Sample records for non-surgical treatment options

  1. Refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Non-surgical treatment options.

    PubMed

    Cruccu, Giorgio; Truini, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The guidelines on trigeminal neuralgia management published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) recommended that patients unresponsive to carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine be offered the surgical option. However, because some patients may not be willing to resort to surgery, we searched the literature for treatment in refractory trigeminal neuralgia. We found other oral treatments, intranasal spray, subcutaneous injections, various kinds of peripheral nerve blocks and injections of botulinum toxin. On the basis of the available evidence we suggest that no oral treatment other than carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine is useful. Among the other options, there is increasingly strong evidence that botulinum toxin injections are efficacious and may be offered before surgery or to those unwilling to undergo surgery. PMID:23225488

  2. Non-surgical root canal treatment of Dens invaginatus: reports of three cases.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Sevi Burcak; Korasli, Deniz; Ziraman, Fatmagul; Orhan, Kaan

    2006-02-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental malformation of teeth showing a deep infolding of enamel and dentine which may extend deep into the root. To date, conventional root canal therapy, endodontic surgery and extraction have been reported as treatment modalities, when the pulpo-dentinal complex of such teeth is affected. In the present report, non-surgical endodontic treatment of three maxillary lateral incisors with invaginatus (DI) is discussed. The Tri Auto ZX rotary system was used for shaping the root canals of two affected teeth and the Profile system was used in the third. Teeth with periradicular lesions received calcium hydroxide as an interim therapy. Two teeth were obturated with gutta percha points and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral compaction. In the third case, obturation was accomplished using a coated carrier system (Thermafil) due to the specific shape of the root canal system. Twelve months postoperatively all teeth were asymptomatic with resolution of the periapical radiolucency on two affected teeth, as confirmed radiographically. Healing was achieved without any need for further surgical intervention. PMID:16515008

  3. The effectiveness of non-surgical interventions in the treatment of Charcot foot.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline; Kumar, Saravana; Causby, Ryan

    2007-12-01

    Background? Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is commonly known as 'Charcot foot'. It is a serious foot complication of diabetes mellitus that can frequently lead to foot ulceration, gangrene, hospital admission and foot amputation. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of Charcot foot is taken involving medical and allied health professionals. The management approach may also differ between different countries. To date, there is no systematic review of the literature undertaken to identify the clinical effectiveness of non-operative interventions in the treatment of acute Charcot foot. Objective? The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions with reducing lesions, ulceration, the rate of surgical intervention, reducing hospital admissions and improve the quality of life of subjects with Charcot foot. Search strategy? A comprehensive search strategy was undertaken on databases available from University of South Australia from their inception to November 2006. Selection criteria? Randomised controlled trials or clinical controlled trials were primarily sought. Critical appraisal of study quality and data extraction was undertaken using Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Review Manager software was used to calculate comparative statistics. Results? This review identified 11 trials and five trials were included in the review. Three trials involved the use of bisphosphonate, a pharmacological agent. Two experimental treatments were also included, evaluating palliative radiology and magnetic fields. No trials were found using immobilisation and off-loading interventions for acute Charcot foot. The overall methodological quality score of the five studies was moderate. Owing to heterogeneous data, meta-analysis could not be performed. The trials did not report on reducing lesions, ulceration, rate of surgical intervention, hospital admissions and the quality of life of subjects with Charcot foot. The trials evaluating bisphosphonates reported greater reduction in foot temperature and disease activity for intervention subjects compared with controls. Another outcome of this review indicated additional beneficial effects of bisphosphonates in reducing pain and discomfort. The trial evaluating palliative radiotherapy found no difference between groups on any outcome. A significant reduction in the amount of deformity and reduced healing time to consolidation was found after treatment in the group receiving magnetic therapy treatment. Discussion? There is a lack of clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of non-operative interventions for the management of Charcot foot (immobilisation, removable cast walkers, advice/dispensing of footwear and prescribing of orthotics). Bisphosphonates may be useful adjuncts to standard management of Charcot foot by improved healing demonstrated by a reduction in disease activity indicated by skin temperature and bone destruction. Magnetic therapy may reduce deformity, joint destruction and improve mobility. Conclusion? There is a lack of evidence supporting the use of pharmacological or non-surgical interventions with reducing lesions, ulceration, rate of surgical intervention, hospital admissions and improving the quality of life of subjects with Charcot foot. Bisphosphonates may improve the healing of Charcot foot by reducing skin temperature and disease activity of Charcot foot, when applied in addition to standard interventions to control the position and shape of the foot. PMID:21631804

  4. Calf muscle function after Achilles tendon rupture. A prospective, randomised study comparing surgical and non-surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Möller, M; Lind, K; Movin, T; Karlsson, J

    2002-02-01

    In a prospective, randomised, multicentre study, 112 patients with Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) were allocated to surgical treatment (n=59), followed by early functional rehabilitation using a brace, and non-surgical treatment (n=53), i.e. eight weeks of plaster treatment. In this study, the results of the isokinetic muscle strength evaluation are presented for contractions in both the concentric and the eccentric mode, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, two angular velocities and three different positions of the subject. The heel-raise test for endurance, maximum calf circumference and tendon width were also evaluated. The re-rupture rate was 20.8% in the non-surgically-treated group and 1.7% in the surgically-treated group. No significant differences were found between the treatment groups in terms of the isokinetic strength measurements and the endurance test among the patients who did not sustain a re-rupture. If a re-rupture is avoided, both surgical and non-surgical treatment for ATR produce good functional outcome; however, the muscle function was not restored after two years in either group. PMID:11985760

  5. Evaluation of serum anti-cardiolipin antibodies after non-surgical periodontal treatment in chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Farin; Hedayati, Azita

    2014-02-14

    The present study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum level of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCLA), which are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in periodontal patients. Twenty volunteers (11 females and 9 males) with the mean age of 40.55 years participated in this study. Generalized chronic periodontitis was diagnosed through clinical periodontal examination at baseline visit. This examination included measuring the probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. Plaque index and gingival index were also recorded. After baseline examination, all the subjects received full-mouth non-surgical periodontal treatment. Subjects returned for a final visit 6 weeks after the last session of scaling for reevaluation of the periodontal parameters. At baseline and final visits 2 ml of venous blood was collected from each patient and an available commercially enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for analyzing aCLA (IgM and IgG). The collected data were analyzed using the paired sample t test. Mean levels of both forms of aCLA, before and after treatment, showed statistically significant difference (P = 0.003 for IgM and P = 0.001 for IgG). In addition, study results showed significant reductions in periodontal parameters after non-surgical periodontal therapy (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggested that successful periodontal therapy can improve the serum level of one of the inflammatory biomarkers involved in the cardiovascular problems. PMID:24526469

  6. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify the overall effects of bariatric surgery compared with non-surgical treatment for obesity. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis based on a random effects model. Data sources Searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to December 2012 regardless of language or publication status. Eligibility criteria Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials with ?6 months of follow-up that included individuals with a body mass index ?30, compared current bariatric surgery techniques with non-surgical treatment, and reported on body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, quality of life, or adverse events. Results The meta-analysis included 11 studies with 796 individuals (range of mean body mass index at baseline 30-52). Individuals allocated to bariatric surgery lost more body weight (mean difference ?26 kg (95% confidence interval ?31 to ?21)) compared with non-surgical treatment, had a higher remission rate of type 2 diabetes (relative risk 22.1 (3.2 to 154.3) in a complete case analysis; 5.3 (1.8 to 15.8) in a conservative analysis assuming diabetes remission in all non-surgically treated individuals with missing data) and metabolic syndrome (relative risk 2.4 (1.6 to 3.6) in complete case analysis; 1.5 (0.9 to 2.3) in conservative analysis), greater improvements in quality of life and reductions in medicine use (no pooled data). Plasma triglyceride concentrations decreased more (mean difference ?0.7 mmol/L (?1.0 to ?0.4) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations increased more (mean difference 0.21 mmol/L (0.1 to 0.3)). Changes in blood pressure and total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not significantly different. There were no cardiovascular events or deaths reported after bariatric surgery. The most common adverse events after bariatric surgery were iron deficiency anaemia (15% of individuals undergoing malabsorptive bariatric surgery) and reoperations (8%). Conclusions Compared with non-surgical treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery leads to greater body weight loss and higher remission rates of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, results are limited to two years of follow-up and based on a small number of studies and individuals. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42012003317 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO). PMID:24149519

  7. Treatment Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with this treatment: since the concentration of each coagulation factor in FFP is low, a large volume ... concentrations than FFP of some (but not all) coagulation factors, so less volume is needed. It is ...

  8. Life quality changes within 26 month after the non-surgical treatment in patients with deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Luo, Jun; Cao, Qiang; Bai, Chao; Magovia, Sairike

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the life quality of lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) patients 26 m after progressive decompression elasticity socks therapy. Methods: SF-36 scale was used to record the life quality scores in 74 patients with acute and subacute deep venous thrombosis, all the patients received the non-surgical treatment. The eight dimensions of life quality variation were documented and analyzed. Results: The baseline data were comparable (P = 1.000 for age, P = 0.655 for sex). At the time of admission and at different time points after discharge, there were significant differences for eight dimensions in patients with deep vein thrombosis (Ps < 0.001). In addition that eight dimensions scores were significantly different between the score at 2 months, 4 months after discharge and the score at certain individual stages (Ps < 0.05), there were no significant difference for eight dimensions scores at different stages (Ps > 0.05). Conclusions: Showed slow improvement within six months of deep vein thrombosis in patients with non-surgical treatment, the life quality scores entered the plateau stage, the life quality of the RP and the PF dimension were slightly impaired, the VT dimension showed relatively obvious damage, the remaining dimensions can recover to healthy levels. The blood circulation activation drugs may help maintain the stability of life quality and delay the occurrence of PTS. The turning point of life quality did not show and required extended follow-up period.

  9. Comparison of non-surgical treatment methods for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common reason for spinal surgery in older adults. Previous studies have shown that surgery is effective for severe cases of stenosis, but many patients with mild to moderate symptoms are not surgical candidates. These patients and their providers are seeking effective non-surgical treatment methods to manage their symptoms; yet there is a paucity of comparative effectiveness research in this area. This knowledge gap has hindered the development of clinical practice guidelines for non-surgical treatment approaches for lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods/design This study is a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial that will be conducted from November 2013 through October 2016. The sample will consist of 180 older adults (>60 years) who have both an anatomic diagnosis of stenosis confirmed by diagnostic imaging, and signs/symptoms consistent with a clinical diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis confirmed by clinical examination. Eligible subjects will be randomized into one of three pragmatic treatment groups: 1) usual medical care; 2) individualized manual therapy and rehabilitative exercise; or 3) community-based group exercise. All subjects will be treated for a 6-week course of care. The primary subjective outcome is the Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire, a self-reported measure of pain/function. The primary objective outcome is the Self-Paced Walking Test, a measure of walking capacity. The secondary objective outcome will be a measurement of physical activity during activities of daily living, using the SenseWear Armband, a portable device to be worn on the upper arm for one week. The primary analysis will use linear mixed models to compare the main effects of each treatment group on the changes in each outcome measure. Secondary analyses will include a responder analysis by group and an exploratory analysis of potential baseline predictors of treatment outcome. Discussion Our study should provide evidence that helps to inform patients and providers about the clinical benefits of three non-surgical approaches to the management of lumbar spinal stenosis symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01943435 PMID:24872875

  10. Surgical Versus Non-Surgical Treatment for Vertebral Compression Fracture with Osteopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing-Lin; Xie, Bin; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Yang, Yu-Jie; Yue, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xue-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical and non-surgical interventions are the two categories for treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). However, there is clinical uncertainty over optimal management. This study aimed to examine the safety and effectiveness of surgical management for treatment of VCFs with osteopenia compared with non-surgical treatment. Methods We conducted a systematic search through electronic databases from inception to June 2014, with no limits on study data or language. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating surgical versus non-surgical interventions for treatment of patients with VCFs due to osteopenia were considered. Primary outcomes were pain and adverse effects. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled mean difference (MD) or risk ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Sixteen reports (11 studies) met the inclusion criteria, and provided data for the meta-analysis with a total of 1,401 participants. Compared with conservative treatment, surgical treatment was more effective in reducing pain (short-term: MD -2.05, 95% CI -3.55 to -0.56, P=0.007; mid-term: MD -1.70, 95% CI -2.78 to -0.62, P=0.002; long-term: MD -1.24, 95% CI -2.20 to -0.29, P=0.01) and disability on the Roland–Morris Disability score (short-term: MD -4.97, 95% CI -8.71 to -1.23, P=0.009), as well as improving quality of life on the Short-Form 36 Physical Component Summary score (short-term: MD 5.53, 95% CI 1.45 to 9.61, P=0.008) and the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis score (short-term: MD -5.01, 95% CI -8.11 to -1.91, P=0.002). Indirect comparisons between vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty found no evidence that the treatment effect differed across the two interventions for any outcomes assessed. Compared with the sham procedure, surgical treatment showed no evidence of improvement in pain relief and physical function. Based on these two comparisons, no significant difference between groups was noted in the pooled results for adverse events. Conclusion Compared to conservative treatment, surgical treatment was more effective in decreasing pain in the short,mid and long terms. However, no significant mid- and long-term differences in physical function and quality of life was observed. Little good evidence is available for surgical treatment compared with that for sham procedure. PV and BK are currently used to treat VCFs with osteopenia, with little difference in treatment effects. Evidence of better quality and from a larger sample size is required before a recommendation can be made. Systematic Review Registration http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005142. PMID:26020950

  11. Efect of periodontal disease and non surgical periodontal treatment on C-reactive protein. Evaluation of type 1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Llambés, Fernando; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Guiha, Rami; Bautista, Daniel; Caffesse, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze how anti-infectious periodontal treatment affects C reactive protein (CRP) values in patients with type 1 diabetes, and correlate baseline CRP levels with periodontal disease severity. Study Design: A cohort of fifty three subjects with type 1 diabetes and moderate to severe periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal parameters were measured, and blood samples were obtained to evaluate high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Group 1 was treated with scaling, root planning, and systemic administration of doxycycline. Group 2 received only scaling and root planning. Results: Hs-CRP was reduced after periodontal treatment in group 1 (-0.22 mg/l) and 2 (-0.21 mg/l ) but this reduction was not statistically significant, even in the patients with the best response to periodontal treatment. However, significant correlation appeared between hs-CRP and mean probing pocket depth (PPD) (p=0, 01) and mean clinical attachment level (CAL) (p=0,03). Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal treatment couldn’t reduce hs-CRP values, however, it was found an association between advanced periodontitis and elevated blood hs-CRP levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. It can be speculated that periodontal disease increases production of pro-inflammatory mediators in patients with type 1 diabetes, but other producing sources of these pro-inflammatory substances may exist. Key words:Periodontal disease, periodontitis, diabetes mellitus type 1, periodontal therapy, C reactive protein. PMID:22322513

  12. New developments in diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Miyoshi, Hironao; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is progressive and irreversible, leading to digestive and absorptive disorders by destruction of the exocrine pancreas and to diabetes mellitus by destruction of the endocrine pancreas. When complications such as pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst occur, elevated pancreatic ductal pressure exacerbates pain and induces other complications, worsening the patient's general condition. Combined treatment with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and endoscopic lithotripsy is a useful, minimally invasive, first-line treatment approach that can preserve pancreatic exocrine function. Pancreatic duct stenosis elevates intraductal pressure and favor both pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst formation, making effective treatment vitally important. Endoscopic treatment of benign pancreatic duct stenosis stenting frequently decreases pain in chronic pancreatitis. Importantly, stenosis of the main pancreatic duct increases risk of stone recurrence after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. Recently, good results were reported in treating pancreatic duct stricture with a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent, which shows promise for preventing stone recurrence after lithotripsy in patients with pancreatic stricture. Chronic pancreatitis has many complications including pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatic atrophy, and loss of exocrine and endocrine function, as well as frequent recurrence of stones after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. As early treatment of chronic pancreatitis is essential, the new concept of early chronic pancreatitis, including characteristics findings in endoscopic ultrasonograms, is presented. PMID:24251715

  13. Acute pain treatment on postoperative and medical non-surgical wards

    PubMed Central

    Korczak, Dieter; Kuczera, Carmen; Rust, Meinhard

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of acute pain treatment in hospitals is examined. An efficient therapy of acute pain is efficient and cost-effective. Although every patient is entitled for the relief of pain, many hospitals do not treat acute pain in an optimal manner. PMID:23904888

  14. Early radiographic diagnosis of peri-implantitis enhances the outcome of peri-implantitis treatment: a 5-year retrospective study after non-surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hee-Yung; Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Jin-Ah; Kim, Young-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective study evaluated the relationship between the timing of peri-implantitis diagnosis and marginal bone level after a 5-year follow-up of non-surgical peri-implantitis treatment. Methods Thirty-three patients (69 implants) were given peri-implantitis diagnosis in 2008-2009 in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Among them, 31 implants from 16 patients were included in this study. They were treated non-surgically in this hospital, and came for regular maintenance visits for at least 5 years after peri-implantitis treatment. Radiographic marginal bone levels at each interval were measured and statistical analysis was performed. Results Timing of peri-implantitis was one of the significant factors affecting initial bone loss and total bone loss not additional bone after peri-implantitis diagnosis. Patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetic mellitus were positively influenced on both initial bone loss and total bone loss. Patients who needed periodontal treatment after implant placement showed a negative effect on bone loss compared to those who needed periodontal treatment before implant placement during entire periods. Implant location also significantly influenced on amounts of bone loss. Mandibular implants showed less bone loss than maxillary implants. Among surgical factors, combined use of autogenous and xenogenic bone graft materials showed a negative effect on bone loss compared to autogenous bone graft materials. Use of membrane negatively affected on initial bone loss but positively on additional bone loss and total bone loss. Thread exposure showed positive effects on initial bone loss and total bone loss. Conclusions Early peri-implantitis diagnosis led to early non-surgical intervention for peri-implantitis treatment, which resulted in the maintenance of the bone level as well as preservation of the implant. Graphical Abstract

  15. Modified Widman flap and non-surgical therapy using chlorhexidine chip in the treatment of moderate to deep periodontal pockets: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Grace Tara; Hemalata, M.; Faizuddin, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is a well established fact that periodontitis is caused by a group of highly specific microorganisms, organized as a bio-film on the tooth surface. Hence, therapeutic modalities are directed against elimination or adequate suppression of these organisms. Thorough debridement of these sites is possible mainly by scaling and root planing (SRP) and open- flap debridement in deeper sites. Open- flap debridement includes conventional surgical procedures such as the modified Widman flap procedure. Surgical procedures, however, have a number of disadvantages and hence efforts have been on at improving various non-surgical approaches, which are directed more specifically at the microbial nature of periodontal disease. Use of local drug-delivery devices is one such approach. The combined therapy of SRP and local drug delivery has been showing promising results in improving all the parameters in periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study compares the clinical, as well as, microbiological results of a split-mouth trial using modified Widman flap and non-surgical therapy of SRP and the use of a controlled release drug-delivery device (Chlorhexidine chip), in the management of moderate to deep pockets. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that the non-surgical most sites subjected to the non-surgical treatment were found to be maintainable without further deterioration, during the study period. PMID:21731252

  16. Efficacy of multimodal, systematic non-surgical treatment of knee osteoarthritis for patients not eligible for a total knee replacement: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Skou, Soren Thorgaard; Roos, Ewa M; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Simonsen, Ole; Rasmussen, Sten

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It is recommended that non-operative treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) should be individually tailored and include multiple treatment modalities. Despite these recommendations, no one has yet investigated the efficacy of combining several non-surgical treatment modalities in a randomised controlled study. The purpose of this randomised controlled study is to examine if an optimised, combined non-surgical treatment programme results in greater improvements in pain, function and quality of life in comparison with usual care in patients with KOA who are not eligible for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods and analysis This study will include 100 consecutive patients from the North Denmark Region not eligible for TKA with radiographic KOA (K-L grade ?1) and mean pain during the previous week of ?60?mm (0–100). The participants will be randomised to receive either a 12-week non-surgical treatment programme consisting of patient education, exercise, diet, insoles, paracetamol and/or NSAIDs or usual care (two information leaflets containing information on KOA and advice regarding the above non-surgical treatment). The primary outcome will be the change from baseline to 12?months on the self-report questionnaire Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)4 defined as the average score for the subscale scores for pain, symptoms, activities of daily living and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include the five individual KOOS subscale scores, pain on a 100?mm Visual Analogue Scale, EQ-5D, self-efficacy, pain pressure thresholds, postural control and isometric knee flexion and knee extension strength. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of The North Denmark Region (N-20110085) and the protocol conforms to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Data collection will be completed by April 2014. Publications will be ready for submission in the summer of 2014. Trial registration number This study is registered with http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01535001). PMID:23151395

  17. Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (<4 mm and <1/3 original root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes. PMID:25139200

  18. ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

  19. A Biofilm Pocket Model to Evaluate Different Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment Modalities in Terms of Biofilm Removal and Reformation, Surface Alterations and Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hägi, Tobias T.; Klemensberger, Sabrina; Bereiter, Riccarda; Nietzsche, Sandor; Cosgarea, Raluca; Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim There is a lack of suitable in vitro models to evaluate various treatment modalities intending to remove subgingival bacterial biofilm. Consequently, the aims of this in vitro-study were: a) to establish a pocket model enabling mechanical removal of biofilm and b) to evaluate repeated non-surgical periodontal treatment with respect to biofilm removal and reformation, surface alterations, tooth hard-substance-loss, and attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. Material and Methods Standardized human dentin specimens were colonized by multi-species biofilms for 3.5 days and subsequently placed into artificially created pockets. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed as follows: a) hand-instrumentation with curettes (CUR), b) ultrasonication (US), c) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol (EAP) and d) subgingival air-polishing using erythritol combined with chlorhexidine digluconate (EAP-CHX). The reduction and recolonization of bacterial counts, surface roughness (Ra and Rz), the caused tooth substance-loss (thickness) as well as the attachment of PDL fibroblasts were evaluated and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA with Post-Hoc LSD. Results After 5 treatments, bacterial reduction in biofilms was highest when applying EAP-CHX (4 log10). The lowest reduction was found after CUR (2 log10). Additionally, substance-loss was the highest when using CUR (128±40 µm) in comparison with US (14±12 µm), EAP (6±7 µm) and EAP-CHX (11±10) µm). Surface was roughened when using CUR and US. Surfaces exposed to US and to EAP attracted the highest numbers of PDL fibroblasts. Conclusion The established biofilm model simulating a periodontal pocket combined with interchangeable placements of test specimens with multi-species biofilms enables the evaluation of different non-surgical treatment modalities on biofilm removal and surface alterations. Compared to hand instrumentation the application of ultrasonication and of air-polishing with erythritol prevents from substance-loss and results in a smooth surface with nearly no residual biofilm that promotes the reattachment of PDL fibroblasts. PMID:26121365

  20. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-08-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  1. Retrospective analysis of the non-surgical treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip using Pavlik harness and Frejka pillow: comparison of both methods.

    PubMed

    Czubak, Jaros?aw; Piontek, Tomasz; Niciejewski, Krzysztof; Magnowski, Piotr; Majek, Marcin; P?o?czak, Maciej

    2004-02-28

    Background. Several different orthoses are used for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The most popular are the Frejka pillow, the Pavlik harness, the von Rosen splint, and the Koszla splint. The purpose of our study was a retrospective comparative analysis of the non-surgical treatment of DDH using Pavlik harness and Frejka pillow. Material and methods. We studied 238 children (438 hips), 213 girls and 25 boys. In this group 143 children were treated using the Frejka pillow and 95 using the Pavlik harness. The development of the infants' hips was assessed by ultrasonography. Results. 89% of the hips treated with Frejka pillow and 95% treated with Pavlik harness were successfully reduced. In children with dysplastic hips diagnosed before age 24 weeks, the Pavlik harness is effective. In childrern diagnosed after 24 weeks of life the Frejka pillow is more effective. In spite of appropriate treatment using both methods, avascular necrosis was found in 12% of the hips treated with Frejka pillow and 7% in the Pavlik group. Conclusions. Pavlik-stabilized hips in human position to promote concentric reduction shorten the duration of treatment, allow the mother to clean the infant easily and decrease the risk of avascular necrosis. The position achieved by using the Frejka pillow is not as appropriate, but the results are better than with the Pavlik harness in children diagnosed after 6 months of age. PMID:17676003

  2. Volume-targeted therapy of increased intracranial pressure: the Lund concept unifies surgical and non-surgical treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-O. GRÄNDE; B. A SGEIRSSON; C.-H. NORDSTRÖM

    2002-01-01

    Opinions differ widely on the various treatment protocols for sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). This review fo- cuses on the physiological volume regulation of the intracranial compartments. Based on these mechanisms we describe a proto- col called 'volume-targeted' ('Lund concept') for treatment of increased ICP. The driving force for transcapillary fluid exchange is deter- mined by the balance between

  3. Today's treatments options for onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2010-11-01

    Onychomycosis can be cured even if fungi are sometimes difficult to eradicate; the treatment is often lengthy and requires patience. The choice of agents should be based on numerous factors including patient's age and health, causative organism, clinical type of onychomycosis, number of affected nails and severity of nail involvement. We review current and future treatments for onychomycosis. We will also consider treatment options in patients with poor prognostic factors suggesting possible treatment failure. PMID:20738460

  4. Essential tremor: Treatment options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Ondo

    2006-01-01

    Opinion statement  The treatment of essential tremor depends on the tremor severity, location, and risk benefit ratios. Mild to moderate tremor\\u000a usually will respond to oral agents such as noncardiac selective ?-blockers or primidone. Other agents including ethanol,\\u000a topiramate, benzodiazepines, gabapentin, levetiracetam, and zonisamide may be effective. There are very little data comparing\\u000a different oral agents, but there is support for

  5. Current status in the treatment options for esophageal achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Jyong-Hong; Lu, Hung-I; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Wu, Keng-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of achalasia include the use of high-resolution manometry to predict the outcome of patients and the introduction of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). The first multicenter randomized, controlled, 2-year follow-up study conducted by the European Achalasia Trial group indicated that laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) was not superior to pneumatic dilations (PD). Publications on the long-term success of laparoscopic surgery continue to emerge. In addition, laparoscopic single-site surgery is applicable to advanced laparoscopic operations such as LHM and anterior fundoplication. The optimal treatment option is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review, we provide an update of the current progress in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Unless new conclusive data prove otherwise, LHM is considered the most durable treatment for achalasia at the expense of increased reflux-associated complications. However, PD is the first choice for non-surgical treatment and is more cost-effective. Repeated PD according to an “on-demand” strategy based on symptom recurrence can achieve long-term remission. Decision making should be based on clinical evidence that identifies a subcategory of patients who would benefit from specific treatment options. POEM has shown promise but its long-term efficacy and safety need to be assessed further. PMID:24023484

  6. Hyperphosphataemia: treatment options.

    PubMed

    Malberti, Fabio

    2013-05-01

    Hyperphosphataemia can be induced by three main conditions: a massive acute phosphate load, a primary increase in renal phosphate reabsorption, and an impaired renal phosphate excretion due to acute or chronic renal insufficiency. Renal excretion is so efficient in normal subjects that balance can be maintained with only a minimal rise in serum phosphorus concentration even for a large phosphorus load. Therefore, acute hyperphosphataemia usually resolves within few hours if renal function is intact. The most frequent cause of chronic hyperphosphataemia is chronic renal failure. Hyperphosphataemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lowering the phosphate load and maintaining serum phosphorus levels within the normal range are considered important therapeutic goals to improve clinical outcomes in CKD patients. Treatment consists of diminishing intestinal phosphate absorption by a low phosphate diet and phosphate binders. In CKD patients on dialysis an efficient dialysis removal of phosphate should be ensured. Dietary restriction of phosphorus while maintaining adequate protein intake is not sufficient to control serum phosphate levels in most CKD patients; therefore, the prescription of a phosphate binder is required. Aluminium-containing agents are efficient but no longer widely used because of their toxicity. Calcium-based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used, but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcaemia, parathyroid gland suppression, adynamic bone disease, and vascular and extraosseous calcification. The average daily dose of calcium acetate or carbonate prescribed in the randomised controlled trials to control hyperphosphataemia in dialysis patients ranges between 1.2 and 2.3 g of elemental calcium. Such doses are greater than the recommended dietary calcium intake and can lead to a positive calcium balance. Although large amounts of calcium salts should probably be avoided, modest doses (<1 g of elemental calcium) may represent a reasonable initial approach to reduced serum phosphorus levels. A non-calcium-based binder can then be added when large doses of binder are required. At present, there are three types of non-calcium-based phosphate binders available: sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate and magnesium salts. Each of these compounds is as effective as calcium salts in lowering serum phosphorus levels depending on an adequate prescribed dose and adherence of the patient to treatment. Sevelamer is the only non-calcium-containing phosphate binder that does not have potential for systemic accumulation and presents pleiotropic effects that may impact on cardiovascular disease. In contrast, lanthanum carbonate and magnesium salts are absorbed in the gut and their route of excretion is biliary for lanthanum and urinary for magnesium. There are insufficient data to establish the comparative superiority of non-calcium binding agents over calcium salts for such important patient-level outcomes as all-cause mortality and cardiovascular end points. Moreover, full adoption of sevelamer and lanthanum by government drug reimbursement agencies in place of calcium salts would lead to a large increase in health-care expenditure. Therefore, the choice of phosphate binder should be individualised, considering the clinical context, the costs, and the individual tolerability the concomitant effects on other parameters of mineral metabolism, such as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone, besides those on serum phosphorus. PMID:23625273

  7. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  8. Modern approaches to non-surgical biofilm management.

    PubMed

    Apatzidou, Danae Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    The subgingival dental plaque is a microbial biofilm consisting of highly variable bacterial microcolonies embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance. In contrast to microorganisms growing in a planktonic state, the inhabitants of a biofilm are effectively protected within this dense structure from host defense mechanisms and from therapeutic agents, including antimicrobials. The mechanical removal of the microbial biofilm and the establishment of meticulous plaque control measures comprise the key elements for the success of non-surgical periodontal treatment. Ultrasonic devices are effective in disrupting the biofilm, and carefully remove soft and hard deposits from a root surface with minimal trauma to the tooth structure. Controversies and modern trends in non-surgical periodontal therapy - such as quadrant-wise treatment modalities versus full-mouth approaches, hand-versus power-driven instrumentation, and the time frame of non-surgical periodontal therapy - are discussed here in depth in order to provide an insight into modern approaches to non-surgical biofilm management. Clinical, microbiological and immunological findings following different treatment protocols, in addition to cost-effective benefits of these clinical modalities, are discussed. PMID:22142959

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Oropharyngeal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Treatment Paranasal Sinus & Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cancer Prevention Oral Cancer ... Cancer Treatment Paranasal Sinus & Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cancer Prevention Oral Cancer ...

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Laryngeal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Prevention Oral Cancer Screening Research Laryngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Laryngeal Cancer Key Points ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ...

  11. Non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Gwiazda, Jane; Li, Tianjing

    2014-01-01

    Background Convergence insufficiency is a common eye muscle co-ordination problem in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward (exophoria) when reading or doing close work. Symptoms may include eye strain, headaches, double vision, print moving on the page, frequent loss of place when reading, inability to concentrate, and short attention span. Objectives To systematically assess and synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency. Search strategy We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 7 October 2010. We manually searched reference lists and optometric journals. Selection criteria We included RCTs examining any form of non-surgical intervention against placebo, no treatment, sham treatment, or each other. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed meta-analyses when appropriate. Main results We included six trials (three in children, three in adults) with a total of 475 participants. We graded four trials at low risk of bias. Evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism reading glasses was no more effective than placebo reading glasses in improving clinical signs or symptoms in children. Evidence from one trial (graded at high risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism glasses using a progressive addition lens design was more effective than progressive addition lens alone in decreasing symptoms in adults. At three weeks of therapy, the mean difference in Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms Survey (CISS) score was ?10.24 points (95% confidence interval (CI) ?15.45 to ?5.03). Evidence from two trials (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that outpatient (or office-based as used in the US) vision therapy/orthoptics was more effective than home-based convergence exercises (or pencil push-ups as used in the US) in children. At 12 weeks of therapy, the mean difference in change in near point of convergence, positive fusional vergence, and CISS score from baseline was 3.99 cm (95% CI 2.11 to 5.86), 13.13 diopters (95% CI 9.91 to 16.35), and 9.86 points (95% CI 6.70 to 13.02), respectively. In a young adult population, evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) suggests outpatient vision therapy/orthoptics was more effective than home-based convergence exercises in improving positive fusional vergence at near (7.7 diopters, 95% CI 0.82 to 14.58), but not the other outcomes. Evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) comparing four interventions, also suggests that outpatient vision therapy/orthoptics was more effective than home-based computer vision therapy/orthoptics in children. At 12 weeks, the mean difference in change in near point of convergence, positive fusional vergence, and CISS score from baseline was 2.90 cm (95% CI 0.96 to 4.84), 7.70 diopters (95% CI 3.94 to 11.46), and 8.80 points (95% CI 5.26 to 12.34), respectively. Evidence was less consistent for other pair-wise comparisons. Authors’ conclusions Current research suggests that outpatient vision therapy/orthoptics is more effective than home-based convergence exercises or home-based computer vision therapy/orthoptics for children. In adult population, evidence of the effectiveness of various non-surgical interventions is less consistent. PMID:21412896

  12. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Signs or symptoms caused by the ... treatment. Some treatments for tumors cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Testicular Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... therapy after their primary treatment . Treatment for testicular cancer can cause infertility. Certain treatments for testicular cancer can cause ... Some publications provide information on tests for cancer, cancer causes and prevention, cancer statistics, and NCI research activities. ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nurse specialist . Social worker . Rehabilitation specialist . Psychologist . Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ... Some publications provide information on tests for cancer, cancer causes and prevention, cancer statistics, and NCI research activities. ...

  16. Acute Calcaneal Fractures: Treatment Options and Results.

    PubMed

    Macey; Benirschke; Sangeorzan; Hansen

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of choice for acute displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures remains controversial. The authors present a brief historical review of treatment options and results, coupled with the biomechanical rationale for open reduction and internal fixation. Their current management protocol and surgical technique are outlined, along with preliminary functional results at an average follow-up of 2.5 years. PMID:10708992

  17. Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... situ . This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy. Enlarge Cryosurgery. An instrument with a nozzle is ... that is metastatic or cannot be treated with local therapy is usually chemotherapy or a clinical trial ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Vulvar Cancer Key Points Vulvar cancer is a rare disease in which ... recurred (come back). Stages of Vulvar Cancer Key Points After vulvar cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... used to describe not giving treatment to cure prostate cancer right after diagnosis are observation, watch and wait, and expectant management. Surgery Patients in good health whose tumor is in the prostate gland only may be treated with surgery to ...

  20. Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems. Changes in mood, feelings, thinking, learning, or memory. Second cancers (new types of cancer). Some late ... This type of cancer treatment is also called biologic therapy or biotherapy. Targeted therapy Targeted therapy is ...

  1. Ultramorphology of the root surface subsequent to hand-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation during non-surgical periodontal treatments. An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    D. ASPRIELLO, Simone; PIEMONTESE, Matteo; LEVRINI, Luca; SAURO, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultramorphology of the root surfaces induced by mechanical instrumentation performed using conventional curettes or piezoelectric scalers when used single-handedly or with a combined technique. Material and Methods Thirty single-rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 groups: Group A, instrumentation with curettes; Group B instrumentation with titanium nitride coated periodontal tip mounted in a piezoelectric handpiece; Group C, combined technique with curette/ultrasonic piezoelectric instrumentation. The specimens were processed and analyzed using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Differences between the different groups of instrumentation were determined using Pearson’s ? 2 with significance predetermined at ?=0.001. Results Periodontal scaling and root planing performed with curettes, ultrasonic or combined instrumentation induced several morphological changes on the root surface. The curettes produced a compact and thick multilayered smear layer, while the morphology of the root surfaces after ultrasonic scaler treatment appeared irregular with few grooves and a thin smear layer. The combination of curette/ultrasonic instrumentation showed exposed root dentin tubules with a surface morphology characterized by the presence of very few grooves and slender remnants of smear layer which only partially covered the root dentin. In some cases, it was also possible to observe areas with exposed collagen fibrils. Conclusion The curette-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation may combine the beneficial effects of each instrument in a single technique creating a root surface relatively free from the physical barrier of smear layer and dentin tubules orifices partial occlusion. PMID:21437474

  2. Pseudotumor cerebri: An update on treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Sarita B; Subramanian, Prem S

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to identify Pseudotumor cerebri treatment options and assess their efficacy. Setting and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Existing literature and the authors’ experience were reviewed. Results: Treatment options range from observation to surgical intervention. Weight loss and medical treatment may be utilized in cases without vision loss or in combination with surgical treatment. Cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures and/or optic nerve sheath decompression is indicated for severe vision loss or headache unresponsive to medical management. The recent use of endovascular stenting of transverse sinus stenoses has also demonstrated benefit in patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Conclusion: While each treatment form may be successful individually, a multimodal approach is typically utilized with treatments selected on a case-by-case basis. PMID:25449933

  3. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  4. Non-surgical and supportive periodontal therapy: predictors of compliance

    PubMed Central

    Delatola, Chrysoula; Adonogianaki, Evagelia; Ioannidou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify predictors of compliance during non-surgical and supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, demographic, dental, medical data of 427 new patients in a private practice were collected. Data were analysed in statistical models with non-surgical therapy and SPT compliance used as dependent variables. Results Of the 427 patients, 17.3% never agreed to initial therapy, 10.7% never completed therapy and 20.8% completed treatment, but never entered SPT. Of the 218 SPT patients, 56% became non-attenders after a period of 20 months, 33% were erratic attenders and 10.5% were regular attenders until the end of the observation period (5.5–6.5 years). Patients became erratic attenders after a mean period of regular attendance of 18.1 ± 16.2 months, whereas 49.6% of the patients, who abandoned SPT, were regular attenders until the time they stopped. In a univariate correlation model, periodontal disease severity emerged as a significant predictor of the completion of non-surgical periodontal therapy (p = 0.01). In a multivariate linear regression model, smoking was negatively associated with SPT compliance (p = 0.047). Conclusions A low compliance of the population was observed. Smoking and periodontal disease severity represented significant, but modest modifiers of a patient compliance with SPT and initial therapy respectively. PMID:24813661

  5. Treatment option for arachnoid cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyu-Won Shim; Yoon-Ho Lee; Eun-Kyung Park; Young-Seok Park; Joong-Uhn Choi; Dong-Seok Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective  The objective of this study is to establish which treatment is the best operative intervention for arachnoid cyst.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We reviewed a series of 209 cases with arachnoid cysts focusing on the effectiveness and safety. The cysts were treated with\\u000a several surgical procedures including open surgery for fenestration, endoscopic fenestration, or cystoperitoneal shunting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Follow-up imaging studies showed that 176

  6. Emerging treatment options for early mycosis fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Guarino, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides is a candidate for skin-directed therapies in its initial stages. In recent years, therapeutic options outside of the normal treatment recommendations such as topical imiquimod, topical tazarotene, topical methotrexate, excimer light sources, and photodynamic therapy have been published with variable results. These alternatives have been useful in cases of localized mycosis fungoides that do not respond to routine treatments; nevertheless, more studies on these methods are still needed. This article summarizes the literature and data that are known so far about these treatments. PMID:23450851

  7. Emerging treatment options for early mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Guarino, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides is a candidate for skin-directed therapies in its initial stages. In recent years, therapeutic options outside of the normal treatment recommendations such as topical imiquimod, topical tazarotene, topical methotrexate, excimer light sources, and photodynamic therapy have been published with variable results. These alternatives have been useful in cases of localized mycosis fungoides that do not respond to routine treatments; nevertheless, more studies on these methods are still needed. This article summarizes the literature and data that are known so far about these treatments. PMID:23450851

  8. Treatment options for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morton, Gerard; Vigneault, Eric; Usmani, Nawaid; Morris, W. James

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe treatment options for clinically localized prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy, external beam radiation, and active surveillance. Quality of evidence Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) outcomes presented are from non-randomized, cohort, and other comparisons trials (level II evidence). We describe PSA outcomes from Canadian centres when they are available. One small randomized controlled trial (level I evidence) in localized prostate cancer is available to compare radical prostatectomy with brachytherapy. Main message Treatment choice in prostate cancer is based on initial PSA level, clinical stage of disease, and Gleason score, together with baseline urinary function, comorbidities, and patient age. In this article, we describe patients’ eligibility for and the common side effects of all treatment options. Prostate brachytherapy and active surveillance have evolved as new standard treatments of localized prostate cancer. We give a brief overview of the brachytherapy procedure, side effects, and PSA outcomes across Canada, as well as active surveillance guidelines. Conclusion Prostate cancer treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with input from both urology and radiation oncology. Input from family physicians is often as important in helping guide patients through the treatment decision process. PMID:24336537

  9. [Necessary and unnecessary treatment options for hemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Zindel, Joel; Inglin, Roman; Brügger, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Up to one third of the general population suffers from symptoms caused by hemorrhoids. Conservative treatment comes first unless the patient presents with an acute hemorrhoidal prolapse or a thrombosis. A fiber enriched diet is the primary treatment option, recommended in the perioperative period as well as a long-term prophylaxis. A timely limited application of topical ointments or suppositories and/or flavonoids are further treatment options. When symptoms persist interventional procedures for grade I-II hemorrhoids, and surgery for grade III-IV hemorrhoids should be considered. Rubber band ligation is the interventional treatment of choice. A comparable efficacy using sclerosing or infrared therapy has not yet been demonstrated. We therefore do not recommend these treatment options for the cure of hemorrhoids. Self-treatment by anal insertion of bougies is of lowrisk and may be successful, particularly in the setting of an elevated sphincter pressure. Anal dilation, sphincterotomy, cryosurgery, bipolar diathermy, galvanic electrotherapy, and heat therapy should be regarded as obsolete given the poor or missing data reported for these methods. For a long time, the classic excisional hemorrhoidectomy was considered to be the gold standard as far as surgical procedures are concerned. Primary closure (Ferguson) seems to be superior compared to the "open" version (Milligan Morgan) with respect to postoperative pain and wound healing. The more recently proposed stapled hemorrhoidopexy (Longo) is particularly advisable for circular hemorrhoids. Compared to excisional hemorrhoidectomy the Longo-operation is associated with reduced postoperative pain, shorter operation time and hospital stay as well as a faster recovery, with the disadvantage though of a higher recurrence rate. Data from Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation (HAL)-, if appropriate in combination with a Recto-Anal Repair (HAL/RAR)-, demonstrates a similar trend towards a better tolerance of the procedure at the expense of a higher recurrence rate. These relatively "new" procedures equally qualify for the treatment of grade III and IV hemorrhoids, and, in the case of stapled hemorrhoidopexy, may even be employed in the emergency situation of an acute anal prolapse. While under certain circumstances different treatment options are equivalent, there is a clear specificity with respect to the application of those procedures in other situations. The respective pros and cons need to be discussed separately with every patient. According to their own requirements a treatment strategy has to be defined according to their individual requirements. PMID:25447089

  10. Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

  11. Treatment Options for HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Onyebujoh, Philip Chukwuka; Ribeiro, Isabela; Whalen, Christopher Curtis

    2007-08-15

    The vicious interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) pandemics poses special challenges to national control programs and individual physicians. Although recommendations for the treatment of TB in HIV-infected patients do not significantly differ from those for HIV-uninfected patients, the appropriate management of HIV-associated TB is complicated by health system issues, diagnostic difficulties, adherence concerns, overlapping adverse-effect profiles and drug interactions, and the occurrence of paradoxical reactions after the initiation of effective antiretroviral therapy. In this article, recommended treatment strategies and novel approaches to the management of HIV-associated TB are reviewed, including adjuvant treatment and options for treatment simplification. A focused research agenda is proposed in the context of the limitations of the current knowledge framework. PMID:17726832

  12. Treatment in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; Barut, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of the childhood with the highest risk of disability. Active disease persists in the adulthood in a significant portion of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis despite many developments in the diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, initiation of efficient treatment in the early period of the disease may provide faster control of the inflammation and prevention of long-term harms. In recent years, treatment options have also increased in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis owing to biological medications. All biological medications used in children have been produced to target the etiopathogenesis leading to disease including anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-interleukin 1 and anti-interleukin 6 drugs. In this review, scientific data about biological medications used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options will be discussed.

