atherothrombotic disease. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitor, such as clopidogrel or prasugrel, is the current standard-of-care antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes managed with an early invasive strategy. However, these agents are associated with several important clinical limitations, including significant residual risk for ischemic events, bleeding risk, and variability in the degree of platelet inhibition. The residual risk can be attributed to the fact that aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitors block only the thromboxane A2 and ADP platelet activation pathways but do not affect the other pathways that lead to thrombosis, such as the protease-activated receptor-1 pathway stimulated by thrombin, the most potent platelet agonist. Bleeding risk associated with aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitors can be explained by their inhibitory effects on the thromboxane A2 and ADP pathways, which are critical for protective hemostasis. Interpatient variability in the degree of platelet inhibition in response to antiplatelet therapy may have a genetic component and contribute to poor clinical outcomes. These considerations underscore the clinical need for therapies with a novel mechanism of action that may reduce ischemic events without increasing the bleeding risk. PMID:22393298

Fintel, Dan J

2012-01-01

360

Current treatment options with immunoglobulin G for the individualization of care in patients with primary immunodeficiency disease.  

PubMed

Primary antibody deficiencies require lifelong replacement therapy with immunoglobulin (Ig)G to reduce the incidence and severity of infections. Both subcutaneous and intravenous routes of administering IgG can be effective and well tolerated. Treatment regimens can be individualized to provide optimal medical and quality-of-life outcomes in infants, children, adults and elderly people. Frequency, dose, route of administration, home or infusion-centre administration, and the use of self- or health-professional-administered infusion can be tailored to suit individual patient needs and circumstances. Patient education is needed to understand the disease and the importance of continuous therapy. Both the subcutaneous and intravenous routes have advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered in selecting each patient's treatment regimen. The subcutaneous route is attractive to many patients because of a reduced incidence of systemic adverse events, flexibility in scheduling and its comparative ease of administration, at home or in a clinic. Self-infusion regimens, however, require independence and self-reliance, good compliance on the part of the patient/parent and the confidence of the physician and the nurse. Intravenous administration in a clinic setting may be more appropriate in patients with reduced manual dexterity, reluctance to self-administer or a lack of self-reliance, and intravenous administration at home for those with good venous access who prefer less frequent treatments. Both therapy approaches have been demonstrated to provide protection from infections and improve health-related quality of life. Data supporting current options in IgG replacement are presented, and considerations in choosing between the two routes of therapy are discussed. PMID:25384609

Jolles, S; Orange, J S; Gardulf, A; Stein, M R; Shapiro, R; Borte, M; Berger, M

2015-02-01

361

INEL Operable Unit 7-13 Retrieval/Ex Situ Thermal Treatment configuration options: INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Systems Analysis project  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Systems Analysis project is to identify and evaluate cradle-to-grave systems for the remediation of Transuranic (TRU)Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The BWID program will use the results of the BWID Systems Analysis in conjunction with identified Department of Energy (DOE) Complex buried waste needs to develop a long-term strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities throughout the DOE system. This report presents Buried Waste Retrieval/Ex Situ Thermal Treatment configuration option concepts in the form of block diagrams. These configuration options are: Retrieval/Melter Treatment; Retrieval/Metal Sort/Thermal Treatment; Retrieval/No Sort/Incineration/Melter Treatment; Retrieval/Interim Storage/Melter Treatment; Retrieval/Interim Storage/Metal Sort/Thermal Treatment; and Retrieval/Interim Storage/No Sort/Incineration/Melter Treatment. Each option is presented as a complete end-to-end system.

Richardson, J.G.; Rudin, M.J.; O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Raivo, B.

1992-07-01

362

Zolpidem extended-release: a single insomnia treatment option for sleep induction and sleep maintenance symptoms.  

PubMed

It is imperative that primary care clinicians have a thorough understanding of insomnia, because they are often the first point of contact for patients who seek assistance when they have difficulty sleeping. Insomnia may appear with different presentations: sleep onset, sleep maintenances, sleep offset, nonrestorative sleep, or a combination of these symptoms. Untreated symptoms result in clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of following-day functionality. Physicians, pharmacists, and other clinicians should be aware of the conditions that contribute to, are antecedent to, and associated with insomnia. These pathophysiological conditions include advanced age; female gender; respiratory, gastrointestinal, vascular, and rheumatologic pain syndromes; and other conditions such as depression and/or anxiety. Additional health factors contributing to insomnia include chronic pain, stressors, grief reaction, pharmacotherapeutic side effects, lifestyle contributors such as social/recreational drugs, phytopharmaceuticals, and ethanol use. The pharmacotherapy focus in this article is a modified-release formulation of the BZ1 (omega1) receptor agonist zolpidem, zolpidem extended-release. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety studies that compare 12.5 mg zolpidem extended-release (Ambien CRtrade markCIV) and 10 mg original zolpidem were initially conducted in healthy volunteers to assess the potential for an improved clinical profile. Zolpidem extended-release (12.5 mg and 6.25 mg extended-release dosage forms) is indicated for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance. Zolpidem extended-release is devoid of any short-term use limitation and can be prescribed for the duration of medical necessity. The modified-release zolpidem is a two-layer tablet with a biphasic release profile, releasing the first layer immediately, whereas the second layer is released at a slower rate. Plasma concentrations are maintained for a longer period of time versus the immediate-release zolpidem formulation. Pharmacokinetic analysis has also demonstrated that the time to maximum concentration (tmax) and terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) of 12.5 mg zolpidem extended-release are similar to those of 10 mg zolpidem indicating a similar rapid onset of action and an elimination profile that reduced the risk of next-day decrements in performance. Zolpidem's CYP 450 hepatic metabolism uses as a substrate CYP3A4 (major) and 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, and 2D6 as minor pathways. Zolpidem extended-release dosage forms diminish sleep latency, number of awakenings, and wakefulness after sleep onset and augments total time asleep. PMID:17515707

Barkin, Robert L

2007-01-01

363

RSS Feeds Submit Biological Cancer Therapy There is hope. Learn more about biotherapy treatment options today. CancerCenter.com/CareThatNev  

E-print Network

RSS Feeds » Submit Biological Cancer Therapy There is hope. Learn more about biotherapy treatment options today. CancerCenter.com/CareThatNev O li CNA C tifi ti Q i k d E S h f CNA N i P O li ! Home Earth of pesticides Scientists discover how to improve immune response to cancer at Princess Margaret Hospital Similar

Glaser, Rainer

364

A novel non-surgical, minimally invasive technique for parathyroid autotransplantation: A case report.  