  13. [Treatment options for age-related infertility].

    PubMed

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2010-06-20

    There has been a consistent trend towards delayed childbearing in most Western countries. Treatment options for age-related infertility includes controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF). A sharp decline in pregnancy rate with advancing female age is noted with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including IVF. Evaluation and treatment of infertility should not be delayed in women 35 years and older. No treatment other than oocyte donation has been shown to be effective for women over 40 and for those with compromised ovarian reserve, but its pratice is not easy in France hence the procreative tourism. As an increasing number of couples choose to postpone childbearing, they should be informed that maternal age is an important risk factor for failure to conceive. PMID:20623902

  14. Treatment Options to Manage Wound Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Curtis E.; Kennedy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioburden is an accepted barrier to chronic wound healing. Defining the significance, phenotype, clinical classification, and treatment guidelines has been historically lacking of evidence and based on paradigms that do not represent the scientific or clinical reality. The Problem Chronic wound bioburden is typically abundant, polymicrobial, and extremely diverse. These microbes naturally adopt biofilm phenotypes, which are quite often viable but not culturable, thereby going undetected. The failures of culture-based detection have led to abandonment of routine bioburden evaluation and aggressive treatment or, worse, to assume bioburden is not a significant barrier. Predictably, treatment regimens to address biofilm phenotypes lagged behind our diagnostic tools and understanding. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Microbial DNA-based diagnostic tools and treatment regimens have emerged, which provide and leverage objective information, resulting in a dramatic impact on outcomes. Relevance to Clinical Care Modern medicine demands decisions based on objective evidence. The diagnostic and treatment protocols reviewed herein empower clinicians to practice modern medicine with regard to bioburden, with DNA level certainty. Conclusion Bioburden is a significant barrier to healing for all chronic wounds. Molecular diagnostics provide the first objective means of assessing wound bioburden. The accuracy and comprehensive data from such diagnostic methodologies provide clinicians with the ability to employ patient-specific treatment options, targeted to each patient's microbial wound census. Based on current outcomes data, the most effective therapeutic options are topical (TPL) antibiofilm agents (ABF) combined with TPL antibiotics (ABX). In specific patients, systemic ABX and selective biocides are also appropriate, but not exclusive of ABF combined with TPL ABX. PMID:24527291

  15. Tackling sleeplessness: Psychological treatment options for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Dautovich, Natalie D; McNamara, Joseph; Williams, Jacob M; Cross, Natalie J; McCrae, Christina S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review and summarize the research supporting nonpharmacologic treatment options for insomnia. The different treatment approaches are described followed by a review of both original research articles and meta-analyses. Meta-analytic reviews suggest that common nonpharmacologic approaches exert, on average, medium to large effect sizes on SOL, WASO, NWAK, SQR, and SE while smaller effects are seen for TST. Stimulus control therapy, relaxation training, and CBT-I are considered standard treatments for insomnia by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Sleep restriction, multicomponent therapy without cognitive therapy, paradoxical intention, and biofeedback approaches have received some levels of support by the AASM. Sleep hygiene, imagery training, and cognitive therapy did not receive recommendation levels as single (standalone) therapies by the AASM due to lack of empirical evidence. Less common approaches have been introduced (Internet-based interventions, bright light treatment, biofeedback, mindfulness, acupuncture, and intensive sleep retraining) but require further research. Brief and group treatments have been shown to be as efficacious as longer and individually-administered treatments. Considerations are presented for special populations, including older adults, children and teens, individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds, insomnia comorbid with other disorders, and individuals who are taking hypnotics. PMID:23616696

  16. ARSENIC REMOVAL TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR SINGLE FAMILY HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information on POU and POE arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems. The presentation provides information on the arsenic rule, arsenic chemistry and arsenic treatment. The arsenic treatment options proposed for POU and POE treatment consist prim...

  17. Non-surgical management of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Darby, I

    2009-09-01

    Non-surgical removal of plaque and calculus has been part of the initial phase of the management of patients with gingivitis and periodontitis for decades. It consists of patient motivation and oral hygiene instruction as well as mechanical removal of supra and subgingival plaque deposits. The purpose of this review was to assess recent changes. The article reports on changes in our understanding of plaque as a biofilm, developments in patient plaque control, chemical plaque control and scaling instruments. It also comments on full-mouth disinfection, the use of lasers and host modulation. Modern technology has made removal of microbial deposits by the patient and dental professionals more efficient. However, other advancements need to be used in conjunction with mechanical debridement at this time. PMID:19737271

  18. EVALUATION OF ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review of published and unpublished data was conducted to identify all conceivable alternative on-site systems, including wastewater manipulation, treatment and disposal options. Wastewater manipulation options included flow reduction, wasteload reduction and waste s...

  19. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Ahmed; Elnashar, Abubaker

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise) and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms. PMID:21339935

  20. [Male infertility: non-surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Gulino, Gaetano; Stefanucci, Marco; Antonucci, Michele; Racioppi, Marco; Sacco, Emilio; Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse and affects 15% of couples with male component of 50%. The failure of spermatogenesis can result from hypothalamic, pituitary or testicular disorders although in the majority of cases it remains idiopathic. The diagnostic process includes medical history, semen analysis, hormonal studies, genetic studies and radiological evaluation.Targeted hormonal therapies are available for patients whose infertility is caused by altered levels of androgens, prolactin, or TSH. Main treatments aim to restore normal sexual function by administering testosterone and to increase spermatogenesis with pulsatile GnRH.Fertility in men suffering from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism can be restored through hormone therapy using GnRH or with the use of gonadotropins when there is hypothalamic failure. In the past, treatment options for the factors of idiopathic male infertility were mainly based on the use of anti-estrogens that cause an increased secretion of FSH and LH and therefore of testosterone.Oxytocin promotes the progression of the sperm and increases the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. The aromatase's inhibitors decrease the conversion of androgens to estrogens, increasing serum levels of androgens, resulting in an increased release of gonadotropins.Two areas showed interesting future perspectives for the treatment of infertility: gene therapy and transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells. PMID:25198940

  1. Pectus excavatum: history, hypotheses and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Brochhausen, Christoph; Turial, Salmai; Müller, Felix K.P.; Schmitt, Volker H.; Coerdt, Wiltrud; Wihlm, Jean-Marie; Schier, Felix; Kirkpatrick, C. James

    2012-01-01

    Pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum represent the most frequent chest wall deformations. However, the pathogenesis is still poorly understood and research results remain inconsistent. To focus on the recent state of knowledge, we summarize and critically discuss the pathological concepts based on the history of these entities, beginning with the first description in the sixteenth century. Based on the early clinical descriptions, we review and discuss the different pathogenetic hypotheses. To open new perspectives for the potential pathomechanisms, the embryonic and foetal development of the ribs and the sternum is highlighted following the understanding that the origin of these deformities is given by the disruption in the maturation of the parasternal region. In the second, different therapeutical techniques are highlighted and based on the pathogenetic hypotheses and the embryological knowledge potential new biomaterial-based perspectives with interesting insights for tissue engineering-based treatment options are presented. PMID:22394989

  2. Pectus excavatum: history, hypotheses and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Brochhausen, Christoph; Turial, Salmai; Müller, Felix K P; Schmitt, Volker H; Coerdt, Wiltrud; Wihlm, Jean-Marie; Schier, Felix; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2012-06-01

    Pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum represent the most frequent chest wall deformations. However, the pathogenesis is still poorly understood and research results remain inconsistent. To focus on the recent state of knowledge, we summarize and critically discuss the pathological concepts based on the history of these entities, beginning with the first description in the sixteenth century. Based on the early clinical descriptions, we review and discuss the different pathogenetic hypotheses. To open new perspectives for the potential pathomechanisms, the embryonic and foetal development of the ribs and the sternum is highlighted following the understanding that the origin of these deformities is given by the disruption in the maturation of the parasternal region. In the second, different therapeutical techniques are highlighted and based on the pathogenetic hypotheses and the embryological knowledge potential new biomaterial-based perspectives with interesting insights for tissue engineering-based treatment options are presented. PMID:22394989

  3. The actuarial survival analysis of the surgical and non-surgical therapy regimen for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Li Gan; Jian-Qun Zhang; Ping Bo; Qi-Wen Zhou; Sheng-Xun Wang

    2010-01-01

    Aim To characterize the in-hospital mortality and the actuarial survival of surgical and non-surgical therapy regimen in the\\u000a treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 504 patients with CTEPH, who were treated surgically (n = 360), or non-surgically (n = 144) in Anzhen Hospital from February 1989 to August 2007. The patients in surgical group received

  4. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Using Triangular Titanium Implants vs. Non-Surgical Management: Six-Month Outcomes from a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Whang, Peter; Polly, David; Frank, Clay; Lockstadt, Harry; Glaser, John; Limoni, Robert; Sembrano, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a prevalent, underdiagnosed cause of lower back pain. SI joint fusion can relieve pain and improve quality of life in patients who have failed nonoperative care. To date, no study has concurrently compared surgical and non-surgical treatments for chronic SI joint dysfunction. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial of 148 subjects with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint disruptions who were assigned to either minimally invasive SI joint fusion with triangular titanium implants (N=102) or non-surgical management (NSM, n=46). SI joint pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short-Form 36 (SF-36) and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) were collected at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment commencement. Six-month success rates, defined as the proportion of treated subjects with a 20-mm improvement in SI joint pain in the absence of severe device-related or neurologic SI joint-related adverse events or surgical revision, were compared using Bayesian methods. Results Subjects (mean age 51, 70% women) were highly debilitated at baseline (mean SI joint VAS pain score 82, mean ODI score 62). Six-month follow-up was obtained in 97.3%. By 6 months, success rates were 81.4% in the surgical group vs. 23.9% in the NSM group (difference of 56.6%, 95% posterior credible interval 41.4-70.0%, posterior probability of superiority >0.999). Clinically important (?15 point) ODI improvement at 6 months occurred in 75% of surgery subjects vs. 27.3% of NSM subjects. At six months, quality of life improved more in the surgery group and satisfaction rates were high. The mean number of adverse events in the first six months was slightly higher in the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group (1.3 vs. 1.0 events per subject, p=0.1857). Conclusions Six-month follow-up from this level 1 study showed that minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular titanium implants was more effective than non-surgical management in relieving pain, improving function and improving quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or SI joint disruptions. Clinical relevance Minimally invasive SI joint fusion is an acceptable option for patients with chronic SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis and sacroiliac joint disruptions unresponsive to non-surgical treatments. PMID:25785242

  5. Treatment Options for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms ...

  6. Salivary Visfatin Concentration in Response to Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Zahra Alizadeh; Azadmehr, Abbas; Nohekhan, Ali; Tabrizi, Mohammad Amir Alizadeh; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Talebi; Naddafpour, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Visfatin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been associated with several immunomodulating processes. The relationship between visfatin and periodontitis has been the subject of a few studies that have described visfatin as an inflammatory marker for periodontitis. However, studies on visfatin as a potential therapeutic target in periodontal diseases are scarce. In the present study, we evaluated the alterations in salivary visfatin levels in response to non-surgical periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods: Twenty individuals with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis and twenty periodontally healthy individuals were selected for this study according to clinical parameters. Patients with chronic periodontitis were treated by non-surgical periodontal therapy. Clinical parameters were recorded and saliva samples were obtained from the control group and test group before (T1 group) and one month after periodontal treatment (T2 group). Salivary visfatin concentrations were measured by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed with the statistical software SPSS, version 18. Results: Visfatin was detectable in all samples. T1 and control groups were significantly different in terms of clinical parameters and visfatin levels. Visfatin concentrations were reduced significantly after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Periodontal treatment also resulted in significant reductions of all clinical parameters with the exception of clinical attachment level. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that salivary levels of visfatin are reduced after non-surgical periodontal therapy to the levels comparable with those found in healthy individuals. Therefore, the salivary visfatin level may have the potential to be a target marker for assessment of responses to non-surgical periodontal therapy. However, more studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to validate these findings. PMID:26023633

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer ... Search Home Cancer Types Leukemia Patient Leukemia Patient Adult ALL Treatment Adult AML Treatment CLL Treatment CML ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  9. Understanding Bone Marrow Transplantation as a Treatment Option

    MedlinePLUS

    ... icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Understanding Transplantation as a Treatment Option When you are diagnosed with a ... Transplant Talking with Your Doctor Diseases Treatable with a Bone Marrow Transplant or Cord Blood Transplant A ...

  10. Treatment and disposal options for NORM oil field waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, G.H.; Khatib, Z.I.

    1996-12-31

    Treatment and disposal options by Shell Offshore Inc. were shown to reduce effectively NORM waste volumes. Options included scale prediction and inhibition programs, chemical dissolver treatments, minimization through dewatering, waste stream segregation, and on-line vessel cleaning operations. Offshore subsurface injection of NORM waste by the producing operator has been demonstrated for the past four years to be a cost-effective alternative to commercial-site disposal.

  11. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2 treatment phases of adult AML are: Remission induction therapy : This is the first phase of treatment. ... adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during the remission induction phase depends on the subtype of AML and ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Composting is an effective treatment option for

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Composting is an effective treatment option for sanitization of Phytophthora of California, Berkeley, CA, USA 2 Sonoma Compost, Sonoma, CA, USA 3 McEvoy Ranch, Marin, CA, USA Introduction.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.03008.x Abstract Aims: To determine the effects of heat and composting treatments

  13. Periodontal Treatments and Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Procedures Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatments Gum Graft Surgery Laser Treatment for Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening ... dental implants. Non-Surgical Treatments Gum Graft Surgery Laser Treatment Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Dental Implants Pocket ...

  14. Treatment Options by Stage (Anal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tumors, not anal cancer . Being infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the risk of developing anal ... bag is attached to the stoma. Having the human immunodeficiency virus can affect treatment of anal cancer. ...

  15. Treatment Options for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... illnesses and treatments will also be taken. Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample ... checked to measure the amount of VIP. Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample ...

  16. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Esophageal Cancer Key Points Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... NCI Web site . Stages of Esophageal Cancer Key Points After esophageal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  17. Treatment Options for Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... followed by adjuvant chemotherapy . Blood Vessel Tumors Angiosarcoma (deep) Treatment of angiosarcoma may include the following: Surgery ... about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Recurrent and Progressive Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken. Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample ...

  19. Treatment options for atypical optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Amina; Ahmed, Maryam; Golnik, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Context: Optic neuritis (ON) is defined as inflammation of the optic nerve and can have various etiologies. The most common presentation in the US is demyelinating, or “typical” ON, usually associated with multiple sclerosis. This is in contrast to “atypical” causes of ON, which differ in their clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. These atypical cases are characterized by lack of eye pain, exudates, and hemorrhages on exam, very severe, bilateral or progressive visual loss, or with failure to recover vision. Aims: The aim was to describe the clinical presentations of atypical ON and their treatments. Settings and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Literature review. Results: Types of atypical ON identified include neuromyelitis optica, autoimmune optic neuropathy, chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, idiopathic recurrent neuroretinitis, and optic neuropathy associated with systemic diseases. Atypical ON usually requires corticosteroid treatment and often will require aggressive immunosuppression. Conclusions: Unlike demyelinating ON, atypical ON requires treatment to preserve vision. PMID:25449930

  20. A Treatment Option for Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis

    PubMed Central

    Jodorkovsky, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is a rare condition often presenting with esophageal strictures. Treatment is often limited to endoscopic dilatation and treatment of the underlying esophageal pathology. We present a case of a patient with longstanding GERD on famotidine (she experienced anaphylaxis with proton pump inhibitors [PPIs]) who presented with dysphagia and weight loss. Work-up revealed a diagnosis of EIPD with a 5-mm mid-esophageal stricture. Therapy with dilatation was unsuccessful until the addition of sucralfate, after which dilatation was successful and symptoms resolved. In patients who are unable to take PPIs, the addition of sucralfate may enhance the success of dilatations of esophageal strictures and EIPD.

  1. Carcinoma in situ and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Erton, M; Ilker, Y; Akda?

    1996-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a high-grade and aggressive manifestation of transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder that has a highly variable course. The treatment of CIS has undergone dramatic changes since this malignancy was first recognized. While cystectomy was once recommended as the initial treatment of choice, recognition of the highly variable prognosis and the uniformly high response rate to intravesical BCG has prompted a more conservative approach to management. Patients who fail BCG immunotherapy without evidence of progression may yet be candidates for intravesical chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, or alternative immunotherapies such as alpha-2b interferon, bromopirimine, or keyhole limpet haemocyanin. PMID:8738617

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Vulvar Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or ... the following: Wide local excision with or without radiation therapy to treat cancer that has come back in the same area. ...

  3. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken. Chest x-ray : An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and ...

  4. Treatment Options for Children with Undescended Testicles

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What activities should my child avoid right after surgery? Sources The information in this summary comes from the report Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism , December 2012. The report was produced by the Vanderbilt Evidence-Based Practice Center through funding by the Agency for ...

  5. Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is available from the NCI Web site . To Learn More About Adult Primary Liver Cancer For more information from the ... regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial ... what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific ...

  6. Treatment Options for Hodgkin Lymphoma during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by a large tumor in the chest. To Learn More About Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma For more information from the National ... regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial ... what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific ...

  7. New treatment options for hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ulrich; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G

    2015-05-01

    Hearing loss is the most common form of sensory impairment in humans and affects more than 40 million people in the United States alone. No drug-based therapy has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and treatment mostly relies on devices such as hearing aids and cochlear implants. Over recent years, more than 100 genetic loci have been linked to hearing loss and many of the affected genes have been identified. This understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate auditory function has revealed new targets for pharmacological treatment of the disease. Moreover, approaches that are based on stem cells and gene therapy, which may have the potential to restore or maintain auditory function, are beginning to emerge. PMID:25792261

  8. Novel treatment options of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, D; Rossi, L; Baroni, S; Consoli, G; Hollander, E; Catena-Dell'Osso, M

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem of modern societies that sometimes, but not necessarily, is associated with binge-eating disorder (BED), a relatively new disorder characterized by binge eating without purging. The purpose of this article is to review the rationale for the potential use of pharmacological treatments in BED, and the potential use of the recently proposed compounds. Therefore, a careful medline of published articles from 1980 to December 2010 was carried out using the following keywords: BED and treatment, topiramate, zonisamide, sibutramine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, ghrelin, opiate blockers. Single case reports, observational studies, opinion articles, and studies concerning adults with syndromes resulting in BED (i.e., night eating syndrome) were also reviewed. All examined papers would indicate that the pharmacological treatment of BED is still heterogenous and poorly established, mainly for the lack of controlled studies in large samples of patients. In any case, the data on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and on novel anticonvulsants seem quite promising in terms of efficacy and tolerability. In addition, the preliminary findings on the possibility of modulating appetite through the interference with the ghrelin system suggest new and intriguing ways of intervention in BED. PMID:22050761

  9. Acquired hemophilia A: emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Janbain, Maissaa; Leissinger, Cindy A; Kruse-Jarres, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by an autoantibody (inhibitor) to factor VIII (FVIII) that interferes with its coagulant function and predisposes to severe, potentially life-threatening hemorrhage. Disease management focuses on controlling bleeding, primarily with the use of bypassing therapy and recombinant porcine FVIII, and permanently eradicating the autoantibody using various immunosuppressants. Treatment challenges include delayed diagnosis, difficulty achieving hemostasis and durable remissions, and complications associated with the use of hemostatic and immunosuppressive therapy in a primarily older patient population. PMID:26056504

  10. Non-Surgical Interventions for Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    P?aszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Objectives Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Design Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Methods Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute’s hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. Results From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Conclusions Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers labeled as systematic reviews need to be considered in terms of their methodological rigor; otherwise they may be mistakenly regarded as high quality sources of evidence. Protocol registry number CRD42013003538, PROSPERO PMID:25353954

  11. [Intracerebral aneurysm--treatment options, informed consent, and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Burkhardt, Werner Friedrich; Zinn, Pascal Olivier; Bozinov, Oliver; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    All medical subspecialties and, in particular, high-tech field neurosurgery are subject to continuous change in therapeutic concepts due to novel treatment options emerging through research and evolution in the field. Hence, the question arises if the patient's informed consent needs to be adjusted in the face of multiple therapeutic options with different configurations of risk/benefit relationships. In this paper we discuss different therapeutic scenarios with regard to ruptured intracerebral aneurysms (RIA) and unruptured intracerebral aneurysms (UIA), and we advise the medical doctor involved in the process. Indeed, experienced neurosurgeons and endovascular interventionalists are very familiar with the management of these scenarios; likewise, interns, residents, and otherwise affiliated physicians may be faced with these situations. In general, asymptomatic and mentally capacitated patients as well as legal guardians of minor patients and of mentally incapacitated patients with incidental aneurysms and more than one therapeutic option need to be accurately informed about the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment options available to them. In case of emergency or when treating a mentally disabled patient who is incapable of making a sound judgment and has no legal guardian, the attending doctor will have to choose the best possible treatment option. PMID:21958620

  12. Degenerative meniscus: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Richard; Kumar, Neil S; Patel, Nimit; Tom, James

    2014-01-01

    The symptomatic degenerative meniscus continues to be a source of discomfort for a significant number of patients. With vascular penetration of less than one-third of the adult meniscus, healing potential in the setting of chronic degeneration remains low. Continued hoop and shear stresses upon the degenerative meniscus results in gross failure, often in the form of complex tears in the posterior horn and midbody. Patient history and physical examination are critical to determine the true source of pain, particularly with the significant incidence of simultaneous articular pathology. Joint line tenderness, a positive McMurray test, and mechanical catching or locking can be highly suggestive of a meniscal source of knee pain and dysfunction. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging are frequently utilized to examine for osteoarthritis and to verify the presence of meniscal tears, in addition to ruling out other sources of pain. Non-operative therapy focused on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy may be able to provide pain relief as well as improve mechanical function of the knee joint. For patients refractory to conservative therapy, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy can provide short-term gains regarding pain relief, especially when combined with an effective, regular physiotherapy program. Patients with clear mechanical symptoms and meniscal pathology may benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, but surgery is not a guaranteed success, especially with concomitant articular pathology. Ultimately, the long-term outcomes of either treatment arm provide similar results for most patients. Further study is needed regarding the short and long-term outcomes regarding conservative and surgical therapy, with a particular focus on the economic impact of treatment as well. PMID:25405088

  13. Treatment Options for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections

    PubMed Central

    Morrill, Haley J.; Pogue, Jason M.; Kaye, Keith S.; LaPlante, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of currently available treatment options for infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is an emerging and serious global public health threat. Carbapenems have been used as the “last-line” treatment for infections caused by resistant Enterobacteriaceae, including those producing extended spectrum ß-lactamases. However, Enterobacteriaceae that produce carbapenemases, which are enzymes that deactivate carbapenems and most other ß-lactam antibiotics, have emerged and are increasingly being reported worldwide. Despite this increasing burden, the most optimal treatment for CRE infections is largely unknown. For the few remaining available treatment options, there are limited efficacy data to support their role in therapy. Nevertheless, current treatment options include the use of older agents, such as polymyxins, fosfomycin, and aminoglycosides, which have been rarely used due to efficacy and/or toxicity concerns. Optimization of dosing regimens and combination therapy are additional treatment strategies being explored. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections are associated with poor outcomes and high mortality. Continued research is critically needed to determine the most appropriate treatment.

  14. Non-surgical treatment of hip osteoarthritis. Hip school, with or without the addition of manual therapy, in comparison to a minimal control intervention: Protocol for a three-armed randomized clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Poulsen; Henrik W Christensen; Ewa M Roos; Werner Vach; Søren Overgaard; Jan Hartvigsen

    2011-01-01

    Background  Hip osteoarthritis is a common and chronic condition resulting in pain, functional disability and reduced quality of life.\\u000a In the early stages of the disease, a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment is recommended. There\\u000a is evidence from several trials that exercise therapy is effective. In addition, single trials suggest that patient education\\u000a in the form of a hip school

  15. Laryngeal Manifestations of Relapsing Polychondritis And a Novel Treatment Option

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley Childs; Scott Rickert; Oscar Calderon Wengerman; Robert Lebovics; Andrew Blitzer

    ObjectivesLaryngotracheal involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP) is rare. However, it is one of the most common causes of death in this patient population. We present three patients who primarily presented with laryngeal manifestations of RP and a novel treatment option for bamboo nodules.

  16. Options for Healthcare Waste Management and Treatment in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LI Run-dong; NIE Yong-feng; Bernhard Raninger; WANG Lei

    Healthcare waste management and treatment is one of the national priority tasks of China's Tenth Five-Year Plan. Numerous installations disposing medical waste have already operated the project or under construction to the operation in 2006. This paper focuses on the assessment of existing and future options to handle medical waste (MW). Internationally available and so far in China applied technologies

  17. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  18. Parents’ Online Portrayals of Pediatric Treatment and Research Options

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Rebecca; Henderson, Gail E.; Churchill, Larry R.; King, Nancy M. P.; Rothschild, Barbra B.; Lohser, Sara; Davis, Arlene M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents of seriously ill children face difficult decisions when standard therapies are limited or ineffective. In their search for information, they may turn to websites created by other parents facing similar experiences. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 21 websites created by families with children affected by cancer or genetic disease, two serious conditions with a range of treatment and clinical trial options. Our research questions address how parent authors portray serious pediatric illness, available options, parties to decision making, and sources of influence. In addition, we examine what these sites reveal about family vulnerability to various risks, particularly the risk of misunderstanding the distinction between standard treatment and research and the risk of overestimating the likely benefits of research participation, as well as whether vulnerability varies by type of condition. Our results demonstrate typically favorable views on research, but with inadequate distinctions between research and treatment and a complex set of trade-offs in consideration of research risks and potential benefits. While portraits of vulnerability emerge for both parents and children, so do portraits of strength and resilience. As a result, parents describe frustration with both under- and over-protection from research participation. Our discussion of these findings clarifies the potential for parent-authored websites to inform and influence families considering research and treatment options for their seriously ill children. PMID:19754237

  19. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Current Treatment and Future Options

    PubMed Central

    Moutray, Tanya; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of visual impairment among older adults in the developed world. Epidemiological studies have revealed a number of genetic, ocular and environmental risk factors for this condition, which can be addressed by disease reduction strategies. We discuss the various treatment options for dry and exudative age-related macular degeneration available and explain how the recommended treatment depends on the exact type, location and extent of the degeneration. Currently, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition therapy is the best available treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration but is limited by the need for repeated intravitreal injections. The current treatment regime is being refined through research on optimal treatment frequency and duration and type of anti-VEGF drug. Different modes of drug delivery are being developed and in the future other methods of VEGF inhibition may be used. PMID:23251758

  20. Vaginitis: Making Sense of Over-the-Counter Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    B. Angotti, Lauren; C. Lambert, Lara; E. Soper, David

    2007-01-01

    Background. The FDA approved over-the-counter (OTC) use of vaginal antifungals in 1990. Subsequently, a plethora of OTC products have become available to women on drugstore shelves. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of OTC products marketed for the treatment of vaginitis and to determine if their efficacy had been confirmed by published prospective randomized control trials (RCTs). Materials and methods. The authors chose four retail locations frequented by women seeking vaginitis treatment. All products deemed a viable treatment option were purchased. Results. All intravaginal imidazoles purchased, regardless of treatment duration or active ingredient, were found to be of proven efficacy. We were unable to find an RCT confirming the effectiveness of vaginal anti-itch creams and homeopathic treatments for vaginitis. Conclusion. 45% of products available to women in the feminine hygiene section of the stores surveyed could not be confirmed to be effective for treating infectious vaginitis. PMID:18253469

  1. New treatment options for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Rhee; Richard L. Page

    2005-01-01

    Optional statement  Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia requiring treatment. Its most devastating consequence is thromboembolic\\u000a stroke. Therapy with warfarin is indicated in most patients, as it has been shown conclusively to reduce the risk of stroke.\\u000a Aspirin is an inferior alternative except in certain low-risk patients or for patients with an absolute contraindication to\\u000a warfarin. Guidelines have been

  2. For Some Breast Cancers, New Drug May Be Treatment Option

    Cancer.gov

    Results from an international clinical trial suggest that women with metastatic, HER2-positive breast cancer that is no longer responding to the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin) may soon have a new treatment option. Women who received the investigational drug trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) lived more than 3 months longer without their tumors progressing than women who received the chemotherapy drug capecitabine (Xeloda) and the targeted drug lapatinib (Tykerb).

  3. Carotid Stump Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Endovascular Treatment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarayan, Raghuram; Scott, Paul M.; Robinson, Graham J.; Ettles, Duncan F., E-mail: duncan.ettles@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Carotid stump syndrome is one of the recognised causes of recurrent ipsilateral cerebrovascular events after occlusion of the internal carotid artery. It is believed that microemboli arising from the stump of the occluded internal carotid artery or the ipsilateral external carotid artery can pass into the middle cerebral artery circulation as a result of patent external carotid-internal carotid anastomotic channels. Different pathophysiologic causes of this syndrome and endovascular options for treatment are discussed.

  4. Is hormonal treatment still an option in acne today?

    PubMed

    Bettoli, V; Zauli, S; Virgili, A

    2015-07-01

    Hormonal treatment is indicated in cases of papulopustular, nodular and conglobate acne in females with identified hyperandrogenism, in adult women who have monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are unsuccessful or inappropriate. This review summarizes the latest information on hormonal therapies including: combined oral contraceptives; anti-androgens, such as cyproterone acetate, spironolactone and flutamide; low-dose glucocorticoids and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. It also shares the authors' recommendations for treatment based on the studies discussed here, and personal experience. PMID:25627824

  5. Current options for treatment of hypothenar hammer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hui-Chou, Helen G; McClinton, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare vascular condition resulting from injury to the ulnar artery at the level of Guyon canal. The ulnar artery at the wrist is the most common site of arterial aneurysms of the upper extremity and is particularly prone to injury. Signs and symptoms include a palpable mass, distal digital embolization to long, ring, or small fingers, pain, cyanosis, pallor, coolness, and recurrent episodes of vasospasm. Modalities for diagnosis, evaluation, and surgical planning include duplex study, contrast arteriography, and computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). Management includes medical, nonoperative, or operative treatments. Appropriate treatment options are reviewed. PMID:25455356

  6. Treatment options in painful chronic pancreatitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    D'Haese, Jan G; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Tieftrunk, Elke; Friess, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Background Longlasting and unbearable pain is the most common and striking symptom of chronic pancreatitis. Accordingly, pain relief and improvement in patients' quality of life are the primary goals in the treatment of this disease. This systematic review aims to summarize the available data on treatment options. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library was performed according to the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Reference lists were then hand-searched for additional relevant titles. The results obtained were examined individually by two independent investigators for further selection and data extraction. Results A total of 416 abstracts were reviewed, of which 367 were excluded because they were obviously irrelevant or represented overlapping studies. Consequently, 49 full-text articles were systematically reviewed. Conclusions First-line medical options include the provision of pain medication, adjunctive agents and pancreatic enzymes, and abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. If medical treatment fails, endoscopic treatment offers pain relief in the majority of patients in the short term. However, current data suggest that surgical treatment seems to be superior to endoscopic intervention because it is significantly more effective and, especially, lasts longer. PMID:24033614

  7. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Ihler, Friedrich; Canis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia) poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by synthetic cytosine phosphate–guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides promises a new treatment paradigm that aims to modulate the immune response, but it has yet to be proven in clinical trials. PMID:25733916

  8. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ihler, Friedrich; Canis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia) poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by synthetic cytosine phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides promises a new treatment paradigm that aims to modulate the immune response, but it has yet to be proven in clinical trials. PMID:25733916

  9. Current and emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Daniel E; Lee, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we focus on the current and emerging treatments in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). A detailed evolution of the current standard of care, and new techniques and treatment options will be reviewed. Intergroup 0099 established the role for chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT) in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Multiple randomized Phase III trials have shown the benefit of chemo-RT; however, none of these studies utilized modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). IMRT has the ability to deliver high doses of radiation to the target structures while sparing adjacent bystander healthy tissues, and has now become the preferred RT treatment modality. Chemotherapy also has had a shifting paradigm of induction and/or adjuvant chemotherapy combined with RT alone, to the investigation with concurrent chemo-RT. New treatment options including targeted monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being studied in NPC. These new biologic therapies have promising in vitro activity for NPC, and emerging clinical studies are beginning to define their role. RT continues to expand its capabilities, and since IMRT and particle therapy, specifically intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), has reports of impressive dosimetric efficacy in-silica. Adaptive RT is attempting to reduce toxicity while maintaining treatment efficacy, and the clinical results are still in their youth. Lastly, Epstein– Barr virus (EBV) DNA has recently been studied for prediction of tumor response and its use as a biomarker is increasingly promising to aid in early detection as well as supplementing the current staging system. RT with or without chemotherapy remains the standard of care for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Advances in RT technique, timing of chemotherapy, biologically targeted agents, particle therapy, adaptive RT, and the incorporation of EBV DNA as a biomarker may aid in the current and future treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. PMID:23118544

  10. New options in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Mejias, Asuncion; Ramilo, Octavio

    2015-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants, immunocompromised patients and the elderly. Despite the high disease burden, an effective vaccine or specific therapy are lacking which is largely due to our limited understanding of the immune response to RSV and how it relates to clinical disease severity. Current treatment for RSV remains largely supportive and RSV-specific options for prophylaxis and/or treatment are limited to palivizumab and ribavirin. There are a number of promising compounds currently under development, including new monoclonal antibodies and small molecules. These newer antivirals have the potential to impact both the prevention and treatment of RSV disease in the main target populations. PMID:25922289

  11. Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of hypersplenism: A feasible therapeutic option.

    PubMed

    Martins, Guilherme Lopes P; Bernardes, Joao Paulo G; Rovella, Marcello S; Andrade, Raphael G; Viana, Publio Cesar C; Herman, Paulo; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Menezes, Marcos Roberto

    2015-05-28

    We present a case of a patient with hypersplenism secondary to portal hypertension due to hepato-splenic schistosomiasis, which was accompanied by severe and refractory thrombocytopenia. We performed spleen ablation and measured the total spleen and ablated volumes with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and volumetry. No major complications occurred, thrombocytopenia was resolved, and platelet levels remained stable, which allowed for early treatment of the patient's underlying disease. Previous work has shown that splenic radiofrequency ablation is an attractive alternative treatment for hypersplenism induced by liver cirrhosis. We aimed to contribute to the currently sparse literature evaluating the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the management of hypersplenism. We conclude that splenic RFA appears to be a viable and promising option for the treatment of hypersplenism. PMID:26034376

  12. Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of hypersplenism: A feasible therapeutic option

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Guilherme Lopes P; Bernardes, Joao Paulo G; Rovella, Marcello S; Andrade, Raphael G; Viana, Publio Cesar C; Herman, Paulo; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Menezes, Marcos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with hypersplenism secondary to portal hypertension due to hepato-splenic schistosomiasis, which was accompanied by severe and refractory thrombocytopenia. We performed spleen ablation and measured the total spleen and ablated volumes with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and volumetry. No major complications occurred, thrombocytopenia was resolved, and platelet levels remained stable, which allowed for early treatment of the patient’s underlying disease. Previous work has shown that splenic radiofrequency ablation is an attractive alternative treatment for hypersplenism induced by liver cirrhosis. We aimed to contribute to the currently sparse literature evaluating the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the management of hypersplenism. We conclude that splenic RFA appears to be a viable and promising option for the treatment of hypersplenism. PMID:26034376

  13. Current and emerging options in the treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Elewski, Boni; Pariser, David; Rich, Phoebe; Scher, Richard K

    2013-06-01

    Currently approved options for the treatment of onychomycosis include systemic therapy (the antifungal agents fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine), topical agents (ciclopirox, which has been available since 1996, efinaconazole, currently pending approval), and laser systems. Phase III studies on another topical, tavaborole, have been completed and this medication also shows promise. Mechanical modalities are sometimes used but are seldom necessary. Recurrence of infection is common; the risk for recurrence may be reduced by adherence to preventive measures, especially avoiding (if possible) or promptly treating tinea pedis infections. PMID:24156162

  14. New treatment options for the management of restless leg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toro, Beatriz Elizabeth Carmona

    2014-08-01

    Restless leg syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a condition that includes sensations such as crawling, tingling, or aching in the limbs and creates an urge to move. The prevalence is estimated at 3% to 15% of the population and may present as primary RLS or secondary RLS. Secondary RLS may be a result of some medications, iron deficiency, or conditions such as neuropathies, or it may be related to pregnancy. The guidelines for diagnosis, which is usually made on clinical presentation, are discussed in the article. Medication use is not always necessary in the management of RLS. Multiple options are available and are reviewed within the article. Since 2011, two medications have been approved for the treatment of RLS, and these are discussed in detail. Neupro (rotigotine) is a dopamine agonist available as a patch that has been approved for the treatment of RLS as well as Parkinson disease. One of the major issues in treating RLS with dopamine agonists is augmentation, meaning symptoms occur earlier in the day due to medication use. This rate of augmentation with use of rotigotine is significantly lower than other dopamine agonists. Horizant (gabapentin enacarbil) is the only nondopaminergic medication approved for the treatment of RLS. Bioavailability is greater in gabapentin enacarbil as compared to gabapentin. Augmentation has not been associated with gabapentin or gabapentin enacarbil. Neupro (rotigotine) and Horizant (gabapentin enacarbil) provide additional treatment options for patients with RLS who are in need of medications. Consideration of each individual patient is necessary when determining if medication is needed and in choosing the appropriate agent. PMID:24992148

  15. Non-surgical management of peri-implant diseases.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amit

    2014-08-01

    There are similarities between peri-implant diseases and periodontal diseases in terms of aetiology, pathogenesis and management. Patients with a past history of periodontitis are at greater risk of peri-implantitis and it is essential in partially dentate patients to ensure that control of periodontitis has been achieved before implants are placed. Careful maintenance and monitoring of implant patients should be performed on a regular basis to identify, at the earliest opportunity, the clinical and radiographic markers of peri-implant disease. Good self-performed biofilm control and professional maintenance of implants is essential to prevent the onset of peri-implant diseases. Once peri-implantitis has become established, it can initially be managed non-surgically, although surgical intervention may be required for more severe lesions. PMID:25198642

  16. Metastatic melanoma - a review of current and future treatment options.

    PubMed

    Maverakis, Emanual; Cornelius, Lynn A; Bowen, Glen M; Phan, Tiffany; Patel, Falin B; Fitzmaurice, Sarah; He, Young; Burrall, Barbara; Duong, Christopher; Kloxin, April M; Sultani, Hawa; Wilken, Reason; Martinez, Steve R; Patel, Forum

    2015-04-28

    Despite advances in treatment and surveillance, melanoma continues to claim approximately 9,000 lives in the US annually (SEER 2013). The National Comprehensive Cancer Network currently recommends ipilumumab, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and high-dose IL-2 as first line agents for Stage IV melanoma. Little data exists to guide management of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases despite the fact that they are relatively common. Existing options include intralesional Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, isolated limb perfusion/infusion, interferon-?, topical imiquimod, cryotherapy, radiation therapy, interferon therapy, and intratumoral interleukin-2 injections. Newly emerging treatments include the anti-programmed cell death 1 receptor agents (nivolumab and pembrolizumab), anti-programmed death-ligand 1 agents, and oncolytic vaccines (talimogene laherparepevec). Available treatments for select sites include adoptive T cell therapies and dendritic cell vaccines. In addition to reviewing the above agents and their mechanisms of action, this review will also focus on combination therapy as these strategies have shown promising results in clinical trials for metastatic melanoma treatment. PMID:25520039

  17. Current and emerging treatment options for Peyronie’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Ahmet; Wang, Julie C; Powers, Mary K; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

    2013-01-01

    Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a condition of the penis, characterized by the presence of localized fibrotic plaque in the tunica albuginea. PD is not an uncommon disorder, with recent epidemiologic studies documenting a prevalence of 3–9% of adult men affected. The actual prevalence of PD may be even higher. It is often associated with penile pain, anatomical deformities in the erect penis, and difficulty with intromission. As the definitive pathophysiology of PD has not been completely elucidated, further basic research is required to make progress in the understanding of this enigmatic condition. Similarly, research on effective therapies is limited. Currently, nonsurgical treatments are used for those men who are in the acute stage of PD, whereas surgical options are reserved for men with established PD who cannot successfully penetrate. Intralesional treatments are growing in clinical popularity as a minimally invasive approach in the initial treatment of PD. A surgical approach should be considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative, medical, or minimally invasive therapies for approximately 1 year and cannot have satisfactory sexual intercourse. As scientific breakthroughs in the understanding of the mechanisms of this disease process evolve, novel treatments for the many men suffering with PD are anticipated. PMID:24400231

  18. Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum and Salivary Concentrations of Visfatin in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Abolfazli, Nader; Jabali, Sahar; Saleh Saber, Fariba; Babaloo, Zohreh; Shirmohammadi, Adileh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Visfatin, mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, especially by macrophages, plays an important role in regulating the defense and immune functions, and functions as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and more importantly as a proinflammatory mediator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on serum and salivary levels of visfatin in patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods. Eighteen patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis were selected based on periodontal parameters of gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographic parameters. Serum and salivary samples were collected at baseline and one month following non-surgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing ([SRP]). Visfatin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15, using paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results. Mean salivary and serum levels of visfatin significantly decreased after non-surgical periodontal treatment (P<0.05). Changes in salivary visfatin levels were more prominent. Conclusion. According to the findings of this study it seems that there is a direct relationship between periodontal tissue inflammation and disease activity with salivary and serum visfatin levels. PMID:25973148

  19. Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum and Salivary Concentrations of Visfatin in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Abolfazli, Nader; Jabali, Sahar; Saleh Saber, Fariba; Babaloo, Zohreh; Shirmohammadi, Adileh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Visfatin, mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, especially by macrophages, plays an important role in regulating the defense and immune functions, and functions as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and more importantly as a proinflammatory mediator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on serum and salivary levels of visfatin in patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods. Eighteen patients with generalized moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis were selected based on periodontal parameters of gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographic parameters. Serum and salivary samples were collected at baseline and one month following non-surgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing ([SRP]). Visfatin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15, using paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results. Mean salivary and serum levels of visfatin significantly decreased after non-surgical periodontal treatment (P<0.05). Changes in salivary visfatin levels were more prominent. Conclusion. According to the findings of this study it seems that there is a direct relationship between periodontal tissue inflammation and disease activity with salivary and serum visfatin levels. PMID:25973148

  20. An emerging treatment option for glaucoma: Rho kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sean K; Chang, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors are a novel potential class of glaucoma therapeutics with multiple compounds currently in Phase II and III US Food and Drug Administration trials in the United States. These selective agents work by relaxing the trabecular meshwork through inhibition of the actin cytoskeleton contractile tone of smooth muscle. This results in increased aqueous outflow directly through the trabecular meshwork, achieving lower intraocular pressures in a range similar to prostaglandins. There are also animal studies indicating that ROCK inhibitors may improve blood flow to the optic nerve, increase ganglion cell survival, and reduce bleb scarring in glaucoma surgery. Given the multiple beneficial effects for glaucoma patients, ROCK inhibitors are certainly a highly anticipated emerging treatment option for glaucoma. PMID:24872673

  1. Current treatment options for colon cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Terracina, Krista P; Raza, Ali; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), the dissemination of cancer cells throughout the lining of the abdominal cavity, is the second most common presentation of colon cancer distant metastasis. Despite remarkable advances in cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy for colon cancer over the last 15 years, it has been repeatedly shown that these therapies remain ineffective for colon cancer PC. Recently, there has been a rapid accumulation of reports that cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) prolongs the life of colon cancer PC patients. Here, we will review the clinical presentation, the mechanisms of disease progression, and current treatment options for colon cancer PC, with a focus on the benefits and limitations of CRS-HIPEC. PMID:25253949

  2. Management of patients with resistant hypertension: current treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nilay; Calhoun, David A; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is an increasingly common clinical problem that is often heterogeneous in etiology, risk factors, and comorbidities. It is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure on optimal doses of three antihypertensive agents, ideally one being a diuretic. The definition also includes controlled hypertension with use of four or more antihypertensive agents. Recent observational studies have advanced the characterization of patients with RHTN. Patients with RHTN have higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality compared with patients with more easily controlled hypertension. Secondary causes of hypertension, including obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renovascular disease, are common in patients with RHTN and often coexist in the same patient. In addition, RHTN is often complicated by metabolic abnormalities. Patients with RHTN require a thorough evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and optimize treatment, which typically includes a combination of lifestyle adjustments, and pharmacologic and interventional treatment. Combination therapy including a diuretic, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a beta blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist where warranted is the classic regimen for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists like spironolactone or eplerenone have been shown to be efficacious in patients with RHTN, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and primary aldosteronism. Novel interventional therapies, including baroreflex activation and renal denervation, have shown that both of these methods may be used to lower blood pressure safely, thereby providing exciting and promising new options to treat RHTN. PMID:24231917

  3. Management of patients with resistant hypertension: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nilay; Calhoun, David A; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is an increasingly common clinical problem that is often heterogeneous in etiology, risk factors, and comorbidities. It is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure on optimal doses of three antihypertensive agents, ideally one being a diuretic. The definition also includes controlled hypertension with use of four or more antihypertensive agents. Recent observational studies have advanced the characterization of patients with RHTN. Patients with RHTN have higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality compared with patients with more easily controlled hypertension. Secondary causes of hypertension, including obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renovascular disease, are common in patients with RHTN and often coexist in the same patient. In addition, RHTN is often complicated by metabolic abnormalities. Patients with RHTN require a thorough evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and optimize treatment, which typically includes a combination of lifestyle adjustments, and pharmacologic and interventional treatment. Combination therapy including a diuretic, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a beta blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist where warranted is the classic regimen for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists like spironolactone or eplerenone have been shown to be efficacious in patients with RHTN, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and primary aldosteronism. Novel interventional therapies, including baroreflex activation and renal denervation, have shown that both of these methods may be used to lower blood pressure safely, thereby providing exciting and promising new options to treat RHTN. PMID:24231917

  4. Uterine artery embolization as a treatment option for uterine myomas.

    PubMed

    Marshburn, Paul B; Matthews, Michelle L; Hurst, Bradley S

    2006-03-01

    Information is still being collected on the long-term clinical responses and appropriate patient selection for UAE. Prospective RCTs have not been performed to compare the clinical results from UAE with more conventional therapies for symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. At least three attempts at conducting such RCTs have been unsuccessful because of poor patient accrual that related to differing patient expectation and desires, clinical bias, insurance coverage, and the tendency that patients who have exhausted other treatment options may be disposed more favorably to less invasive treatments. Other comparative studies have serious limitations. For example, the retrospective study that compared outcomes after abdominal myomectomy with UAE suggested that patients who received UAE were more likely to require further invasive treatment by 3 years than were recipients of myomectomy. Lack of randomization introduced a selection bias because women in the group that underwent UAEwere older and were more likely to have had previous surgeries. A prospective study of "contemporaneous cohorts," which excluded patients who had sub-mucosal and pedunculated subserosal myomas, sought to compare quality of life measures and adverse events in patients who underwent UAE or hysterectomy. The investigators concluded that both treatments resulted in marked improvement in symptoms and quality of life scores, but complications were higher in the group that underwent hysterectomy over 1 year. In this study,however, a greater proportion of patients who underwent hysterectomy had improved pelvic pain scores. Furthermore, hysterectomy eliminates uterine bleeding and the risk for recurrence of myomas. Despite the lack of controlled studies that compared UAE with conventional surgery, and despite limited extended outcome data, UAE has gained rapid acceptance, primarily because the procedure preserves the uterus, is less invasive, and has less short-term morbidity than do most surgical options. The cost of UAE varies by region, but is comparable to the charges for hysterectomy and is less expensive than abdominal myomectomy. The evaluation before UAE may entail additional fees for diagnostic testing, such as MRI, to assess the uterine size and screen for adenomyosis. Other centers have recommended pretreatment ultrasonography, laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, endometrial biopsy, and biopsy of large fibroids to evaluate sarcoma. Generally,after UAE the recovery time and time lost from work are less; however, the potential need for subsequent surgery may be greater when compared with abdominal myomectomy. Any center that offers UAE should adhere to published clinical guidelines,maintain ongoing assessment of quality improvements measures, and observe strict criteria for obtaining procedural privileges. After McLucas advocated that gynecologists learn the skill to perform UAE for managing symptomatic myomas, the Society of Interventional Radiology responded with a precautionary commentary on the level of technical proficiency that is necessary to maintain optimum results from UAE. The complexity of pelvic arterial anatomy, the skill that is required to master modern coaxial microcatheters, and the hazards of significant patient radiation exposure were cited as reasons why sound training and demonstration of expertise be obtained before clinicians are credentialed to perform UAE.A collaboration between the gynecologist and the interventional radiologist is necessary to optimize the safety and efficacy of UAE. The primary candidates for this procedure include women who have symptomatic uterine fibroids who no longer desire fertility, but wish to avoid surgery or are poor surgical risks. The gynecologist is likely to be the primary initial consultant to patients who present with complaints of symptomatic myomas. Therefore, they must be familiar with the indications, exclusions, outcome expectations, and complications of UAE in their particular center. When hysterectomy is the only option, UAE should be considered. Appropriate diagnostic testing should ai

  5. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer: optimal treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Cardonick, Elyce

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is diagnosed approximately once per 1,000 pregnancies; most commonly due to the reproductive age of the women, these include breast, cervical, melanoma, thyroid, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma diagnoses. As a single diagnosis, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy. Cancer is expected to complicate pregnancy more often due to the trend for women to delay child bearing to later maternal ages. Delayed first birth is itself a risk factor for breast cancer. Termination of pregnancy has not been shown to afford a survival benefit. While protecting the interests of mother and unborn fetus, breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy with good outcomes for both. Some modification of the protocols used for nonpregnant women with suspicious palpable breast masses is required. This article reviews the challenges for physicians in making the diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy and upon diagnosis, counseling patients about treatment options. The consequences of diagnostic investigations and cancer treatment for the exposed fetus are also addressed. PMID:25395871

  6. How multidrug resistance in typhoid fever affects treatment options.

    PubMed

    Tatavarthy, Aparna; Luna, Vicki A; Amuso, Philip T

    2014-09-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an enteric pathogen that causes typhoid fever. The infection can be severe, with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring antimicrobial therapy. Cases of S. Typhi infection in the United States and other developed countries are often associated with travel to endemic regions. The empirical use of first-line drugs for therapy, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, has resulted in transmissible multidrug resistance. With the global increase in multidrug-resistant S. Typhi, use of ciprofloxacin, with excellent oral absorption, few side effects, and cost-effectiveness, has become popular for treatment. However, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility due to point mutations in the S. Typhi genes gyrA and/or parC has caused treatment failures, necessitating alternative therapeutic options. S. Typhi is typically genetically homogenous, with phylogenetic and epidemiological studies showing that identical clones and diverse S. Typhi types often coexist in the same geographic region. Studies investigating point mutations have demonstrated that selective pressure from empirical use of first-line drugs and fluoroquinolones has led to the global emergence of haplotype H-58. Antibiotic resistance is subject to high selective pressure in S. Typhi and thus demands careful use of antimicrobials. PMID:25069595

  7. Cachexia and pancreatic cancer: are there treatment options?

    PubMed

    Mueller, Tara C; Burmeister, Marc A; Bachmann, Jeannine; Martignoni, Marc E

    2014-07-28

    Cachexia is frequently described in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is associated with reduced survival and quality of life. Unfortunately, the therapeutic options of this multi-factorial and complex syndrome are limited. This is due to the fact that, despite extensive preclinical and clinical research, the underlying pathological mechanisms leading to PDAC-associated cachexia are still not fully understood. Furthermore, there is still a lack of consensus on the definition of cachexia, which complicates the standardization of diagnosis and treatment as well as the analysis of the current literature. In order to provide an efficient therapy for cachexia, an early and reliable diagnosis and consistent monitoring is required, which can be challenging especially in obese patients. Although many substances have been tested in clinical and preclinical settings, so far none of them have been proven to have a long-term effect in ameliorating cancer-associated cachexia. However, recent studies have demonstrated that multidimensional therapeutic modalities are able to alleviate pancreatic cancer-associated cachexia and ultimately improve patients' outcome. In this current review, we propose a stepwise and pragmatic approach to facilitate and standardize the treatment of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients. This strategy consists of nutritional, dietary, pharmacological, physical and psychological methods. PMID:25071331

  8. Piglets born after non-surgical deep intrauterine transfer of vitrified blastocysts in gilts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cuello; F. Berthelot; F. Martinat-Botté; E. Venturi; P. Guillouet; J. M. Vázquez; J. Roca; E. A. Mart??nez

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effect of the number of previous estrus of recipient gilts on effectiveness of intrauterine insertion of a flexible catheter designed for non-surgical deep intrauterine catheterization during diestrus in pigs; and (2) to determine the farrowing rate and the litter size after non-surgical deep intrauterine embryo transfer (ET) of porcine blastocysts

  9. [Surgical treatment options in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Eckel, Hans E; Schröder, Ursula; Jungehülsing, Markus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Markitz, Michael; Raunik, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In Austria, around ten new cases of laryngeal cancer can currently be expected per 100.000 persons each year whereas three out of 100.000 men develope hypopharyngeal cancer. Among women, the incidence in both types of carcinoma is lower by a factor of around 5. All in all, the rate of new cases seems to have been constant or to have slightly decreased in the last few years. Approximately 70% of all laryngeal cancer are glottic cancer, that is to say originating from the vocal cords. About 30% are supraglottic tumours, true subglottic cancers are very rare. The majority of hypopharyngeal tumours originate from the piriform sinuses. Vocal cord tumours lead to a typical symptom that can be early detected: hoarseness. Thus, voice problems in adults that persist for several weeks should therefore always checked by laryngoscopy. This leads to there being a real possibility of early diagnosis of laryngeal cancer, which means that today, approximately 60% of all laryngeal tumours can be diagnosed in stage I or II according to UICC or as intraepithelial lesions (former carcinoma in situ). In glottic cancer about 75% are diagnosed in these early stages, whereas in supraglottic tumours the rate is only about 30% and in hypopharyngeal cancer it is less then 15%. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemo- or immunotherapy are the principal types of oncological treatments currently available. The following conditions generally need to be met for curative surgical treatment options: Local tumour, no systemic metastasis Tumour has to be resectable in healthy margins mortality/morbidity Surgery must not lead to unreasonable mutilation Lack of other therapeutic alternatives having an equal or lesser impact In the following pages, indications for the surgical treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer will be discussed and the results of surgical therapy will be summarised briefly. PMID:18560951

  10. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S M; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  11. Post-traumatic epilepsy: current and emerging treatment options.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Nazzal, Yara; Dreer, Laura E

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to many undesired problems and complications, including immediate and long-term seizures/epilepsy, changes in mood, behavioral, and personality problems, cognitive and motor deficits, movement disorders, and sleep problems. Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with acute TBI need to be aware of a number of issues, including the incidence and prevalence of early seizures and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), comorbidities associated with seizures and anticonvulsant therapies, and factors that can contribute to their emergence. While strong scientific evidence for early seizure prevention in TBI is available for phenytoin (PHT), other antiepileptic medications, eg, levetiracetam (LEV), are also being utilized in clinical settings. The use of PHT has its drawbacks, including cognitive side effects and effects on function recovery. Rates of recovery after TBI are expected to plateau after a certain period of time. Nevertheless, some patients continue to improve while others deteriorate without any clear contributing factors. Thus, one must ask, 'Are there any actions that can be taken to decrease the chance of post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy while minimizing potential short- and long-term effects of anticonvulsants?' While the answer is 'probably,' more evidence is needed to replace PHT with LEV on a permanent basis. Some have proposed studies to address this issue, while others look toward different options, including other anticonvulsants (eg, perampanel or other AMPA antagonists), or less established treatments (eg, ketamine). In this review, we focus on a comparison of the use of PHT versus LEV in the acute TBI setting and summarize the clinical aspects of seizure prevention in humans with appropriate, but general, references to the animal literature. PMID:25143737

  12. Post-traumatic epilepsy: current and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Nazzal, Yara; Dreer, Laura E

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to many undesired problems and complications, including immediate and long-term seizures/epilepsy, changes in mood, behavioral, and personality problems, cognitive and motor deficits, movement disorders, and sleep problems. Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with acute TBI need to be aware of a number of issues, including the incidence and prevalence of early seizures and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), comorbidities associated with seizures and anticonvulsant therapies, and factors that can contribute to their emergence. While strong scientific evidence for early seizure prevention in TBI is available for phenytoin (PHT), other antiepileptic medications, eg, levetiracetam (LEV), are also being utilized in clinical settings. The use of PHT has its drawbacks, including cognitive side effects and effects on function recovery. Rates of recovery after TBI are expected to plateau after a certain period of time. Nevertheless, some patients continue to improve while others deteriorate without any clear contributing factors. Thus, one must ask, ‘Are there any actions that can be taken to decrease the chance of post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy while minimizing potential short- and long-term effects of anticonvulsants?’ While the answer is ‘probably,’ more evidence is needed to replace PHT with LEV on a permanent basis. Some have proposed studies to address this issue, while others look toward different options, including other anticonvulsants (eg, perampanel or other AMPA antagonists), or less established treatments (eg, ketamine). In this review, we focus on a comparison of the use of PHT versus LEV in the acute TBI setting and summarize the clinical aspects of seizure prevention in humans with appropriate, but general, references to the animal literature. PMID:25143737

  13. Treatment options and outcomes for glioblastoma in the elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Arvold, Nils D; Reardon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Age remains the most powerful prognostic factor among glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Half of all patients with GBM are aged 65 years or older at the time of diagnosis, and the incidence rate of GBM in patients aged over 65 years is increasing rapidly. Median survival for elderly GBM patients is less than 6 months and reflects less favorable tumor biologic factors, receipt of less aggressive care, and comorbid disease. The standard of care for elderly GBM patients remains controversial. Based on limited data, extensive resection appears to be more beneficial than biopsy. For patients with favorable Karnofsky performance status (KPS), adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has a demonstrated survival benefit with no observed decrement in quality of life. Concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) along with RT to 60 Gy have not been prospectively studied among patients aged over 70 years but should be considered for patients aged 65–70 years with excellent KPS. Based on the recent NOA-08 and Nordic randomized trials, testing for O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation should be performed routinely immediately after surgery to aid in adjuvant treatment decisions. Patients aged over 70 years with favorable KPS, or patients aged 60–70 years with borderline KPS, should be considered for monotherapy utilizing standard TMZ dosing for patients with MGMT-methylated tumors, and hypofractionated RT (34 Gy in ten fractions or 40 Gy in 15 fractions) for patients with MGMT-unmethylated tumors. The ongoing European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada trial will help clarify the role for concurrent TMZ with hypofractionated RT. For elderly patients with poor KPS, reasonable options include best supportive care, TMZ alone, hypofractionated RT alone, or whole brain RT for symptomatic patients needing to start treatment urgently. Given the balance between short survival and quality of life in this patient population, optimal management of elderly GBM patients must be made individually according to patient age, MGMT methylation status, performance score, and patient preferences. PMID:24591820

  14. A Protocol-Based Decision for Choosing a Proper Surgical Treatment Option for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, E-Wook; Chung, Joonho; Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are two established surgical treatment options for carotid artery stenosis. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been accepted as a gold standard for surgical treatment while carotid artery stenting (CAS) has recently become an alternative option. Each treatment option has advantages and disadvantages for the treatment outcomes. We propose a protocol for selection of a proper surgical treatment option for carotid artery stenosis. Materials and Methods A total of 192 published articles on management of carotid artery stenosis were reviewed. Preoperatively considerable factors which had been repeatedly noted in those articles for the risk/benefits of CEA or CAS were selected. According to those factors, a protocol with four categories was established. Results CEA or CAS is indicated when the patient has a symptomatic stenosis ? 50%, or when the patient has an asymptomatic stenosis ? 80%. Each treatment option has absolute indications and favorable indications. Each absolute indication is scored with three points, and each favorable indication, one point. Based on the highest scores, a proper treatment option (CEA or CAS) is selected. Conclusion We have been treating patients according to this protocol and evaluating the outcomes of our protocol-based decision because this protocol might be helpful in assessment of risk/benefit for selection of a proper surgical treatment option in patients with carotid artery stenosis. PMID:26157689

  15. Effectiveness of a diode laser in addition to non-surgical periodontal therapy: study of intervention

    PubMed Central

    Crispino, Antonio; Figliuzzi, Michele Mario; Iovane, Claudio; DelGiudice, Teresa; Lomanno, Simona; Pacifico, Delfina; Fortunato, Leonzio; Giudice, Roberto Del

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Chronic periodontitis affects 47% of adult population over the age of 30. The first phase of periodontal treatment is always represented by scaling and root planning (SRP), that is a causal, non-surgical therapy that recognizes as primary aims the control of bacterial infection and the reduction of periodontal plaque-associated inflammation. Yet, another innovative causal therapy is represented by the irradiation of periodontal pockets with laser. Aim To evaluate the effect of a 940-nm diode laser as an adjunct to SRP in patients affected by periodontitis. Materials and methods Sixty-eight adult patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis were sequentially enrolled and undergone to periodontal examination (V1) in order to detect gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and probing depth (PD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the first (n=34) received SRP treatment alone, the control group (n=34) received SRP and 940-nm diode laser therapy. Results Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test, with two tails; for all clinical parameters, both groups reported statistically significant differences compared to basal values (p<0.0001). Both procedures were effective in improving GI, PI and PD, but the use of diode laser was associated with more evident results. Conclusions Considered the better clinical outcomes, diode laser can be routinely associated with SRP in the treatment of periodontal pockets of patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis.

  16. Visual Aids for Multimodal Treatment Options to Support Decision Making of Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A variety of multimodal treatment options are available for colorectal cancer and many patients want to be involved in decisions about their therapies. However, their desire for autonomy is limited by lack of disease-specific knowledge. Visual aids may be helpful tools to present complex data in an easy-to-understand, graphic form to lay persons. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment preferences of healthy persons and patients using visual aids depicting multimodal treatment options for colorectal cancer. Methods We designed visual aids for treatment scenarios based on four key studies concerning multimodal treatment of colorectal cancer. The visual aids were composed of diagrams depicting outcome parameters and side effects of two treatment options. They were presented to healthy persons (n?=?265) and to patients with colorectal cancer (n?=?102). Results Most patients and healthy persons could make immediate decisions after seeing the diagrams (range: 88% – 100%). Patients (79%) chose the intensive-treatment option in the scenario with a clear survival benefit. In scenarios without survival benefit, all groups clearly preferred the milder treatment option (range: 78% - 90%). No preference was seen in the scenario depicting equally intense treatment options with different timing (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant) but without survival benefit. Conclusions Healthy persons’ and patients’ decisions using visual aids seem to be influenced by quality-of-life aspects rather than recurrence rates especially in situations without survival benefit. In the future visual aids may help to improve the management of patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:23092310

  17. Patients report more discomfort after surgical endodontic retreatment than non-surgical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey W Hutter

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe any systematic difference between surgical and non-surgical endodontic retreatment of endodontic failures.Design: Randomised controlled trial.Intervention Surgical or non-surgical endodontic retreatment.Outcome measures: Patients recorded pain and swelling each postoperative day for 1 week using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Use of analgesia was also recorded.Results: Ninety-two patients were included in the study. Pain and swelling was significantly higher

  18. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Non-surgical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Mayra G; Cantu, Myrna G; Wilson, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of studies that have evaluated non-surgical approaches for detoxification of implant body surfaces in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate clinical trials on the use of these methodologies for treating peri-implant disease. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed) from 1966 to 2013. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on non-surgical therapy were evaluated. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing; radiographic bone fill and histological re-osseointegration. Results: From 134 articles found 35 were analyzed. The findings, advantages and disadvantages of using lasers as well as mechanical and chemical methods are discussed. Most of the in vivo and human studies used combination therapies which makes determining the efficacy of one specific method difficult. Most human studies are case series with short term longitudinal analysis without survival or failure reports. Conclusion: Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve using these approaches. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Re-osseointegration may be difficult to achieve if not impossible without surgical access to ensure thorough debridement of the defect and detoxification of the implant surface. Combination protocols for non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical results but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed. PMID:24894571

  19. Potential treatment options and future research to increase hepatitis C virus treatment response rate

    PubMed Central

    TenCate, Veronica; Sainz, Bruno; Cotler, Scott J; Uprichard, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a liver-tropic blood-borne pathogen that affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Although acute infections are usually asymptomatic, up to 90% of HCV infections persist with the possibility of long-term consequences such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, steatosis, insulin resistance, or hepatocellular carcinoma. As such, HCV-associated liver disease is a major public health concern. Although the currently available standard of care therapy of pegylated interferon ? plus ribavirin successfully treats infection in a subset of patients, the development of more effective, less toxic HCV antivirals is a health care imperative. This review not only discusses the limitations of the current HCV standard of care but also evaluates upcoming HCV treatment options and how current research elucidating the viral life cycle is facilitating the development of HCV-specific therapeutics that promise to greatly improve treatment response rates both before and after liver transplantation. PMID:21331152

  20. Non-surgical collections of Addax nasamaculatus embryos

    E-print Network

    Monk, Patricia Kay

    1990-01-01

    stock possible in captivity. The AirfI'enere National Nature Reserve in Niger is the target area for reintroduc- tion. A large limited access area of the reserve has also been set aside for preserving the existing animals. For this reason.... and Magin, C. (1989): Addax in Niger: Distribution, Status and Conservation Options. presented to the Desert Antelope Workshop in San Antonio, Texas. Screi, S. (1989): Addax, Addax nasomaculatus hippotraginae. presented as a docent animal training guide...

  1. Anterior Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Diverse Disease with Evolving Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Zebala, Lukas P; Schoenecker, Perry L; Clohisy, John C

    2007-01-01

    Anterior femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a major etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of hip arthritis. In this condition, mechanical abnormalities of the hip joint lead to early hip dysfunction, inflammation, cartilage injury, and eventual joint degradation. FAI is now more commonly diagnosed and there is an increasing need for a thorough understanding of the broad spectrum of clinical presentation for the disease as well as more precise definition of the possible surgical options. PMID:17907434

  2. Treatment Options for Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nurse specialist . Rehabilitation specialist . Psychologist . Social worker . Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ... Some publications provide information on tests for cancer, cancer causes and prevention, cancer statistics, and NCI research activities. ...

  3. Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

    2012-11-01

    Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

  4. New treatment options for immune-mediated hematological disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daan Dierickx; Anja De Rycke; Steven Vanderschueren; André Delannoy

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with monoclonal antibodies and small molecules in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Clinical observations have shown that some of these molecules may also aid in the treatment of immune-mediated hematological disorders. Moreover, immunotherapy has become an important treatment cornerstone in other, non-hematological, auto-immune diseases. This

  5. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Mels

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainabilityMost of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are based on the activated sludge process and include nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Physical-chemical pretreatment might be an option to improve the environmental sustainability of these wastewater treatment facilities. Physical-chemical pretreatment is meant to

  6. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic inflammatory response. Successful treatment requires adherence to a regime that is uncomfortable at best and at worst painful. Topical treatments can be successful in motivated adherent patients willing to accept these side effects. PMID:23788834

  7. Current and emerging treatment options in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elias Jabbour; Jorge E. Cortes; Francis J. Giles; Susan O'Brien; Hagop M. Kantarjian

    2007-01-01

    Treatments for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) represent a success story in mo- lecular medicine. The development of imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeted against the causative Bcr-Abl oncoprotein in CML, has resulted in hema- tologic and cytogenetic remissions in all phases of CML. A significant proportion of patients are resistant to imatinib or develop resistance during treatment. This is

  8. Treatment Options by Type of Adult Brain Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A clinical trial of a new treatment. To Learn More About Adult Brain Tumors For more information from the National ... regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial ... what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific ...

  9. Transdermal estradiol for postpartum depression: A promising treatment option

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L.; Berga, Sarah L.; Kalro, Brinda; Sit, Dorothy K.Y.; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of childbirth and affects one out of seven childbearing women. While conventional pharmacological and psychotherapeutic antidepressant treatments are effective for PPD, a natural alternative may be preferred by postpartum women, especially those who breastfeed their infants. The treatment of PPD with synthetic forms of naturally occurring estrogen is mechanistically appealing because PPD occurs in the context of estrogen withdrawal at parturition. Preliminary evidence suggests that PPD is a disorder of hormone-related mood dysregulation (similar to perimenopausal depression) that can be effectively treated with estrogen. This review provides the basic science and clinical background as well as safety considerations to support the application of transdermal estradiol as a treatment for PPD. We conclude that estradiol treatment for PPD requires confirmation of efficacy in a randomized clinical trial prior to routine clinical use as monotherapy. Additional data regarding maternal tolerability of cyclic progestins, long-term safety of estradiol treatment, estradiol passage into breastmilk and infants, and interdisciplinary collaboration among psychiatrists and gynecologists is also needed before estradiol is used in women who decline or fail to respond to first-line antidepressant treatments, or as an augmentation of conventional antidepressant treatment. PMID:19661765

  10. Therapeutic Options in the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma: Pharmacoeconomic and Quality-of-Life Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Finn Wisloff; Nina Gulbrandsen; Erik Nord

    1999-01-01

    A review of current treatment options in multiple myeloma is presented, including data on health-related quality of life and pharmacoeconomics. For induction chemotherapy, no combination of cytostatic drugs has been shown to be consistently superior to the simple cyclic oral treatment with melphalan and prednisone that has been available for 30 years. The total resource consumption and direct costs per

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... small number of these change into cancer. Midline granulomas: Cancer of tissues in the middle part of ... or without radiation therapy and chemotherapy . For midline granuloma, treatment is usually radiation therapy. Check for U.S. ...

  12. Restless legs syndrome: an update on treatment options.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Anthony H V

    2004-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) was first described in 1672 but it is only recently that this disorder has attracted attention in defining its phenotype, and identifying its aetiology, pathogenesis and pharmacological treatment. RLS can be divided into primary (idiopathic) and secondary forms. RLS is common, affecting 5-15% of the total population and manifesting at any age from childhood to late adulthood. Prevalence tends to increase with patient age and there may be geographic variation. There is a clear genetic contribution to primary RLS and evidence for dopaminergic dysfunction. Although not all patients with RLS require medication, there can be a substantial reduction in the patient's quality of life related to pain, poor sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness. A variety of medications are now available for the symptomatic treatment of RLS. Dopaminergic therapy is currently the treatment of choice, usually initiated with a long-acting dopamine agonist, thereby avoiding some of the complications associated with levodopa. Anticonvulsants may be used as second-line treatment. Levodopa should be reserved for those patients who fail to respond to alternative medications because of the high risk of inducing augmentation. Hypnosedatives also have a role in RLS management. Patients with intractable RLS may require combination treatment. Several systemic disorders can cause RLS, and these should be identified and treated appropriately. PMID:14717617

  13. Treatment options for hypertriglyceridemia: from risk reduction to pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Lars; Brunzell, John D.; Goldberg, Anne C.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Stalenhoef, Anton

    2013-01-01

    While there has been considerable focus on the role and treatment of LDL cholesterol levels, a definitive role of triglycerides in the management of cardiovascular disease has been uncertain. Notably, with increasing triglyceride levels, there is a parallel increase in cholesterol levels carried by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, which has prompted interest in the use of non-HDL cholesterol levels as a tool guiding interventions. Recent studies have provided evidence for an independent role of triglyceride levels as a cardiovascular risk factor, and recently, an Endocrine Society guideline was published for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast to the relative uncertainty regarding triglycerides and cardiovascular disease, a role of very high triglyceride levels as a risk factor for pancreatitis has been well known. The present paper summarizes the underlying evidence for a risk role for triglyceride levels in cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis, current treatment recommendations and areas of future research. PMID:24840268

  14. Relapsed small cell lung cancer: treatment options and latest developments

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Norihiro; Yamaguchi, Etsuro; Kubo, Akihito

    2014-01-01

    According to recent analyses, there was a modest yet significant improvement in median survival time and 5-year survival rate of limited stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in North America, Europe, Japan and other countries over the last 30 years. The median survival time of limited stage SCLC is 15–20 months and 5-year survival rate is 15% or less. In terms of extensive stage SCLC, a median survival time of 9.4–12.8 months and 2-year survival of 5.2–19.5% are still disappointing. Despite being highly sensitive to first-line chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments, most patients with SCLC experience relapse within 2 years and die from systemic metastasis. While several clinical trials of cytotoxic chemotherapies and molecular targeting agents have been investigated in the treatment of relapsed SCLC, none showed a significant clinical activity to be able to exceed topotecan as second-line chemotherapy. There are problematic issues to address for relapsed SCLC, such as standardizing the treatment for third-line chemotherapy. Topotecan alone was the first approved therapy for second-line treatment for relapsed SCLC. Amrubicin is a promising drug and a variety of trials evaluating its efficacy have been carried out. Amrubicin has shown superiority to topotecan in a Japanese population, but was not superior in a study of western patients. There are some controversial issues for relapsed SCLC, such as treatment for older patients, third-line chemotherapy and efficacy of molecular targeting therapy. This article reviews current standard treatment, recent clinical trials and other topics on relapsed SCLC. PMID:24587832

  15. Treatment of autoimmune liver disease: current and future therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Palak J.

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease spans three predominant processes, from the interface hepatitis of autoimmune hepatitis to the lymphocytic cholangitis of primary biliary cirrhosis, and finally the obstructive fibrosing sclerotic cholangiopathy of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although all autoimmune in origin, they differ in their epidemiology, presentation and response to immunosuppressive therapy and bile acid based treatments. With an ongoing better appreciation of disease aetiology and pathogenesis, treatment is set ultimately to become more rational. We provide an overview of current and future therapies for patients with autoimmune liver disease, with an emphasis placed on some of the evidence that drives current practice. PMID:23634279

  16. Rapid cycling bipolar disorder: clinical characteristics and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Coryell, William

    2005-01-01

    Approximately one of six patients who seek treatment for bipolar disorder present with a rapid cycling pattern. In comparison with other patients who have bipolar disorder, these individuals experience more affective morbidity in both the immediate and distant future and are more likely to experience recurrences despite treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants. Particular care should be given to distinguishing rapid cycling bipolar disorder from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children or adolescents and from borderline personality disorder in adults. Perhaps four of five cases of rapid cycling resolve within a year, but the pattern may persist for many years in the remaining patients. As with bipolar disorder in general, depressive symptoms produce the most morbidity over time. Controlled studies have not established that antidepressants provoke switching or rapid cycling, but neither have they been shown consistently to have benefits in bipolar illness. Successful management will often require a sequence of trials with mood stabilizer drugs, beginning with lithium in treatment-naive patients. Efforts to minimise adverse effects, and the recognition that full benefits may not be apparent for several months, will make the premature abandonment of a potentially helpful treatment less likely. Placebo-controlled studies so far provide the most support for the use of lithium and lamotrigine as prophylactic agents. The combination of lithium and carbamazepine, valproate or lamotrigine for maintenance has some support from controlled studies, as does the adjunctive use of olanzapine. PMID:15984894

  17. When indomethacin fails: additional treatment options for "indomethacin responsive headaches".

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuhan; McGeeney, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Indomethacin has been used for the treatment of headache disorders since the 1960's, shortly after it was introduced as a treatment for pain and joint swelling in rheumatologic conditions. A subgroup of primary headache disorders, often refractory to other pharmacologic treatment such as triptans and the usual non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, was noted to be exquisitely and absolutely responsive to the analgesic effects of indomethacin. These disorders have been better characterized over the past decade and classified into primary headache disorders of paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) and hemicrania continua (HC). Since the current ICHD-3 beta requires response to indomethacin as a diagnostic criterion, studies on alternative treatments in HC and PH generally occur in patients with intolerance to its gastro-intestinal side effects rather than loss of analgesia effectiveness. More rarely, the development of new headaches have been reported in chronic indomethacin use. In these settings, other classes of medications such as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (celecoxib), anti-epileptic agents (topiramate), calcium channel blockers (verapamil, flunarizine), melatonin, and local nerve blocks with anesthetic and steroids have been shown to be effective in case reports and series. We review the literature and provide our clinical recommendations on alternative therapies for the "indomethacin-responsive headaches". PMID:25754595

  18. Managing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: pharmacological treatment options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Lang

    2009-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening condition in which organised thrombi obstruct the pulmonary vessels, causing increased pulmonary vascular resistance, progressive pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right heart failure. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy, which restores pulmonary haemodynamics with acceptable periprocedural mortality rates in the majority of suitable patients. However, CTEPH may be inoperable owing to surgically

  19. New treatment options for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Hesketh

    2004-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of effective, convenient, and well-tolerated means to prevent nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (CINV). Nevertheless, a substantial minority of patients continues to have suboptimal antiemetic control, and additional treatment approaches are needed. One avenue of investigation being pursued involves the evaluation of a new 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist (palonosetron) that

  20. Current clinical outcomes demand new treatment options for SCCHN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-L. Lefebvre

    2005-01-01

    Head and neck cancer can be a devastating disease. The mainstays of treatment for early stage disease are either radiotherapy or surgery. However, although disease responds well at this stage, the risk of a second primary cancer is high, with a development rate of about 4% per year. Advanced diseases are treated either by surgery with postoperative radiotherapy or by

  1. Prognostic factors and treatment options for paediatric ependymomas.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, K; Smee, R; Williams, Janet R

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine factors of prognostic relevance for paediatric ependymomas, and evaluate the efficacy of treatment modalities. This is a retrospective study of 43 patients with ependymoma (<18 years) who underwent a combination of surgical excision, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy treatment at The Prince of Wales Cancer Centre between 1969 and 2009. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the prognostic relevance of various parameters affecting the two-year and five-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The five-year OS and PFS were 50.3% and 44.8% respectively (median follow-up 50 months). Eighteen patients (41.9%) experienced tumour recurrence: 13 had a local recurrence (LR) and five had both LR and distant recurrence. On univariate analysis, a more favourable prognosis in terms of both OS and PFS was evident for supratentorial tumours compared to infratentorial tumours (OS p=0.007, PFS p=0.045), stereotactic radiosurgery/ fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy compared to craniospinal irradiation or local posterior fossa/local brain±boost radiotherapy modalities (OS p=0.047, PFS p=0.031), total radiotherapy dose >50 Gy compared to ?50 Gy (OS p=0.008, PFS p=0.005), and in patients with no tumour recurrence compared to those with recurrence (OS p=0.03, PFS p<0.001). Although not statistically significant, a more favourable multivariate outcome was evident in patients who underwent complete surgical resection. Chemotherapy treatment and histopathological grade, however, were not relevant to prognosis. This study supports the need to pursue more aggressive treatment for infratentorial and/or recurrent tumours. Ideal treatment involves maximal surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (>50 Gy). PMID:22840355

  2. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Bridge: A Treatment Option in Children

    PubMed Central

    Yelluri, Rama Krishna; Munshi, AK

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A number of treatment options, ranging from Maryland bridges to implants, are available for the replacement of congenitally or traumatically missing permanent anterior teeth. But, there are several limitations of these therapeutic options when they have to be used before the completion of the growth, particularly in children. Reinforcement of composite resins with polyethylene fibers significantly improves their mechanical properties. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) bridge can offer a good alternative to conventional treatment options in replacing a missing permanent anterior tooth until a more definitive prosthesis can be provided at the end of the growth period. The purpose of this article is to present a clinical case of a single tooth replacement utilizing noninvasive and metal free fixed FRC bridge in a 13 years old child as an interim treatment option. How to cite this article: Gupta A, Yelluri RK, Munshi AK. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Bridge: A Treatment Option in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):62-65.

  3. Medical and surgical options in the treatment of severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Barry L; Schauer, Philip

    2002-12-01

    Weight loss programs, diets, and drug therapy have not shown long-term effectiveness in treating morbid obesity. A 1992 statement from the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference affirmed the superiority of surgical over nonsurgical approaches to this condition. Bariatric surgical procedures work in 1 of 2 ways: by restricting a patient's ability to eat (restrictive procedures) or by interfering with ingested nutrient absorption (malabsorptive procedures). Many of these procedures can be performed by a laparoscopic approach, which has been shown to reduce operative morbidity. In the United States, the primary operative choice for morbidly obese patients has recently shifted from vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). VBG, a purely restrictive procedure, has fallen into disfavor because of inadequate long-term weight loss. RYGBP combines restriction and malabsorption principles, and has been shown to induce greater weight loss than VBG. Other procedures currently being offered include laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding; biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), including the duodenal switch (BPD-DS) variation; and distal gastric bypass (DGBP). Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding with the LAP-BAND system (INAMED Health, Santa Barbara, CA), a restrictive procedure involving placement of a silicone band around the upper stomach, was introduced in the early 1990s and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States in June 2001. Outside the United States, LAP-BAND surgery is the most commonly performed operation for severe obesity. The BPD, BPD-DS, and DGBP are all malabsorptive procedures offered primarily by laparotomy. They have been shown to induce good long-term weight loss but have a higher rate of adverse nutritional complications. Many safe and effective surgical options for severe obesity are available. More scientific appraisals comparing different procedures and open and laparoscopic approaches are needed. PMID:12527344

  4. Patellofemoral pain: an update on diagnostic and treatment options.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Moira M; Strickland, Sabrina M

    2013-06-01

    Patellofemoral pain is a frequent and often challenging clinical problem. It affects females more than males and includes many different pathologic entities that result in pain in the anterior aspect of the knee. Diagnosis of the specific cause of pain can be difficult and requires assessment of lower extremity strength, alignment, and range of motion, as well as specific patella alignment, tracking, and mobility. The treatment for patellofemoral pain is usually conservative with anti-inflammatory medications, activity modification, and a specific physical therapy program focusing on strengthening and flexibility. Infrequently, surgical treatment may be indicated after a non-operative program fails. The outcomes of surgical management may include debridement, lateral release, and realignment of the extensor mechanism to unload the patellofemoral articulation are favorable. PMID:23456237

  5. Treatment options for tank farms long-length contaminated equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, W.S.

    1995-10-16

    This study evaluated a variety of treatment and disposal technologies for mixed waste (MW) meeting the following criteria: 1. Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank System (tank farms) equipment and other debris; 2. length greater than 12 feet; and contaminated with listed MW from the tank farms. This waste stream, commonly referred to as tank farms long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE), poses a unique and costly set of challenges during all phases of the waste management lifecycle.

  6. Biological treatment options for consolidated tailings release waters

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, C.P.; Nix, P.G.; Sander, B. [EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Knezevic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Suncor Inc., Oil Sands Group, operates a large oil sands mining and extraction operation in northeastern Alberta. The extraction plant produces large volumes of a tailings slurry which resists dewatering and treatment, and is toxic to aquatic organisms. Consolidated tailings (CT) technology is used to treat tailings by either acid/lime or gypsum and enhances the possibility of treating residual fine tails in a ``dry`` land reclamation scenario and treating the release water in a wastewater treatment reclamation scenario. The objective was to assess the treatability of CT release water (i.e., the reduction of acute and chronic toxicities to trout, Ceriodaphnia, and bacteria) in bench-scale biological treatment systems. Microtox{reg_sign} IC20 test showed complete detoxification for the gypsum CT release water within 3 to 5 weeks compared with little reduction in toxicity for dyke drainage. Acute toxicity (fish) and chronic toxicity (Ceriodaphnia, bacterial) was removed from both CT release waters. Phosphate and aeration enhanced detoxification rates. Concentrations of naphthenic acids (an organic toxicant) were not reduced, but levels of dissolved organic compounds decreased faster than was the case for dyke drainage water, indicating that some of the organic compounds in both acid/lime and gypsum CT waters were more biodegradable. There was a pattern of increasing toxicity for dyke drainage water which confirmed observations during field-scale testing in the constructed wetlands and which was not observed for CT release waters. Acid/lime and gypsum CT water can be treated biologically in either an aeration pond, constructed wetlands, or a combination of both thereby avoiding the expense of long-term storage and/or conventional waste treatment systems.