PubMed

We present a case report of intramuscular autotransplantation of the parathyroid cell suspension acquired after total parathyroidectomy. A 15-yr-old female patient who had been undergoing hemodialysis due to chronic renal failure for eight yr was diagnosed with secondary hyperthyroidism and subsequently underwent total parathyroidectomy. The parathyroid cells were acquired from the resected tissues, processed through isolation and cultivation phases, and counted using a cell counter. A total of two million cells were injected into the left deltoid muscle using a 22-gauge needle. After surgery, five and 10 million cells were injected in the fifth and 12 week, respectively. The desired serum levels of parathyroid hormones and calcium were not achieved after the first two transplantations. In addition, there was no regression in the patient's symptoms. However, at four wk after the third transplantation, serum parathyroid hormone level did not decrease to <3 pg/mL, the patient was asymptomatic, and the oral treatment was stopped. Our findings indicate that this new technique is applicable because it is minimally invasive, and it can be easily repeated. PMID:25495657

Aysan, Erhan; Kilic, Ulkan; Gok, Ozlem; Altug, Burcugul; Ercan, Cilem; Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Kesgin, Cemile; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

2015-03-01

365

Treatment Options Summary  

MedlinePLUS

... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...

366

OCD Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Support Groups in Australia Support Groups in South Africa Mobile Apps Helping Others Children Spouse or Partner ... adaa/press-room/news-updates?page=1 Facts & Statistics Press Releases Multimedia All Videos Podcasts ADAA Bylaws ...

367

PTSD: Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... side effects. There is some evidence that atypical antipsychotics are useful in ameliorating psychotic symptoms in PTSD patients. However, recent evidence suggests that atypical antipsychotics are not useful for treating PTSD symptoms. Current ...

368

Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms ...

369

Assessing Ammonia Treatment Options  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second of three articles to help water system operators understand ammonia and how to monitor and control its effects at the plant and in the distribution system. The first article (Opflow, April 2012) provided an overview of ammonia's chemistry, origins, and water sy...

370

Treatment Option Overview (Retinoblastoma)  

MedlinePLUS

... as the eye. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). CT scan (CAT scan) : ... inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Bone scan : A procedure ...

371

Expected and unexpected imaging features after oesophageal cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Oesophageal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Various surgical procedures are performed for oesophageal malignancies. The advancement in surgical technique as well as post-surgical care has significantly reduced the complication rate. However, various complications may still occur either immediately (infection, aspiration, anastomotic leak, ischaemic necrosis, fistulae, chylothorax) or late after surgery (strictures, tumour recurrence, fistulae, delayed emptying). The palliative treatment options of radiotherapy and stent placement may also be accompanied by complications, such as radiation necrosis, stricture, and stent ingrowth by the tumour. This review presents the expected post-surgical appearance as well as various complications after surgical and non-surgical treatments of oesophageal cancer. PMID:24857676

Sonavane, S; Watts, J; Terry, N; Singh, S P

2014-08-01

372

New option for management of HIV-1 infection in treatment-naive patients: once-daily, fixed-dose combination of rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir  

PubMed Central

Fixed-dose combination tablets have become an important therapy option for patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine is a recently approved therapy option that has been extensively studied within the treatment-naïve population. When compared with efavirenz-based therapy, improved tolerability with rilpivirine-based therapy was balanced by higher rates of virologic failure to provide similar overall efficacy rates within the intention-to-treat analysis. As a result, providers will need to balance the potential for improved tolerability with fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine against a higher potential for virologic failure, particularly among patients with baseline viral loads above 100,000 copies/mL. Current treatment guidelines have recommended that fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine be an alternative therapy option for treatment-naïve patients and advise caution in those patients with high viral loads at baseline. Similar to other non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens, there are a number of drug interaction concerns with fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine that will necessitate monitoring and, in some cases, appropriate management. Additionally, the emergence of drug resistance to fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine has been well documented in clinical studies and close attention will be necessary in order to protect current and future therapy options. Overall, fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine is poised to provide an important therapy option for patients when appropriately applied. PMID:22570576

Patel, Nimish; Miller, Christopher D

2012-01-01

373

Direct electrochemical oxidation of ammonia on graphite as a treatment option for stored source-separated urine.  

PubMed

Electrolysis can be a viable technology for ammonia removal from source-separated urine. Compared to biological nitrogen removal, electrolysis is more robust and is highly amenable to automation, which makes it especially attractive for on-site reactors. In electrolytic wastewater treatment, ammonia is usually removed by indirect oxidation through active chlorine which is produced in-situ at elevated anode potentials. However, the evolution of chlorine can lead to the formation of chlorate, perchlorate, chlorinated organic by-products and chloramines that are toxic. This study focuses on using direct ammonia oxidation on graphite at low anode potentials in order to overcome the formation of toxic by-products. With the aid of cyclic voltammetry, we demonstrated that graphite is active for direct ammonia oxidation without concomitant chlorine formation if the anode potential is between 1.1 and 1.6 V vs. SHE (standard hydrogen electrode). A comparison of potentiostatic bulk electrolysis experiments in synthetic stored urine with and without chloride confirmed that ammonia was removed exclusively by continuous direct oxidation. Direct oxidation required high pH values (pH > 9) because free ammonia was the actual reactant. In real stored urine (pH = 9.0), an ammonia removal rate of 2.9 ± 0.3 gN·m(-2)·d(-1) was achieved and the specific energy demand was 42 Wh·gN(-1) at an anode potential of 1.31 V vs. SHE. The measurements of chlorate and perchlorate as well as selected chlorinated organic by-products confirmed that no chlorinated by-products were formed in real urine. Electrode corrosion through graphite exfoliation was prevented and the surface was not poisoned by intermediate oxidation products. We conclude that direct ammonia oxidation on graphite electrodes is a treatment option for source-separated urine with three major advantages: The formation of chlorinated by-products is prevented, less energy is consumed than in indirect ammonia oxidation and readily available and cheap graphite can be used as the electrode material. PMID:25497427

Zöllig, Hanspeter; Fritzsche, Cristina; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

2015-02-01

374

Autologous bone cylinder transplantation with cannulated screw re-stabilisation: a new treatment option for delayed fracture healing of the femoral neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  Delayed fracture healing and non-unions of the femoral neck after lag screw osteosynthesis occur particularly in multiply\\u000a injured young patients, and then surgical revision is often required. Currently no evidence-based treatment guidelines exist\\u000a and therapeutic options include both hip arthroplasties and femoral head-maintaining operations. Here we report on young patients\\u000a with delayed fracture healing of the femoral neck. Patients underwent

C. Frank; M. von Au; B. Vock; A. Wentzensen; P. A. Grützner; T. Guehring

375

The culture of education in a large dialysis organization: informing patient-centered decision making on treatment options for renal replacement therapy.  