  7. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hom-Ti Lee; W. D. Bostick

    1996-01-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage\\/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCOâ and is contaminated by low levels of ⁹°Sr and ¹³⁷Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave

  8. Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Patients with Relapsed Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Roberto; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Orofino, Nicola; Losurdo, Agnese; Gandolfi, Sara; Cugno, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic disorder. It results from proliferation of clonal plasma cells in bone marrow with production of monoclonal proteins, which are detectable in serum or urine. MM is clinically characterized by destructive bone lesions, anemia, hypercalcemia and renal insufficiency. Its prognosis is severe, with a median survival after diagnosis of approximately 3 years due to frequent relapses. Treatments for patients with relapsed/refractory MM include hematopoietic cell transplantation, a rechallenge using a previous chemotherapy regimen or a trial of a new regimen. The introduction of new drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib has markedly improved MM outcomes. When relapse occurs, the clinician’s challenge is to select the optimal treatment for each patient while balancing efficacy and toxicity. Patients with indolent relapse can be first treated with a 2-drug or a 3-drug combination. Patients with more aggressive relapse often require therapy with a combination of multiple active agents. Autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered as salvage therapy at first relapse for patients who have cryopreserved stem cells early in the disease course. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the pharmacological and molecular action of treatments used for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. PMID:24179412

  9. Sepsis-induced immunoparalysis: mechanisms, markers, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Hamers, L; Kox, M; Pickkers, P

    2015-04-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the ICU. Considering the key role of the immune system in sepsis, immunomodulation represents an attractive target for adjunctive therapy. Until recently, clinical trials focused on suppression of the immune system, but this approach failed to improve sepsis outcome. Recent advances in the understanding of sepsis have led to the view that not the initial hyperinflammatory state, but rather a profoundly suppressed state of the immune system, called sepsis-induced immunoparalysis, accounts for the majority of sepsis-related deaths. Immunoparalysis results in ineffective clearance of septic foci, and renders the septic patient more vulnerable to secondary infections, as well as reactivation of latent infections. Several mechanisms behind immunoparalysis have been recognised. Furthermore, due to recognition of the importance of immunoparalysis, immunostimulatory treatment is emerging as a possible adjunctive treatment for sepsis. As such, identification of patients suffering from immunoparalysis using biomarkers is of utmost importance to guide immunostimulatory treatment. In this review, an short overview of the concept of immunoparalysis is presented, while the main focus is on potential biological markers of immunoparalysis and promising immunostimulatory therapeutic agents. The challenging heterogeneity of septic patients in respect to immunomodulatory advances will be discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:24878876

  10. Neural tube defects: review of experimental evidence on stem cell therapy and newer treatment options.

    PubMed

    Dhaulakhandi, Dhara B; Rohilla, Seema; Rattan, Kamal Nain

    2010-01-01

    The failure of closure of the neural tube during development leads to malformations called neural tube defects (NTDs). The most common neural malformations in humans include anencephaly, encephalocele, exencephaly, craniorachischisis spina bifida with or without myelomeningocele, lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele and myelocystocele. Current preventive strategies are mainly based on pharmacologic/folic acid supplementation. However, stem cell-based and other combination approaches may emerge as potential treatment options for NTDs. This review provides an account of experimental evidence on stem cell therapy and newer treatment options for NTDs which have become available in recent years. PMID:20689263

  11. Unmet needs of patients with narcolepsy: perspectives on emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Dariusz R; Quinnell, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    The treatment options currently available for narcolepsy are often unsatisfactory due to suboptimal efficacy, troublesome side effects, development of drug tolerance, and inconvenience. Our understanding of the neurobiology of narcolepsy has greatly improved over the last decade. This knowledge has not yet translated into additional therapeutic options for patients, but progress is being made. Some compounds, such as histaminergic H3 receptor antagonists, may prove useful in symptom control of narcolepsy. The prospect of finding a cure still seems distant, but hypocretin replacement therapy offers some promise. In this narrative review, we describe these developments and others which may yield more effective narcolepsy treatments in the future. PMID:26045680

  12. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L; Walker, Jennifer N; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778

  13. Current and future systemic treatment options in metastatic pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Cagatay

    2014-01-01

    Although pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer death, only modest improvement has been observed in the past two decades, single agent gemcitabine has been the only standard treatment in patients with advanced disease. Recently newer agents such as nab-paclitaxel, nimotuzumab and regimens such as FOLFIRINOX have been shown to have promising activity being superior to gemcitabine as a single agent. With better understanding of tumour biology coupled with the improvements in targeted and immunotherapies, there is increasing expectation for better response rates and extended survival in pancreatic cancer. PMID:25083302

  14. Obesity: An overview on its current perspectives and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Nammi, Srinivas; Koka, Saisudha; Chinnala, Krishna M; Boini, Krishna M

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder, which is often associated with many other significant diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis and certain cancers. The management of obesity will therefore require a comprehensive range of strategies focussing on those with existing weight problems and also on those at high risk of developing obesity. Hence, prevention of obesity during childhood should be considered a priority, as there is a risk of persistence to adulthood. This article highlights various preventive aspects and treatment procedures of obesity with special emphasis on the latest research manifolds. PMID:15084221

  15. Treatment options for chronic idiopathic (immune) thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    George, J N

    2000-01-01

    The goal of treatment for idiopathic (immune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is to prevent serious bleeding. Traditionally, corticosteroids have been used as first-line therapy followed by splenectomy. Experience with splenectomy over 60 years shows that approximately two thirds of patients achieve normal platelet counts during the initial observation, but that thrombocytopenia often recurs with longer follow-up. We know that long-term use of corticosteroids can lead to significant morbidities; there is no consensus regarding the appropriate timing or indications for splenectomy. To address the Issue of appropriate use of splenectomy, we designed a multicenter clinical trial that will randomize patients to either standard care, involving prednisone followed by splenectomy, or to a novel regimen of limited prednisone treatment followed by WinRho SDF (Nabi, Boca Raton, FL) (anti-D) therapy to maintain the platelet count in a safe range for 1 year. Anti-D can be administered easily in an outpatient setting with few side effects and can provide predictable, transient increases in platelet count. The hypothesis is that prolonged maintenance therapy with a nontoxic regimen may increase the percentage of patients who will experience a spontaneous remission from thrombocytopenia, thereby avoiding an invasive and permanent surgical procedure, splenectomy, and its potentially life-threatening sequelae. PMID:10676922

  16. Dosimetric Study of Current Treatment Options for Radiotherapy in Retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Eldebawy, Eman [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Children's Cancer Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Parker, William, E-mail: william.parker@mcgill.ca [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Abdel Rahman, Wamied [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Freeman, Carolyn R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the best treatment technique for patients with retinoblastoma requiring radiotherapy to the whole eye. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for 3 patients with retinoblastoma were developed using 10 radiotherapy techniques including electron beams, photon beam wedge pair (WP), photon beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), photon volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and helical tomotherapy (HT). Dose-volume analyses were carried out for each technique. Results: All techniques provided similar target coverage; conformity was highest for VMAT, nine-field (9F) IMRT, and HT (conformity index [CI] = 1.3) and lowest for the WP and two electron techniques (CI = 1.8). The electron techniques had the highest planning target volume dose gradient (131% of maximum dose received [D{sub max}]), and the CRT techniques had the lowest (103% D{sub max}) gradient. The volume receiving at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20Gy}) for the ipsilateral bony orbit was lowest for the VMAT and HT techniques (56%) and highest for the CRT techniques (90%). Generally, the electron beam techniques were superior in terms of brain sparing and delivered approximately one-third of the integral dose of the photon techniques. Conclusions: Inverse planned image-guided radiotherapy delivered using HT or VMAT gives better conformity index, improved orbital bone and brain sparing, and a lower integral dose than other techniques.

  17. Non-pharmacological treatment options for refractory epilepsy: an overview of human treatment modalities and their potential utility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Martlé, Valentine; Van Ham, Luc; Raedt, Robrecht; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul; Bhatti, Sofie

    2014-03-01

    Refractory epilepsy is a common disorder both in humans and dogs and treatment protocols are difficult to optimise. In humans, different non-pharmacological treatment modalities currently available include surgery, the ketogenic diet and neurostimulation. Surgery leads to freedom from seizures in 50-75% of patients, but requires strict patient selection. The ketogenic diet is indicated in severe childhood epilepsies, but efficacy is limited and long-term compliance can be problematic. In the past decade, various types of neurostimulation have emerged as promising treatment modalities for humans with refractory epilepsy. Currently, none of these treatment options are used in routine daily clinical practice to treat dogs with the condition. Since many dogs with poorly controlled seizures do not survive, the search for alternative treatment options for canine refractory epilepsy should be prioritised. This review provides an overview of non-pharmacological treatment options for human refractory epilepsy. The current knowledge and limitations of these treatments in canine refractory epilepsy is also discussed. PMID:24309438

  18. Exsanguination in trauma: A review of diagnostics and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Geeraedts, L M G; Kaasjager, H A H; van Vugt, A B; Frölke, J P M

    2009-01-01

    Trauma patients with haemorrhagic shock who only transiently respond or do not respond to fluid therapy and/or the administration of blood products have exsanguinating injuries. Recognising shock due to (exsanguinating) haemorrhage in trauma is about constructing a synthesis of trauma mechanism, injuries, vital signs and the therapeutic response of the patient. The aim of prehospital care of bleeding trauma patients is to deliver the patient to a facility for definitive care within the shortest amount of time by rapid transport and minimise therapy to what is necessary to maintain adequate vital signs. Rapid decisions have to be made using regional trauma triage protocols that have incorporated patient condition, transport times and the level of care than can be performed by the prehospital care providers and the receiving hospitals. The treatment of bleeding patients is aimed at two major goals: stopping the bleeding and restoration of the blood volume. Fluid resuscitation should allow for preservation of vital functions without increasing the risk for further (re)bleeding. To prevent further deterioration and subsequent exsanguinations 'permissive hypotension' may be the goal to achieve. Within the hospital, a sound trauma team activation system, including the logistic procedure as well as activation criteria, is essential for a fast and adequate response. After determination of haemorrhagic shock, all efforts have to be directed to stop the bleeding in order to prevent exsanguinations. A simultaneous effort is made to restore blood volume and correct coagulation. Reversal of coagulopathy with pharmacotherapeutic interventions may be a promising concept to limit blood loss after trauma. Abdominal ultrasound has replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage for detection of haemoperitoneum. With the development of sliding-gantry based computer tomography diagnostic systems, rapid evaluation by CT-scanning of the trauma patient is possible during resuscitation. The concept of damage control surgery, the staged approach in treatment of severe trauma, has proven to be of vital importance in the treatment of exsanguinating trauma patients and is adopted worldwide. When performing 'blind' transfusion or 'damage control resuscitation', a predetermined fixed ratio of blood components may result in the administration of higher plasma and platelets doses and may improve outcome. The role of thromboelastography and thromboelastometry as point-of-care tests for coagulation in massive blood loss is emerging, providing information about actual clot formation and clot stability, shortly (10min) after the blood sample is taken. Thus, therapy guided by the test results will allow for administration of specific coagulation factors that will be depleted despite administration with fresh frozen plasma during massive transfusion of blood components. PMID:19135193

  19. New treatment options in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    Most of the updates in the 2015 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer center on the systemic therapy front, with a host of newer agents in the mix. At the NCCN 20th Annual Conference, Dr. Andrew J. Armstrong discussed some of the key developments in metastatic castration-resistant and castration-sensitive prostate cancer, particularly the conflicting results on repurposing docetaxel in castration-sensitive disease, the specific population who may experience greater survival benefit from immunotherapy in castration-resistant disease, updated data on the use of androgen receptor and biosynthesis inhibitors, and the emerging role of AR-V7 (androgen-receptor splice variant 7 messenger RNA) as a biomarker of treatment response. PMID:25995432

  20. Current Treatment Options for Severe Clostridium difficile–associated Disease

    PubMed Central

    Surawicz, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    A notable trend toward severe Clostridium difficile colitis and poor outcomes has emerged since recognition of the hyper-virulent C. difficile NAP1/027 strain. This trend has increased the emphasis on appropriate treatment regimens in refractory cases of C. difficile infection. In mild-to-moderate cases, oral metronidazole remains adequate first-line therapy, but in the absence of a good clinical response, switching to vancomycin may be necessary. Oral vancomycin should be used as initial therapy in severely ill patients or patients who cannot tolerate metronidazole. Rectal administration of vancomycin may be used as adjunctive therapy for severely ill patients. Patients with an ileus who cannot tolerate oral medications may improve with adjunct intravenous metronidazole and/or rectal vancomycin. Early surgical consultation should be requested, as some patients will require emergent colectomy. The shifting landscape of C. difficile infection has undermined our complacency regarding this long-recognized disease. PMID:21904490

  1. The Androgen-Deficient Aging Male: Current Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Tenover, J. Lisa

    2003-01-01

    All delivery forms of testosterone should be equally efficacious in treating the androgen-deficient aging male if adequate serum testosterone levels are obtained. The testosterone preparations available in North America include the oral undecanoate, injectable testosterone esters, the scrotal patch, the nonscrotal transdermal patch, and the transdermal gels. Selection of a specific testosterone preparation for replacement therapy depends on many factors, including the magnitude and pattern of serum testosterone levels produced, side effects of the particular formulation, reversibility if an adverse event should occur, convenience of use, cosmetic issues related to the preparation, and cost. In addition, potential adverse effects of testosterone therapy applicable to all forms of testosterone delivery, such as fluid retention, gynecomastia, polycythemia, worsening of sleep apnea, change in cardiovascular-disease risk, or alterations in prostate health, need to be considered both prior to therapy and during treatment monitoring. PMID:16985939

  2. Contemporary treatment options for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Salhofer-Polanyi, S; Leutmezer, F

    2014-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, encompassing both neuroinflammatory as well as prominent neurodegenerative aspects. A significant proportion of MS patients will develop neurological disability over time and up until recently licensed drugs could not satisfactorily halt this process. However, in the last years MS treatment has raised a stage of rapid progress. Several new drugs with significantly improved efficacy have entered the therapeutic field and several others are currently undergoing phase III clinical trials. In this review, we will summarize efficacy data as well as safety and tolerability issues of currently licensed drugs for relapsing-remitting MS and will give a short update on new drugs currently undergoing late-stage clinical trials. PMID:24918837

  3. Oral antihyperglycemic treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brietzke, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Table 3 provides an overview of the oral antihyperglycemic drugs reviewed in this article. A 2011 meta-analysis by Bennett and colleagues found low or insufficient quality of evidence favoring an initial choice of metformin, SUs, glinides, TZDs, or (table see text) DPP-4 inhibitors (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, bromocriptine mesylate, and SGLT2 inhibitors were not included in this meta-analysis) with regard to the outcomes measures of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and mortality, and incidence of microvascular disease (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) in previously healthy individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM. Likewise, the Bennett and colleagues meta-analysis judged these drugs to be of roughly equal efficacy with regard to reduction of HbA1c (1%–1.6%) from the pretreatment baseline. The ADOPT clinical trial of 3 different and, at the time, popular, oral monotherapies for T2DM provides support for the consensus recommendation of metformin as first-line therapy. The ADOPT trial showed slightly superior HbA1c reduction for rosiglitazone compared with metformin, which was in turn superior to glyburide. However, significant adverse events, including edema, weight gain, and fractures, were more common in the rosiglitazone-treated patients. The implication of this trial is that the combination of low cost, low risk, minimal adverse effects, and efficacy of metformin justifies use of this agent as the cornerstone of oral drug treatment of T2DM. Judicious use of metformin in groups formerly thought to be at high risk for lactic acidosis (ie, those with CHF, chronic kidney disease [eGFR >30 mL/min/1.73 m2], and the elderly) may be associated with mortality benefit rather than increased risk. Secondary and tertiary add-on drug therapy should be individualized based on cost, personal preferences, and overall treatment goals, taking into account the wishes and priorities of the patient. PMID:25456645

  4. Current management of fecal incontinence: Choosing amongst treatment options to optimize outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Van Koughnett, Julie Ann M; Wexner, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    The severity of fecal incontinence widely varies and can have dramatic devastating impacts on a person’s life. Fecal incontinence is common, though it is often under-reported by patients. In addition to standard treatment options, new treatments have been developed during the past decade to attempt to effectively treat fecal incontinence with minimal morbidity. Non-operative treatments include dietary modifications, medications, and biofeedback therapy. Currently used surgical treatments include repair (sphincteroplasty), stimulation (sacral nerve stimulation or posterior tibial nerve stimulation), replacement (artificial bowel sphincter or muscle transposition) and diversion (stoma formation). Newer augmentation treatments such as radiofrequency energy delivery and injectable materials, are minimally invasive tools that may be good options before proceeding to surgery in some patients with mild fecal incontinence. In general, more invasive surgical treatments are now reserved for moderate to severe fecal incontinence. Functional and quality of life related outcomes, as well as potential complications of the treatment must be considered and the treatment of fecal incontinence must be individualized to the patient. General indications, techniques, and outcomes profiles for the various treatments of fecal incontinence are discussed in detail. Choosing the most effective treatment for the individual patient is essential to achieve optimal outcomes in the treatment of fecal incontinence. PMID:24409050

  5. Severe alcoholic hepatitis-current concepts, diagnosis and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won; Kim, Dong Joon

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic manifestation occurring from heavy alcohol ingestion. Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is histologically characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. Despite the wide range of severity at presentation, those with severe ASH (Maddrey’s discriminant function ? 32) typically present with fever, jaundice, and abdominal tenderness. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for AH and, in the milder forms, is sufficient for clinical recovery. Severe ASH may progress to multi-organ failure including acute kidney injury and infection. Thus, infection and renal failure have a major impact on survival and should be closely monitored in patients with severe ASH. Patients with severe ASH have a reported short-term mortality of up to 40%-50%. Severe ASH at risk of early death should be identified by one of the available prognostic scoring systems before considering specific therapies. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for severe ASH. When corticosteroids are contraindicated, pentoxifylline may be alternatively used. Responsiveness to steroids should be assessed at day 7 and stopping rules based on Lille score should come into action. Strategically, future studies for patients with severe ASH should focus on suppressing inflammation based on cytokine profiles, balancing hepatocellular death and regeneration, limiting activation of the innate immune response, and maintaining gut mucosal integrity. PMID:25349640

  6. Acinetobacter baumannii: evolution of antimicrobial resistance-treatment options.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yohei; Murray, Gerald L; Peleg, Anton Y

    2015-02-01

    The first decade of the 20th century witnessed a surge in the incidence of infections due to several highly antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in hospitals worldwide. Acinetobacter baumannii is one such organism that turned from an occasional respiratory pathogen into a major nosocomial pathogen. An increasing number of A. baumannii genome sequences have broadened our understanding of the genetic makeup of these bacteria and highlighted the extent of horizontal transfer of DNA. Animal models of disease combined with bacterial mutagenesis have provided some valuable insights into mechanisms of A. baumannii pathogenesis. Bacterial factors known to be important for disease include outer membrane porins, surface structures including capsule and lipopolysaccharide, enzymes such as phospholipase D, iron acquisition systems, and regulatory proteins. A. baumannii has a propensity to accumulate resistance to various groups of antimicrobial agents. In particular, carbapenem resistance has become commonplace, accounting for the majority of A. baumannii strains in many hospitals today. Carbapenem-resistant strains are often resistant to all other routinely tested agents. Treatment of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infection therefore involves the use of combinations of last resort agents such as colistin and tigecycline, but the efficacy and safety of these approaches are yet to be defined. Antimicrobial-resistant A. baumannii has high potential to spread among ill patients in intensive care units. Early recognition and timely implementation of appropriate infection control measures is crucial in preventing outbreaks. PMID:25643273

  7. Sofosbuvir: A novel treatment option for chronic hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Harmeet Kaur; Singh, Harmanjit; Grewal, Nipunjot; Natt, Navreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C currently infects more than 170 million people around the world, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The current standard of care for HCV infection, including one of the two protease inhibitors, telaprevir or boceprevir, for 12-32 weeks, along with pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN-?) and ribavirin for up to 48 weeks, is unsatisfactory in many cases, either because of lack of efficacy or because of treatment-related adverse effects. There is an urgent need of new drugs with improved efficacy as well as a safety profile. Sofosbuvir, a recently approved nucleotide analog, is a highly potent inhibitor of the NS5B polymerase in the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and has shown high efficacy in combination with several other drugs, with and without PEG-INF, against HCV. It offers many advantages due to its high potency, low side effects, oral administration, and high barrier to resistance. The efficacy and safety were demonstrated in many large and well-designed phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials like NEUTRINO, PROTON, ELECTRON, ATOMIC, COSMOS, FUSION, FISSION, NUCLEAR, POSITRON, and the like. It is generally well-tolerated. Adverse events that occurred include: Headache, insomnia, fatigue, nausea, dizziness, pruritis, upper respiratory tract infections, rash, back pain, grade 1 anemia, and grade 4 lymphopenia; however, the exact safety profile can only be judged when this drug is actually used on a large scale. PMID:25422576

  8. Hyperlipoproteinemia(a): clinical significance and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Berthold, Heiner K; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies together have provided evidence that lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk association with CVD is weak but seems continuous in shape and without an obvious threshold for Lp(a) levels. A plasma concentration of 60 mg/dl compared to usual levels is associated with an odds ratio for coronary heart disease of about 1.5 after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. Niacin (nicotinic acid) is the pharmacologic means of choice for decreasing elevated Lp(a) levels but the drug is often poorly tolerated due to adverse reactions. Dietary measures, exercise and other lipid-lowering drugs, especially statins, fibrates and ezetimibe, are without effect. In patients with severe progressive cardiovascular disease and very high Lp(a) levels, lipoprotein apheresis may be used to effectively decrease Lp(a) concentrations. The method is expensive and impractical for most patients and its feasibility depends by and large on the healthcare reimbursement system of the respective country. No established treatment, however, selectively reduces Lp(a) without influencing other lipoproteins. Moreover, despite the clear association of hyperlipoproteinemia(a) with cardiovascular risk, no rigorously designed study to date has demonstrated that lowering Lp(a) concentrations has beneficial effects on cardiovascular endpoints. Randomized trials to this effect are urgently needed. PMID:23357133

  9. Sofosbuvir: A novel treatment option for chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Harmeet Kaur; Singh, Harmanjit; Grewal, Nipunjot; Natt, Navreet Kaur

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis C currently infects more than 170 million people around the world, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The current standard of care for HCV infection, including one of the two protease inhibitors, telaprevir or boceprevir, for 12-32 weeks, along with pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN-?) and ribavirin for up to 48 weeks, is unsatisfactory in many cases, either because of lack of efficacy or because of treatment-related adverse effects. There is an urgent need of new drugs with improved efficacy as well as a safety profile. Sofosbuvir, a recently approved nucleotide analog, is a highly potent inhibitor of the NS5B polymerase in the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and has shown high efficacy in combination with several other drugs, with and without PEG-INF, against HCV. It offers many advantages due to its high potency, low side effects, oral administration, and high barrier to resistance. The efficacy and safety were demonstrated in many large and well-designed phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials like NEUTRINO, PROTON, ELECTRON, ATOMIC, COSMOS, FUSION, FISSION, NUCLEAR, POSITRON, and the like. It is generally well-tolerated. Adverse events that occurred include: Headache, insomnia, fatigue, nausea, dizziness, pruritis, upper respiratory tract infections, rash, back pain, grade 1 anemia, and grade 4 lymphopenia; however, the exact safety profile can only be judged when this drug is actually used on a large scale. PMID:25422576

  10. PSEUDOXANTHOMA ELASTICUM: DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES, CLASSIFICATION, AND TREATMENT OPTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Uitto, Jouni; Jiang, Qiujie; Váradi, András; Bercovitch, Lionel G.; Terry, Sharon F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a multisystem orphan disease, clinically affects the skin, the eyes, and the cardiovascular system with considerable morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestations reflect the underlying pathology consisting of ectopic mineralization of peripheral connective tissues. Areas Covered The diagnostic criteria of PXE include characteristic clinical findings, together with histopathology of accumulation of pleiomorphic elastic structures in the dermis with progressive mineralization, and the presence of mutations in the ABCC6 gene. PXE-like cutaneous changes can also be encountered in other ectopic mineralization disorders, including generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene. In some cases, overlapping clinical features of PXE/GACI, associated with mutations either in ABCC6 or ENPP1, have been noted. PXE demonstrates considerable inter- and intrafamilial heterogeneity, and consequently, accurate diagnosis is required for appropriate classification with prognostic implications. There is no effective and specific treatment for the systemic manifestations of PXE, but effective therapies to counteract the ocular complications are in current clinical use. Expert Opinion A number of observations in the murine model, the Abcc6?/? mouse, have indicated that the mineral composition of diet, particularly the magnesium content, can influence the severity of the mineralization phenotype. These observations suggest that appropriate dietary interventions, coupled with lifestyle modifications, including smoking cessation, might alleviate the symptoms and improve the quality of life of individuals affected with this, currently intractable, orphan disease. PMID:25383264

  11. Update on the pathogenic potential and treatment options for Blastocystis sp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites, there is still much controversy surrounding the pathogenicity and potential treatment options for this parasite. In this review we look at the evidence supporting Blastocystis as an intestinal pathogen as shown by numerous case studies and several in vivo studies and the evidence against. We describe the chronic nature of some infections and show the role of Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients and the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and Blastocystis infection. There have been several studies that have suggested that pathogenicity may be subtype related. Metronidazole is the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis but several cases of treatment failure and resistance have been described. Other treatment options which have been suggested include paromomycin and trimethroprim- sulfamethoxazole. PMID:24883113

  12. Economics of different treatment options of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ilker, Y; Tarcan, T; Akda?, A

    1996-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has an important impact on the national health economics and can be managed in a large spectrum of modalities from simple follow-up to surgery. In this study, we aimed to compare different treatment options of BPH in terms of cost effectiveness in Turkey. The first evaluation of a BPH patient has a cost of $200. The cost of TURP or open prostatectomy (OP) in our hospital including all the expenses is $740. Finasteride has an annual cost nearly equal to TURP and OP. Considering the expenses of the close follow-up studies and regular visits, one-year lasting Finasteride treatment is two times more expensive than surgery. In comparison with medical treatment options, TURP as the gold standard of treatment of BPH is cost effective when long-term expenses are considered. PMID:9119638

  13. New Treatment Options for Patients With Metastatic Prostate Cancer: What Is The Optimal Sequence?

    PubMed

    van Dodewaard-de Jong, Joyce M; Verheul, Henk M W; Bloemendal, Haiko J; de Klerk, John M H; Carducci, Michael A; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M

    2015-08-01

    Systemic treatment of men with metastatic prostate cancer is rapidly evolving. Androgen deprivation therapy remains the first-line treatment for advanced disease and the backbone of sequential strategies. For patients with extensive metastatic disease the addition of docetaxel markedly improves survival. In case patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer, several new therapeutic strategies are available. Large trials have shown a survival benefit for patients treated with sipuleucel-T, docetaxel, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, or radium-223. Along with these new available treatment options, the sequence of applying them has become a serious matter of debate. In this review we provide an overview of current systemic treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer and propose considerations to optimally sequence registered new therapies. In addition, we hypothesize on improvement of outcome with potential combination strategies. PMID:25704270

  14. Treatment of glomerulonephritis: Will we ever have options other than steroids and cytotoxics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BASIT JAVAID; Richard J. Quigg

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of glomerulonephritis: Will we ever have options other than steroids and cytotoxics? Glomerulonephritis refers to a collection of primary renal disorders and those secondary to a systemic disease, all characterized by inflammation within the glomerulus. Given the underlying immunologic nature of these disorders, they are routinely treated with corticosteriods and various cytotoxic agents. Although in many instances such therapies

  15. Fecal incontinence: an up-to-date critical overview of surgical treatment options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Müller; Orlin Belyaev; Thomas Deska; Ansgar Chromik; Dirk Weyhe; Waldemar Uhl

    2005-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the last resort for patients suffering from severe fecal incontinence. The armamentarium of surgical options for this condition has increased im- pressively during the last decade. Nevertheless, this fact seems to make neither patients nor surgeons feel more comfortable. Treatment of fecal incontinence still remains a challenge to modern medicine due to many specific sides of this

  16. Multimodal treatment options for bilobar colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Liersch, Torsten; Niessner, Martin; Meller, Johannes; Lorf, Thomas; Becker, Heinz; Ghadimi, B. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated individualized multimodal oncological strategies in patients with bilobular colorectal liver metastases (biCRC-LM) as well as their effect on R0 resection rates, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Methods Between January 2001 and December 2008, 64 patients were assigned to straightforward or two-stage liver resection ± preoperative 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based chemotherapy (CTx). Postoperative strategy after R0-resection was either “wait and see” or “adjuvant” therapy (3 cycles of CTx or anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-radioimmunotherapy with 131I-labetuzumab in a dose of 40–50 mCi/m2). Results Forty-three initially unresectable patients received preoperative CTx for downsizing of their biCRC-LM. Straightforward or two-stage liver resection was intended in 40 and 24 patients, respectively. Histopathologically confirmed R0-liver resection could be achieved in 47 patients. Surgical morbidity and mortality rates were 33% and 1.5%, respectively. Postoperatively, 26 patients received anti-cancer therapy (5 × CTx, 21 × anti-CEA-radioimmunotherapy). After R0-liver resection, median OS was significantly better compared to R1/R2 resections followed by palliative 5FU-CTx (38 versus 19 months, p?=?0.035). There was no significant difference in DFS (p?=?0.650) and OS (p?=?0.435) between straightforward and two-stage liver resection. Compared to “wait and see” strategy, the application of postoperative therapy in adjuvant intent was associated with a better OS (p?=?0.048). Conclusion Extensive liver resection within multimodal treatment concepts is justified in patients with biCRC-LM when complete resection of all metastases seems to be achievable. PMID:20213463

  17. Pancreatic cancer: optimizing treatment options, new, and emerging targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, Elena Gabriela; Coveler, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US and is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the next decade. Despite 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel significantly improving outcomes for metastatic cancer, refractory disease still poses significant challenges. Difficulties with early detection and the inherent chemo- and radio-resistant nature of this malignancy led to attempts to define the sequential biology of pancreatic cancer in order to improve survival outcomes. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by several germline or acquired genetic mutations, the most common being KRAS (90%), CDK2NA (90%), TP53 (75%–90%), DPC4/SMAD4 (50%). In addition, the tumor microenvironment, chemoresistant cancer stem cells, and the desmoplastic stroma have been the target of some promising clinical investigations. Among the core pathways reproducibly shown to lead the development and progression of this disease, DNA repair, apoptosis, G1/S cell cycle transition, KRAS, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, TGF-beta, and other cell invasion pathways, have been the target of “precision therapeutics”. No single molecularly targeted therapeutic though has been uniformly successful, probably due to the tumor heterogeneity, but biomarker research is evolving and it hopes to select more patients likely to benefit. Recent reports note activity with immunotherapies such as CD40 agonists, CCR2 inhibitors, cancer vaccines, and novel combinations against the immunosuppressive tumor milieu are ongoing. While many obstacles still exist, clearly we are making progress in deciphering the heterogeneity within pancreatic cancers. Integrating conventional and immunological targeting will be the key to effective treatment of this deadly disease. PMID:26185420

  18. Decision quality instrument for treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis: a psychometric evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R Sepucha; Dawn Stacey; Catharine F Clay; Yuchiao Chang; Carol Cosenza; Geoffrey Dervin; Janet Dorrwachter; Sandra Feibelmann; Jeffrey N Katz; Stephen A Kearing; Henrik Malchau; Monica Taljaard; Ivan Tomek; Peter Tugwell; Carrie A Levin

    2011-01-01

    Background  A high quality decision requires that patients who meet clinical criteria for surgery are informed about the options (including\\u000a non-surgical alternatives) and receive treatments that match their goals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric\\u000a properties and clinical sensibility of a patient self report instrument, to measure the quality of decisions about total joint\\u000a replacement for knee

  19. New treatment option for an incomplete vertical root fracture–a preliminary case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Instead of extraction this case report presents an alternative treatment option for a maxillary incisor with a vertical root fracture (VRF) causing pain in a 78-year-old patient. After retreatment of the existing root canal filling the tooth was stabilized with a dentine adhesive and a composite restoration. Then the tooth was extracted, the VRF gap enlarged with a small diamond bur and the existing retrograde root canal filling removed. The enlarged fracture line and the retrograde preparation were filled with a calcium-silicate-cement (Biodentine). Afterwards the tooth was replanted and a titanium trauma splint was applied for 12d. A 24 months clinical and radiological follow-up showed an asymptomatic tooth, reduction of the periodontal probing depths from 7 mm prior to treatment to 3 mm and gingival reattachment in the area of the fracture with no sign of ankylosis. Hence, the treatment of VRF with Biodentine seems to be a possible and promising option. PMID:24670232

  20. [Partial reconstruction after conservative treatment for breast cancer: classification of sequelae and treatment options].

    PubMed

    Clough, K B; Nos, C; Fitoussi, A; Couturaud, B; Inguenault, C; Sarfati, I

    2008-04-01

    Most patients presenting with breast cancer are treated by breast conserving treatment (BCT). Some of these patients present with poor cosmetic results and ask for partial breast reconstruction. These reconstructions following BCT are presenting more frequently to plastic surgeons as a difficult management problem. We have defined and published a classification of the different cosmetic sequelae (CS) after BCT into three types. This classification helps to analyse these complex deformities aggravated by radiotherapy. Furthermore, our classification helps to choose between the different surgical techniques and propose the optimal option for their surgical correction. Our initial publications reported 35 and 85 patients: we have currently operated more than 150 cases of CS after BCT. Type-1 CS are defined by an asymmetry between the two breasts, with no distortion or deformity of the radiated breast. Type-2 CS are those with an obvious breast deformity, that can be corrected with a partial reconstruction of the breast. Type-3 CS are those with such a deformity that only a mastectomy with total reconstruction of the breast can be performed. Most of the patients present with type-2 CS, but are reluctant to undergo what they feel is a major reconstructive procedure: in a initial prospective series of 85 patients operated for CS after BCT, 48 (56.5%) had type-1 CS, 33 patients (38.8%) type-2 CS and four patients (4.7%) type-3 CS. Type-1 patients should be managed essentially by contralateral symmetrizing procedures. One should limit any surgery on the radiated breast, as a mammoplasty or an augmentation is at high risk of complications. Type-2 is the most difficult to manage and requires all the surgical armamentarium of breast reconstructive surgery. The insetting of a myocutaneous flap is often necessary and autologous fat grafting is a promising tool in selected cases. Type-3 CS requires mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a myocutaneous flap. The major development though in the past 10 years has been the development of oncoplastic techniques at the time of the original tumour removal, in order to avoid most of type 2 and type 3 deformities. This paper reaffirms the validity of the Cosmetic Sequelae classification as a simple, practical guide for breast reconstructive surgeons. It discusses the various choices of reconstructive procedures available, the importance of "preventing" these CS and defining the role of the plastic surgeon in the management of these patients. PMID:18387726

  1. Production of piglets with sexed semen employing a non-surgical insemination technique.

    PubMed

    Grossfeld, R; Klinc, P; Sieg, B; Rath, D

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether multiparous sows could successfully be inseminated with sexed semen non-surgically. Spermatozoa were stained with Hoechst 33342 and separated flowcytometrically in X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm populations employing the Beltsville Sperm Sexing Technology (BSST). After weaning, estrus was induced in sows with PMSG and hCG. Animals were inseminated once per estrus non-surgically with a specially designed catheter into the tip of the uterine horn, employing 50x10(6) of either sexed or non-sexed spermatozoa diluted in 2 ml Androhep. Pregnant sows were allowed to go to term. Mean pregnancy rate from inseminations with unsexed spermatozoa was 54.5% whereas inseminations with sexed spermatozoa resulted in 33.3% pregnant sows. All but one piglet born after insemination with sexed semen were of the predicted sex. The sex of those piglets born after inseminations with non-sexed spermatozoa was 61.1% for male and 38.9% for female sex. It is concluded that non-surgically inseminations with flowcytometrically sexed spermatozoa can be conducted successfully. PMID:15826689

  2. Therapeutic Success of the Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Option for Epilepsy: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-feng; Zou, Yan; Ding, Gangqiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate therapeutic success of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a treatment option for epilepsy. Methods Using MEDLINE and Google Scholar search, we searched for studies investigating the therapeutic success of ketogenic diet for epilepsy. We estimated therapeutic success rate for ketogenic diet as a treatment option for epilepsy and its 95% CIs using generic inverse variance method. Findings A total of 38 studies met the inclusion criteria. In retrospective studies, the weighted success rate of the patients who take the KD as a treatment option for epilepsy was 58.4% (95% confidence interval (95%CI)=48.7% – 69.9%) at 3 months (n=336); 42.8% (95%CI =36.3% – 50.3%) at 6 months (n=492), and 30.1% (95%CI =24.3% – 37.2%) at 12 months (n=387); in prospective studies, weighted success rate was 53.9% (95%CI 45.5% – 63.8%) at 3 months (n=474); 53.2% (95%CI =44.0% – 64.2%) at 6 months (n=321), and 55.0% (95%CI =45.9% – 65.9%) at 12 months (n=347). Conclusion This meta-analysis provides formal statistical support for the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic patients. PMID:24910737

  3. Therapeutic options for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khadem, Tina; Stevens, Vanessa

    2013-08-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a chronic and painful condition that may result in significant disturbances to normal activities and decreases in the quality of life for those affected. Despite the availability of several first- and second-line treatment options, many patients may experience refractory pain. The objectives of this review were to summarize evidence for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and off-label therapies for the treatment of PHN and to present gaps in the current literature for future research focus. Several agents, including pregabalin, gabapentin, and opioids, have been shown to significantly improve pain when compared with placebo. However, evidence regarding the comparative effectiveness of these treatment alternatives is lacking. In order to choose the optimal treatment, providers should consider issues related to efficacy, safety, and tolerability in conjunction with patient goals, preferences, and adherence issues. Evidence from randomized or observational studies that directly compare agents with each other should help to inform treatment choices. PMID:23901906

  4. Stem cell-based therapies in Parkinson’s disease: future hope or current treatment option?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Loewenbrück; Alexander Storch

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases and represents a major therapeutic challenge\\u000a because of the so far missing therapeutic means to influence the ongoing loss of dopaminergic innervation to the striatum.\\u000a Cell replacement has raised hope to offer the first restorative treatment option. Clinical trials have provided “proof of\\u000a principle” that transplantation of dopamine-producing neurons

  5. Arthroscopic treatment options for irreparable rotator cuff tears of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Anley, Cameron M; Chan, Samuel KL; Snow, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons with the final treatment option in many algorithms being either a reverse shoulder arthroplasty or a tendon transfer. The long term results of these procedures are however still widely debated, especially in younger patients. A variety of arthroscopic treatment options have been proposed for patients with an irreparable rotator cuff tear without the presence of arthritis of the glenohumeral joint. These include a simple debridement with or without a biceps tenotomy, partial rotator cuff repair with or without an interval slide, tuberplasty, graft interposition of the rotator cuff, suprascapular nerve ablation, superior capsule reconstruction and insertion of a biodegradable spacer (Inspace) to depress the humeral head. These options should be considered as part of the treatment algorithm in patients with an irreparable rotator cuff and could be used as either as an interim procedure, delaying the need for more invasive surgery in the physiologically young and active, or as potential definitive procedures in the medically unfit. The aim of this review is to highlight and summarise arthroscopic procedures and the results thereof currently utilised in the management of these challenging patients. PMID:25405083

  6. [Osteoarthritis secondary to the developmental hip dysplasia-treatment options in young patients].

    PubMed

    Wierusz-Koz?owska, Malgorzata; Markuszewski, Jacek; Wozniak, Waldemar

    2005-01-01

    The choice of the treatment method in young patients with osteoarthritis secondary to the developmental hip dyplasia is one of the most difficult dilemmas in orthopaedic practice. Currently total cementless hip replacement with metal-on-metal articulation is a routine procedure. Young patients are particularly exposed to the risk of aseptic loosening due to their high activity and long duration of life with implant. Basing on our material, using selected clinical cases, options for treatment of OA secondary to DHD were presented. The paper presents the progress of OA seconary to DHD treated in childhood and its subsequent treatment using intertrochanteric osteotomy without changing the neck-shaft angle, intertrochanteric osteotomy combined with shelf procedures, isolated shelf procedures and periacetabular osteotomies according to Ganz. Both satisfactory results with pain relief for any years so like negative ones with total lack of improvement were shown. Presented options for treatment alternative to THR may be helpful in determining the individual management in young adults. PMID:16617763

  7. A systematic review of active treatment options in patients with desmoid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Yao, X.; Corbett, T.; Gupta, A.A.; Kandel, R.A.; Verma, S.; Werier, J.; Ghert, M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We conducted a systematic review to determine the optimal treatment options in patients with desmoid tumours who have declined observational management. Methods A search was conducted of the medline and embase databases (1990 to September 2012), the Cochrane Library, and relevant guideline Web sites and conference materials. Results One systematic review and forty-six studies met the preplanned study selection criteria; data from twenty-eight articles were extracted and analyzed. For local control, three studies reported a statistically significant difference in favour of surgery plus radiotherapy (rt) compared with surgery alone, and one study did not; two studies reported the lack of a statistical difference between surgery plus rt and rt alone in maintaining local control. Multivariate risk factors for local recurrence included positive surgical margins and young patient age. Single-agent imatinib led to a progression-free survival rate of 55% at 2 years and 58% at 3 years. Methotrexate plus vinblastine led to a progression-free survival rate of 67% at 10 years. Significant toxicities were reported for all treatment modalities, including surgical morbidity, and rt- and chemotherapy-related toxicities. Conclusions In patients who have declined observational management, the local control rate was higher with surgery plus rt than with surgery alone. However, the additional rt-related complications should be considered in treatment decision-making. Surgery, rt, and systemic therapy are all reasonable treatment options for patients with desmoid tumours. PMID:25089111

  8. Update of the management of chronic psoriasis: new approaches and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Philip M; Young, Helen S

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease which is associated with a number of significant co-morbidities including: impairment of quality of life; cardiovascular disease; and a seronegative arthritis known as psoriatic arthritis. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has developed at a remarkable rate in recent years. These new insights have significantly changed our perception of the condition and have led to the development of several new treatment strategies. Biological agents have proved a major step forward in therapeutic options for psoriasis. The ability to clear, or almost clear, cutaneous disease has changed the outcomes and expectations of many patients with this disease. The impact on both physical and psychological health may be great. This review covers the clinical features and management of psoriasis with specific reference to new therapeutic options. PMID:21437057

  9. Perspectives on sustainable wastewater treatment technologies and reuse options in the urban areas of the Mediterranean region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed N. Bdour; Moshrik R. Hamdi; Zeyad Tarawneh

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses several options to achieve sustainability in wastewater treatment in urban areas of the Mediterranean region. The first was by decentralizing the treatment rather than installing expensive sewer systems that combine and increase the volume of the waste. The next involved choosing an appropriate treatment technology for the community where several types proposed included lagoons\\/wetlands, upflow anaerobic sludge

  10. Clinical features and mutation status of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, EML4-ALK and ROS1 between surgical resection samples and non surgical resection samples in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentao; Qu, Jichen

    2015-01-01

    Background Target therapy is the first-line treatment in lung cancer. The testing of driver gene mutations is crucial for decision of treatment. Many lung cancer patients are in advanced grade, and lose the chance of operation. Methods The tissue used to perform mutation testing is only from biopsy. In order to analysis the difference between surgical resection samples (SRSs) and non-surgical resection samples (NSRSs), 1,357 surgical tissues and 145 biopsy samples histopathologically diagnosed with lung cancer were collected to detect the mutation status of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, EML4-ALK and ROS1 in this study. Results There were no significant differences of age, gender, and histological type between the two group patients we collected; however, the significant difference was present in grade. More early stage patients were in the surgical group, but more advanced stage lung cancer patients were in non surgical group. In the mutation analysis, we also found no significant differences in all driver genes we detected between the two groups. Conclusions Both surgical resection samples and biopsy samples could be used to perform the testing the driver gene mutation.

  11. Integrating algaculture into small wastewater treatment plants: process flow options and life cycle impacts.

    PubMed

    Steele, Muriel M; Anctil, Annick; Ladner, David A

    2014-05-01

    Algaculture has the potential to be a sustainable option for nutrient removal at wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this study was to compare the environmental impacts of three likely algaculture integration strategies to a conventional nutrient removal strategy. Process modeling was used to determine life cycle inventory data and a comparative life cycle assessment was used to determine environmental impacts. Treatment scenarios included a base case treatment plant without nutrient removal, a plant with conventional nutrient removal, and three other cases with algal unit processes placed at the head of the plant, in a side stream, and at the end of the plant, respectively. Impact categories included eutrophication, global warming, ecotoxicity, and primary energy demand. Integrating algaculture prior to activated sludge proved to be most beneficial of the scenarios considered for all impact categories; however, this scenario would also require primary sedimentation and impacts of that unit process should be considered for implementation of such a system. PMID:24834441

  12. Antithrombotic and interventional treatment options in cardioembolic transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, D J H; Rakhit, R D

    2007-01-01

    Peer?reviewed data pertaining to anti?thrombotic and interventional therapy for transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke patients with non?valvular atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, interatrial septal abnormalities, or left ventricular thrombus were reviewed. Long?term oral anticoagulant therapy with warfarin is the treatment of choice for secondary stroke prevention following TIA or minor ischaemic stroke in association with persistent or paroxysmal non?valvular atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. If warfarin is contraindicated, long?term aspirin is a safe, but much less effective alternative treatment option in this subgroup of patients with cerebrovascular disease. Management of young patients with TIA or stroke in association with an interatrial septal defect is controversial. Various treatment options are outlined, but readers are encouraged to include these patients in one of the ongoing randomised clinical trials in this area. It is reasonable to consider empirical anticoagulation in patients with TIA or ischaemic stroke in association with left ventricular thrombus formation following myocardial infarction or in association with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. If warfarin is prescribed, one should aim for a target international normalised ratio of 2.5 (range 2–3) to achieve the best balance between adequate secondary prevention of cardioembolic events and the risk of major haemorrhagic complications. PMID:17172564

  13. New direct oral anticoagulants--current therapeutic options and treatment recommendations for bleeding complications.

    PubMed

    Miesbach, Wolfgang; Seifried, Erhard

    2012-10-01

    To date, clinical studies show that the incidence of spontaneous bleeding with new direct oral anticoagulants (DOAs) is comparable to that of established anticoagulants. However, unlike vitamin K antagonists, there are currently no clinically available antidotes or approved reversal agents for new DOAs. Restoring normal coagulation is important in many cases, such as emergency surgeries, serious bleedings, or anticoagulant overdosing. Attempts have been made to restore normal coagulation after treatment with new DOAs using compounds such as recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), or FEIBA (factor eight inhibitor bypassing activity). Limited pre-clinical data and even less clinical evidence are available on the usefulness of these methods in restoring normal coagulation for the emergency management of critical bleeding episodes. Evaluating the utility of DOAs is further complicated by the fact that it is unknown how predictive established test systems are of the bleeding risks. Clinical practice requires further evaluation of the emergency management options for the new DOAs to define the agents and the doses that are most useful. Furthermore, patients receiving long-term treatment with a DOA are likely to undergo elective surgery at some point, and there is lack of evidence regarding perioperative treatment regimens under such conditions. This review summarises potential bleeding management options and available data on the new DOAs. PMID:22782297

  14. Hemisection: A Treatment Option for an Endodontically treated Molar with Vertical Root Fracture.

    PubMed

    Anitha, S; Rao, Deepika Sc

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures (VRF) in endodontically treated teeth have long been reported and pose diagnostic difficulties. A hemisection/root resection procedures removes the fractured fragments completely, and retains a portion of the compromized tooth offers a predictable treatment option. The key to this rests in ideal case selection involving balancing all indications and contraindications. The success of the treatment depends on careful case selection based on a firm set of guidelines. This article presents a case with VRF in an endodontic treated molar. This article describes the case of a 65-year-old man with a VRF on the mesial root and a healthy periodontium supporting the distal root making it ideal for retention as well as restoration and support of the final prosthesis. Also, the patient was motivated to try and save as much of the tooth as possible. Postoperatively no untoward complication was reported making it an alternative treatment option in patients with VRF in a molar, willing to retain the remaining tooth portion. With all other factors balanced, it allows for retaining the remaining intact portion of the tooth structure. PMID:25906809

  15. Reappraisal of the removable partial denture as a treatment option for the shortened dental arch

    PubMed Central

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Tarakji, Bassel; Baroudi, Kusai; Sakka, Salah

    2013-01-01

    For patients with shortened dental arches, many treatment options are available. The existing situation can be maintained by stabilizing the present dentition and improving the occlusion without extending the arch. Alternatively, the shortened dental arch can be extended by either a free-end saddle removable partial denture, cantilevered fixed bridge, or by an implant-supported prosthesis. The free-end saddle removable partial denture can be considered a simple, non-invasive, and relatively cheap treatment option for the shortened dental arch. It was believed that such prosthodontic rehabilitation would be beneficial for the patients in terms of improving oral functions. However, the existing literature indicates that the prognosis of free-end saddle removable partial denture is not predictable, it is problematic, and its contribution to oral functions in patients with shortened dental arches is considered to be dubious. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature about the outcome of extending the shortened dental arch by a free-end saddle removable partial denture. It also outlines factors that may affect the prognosis of this prosthetic treatment. PMID:24883037

  16. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone targeting for gonadotroph ablation: an approach to non-surgical sterilization.

    PubMed

    Struthers, R S

    2012-08-01

    Surgical sterilization is the mainstay of dog and cat population control, but its use is still often limited by the costs and effort involved, especially in developing countries. An ideal non-surgical sterilant that is safe, effective, permanent, administered as a single injection and capable of being manufactured inexpensively could have a significant impact on the world-wide dog and cat overpopulation problem. One approach towards developing such an agent is the targeting of pituitary gonadotrophic cells with cytotoxic agents using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH is a peptide that binds to high-affinity receptors selectively expressed on gonadotrophs and some types of cancers. Both small molecules and proteins have been conjugated to GnRH analogues to generate targeted cytotoxic and imaging agents. Although most of these efforts have focused on development of human cancer therapeutics, available reproductive studies in rats and dogs suggest that current compounds do not have sufficient therapeutic windows for complete gonadotroph ablation, in part owing to poor stability of peptide targeting sequences. The only reported longer-term study of gonadotroph ablation in dogs reported suppression of serum testosterone for 8 months, but endocrine function then recovered, raising important questions about the mechanism of reproductive suppression and its recovery. Although studies to date suggest that this is a potentially attractive approach to non-surgical sterilization, ideal agents are yet to be developed, and important mechanistic questions remain to be answered. PMID:22827376

  17. Treatment of non-unions with bone defects: which option and why?

    PubMed

    Ashman, O; Phillips, A M

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects associated with non-unions occur as a result of the initial insult or as a consequence of bone excision following non-union development. Historically management of this clinical scenario consisted mainly of amputation, which provided a short recovery period but a significant loss of limb function. Today treatment has evolved and multiple options are available for reconstruction of the bone defect. Broadly these are: bone shortening with lengthening later or bone transport and 'docking' (distraction osteogenesis based techniques); the use of vascularised and non-vascularised bone grafts; bone substitutes; stem cells; growth factors; scaffolds and gene therapy. PMID:23351870

  18. Breast Fibromatosis Response to Tamoxifen: Dynamic MRI Findings and Review of the Current Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Michael J.; Yepes, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Breast fibromatosis is a rare entity responsible for 0.2% of all solid breast tumors. It has been associated with scars, pregnancy, implants, and familial adenomatous polyposis. We present an interesting case of breast fibromatosis in a 29 year old woman which encroached upon her saline implant and subsequently filled its cavity once the implant was removed. The patient was put on tamoxifen therapy and at 14 month follow-up there was a significant decrease in the size of the mass. Dynamic MRI images are offered for review and current treatment options are discussed. PMID:22690287

  19. Are we taking full advantage of the growing number of pharmacological treatment options for osteoporosis?

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Karl J.; Schlecht, Stephen H.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    We are becoming increasingly aware that the manner in which our skeleton ages is not uniform within and between populations. Pharmacological treatment options with the potential to combat age-related reductions in skeletal strength continue to become available on the market, notwithstanding our current inability to fully utilize these treatments by accounting for an individual’s unique biomechanical needs. Revealing new molecular mechanisms that improve the targeted delivery of pharmaceuticals is important; however, this only addresses one part of the solution for differential age-related bone loss. To improve current treatment regimes, we must also consider specific biomechanical mechanisms that define how these molecular pathways ultimately impact whole bone fracture resistance. By improving our understanding of the relationship between molecular and biomechanical mechanisms, clinicians will be better equipped to take full advantage of the mounting pharmacological treatments available. Ultimately this will enable us to reduce fracture risk among the elderly more strategically, more effectively, and more economically. In this interest, the following review summarizes the biomechanical basis of current treatment strategies while defining how different biomechanical mechanisms lead to reduced fracture resistance. It is hoped that this may serve as a template for the identification of new targets for pharmacological treatments that will enable clinicians to personalize care so that fracture incidence may be globally reduced. PMID:24747363

  20. Are we taking full advantage of the growing number of pharmacological treatment options for osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karl J; Schlecht, Stephen H; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2014-06-01

    We are becoming increasingly aware that the manner in which our skeleton ages is not uniform within and between populations. Pharmacological treatment options with the potential to combat age-related reductions in skeletal strength continue to become available on the market, notwithstanding our current inability to fully utilize these treatments by accounting for an individual's unique biomechanical needs. Revealing new molecular mechanisms that improve the targeted delivery of pharmaceuticals is important; however, this only addresses one part of the solution for differential age-related bone loss. To improve current treatment regimes, we must also consider specific biomechanical mechanisms that define how these molecular pathways ultimately impact whole bone fracture resistance. By improving our understanding of the relationship between molecular and biomechanical mechanisms, clinicians will be better equipped to take full advantage of the mounting pharmacological treatments available. Ultimately this will enable us to reduce fracture risk among the elderly more strategically, more effectively, and more economically. In this interest, the following review summarizes the biomechanical basis of current treatment strategies while defining how different biomechanical mechanisms lead to reduced fracture resistance. It is hoped that this may serve as a template for the identification of new targets for pharmacological treatments that will enable clinicians to personalize care so that fracture incidence may be globally reduced. PMID:24747363

  1. PTSD and comorbid AUD: a review of pharmacological and alternative treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Ralevski, Elizabeth; Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A; Petrakis, Ismene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) frequently co-occur there are no specific treatments for individuals diagnosed with these comorbid conditions. The main objectives of this paper are to review the literature on pharmacological options for PTSD and comorbid AUD, and to summarize promising behavioral and alternative interventions for those with these dual diagnoses. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search on PsycINFO and MEDLINE/PubMed databases using Medical Subject Headings terms in various combinations to identify articles that used pharmacotherapy for individuals with dual diagnoses of PTSD and AUD. Similar strategies were used to identify articles on behavioral and alternative treatments for AUD and PTSD. We identified and reviewed six studies that tested pharmacological treatments for patients with PTSD and comorbid AUD. Results The literature on treatment with US Food and Drug Administration approved medications for patients with dual diagnosis of PTSD and AUD is very limited and inconclusive. Promising evidence indicates that topiramate and prazosin may be effective in reducing PTSD and AUD symptoms in individuals with comorbidity. Seeking safety has had mixed efficacy in clinical trials. The efficacy of other behavioral and alternative treatments (mindfulness-based, yoga, and acupuncture) is more difficult to evaluate since the evidence comes from small, single studies without comparison groups. Conclusion There is a clear need for more systematic and rigorous study of pharmacological, behavioral, and alternative treatments for patients with dual diagnoses of PTSD and AUD. PMID:24648794

  2. Comparative evaluation of plasma ROM levels in chronic periodontitis patients before and after non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy: A clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Sohini; Gowda, Triveni M.; Mehta, Dhoom S.; Kumar, Tarun A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is associated with increased levels of blood reactive oxygen species (ROS). So, treatment of CP may lead to decrease in blood ROS. However, not much literature is available comparing the effect of surgical and non-surgical periodontal treatment on blood ROS levels. Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are a useful measure of blood ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of periodontal treatment on plasma ROM levels in CP patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty CP patients and 15 controls were monitored. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and the clinical parameters were recorded. The CP patients were randomly divided into two groups: Scaling and root planing (Group II) and periodontal flap surgery (Group III). Both groups were re-evaluated 1 and 2 months after therapy. Clinical parameters were reviewed, plasma samples collected, and ROM levels were determined using a spectrophotometric technique. Results: At baseline, the ROM levels for Group II and Group III were 519.8 ± 62.4 and 513.4 ± 74.7 CARR U, respectively, which were higher than Group I value (282.9 ± 23.9, P < 0.001). Periodontal treatment in CP patients resulted in improvement of clinical parameters and a highly significant reduction in plasma ROM level (P < 0.001) after 2 months. Also, there was a more significant reduction in plasma ROM levels in Group III as compared to Group II (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In CP patients, surgical periodontal treatment was more effective in lowering the plasma ROM levels than when non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed alone and, therefore, may be more beneficial in reducing systemic oxidative stress. PMID:24872618

  3. Semidirect Restorations in Multidisciplinary Treatment: Viable Option for Children and Teenagers.

    PubMed

    Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Frizzera, Fausto; da Silva, Monica Barros; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Due to the esthetic necessity required nowadays, the multidisci-plinar treatment became a fundamental step in the restoration success. When the patient exhibits dental agenesis of one or more elements, he can show difficulty in social interactions. The age of the patient is a limiting factor to esthetic procedures, however, it should be evaluated as a real indicative with each case. The utilization of semi-direct restorations is a viable option due the cost, esthetic and improvement of physical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paper is to present a case detailing the confection and cementation of anterior semi-direct restorations aimed at an anatomic reestablish-ment associated with integrated treatment with periodontics and orthodontics. PMID:26067730

  4. Surrogacy as a good option for treatment of repeated implantation failure: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Aflatoonian, Nastaran; Eftekhar, Maryam; Aflatoonian, Behrooz; Rahmani, Elham; Aflatoonian, Abass

    2013-01-01

    Background: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is defined as pregnancy failure after two to six times with at least ten high grade embryo transfer to uterus. A variety of causes have been anticipated for RIF, including anatomical, autoimmune, genetics, endocrine and thrombotic anomalies. Factors responsible for RIF have important implication regarding treatment however in many couples a perfect cause cannot be found. Cases: In these case series, we reported nine couples with RIF that after investigation no definitive etiology was found for RIF and empirical therapy by heparin, aspirin and or immunotherapy was not effective. In these cases we recommended transfer of embryos to surrogate uterus. Nine patients were studied and six of them developed a normal pregnancy (pregnancy rate=66.66%). Conclusion: This study showed that surrogacy is a good option for treatment of RIF. PMID:24639697

  5. Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.J.

    1998-09-28

    The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

  6. A critical appraisal of systemic treatment options for metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salima; Meskawi, Malek; Hansen, Jens; Bianchi, Marco; Tian, Zhe; Latour, Mathieu; Graefen, Markus; Montorsi, Francesco; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Perrotte, Paul; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Sun, Maxine

    2014-04-01

    Current guidelines provide most support for the use of temsirolimus in first line therapy for metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC). However, this recommendation is based on scant level 2a evidence. The objective of this review is to examine the evidence supporting first line temsirolimus use in patients with metastatic nccRCC as well as alternative first line treatment options. Six studies, that assessed the efficacy of five agents qualified for inclusion. Among recognized treatment options for metastatic nccRCC, mean weighted progression free survival values of 7.9 months for temsirolimus vs. 7.3 for sunitinib vs. 8.5 months for sorafenib vs. ?4.1 months for erlotinib were recorded based on data from 10, 74, 33 and 51 patients respectively. In conclusion, the data supporting first line temsirolimus for metastatic nccRCC are based on a small patient sample. Sunitinib's efficacy is similar to that of temsirolimus but is based on a bigger patient sample that originates from phase II studies. PMID:24411587

  7. Surgical Treatment Options for the Young and Active Middle-Aged Patient with Glenohumeral Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Hsu, Andrew; Lin, Emery C.; Chalmers, Peter; Ellman, Michael; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic chondral lesions in young and active middle-aged patients continues to be a challenging issue. Surgeons must differentiate between incidental chondral lesions from symptomatic pathology that is responsible for the patient's pain. A thorough history, physical examination, and imaging work up is necessary and often results in a diagnosis of exclusion that is verified on arthroscopy. Treatment of symptomatic glenohumeral chondral lesions depends on several factors including the patient's age, occupation, comorbidities, activity level, degree of injury and concomitant shoulder pathology. Furthermore, the size, depth, and location of symptomatic cartilaginous injury should be carefully considered. Patients with lower functional demands may experience success with nonoperative measures such as injection or anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. When conservative management fails, surgical options are broadly classified into palliative, reparative, restorative, and reconstructive techniques. Patients with lower functional demands and smaller lesions are best suited for simpler, lower morbidity palliative procedures such as debridement (chondroplasty) and cartilage reparative techniques (microfracture). Those with higher functional demands and large glenohumeral defects will usually benefit more from restorative techniques including autograft or allograft osteochondral transfers and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Reconstructive surgical options are best suited for patients with bipolar lesions. PMID:22536515

  8. Switch of anti-VEGF agents is an option for nonresponders in the treatment of AMD

    PubMed Central

    Ehlken, C; Jungmann, S; Böhringer, D; Agostini, H T; Junker, B; Pielen, A

    2014-01-01

    Background Although anti-VEGF therapy of exudative AMD with bevacizumab and ranibizumab proved efficacious in the majority of patients, CNV activity does not respond to continued treatment after repeated injections in a considerable amount of patients. These are referred to as nonresponders. A change of the drug to bevacizumab or ranibizumab could possibly offer an alternative option for the treatment of nonresponding exudative AMD. Methods and materials A total of 138 nonresponders who switched therapy from bevacizumab to ranibizumab (n=114) or vice versa (n=24) were included in a retrospective study. Visual acuity (VA) and foveal thickness before and after the switch of therapy were compared. By means of linear regression analysis, we analyzed possible prognostic factors associated with a favorable outcome for visual acuity. Results Linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant benefit for nonresponders when treatment was changed to a different anti-VEGF drug (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). VA at the time of the switch was positively correlated with a beneficial development of VA after changing the drug. There was no significant correlation with age, macular thickness, number of injections before the switch, or the development of VA under treatment before the switch. Both patients switching to Avastin and Lucentis benefitted without statistically significant differences. Conclusions An exchange of bevacizumab with ranibizumab or vice versa should be considered in nonresponders in the treatment of exudative AMD. Further prognostic factors may help to identify patients who might benefit from a switch. These factors should be investigated in further studies. PMID:24722504

  9. Treatment options in recurrent ovarian cancer: latest evidence and clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Luvero, Daniela; Milani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women. Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of OC, the majority of patients experience disease recurrence and receive second-line and sometimes several lines of treatment. Here we review the options available for the treatment of recurrent disease and discuss how different agents are selected, combined and offered in a rationale sequence in the context of multidisciplinary care. We reviewed published work between 1990 and 2013 and meeting abstracts related to the use of chemotherapy and surgery in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. We discuss treatment regimens, efficacy endpoints and safety profiles of the different therapies. Platinum-based drugs are the most active agents and are selected on the basis of a probability of response to retreatment. Nonplatinum-based chemotherapy regimens are usually given in the ‘platinum-resistant’ setting and have a modest effect on outcome. Molecular targeted therapy of ovarian cancer given alone or integrated with chemotherapy is showing promising results. Many patients are now receiving more than one line of therapy for recurrent disease, usually platinum based until platinum resistance emerges. The sequential use of chemotherapy regimens and the incorporation of molecularly targeted treatments, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, have over the last decade significantly extended the median survival of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:25342990

  10. Non-Surgical Procedure Is Effective Treatment for Painful Ovarian Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood as they do while a woman is standing. Many women with pelvic congestion syndrome, spend many ... pelvic pain that worsens throughout the day when standing, you may want to seek a second opinion ...

  11. Horticultural Therapy: A Psychosocial Treatment Option at the Stephen D. Hassenfeld Children's Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwenn G. Fried; Matthew J. Wichrowski

    Quality psychosocial care for patients undergoing treatment for hematol- ogy\\/oncology disorders and their families serves to reduce the inevitable disruptions in life experienced during treatment. Horticultural therapy, a process through which plants and gardening activities are used as vehicles in professionally conducted programs of therapy, is a program option that can address the psychosocial needs of patients in numerous medical

  12. A non-surgical approach for male germ cell mediated gene transmission through transgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Usmani, Abul; Ganguli, Nirmalya; Sarkar, Hironmoy; Dhup, Suveera; Batta, Suryaprakash R.; Vimal, Manoj; Ganguli, Nilanjana; Basu, Sayon; Nagarajan, P.; Majumdar, Subeer S.

    2013-01-01

    Microinjection of foreign DNA in male pronucleus by in-vitro embryo manipulation is difficult but remains the method of choice for generating transgenic animals. Other procedures, including retroviral and embryonic stem cell mediated transgenesis are equally complicated and have limitations. Although our previously reported technique of testicular transgenesis circumvented several limitations, it involved many steps, including surgery and hemicastration, which carried risk of infection and impotency. We improved this technique further, into a two step non-surgical electroporation procedure, for making transgenic mice. In this approach, transgene was delivered inside both testes by injection and modified parameters of electroporation were used for in-vivo gene integration in germ cells. Using variety of constructs, germ cell integration of the gene and its transmission in progeny was confirmed by PCR, slot blot and immunohistochemical analysis. This improved technique is efficient, requires substantially less time and can be easily adopted by various biomedical researchers. PMID:24305437

  13. Development of an outcome/variance tracking tool for sedation and non-surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Gruber, M; Molke, K L; Siegel, E; DeJesus, Y; Roquemore, J; Shannon, V; Porche, V H; Luther, K M

    2001-01-01

    A large academic cancer center devised a performance improvement plan for special procedures and sedation. A group of interdisciplinary professionals convened to address data collection, complications, and outcomes for non-surgical procedures and sedation. Administrative, medical, and nursing representatives from all areas in which these procedures are performed gathered to assess existing data and data collection methods and to develop an improvement plan. Gastroenterology, pulmonary, diagnostic imaging, intensive care, gynecology, genitourinary, hematology, and anesthesiology specialties were represented. The group was facilitated by staff from the institution's Office of Performance Improvement and co-chaired by an anesthesiologist and a pulmonary specialist. A representative from the Practice Outcomes Department was also an active participant. This article describes group process, design efforts, pilot testing, and analyses for this project. Pilot data are presented as well as a discussion of staff involvement. PMID:11837212

  14. Progress in development of immunocontraceptive vaccines for permanent non-surgical sterilization of cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Munks, M W

    2012-08-01

    Each year, millions of cats and dogs are euthanized worldwide. There are insufficient resources to control shelter animals in developed countries, as well as feral cat and wild dog population levels, with current surgical sterilization techniques. Thus, population control of these animals will likely depend on the development of new non-surgical methods for cat and dog sterilization. One promising area of research is the development of contraceptive vaccines, or immunocontraceptives. In this article, previous approaches aimed at developing contraceptive vaccines will be reviewed, with a focus on those most related to sterilization of cats and dogs. There are a number of steps in reproduction that have been, or could be, targeted by the immune system, and the advantages and obstacles for inducing immunity to each of these will be discussed. Our current understanding of how these vaccines cause sterility, and our current ability to dissect these mechanisms in cats and dogs, also will be discussed. PMID:22827374

  15. An alternative treatment option for a bony defect from large odontoma using recycled demineralization at chairside

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Odontoma is the most common odontogenic benign tumor, and the treatment of choice is generally surgical removal. After excision, bone grafts may be necessary depending on the need for further treatment, or the size and location of the odontoma. Although the osteogenic capacity of a demineralized tooth was verified as early as 1967 by Urist and many other investigators, the cumbersome procedure, including a long demineralization time, may be less than comfortable for clinicians. A modified ultrasonic technology, with periodic negative pressure and temperature control, facilitated rapid and aseptic preparation of demineralized teeth for bone grafts. This approach reduces the demineralization time dramatically (?80 minutes), so that the graft material can be prepared chairside on the same day as the extraction. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases of large compound odonotomas used as graft material prepared chairside for enucleation-induced bony defects. These two clinical cases showed favorable wound healing without complications, and good bony support for future dental implants or orthodontic treatment. Finally, this report will suggest the possibility of recycling the benign pathologic hard tissue as an alternative treatment option for conventional bone grafts in clinics. PMID:25922824

  16. Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Fine, Pinchas; Hadas, Efrat

    2012-02-01

    Treatment of primarily-domestic sewage wastewater involves on-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal (BNR). BNR causes both direct emissions and loss of fertilizer value, thus eliminating possible reduction of emissions caused by fertilizer manufacture. In this study, we estimated on-site GHG emissions under different treatment scenarios, and present options for emission reduction by changing treatment methods, avoiding BNR and by recovering energy from biogas. Given a typical Israeli wastewater strength (1050mg CODl(-1)), the direct on-site GHG emissions due to energy use were estimated at 1618 and 2102g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively, at intermediate and tertiary treatment levels. A potential reduction of approximately 23-55% in GHG emissions could be achieved by fertilizer preservation and VS conversion to biogas. Wastewater fertilizers constituted a GHG abatement potential of 342g CO(2)-eq m(-3). The residual component that remained in the wastewater effluent following intermediate (oxidation ponds) and enhanced (mechanical-biological) treatments was 304-254g CO(2)-eq m(-3) and 65-34g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively. Raw sludge constituted approximately 47% of the overall wastewater fertilizers load with an abatement potential of 150g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (385kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)). Inasmuch as anaerobic digestion reduced it to 63g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (261kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)), the GHG abatement gained through renewable biogas energy (approx. 428g CO(2)-eq m(-3)) favored digestion. However, sludge composting reduced the fertilizer value to 17g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (121kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)) or less (if emissions, off-site inputs and actual phytoavailability were considered). Taking Israel as an example, fully exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential could reduce the State overall GHG emissions by almost 1%. This demonstrates the possibility of optional carbon credits which might be exploited in the construction of new wastewater treatment facilities, especially in developing countries. PMID:22209373

  17. Towards a complete recycling of phosphorus in wastewater treatment--options in Germany.

    PubMed

    Petzet, S; Cornel, P

    2011-01-01

    Global reserves of mineral phosphorus are finite and the recycling of phosphorus from wastewater, a significant sink for phosphorus, can contribute to a more sustainable use. In Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, an increasing percentage of municipal sewage sludge is incinerated and the contained phosphorus is lost. This paper reviews current technologies and shows that a complete phosphorus recovery from wastewater is technically feasible. Depending on the composition of the sewage sludge ash (SSA), there are various options for phosphorus recovery that are presented. Iron-poor SSAs can be used directly as substitute for phosphate rock in the electrothermal phosphorus process. SSAs with low heavy metal contents can be used as fertilizer without prior metal elimination. Ashes not suitable for direct recycling can be processed by thermal processes. Operators of wastewater treatment plants can additionally influence the ash composition via the selection of precipitants and the control of (indirect) dischargers. This way, they can choose the most suitable phosphorus recovery option. For sewage sludge that is co-incinerated in power plants, municipal waste incinerators or cement kilns phosphorus recovery is not possible. The phosphorus is lost forever. PMID:22053454

  18. [The development of therapeutic education in France: current public policies and treatment options].

    PubMed

    Grenier, Béatrice; Bourdillon, François; Gagnayre, Rémi

    2007-01-01

    Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has significantly expanded in the last few years. This article explains the major trends underpinning and supporting its development in France, and how they have rendered it a central place in the system, and provided an integral role for therapeutic education within the wider perspective of medical care and treatment options. The organisation of TPE is analysed and numerous initiatives in hospitals, medical and health care structures, social centres, cities, and non-profit organisations are described. This analysis suggests a range of proposals in order to structure and integrate TPE in a sustainable manner for the long term, as well as to expand the existing initiatives to have a broader reach across the country. PMID:17933380

  19. Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Solh, Tia; Botsford, Ashley; Solh, Melhem

    2015-01-01

    Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia (GT) is a genetic platelet surface receptor disorder of GPIIb/IIIa (ITG ?IIb?3), either qualitative or quantitative, which results in faulty platelet aggregation and diminished clot retraction. Spontaneous mucocutaneous bleeding is common and can lead to fatal bleeding episodes. Control and prevention of bleeding among patients with GT is imperative, and remains challenging. Local measures, including anti-fibrinolytic therapy, with or without platelet transfusions, used to be the mainstay of therapy. However, in recent years the use of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has increased significantly, with excellent response rates in treating and preventing hemorrhage among GT patients. Gene therapy and stem cell transplantation offer a potential cure of this disease, but both are costly and remain experimental at this point. This manuscript offers a comprehensive review of our understanding of GT and the available treatment options. PMID:26185478

  20. Continual evolution of type 2 diabetes: an update on pathophysiology and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a complex and progressive disease that has a major societal and economic impact. The most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a multifactorial disease, the pathophysiology of which involves not only the pancreas but also the liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and kidney. Novel therapies with mechanisms of action that are different from most existing drugs are emerging. One such class consists of compounds that inhibit renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, which is responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption by the kidneys. This new class of compounds improves glycemic control independently of insulin and promotes weight reduction, providing an additional tool to treat patients with T2DM. This review discusses the underlying pathophysiology of T2DM, clinical guidelines, and available and emerging treatment options, with particular emphasis on sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. PMID:25931824

  1. Malignant melanoma in a grey horse: case presentation and review of equine melanoma treatment options

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 15 year-old grey Thoroughbred gelding presented for investigation of chronic weight loss and recent onset of respiratory difficulty. Clinical examination confirmed tachypnoea with increased respiratory effort. Thoracic ultrasound examination detected pleural effusion. The dyspnoea was related to the large volume of pleural effusion and, following post-mortem examination, to the presence of a large mediastinal mass. Multiple pigmented masses, likely melanomas, were detected peri-anally. Thoracic radiography, cytological examination of the pleural fluid and a fine needle aspirate of a thoracic mass led to a presumptive diagnosis of malignant melanoma and this was confirmed at post mortem examination. Further metastatic spread to the central nervous system and right guttural pouch was also identified. In conclusion this case manifests the potential malignant behaviour of equine melanomas, and a review of proposed therapies for melanoma treatment highlights the therapeutic options and current areas of research. PMID:24196087

  2. Patients’ preference of established and emerging treatment options for obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Pengo, Martino F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing. The standard treatment, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), has limited long-term compliance. Alternative treatment options are required and new methods, including hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) and continuous transcutaneous electrical stimulation (CTES), are currently emerging. We report on patients’ preference for different treatments of OSA. Methods We recorded patients’ age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire with 10 questions (FOSQ10), severity of OSA, and current treatment. We showed pictures of existing [CPAP, mandibular advancement device (MAD)] and emerging treatments (HNS and CTES). We then asked (I) whether participants were interested in further information about HNS/CTES; (II) if they would be willing to try HNS/CTES; and (III) if they were to choose only one of the four listed treatments, which one would they prefer to use every night. Results One hundred sixty-two patients completed the survey {81 males, mean age 52 [12] years, BMI 34 [7] kg/m2, ESS 10.2 (6.0) points, FOSQ10 28.5 (8.1) points}. The majority of the respondents (89.5%) had been diagnosed with OSA. A total of 91.3% of the respondents were interested in more information and were willing to try HNS/CTES. Most respondents preferred the potential use of CTES (56.7%), while 21.7% chose HNS, 17.8% CPAP, and 3.8% the MAD. There were no differences in the characteristics of the patients who preferred CTES compared to those who preferred other treatments, but a regression analysis revealed that a low ESS score was an independent predictor of patients choosing CTES (P<0.05). Conclusions More than 9 out of 10 of the respondents were interested in trying emerging technologies to treat OSA, most preferring CTES. Less sleepy patients were more likely to choose less invasive treatments. These findings will likely impact on future research and development of therapies for sleep-disordered breathing.

  3. 17 CFR 30.7 - Treatment of foreign futures or foreign options secured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...foreign futures or foreign options secured amount, including any residual financial interest of the futures...foreign futures or foreign options secured amount any...foreign futures or foreign options secured amount with...from having a residual financial interest in the...

  4. Efficacy of herbal tincture as treatment option for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Li, Jianxi; Wang, Xuezhi; Xie, Jiasheng; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Lei; Qin, Zhe; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Retained placenta remains therapeutic challenge in cattle. Certain traditional medicines are believed to be able to alleviate retained placenta condition and improve overall fertility in cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an herbal tincture for treatment of retained placenta. The herbal tincture was extracted from a combination of Herba Leonuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Flos Carthami, Myrrha and Rhizoma Cyperi by percolation with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.5g crude herb/ml. Cows diagnosed with retained placenta (n=48) were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals in group A (n=26) receiving herbal tincture orally, and cows in group B (n=22) receiving oxytetracycline infusion into the uterus. Eighty six cows with no clinically visible pathological conditions, given birth alone and with no retained placenta diagnosis were included into control group (C). Retained placenta was expelled within 72h following initial treatment in 19 cows in group A, yet no cows in group B were recorded to expel placenta in the same time. The median number of days to first service (70.0 vs. 102.5 days; P<0.05) and median number of days open (76.0 vs. 134.0 days; P<0.01) were lower in group A than in group B. Percentage of cows pregnant within 100 days postpartum was the highest for animals in group A compared to controls (61.5% vs. 39.5%, P<0.05), and for animals in group B (61.5% vs. 22.7%; P<0.01). Herbal tincture used in the present study might facilitate expulsion of retained placenta and improve subsequent fertility, thus could present effective treatment option for retained placenta in cows. PMID:24467962

  5. Daptomycin as supportive treatment option in patients developing mediastinitis after open cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mediastinitis is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. While improvement of prophylaxis and of medical and surgical therapy has reduced its incidence, the treatment of mediastinitis continues to be a challenging problem. Within this study, we report the successful use of daptomycin as supportive therapy in patients developing mediastinitis after open cardiac surgery. Methods The records of 21 consecutive patients who developed mediastinitis after cardiac surgery were retrospectively reviewed. After diagnosis, all patients received surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy with daptomycin. All patients were followed up to death or discharge. Results Clinical improvement after combined surgical and antibiotic therapy with daptomycin was found in 90.5% of the patients. The median time until clinical improvement occurred was 5 [4/6] days. Daptomycin was well-tolerated and no major adverse events during therapy were observed observed. Conclusions This study provides new and helpful information regarding the beneficial use of daptomycin as supportive treatment option in patients developing mediastinitis after cardiac surgery. PMID:22943887

  6. A new optional recycled water pre-treatment system prior to use in the household laundry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; Miechel, Clayton; Halloran, Kelly O'; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel

    2014-04-01

    With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550 mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance. PMID:24496024

  7. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia; Ungureanu, Gabriela; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-07-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastewater, as it is a potential pollutant of water bodies. This review article provides firstly a general overview about selenium distribution, sources, chemistry, toxicity and environmental impact. Analytical techniques used for Se determination and speciation and water and wastewater treatment options are reviewed. In particular, published works on adsorption as a treatment method for Se removal from aqueous solutions are critically analyzed. Recent published literature has given particular attention to the development and search for effective adsorbents, including low-cost alternative materials. Published works mostly consist in exploratory findings and laboratory-scale experiments. Binary metal oxides and LDHs (layered double hydroxides) have presented excellent adsorption capacities for selenium species. Unconventional sorbents (algae, agricultural wastes and other biomaterials), in raw or modified forms, have also led to very interesting results with the advantage of their availability and low-cost. Some directions to be considered in future works are also suggested. PMID:25847169

  8. Current and emerging treatment options for the elderly patient with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the current and emerging treatments of CKD prior to dialysis in the elderly. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of people who are aged over 65 years. In parallel, there are increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in the more advanced stages. The elderly have quite different health care needs related to their associated comorbidity, frailty, social isolation, poor functional status, and cognitive decline. Clinical trials assessing treatments for CKD have usually excluded patients older than 70–75 years; therefore, it is difficult to translate current therapies recommended for younger patients with CKD across to the elderly. Many elderly people with CKD progress to end-stage kidney disease and face the dilemma of whether to undertake dialysis or accept a conservative approach supported by palliative care. This places pressure on the patient, their family, and on health care resources. The clinical trajectory of elderly CKD patients has in the past been unclear, but recent evidence suggests that many patients over 75 years of age with multiple comorbidities have greatly reduced life expectancies and quality of life, even if they choose dialysis treatment. Offering a conservative pathway supported by palliative care is a reasonable option for some patients under these circumstances. The elderly person who chooses to have dialysis will frequently have different requirements than younger patients. Kidney transplantation can still result in improved life expectancy and quality of life in the elderly, in carefully selected people. There is a genuine need for the inclusion of the elderly in CKD clinical trials in the future so we can produce evidence-based therapies for this group. In addition, new therapies to treat and slow CKD progression are needed for all age groups. PMID:24477220

  9. Left subclavian artery stenting: an option for the treatment of the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Bruno Lorenção; Kambara, Antonio Massamitsu; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; de Oliveira, Eduardo Silva Jordao; Linhares Filho, Frederico Augusto de Carvalho; Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Passalacqua, Aldo Zampieri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The subclavian steal syndrome is characterized by the vertebral artery flow inversion, due to a stenotic lesion in the origin of the subclavian artery. The Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome is a variation of the Subclavian Steal Syndrome and is characterized by inversion of flow in the Internal Thracic artery that has been used as conduct in a myocardial revascularization. Its diagnosis must be suspected in patients with difference in pulse and arterial pressure in the upper limbs, that present with angina pectoris and that have done a myocardial revascularization. Its treatment must be a surgical bypass or a transluminal angioplasty. Objective The objective is to show the left subclavian artery stenting as a safe and effective method to treat the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. Methods Historical prospective, non-randomized trial, through revision of the hospital records of the patients treated with the stenting of the left subclavian artery, from January 2006 to September 2012. Results In the mentioned period, 4.291 miocardial revascularizations were performed with the use of the left mammary artery, and 16 patients were identified to have the Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. All of them were submitted to endovascular treatment. The success rate was 100%; two patients experienced minor complications; none of them presented with major complications. Eleven of the 16 patients had ultrassonographic documentation of patent stent for at least one year; two patients lost follow up and other two died. Conclusion The stenting of the left subclavian artery is a good option for the treatment of the Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome, with high level of technical and clinical success. PMID:25140474

  10. A roundtable discussion on the clinical challenges and options for the treatment of glioblastoma: introducing a novel modality, TTFields.

    PubMed

    Butowski, Nicholas; Wong, Eric T; Mehta, Minesh P; Wilson, Lydia K

    2013-12-01

    Since its approval in 2011 for patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM), physicians have responded positively to the non-invasive nature of the NovoTTF-100A System device (NovoCure Ltd, Haifa, Israel), citing significantly less toxicity and a better quality of life profile compared to available conventional therapies. A roundtable discussion (available at: http://education.seminoncol.org/path.php?1399:0:Media:title:bxvcs) was recently convened to provide a knowledge-based perspective surrounding current treatment options for patients with GBM and the clinical challenges involved with the treatment of recurrent GBM patients who have failed prior therapies. The participating roundtable experts discussed the challenges encountered in managing GBM patients, the current approved treatment options for these patients, the efficacy and safety profile of NovoTTF therapy (TTFields), and its use as a novel treatment modality for recurrent GBM patients. PMID:24331200

  11. Ureteroscopic Treatment of Ureteral Stones: Only an Auxiliary Measure of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy or a Primary Therapeutic Option?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avelino Hernandez Osti; Georg Hofmockel; Hubert Frohmüller

    1997-01-01

    Both extracorporeal Shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy are well-established methods in stone treatment; however, the therapeutic procedure in ureteral calculi, especially in the distal third of the ureter, is still controversially discussed. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of ureteroscopy as an auxiliary measure after ESWL and its importance as an alternative therapeutic option in

  12. Locoregional Treatment for Breast Carcinoma After Hodgkin's Lymphoma: The Breast Conservation Option

    SciTech Connect

    Haberer, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.haberer@wanadoo.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Belin, Lisa [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Le Scodan, Romuald; Kirova, Youlia M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Savignoni, Alexia; Stevens, Denise [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Moisson, Patricia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Decaudin, Didier; Pierga, Jean-Yves [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Reyal, Fabien [Department of Surgery, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Campana, Francois; Fourquet, Alain; Bollet, Marc A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report clinical and pathologic characteristics and outcome of breast cancer (BC) after irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in women treated at the Institut Curie, with a special focus on the breast-conserving option. Methods and Materials: Medical records of 72 women who developed either ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-III invasive carcinoma of the breast after HL between 1978 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Median age at HL diagnosis was 23 years (range, 14-53 years). Median total dose received by the mediastinum was 40 Gy, mostly by a mantle-field technique. Breast cancers occurred after a median interval of 21 years (range, 5-40 years). Ductal invasive carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ represented, respectively, 51 cases (71%) and 14 cases (19%). Invasive BCs consisted of 47 cT0-2 tumors (82%), 5 cN1-3 tumors (9%), and 20 Grade 3 tumors (35%). Locoregional treatment for BCs consisted of mastectomy with (3) or without (36) radiotherapy in 39 patients and lumpectomy with (30) or without (2) adjuvant radiotherapy in 32 patients. The isocentric lateral decubitus radiation technique was used in 17 patients after breast-conserving surgery (57%). With a median follow-up of 7 years, 5-year overall survival rate and locoregional control rate were, respectively, 74.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64-88%) and 82% (95% CI, 72-93%) for invasive carcinoma and 100% (95% CI, 100 -100%) and 92% (95% CI, 79-100%) for in situ carcinoma. In patients with invasive tumors, the 5-year distant disease-free survival rate was 79% (95% CI, 69-91%), and 13 patients died of progressive BC. Contralateral BC was diagnosed in 10 patients (14%). Conclusions: Breast-conserving treatment can be an option for BCs that occur after HL, despite prior thoracic irradiation. It should consist of lumpectomy and adjuvant breast radiotherapy with use of adequate techniques, such as the lateral decubitus isocentric position, to protect the underlying heart and lung.

  13. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  14. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: outcomes and treatment options for recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Robert S.; Trotter, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Overall survival and recurrence rates after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary, however observational data support the notion that patients with HCC have an overall worse long-term prognosis after LT compared to patients transplanted without HCC. Patient selection for LT in patients with HCC fluctuated as changes in the model for end-stage liver disease score was adjusted from 2002 to 2005. In the last decade, management of HCC patients on the waiting list has varied based on center experience. Since HCC patients have better access to the donor pool compared to non-HCC patients as evidenced by their lower dropout rate from the waiting list, living donation has been implemented in certain centers. Overall patient survival, recurrence free survival, and recurrence rates have been compared between living donor LT (LDLT) and deceased donor LT, with one meta-analysis reporting a lower disease free survival in LDLT, however overall patient survival and recurrence rates showed no difference at 1, 3 and 5 years. In patients exhibiting HCC recurrence, different modalities regarding immunosuppression and therapies have been evaluated. Currently there are no consensus treatment strategies regarding post-transplant HCC recurrence in patients not suitable for locoregional therapy, hence consideration of a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors with the addition of sorafenib might be a feasible option with close monitoring in clinical practice despite the notable toxicities.