PubMed

Challenged by the observation that newly admitted dialysis patients were often unaware of their treatment options, Fresenius Medical Care, North America developed a program to improve information delivered to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients prior to their need for renal replacement therapy. Six years ago, the Treatment Options Program (TOPs) was established utilizing a standardized approach to educate individuals with CKD Stages 3 and 4. The program education focuses on modality and vascular access options. A key component includes follow-up at predetermined intervals, offering additional education and patient reminders to continue to work with their physician in selecting a preferred renal replacement modality. Since program inception, over 73,000 individuals have been educated through TOPs. Home therapy utilization as first treatment is higher in the patient population that received TOPs education. Similarly, participants had a higher rate of permanent vascular access with decreased use of hemodialysis catheters upon admission. Avoiding hemodialysis catheter use and expanding home therapy utilization both offer potential benefits to all stakeholders: patients, providers, and payors, particularly as we move toward accountable healthcare systems. The ability to expand the TOPs program relies on seeing patients early enough to allow each patient time to process the information and work with their physician to select the modality and access that best meets their healthcare and lifestyle needs. Educating our patients facilitates empowerment and active participation in their therapy, a much coveted component of patient-centered health care for the renal provider community as we look to the future. PMID:23406257

Mollicone, Debra; Pulliam, Joseph; Lacson, Eduardo

2013-01-01

376

Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 °C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

2013-09-01

377

Pregabalin in the treatment of inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia following overfilling of endodontic sealer  

PubMed Central

A case of orofacial pain and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paraesthesia after extrusion of endodontic sealer within the mandibular canal treated with prednisone and pregabalin is described. A 36-year-old woman underwent root canal treatment of the mandibular second right premolar tooth. Post-operative panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of radiopaque canal sealer in the mandibular canal. Damage to IAN consecutive to extrusion of endodontic sealer was diagnosed. Non-surgical management was decided, including: 1 mg/kg/day prednisone 2 times/day, once-daily regimen, and 150 mg/day pregabalin, two doses per day, monitoring the progress with periodic follow-up visits. Six weeks after the incident the signs and symptoms were gone. The complete resolution of paraesthesia and the control of pain achieved suggest that a non-surgical approach, combining prednisone and the GABA analogue pregabalin, is a good option in the management of the IAN damage subsequent to endodontic sealer extrusion. Key words:Endodontics, inferior alveolar nerve, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, paraesthesia, pregabalin. PMID:24790724

Alonso-Ezpeleta, Oscar; Martín, Pablo J.; López-López, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

2014-01-01

378

Expression changes of antioxidant, apoptotic, anti-apoptotic genes and miR-15b-34a-21-98 in over tissue by using erythromycin, quinacrine and tetracycline in non-surgical sterilization.  

PubMed

In the present study, effects on expression of antioxidant, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes (GSR, GRX3, SOD1, RAI-NOS, HSP7, BAX, Bcl-2, CASP3 and MDH1) of substances being used in non-surgical sterilization such as quinacrine, erythromycin and tetracycline were evaluated in over tissue. Moreover, expression of some specific mi-RNA (miR-15b, miR-21, miR34a and miR-98) that playing a role in apoptosis was determined in same tissue. Prospective comparative experimental study. Genetics and Histology laboratory. Total number of 28 Wistar albino 12-14 week old female rats with regular cycles and 200-220 grams in weight. Total RNA was isolated from tissues by using a RNA isolation kit. Gene expression levels were evaluated by Real-Time PCR method. Tubal passage and fibrosis induction in tissues was observed in the histochemical analysis. In the statistical analysis of data Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were used and p < 0.05 were accepted as significant. While the expressions of target genes found to be increased in quinacrine and erythromycin group when compared to control group, this increase was insignificant. In quinacrine group, increase in the SOD1 expression levels was only statistically significant (p < 0.05). Expression levels of miR-15b, miR-21, miR34a and miR-98 microRNAs were found to be up-regulated in all experimental groups, despite this, only the increased expression miR-34 was found as statistically significant when compared to control. Tubal blockage and fibrosis induction scores of quinacrine, erythromycin and tetracycline were significantly higher than control. Results of the present study suggest that the doses treated of quinacrine, erythromycin and tetracycline used in non-surgical sterilization effect poorly the expression of anti-oxidant, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, but the expression of miR-34 playing the role in apoptosis increased after treatment of these substances. PMID:25195052

Kara, Murat; Yumrutas, Onder; Atilgan, Remzi; Baspinar, Melike; Sapmaz, Ekrem; Kuloglu, Tuncay

2014-12-01

379

Report: treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste in North Rhine-Westphalia: policy-making and operation options.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes a long-term-investigation of the mechanical treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste materials in North Rhine-Westphalia in the light of applied operation standards and a disposal ban on untreated waste. It is shown how both the allocation of output materials from mechanical treatment plants and the subsequent treatment channels have changed since enforcement of the ban in 2005. Based on the findings of the investigation, two waste management scenarios offering alternative policies have been defined and are discussed. It is suggested that consistent enforcement of the ban affects both the diversion of waste to incineration and the recovery of materials on a regional scale. On the other hand, potential energy recovery may be fully exploited only insofar as operators of mechanical treatment plants concentrate their business on the production of refuse-derived fuel. PMID:17439054

Karavezyris, Vassilios

2007-04-01

380

Intravenous Doripenem at 500 Milligrams versus Levofloxacin at 250 Milligrams, with an Option To Switch to Oral Therapy, for Treatment of Complicated Lower Urinary Tract Infection and Pyelonephritis?  

PubMed Central

The prospective, multicenter, double-blind study presented in this report evaluated whether or not intravenous (IV) administration of doripenem, a carbapenem with bactericidal activity against gram-negative and gram-positive uropathogens, is inferior to IV administration of levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI). Patients (n = 753) with complicated lower UTI or pyelonephritis were randomly assigned to receive IV doripenem at 500 mg every 8 h (q8h) or IV levofloxacin at 250 mg q24h. Patients in both treatment arms were eligible to switch to oral levofloxacin after 3 days of IV therapy to complete a 10-day treatment course if they demonstrated significant clinical and microbiological improvements. The microbiological cure rate (primary end point) was determined at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 5 to 11 days after the last dose of antibiotic. For the microbiologically evaluable patients (n = 545), the microbiological cure rates were 82.1% and 83.4% for doripenem and levofloxacin, respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference, ?8.0 to 5.5%); in the microbiological modified intent-to-treat cohort (n = 648), the cure rates were 79.2% and 78.2%, respectively. Clinical cure rates at the TOC visit were 95.1% in the doripenem arm and 90.2% in the levofloxacin arm (95% CI around the difference in cure rates [doripenem cure rate minus levofloxacin cure rate], 0.2% to 9.6%). Both treatment regimens were generally well tolerated. Doripenem was found not to be inferior to levofloxacin in terms of therapeutics and is now approved for use in the United States and Europe for the treatment of adults with cUTI, including pyelonephritis. As fluoroquinolone resistance increases, doripenem may become a more important option for successful treatment of cUTIs, including treatment of pyelonephritis. PMID:19581455

Naber, K. G.; Llorens, L.; Kaniga, K.; Kotey, P.; Hedrich, D.; Redman, R.