  15. Lenvatinib: a new option for the treatment of advanced iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer?

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Loredana; Newbold, Kate

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT? Lenvatinib mesylate (E7080; 4-[3-chloro-4-(N'-cyclopropylureido) phenoxy] 7-methoxyquinoline-6-carboxamide mesylate) is an oral molecule that inhibits multiple tyrosine kinase receptors such as VEGF-R-1-3, FGF-R-1-4, RET, c-KIT and PDGF-R-?. Phase I studies identified the maximum tolerated dose to be 25 mg daily that, in fasting treated patients, is rapidly absorbed with maximum concentrations achieved within 3 h of administration. In these studies, lenvatinib showed activity in solid tumors. Subsequently, Phase II studies in thyroid cancer, in particular differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), confirmed good clinically significant activity and the recently published Phase III SELECT trial reported median progression-free survival was 18.3 months with lenvatinib versus 3.6 months with placebo (hazard ratio for progression or death: 0.21; 99% CI: 0.14-0.31; p < 0.001). Treatment-related adverse effects occurred in more than 40% of patients on lenvatinib. These were hypertension (in 67.8% of the patients), diarrhea (in 59.4%), fatigue or asthenia (in 59.0%), decreased appetite (in 50.2%), decreased weight (in 46.4%) and nausea (in 41.0%). Discontinuations of lenvatinib because of adverse effects occurred in 37 patients (14.2%) compared with three patients who received placebo (2.3%). Six of 20 deaths in patients on lenvatinib were considered to be drug-related. Lenvatinib has been licensed by the US FDA and EMA based on these data and provides an option for the treatment of radioiodine refractory DTC. PMID:26075440

  16. Prevalence of deep vein thrombosis in acutely admitted ambulatory non-surgical intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on prevalence rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in different patient populations are scarce. Most studies on this topic focus on older patients or patients with malignancies, immobilization or thrombophilia. Less is known about the VTE risk profile of non-surgical patients presenting with a variety of medical diseases of differing severity. Aim of the present study was to investigate VTE prevalence in a pospective cohort study of ambulatory medical intensive care unit patients within 24 h after acute admission. Methods Prospective cohort study of 102 consecutive patients after acute admission to medical intensive care unit. Ultrasound compression sonography, APACHE-II-Scoring and laboratory examination was performed within 24 hours after admission.Possible determinants of a high risk of VTE were examined. In all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DVT or suspicion of PE thoracic computer tomography (CT) was performed. Results VTE was found in 7.8% out of 102 of patients, mean APACHE-II-Score was 14 (mortality risk of about 15%). Thrombus location was femoropopliteal in 5 patients, iliacal in 2 and peroneal in 1 patient. Five VTE patients had concomitant PE (62.5% of VTE, 4.9% of all patients). No predictors of prevalent VTE were identified from univariable regression analysis although relative risk was high in patients with a history of smoking (RR 3.40), immobility (RR 2.50), and elevated D-Dimer levels (RR 3.49). Conclusions Prevalent VTE and concomitant PE were frequent in acutely admitted ICU patients. PMID:24996222

  17. 26 CFR 1.1504-4 - Treatment of warrants, options, convertible obligations, and other similar interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...option, warrant, convertible obligation, put option, redemption agreement (including...the right, on September 30, 1995, to put 50 shares of its S stock to Y in exchange...of its conversion right or X's right to put S stock to Y, that Y will own 50...

  18. Micro-treatment options for components of organic fraction of MSW in residential areas.

    PubMed

    Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V; Guruprasad, M; Devi, Vinuta

    2007-12-01

    There is a growing interest in management of MSW through micro-treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) in many cities of India. The OFMSW fraction is high (>80%) in many pockets within South Indian cities like Bangalore, Chikkamagalur, etc. and is largely represented by vegetable, fruit, packing and garden wastes. Among these, the last three have shown problems for easy decomposition. Fruit wastes are characterized by a large pectin supported fraction that decomposes quickly to organic acids (becomes pulpy) that eventually slow down anaerobic and aerobic decomposition processes. Paper fraction (newsprint and photocopying paper) as well as paddy straw (packing), bagasse (from cane juice stalls) and tree leaf litter (typical garden waste and street sweepings) are found in reasonably large proportions in MSW. These decompose slowly due to poor nutrients or physical state. We have examined the suitability of these substrates for micro-composting in plastic bins by tracking decomposition pattern and physical changes. It was found that fruit wastes decompose rapidly to produce organic acids and large leachate fraction such that it may need to be mixed with leachate absorbing materials (dry wastes) for good composting. Leaf litter, paddy straw and bagasse decompose to the tune of 90, 68 and 60% VS and are suitable for composting micro-treatment. Paper fractions even when augmented with 10% leaf compost failed to show appreciable decomposition in 50 days. All these feedstocks were found to have good biological methane potential (BMP) and showed promise for conversion to biogas under a mixed feed operation. Suitability of this approach was verified by operating a plug-flow type anaerobic digester where only leaf litter gathered nearby (as street sweepings) was used as feedstock. Here only a third of the BMP was realized at this scale (0.18 m(3 )biogas/kg VS 0.55 m(3)/kg in BMP). We conclude that anaerobic digestion in plug-flow like digesters appear a more suitable micro-treatment option (2-10 kg VS/day) because in addition to compost it also produces biogas for domestic use nearby. PMID:17503210

  19. Substance P receptor antagonism: a potential novel treatment option for viral-myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Prema; Taffet, George E; Engineer, Nikita; Khumbatta, Mitra; Firozgary, Bahrom; Reynolds, Corey; Pham, Thuy; Bulsara, Tushar; Firozgary, Gohar

    2015-01-01

    Viral-myocarditis is an important cause of heart failure for which no specific treatment is available. We previously showed the neuropeptide substance P (SP) is associated with the pathogenesis of murine myocarditis caused by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The current studies determined if pharmacological inhibition of SP-signaling via its high affinity receptor, NK1R and downstream G-protein, Ras homolog gene family, member-A (RhoA), will be beneficial in viral-myocarditis. Aprepitant (1.2?mg/kg), a SP-receptor antagonist, or fasudil (10?mg/kg), a RhoA inhibitor, or saline control was administered daily to mice orally for 3 days, prior to, or 5 days following, intraperitoneal infection with and without 50 PFU of EMCV, following which disease assessment studies, including echocardiogram and cardiac Doppler were performed in day 14 after infection. Pretreatment and posttreatment with aprepitant significantly reduced mortality, heart and cardiomyocyte size, and cardiac viral RNA levels (P < 0.05 all, ANOVA). Only aprepitant pretreatment improved heart functions; it significantly decreased end systolic diameter, improved fractional shortening, and increased peak aortic flow velocity (P < 0.05 all, ANOVA). Pre- or posttreatment with fasudil did not significantly impact disease manifestations. These findings indicate that SP contributes to cardiac-remodeling and dysfunction following ECMV infection via its high affinity receptor, but not through the Rho-A pathway. These studies suggest that SP-receptor antagonism may be a novel therapeutic-option for patients with viral-myocarditis. PMID:25821814

  20. Evolution in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine neoplasms, focus on systemic therapeutic options: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Sara; De Braud, Filippo; Festinese, Fabrizio; Bregant, Cristina; Lorenzoni, Alice; Maccauro, Marco; Milione, Massimo; Concas, Laura; Formisano, Barbara; Leuzzi, Livia; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    ABSTRACT? Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a group of heterogeneous tumors. The present review discusses current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of gastro-entero-pancreatic NEN. Several systemic options are currently available, including medical systemic chemotherapy, biological drugs, somatostatin analogs and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. The carcinoid syndrome can be adequately controlled with somatostatin analogs; chemotherapy has shown positive outcomes in poor prognosis patients, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is a promising treatment based on the use of radioisotopes for advanced disease expressing somatostatin receptors. Targeted therapies, such as multikinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies are also recommended or under evaluation for the treatment of advanced NENs, but some critical issues in clinical practice remain unresolved. Depending upon the development of the disease, a multimodal approach is recommended. The treatment strategy for metastatic patients should be planned by a multidisciplinary team in order to define the optimal sequence of treatments. PMID:26161929

  1. Intrathecal Morphine Pump as a Treatment Option in Chronic Pain of Nonmalignant Origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian F Angel; Harry J Gould; Michael E Carey

    1998-01-01

    BackgroundImplantable pumps for the delivery of intrathecal morphine have become a common option for administering opiate medication for the management of pain in patients with terminal cancer. Options for treating chronic pain of non-malignant origin are more controversial. This study describes responses to intrathecal morphine administration for managing chronic pain in patients without an underlying malignancy.MethodsEleven patients between the ages

  2. Targeted therapy for cutaneous oncology: a review of novel treatment options for non-melanoma skin cancer: part II.

    PubMed

    Walls, Brooke; Jordan, Laura; Diaz, Lisa; Miller, Richard

    2014-08-01

    The field of cutaneous oncology is exploding with innovative treatment options, specifically in the field of targeted therapy. These advances offer new hope to select patients with high risk skin cancers. In part two of our series on targeted therapy for skin cancer, we focus our attention on squamous cell carcinoma. We begin with the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and branch out into newer areas of active research. PMID:25116974

  3. Targeted therapy for cutaneous oncology: a review of novel treatment options for non-melanoma skin cancer: part I.

    PubMed

    Walls, Brooke; Jordan, Laura; Diaz, Lisa; Miller, Richard

    2014-08-01

    The field of cutaneous oncology is exploding with innovative treatment options, specifically in the field of targeted therapy. These advances offer new hope to select patients with high risk skin cancers. Here we provide a two part series reviewing targeted therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer. We begin our discussion with basal cell carcinoma, moving beyond the first-in-class hedgehog inhibitors and highlighting promising clinical trials. PMID:25116973

  4. Management of patients with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer with visceral disease: challenges and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Wael A

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine therapy is an important treatment option for women with hormone receptor–positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer (ABC), yet many tumors are either intrinsically resistant or develop resistance to these therapies. Treatment of patients with ABC presenting with visceral metastases, which is associated with a poor prognosis, is also problematic. There is an unmet need for effective treatments for this patient population. Although chemotherapy is commonly perceived to be more effective than endocrine therapy in managing visceral metastases, patients who are not in visceral crisis might benefit from endocrine therapy, avoiding chemotherapy-associated toxicities that might affect quality of life. To improve outcomes, several targeted therapies are being investigated in combination with endocrine therapy for patients with endocrine-resistant, HR+ ABC. Although available data have considered patients with HR+ ABC as a whole, there are promising data from a prespecified analysis of a Phase III study of everolimus (Afinitor®), a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, in combination with exemestane (Aromasin®) in patients with visceral disease progressing after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy. In this review, challenges and treatment options for management of HR+ ABC with visceral disease, including consideration of therapeutic approaches undergoing clinical investigation, will be assessed. PMID:25653556

  5. Autologous stem cell transplantation in the elderly including pre- and post-treatment options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S K Kumar; S R Hayman; R A Kyle

    2007-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease of the elderly with a median age at diagnosis of 67 years in a referral population. High-dose chemotherapy (HDT) and autologous stem cell transplantation has been shown to improve survival in patients with MM in randomized trials and remains the preferred option for eligible patients. However, the randomized clinical trials demonstrating an advantage for

  6. 40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...criteria are in § 141.716(b). Pre Filtration Toolbox Options (3) Presedimentation...in § 141.717(b). (5) Bank filtration 0.5-log credit for 25-foot...NTU. Systems using wells followed by filtration when conducting source water...

  7. 40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...criteria are in § 141.716(b). Pre Filtration Toolbox Options (3) Presedimentation...in § 141.717(b). (5) Bank filtration 0.5-log credit for 25-foot...NTU. Systems using wells followed by filtration when conducting source water...

  8. 40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...criteria are in § 141.716(b). Pre Filtration Toolbox Options (3) Presedimentation...in § 141.717(b). (5) Bank filtration 0.5-log credit for 25-foot...NTU. Systems using wells followed by filtration when conducting source water...

  9. 40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...criteria are in § 141.716(b). Pre Filtration Toolbox Options (3) Presedimentation...in § 141.717(b). (5) Bank filtration 0.5-log credit for 25-foot...NTU. Systems using wells followed by filtration when conducting source water...

  10. Evaluation and Demonstration of Treatment Options for Dairy Parlor and Milk House Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Schmidt

    Four different types of milk house wastewater treatment systems were installed on working dairy farms varying in size from 50-130 cows. The treatment systems demonstrated include two types of aerobic treatment units; two bark beds and spray irrigation. All of the systems include a primary treatment septic tank. In addition to system performance, design, management and economic aspects are being

  11. Non-surgical stem cell delivery strategies and in vivo cell tracking to injured myocardium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tycho I. G. van der Spoel; Joe Chun-Tsu Lee; Krijn Vrijsen; Joost P. G. Sluijter; Maarten Jan M. Cramer; Pieter A. Doevendans; Eric van Belle; Steven A. J. Chamuleau

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure is a major economic and public health problem. Despite the recent advances in drug therapy and coronary revascularization,\\u000a the lost cardiomyocytes due to necrosis and apoptosis are not replaced by new myocardial tissue. Cell therapy is an interesting\\u000a therapeutic option as it potentially improves contractility and restores regional ventricular function. Early clinical data\\u000a demonstrated that cell transplantation, mainly

  12. Can photodynamic therapy be the preferred treatment option for anal intraepithelial neoplasia? Initial results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Welbourn, Hannah; Duthie, Graeme; Powell, John; Moghissi, Keyvan

    2014-03-01

    Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a pre-malignant condition, which over time may progress to invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma. There is no standard treatment for AIN, but one of the therapeutic options available is photodynamic therapy (PDT). There are very few published studies of the efficacy of PDT, but it has been shown to produce downgrading of high-grade dysplasia in the anal region. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of PDT in the treatment of AIN. Fifteen patients who received anal PDT between 2004 and 2013 were identified; twelve of these had AIN, two had intra-epithelial adenocarcinoma and one had dysplasia with high-risk human papillomavirus. After a median follow-up of nineteen months, ten of these have had at least one follow-up with aceto-white staining. Six of these ten patients had a complete response to PDT, although three subsequently had some recurrence. Three further patients had a partial response to PDT. There were no major therapeutic complications. Our findings suggest that PDT is a safe and feasible treatment option for AIN, associated with reasonable response rates and relatively little morbidity. Further research into the efficacy of PDT for AIN is required. PMID:24280437

  13. Transcatheter embolisation of type 1 endoleaks after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with Onyx: when no other treatment option is feasible.

    PubMed

    Chun, J-Y; Morgan, R

    2013-02-01

    Type 1 endoleaks following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair are associated with poor outcomes and re-intervention is recommended as soon as possible after diagnosis. When standard endovascular or surgical treatment options are unsuitable due to severe co-morbidity or adverse anatomic factors, patients can be treated by transcatheter embolisation of the endoleak itself. We describe six such patients with proximal and distal type 1 endoleaks, who have been successfully treated by transcatheter embolisation with Onyx. The embolisation technique, advantages of using this relatively novel liquid embolic agent and potential pitfalls are discussed. PMID:23276679

  14. Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Katoh; Hiroki Shirato; Hidefumi Aoyama; Rikiya Onimaru; Keishiro Suzuki; Kazutoshi Hida; Kazuo Miyasaka; Yoshinobu Iwasaki

    2006-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Purpose  To retrospectively analyze the outcome of post-operative radiotherapy for spinal cord glioma with the emphasis on the hypofractionated\\u000a radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Forty-one patients with spinal cord glioma received post-operative radiotherapy between 1979 and 2003. The median age was\\u000a 34 years (range, 10–66 years). Median follow-up was 49 months

  15. Characterization of the release profile of doxycycline by PLGA microspheres adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Moura, Lucas Alves; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Aiello, Talita Bianchi; Duek, Eliana Ap De Rezende; Sallum, Enilson Antonio; Nociti Junior, Francisco Humberto; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Antonio Wilson

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the release of locally delivered doxycycline by poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres in the periodontal pocket of patients with chronic periodontitis, treated by non-surgical periodontal therapy. Nineteen sites of non-adjacent teeth of four different patients were evaluated. Five milligram of PLGA microspheres loaded with 16 doxycycline hyclate (DOX) was administered per periodontal site. To quantify DOX released into the periodontal pocket, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected from the sites on days 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 after DOX application, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. Data were statistically assessed by ANOVA/Tukey test. At days 2, 5, and 7, the DOX concentration was stably sustained (23.33 ± 1.38, 23.4 ± 1.82, and 22.75 ± 1.33 ?g/mL, respectively), with no significant differences over these assessment times (p > 0.05). At days 10 and 15, a tendency was observed toward a decrease in DOX concentration (21.74 ± 0.91 and 20.53 ± 4.88 ?g/mL, respectively), but a significant decrease in GCF drug concentration (19.69 ± 4.70 ?g/mL) was observed only on day 20. The DOX delivery system developed demonstrated a successful sustained release after local administration, as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy. PMID:25917501

  16. Endoscopic ultrasonography: an advancing option with duality in both diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal oncology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since their introduction into the clinical practices in 1980s, techniques of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) have been rapidly developing and are now in widespread use in gastrointestinal oncology. Evolving from the classical option, EUS today has been much innovated with addition of a variety of novel ideation which makes it a powerful tool with encouraging duality for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. There is a dire need for physicians in this field to understand the status quo of EUS as related to the management and detection of gastrointestinal tumors, which is globally reviewed in this paper. PMID:25561772

  17. Review of Common Therapeutic Options in the United States for the Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly N. Jones; Joseph C. English III

    2003-01-01

    Numerous therapies are available in both over-the-counter and prescription formulations for the treatment of head lice infestation. We summarize treatment recommendations from published literature and from a recent meta-analysis from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews that describe the efficacy, safety, and resistance patterns of monotherapies available in the United States. If treatment with pyrethrin or permethrin fails to eradicate

  18. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of systemic treatment options.

    PubMed

    Pantelides, Nicholas M; Ivaz, Stella L; Falconer, Alison; Hazell, Steven; Winkler, Mathias; Hrouda, David; Mayer, Erik K

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the urinary bladder is a rare variant, which can occur in a pure form or in conjunction with transitional cell carcinoma. Owing to the scarcity of reported cases, the optimum treatment is yet to be defined, although the benefits of chemotherapy are increasingly recognised. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with pure LELC, treated with trans-urethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and primary gemcitabine and platinum-based chemotherapy. He remained free of disease at six-month follow-up cystoscopy. The case adds to the growing evidence for the efficacy of chemotherapy, coupled with TUR, as part of a bladder-preserving treatment option for LELC. PMID:22346102

  19. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of systemic treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Pantelides, Nicholas M.; Ivaz, Stella L.; Falconer, Alison; Hazell, Steven; Winkler, Mathias; Hrouda, David; Mayer, Erik K.

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the urinary bladder is a rare variant, which can occur in a pure form or in conjunction with transitional cell carcinoma. Owing to the scarcity of reported cases, the optimum treatment is yet to be defined, although the benefits of chemotherapy are increasingly recognised. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with pure LELC, treated with trans-urethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and primary gemcitabine and platinum-based chemotherapy. He remained free of disease at six-month follow-up cystoscopy. The case adds to the growing evidence for the efficacy of chemotherapy, coupled with TUR, as part of a bladder-preserving treatment option for LELC. PMID:22346102

  20. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE`s investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4).

  1. [Non-surgical approach for symptomatic fibroids. Physical methods: selective embolization].

    PubMed

    Tarriel, Josep Estadella; Moreno, Cristina Soler; Ajenjo, Marta Campillo; Vara, Rubén Guerrero

    2013-07-01

    The approach to symptomatic uterine fibroids has seen a marked evolution in recent years thanks to the emergence of minimally invasive techniques that allow for uterine preservation. Selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) consists of the complete occlusion of the 2 uterine arteries with embolic particles in order to produce ischemic necrosis of the fibroids without permanently affecting the normal uterine tissue. This technique significantly reduces the amount of bleeding and causes a reduction in uterine volume at 3 months postprocedure, which is maintained over time, allowing for 70% of patients to avoid surgery. Moreover, UAE entails shorter surgical times, reduced hospital stays and fewer days needed to return to work when compared with traditional surgical techniques (hysterectomy and fibroidectomy), without any differences in the quality-of-life scales at 5 years. UAE should therefore be included in the therapeutic options offered to patients with symptomatic fibroid uteri. PMID:24314563

  2. Non-Surgical Procedures Open Blocked Arteries to Prevent and Treat Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breast Cancer - kidney Cancer - liver Cancer - lung Deep vein thrombosis Endovascular Treatment of CCSVI for MS Gastrostomy ( ... Trauma Uterine fibroids Varicoceles and male infertility Varicose veins Venous access catheters Vertebroplasty Women and vascular disease ...

  3. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  4. Options and Limitations of the Cognitive Psychological Approach to the Treatment of Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonnessen, Finn Egil

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes how cognitive psychology defines and treats dyslexia. Shows how behaviorism and connectionism can function as supplements in areas in which cognitive psychology has displayed weaknesses and limitations. Characteristics of cognitive psychology, cognitive treatment, and behavioristic and connectionistic treatment are discussed. (CR)

  5. Medical treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma: present options and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Canobbio; Loredana Miglietta; Francesco Boccardo

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) continues to be disappointing. A large number of hormones, chemotherapeutic agents and combinations have been tested with poor and non-reproducible results. Among the immunological treatments investigated in MRCC, the best results have been claimed with interferons (IFNs) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and, although no randomized studies have shown higher activity than

  6. Partial cystectomy: Is it a reliable option for the treatment of bladder leiomyosarcoma?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yun-fei; Wang, Guang-chun; Zheng, Jun-hua; Peng, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Bladder leiomyosarcoma is a unique mesenchymal tumour, accounting for less than 0.5% of all primary bladder malignancies. Bladder leiomyosarcoma used to be treated with radical surgery in either old or young patients, often resulting in significant impact on the patients’s quality of life after surgery. We report on a case of bladder leiomyosarcoma in a 31-year-old female who was treated with partial cystectomy. Fortunately, no tumour metastasis or relapse was observed during the 7-year follow-up period and the patient now has a good quality of life. We found that partial cystectomy may be an acceptable option to treat bladder leiomyosarcoma in the low MSKCC (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center) stage. PMID:21470521

  7. [Postinfectious cough - a modern view to the pathogenesis and treatment options].

    PubMed

    Poniakina, M A; Ovchinnikov, A Iu; Korostelev, S A

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a literature review regarding the pathogenesis and therapy options of postinfectious (PI) cough.It was shown that the pathogenesis of PI cough may be multifactorial, and in general, the state is of a great interest for otolaryngologists, because on the one hand, there is a large number of patients with PI cough, and on the other hand, it is unclear practical solution. In this regard, since the pharmacological viewpoint of the largest positive effect can be expected with combination of medications with synergistic actions. One of them is Ascoril expectorant whose effectiveness in both children and adults with respect to the dynamics of cough has been demonstrated in many studies. PMID:24005278

  8. Treatment options for small cell lung cancer - do we have more choice?

    PubMed

    Puglisi, M; Dolly, S; Faria, A; Myerson, J S; Popat, S; O'Brien, M E R

    2010-02-16

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a significant health problem worldwide because of its high propensity for relapse. This review discusses existing and future therapies for the treatment of SCLC. PMID:20104223

  9. Assessment of sludge management options in a waste water treatment plant

    E-print Network

    Lim, Jong hyun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is part of a larger project which began in response to a request by the Spanish water agengy, Cadagua, for advice on life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental impacts of Cadagua operated wastewater treatment ...

  10. Managing Behçet's disease: An update on current and emerging treatment options.

    PubMed

    van Daele, P La; Kappen, J H; van Hagen, P M; van Laar, J Am

    2009-04-01

    Behçet's disease is an autoinflammatory vasculitis of unknown origin characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis and skin lesions. Additionally, involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and large vessels may occur. The disease is prevalent in countries along the ancient Silk Road from Eastern Asia to the Mediterranean Basin. Many treatment modalities are currently available. The choice of treatment depends on organ involvement and severity of disease. Topical treatment with corticosteroids is often sufficient for mucocutaneous involvement, however for more severe disease with vasculitis or neurological involvement a more aggressive approach is warranted. Newer drugs (biologicals) influencing cytokines and thereby T-cell function are promising with an acceptable side effect profile. Unfortunately, reimbursement of the costs of biologicals for rare disease is still a problem in various countries. In this report we discuss the current treatment modalities for Behçet's disease. PMID:19536320

  11. Managing Behçet’s disease: An update on current and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    van Daele, P LA; Kappen, J H; van Hagen, P M; van Laar, J AM

    2009-01-01

    Behçet’s disease is an autoinflammatory vasculitis of unknown origin characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis and skin lesions. Additionally, involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and large vessels may occur. The disease is prevalent in countries along the ancient Silk Road from Eastern Asia to the Mediterranean Basin. Many treatment modalities are currently available. The choice of treatment depends on organ involvement and severity of disease. Topical treatment with corticosteroids is often sufficient for mucocutaneous involvement, however for more severe disease with vasculitis or neurological involvement a more aggressive approach is warranted. Newer drugs (biologicals) influencing cytokines and thereby T-cell function are promising with an acceptable side effect profile. Unfortunately, reimbursement of the costs of biologicals for rare disease is still a problem in various countries. In this report we discuss the current treatment modalities for Behçet’s disease. PMID:19536320

  12. 40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment...where chemical addition and hardness precipitation occur in...filtration when conducting source water monitoring must sample...

  13. Non-surgical prevention and management of scoliosis for children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrienne; Baker, Louise; Williams, Katrina

    2014-10-01

    A review was performed to examine the evidence for non-surgical interventions for preventing scoliosis and the need for scoliosis surgery in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Medline and Embase databases and reference lists from key articles were searched. After the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 13 studies were critically appraised independently by two reviewers. The included studies examined spinal orthoses and steroid therapy. There were no studies with high levels of evidence (randomised or other controlled trials). The studies with the highest level of evidence were non-randomised experimental trials. There is some evidence that children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who receive steroid therapy might have delayed onset of scoliosis, but more evidence is required about the long-term risks versus benefits of this intervention. There is weak evidence that spinal orthoses do not prevent and only minimally delay the onset of scoliosis. PMID:23560735

  14. Should medical treatment options be exhausted before splenectomy is performed in adult ITP patients? A debate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Stasi; Adrian Newland; Patrick Thornton; Ingrid Pabinger

    2010-01-01

    Patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) may require treatment to reduce the risk of serious bleeding if platelets\\u000a remain consistently below 30?×?109\\/L. While approximately 70–80% of patients respond to an initial course of corticosteroids, relapse is common. For steroid-refractory\\u000a patients, there is a choice between surgical splenectomy and further medical treatments, based on many factors including the\\u000a patient’s bleeding history,

  15. Prostate disease: management options for the primary healthcare team. Report of a working party of the British Prostate Group.

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, G. D.; Carne, S. J.; Fitzpatrick, J. M.; George, N. J.; Gingell, J. C.; Keen, J. W.; Kirby, R. S.; Kirk, D.; O'Donoghue, E. P.; Peeling, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The prostate gland has attracted a remarkable increase in interest in the past few years. The two most common diseases of this gland, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate, have been brought into greater prominence by new diagnostic methods, public interest, and a wider choice of surgical and non-surgical treatments. Uncertainty about the significance of these changes has occurred because of the rapidity of change, the profusion of statements, opinions and promotions, and the relatively little guidance available from the profession. Ten urologists and two general practitioners have reviewed the relevant evidence about these two prostate diseases and the newer diagnostic methods; their conclusions are summarised here. Management options and guidance on clinical practice are also discussed. Because of a number of unresolved diagnostic and management issues, detailed requirements for practice guidelines have not been specified. PMID:7538216

  16. Cannabis dependence as a primary drug use-related problem: the case for harm reduction-oriented treatment options.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, A D; Callaghan, R C; Macdonald, S; Erickson, P G

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have focused on cannabis dependence as compared to other drugs more commonly acknowledged as presenting a substantial need for treatment. This paper presents findings from a 2004-2005 study of drug user treatment clients in Southern Ontario, Canada. Clients with cannabis (n = 128) or cocaine (n = 300) as their primary drug problem were compared on psychosocial and demographic characteristics, drug effects, and clinical impairment. There are more similarities than differences between groups, with DAST and DSM scores showing high rates of "dependence" and reported symptoms of "abuse." However, cannabis consistently scored lower on these items, supporting the idea of a continuum of risk on which its rank compared with other potentially misused drugs holds across a wide range of symptoms of impairment. The less disruptive nature of cannabis use-related problems poses greater challenges for drug user treatment providers guided by strict abstinence agendas. The authors call for the expansion of harm reduction treatment options and educational initiatives beyond primary prevention that acknowledge benefits of moderate controlled use when addressing cannabis misuse. PMID:19938940

  17. Update on the use of topical NSAIDs for the treatment of soft tissue and musculoskeletal pain: a review of recent data and current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Alan R; McCarberg, Bill; Argoff, Charles E

    2010-06-01

    Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have an emerging role in the treatment of certain types of acute pain. In addition to their convenience, efficacy, and safety, they are an attractive option, particularly when considering current concerns about the safety of traditional NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs). Topical analgesics act largely within the peripheral nervous system. Studies have demonstrated that topical NSAIDs penetrate the skin and distribute to the target tissues underlying the application site. Because the pharmacologically effective dose is delivered at the site of pain, there is minimal systemic absorption and risk of related adverse events. Topical NSAIDs have been used for many years in Europe, with extensive post-marketing data available for some of the agents. Three topical NSAID formulations have recently been approved for use in the United States: the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP), diclofenac sodium 1% gel, and diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5%. Topical NSAIDs provide a therapeutic option for treatment of acute, localized, soft tissue injuries or painful conditions in areas of the body that can be readily treated using the topical route of administration. This article reviews available data on the use of topical NSAID therapy. PMID:20631465

  18. Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kingsberg, SA; Kellogg, S; Krychman, M

    2010-01-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms. PMID:21072280

  19. Meningiomatosis restricted to the left cerebral hemisphere with acute clinical deterioration: Case presentation and discussion of treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Ohla, Victoria; Scheiwe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background: True multiple meningiomas are defined as meningiomas occurring at several intracranial locations simultaneously without the presence of neurofibromatosis. Though the prognosis does not differ from benign solitary meningiomas, the simultaneous occurrence of different grades of malignancy has been reported in one-third of patients with multiple meningiomas. Due to its rarity, unclear etiology, and questions related to proper management, we are presenting our case of meningiomatosis and discuss possible pathophysiological mechanisms. Case Description: We illustrate the case of a 55-year-old female with multiple meningothelial meningeomas exclusively located in the left cerebral hemisphere. The patient presented with acute vigilance decrement, aphasia, and vomiting. Further deterioration with sopor and nondirectional movements required oral intubation. Emergent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with MR-angiography disclosed a massive midline shift to the right due to widespread, plaque-like lesions suspicious for meningeomatosis, purely restricted to the left cerebral hemisphere. Emergency partial tumor resection was performed. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan showed markedly reduction of cerebral edema and midline shift. After tapering the sedation a right-sided hemiparesis resolved within 2 weeks, leaving the patient neurologically intact. Conclusion: Although multiple meningeomas are reported frequently, the presence of meningeomatosis purely restricted to one cerebral hemisphere is very rare. As with other accessible and symptomatic lesions, the treatment of choice is complete resection with clean margins to avoid local recurrence. In case of widespread distribution a step-by-step resection with the option of postoperative radiation of tumor remnants may be an option. PMID:25949852

  20. Options for the thermal treatment of ordnance items and explosives contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The US military, Department of Energy, and ordnance manufacturing industry have numerous installations and remedial action sites that include contamination with explosives and/or have unexploded ordnance buried at the site. These materials present unique challenges for their safe and environmentally sound disposal. This paper discusses the types of contamination that may be encountered at a response site, types of thermal treatment technologies, and specific examples of thermal treatment technologies presently in use or planned for implementation at production facilities in the energetic materials industry. Although many of the technologies at use in or planned for industrial applications are not directly applicable to remediation sites, these technologies serve to demonstrate the challenges associated with treatment of sensitive and energetic materials.

  1. Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed, E-mail: sarfraznazir@doctors.org.uk; Ganeshan, Arul [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Nazir, Sheraz [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine (United Kingdom); Uberoi, Raman [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

  2. Mycoplasma genitalium infection: current treatment options, therapeutic failure, and resistance-associated mutations

    PubMed Central

    Couldwell, Deborah L; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, and related upper genital tract infections. The efficacy of doxycycline, used extensively to treat non-gonococcal urethritis in the past, is relatively poor for M. genitalium infection; azithromycin has been the preferred treatment for several years. Research on the efficacy of azithromycin has primarily focused on the 1 g single-dose regimen, but some studies have also evaluated higher doses and longer courses, particularly the extended 1.5 g regimen. This extended regimen is thought to be more efficacious than the 1 g single-dose regimen, although the regimens have not been directly compared in clinical trials. Azithromycin treatment failure was first reported in Australia and has subsequently been documented in several continents. Recent reports indicate an upward trend in the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium infections (transmitted resistance), and cases of induced resistance following azithromycin therapy have also been documented. Emergence of antimicrobial-resistant M. genitalium, driven by suboptimal macrolide dosage, now threatens the continued provision of effective and convenient treatments. Advances in techniques to detect resistance mutations in DNA extracts have facilitated correlation of clinical outcomes with genotypic resistance. A strong and consistent association exists between presence of 23S rRNA gene mutations and azithromycin treatment failure. Fluoroquinolones such as moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and sitafloxacin remain highly active against most macrolide-resistant M. genitalium. However, the first clinical cases of moxifloxacin treatment failure, due to bacteria with coexistent macrolide-associated and fluoroquinolone-associated resistance mutations, were recently published by Australian investigators. Pristinamycin and solithromycin may be of clinical benefit for such multidrug-resistant infections. Further clinical studies are required to determine the optimal therapeutic dosing schedules for both agents to effect clinical cure and minimize the risk of emergent antimicrobial resistance. Continual inappropriate M. genitalium treatments will likely lead to untreatable infections in the future. PMID:26060411

  3. Near-infrared light as a possible treatment option for Parkinson's disease and laser eye injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSmet, Kristina; Buchmann, Ellen; Henry, Michele; Wong-Riley, Margaret; Eells, Janis; VerHoeve, Jim; Whelan, Harry

    2009-02-01

    Studies in our laboratory demonstrate that the action spectrum for stimulation of cytochrome oxidase activity and cellular ATP parallels the near-infrared absorption spectrum of cytochrome oxidase and that 660-680 nm irradiation upregulates cytochrome oxidase activity in cultured neurons. Treatment with nearinfrared light augments cellular energy production and neuronal viability following mitochondrial injury linking the actions of red to near-infrared light on mitochondrial metabolism in vitro and cell injury in vivo. NIR light treatment represents an innovative therapeutic approach for disease processes in which mitochondrial dysfunction is postulated to play a role including Parkinson's disease, laser eye injury and Age-related macular degeneration.

  4. Update on the management of chronic eczema: new approaches and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease with worldwide prevalence, affecting up to 20% of children and 3% of adults. Recent evidence regarding pathogenesis has implicated epidermal barrier defects deriving from filagrin mutations with resulting secondary inflammation. In this report, the authors comprehensively review the literature on atopic dermatitis therapy, including topical and systemic options. Most cases of AD will benefit from emollients to enhance the barrier function of skin. Topical corticosteroids are first-line therapy for most cases of AD. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus ointment, pimecrolimus cream) are considered second line therapy. Several novel barrier-enhancing prescription creams are also available. Moderate to severe cases inadequately controlled with topical therapy may require phototherapy or systemic therapy. The most commonly employed phototherapy modalites are narrow-band UVB, broadband UVB, and UVA1. Traditional systemic therapies include short-term corticosteroids, cyclosporine (considered to be the gold standard), methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and most recently leflunamide. Biologic therapies include recombinant monoclonal antibodies acting on the immunoglobulin E / interleukin-5 pathway (omalizumab, mepolizumab), acting as tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab), and acting as T-cell (alefacept) and B-cell (rituxumab) inhibitors, as well as interferon ? and intravenous immunoglobulin. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability are reviewed for each medication. PMID:21437065

  5. Emerging treatment options for recurrent ovarian cancer: the potential role of olaparib.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Heather M; Hall, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Olaparib has shown promising anticancer activity as a single agent in the treatment and maintenance of recurrent ovarian cancer in early clinical trials, but it is far from standard therapy. This article outlines the problem of relapsed ovarian cancer and the mechanisms of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors and reviews the recent literature pertaining to olaparib in ovarian cancer. PMID:24043945

  6. Emerging treatment options for recurrent ovarian cancer: the potential role of olaparib

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Heather M; Hall, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Olaparib has shown promising anticancer activity as a single agent in the treatment and maintenance of recurrent ovarian cancer in early clinical trials, but it is far from standard therapy. This article outlines the problem of relapsed ovarian cancer and the mechanisms of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors and reviews the recent literature pertaining to olaparib in ovarian cancer. PMID:24043945

  7. Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Option for Epilepsy: Meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Beth Henderson; Francis M. Filloux; Stephen C. Alder; Joseph L. Lyon; Deirdre A. Caplin

    2006-01-01

    The evidence base for the efficacy of the ketogenic diet was assessed among pediatric epileptic patients by application of a rigorous statistical meta-analysis. Nineteen studies from 392 abstracts met the inclusion criteria. The sample size was 1084 patients (mean age at initiation 5.78 ± 3.43 years). The pooled odds ratio, using a random effects model, of treatment success (> 50%

  8. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: An Alternative Option of Treatment for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Loizzi; G. Cormio; M. Vicino; L. Selvaggi

    2008-01-01

    Although the incidence of cervical cancer has declined in both North America and Europe, it still represents the second most common cancer in women and the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Most patients in the developed countries present with disease either confined to the cervix or with limited extension beyond it. Historically, the standard treatment was usually radiotherapy or radical

  9. Transposition of maxillary canine to central incisor site: aetiology, treatment options and case report.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zohaib; Jaisinghani, Aneel C; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais

    2014-09-01

    Dental transposition is relatively infrequent anomaly of the developing dentition. This article focuses on canine transposition and explores the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of this challenging anomaly. Specifically, the management of a case of canine transposition involving an unerupted maxillary central incisor is described. PMID:24521750

  10. Nutrient reduction evaluation of sewage effluent treatment options for small communities.

    PubMed

    Beavers, P D; Tully, I K

    2005-01-01

    Small communities that are sewered by either package sewage treatment plants or on-site sewerage facilities are finding that the ground and surface waters are being contaminated. Nitrogen, which typically is not removed in these conventional systems, is a major concern. This project evaluated the capability of four sewage treatment technologies to reduce the amount of nitrogen being discharged in the effluent to the receiving environment. The four sewage treatment processes evaluated include a recirculating sand filter, biofilter, slow sand filter and constructed subsurface flow wetland. These processes were evaluated for their capability to reduce nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD5 and TSS. The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the capability of these treatment processes to reduce nitrogen using biological processes nitrification and denitrification. This paper reports on the performance of these processes to reduce nitrogen. The study demonstrated that the biofilter was capable of removing from a primary treated influent 40% of the total nitrogen. For the same quality influent the recirculating sand filter was capable of removing 35% of the total nitrogen. Secondary treated effluent was fed to the slow sand filter and the subsurface flow wetland. There was a 52% reduction in total nitrogen through the wetland however there was virtually no reduction in total nitrogen through the slow sand filter. PMID:16104425

  11. Current treatment options for early management in acute decompensated heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Jonathan G

    2008-01-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a common syndrome that precedes over 100,000 hospitalizations in Canada per year (with length of stay in excess of six to eight days), making this the most costly disorder for patients older than 65 years of age. Over 85% of ADHF patients present with shortness of breath and exhibit evidence of volume overload. These findings may be variable in elderly patients, which complicates diagnosis. In fact, even in experienced centres, diagnostic accuracy is less than 80%. Despite advances in the treatment of chronic heart failure, meaningful improvements in outcomes associated with ADHF are very few. The basic assessment and treatments have not changed (early parenteral diuretics, electrocardiographic and oxygen saturation monitoring, supplemental oxygen administration). The introduction of measurement of natriuretic peptides in those in whom the diagnosis is uncertain may reduced the error rate by over 50%. The use of vasodilator therapy in the absence of cardiogenic shock can lead to earlier amelioration of symptoms, especially in those who do not respond to initial diuretics. Repeated monitoring of vital signs, body weight, electrolytes and creatinine levels is essential to minimize the risk of side effects of treatments. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need for endotracheal intubation in patients with severe ADHF and hypoxia at rest. Once the initial phase of heart failure treatment is completed, then the clinician should begin to focus on maximization of chronic heart failure therapy and discharge planning. PMID:18629382

  12. Screening of Recovery and Treatment Options for Waste Minimization Andreas A. Linninger* and Aninda Chakraborty

    E-print Network

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    . (617) 253-3904, email: geosteph@mit.edu Abstract: In pharmaceutical and specialty chemical production a large number of different types and levels of waste are leaving pharmaceutical production campaigns EVIEW #12;2 Keywords Waste treatment, process synthesis, pollution prevention Introduction Traditionally

  13. A review of the current options for the treatment and safe disposal of drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Ball, Andrew S; Stewart, Richard J; Schliephake, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Drilling for the exploration and extraction of oil requires the use of drilling fluids which are continuously pumped down and returned carrying the rock phase that is extracted from the well. The potential environmental impacts of contaminated fluids from drilling operations have attracted increasing community awareness and scrutiny. This review article highlights current advances in the treatment of drill cuttings and compares the technologies in terms of cost, time and space requirements. Traditionally, a range of non-biological methods have been employed for the disposal of drill cuttings including burial pits, landfills and re-injection, chemical stabilization and solidification and thermal treatments such as incineration and thermal desorption. More recently, bioremediation has been successfully applied as a treatment process for cuttings. This review provides a current comparison of bioremediation technologies and non-biological technologies for the treatment of contaminated drill cuttings providing information on a number of factors that need to be taken into account when choosing the best technology for drilling waste management including the environmental risks associated with disposal of drilling wastes. PMID:22071177

  14. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT), a resuscitation option for intra-thoracic foetal pathologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Kern; Michel Ange; Riccardo E. Pfister

    The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is designed to guarantee sufficient oxy- genation for a foetus at risk of airway obstruction. This is achieved by improving lung ventilation, usually by establishing an airway during caesarean delivery whilst preserving the foetal-placental cir- culation temporarily. Indications for the EXIT procedure have extended from its original use in reversing iatrogenic tracheal obstruction

  15. Fungal biosorption — an alternative treatment option for heavy metal bearing wastewaters: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

    1995-01-01

    The common filamentous fungi can sorb heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The sorption of heavy metals, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Ag, Th, Ra and U, by fungal biomass has been observed to varying extents. Fungal biosorption largely depends on parameters such as pH, metal ion and biomass concentration, physical or chemical pre-treatment of biomass, presence of various ligands

  16. Environmental and cost life cycle assessment of disinfection options for municipal wastewater treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the data collection, analysis, and results for a base case wastewater treatment (WWT) plant reference model. The base case is modeled after the Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati (MSDGC) Mill Creek Plant. The plant has an activated sludge s...

  17. Dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius - a study of preferred treatment options among UK trauma and orthopaedic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Hull, P; Baraza, N; Whalley, H; Brewster, M; Costa, M

    2010-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are common, and surgeons have in their armament a variety of ways of treating them. In this study, 50 orthopaedic surgeons in the UK were shown five clinical scenarios and radiographs from patients with various fracture patterns of the distal radius, and were asked for their preferred management. There was a wide variation in the preferred treatment for each scenario presented. Across all of the cases, 52% of surgeons preferred to use a volar locking-plate compared with 21% who chose fixation with Kirschner wires. There was very little consensus among surgeons with regard to the optimal method of fixation for patients sustaining dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius. This disagreement is not surprising as there is currently no high level evidence to guide surgeons as to the best management option for this common and potentially debilitating injury. PMID:21089193

  18. Topical treatment of onychomycosis as a realistic option to systemic therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a very common disease, especially in podiatric medical practice. It can be associated with significant patient distress, major disability and pain, and is challenging to treat successfully. This is a case study of a 41-year-old man with distal lateral subungual onychomycosis of 5 years' duration. Forty percent of the great toenail was affected and a total of six toenails were involved. Baseline fungal cultures were positive for Trichophyton rubrum. This patient was treated with efinaconazole 10% solution, a new topical antifungal, once daily for 48 weeks. Mycological cure was noted at the first assessment period (12 weeks), and compete cure was seen at follow-up. This case study alerts physicians to a promising new topical treatment for onychomycosis under development, and to the importance of mycological cure as an early indicator of treatment success. PMID:24504588

  19. Treatment options and flow sheets for ORNL low-level liquid waste supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.

    1991-12-01

    Low-level liquid waste (LLLW) is currently contained in ten 50,000-gal storage and process tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and as residual heels in an number of older tanks that are no longer in active use. Plans are being formulated to treat these wastes, along with similar LLLW that will be generated in the future, to yield decontaminated effluents that can be disposed of and stable solid waste forms that can be permanently stored. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the performance of the most promising separations processes that are appropriate for treatment of the LLLW supernate solution to remove the two dominant radionuclides, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr; to indicate how they can be integrated into an effective flowsheet; and to estimate the expected performance of such flowsheets in comparison to waste treatment requirements.

  20. New treatment option for young women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A drug used for treating breast cancer, known as exemestane, is more effective than a common breast cancer prevention drug, tamoxifen, in preventing breast cancer recurrence in young women who also receive post-surgical treatment to suppress ovarian function. The combined results of the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial and Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial were presented at the 2014 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago.

  1. Micro-treatment options for components of organic fraction of MSW in residential areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. Chanakya; T. V. Ramachandra; M. Guruprasad; Vinuta Devi

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in management of MSW through micro-treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW)\\u000a in many cities of India. The OFMSW fraction is high (>80%) in many pockets within South Indian cities like Bangalore, Chikkamagalur,\\u000a etc. and is largely represented by vegetable, fruit, packing and garden wastes. Among these, the last three have shown problems

  2. Intraspinal neuroblastoma: Treatment options and neurological outcome of spinal cord compression

    PubMed Central

    FAWZY, MOHAMED; EL-BELTAGY, MOHAMED; SHAFEI, MAGED EL; ZAGHLOUL, MOHAMED SAAD; KINAAI, NAGLAA AL; REFAAT, AMAL; AZMY, SARAH

    2015-01-01

    Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a common complication of cancer. Paraspinal neuroblastoma (NB) in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions may extend into the neural foramina causing compression of nerve roots and even the spinal cord. The prompt initiation of specific treatment can improve the neurological outcome. The aim of the present study was to review the clinical features, the management received and the factors that may affect the outcome of patients with MSCC caused by paraspinal NB. During a period between July 2007 and December 2012, a total of 576 NB patients were treated at the Children’s Cancer Hospital (Cairo, Egypt). Intraspinal disease extension was present in 51 patients (9%). The children with intraspinal disease extension were reviewed for disease pattern, neurological manifestations and treatment outcome. Children with intraspinal disease extension had an equal male to female ratio (1:1), and approximately two-thirds of patients (34/51) had a clinically manifested cord compression. The duration of neurological manifestations was >4 weeks in 58.8% (20/34) of symptomatic patients and ?4 weeks in 41.2% (14/34). Subsequent to starting treatment, neurological manifestations showed a complete recovery in 16 patients (47.1%), partial in 11 (32.4%), and stationary course was found in 7 (20.6%). Manifestations of ?4 weeks in duration carried an improved outcome compared with longer time compression, with a complete recovery in 78.6%, versus 25% for patients with a longer symptom duration (P=0.008). The upfront treatment, patient age and site of the primary tumor did not significantly affect the neurological outcome. Spinal cord compression in NB can be effectively managed with upfront chemotherapy. Initial surgical decompression should be reserved for benign variants only, including ganglioneuroma. Neurological manifestations of <4 weeks duration upon presentation are usually reversible. PMID:25624912

  3. The potential of panobinostat as a treatment option in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia V.

    2014-01-01

    Panobinostat is an investigational and potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that has shown promise as an antimultiple myeloma agent in the preclinical setting. In this review, we discuss the rationale for the use of panobinostat as a combination therapy for multiple myeloma and provide an overview of recent and ongoing clinical trials testing the safety and efficacy of panobinostat for the treatment of the disease. PMID:25469210

  4. The potential of panobinostat as a treatment option in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia V; Berenson, James R

    2014-12-01

    Panobinostat is an investigational and potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that has shown promise as an antimultiple myeloma agent in the preclinical setting. In this review, we discuss the rationale for the use of panobinostat as a combination therapy for multiple myeloma and provide an overview of recent and ongoing clinical trials testing the safety and efficacy of panobinostat for the treatment of the disease. PMID:25469210

  5. Evidence-based assessment of treatment options for children with IgA nephropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Wyatt; Ronald J. Hogg

    2001-01-01

    We present an evidence-based evaluation of published data on therapy for children with various presentations of the IgA nephropathies\\u000a – idiopathic IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and Henoch-Schnlein purpura nephritis (HSPN). Particular attention has been paid to the\\u000a outcome markers used in the studies reviewed, with the best evidence provided by markers highly associated with progressive\\u000a renal failure. No treatment modality for

  6. Current and emerging drug treatment options for Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Nathan; Chau, Sarah A; Kircanski, Ida; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2011-10-22

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and ultimately fatal condition that causes debilitating memory loss and extensive deterioration of cognitive and functional abilities. Currently available treatments for AD (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and memantine) are symptomatic and do not decelerate or prevent the progression of the disease. These therapies demonstrate modest, but particularly consistent, benefit for cognition, global status and functional ability. The search for disease-modifying interventions has focused largely on compounds targeting the amyloid-? pathway. To date, the treatments targeting this pathway, such as tramiprosate and semagacestat, have been unsuccessful in demonstrating efficacy in clinical stages of testing. At this point, it is likely that not only amyloid-? aggregation but other possible neuronal mechanisms - such as hyperphosphorylated tau, neuro-inflammation and other processes - play important roles in the pathophysiology of this multifactorial disorder. Development of better disease models and biomarkers is essential for the advancement of knowledge of the disease mechanisms. This systematic review critically examines the efficacy and safety data for currently approved drugs and emerging treatments in AD, as well as discussing the present and future directions of innovation in this field. PMID:21985169

  7. Emerging treatment options in bipolar disorder in adolescents: focus on ziprasidone

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Afshan A; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Croarkin, Paul E

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a debilitating, and chronic condition in adolescents. The rate of diagnosis and treatment is increasing in adolescents despite considerable controversy regarding criteria for diagnosis. Atypical antipsychotics have been studied extensively for adult and adolescent bipolar disorder. Ziprasidone is an atypical neuroleptic with novel receptor-binding activity and a favorable side effect profile. It has been marketed in the US since 2000, and now has several indications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Emerging case reports, open-label studies, and randomized controlled trials suggest that it may have a role in the management of adolescent bipolar disorder. Somnolence, akathisia, tachycardia, and prolonged corrected QT intervals are major safety concerns. There are no definitive guidelines for dosing ziprasidone in adolescents based on current literature. However, optimal treatment may involve dosages near the adult range. Given minimal data and understanding of its effects on cardiac conduction, it might be prudent to obtain electrocardiograms prior to initiation and during treatment. While not a first-line medication choice for adolescents struggling with bipolar disorder, it may be considered in certain situations in which metabolic side effects and weight gain are of concern. PMID:24600269

  8. Shared medical decision-making: considering what options to present based on an ethical analysis of the treatment of brain tumors in very young children.

    PubMed

    Levine, Deena; Cohen, Kenneth; Wendler, David

    2012-08-01

    The treatment of brain tumors in very young children poses both a therapeutic challenge and a bioethical quandary. The administration of craniospinal radiation after surgery offers the greatest chance for cure but causes severe neurocognitive damage. As a result, current practice does not offer parents the option of full-dose postoperative craniospinal radiation. Some may regard this approach as inappropriate medical paternalism, while others may consider it an example of responsible therapeutics. Evaluation of this dilemma reveals principles which can guide clinicians in determining which treatment options to present to their patients or surrogates, in the context of shared medical decision-making. PMID:22522647

  9. Treatment options for H5N1: lessons learned from the H1N1 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Reece, Phillip Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Human infections with avian influenza A (H5N1) are relatively rare but are associated with high mortality. As of July 5, 2010 there had been 500 cases and 296 fatalities. The influenza virus readily undergoes mutation and reassortment, and there are concerns that an H5N1 variant could be responsible for a future pandemic. The influenza neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir are approved for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Oseltamivir is being used to treat H5N1 infections and the case has been made for a role for zanamivir; however, there are no case reports for the latter. Zanamivir is a potent inhibitor of H5N1, attains high lung concentrations immediately on administration, distributes into plasma at antiviral concentrations, has a low propensity for generating resistant virus, and retains activity against H275Y oseltamivir-resistant virus. There have been several reports of oseltamivir-resistant H5N1 arising during treatment with oseltamivir, and zanamivir retains effectiveness (in vitro or in vivo) against these isolates. Compassionate use of intravenous zanamivir for the treatment of seriously ill patients, including those with H275Y H1N1 infections, has also shown promising results. It is concluded that there is a role for zanamivir in treating H5N1 infections either as the approved, inhaled formulation in patients capable of using the Diskhaler, or as the intravenous formulation if compassionate use is warranted. The relatively small number of patients with these infections remains an obstacle to completion of clinical trials. Evidence is therefore likely to be based on carefully documented case reports, ideally in patients treated early in the course of the infection. PMID:20861597

  10. Cochlear implants as a treatment option for unilateral hearing loss, severe tinnitus and hyperacusis.

    PubMed

    Ramos Macías, Angel; Falcón González, Juan Carlos; Manrique, Manuel; Morera, Constantino; García-Ibáñez, Luis; Cenjor, Carlos; Coudert-Koall, Chrystellel; Killian, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is an incapacitating condition commonly affecting cochlear implant (CI) candidates. The aim of this clinical study is to assess the long-term effects of CI treatment in patients with severe-to-profound, sensorineural, unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and incapacitating tinnitus. We performed a prospective Cochlear™ company-sponsored multicentre study in five Spanish centres. Sixteen patients with UHL and incapacitating tinnitus, which was indicated by a Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) score >58%, received a Nucleus® CI in their deaf ear. The study design includes repeated within-subject measures on hearing, tinnitus, hyperacusis and quality of life up to 12 months after initial CI fitting. In addition to hearing loss and tinnitus, all patients suffered from hyperacusis. Most patients had a sudden hearing loss and received a CI within 2 years after their hearing loss. Preliminary 6-month, post-CI activation data of 13 subjects showed that the majority of patients perceived a subjective benefit from CI treatment, which was assessed using the THI, a Visual Analogue Scale of tinnitus loudness/annoyance and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale. Preliminary 12-month data of 7 subjects showed that most patients also perceived a degree of relief from their hyperacusis. One patient showed no improvements in any of the applied scales, which could be explained by partial insertion of the electrode due to obstruction of the cochlea by otosclerosis. In conclusion, CI can successfully be used in the treatment of UHL patients with accompanying severe tinnitus and hyperacusis. Implantation resulted in hearing benefits and a durable relief from tinnitus and hyperacusis in the majority of patients. These findings support the hypothesis that pathophysiological mechanisms after peripheral sensorineural hearing loss are at least partly reversible when hearing is restored with a CI. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25997672

  11. Suction-irrigation drainage: an underestimated therapeutic option for surgical treatment of deep sternal wound infections†

    PubMed Central

    Deschka, Heinz; Erler, Stefan; El-Ayoubi, Lemir; Vogel, Cordula; Vöhringer, Luise; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Deep sternal wound infections are significant and severe complications following cardiac surgery and substantially influence perioperative morbidity and mortality. We present the experience of our department using two different surgical treatments over a three-year period. METHODS Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 3274 cardiac procedures with complete median sternotomy were performed in our department. In 94 patients (3%), a deep sternal wound infection occurred, including sternal instability with consecutive surgical treatment. The patients either received wound debridement with sternum refixation and suction-irrigation drainage (SID; n = 72) or sternum refixation only (RF; n = 22) if there was sternal instability with limited signs of infection. SID was routinely installed for 7 days: the irrigation solution contained neomycin. In all cases, swabs were taken and analysed. The different methods were evaluated in respect of their clinical outcomes. RESULTS The success rate—defined as single, uncomplicated procedure—of the SID treatment was 74%, compared with 59% of the isolated sternum refixation. Complications included continuous infection, recurrence of sternal instability and wound necrosis. Eighty-eight percent of the swabs in the SID group were positive, compared with 32% in the sternal refixation only group. The dominating pathogenic germs were coagulase-negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus. Mortality was 10% for the SID group and 5% for the RF group. CONCLUSIONS Contrary to accepted opinion, the suction-irrigation drainage is an appropriate therapy for deep sternal wound infections. Nevertheless, deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery remain severe complications and are related to increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:23529753

  12. Investigation of treatment options to minimize the effects of acid erosion on enamel.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, M; Stanley, P J; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated 4 products (containing calcium, phosphate, and/or fluoride) and their ability to reharden enamel softened by hydrochloric acid as compared to hardening with saliva alone. Extracted human molars were embedded and polished, and baseline Vickers hardness (VH) of enamel was measured. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests (P = 0.05). For all groups, VH decreased significantly after immersion in hydrochloric acid. Fluoride in combination with casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate was the most effective treatment for enamel hardness recovery. PMID:24983182

  13. Parotid gland metastasis from prostate cancer: is docetaxel still the best treatment option?

    PubMed

    Hélissey, Carole; Rouanne, Mathieu; Arnaud, Francois-Xavier; Le Moulec, Sylvestre

    2015-03-01

    Metastases of prostate cancer originating from the parotid gland are rare. However, this presentation raises the question of the management of visceral metastasis in castration-resistant prostate cancer. We report the case of an 87-year-old man who presented with a right painless parotid mass in the context of castration-resistant prostate cancer, indicating progression of the disease. He received medical treatment based on docetaxel. Here, we discuss the impact of new hormonotherapies such as enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate, which may be used for the management of these patients. PMID:25486600

  14. Treatment options for late type III endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Eng, Maia L; Brewer, Michael B; Rowe, Vincent L; Weaver, Fred A

    2015-04-01

    Late type III endoleaks result from complete or partial separation of endograft device components. Component separation repressurizes the aortic sac and may result in aortic rupture. We report 4 cases of late type III endoleaks after initial successful endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our cases include 3 aortic cuff separations and 1 iliac limb separation. The average time before graft separation was 3.25 years with an average aneurysm size at re-presentation of 8.2 cm. Management of these complex cases will be discussed, the literature reviewed, and recommendations for treatment offered. PMID:25597652

  15. Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; O’Melia, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED), an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research. PMID:22654518

  16. Dietary approaches to epilepsy treatment: old and new options on the menu.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Carl E

    2004-01-01

    Dietary therapies represent a potentially valuable adjunct to other epilepsy treatments, such as anticonvulsant medications, epilepsy surgery, and vagus nerve stimulation. Although the ketogenic diet (high fat, adequate protein, low carbohydrate) is the most well-established dietary therapy for epilepsy, other possible approaches include the Atkins diet (high fat, high protein, low carbohydrate), a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids, or overall restriction of calorie intake. This review discusses the current clinical status of each of these dietary approaches and suggests possible mechanisms by which they might suppress neuronal hyperexcitability and seizures. PMID:16059506

  17. Restoration of disk height through non-surgical spinal decompression is associated with decreased discogenic low back pain: a retrospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian C Apfel; Ozlem S Cakmakkaya; William Martin; Charlotte Richmond; Alex Macario; Elizabeth George; Maximilian Schaefer; Joseph V Pergolizzi

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Because previous studies have suggested that motorized non-surgical spinal decompression can reduce chronic low back pain (LBP) due to disc degeneration (discogenic low back pain) and disc herniation, it has accordingly been hypothesized that the reduction of pressure on affected discs will facilitate their regeneration. The goal of this study was to determine if changes in LBP, as

  18. The role of additional information in the compliance, satisfaction, psychological, and emotion responses of non-surgical patients with low back pain: An exploratory investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oney d. Fitzpatrick JR

    1995-01-01

    Noncompliance and the psychological and emotional states of patients with low back pain are major concerns for health professionals. The current study evaluated whether amount of information available to patients enhanced compliance to a medical regimen and whether it reduced negative emotions in patients with low back pain. Forty-five orthopaedic non-surgical patients with low back pain were randomly assigned to

  19. Management of treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients: a cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment options.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, P A; Ciaccio, A; Rota, M; Lim, J K; De Salvia, S; Okolicsanyi, S; Vinci, M; Belli, L S; Mantovani, L G; Strazzabosco, M

    2015-02-01

    New and more promising therapies for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 (G1) naive patients have recently been approved in the United States and Europe, and several more regimens are expected to become available within the next several years. While this scenario unfolds, it is necessary to develop a rational method to allocate current treatment in CHC G1 patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of boceprevir (BOC)- and telaprevir (TVR)-based triple therapy according to different patients' selection strategies. A semi-Markov model of CHC natural history and progression towards end-stage liver disease was built. We considered 3 selection strategies based on METAVIR fibrosis stage: (i) treat all patients with F1-F4 fibrosis, (ii) only F2-F4 and (iii) only F3-F4. For each strategy, TVR interleukin-28B-guided (IL28B-guided) and BOC rapid virologic response-guided (RVR-guided) therapies were applied. The model assessed the costs and outcomes, using a lifetime and 5-year time horizon, and adopting the Italian National Health System perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for F1-F4 strategy relative to F3-F4 was €5132 per quality-adjusted life years gained, across TVR IL-28B-guided therapy, and €7042 in the BOC RVR-guided therapy. Conversely, in the 5-year scenario, the ICER for F1-F4 strategy relative to F3-F4 was €1 818 679 (TVR IL28B-guided) and €1 866 437 (BOC RVR-guided) per end-stage liver disease or death (ESLD-D) avoided. In view of anticipated improvement in the efficacy of future regimens, selective treatment of only patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis with TVR or BOC could represent the most cost-effective strategy to optimize resource utilization. PMID:25040391

  20. Treatment options in patients with metastatic gastric cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bilici, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of gastric cancer, it remains the world’s second highest cause of cancer death. As gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, systemic chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for these patients. However, no standard palliative chemotherapy regimen has been accepted for patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Palliative chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidine, platin compounds, docetaxel and epirubicin prolongs survival, and improves a high quality of life to a greater extent than best supportive care. The number of clinical investigations associated with targeted agents has recently increased. Agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have been widely tested. Trastuzumab was the first target drug developed, and pivotal phase III trials showed improved survival when trastuzumab was integrated into cisplatin/fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy was thus approved to be a new standard of care for patients with HER2-positive advanced esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. Thus, the evaluation of HER2 status in all patients with metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma should be considered. Other agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, mammalian target of rapamycin, and other biological pathways have also been investigated in clinical trials, but showed little impact on the survival of patients. In this review, systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapies for metastatic gastric cancer in the first- and second-line setting are summarized in the light of recent advances. PMID:24744580

  1. An Evaluation of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Torres, Caio V.G; Neto, José S; Souza, Marcio A; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto O; Brandt, William C; Diniz, Ricardo E.A.S

    2015-01-01

    aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of periodontal scaling and oral hygiene instruction for patients with mild chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis through clinical periodontal parameters and laboratory tests for CRP (C- reactive protein) and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Twelve individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and 12 healthy individuals were evaluated, with a mean age of 45.38 and 46.75 respectively, all female and with mild, chronic periodontitis. The participants were evaluated clinically and periapical radiographs were taken (T1), after which periodontal treatment was instituted. After ninety days (T2), new clinical and laboratory data were obtained. Probing depth, bleeding index, and plaque indexes were observed in both groups, and the results demonstrated reductions but no statistical differences. Laboratory tests for CRP and ESR produced higher values for the rheumatoid arthritis group with T1- T2 reductions on the average, but the values were still higher than in the health group. We conclude that periodontal therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and mild chronic periodontitis showed a improvement in the periodontal clinical parameters and laboratory tests that were evaluated.

  2. Survival of non-surgical patients with mild angina or myocardial infarction without angina.

    PubMed Central

    Proudfit, W L; Kramer, J R; Bott-Silverman, C; Goormastic, M

    1986-01-01

    A group of 408 catheterised patients who had mild angina or myocardial infarction without angina was selected in conformity with the criteria for entry into a previously reported randomised trial. Medical treatment had been chosen initially by the cardiologist, referring physician, or the patient, although 27% had late operation. Five year survival rates were 91% and 72% for mild angina with high or low ejection fractions and 85% for those who had myocardial infarction without subsequent angina. Survival rates were 95%, 88%, and 80% for one, two, and three artery disease respectively. For patients who had ejection fractions of at least 0.50, five year survivals were 95%, 89%, and 83% for one, two, and three artery involvement respectively. Good left ventricular function, single artery disease, and a short history were favourable prognostic variables in multivariate analysis of patients who had angina pectoris. Statistical methods of dealing with patients who had late operation influenced calculated survival, especially for patients at relatively high risk. The lower survival rates for the whole group and most subsets compared with survival rates in the randomised trial may be of clinical importance. PMID:3756038

  3. Evaluation of adjunctive systemic doxycycline with non-surgical periodontal therapy within type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nowaiser, Abeer M.; Al-Zoman, Hamad; Baskaradoss, Jagan K.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al-Zoman, Khalid H.; Al-Sohail, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Suwyed, Abdulaziz S.; Ciancio, Sebastian G.; Al-Mubarak, Sultan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of systemic doxycycline on clinical and microbiological parameters of diabetic subjects with chronic periodontitis. Methods: This 9-month multi-center, randomized, parallel, single-blinded study was conducted from different hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between April 2010 and December 2010. A total of 76 diabetic subjects with chronic periodontitis were randomized into 2 groups: control group (CG) received only scaling and root planing (SRP), and the treatment group (TG) receiving systemic doxycycline during the reevaluation visit 45 days after the completion of SRP. Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, plaque index, and bleeding on probing were collected at baseline, 45 days after SRP, and one, 3, and 6 months after the use of systemic doxycycline. Microbiological analysis comprised the detection of Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by polymerase chain reaction method. Results: Sixty-eight (33 CG and 35 TG) subjects completed the study. Greater reduction in the population of Tf, Pg, and Pi were observed in TG compared with CG in the first month after the administration of systemic doxycycline. The TG showed a significant improvement in gingival index scores compared with the CG (p<0.05) by the end of the first and 6 months after the administration of doxycycline. Conclusion: Adjunct systemic doxycycline can be associated with a reduction of Tf, Pg, and Pi in the first month after the administration of doxycycline with an improvement in the GI. PMID:25316464

  4. Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a serious health concern affecting over 155 million children in developed countries worldwide. Childhood obesity is associated with significantly increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychosocial functioning problems (i.e., depression and decreased quality of life). The two major strategies for management of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy. This paper will provide the background rationale and methods of the REACH childhood obesity treatment program. Methods/design The REACH study is a 2-year multidisciplinary, family-based, childhood obesity treatment program. Seventy-two obese adolescents (aged 10-16 years) and their parents are being recruited to participate in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomized to receive either metformin or placebo, and are then randomized to a moderate or a vigorous intensity supervised exercise program for the first 12-weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, participants engage in weekly exercise sessions with an exercise facilitator at a local community center. Participants engage in treatment sessions with a dietitian and social worker monthly for the first year, and then every three months for the second year. The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index and the secondary outcome measures are changes in body composition, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, changes in diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life). It is hypothesized that participants who take metformin and engage in vigorous intensity exercise will show the greatest improvements in body mass index. In addition, it is hypothesized that participants who adhere to the REACH program will show improvements in body composition, physical activity, diet, psychosocial functioning and risk factor profiles for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These improvements are expected to be maintained over the 2-year program. Discussion The findings from this study will advance the knowledge regarding the long-term efficacy and sustainability of interventions for childhood obesity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00934570 PMID:19943971

  5. [Pegylated interferon beta 1a. A new therapy option for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Leussink, V I; Warnke, C; Tackenberg, B; Wiendl, H; Kieseier, B C

    2015-04-01

    Pegylation of pharmacological substances was developed in the 1970s as a way of improving their efficacy and elimination and hence reducing the dosage frequency. A prominent example is pegylation of IFN?, which revolutionized the treatment of virus hepatitis in the late 1990s. Efforts have now succeeded in producing a pegylated interferon beta (PEG-IFN-?1a) to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) and the efficacy and safety have been investigated in a phase III trial called the ADVANCE study. The 1-year results of this randomized, double blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study in more than 1500 MS patients show that administration of subcutaneous PEG-IFN-?1a significantly reduces the annual relapse rate and disability progression. The safety and tolerability profile of PEG-IFN-?1a was found to be similar to that of conventional IFN-? drugs. The most common adverse events were flu-like symptoms and redness at the injection site. The results of this study underscore that PEG-IFN-?1a is an interesting new therapeutic option in the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS that combines highly effective interferon with the established tolerability and safety profile of IFN-? at a reduced dosage frequency. PMID:25833401

  6. Sclerosing Mesenteritis: Diverse clinical presentations and dissimilar treatment options. A case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is a rare pathological condition affecting the mesentery. It is a benign, non-specific inflammation of the adipose tissue of the mesentery of the small intestine and colon. It is characterized by a variable amount of chronic fibrosis. Its etiology is unknown, the pathogenesis is obscure, while the pathological characteristics of the disease are unspecific. The initial clinical presentation varies from typically asymptomatic to that of an acute abdomen. The diagnosis is suggested by computed tomography but is usually confirmed by surgical biopsies. Treatment is largely empirical; it is decided upon on the basis of the clinical condition of the patient, and usually a few specific drugs are used. Surgical resection is sometimes attempted for definitive therapy, although the surgical approach is often limited. We will present five cases of SM as well as a review of the available literature in order to state and compare a variety of clinical presentations, diverse possible etiologies and dissimilar treatment options. PMID:21635777

  7. Sclerosing Mesenteritis: Diverse clinical presentations and dissimilar treatment options. A case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Konstantinos; Archontovasilis, Fotis; Falidas, Evangelos; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Konstandoudakis, Stefanos; Villias, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is a rare pathological condition affecting the mesentery. It is a benign, non-specific inflammation of the adipose tissue of the mesentery of the small intestine and colon. It is characterized by a variable amount of chronic fibrosis. Its etiology is unknown, the pathogenesis is obscure, while the pathological characteristics of the disease are unspecific. The initial clinical presentation varies from typically asymptomatic to that of an acute abdomen. The diagnosis is suggested by computed tomography but is usually confirmed by surgical biopsies. Treatment is largely empirical; it is decided upon on the basis of the clinical condition of the patient, and usually a few specific drugs are used. Surgical resection is sometimes attempted for definitive therapy, although the surgical approach is often limited. We will present five cases of SM as well as a review of the available literature in order to state and compare a variety of clinical presentations, diverse possible etiologies and dissimilar treatment options. PMID:21635777

  8. Gene therapy in an era of emerging treatment options for hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Monahan, P E

    2015-06-01

    Factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B) is less common than factor VIII deficiency (hemophilia A), and innovations in therapy for hemophilia B have generally lagged behind those for hemophilia A. Recently, the first sustained correction of the hemophilia bleeding phenotype by clotting factor gene therapy has been described using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) to deliver factor IX. Despite this success, many individuals with hemophilia B, including children, men with active hepatitis, and individuals who have pre-existing natural immunity to AAV, are not eligible for the current iteration of hemophilia B gene therapy. In addition, recent advances in recombinant factor IX protein engineering have led some hemophilia treaters to reconsider the urgency of genetic cure. Current clinical and preclinical approaches to advancing AAV-based and alternative approaches to factor IX gene therapy are considered in the context of current demographics and treatment of the hemophilia B population. PMID:26149016

  9. Cytomegalovirus in human brain tumors: Role in pathogenesis and potential treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-01-01

    During the last years increasing evidence implies that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be attributed to human malignancies arising from numerous tissues. In this perspective, we will review and discuss the potential mechanisms through which CMV infection may contribute to brain tumors by affecting tumor cell initiation, progression and metastasis formation. Recent evidence also suggests that anti-CMV treatment results in impaired tumor growth of CMV positive xenografts in animal models and potentially increased survival in CMV positive glioblastoma patients. Based on these observations and the high tumor promoting capacity of this virus, the classical and novel antiviral therapies against CMV should be revisited as they may represent a great promise for halting tumor progression and lower cancer deaths. PMID:25699229

  10. Options and limitations of the cognitive psychological approach to the treatment of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Tønnessen, F E

    1999-01-01

    If the field of cognitive psychology is to avoid the use of introspective methods, it must focus on the objective norms or rules for correct performance of cognitive tasks and not on subjective processes. In this manner, the cognitive approach will be more logical than empirical. Cognitive psychology alone is not able to answer the question "Why is it that some people have difficulty following some of the cognitive norms or rules?" Behaviorism and connectionism can make more important contributions here. In the treatment of dyslexia, emphasis must be placed on the fact that reading is a skill that requires both automatization and awareness. To have a flexible and functional combination of these, we must borrow from cognitive psychology, connectionism, and behaviorism. PMID:15510428

  11. To resume a stalled psychotherapy? Psychological testing to understand an impasse and reevaluate treatment options.

    PubMed

    Bram, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Clinical wisdom holds that psychological testing is a useful tool for consultation when there is a need to untangle and resolve a psychotherapeutic impasse. However, there has been a lack of empirical research in this area, and only a few cases have been published demonstrating how psychological testing can be used toward this end. In this article, the author offers a case illustration of the application of testing with a patient who sought to resume psychotherapy following a previous impasse and premature termination. Specific referral questions for the evaluation are explicated followed by discussion of the test data that answered each of them. The findings pointed not only to intrapsychic and object relational characteristics of the patient that contributed to the impasse but, importantly, alerted the author-therapist to his contributions as well. Treatment implications of the findings are also highlighted. PMID:25607826

  12. Mini–slings – an option in stress urinary incontinence treatment. Case studies

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Micha?; Kli?, Rafa?; Ró?a?ski, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a social disease caused by numerous contributing factors such as natural childbirth, obesity, hormonal deficiencies and changes in collagen fibers, to name a few. Currently, mini–slings, among all the surgical treatment methods, have gained significance. The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of this method. Material and methods From 2008 to 2012, one hundred sixty women suffering from SUI underwent surgical procedures to implant mini–slings under the middle part of the urethra and 140 (87.5%) of them remained under observation. In 65 cases, Johnson & Johnson's TVT–Secur was used; in 70 cases, BARD's Adjust mini–sling was used; and in 5 cases, AMS Mini–Arc mini–sling was used. The average period of hospitalization was 3 days per admission, operation and discharge day. Results In 82 cases, patients urinated well after the removal of the catheter, and had full urine continence. Fourteen patients showed great improvement, and in four cases temporary urine retention was observed. In two cases vaginal bleeding was observed, yet there was no need for wound revision. Evaluation of the ‘quality of life improvement’ was done using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Conclusions The obtained results allowed the conclusion that the implantation of mini–slings is a low invasive, relatively safe and effective procedure for the treatment of SUI even in cases of recurrence. Almost full recovery was achieved in all the cases of this study. The mini–sling has become an important element in modern urogynecology. PMID:25914841

  13. Effect of non-surgical maxillary expansion on the nasal septum deviation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Tehnia; Ansari, Kal; Lagravere, Manuel O; Major, Michael P; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Nasal breathing is a requirement for proper growth and development of the craniofacial complex. Inadequacy of the nasal airway from obstruction such as from nasal septal deviation (NSD) can affect craniofacial development. Further investigation of the possibility of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) correcting NSD would be valuable, considering the undesirable sequelae of NSD on nasal breathing, which can consequently affect craniofacial development. A systematic review of the effect of RME treatment on NSD was conducted. Electronic database searches were conducted until April 2015 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCTR), Cochrane Methodology Register (CMR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACP Journal Club), Health Technology Assessments (HTA), and NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED). MeSH terms used in database searches were 'nasal septum,' 'palatal expansion,' and 'maxillary expansion,' 'orthodontic device,' and 'palatal expansion technique.' The methodological quality of studies was reviewed using methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS). Only two studies were finally selected and reviewed. Both studies had significant methodological limitations. One study reported a significant straightening of the nasal septum in the middle and the inferior third of nasal cavity from RME in children aged 5 to 9 years. The other study reported no positional change in the nasal septum from RME in adolescent orthodontic patients. Thus far, the limited available (moderate risk of bias) evidence suggests a potentially positive effect on the nasal septum asymmetry during childhood, but no significant change in adolescence from RME in patients with NSD. The clinical significance of reported changes could be considered questionable. PMID:26061988

  14. [Selective progesterone receptor modulator (ulipristal acetate--a new option in the pharmacological treatment of uterine fibroids in women].

    PubMed

    Szamatowicz, Marian; Kotarski, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (fibroids) are very common, mostly benign tumors in women of reproductive age. Symptomatic fibroids cause significant morbidity and are characterized by heavy prolonged menstrual bleeding, by pain and pelvic pressure and, in some cases, they may lead to reproductive dysfunctions. Up to date, surgical procedures (hysterectomy or myomectomy) have been the dominant managements but recently uterine artery embolization and focused ultrasound surgery have also been taken into consideration. Hysterectomy is curative but for women of reproductive age the need for uterus-sparing medical therapy is evident. There are convincing data that progesterone and its receptors increase the proliferation activity of the cells in uterine leiomyomata, hence treatment with antiprogestins and progesterone receptor modulators seems to be reasonable. Results of a successfully completed phase III clinical trials with the application of ulipristal acetate (UPA) (first-in-class selective progesterone receptor modulator--SPRM) have been published at the beginning of this year Administration of 5 mg or 10 mg UPA daily has been shown to rapidly stop (within a week) excessive uterine bleeding, reduce the volume of the three largest fibroids by -44.8% and -54.8% for UPA 5 mg and 10 mg, respectively The effect on fibroid volume has been observed for up to 6 months after treatment cessation. It is also important that UPA restores patient Quality of Life scores to the level of healthy women and in the majority of patients resumes menstruation and ovulation within one month after treatment cessation. When compared with the Gn-RH agonist (leuprolide acetate), UPA has controlled uterine bleeding faster and more consistently (7 days vs. 30 days), fibroid reduction for up to 6 months has been smaller for Gn-RH a (-16.5%) and UPA has shown a superior safety profile as estradiol levels are maintained in the mid-follicular range. The UPA has caused temporary changes in endometrial morphology but 6 month after the treatment the endometrium returned to normal histology in the majority of cases. The presented results on the application UPA in the medical treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids are very promising and gynecologists are given a new treatment option. PMID:23700851

  15. First experience with the ATOMS® implant, a new treatment option for male urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Cansino, Jose Ramón; Portilla, María Alejandra; Rodriguez, Simón Claudio; Hidalgo, Luis; De la Peña, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any complaint of involuntary urine leakage. A description is provided of our experience with the ATOMS® (Adjustable Transobturator Male System. Agency for Medical Innovations. A.M.I.) adjustable implant in patients with mild to moderate UI. Material and methods A retrospective study was made of the data referring to 13 patients treated with this adjustable system. Demographic and personal data were collected along with information on the etiology, severity, characteristics, duration of UI, complementary tests, surgery times, complications and results obtained. Results The full continence (no use of pad) recovery rate at the close of the study was 12/13 (92.3%). Three cases required a single filling during the mean 16 months of follow–up (range 4–32; median 14 months). A complication in the form of perineal hematoma was resolved with conservative treatment and a case of urinary retention was resolved by placing a bladder catheter for the duration of one week. Three patients experienced perineal–scrotal dysesthesias that disappeared spontaneously in the first three months. Conclusions The described adjustable continence system has been found to be very effective in males with mild to moderate UI. In our experience, the ATOMS® implant offers excellent results over the middle term with a very low rate of complications that were easily resolved in all cases. PMID:25667760

  16. Adult-onset Still's disease-pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and new treatment options.

    PubMed

    Kadavath, Sabeeda; Efthimiou, Petros

    2015-02-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), a systemic inflammatory disorder, is often considered a part of the spectrum of the better-known systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, with later age onset. The diagnosis is primarily clinical and necessitates the exclusion of a wide range of mimicking disorders. AOSD is a heterogeneous entity, usually presenting with high fever, arthralgia, skin rash, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly accompanied by systemic manifestations. The diagnosis is clinical and empirical, where patients are required to meet inclusion and exclusion criteria with negative immunoserological results. There are no clear-cut diagnostic radiological or laboratory signs. Complications of AOSD include transient pulmonary hypertension, macrophage activation syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and amyloidosis. Common laboratory abnormalities include neutrophilic leukocytosis, abnormal liver function tests, and elevated acute-phase reactants (ESR, CRP, ferritin). Treatment consists of anti-inflammatory medications. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have limited efficacy, and corticosteroid therapy and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are usually required. Recent advances have revealed a pivotal role of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 in disease pathogenesis, giving rise to the development of novel targeted therapies aiming at optimal disease control. The review aims to summarize recent advances in pathophysiology and potential therapeutic strategies in AOSD. PMID:25613167

  17. Surgical treatment for functional ischemic mitral regurgitation: current options and future trends.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Francesco; Agostinelli, Andrea; Vezzani, Antonella; Molardi, Alberto; Benassi, Filippo; Gallingani, Alan; Romano, Giorgio; Gherli, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing number of patients with mitral regurgitation secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy. Ischemic mitral regurgitation is a common complication of left ventricular dysfunction related to chronic coronary artery disease: it is present in 10-20% of these patients and is associated with a worse prognosis also after coronary revascularization. Currently, coronary artery bypass grafting combined with restrictive annuloplasty is the most commonly performed surgical procedure, although novel approaches have been used with varying degrees of success. The suboptimal results obtained with the commonly used surgical approaches require the development of alternative surgical techniques with the aim to correct  the causal mechanisms of the disease. In fact the pathophysiology of ischemic mitral regurgitation is  multifactorial involving global and regional left ventricular remodeling, as well as the dysfunction and distortion of the components of the entire mitral valve apparatus. The purpose of this review is to present the current surgical techniques available for the treatment of ischemic mitral regurgitation and to discuss novel approaches to the repair of this complex disease. (www.actabiomedica.it). PMID:25948023

  18. Imepitoin as novel treatment option for canine idiopathic epilepsy: pharmacokinetics, distribution, and metabolism in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rundfeldt, C; Gasparic, A; Wla?, P

    2014-01-01

    Imepitoin is a novel anti-epileptic licensed in the European Union for the treatment of canine idiopathic epilepsy. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of imepitoin in dogs and to evaluate the interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes. Upon administration of imepitoin tablets at a dose of 30 mg/kg to beagle dogs, high plasma levels were observed within 30 min following oral dosing, with maximal plasma concentrations of 14.9–17.2 ?g/mL reached after 2–3 h. In a crossover study, co-administration of imepitoin tablets with food reduced the total AUC by 30%, but it did not result in significant changes in Tmax and Cmax, indicating lack of clinical relevance. No clinically relevant effects of sex and no accumulation or metabolic tolerance were observed upon twice daily dosing. Following single dose administration of 10–100 mg/kg, dose linearity was found. Administering [14C] imepitoin, high enteral absorption of 92% and primary fecal excretion were identified. Plasma protein binding was only 55%. At therapeutic plasma concentrations, imepitoin did not inhibit microsomal cytochrome P450 family liver enzymes in vitro. In rats, no relevant induction of liver enzymes was found. Therefore, protein binding or metabolism-derived drug–drug interactions are unlikely. Based on these data, imepitoin can be dosed twice daily, but the timing of tablet administration in relation to feeding should be kept consistent. PMID:24611573

  19. Hospital effluents as a source of emerging pollutants: An overview of micropollutants and sustainable treatment options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlicchi, P.; Galletti, A.; Petrovic, M.; Barceló, D.

    2010-08-01

    SummaryHospital wastewaters contain a variety of toxic or persistent substances such as pharmaceuticals, radionuclides, solvents and disinfectants for medical purposes in a wide range of concentrations due to laboratory and research activities or medicine excretion. Most of these compounds belong to the so called emerging contaminants; quite often unregulated pollutants which may be candidates for future regulation depending on research on their potential health effects and monitoring of their occurrence. Their main characteristic is that they do not need to persist in the environment to cause negative effects since their high transformation/removal rates can be compensated for by their continuous introduction into the environment. Some of these compounds, most of them pharmaceuticals and personal care products may also be present in urban wastewaters. Their concentrations in the effluents may vary from ng L -1 to ?g L -1. In this paper, hospital effluents and urban wastewaters are compared in terms of quali-quantitative characteristics. On the basis of an in-depth survey: (i) hospital average specific daily water consumptions (L patient -1 day -1) are evaluated and compared to urban ones (L person -1 day -1), (ii) conventional parameters concentrations in hospital effluents are compared to urban ones and (iii) main pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds contents are compared in the two wastewaters. Finally, an overview of the removal capacity of the different treatments is reported.

  20. Antenatal depression and children's developmental outcomes: potential mechanisms and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Waters, Cerith S; Hay, Dale F; Simmonds, Jessica R; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2014-10-01

    During the last decade there has been increased recognition of the prevalence of antenatal depression as well as an expansion in research examining the impact of maternal mood during pregnancy on offspring development. The aim of this review was to summarise the theoretical underpinnings and empirical evidence regarding the impact of antenatal depression on children's developmental outcomes. Biological mechanisms hypothesised to account for an association between antenatal depression and adverse offspring outcomes are first identified including the functioning of the prenatal Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis and epigenetic processes. A systematic literature search is then conducted of studies examining the impact of antenatal depression on child development. In general, studies examining associations between antenatal depression and offspring temperament, cognitive and emotional outcomes reveal either no effect of the prenatal environment or small effects that often attenuate following adjustment for other antenatal and postnatal risk factors. In contrast, an independent effect of antenatal depression on children's conduct problems and antisocial behaviour is a well-replicated finding. There is emerging evidence that exposure to depression during pregnancy impacts negatively on offspring biology, although the findings are complex and require replication. Psychological and pharmacological treatments of antenatal depression are then reviewed, considering whether antidepressant medication exerts harmful effects on the foetus. We close by proposing that antenatal depression is an early marker of a developmental cascade to future mental health problems for both mothers and offspring. PMID:25037152

  1. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: results of treatment and options in management.