2009-01-01

381

Intravenous doripenem at 500 milligrams versus levofloxacin at 250 milligrams, with an option to switch to oral therapy, for treatment of complicated lower urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.  

PubMed

The prospective, multicenter, double-blind study presented in this report evaluated whether or not intravenous (IV) administration of doripenem, a carbapenem with bactericidal activity against gram-negative and gram-positive uropathogens, is inferior to IV administration of levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI). Patients (n = 753) with complicated lower UTI or pyelonephritis were randomly assigned to receive IV doripenem at 500 mg every 8 h (q8h) or IV levofloxacin at 250 mg q24h. Patients in both treatment arms were eligible to switch to oral levofloxacin after 3 days of IV therapy to complete a 10-day treatment course if they demonstrated significant clinical and microbiological improvements. The microbiological cure rate (primary end point) was determined at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 5 to 11 days after the last dose of antibiotic. For the microbiologically evaluable patients (n = 545), the microbiological cure rates were 82.1% and 83.4% for doripenem and levofloxacin, respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference, -8.0 to 5.5%); in the microbiological modified intent-to-treat cohort (n = 648), the cure rates were 79.2% and 78.2%, respectively. Clinical cure rates at the TOC visit were 95.1% in the doripenem arm and 90.2% in the levofloxacin arm (95% CI around the difference in cure rates [doripenem cure rate minus levofloxacin cure rate], 0.2% to 9.6%). Both treatment regimens were generally well tolerated. Doripenem was found not to be inferior to levofloxacin in terms of therapeutics and is now approved for use in the United States and Europe for the treatment of adults with cUTI, including pyelonephritis. As fluoroquinolone resistance increases, doripenem may become a more important option for successful treatment of cUTIs, including treatment of pyelonephritis. PMID:19581455

Naber, K G; Llorens, L; Kaniga, K; Kotey, P; Hedrich, D; Redman, R

2009-09-01

382

Toxicity evaluation with the microtox?? test to assess the impact of in situ oiled shoreline treatment options: Natural attenuation and sediment relocation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in the toxicity levels of beach sediment, nearshore water, and bottom sediment samples were monitored with the Microtox?? Test to evaluate the two in situ oil spill treatment options of natural attenuation (natural recovery-no treatment) and sediment relocation (surf washing). During a series of field trials, IF-30 fuel oil was intentionally sprayed onto the surface of three mixed sediment (pebble and sand) beaches on the island of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway (78??56??? N, 16??45??? E). At a low wave-energy site (Site 1 with a 3-km wind fetch), where oil was stranded within the zone of normal wave action, residual oil concentrations and beach sediment toxicity levels were significantly reduced by both options in less than five days. At Site 3, a higher wave-energy site with a 40-km wind fetch, oil was intentionally stranded on the beach face in the upper intertidal/supratidal zones, above the level of normal wave activity. At this site under these experimental conditions, sediment relocation was effective in accelerating the removal of the oil from the sediments and reducing the Microtox?? Test toxicity response to background levels. In the untreated (natural attenuation) plot at this site, the fraction of residual oil remaining within the beach sediments after one year (70%) continued to generate a toxic response. Chemical and toxicological analyses of nearshore sediment and sediment-trap samples at both sites confirmed that oil and suspended mineral fines were effectively dispersed into the surrounding environment by the in situ treatments. In terms of secondary potential detrimental effects from the release of stranded oil from the beaches, the toxicity level (Microtox?? Test) of adjacent nearshore sediment samples did not exceed the Canadian regulatory limit for dredged spoils destined for ocean disposal. Crown ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; Thomas, Johnson B.; Sergy, G.A.; Prince, R.C.; Guenette, C.C.; Owens, E.H.; Tremblay, G.H.

2003-01-01

383

Characterisation of medical-waste sterilisation-plant wastewater and a preliminary study of coagulation-flocculation treatment options.  

PubMed

Wastewater from a medical-waste sterilisation plant (MWSP) contains unique pollutants and requires on-site treatment to prevent contamination of the municipal sewage system and receiving water bodies. Therefore, to meet the prescribed discharge standards and comply with the legal regulations, pre-treatment must be applied to MWSP wastewater. In this study, the capabilities of coagulation-flocculation processes were investigated for MWSP wastewater treatment. Processes using ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and aluminium sulfate as coagulants were characterised. During the coagulation experiments, seven different coagulant dosages and four different pH values were evaluated to determine the optimum coagulant dosage and pH value. The highest removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was obtained using 300 mg/L of ferric chloride at pH 10. A COD removal of about 60% as well as considerable reductions in the amounts of suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus were realised. PMID:20651429

Ozkan, O; Mihçiokur, H; Azgin, S T; Ozdemir, O

2010-01-01

384

Chicago Board Options Exchange Understanding Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Stock Options by the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) provides a good non-technical introduction to options. It explains the benefits of options, differences between options and stocks, the pricing of options, and it provides some basic options strategies. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly.

1994-01-01

385

Microscopic epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA): A new option for treatment of the obstructive azoospermia associated with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic fibrosis is a life-threatening disease. Only recently has the prognosis improved. In the male patient there is an almost invariable absence or maldevelopment of the vas deferens, creating a situation of obstructive azoospermia. Consequently, their fertility potential has been considered nonexistent. Having gained experience in microscopic epididymal sperm aspiration coupled with the advanced reproductive technologies for the treatment of

Robert D. Oates; Stanton Honig; Merle J. Berger; Doria Harris

1992-01-01

386

Source Area and Regional Storm Water Treatment Practices: Options for Achieving Phase II Retrofit Requirements in Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently calibrated urban runoff model, the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM), is used to compare the cost-effectiveness of using source area and regional stormwater treatment practices. The demonstration is done for the totally urbanized Lake Wingra watershed in Madison, Wisconsin. The goal is to retrofit practices that are able to reduce the annual total suspended solids load by

Roger Bannerman; WI Greg Fries; Judy Horwatich

387

Inhibition of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein – a novel therapeutic option for treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor gene (LDLR). Patients with homozygous FH (hoFH) have inherited a mutated LDLR gene from both parents, and therefore all their LDL-receptors are incapable of functioning normally. In hoFH, serum LDL levels often exceed 13 mmol/L and tendon and cutaneous xanthomata appear early (under 10 years of age). If untreated, this extremely severe form of hypercholesterolemia may cause death in childhood or in early adulthood. Based on recent data, it can be estimated that the prevalence of hoFH is about 1:500,000 or even 1:400,000. Until now, the treatment of hoFH has been based on high-dose statin treatment combined with LDL apheresis. Since the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of statins is weak in this disease, and apheresis is a cumbersome treatment and not available at all centers, alternative novel pharmaceutical therapies are needed. Lomitapide is a newly introduced drug, capable of effectively decreasing serum LDL cholesterol concentration in hoFH. It inhibits the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). By inhibiting in hepatocytes the transfer of triglycerides into very low density lipoprotein particles, the drug blocks their assembly and secretion into the circulating blood. Since the very low density lipoprotein particles are precursors of LDL particles in the circulation, the reduced secretion of the former results in lower plasma concentration of the latter. The greatest concern in lomitapide treatment has been the increase in liver fat, which can be, however, counteracted by strictly adhering to a low-fat diet. Lomitapide is a welcome addition to the meager selection of drugs currently available for the treatment of refractory hypercholesterolemia in hoFH patients. PMID:24851052

Vuorio, Alpo; Tikkanen, Matti J; Kovanen, Petri T

2014-01-01

388

Can radiotherapy be a viable salvage treatment option for the relapsed seminoma confined to the infra-diaphragm region recurring after primary chemotherapy for bulky stage II seminoma?  

PubMed Central

There has been a paucity of research describing a potential role of radiotherapy as salvage treatment for recurrent seminoma following primary chemotherapy for bulky stage IIC seminoma. We report a case of a bulky stage IIC seminoma relapsed in the pelvis after primary chemotherapy and surgery for post-chemotherapy residual mass, which was subsequently salvaged with radiotherapy. The patient has remained free of relapse at 3.7 years post-salvage radiotherapy. This case demonstrates that radiotherapy can be a salvage therapeutic option for recurrent seminoma following primary chemotherapy for bulky stage IIC seminoma, provided that the recurrent tumour is confined to a limited area of the infradiaphragmatic region. There is a need for further study to examine the potential role of radiotherapy as a salvage therapeutic tool for post-chemotherapy recurrent seminoma. PMID:20944793

Choo, Richard; Quevedo, Fernando; Choo, Christopher S.; Blute, Michael

2010-01-01

389

Removal of dissolved organic matter in municipal effluent with ozonation, slow sand filtration and nanofiltration as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge.  

PubMed

In the paper the combination process of ozonation, slow sand filtration (SSF) and nanofiltration (NF) was investigated with respect to dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge. With the help of ozonation leading to breakdown of the large organic molecules, SSF preferentially removes soluble microbial by-product-like substances and DOM with molecular weight (MW) less than 1.0 kDa. NF, however, removes aromatic, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances efficiently and specially removes DOM with MW above 1.0 kDa. The residual DOM of the membrane permeate is dominated by small organics with MW 500 Da, which can be further reduced by the aquifer treatment, despite of the very low concentration. Consequently, the O(3)/SSF/NF system offers a complementary process in DOM removal. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) can be reduced from 6.5±1.1 to 0.7±0.3 mg L(-1) and from 267±24 to 52±6 ?g L(-1), respectively. The very low DOC concentration of 0.6±0.2 mg L(-1) and THMFP of 44±4 ?g L(-1) can be reached after the aquifer treatment. PMID:21382634

Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

2011-04-01

390

BRAF p.Val600Glu (V600E) Testing for Assessment of Treatment Options in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.  

PubMed

Colon and rectal cancer (CRC) are the third most common cancer in the United States and cause approximately 50,000 deaths per year. The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies cetuximab (Erbitux®) and panitumumab (Vectibix®) have been recently introduced to treat CRC. However, the response rate with these agents is low and they are associated with serious adverse effects. Accordingly biomarkers that can predict those patients that will respond to treatment may have clinical utility. The p.Val600Glu sequence variant (often called V600E) in the BRAF gene has been investigated as a biomarker to predict patients that will not respond to treatment with the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. PMID:20972475

Lea, Andrew; Allingham-Hawkins, Diane; Levine, Susan

2010-01-01

391

Curative treatment can be an option for patients with metastatic squamous cell cancer of the head and neck  

PubMed Central

Background No specific study has focused on patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) at diagnosis. Due to high response rates of induction chemotherapy in chemo-naïve patients with localized disease, their prognosis should be better than patients with recurrent disease. Methods From January 1, 2008 to July 1, 2012, we retrospectively collected all patients’ records with SCCHN diagnosed as metastatic. Patients, disease, treatment and its results were analyzed. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Of the 749 new patients treated for SCCHN in our institution, 16 (2.1%) were metastatic at diagnosis, of whom five had cytological results to prove it. Six patients died before treatment or had palliative care and ten received initial chemotherapy and then surgery and/or radiotherapy according to the primary response. Four patients treated with first-line chemotherapy with docetaxel-5FU-cisplatin (TPF) showed a complete response of metastatic lesions allowing locoregional treatment. The overall survival at 1 year and 3 years was 50% and 24%, respectively. The median survival was 7 months (1–72 months). Seven patients (43.7%) had a higher survival at 12 months, including five (31.5%) who are still alive without recurrence with a mean follow-up of 30 months. There was a significant difference in overall survival (P<0.01) between patients who had chemotherapy with TPF versus other therapeutic protocols. The median survival of patients with lung metastases only was 15 months (1–72 months), significantly higher than that of patients with liver and/or bone localizations, which was 2 months (1–9 months). Conclusion Patients with metastatic SCCHN treated by TPF followed by multimodal treatment could achieve long survival. PMID:25548517

Guenne, Clémence; Fayette, Jérôme; Cosmidis, Alain; Fuchsmann, Carine; Tartas, Sophie; Favrel, Véronique; Céruse, Philippe

2014-01-01

392

Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy as a novel option for the treatment of locally advanced inoperable gastric adenocarcinoma: A phase II study  

PubMed Central

This phase II trial aimed to evaluate the tolerance and efficacy of radical radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in patients with primarily inoperable gastric cancer. The analysis was based on 13 patients with primarily inoperable gastric cancer. A total of 6 (46.2%) patients refused surgery and 7 (53.8%) had contraindications to anesthesia due to cardiological or respiratory reasons (4 and 3 patients, respectively). The treatment regimen consisted of radiotherapy and chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil. Half of the patients were not qualified to receive chemotherapy due to the presence of comorbidities. A total dose of 45 Gy was administered in 25 fractions. Of the 13 patients who started treatment, 12 (92.3%) completed radiotherapy. Local treatment response was observed in 6/12 patients (50%), with 5/12 (41.7%) displaying clinical complete response and 1/12 (8.3%) partial response. The 1- and 3-year overall survival rates and the median survival were 59 and 48% and 17.1 months, respectively. In conclusion, radical radiotherapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, is safe for patients with inoperable locally advanced gastric cancer and may prolong survival. PMID:25279214

WYDMANSKI, JERZY; GRABINSKA, KINGA; POLANOWSKI, PAWEL; NAMYSL-KALETKA, AGNIESZKA; KAWCZYNSKI, RAFAL; KRASZKIEWICZ, MALGORZATA; MAJEWSKI, WOJCIECH

2014-01-01

393

Esthetic option for the implant-supported single-tooth restoration -- treatment sequence with a ceramic abutment.  

PubMed

A single implant-supported restoration is one treatment alternative to consider for the replacement of a missing tooth. Technological advances in materials and machining have led to the development of a densely sintered aluminum oxide ceramic abutment, designed and machined using CAD/CAM technology. This manufacturing method improves management of the subgingival depth of the crown/abutment interface and enhances the esthetic qualities of the restoration. However, since this ceramic abutment has less mechanical resistance than metal abutments, its use should be confined to the restoration of incisors and premolars not subjected to excessive occlusal forces. PMID:11597342

Boudrias, P; Shoghikian E; Morin E; Hutnik, P

2001-10-01

394

[Hepatitis B and C: in view of the treatment options, priority should be given to reaching the groups at risk].  

PubMed

There are now effective treatments for both hepatitis B and C. For hepatitis B, a highly effective vaccine is available that is in common use in the Netherlands for the prevention of infection in the children of HBsAg-positive mothers. In the Dutch policy regarding viral hepatitis, a key role is given to contact with the groups at risk. The problem with this is that an individual must first acknowledge, on the basis of the information that is available and known to him or her, that he or she is at risk before becoming eligible for the next step, such as vaccination or a screening study. Immigration, sexual transmission and trips to endemic areas are important factors in the dissemination of hepatitis B in the Netherlands. For a vaccination policy that is based on the approach to groups at risk, the challenge is to achieve at least 80% coverage of the relevant groups, such as travellers and homosexual men. The situation is comparable for hepatitis C: a hepatitis that progresses slowly in the course of 20-30 years but is still asymptomatic at the beginning can be completely cured, provided that drug treatment is started on time. The challenge here is again to reach the highly varied groups at risk. Specifically for hepatitis C, a major campaign, supported by the Dutch Health Council, was started in 2007. PMID:18019211

de Man, R A

2007-10-27

395

Topical fluticasone propionate: intervention and maintenance treatment options of atopic dermatitis based on a high therapeutic index.  

PubMed

Fluticasone propionate (FP), a medium potent glucocorticoid (class III) of carbothioate nature with a favourable benefit/risk ratio, has emerged as a standard medication for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin disorders, in particular atopic dermatitis (AD). FP is available as a 0.05% cream and a 0.005% ointment formulation. The glucocorticoid is characterized by high lipophilicity, high affinity binding to the glucocorticoid receptor and a rapid hepatic biotransformation. Though skin blanching following topical application of FP surpasses that given with glucocorticoids of medium strength, clinical trials show a low potential of FP for local and systemic adverse effects. Even in paediatric patients with AD as well as in difficult-to-treat areas like face, eyelids and intertriginous areas, FP proved to be both effective and safe. Thus, the therapeutic effects of FP clearly outweigh the unwanted effects. Correspondingly, a therapeutic index of 2.0 can be attributed to this glucocorticoid. In this respect, topical FP does not differ from other topical glucocorticoids with increased benefit-to-risk ratio, e.g. prednicarbate, methylprednisolone aceponate and mometasone furoate. However, randomized controlled trials do not only support conventional intervention but also innovative maintenance treatment. PMID:21977914

Korting, H C; Schöllmann, C

2012-02-01

396

Numa Option Calculator: The Original Option Webulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly. For those interested in pricing their own options, this Option Calculator, provided by Numa Financial Systems Ltd., calculates the adjusted Black-Scholes model to value European options.

1997-01-01

397

Tetracyclines as an Oral Treatment Option for Patients with Community Onset Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus?  

PubMed Central

Few data exist on the clinical utility of the expanded-spectrum tetracyclines doxycycline and minocycline for the treatment of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 276 patients who presented with 282 episodes of MRSA SSTI to the emergency room or outpatient clinic at two tertiary medical centers between October 2002 and February 2007. The median percentage of patients infected with MRSA strains that were susceptible to tetracycline was 95%. Time zero was defined as the time of the first incision and drainage procedure or, if none was performed, the time of the first positive wound culture. The median patient age was 48 years. Abscesses constituted the majority of clinical presentations (75%), followed by furuncles or carbuncles (13%) and cellulitis originating from a purulent focus of infection (12%). A total of 225 patients (80%) underwent incision and drainage. Doxycycline or minocycline was administered in 90 episodes (32%); the other 192 SSTI were treated with ?-lactams. Treatment failure, defined as the need for a second incision and drainage procedure and/or admission to the hospital within at least 2 days after time zero, was diagnosed in 28 episodes (10%) at a median of 3 days after time zero. On logistic regression analysis, receipt of a ?-lactam agent was the only clinical characteristic associated with treatment failure (adjusted odds ratio, 3.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 12.15; P = 0.02). The expanded-spectrum tetracyclines appear to be a reasonable oral treatment option for patients with community onset MRSA SSTI in areas where MRSA strains are susceptible to the tetracyclines. PMID:17576834

Ruhe, Jörg J.; Menon, Anupama

2007-01-01

398

Emerging options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese patients: focus on arterial function and alogliptin  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a worldwide health problem, and the rate of it is growing greatly in the People’s Republic of China every year. T2DM could cause macrovascular and microvascular complications that lead to an increase in arterial wall thickness, endothelial dysfunction, calcification, and – finally – to an increase in arterial stiffness and arterial dysfunction. Alogliptin, a new selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, has shown its great antihyperglycemia effect in T2DM patients. The clinical trial data from the People’s Republic of China was similar to other global and Asian trials. This could provide some choice for clinical physicians to the treatment of T2DM.

Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Jinbo; Zhao, Hongwei

2015-01-01

399

Current treatment options and biology of peritoneal mesothelioma: meeting summary of the first NIH peritoneal mesothelioma conference.  

PubMed

Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare cancer of the peritoneum with about 250 new cases diagnosed each year in the United States. It is the second most common site for mesothelioma development and accounts for 10-20% of all mesotheliomas diagnosed in the United States. A meeting sponsored by the NIH Office of Rare Diseases was held in Bethesda, Maryland on September 13 and 14, 2004. The objective of this meeting was to review the epidemiology, biology and current surgical and medical management of peritoneal mesothelioma. In addition, the meeting also discussed clinical and pre-clinical evaluation of novel treatments for mesothelioma as well as ongoing laboratory research to better understand this disease. This report summarizes the proceedings of the meeting as well as directions for future clinical and basic research. PMID:16600983

Hassan, R; Alexander, R; Antman, K; Boffetta, P; Churg, A; Coit, D; Hausner, P; Kennedy, R; Kindler, H; Metintas, M; Mutti, L; Onda, M; Pass, H; Premkumar, A; Roggli, V; Sterman, D; Sugarbaker, P; Taub, R; Verschraegen, C

2006-11-01

400

Minimally invasive treatment of urinary fistulas using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate: a valid first line option  

PubMed Central

Background A few single case reports and only one clinical series have been published so far about the use of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in the treatment of urinary fistulas persisting after conventional urinary drainage. Case presentation We treated five patients with a mean age of 59.2 years presenting iatrogenic urinary fistulas which persisted following conventional drainage manouvres. There were 3 calyceal fistulas following open, laparoscopic and robotic removal of renal lesions respectively, one pelvic fistula after orthotopic ileal neobladder and a bilateral dehiscence of uretero-sigmoidostomy. We used open-end catheters of different sizes adopting a retrograde endoscopic approach for cyanoacrylate injection in the renal calyces, while a descending percutaneous approach via the pelvic drain tract and bilateral nephrostomies respectively was used for the pelvic fistulas. Fluoroscopic control was always used during the occlusion procedures. The amount of adhesive injected ranged between 2 and 5 cc and in one case the procedure was repeated. With a median follow-up of 11 months we observed clinical and radiological resolution in 4 cases (80%), while a recurrent and infected calyceal fistula after laparoscopic thermal renal damage during tumor enucleoresection required nephrectomy. No significant complications were documented. Conclusions In an attempt to spare further challenging surgery in patients that had been already operated on recently, minimally invasive occlusion of persistent urinary fistulas with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate represents a valid first line treatment, justified in cases when the urinary output is not excessive and there is a favorable ratio between the length and diameter of the fistulous tract. PMID:24152605

2013-01-01

401

Exercising options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent speech to graduates of the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland, Anne Petersen, deputy director of the National Science Foundation, encouraged a new generation of scientists to embrace opportunity and choice, and to use their scientific training as an employment credential, not a limit. In her May 23 commencement address, Petersen exhorted students to view their freshly minted diplomas as tickets to a broad and diverse job market, not just one-way trips to the laboratory.“Looking for the options and alternatives open to us—and creating options for ourselves where they are not apparent—can give us a sense of direction and volition that enriches our lives immensely…

Carlowicz, Michael

402

New pharmacologic options in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: potential role of levosimendan.  

PubMed

Modern and effective therapeutic possibilities have improved the management and outcomes in acute coronary syndromes and acute myocardial infarction. However, substantial morbidity and mortality still remain. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury may contribute to additional damage to myocardial necrosis and apoptosis. Therefore, it has been focused on attention and field of therapeutic actions in the last years. The main mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury are depressed energy metabolism, elevated oxidative damage, and altered calcium homeostasis. In experimental trials, a variety of drugs have proved effectiveness for the prevention and treatment of the ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, its efficacy, not always confirmed, has not yet been established in clinical practice. On the basis of the strong evidence linking potassium ATP dependent channels opening in the myocardium and its proved cardioprotective role during ischemia, these channels have been pointed out as possible and promising pharmacological targets in this setting. Some evidences suggest that the calcium sensitizing agent levosimendan may have of beneficial and exerts cardioprotective effects on myocardial ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Further investigation is warranted on this novel application of levosimendan. PMID:17912166

Garcia-Gonzalez, M J; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A; Abreu-Gonzalez, P

2007-10-01

403

Xenotransplantation of porcine islet cells as a potential option for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in the future.  

PubMed

Solid organ and cell transplantation, including pancreatic islets constitute the treatment of choice for chronic terminal diseases. However, the clinical use of allogeneic transplantation is limited by the growing shortage of human organs. This has prompted us to initiate a unique multi-center and multi-team effort to promote translational research in xenotransplantation to bring xenotransplantation to the clinical setting. Supported by the German Research Foundation, an interdisciplinary group of surgeons, internal medicine doctors, diabetologists, material sciences experts, immunologists, cell biologists, virologists, veterinarians, and geneticists have established a collaborative research center (CRC) focusing on the biology of xenogeneic cell, tissue, and organ transplantation. A major strength of this consortium is the inclusion of members of the regulatory bodies, including the Paul-Ehrlich Institute (PEI), infection specialists from the Robert Koch Institute and PEI, veterinarians from the German Primate Center, and representatives of influential ethical and religious institutions. A major goal of this consortium is to promote islet xenotransplantation, based on the extensive expertise and experience of the existing clinical islet transplantation program. Besides comprehensive approaches to understand and prevent inflammation-mediated islet xenotransplant dysfunction [immediate blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR)], we also take advantage of the availability of and experience with islet macroencapsulation, with the goal to improve graft survival and function. This consortium harbors a unique group of scientists with complementary expertise under a cohesive program aiming at developing new therapeutic approaches for islet replacement and solid organ xenotransplantation. PMID:25506683

Reichart, B; Niemann, H; Chavakis, T; Denner, J; Jaeckel, E; Ludwig, B; Marckmann, G; Schnieke, A; Schwinzer, R; Seissler, J; Tönjes, R R; Klymiuk, N; Wolf, E; Bornstein, S R

2015-01-01

404

The Treatment of Giant Periurethral Condyloma in Pregnancy Using an Ultrasonic Thermal Scalpel: A Case Report and New Single Session Treatment Option  

PubMed Central

Multiple large polypoid lesions with exophytic appearance occurring in anal and perineal region as a result of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection are referred to as giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA). The conventional treatment of these lesions involves the use of surgical excision, laser, electrocautery, and/or application of trichloroacetic acid. A 28-year-old primigravid patient at 22 weeks of pregnancy presented to the hospital complaining of vaginal bleeding and palpable mass in the vulva. The physical examination revealed a 60 × 35?mm broad-based, fragile, and patchy hemorrhagic polypoid lesion originating 1?cm below the clitoris and completely occupying urethral orifice and partially occluding vaginal vestibule. The patient underwent excision of GCA in the midtrimester using an ultrasonic thermal scalpel (Harmonic Scalpel) without any additional treatment and subsequently delivered a single live healthy baby. The excision of GCA occurring during pregnancy using Harmonic Scalpel can be regarded as a new successful method. Prospective, randomized, and controlled studies are warranted in order to provide clear evidence of the efficiency and safety of HS in the treatment of GCA. PMID:25648983

Yavuzcan, Ali; Ça?lar, Mete; Turan, Hakan; Tekin, Ali; Topuz, Seren; Yavuzcan, Gizem; Dilbaz, Serdar; Üstün, Yusuf; Alia?ao?lu, Cihangir; Kumru, Selahattin

2015-01-01

405

Rehabilitation Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Care Brain Tumor Treatments Treatment Side Effects & their Management Support and Resources Caregiving Information About Us Letter from the President & CEO Our Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain ...

406

[Enzalutamide-a novel androgen receptor inhibitor that provides treatment options for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer].  

PubMed

The recent emergence of new hormonal or chemotherapeutic drugs has resulted in a paradigm shift in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer(CRPC). Enzalutamide is a rationally designed, orally administered androgen receptor(AR)inhibitor. It inhibits multiple points in the androgen receptor signalling pathway, which is considered an important driver of CRPC, including the inhibition of androgen binding to the AR, nuclear translocation of the AR complex, and binding of the AR complex to deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA). Unlike other anti-androgens(such as bicalutamide), enzalutamide does not act as a partial AR agonist. The first in human phase I/II trial was conducted in the United States in both chemotherapy-naïve patients and postchemotherapy patients with progressive metastatic CRPC(mCRPC). The results showed encouraging antitumor activity of enzalutamide by considering all outcomes assessed in the trial. The first reported phase III trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study involving 1,199 patients with mCRPC that progressed even after docetaxel therapy(AFFIRM trial). Enzalutamide was associated with significant benefits over the placebo considering time-to-event outcomes(i.e. prolonged overall survival[OS], delayed time to prostatic specific antigen[PSA]progression[TTPP], prolonged radiographic progression free survival[rPFS], time to the first skeletal related event[SRE])as well as objective response outcomes(i.e. PSA, soft tissue, and quality of life[QOL]). On the basis of the AFFIRM results, Astellas and Medivation filed a new drug application with the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in 2012, and obtained their approval. Another phaseI/II enzalutamide trial was conducted in both chemotherapy-naïve patients and post-chemotherapy pa- tients with progressive mCRPC. Enzalutamide at a dose of 160mg/day was well tolerated, and it showed pharmacokinetic characteristics, adverse events, and anti-tumor activity profiles similar to that of the non-Japanese population. On the basis of the results of the studies summarized above, a new drug application was submitted to the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan in May 2013 and obtained the approval in Mar 2014. The second phase III trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study of 1,717 chemotherapy- naïve patients with CRPC(PREVAIL trial). An interim analysis recently demonstrated the significant benefits of enzalutamide over the placebo considering both OS and rPFS. In light of these results, the Independent Data Monitoring Committee (IDMC)advised terminating the study early, and suggested treating the patients in the placebo group with enzalutamide. This paper reviews the developmental history of enzalutamide, its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, as well as available efficacy and tolerability data yielded in clinical trials of patients with CRPC. PMID:25131864

Maeda, Hideki; Saito, Atsushi

2014-07-01

407

Novel treatment option for MUC16-positive malignancies with the targeted TRAIL-based fusion protein Meso-TR3  

PubMed Central

Background The targeted delivery of cancer therapeutics represents an ongoing challenge in the field of drug development. TRAIL is a promising cancer drug but its activity profile could benefit from a cancer-selective delivery mechanism, which would reduce potential side effects and increase treatment efficiencies. We recently developed the novel TRAIL-based drug platform TR3, a genetically fused trimer with the capacity for further molecular modifications such as the addition of tumor-directed targeting moieties. MUC16 (CA125) is a well characterized biomarker in several human malignancies including ovarian, pancreatic and breast cancer. Mesothelin is known to interact with MUC16 with high affinity. In order to deliver TR3 selectively to MUC16-expressing cancers, we investigated the possibility of targeted TR3 delivery employing the high affinity mesothelin/MUC16 ligand/receptor interaction. Methods Using genetic engineering, we designed the novel cancer drug Meso-TR3, a fusion protein between native mesothelin and TR3. The recombinant proteins were produced with mammalian HEK293T cells. Meso-TR3 was characterized for binding selectivity and killing efficacy against MUC16-positive cancer cells and controls that lack MUC16 expression. Drug efficacy experiments were performed in vitro and in vivo employing an intraperitoneal xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. Results Similar to soluble mesothelin itself, the strong MUC16 binding property was retained in the Meso-TR3 fusion protein. The high affinity ligand/receptor interaction was associated with a selective accumulation of the cancer drug on MUC16-expressing cancer targets and directly correlated with increased killing activity in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. The relevance of the mesothelin/MUC16 interaction for attaching Meso-TR3 to the cancer cells was verified by competitive blocking experiments using soluble mesothelin. Mechanistic studies using soluble DR5-Fc and caspase blocking assays confirmed engagement of the extrinsic death receptor pathway. Compared to non-targeted TR3, Meso-TR3 displayed a much reduced killing potency on cells that lack MUC16. Conclusions Soluble Meso-TR3 targets the cancer biomarker MUC16 in vitro and in vivo. Following attachment to the tumor via surface bound MUC16, Meso-TR3 acquires full activation with superior killing profiles compared to non-targeted TR3, while its bioactivity is substantially reduced on cells that lack the tumor marker. This prodrug phenomenon represents a highly desirable property because it has the potential to enhance cancer killing with fewer side-effects than non-targeted TRAIL-based therapeutics. Thus, further exploration of this novel fusion protein is warranted as a possible therapeutic for patients with MUC16-positive malignancies. PMID:24447304

2014-01-01

408

Effectiveness of Efavirenz-Based Regimens in Young HIV-Infected Children Treated for Tuberculosis: A Treatment Option for Resource-Limited Settings  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) options for young children co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis are limited in resource-poor settings due to limited data on the use of efavirenz (EFV). Using available pharmacokinetic data, an EFV dosing schedule was developed for young co-infected children and implemented as the standard of care at Macha Hospital in Southern Province, Zambia. Treatment outcomes inchildren younger than 3 years of age or weighing less than 10 kg receiving either EFV-based ART plus anti-tuberculous treatment or nevirapine-based (NVP) ART were compared. Methods Treatment outcomes were measured in a cohort of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital in rural Zambia from 2007 to 2010. Informationon the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was abstracted from medical records. Results Forty-five children treated for tuberculosis initiated an EFV-based regimen and 69 children initiated a NVP-based regimen, 7 of whom also were treated for tuberculosis. Children receiving both regimens were comparable in age, but children receiving EFV started ART with a lower CD4+ T-cell percentage and weight-for-age z-score. Children receiving EFV experienced increases in both CD4+ T-cell percentage and weight-for-age z-score during follow-up, such that levels were comparable to children receiving NVP after two years of ART. Cumulative survival after 12 months of ART did not differ between groups (NVP:87%;EFV:80%;p?=?0.25). Eleven children experienced virologic failure during follow-up.The adjusted hazard ratio of virologic failure comparing EFV to NVP was 0.25 (95% CI:0.05,1.24) and 0.13 (95% CI:0.03,0.62) using thresholds of 5000 and 400 copies/mL, respectively.Five children receiving EFV were reported to have had convulsions after ART initiation compared to only one child receiving NVP (p?=?0.04). Conclusions Despite poorer health at ART initiation, children treated for tuberculosis and receiving EFV-based regimens showed significant improvements comparable to children receiving NVP-based regimens. EFV-based regimens should be considered for young HIV-infected children co-infected with tuberculosis in resource-limited settings. PMID:23372824

van Dijk, Janneke H.; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Hamangaba, Francis; Bositis, Christopher; Watson, Douglas C.; Moss, William J.

2013-01-01

409

Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, s