    PubMed Central

    Pain, J A; Gimson, A E; Williams, R; Howard, E R

    1991-01-01

    Twenty two patients (19 females) with focal nodular hyperplasia were seen between 1973 and 1989. Five were children, and all the adults were aged under 42 years (median 33 years). Fourteen patients (64%) were symptomatic on presentation. Twelve of the 14 adult women had taken the oral contraceptive pill. Twelve patients, nine of whom were symptomatic, underwent hepatic resection shortly after presentation. There were no deaths or major complications, and all remain well on follow up. Four patients underwent either hepatic artery embolisation or ligation. After an interval of six to 10 years they were asymptomatic and only one has histological evidence of residual focal nodular hyperplasia. Of five patients initially treated conservatively, two were asymptomatic and have remained so for three and 13 years. One of the three symptomatic patients became symptom free after stopping the contraceptive pill. The management of focal nodular hyperplasia requires a flexible approach. Lesions which are asymptomatic can be observed with regular ultrasound and treated if they enlarge or become symptomatic. Symptomatic patients who present while taking the contraceptive pill can also have a trial of conservative treatment. Other symptomatic patients, including those who previously took the pill, are best treated by surgical resection, and, where this is not possible, by embolisation. PMID:2040476

  2. Treatment options for lactic acidosis and metabolic crisis in children with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Danhauser, Katharina; Smeitink, Jan A M; Freisinger, Peter; Sperl, Wolfgang; Sabir, Hemmen; Hadzik, Berit; Mayatepek, Ertan; Morava, Eva; Distelmaier, Felix

    2015-05-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation route is a tightly regulated process, which is essential for aerobic cellular energy production. Disruption of this pathway may lead to severe neurometabolic disorders with onset in early childhood. A frequent finding in these patients is acute and chronic lactic acidemia, which is caused by increased conversion of pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. Under stable clinical conditions, this process may remain well compensated and does not require specific therapy. However, especially in situations with altered energy demands, such as febrile infections or longer periods of fasting, children with mitochondrial disorders have a high risk of metabolic decompensation with exacerbation of hyperlactatemia and severe metabolic acidosis. Unfortunately, no controlled studies regarding therapy of this critical condition are available and clinical outcome is often unfavorable. Therefore, the aim of this review was to formulate expert-based suggestions for treatment of these patients, including dietary recommendations, buffering strategies and specific drug therapy. However, it is important to keep in mind that a specific therapy for the underlying metabolic cause in children with mitochondrial diseases is usually not available and symptomatic therapy especially of severe lactic acidosis has its ethical limitations. PMID:25687154

  3. Evidence-based approach of treatment options for postoperative knee pain.

    PubMed

    Farr, Jack; Jaggers, Ryan; Lewis, Hal; Plackis, Andreas; Sim, Seung B; Sherman, Seth L

    2014-05-01

    Optimal pain management is critical after knee surgery to avoid adverse events and to improve surgical outcomes. Pain may affect surgical outcomes by contributing to limitations in range of motion, strength, and functional recovery. The causes of postoperative pain are multifactorial; therefore, an appropriate pain management strategy must take into account preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors to create a comprehensive and individualized plan for the patient. Preoperative assessment includes management of patient expectations, recognition of conditions and early counseling for high-risk patients (ie, opioid dependence, psychiatric comorbidities), and use of preemptive analgesia techniques (ie, preoperative IV medications, peripheral nerve blocks, incisional field blocks). Intraoperative strategies include meticulous surgical technique, limiting the use of tourniquets (ie, duration and pressure), and using preventive analgesia methods (ie, postoperative field block, continuous nerve catheters, intra-articular injection). Postoperative analgesia may be facilitated by cryotherapy, early mobilization, bracing, and rehabilitation. Certain modalities (ie, continuous passive motion devices, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation units, iontophoresis) may be important adjuncts in the perioperative period as well. There may be an evolving role for alternative medicine strategies. Early recognition and treatment of exaggerated postoperative pain responses may mitigate the effects of complex regional pain syndrome or the development of chronic pain. PMID:24875973

  4. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

  5. Current treatment options with immunoglobulin G for the individualization of care in patients with primary immunodeficiency disease.

    PubMed

    Jolles, S; Orange, J S; Gardulf, A; Stein, M R; Shapiro, R; Borte, M; Berger, M

    2015-02-01

    Primary antibody deficiencies require lifelong replacement therapy with immunoglobulin (Ig)G to reduce the incidence and severity of infections. Both subcutaneous and intravenous routes of administering IgG can be effective and well tolerated. Treatment regimens can be individualized to provide optimal medical and quality-of-life outcomes in infants, children, adults and elderly people. Frequency, dose, route of administration, home or infusion-centre administration, and the use of self- or health-professional-administered infusion can be tailored to suit individual patient needs and circumstances. Patient education is needed to understand the disease and the importance of continuous therapy. Both the subcutaneous and intravenous routes have advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered in selecting each patient's treatment regimen. The subcutaneous route is attractive to many patients because of a reduced incidence of systemic adverse events, flexibility in scheduling and its comparative ease of administration, at home or in a clinic. Self-infusion regimens, however, require independence and self-reliance, good compliance on the part of the patient/parent and the confidence of the physician and the nurse. Intravenous administration in a clinic setting may be more appropriate in patients with reduced manual dexterity, reluctance to self-administer or a lack of self-reliance, and intravenous administration at home for those with good venous access who prefer less frequent treatments. Both therapy approaches have been demonstrated to provide protection from infections and improve health-related quality of life. Data supporting current options in IgG replacement are presented, and considerations in choosing between the two routes of therapy are discussed. PMID:25384609

  6. Report on a case of fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium and a possible new treatment option.

    PubMed

    Bakos, B; Lukáts, Á; Lakatos, P; Gy?ri, G; Tremmel, A; Takács, I

    2014-05-01

    Fibrogenesis imperfecta is an extremely rare acquired progressive bone disorder of unknown etiology. In its course, normal bone architecture is replaced at sites by structurally unsound collagen-deficient tissue resulting in a disorganized bone structure and a skeleton that is radically susceptible to deformity and fracture. Herein, we report the case of a patient who had experienced constant bone pain and several spontaneous fractures since 1997. In 10 years' time with the sole exception of his skull, the disease affected the entire skeleton causing a significant decrease in height and progressive disablement. Laboratory findings included elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, with normal serum calcium, phosphate, 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D, and parathyroid hormone concentrations. Monoclonal gammopathy was present with no pathological plasma cells in bone marrow. Radiological and histological results were inconclusive suggesting either osteoporosis, osteomalacia, or Paget's disease and later on osteosclerosis. Treatment administered for the abovementioned conditions has proven to be of no effect. The findings eventually raised the possibility of fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium, which was confirmed by polarized light microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy. The suggested therapy for the disease is melphalan that could not be initiated due to legal restrictions. Steroid monotherapy also reported to be moderately successful in one case resulted in no improvement. Paraproteinemia had been suggested not only to be a characteristic feature but also a possible etiological factor in this condition. In 2012, plasmapheresis was initiated monthly at the beginning, later on biweekly. In response, the patient's symptoms improved dramatically supporting the abovementioned theory. PMID:24647887

  7. Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farbu, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval. PMID:20668713

  8. Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farbu, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval. PMID:20668713

  9. A preliminary exploration of the feasibility of offering men information about potential prostate cancer treatment options before they know their biopsy results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A small pre-test study was conducted to ascertain potential harm and anxiety associated with distributing information about possible cancer treatment options at the time of biopsy, prior to knowledge about a definitive cancer diagnosis. Priming men about the availability of multiple options before they have a confirmed diagnosis may be an opportunity to engage patients in more informed decision-making. Methods Men with an elevated PSA test or suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) who were referred to a urology clinic for a biopsy were randomized to receive either the clinic’s usual care (UC) biopsy instruction sheet (n?=?11) or a pre-biopsy educational (ED) packet containing the biopsy instruction sheet along with a booklet about the biopsy procedure and a prostate cancer treatment decision aid originally written for newly diagnosed men that described in detail possible treatment options (n?=?18). Results A total of 62% of men who were approached agreed to be randomized, and 83% of the ED group confirmed they used the materials. Anxiety scores were similar for both groups while awaiting the biopsy procedure, with anxiety scores trending lower in the ED group: 41.2 on a prostate-specific anxiety instrument compared to 51.7 in the UC group (p?=?0.13). ED participants reported better overall quality of life while awaiting biopsy compared to the UC group (76.4 vs. 48.5, p?=?0.01). The small number of men in the ED group who went on to be diagnosed with cancer reported being better informed about the risks and side effects of each option compared to men diagnosed with cancer in the UC group (p?=?0.07). In qualitative discussions, men generally reported they found the pre-biopsy materials to be helpful and indicated having information about possible treatment options reduced their anxiety. However, 2 of 18 men reported they did not want to think about treatment options until after they knew their biopsy results. Conclusions In this small sample offering pre-biopsy education about potential treatment options was generally well received by patients, appeared to be beneficial to men who went on to be diagnosed, and did not appear to increase anxiety unnecessarily among those who had a negative biopsy. PMID:23388205

  10. Idiopathic Non-Cirrhotic Intrahepatic Portal Hypertension (NCIPH)—Newer Insights into Pathogenesis and Emerging Newer Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ashish; Elias, Joshua E.; Eapen, Chundamannil E.; Ramakrishna, Banumathi; Elias, Elwyn

    2014-01-01

    Chronic microangiopathy of portal venules results in idiopathic non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH). Recent data suggest a role for vasoactive factors of portal venous origin in the pathogenesis of this ‘pure’ vasculopathy of the liver. Enteropathies (often silent), are an important ‘driver’ of this disease. NCIPH is under-recognized and often mis-labeled as cryptogenic cirrhosis. Liver biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of NCIPH. In these patients, with advancing disease and increased porto-systemic shunting, the portal venous vasoactive factors bypass the liver filter and contribute to the development of pulmonary vascular endothelial disorders—porto-pulmonary hypertension and hepato-pulmonary syndrome as well as mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis. Prognosis in NCIPH patients is determined by presence, recognition and management of associated disorders. With better understanding of the pathogenesis of NCIPH, newer treatment options are being explored. Imbalance in ADAMTS 13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13): vWF (von-Willebrand factor) ratio is documented in NCIPH patients and may have a pathogenic role. Therapeutic interventions to correct this imbalance may prove to be important in the management of NCIPH. PMID:25755567

  11. Treatment options for subjective tinnitus: Self reports from a sample of general practitioners and ENT physicians within Europe and the USA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tinnitus affects about 10-15% of the general population and risks for developing tinnitus are rising through increased exposure to leisure noise through listening to personal music players at high volume. The disorder has a considerable heterogeneity and so no single mechanism is likely to explain the presence of tinnitus in all those affected. As such there is no standardized management pathway nor singly effective treatment for the condition. Choice of clinical intervention is a multi-factorial decision based on many factors, including assessment of patient needs and the healthcare context. The present research surveyed clinicians working in six Westernized countries with the aims: a) to establish the range of referral pathways, b) to evaluate the typical treatment options for categories of subjective tinnitus defined as acute or chronic, and c) to seek clinical opinion about levels of satisfaction with current standards of practice. Methods A structured online questionnaire was conducted with 712 physicians who reported seeing at least one tinnitus patients in the previous three months. They were 370 general practitioners (GPs) and 365 ear-nose-throat specialists (ENTs) from the US, Germany, UK, France, Italy and Spain. Results Our international comparison of health systems for tinnitus revealed that although the characteristics of tinnitus appeared broadly similar across countries, the patient's experience of clinical services differed widely. GPs and ENTs were always involved in referral and management to some degree, but multi-disciplinary teams engaged either neurology (Germany, Italy and Spain) or audiology (UK and US) professionals. For acute subjective tinnitus, pharmacological prescriptions were common, while audiological and psychological approaches were more typical for chronic subjective tinnitus; with several specific treatment options being highly country specific. All therapy options were associated with low levels of satisfaction. Conclusions Despite a large variety of treatment options, the low success rates of tinnitus therapy lead to frustration of physicians and patients alike. For subjective tinnitus in particular, effective therapeutic options with guidelines about key diagnostic criteria are urgently needed. PMID:22053947

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Neuroblastoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Progress Annual ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Melanoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lower part of the epidermis. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin ... the sun or artificial light, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to darken. The number ...

  14. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 36 months of age. Regular screening using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) every 6 months for 5 years may be ... be printed to be looked at later. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) : A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves , ...

  15. Pituitary Disorders Treatment Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

  16. Direct electrochemical oxidation of ammonia on graphite as a treatment option for stored source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Zöllig, Hanspeter; Fritzsche, Cristina; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

    2015-02-01

    Electrolysis can be a viable technology for ammonia removal from source-separated urine. Compared to biological nitrogen removal, electrolysis is more robust and is highly amenable to automation, which makes it especially attractive for on-site reactors. In electrolytic wastewater treatment, ammonia is usually removed by indirect oxidation through active chlorine which is produced in-situ at elevated anode potentials. However, the evolution of chlorine can lead to the formation of chlorate, perchlorate, chlorinated organic by-products and chloramines that are toxic. This study focuses on using direct ammonia oxidation on graphite at low anode potentials in order to overcome the formation of toxic by-products. With the aid of cyclic voltammetry, we demonstrated that graphite is active for direct ammonia oxidation without concomitant chlorine formation if the anode potential is between 1.1 and 1.6 V vs. SHE (standard hydrogen electrode). A comparison of potentiostatic bulk electrolysis experiments in synthetic stored urine with and without chloride confirmed that ammonia was removed exclusively by continuous direct oxidation. Direct oxidation required high pH values (pH > 9) because free ammonia was the actual reactant. In real stored urine (pH = 9.0), an ammonia removal rate of 2.9 ± 0.3 gN·m(-2)·d(-1) was achieved and the specific energy demand was 42 Wh·gN(-1) at an anode potential of 1.31 V vs. SHE. The measurements of chlorate and perchlorate as well as selected chlorinated organic by-products confirmed that no chlorinated by-products were formed in real urine. Electrode corrosion through graphite exfoliation was prevented and the surface was not poisoned by intermediate oxidation products. We conclude that direct ammonia oxidation on graphite electrodes is a treatment option for source-separated urine with three major advantages: The formation of chlorinated by-products is prevented, less energy is consumed than in indirect ammonia oxidation and readily available and cheap graphite can be used as the electrode material. PMID:25497427

  17. Radiofrequency ablation is a valid treatment option for lung metastases: experience in 566 patients with 1037 metastases

    PubMed Central

    de Baère, T.; Aupérin, A.; Deschamps, F.; Chevallier, P.; Gaubert, Y.; Boige, V.; Fonck, M.; Escudier, B.; Palussiére, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimal invasive methods are needed as an alternative to surgery for treatment of lung metastases. Patients and methods The prospective database of two cancer centers including all consecutive patients treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for lung metastasis over 8 years was reviewed. RFA was carried out under general anesthesia, with computed tomography guidance using a 15-gauge multitined expandable electrodes RF needle. Results Five hundred sixty-six patients including 290 men (51%), 62.7 ± 13.2 years old with primary tumor to the colon (34%), rectum (18%), kidney (12%), soft tissue (9%) and miscellaneous (27%) received 642 RFA for 1037 lung metastases. Fifty-three percent of patients had 1 metastasis, 25% had 2, 14% had 3, 5% had 4 and 4% had 5–8. Metastases were unilateral (75%), or bilateral (25%). The median diameter [extremes] of metastases was 15 mm (4–70). Twenty-two percent of patients had extrapulmonary disease amenable to local therapy including 49 liver, 16 bone and 60 miscellaneous metastases. Median follow-up was 35.5 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 62 months. Four-year local efficacy was 89%. Four-year lung disease control rate was 44.1%, with patient retreated safely up to four times. Primary origin, disease-free interval, size and number of metastases were associated with OS in multivariate analysis. Progression at RFA site was associated with poor OS [P = 0.011, hazard ratio (HR): 1.69 (95% confidence interval 1.13–2.54)]. In the 293 colorectal cancer metastases, size >2 cm (HR = 2.10, P = 0.0027) and a number of metastases ?3 (HR = 1.86, P = 0.011) remained significantly associated with OS. A prognostic score made of three groups based on the four above-mentioned prognostic factors demonstrated 3-year OS rates of respectively 82.2%, 69.5% and 53.6% (log-rank test, P ? 0.0001) among the three groups in the overall population, and of 81.3%, 72.8% and 57.9% (log-rank test, P = 0.005) in the colorectal cancer patients. Conclusion Radiofrequency is an option for treatment of small size lung metastases, namely the ones below 2–3 cm. PMID:25688058

  18. Vessel co-option in primary human tumors and metastases: an obstacle to effective anti-angiogenic treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Donnem, Tom; Hu, Jiangting; Ferguson, Mary; Adighibe, Omanma; Snell, Cameron; Harris, Adrian L; Gatter, Kevin C; Pezzella, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Angiogenesis has been regarded as essential for tumor growth and progression. Studies of many human tumors, however, suggest that their microcirculation may be provided by nonsprouting vessels and that a variety of tumors can grow and metastasize without angiogenesis. Vessel co-option, where tumor cells migrate along the preexisting vessels of the host organ, is regarded as an alternative tumor blood supply. Vessel co-option may occur in many malignancies, but so far mostly reported in highly vascularized tissues such as brain, lung, and liver. In primary and metastatic lung cancer and liver metastasis from different primary origins, as much as 10–30% of the tumors are reported to use this alternative blood supply. In addition, vessel co-option is introduced as a potential explanation of antiangiogenic drug resistance, although the impact of vessel co-option in this clinical setting is still to be further explored. In this review we discuss tumor vessel co-option with specific examples of vessel co-option in primary and secondary tumors and a consideration of the clinical implications of this alternative tumor blood supply. Both primary and metastatic tumors use preexisting host tissue vessels as their blood supply. Tumors may grow to a clinically detectable size without angiogenesis and makes them less likely to respond to drugs designed to target the abnormal vasculature produced by angiogenesis, but further studies to explore the biological and clinical implication of these co-opted vessels is needed. PMID:24156015

  19. The culture of education in a large dialysis organization: informing patient-centered decision making on treatment options for renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Mollicone, Debra; Pulliam, Joseph; Lacson, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Challenged by the observation that newly admitted dialysis patients were often unaware of their treatment options, Fresenius Medical Care, North America developed a program to improve information delivered to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients prior to their need for renal replacement therapy. Six years ago, the Treatment Options Program (TOPs) was established utilizing a standardized approach to educate individuals with CKD Stages 3 and 4. The program education focuses on modality and vascular access options. A key component includes follow-up at predetermined intervals, offering additional education and patient reminders to continue to work with their physician in selecting a preferred renal replacement modality. Since program inception, over 73,000 individuals have been educated through TOPs. Home therapy utilization as first treatment is higher in the patient population that received TOPs education. Similarly, participants had a higher rate of permanent vascular access with decreased use of hemodialysis catheters upon admission. Avoiding hemodialysis catheter use and expanding home therapy utilization both offer potential benefits to all stakeholders: patients, providers, and payors, particularly as we move toward accountable healthcare systems. The ability to expand the TOPs program relies on seeing patients early enough to allow each patient time to process the information and work with their physician to select the modality and access that best meets their healthcare and lifestyle needs. Educating our patients facilitates empowerment and active participation in their therapy, a much coveted component of patient-centered health care for the renal provider community as we look to the future. PMID:23406257

  20. Malpositioned implants in the anterior maxilla: a novel restorative approach to reestablish peri-implant tissue health and acceptable esthetics. Part I. Case presentation and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Moráguez, Osvaldo D; Vailati, Francesca; Belser, Urs C

    2015-01-01

    This two-part case presentation describes the prosthetic challenge of managing complications after inadequate esthetic risk assessment, treatment planning, and implant positioning in the anterior maxilla. Here, the case report of a 50-year-old woman, referred after inappropriate execution of immediate implant placement, is presented. Different restorative treatment alternatives are proposed, excluding major surgical procedures. In the next part of the article, the advantages and shortcomings of the various prosthetic options will be discussed and the selected treatment revealed. The aim of this part of the article is to illustrate the importance of treatment planning, emphasizing that the correction of esthetic implant failures consistently leads to compromised results when compared to what could have been achieved first time round. PMID:26171441

  1. Pregabalin in the treatment of inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia following overfilling of endodontic sealer

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ezpeleta, Oscar; Martín, Pablo J.; López-López, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    A case of orofacial pain and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paraesthesia after extrusion of endodontic sealer within the mandibular canal treated with prednisone and pregabalin is described. A 36-year-old woman underwent root canal treatment of the mandibular second right premolar tooth. Post-operative panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of radiopaque canal sealer in the mandibular canal. Damage to IAN consecutive to extrusion of endodontic sealer was diagnosed. Non-surgical management was decided, including: 1 mg/kg/day prednisone 2 times/day, once-daily regimen, and 150 mg/day pregabalin, two doses per day, monitoring the progress with periodic follow-up visits. Six weeks after the incident the signs and symptoms were gone. The complete resolution of paraesthesia and the control of pain achieved suggest that a non-surgical approach, combining prednisone and the GABA analogue pregabalin, is a good option in the management of the IAN damage subsequent to endodontic sealer extrusion. Key words:Endodontics, inferior alveolar nerve, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, paraesthesia, pregabalin. PMID:24790724

  2. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  3. Pressure ulcers: Current understanding and newer modalities of treatment.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Mishra, R K

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanism, symptoms, causes, severity, diagnosis, prevention and present recommendations for surgical as well as non-surgical management of pressure ulcers. Particular focus has been placed on the current understandings and the newer modalities for the treatment of pressure ulcers. The paper also covers the role of nutrition and pressure-release devices such as cushions and mattresses as a part of the treatment algorithm for preventing and quick healing process of these wounds. Pressure ulcers develop primarily from pressure and shear; are progressive in nature and most frequently found in bedridden, chair bound or immobile people. They often develop in people who have been hospitalised for a long time generally for a different problem and increase the overall time as well as cost of hospitalisation that have detrimental effects on patient's quality of life. Loss of sensation compounds the problem manifold, and failure of reactive hyperaemia cycle of the pressure prone area remains the most important aetiopathology. Pressure ulcers are largely preventable in nature, and their management depends on their severity. The available literature about severity of pressure ulcers, their classification and medical care protocols have been described in this paper. The present treatment options include various approaches of cleaning the wound, debridement, optimised dressings, role of antibiotics and reconstructive surgery. The newer treatment options such as negative pressure wound therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, cell therapy have been discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of current and newer methods have also been described. PMID:25991879

  4. Pressure ulcers: Current understanding and newer modalities of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Mishra, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanism, symptoms, causes, severity, diagnosis, prevention and present recommendations for surgical as well as non-surgical management of pressure ulcers. Particular focus has been placed on the current understandings and the newer modalities for the treatment of pressure ulcers. The paper also covers the role of nutrition and pressure-release devices such as cushions and mattresses as a part of the treatment algorithm for preventing and quick healing process of these wounds. Pressure ulcers develop primarily from pressure and shear; are progressive in nature and most frequently found in bedridden, chair bound or immobile people. They often develop in people who have been hospitalised for a long time generally for a different problem and increase the overall time as well as cost of hospitalisation that have detrimental effects on patient's quality of life. Loss of sensation compounds the problem manifold, and failure of reactive hyperaemia cycle of the pressure prone area remains the most important aetiopathology. Pressure ulcers are largely preventable in nature, and their management depends on their severity. The available literature about severity of pressure ulcers, their classification and medical care protocols have been described in this paper. The present treatment options include various approaches of cleaning the wound, debridement, optimised dressings, role of antibiotics and reconstructive surgery. The newer treatment options such as negative pressure wound therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, cell therapy have been discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of current and newer methods have also been described. PMID:25991879

  5. Epidemiology, impact, and treatment options of restless legs syndrome in end-stage renal disease patients: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Karatzaferi, Christina; Pantzaris, Marios C; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Sakkas, Giorgos K

    2014-06-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) (or Willis-Ekbom disease) is a neurological disorder with high prevalence among the end-stage renal disease population. This is one of the most predominant types of secondary RLS, and it is called uremic RLS. Despite the fact that uremic RLS has been less studied compared to idiopathic RLS, recent studies now shed light in many aspects of the syndrome including clinical characteristics, impact, epidemiology, and treatment options. The current review discusses the above topics with special emphasis given on the management of uremic RLS, including the management of symptoms that often appear during a hemodialysis session. Uremic RLS symptoms may be ameliorated by using pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Evidence so far shows that both approaches may be effective in terms of reducing the RLS symptom's severity; nevertheless, more research is needed on the efficiency of treatments for uremic RLS. PMID:24107848

  6. Service options

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses customer service options. These are actions that consumers can take on their side of the electric meter to obtain energy efficiencies and provide load management options for utilities. Customer service options also include actions consumers can take to use electricity to improve their productivity and quality of life. TVA`s catalog of customer service options contains traditional demand-side management, self-generation, beneficial electrification, and rate options. TVA designed the options to take advantage of existing and emerging technologies that could be effectively integrated into programs to meet varying customer and TVA needs. These options were ranked by total resource cost as well as other evaluation criteria and combined into blocks of options suitable for analysis with power supply options. TVA`s long and short-term plans will include those customer service options that integrate well with desirable supply-side options and meet TVA`s evaluation criteria.

  7. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Fullmer; L. W. Fish; D. K. Fischer

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted

  8. Economic evaluation of carbon adsorption\\/ion exchange wastewater-treatment options for Sunflower AAP (Army Ammunition Plant) NQ (nitroguanidine) wastewater-treatment facility. Final report, October 1986July 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Balasco; G. C. Cheng; E. L. Field; V. R. Vejins

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this subtask was to provide an estimate of the capital investment and operating costs for the wastewater-treatment technology option involving activated-carbon adsorption and ion exchange for primary separation, and multiple-effect evaporation and spray drying for volume reduction. During the course of this study, however, it became evident that the process economics could be significantly improved of the

  9. Option Pricing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rick Percy

    This module analyzes the topic of option pricing. Binomial tree models and the Black-Scholes formulae are used to price call options on an underlying asset. . The put-call parity theorem is used to value put options. Background inFormation on options is provided as well as the theoretical implications of the models. Assessment of the models is evaluated through on an investigation of the strengths and shortcomings of the models compared with their empirical performance. The module evaluates the differences between European and American options using mathematical models. In addition, the module examines expansions of the model including adaptation to stocks that pay dividends, the market for foreign exchange, and options on portfolios such as market indices. In assessing the strengths and shortcomings of the models investigated, the existence of alternative models is introduced to allow the interested student pathways to learning after the module.

  10. Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

    2013-09-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 °C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

  11. Hepatitis C Screening and Treatment versus Liver Transplantation: A Financial Option Appraisal and Commissioning Model for Purchasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nevil Batra

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To: 1. calculate the number needed to screen (NNS) and community effectiveness of combination treatment (interferon-alpha plus ribavirin) compared with its efficacy of 28 to 45%; 2. compare the cost of opportunistic hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and combined treatment to prevent 1 high risk patient developing cirrhosis with the cost of liver transplantation; and 3. put a cash

  12. Phase Angle and Handgrip Strength Are Sensitive Early Markers of Energy Intake in Hypophagic, Non-Surgical Patients at Nutritional Risk, with Contraindications to Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cereda, Emanuele; Klersy, Catherine; Bonardi, Chiara; Cappello, Silvia; Quarleri, Lara; Turri, Annalisa; Montagna, Elisabetta; Iacona, Isabella; Valentino, Francesco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA) and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM) are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20), while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10). The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5–2.3) (p = 0.005) for PhA and +0.23 (0.20–0.43) (p = 0.033) for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23–0.77); p = 0.0023). PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of PhA variations as early markers of anabolic/catabolic fluctuations. PMID:25768953

  13. In vitro activity of the new fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) against a large collection of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and international reference strains, including those with high-level antimicrobial resistance: potential treatment option for gonorrhea?

    PubMed

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-05-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  14. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    PubMed Central

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  15. Toxicity evaluation with the microtox® test to assess the impact of in situ oiled shoreline treatment options: natural attenuation and sediment relocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kenneth; Wohlgeschaffen, Gary; Tremblay, Gilles H.; Johnson, B. Thomas; Sergy, Gary A.; Prince, Roger C.; Guenette, Chantal C.; Owens, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the toxicity levels of beach sediment, nearshore water, and bottom sediment samples were monitored with the Microtox® Test to evaluate the two in situ oil spill treatment options of natural attenuation (natural recovery––no treatment) and sediment relocation (surf washing). During a series of field trials, IF-30 fuel oil was intentionally sprayed onto the surface of three mixed sediment (pebble and sand) beaches on the island of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway (78°56? N, 16°45? E). At a low wave-energy site (Site 1 with a 3-km wind fetch), where oil was stranded within the zone of normal wave action, residual oil concentrations and beach sediment toxicity levels were significantly reduced by both options in less than five days. At Site 3, a higher wave-energy site with a 40-km wind fetch, oil was intentionally stranded on the beach face in the upper intertidal/supratidal zones, above the level of normal wave activity. At this site under these experimental conditions, sediment relocation was effective in accelerating the removal of the oil from the sediments and reducing the Microtox® Test toxicity response to background levels. In the untreated (natural attenuation) plot at this site, the fraction of residual oil remaining within the beach sediments after one year (70%) continued to generate a toxic response. Chemical and toxicological analyses of nearshore sediment and sediment-trap samples at both sites confirmed that oil and suspended mineral fines were effectively dispersed into the surrounding environment by the in situ treatments. In terms of secondary potential detrimental effects from the release of stranded oil from the beaches, the toxicity level (Microtox® Test) of adjacent nearshore sediment samples did not exceed the Canadian regulatory limit for dredged spoils destined for ocean disposal.

  16. Management of Diffuse Hepatocellular Carcinoma (? 10 Lesions) with Doxorubicin-Loaded DC Beads Is a Safe and Effective Treatment Option

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Cannon; Jose Urbano; Ivan Kralj; Petar Bosnjakovic; Robert C. G. Martin II

    2012-01-01

    SummaryBackground: Multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; ? 10 lesions) has been considered a controversial indication for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) based on the extent of disease and the belief that no clinical benefit can be achieved. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of chemoembolization with doxorubicin-eluting beads (DEBDOX) in the treatment of multinodular HCC. Patients and

  17. A Retrospective Analysis of Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joint Fusion as a Treatment Option for Hammertoe Pathology Associated with Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Joseph; Kevin Schroeder; Marc Greenberg

    Complex hammer digit deformity is commonly associated with instability of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Restoring joint stability is critical for digit alignment and function and can be challenging and unpredictable. Lesser metatarsophalangeal joint fusion might be an alternative treatment to the current soft tissue balancing, repair, and extra-articular osseous procedures used to treat joint instability. The present study was a retrospective

  18. [Options and limits in the treatment of overweight children and adolescents and their families in primary care].

    PubMed

    L'Allemand, Dagmar; Laimbacher, Josef

    2013-11-01

    The general practitioner or pediatrician mostly is the first point of contact for overweight children and may recognize adiposity early enough in order to start therapy of obesity or comorbidity or to initiate measures of prevention. Interventions against overweight are most efficient before age 7 in terms of short-and long-term results and should not be delayed. As obesity requires care of the entire family, close or recurring contact with the overweight child and its family is important as well as the treatment nearby their residence. In preschoolers, targeting parents exclusively for obesity therapy is highly effective. Changing cherished habits and style of education is the biggest challenge to parents. Therefore, various techniques of treatment of alcohol or tobacco addiction can be used and recommendations for improvement of self-worth as well as healthy eating behavior and exercise are presented. First feasible objectives include modest lifestyle changes and reduction of comorbidities; if an extreme obesity with a BMI above 99.5th percentile or mental disorders are present or if it becomes apparent within the first 6 months that the patient cannot achieve his own goals for changes in lifestyle and body weight, a referral to a specialized center is indicated. There, a multi-professional treatment of the child and his family is performed in common by specialists for nutrition, exercise and psychology. Childhood obesity is a chronic disease that requires a very long-term treatment and usually persists into adulthood. PMID:24168804

  19. A case of nonisland pedicled foot fillet flap for below-knee amputation stump wound: treatment option for compartment syndrome after fibular free flap surgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Ha; Kim, Kwang Seog; Lee, Sam Yong

    2014-02-01

    Despite the frequent use of the fibular free flap, there have been no reports of severe compartment syndrome of the donor leg that necessitated limb amputation. A 66-yr-old man had a fibular osseous free flap transfer from the left leg to the mandible that was complicated by postoperative compartment syndrome. An extensive chronic leg wound resulted, which was treated with multiple debridements and finally with below-knee amputation. Successful coverage of the below-knee amputation stump was accomplished with a nonisland pedicled foot fillet flap. Various foot fillet flaps may be used acutely as a free or an island pedicled flap, but dissection of the vascular pedicle may be difficult in a chronically inflamed wound because of inflammation and adhesions to surrounding tissue. The nonisland pedicled foot fillet flap may be considered as a useful option for treatment of a chronically inflamed stump wound after below-knee amputation. PMID:24550664

  20. Inhibition of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein - a novel therapeutic option for treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Tikkanen, Matti J; Kovanen, Petri T

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor gene (LDLR). Patients with homozygous FH (hoFH) have inherited a mutated LDLR gene from both parents, and therefore all their LDL-receptors are incapable of functioning normally. In hoFH, serum LDL levels often exceed 13 mmol/L and tendon and cutaneous xanthomata appear early (under 10 years of age). If untreated, this extremely severe form of hypercholesterolemia may cause death in childhood or in early adulthood. Based on recent data, it can be estimated that the prevalence of hoFH is about 1:500,000 or even 1:400,000. Until now, the treatment of hoFH has been based on high-dose statin treatment combined with LDL apheresis. Since the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of statins is weak in this disease, and apheresis is a cumbersome treatment and not available at all centers, alternative novel pharmaceutical therapies are needed. Lomitapide is a newly introduced drug, capable of effectively decreasing serum LDL cholesterol concentration in hoFH. It inhibits the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). By inhibiting in hepatocytes the transfer of triglycerides into very low density lipoprotein particles, the drug blocks their assembly and secretion into the circulating blood. Since the very low density lipoprotein particles are precursors of LDL particles in the circulation, the reduced secretion of the former results in lower plasma concentration of the latter. The greatest concern in lomitapide treatment has been the increase in liver fat, which can be, however, counteracted by strictly adhering to a low-fat diet. Lomitapide is a welcome addition to the meager selection of drugs currently available for the treatment of refractory hypercholesterolemia in hoFH patients. PMID:24851052

  1. Opioid Addiction and Abuse in Primary Care Practice: A Comparison of Methadone and Buprenorphine as Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, Jean; Shim, Ruth S.; Gooden, Richard; Tyus, Dawn; Rust, George

    2014-01-01

    Opioid abuse and addiction have increased in frequency in the United States over the past 20 years. In 2009, an estimated 5.3 million persons used opioid medications nonmedically within the past month, 200 000 used heroin, and approximately 9.6% of African Americans used an illicit drug. Racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and access to mental health care, including substance use disorders. Primary care practitioners are often called upon to differentiate between appropriate, medically indicated opioid use in pain management vs inappropriate abuse or addiction. Racial and ethnic minority populations tend to favor primary care treatment settings over specialty mental health settings. Recent therapeutic advances allow patients requiring specialized treatment for opioid abuse and addiction to be managed in primary care settings. The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 enables qualified physicians with readily available short-term training to treat opioid-dependent patients with buprenorphine in an office-based setting, potentially making primary care physicians active partners in the diagnosis and treatment of opioid use disorders. Methadone and buprenorphine are effective opioid replacement agents for maintenance and/or detoxification of opioid-addicted individuals. However, restrictive federal regulations and stigmatization of opioid addiction and treatment have limited the availability of methadone. The opioid partial agonist-antagonist buprenorphine/naloxone combination has proven an effective alternative. This article reviews the literature on differences between buprenorphine and methadone regarding availability, efficacy, safety, side-effects, and dosing, identifying resources for enhancing the effectiveness of medication-assisted recovery through coordination with behavioral/psychological counseling, embedded in the context of recovery-oriented systems of care. PMID:23092049

  2. Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition Therapy for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: A Clinical Perspective and Emerging Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias J.; Cortes, Jorge E.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2014-01-01

    The development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has led to extended lifespans for many patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, 20% to 30% of patients fail to respond, respond suboptimally, or experience disease relapse after treatment with imatinib. A key factor is drug resistance. The molecular mechanisms implicated in this resistance include those that involve upregulation or mutation of BCR-ABL kinase and those that are BCR-ABL independent. The clinical consequences of these molecular mechanisms of resistance for disease pathogenesis remain open for debate. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and clinical consequences of TKI resistance and addresses the current and future treatment approaches for patients with TKI-resistant CML. PMID:23890944

  3. Wastewater treatment options for paper mills using recycled paper\\/imported pulps as raw materials: Bangladesh perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazi Bayzid Kabir

    2010-01-01

    Paper sector in Bangladesh is currently expanding day-by-day to meet the increasing demand of industrial, writ- ing\\/printing and specialty papers. Paper mills have adverse e ects on the environment by producing huge quantity of wastew- ater. Yearly, approximately 14 million m 3 wastewater is being discharged to the surface water bodies and irrigated lands without no\\/limited treatment. Water pollution from

  4. Membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment – A viable option to reduce the amount of polar pollutants discharged into surface waters?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Weiss; Thorsten Reemtsma

    2008-01-01

    The potential of a lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to remove polar pollutants from municipal wastewater was studied for industrial and household chemicals over a period of 22 months parallel to a conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. For half of the compounds, such as benzotriazole, 5-tolyltriazole (5-TTri), benzothiazole-2-sulfonate and 1,6-naphthalene disulfonate (1,6-NDSA), removal by MBR was significantly better than in CAS,

  5. Lasers and light-based therapies in ethnic skin: treatment options and recommendations for Fitzpatrick skin types V and VI.

    PubMed

    Alexis, A F

    2013-10-01

    Ethnic skin or 'skin of colour', which is characterized by increased epidermal melanin, labile melanocytes and reactive fibroblast responses, poses special challenges for the use of laser and light-based therapies. These therapies are associated with a greater risk of dyspigmentation and scarring in ethnic skin and therefore require careful selection of device and treatment parameters to minimize complications. Whereas early-generation lasers for hair removal and resurfacing were generally contraindicated for individuals with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes (SPT) IV-VI, advances in the past decade have given rise to a range of devices that can be safely used in ethnic skin. Longer wavelength lasers such as the 810 and 1064 nm Nd:YAG; intense pulsed light and monochromatic excimer light (308 nm); fractional lasers; and radiofrequency devices have all been used safely for hair removal, pigmentary abnormalities, resurfacing and skin tightening in ethnic skin, respectively. Notwithstanding these advances, nuances in the laser or light treatment of darker skin types remain and must be considered to ensure safe therapeutic outcomes. The vast majority of published data pertaining to lasers and light treatments in nonwhite skin involve patients of East Asian ethnicity (e.g. Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Thai). By contrast, there is a paucity of studies involving individuals of African ancestry or those with SPT V or VI. This article will review laser and light-based modalities that are considered safe and effective for individuals with richly pigmented skin. PMID:24098905

  6. Meta-Analysis of Ultrafiltration versus Diuretics Treatment Option for Overload Volume Reduction in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Barkoudah, Ebrahim; Kodali, Sindhura; Okoroh, Juliet; Sethi, Rosh; Hulten, Edward; Suemoto, Claudia; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although diuretics are mainly used for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), inadequate responses and complications have led to the use of extracorporeal ultrafiltration (UF) as an alternative strategy for reducing volume overloads in patients with ADHF. Objective The aim of our study is to perform meta-analysis of the results obtained from studies on extracorporeal venous ultrafiltration and compare them with those of standard diuretic treatment for overload volume reduction in acute decompensated heart failure. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were systematically searched using a pre?specified criterion. Pooled estimates of outcomes after 48 h (weight change, serum creatinine level, and all-cause mortality) were computed using random effect models. Pooled weighted mean differences were calculated for weight loss and change in creatinine level, whereas a pooled risk ratio was used for the analysis of binary all-cause mortality outcome. Results A total of nine studies, involving 613 patients, met the eligibility criteria. The mean weight loss in patients who underwent UF therapy was 1.78 kg [95% Confidence Interval (CI): ?2.65 to ?0.91 kg; p < 0.001) more than those who received standard diuretic therapy. The post-intervention creatinine level, however, was not significantly different (mean change = ?0.25 mg/dL; 95% CI: ?0.56 to 0.06 mg/dL; p = 0.112). The risk of all-cause mortality persisted in patients treated with UF compared with patients treated with standard diuretics (Pooled RR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.64–1.56; p = 0.993). Conclusion Compared with standard diuretic therapy, UF treatment for overload volume reduction in individuals suffering from ADHF, resulted in significant reduction of body weight within 48 h. However, no significant decrease of serum creatinine level or reduction of all-cause mortality was observed. PMID:25626761

  7. The ketogenic diet as a treatment option in adults with chronic refractory epilepsy: efficacy and tolerability in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, Danielle A J E; Wielders, Laura H P; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Kessels, Fons G H; de Kinderen, Reina J A; Majoie, Marian J M

    2012-03-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that is used as a treatment for patients with difficult-to-control epilepsy. The present study assesses the efficacy and tolerability of the KD as an add-on therapy in adults with chronic refractory epilepsy. 15 adults were treated with the classical diet or MCT diet. During a follow-up period of 1 year we assessed seizure frequency, seizure severity, tolerability, cognitive performance, mood and quality of life (QOL). We found a significant reduction in seizures among the patients who followed the diet at least 1 year (n=5). Of these 5 patients, 2 had a reduction between 50 and 90%. Analyzing the study months separately, we found a seizure reduction of ?50% in 26.6% of the patients during at least 1 month of treatment. Common side-effects were gastrointestinal disorders, loss of weight and fatigue. There was a considerable, non-significant improvement found in mood and QOL scores. Improvements were independent of reduction in seizure frequency, indicating that the effects of the KD reach further than seizure control. PMID:22366051

  8. Delayed endoluminal vacuum therapy for rectal anastomotic leaks after rectal resection in a swine model: a new treatment option.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Shada, Amber; Ritter, Lane A; Mauro, David M; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Feldman, Sanford H; Kleiner, Daniel E

    2014-04-01

    Anastomotic leaks are a dreaded surgical complication following colorectal operations. Creation of a temporary proximal diverting ileostomy is used in high-risk anastomoses, however, additional surgical risk is accumulated with its creation and reversal. Endoluminal vacuum therapy has been shown to seal anastomotic defects in the prophylactic setting in a pig model and we hypothesized it could be utilized in a delayed fashion to rescue subjects with an active anastomotic leak. Yorkshire pigs underwent rectal resection, intentional leak confirmed by fluoroscopy, and endoluminal vacuum therapy device placement to low continuous suction. Following treatment, a contrast enema and necropsy was performed for gross and histopathology. Pigs underwent 2 (or 5) days of free intraperitoneal leak prior to device placement and 5 (or 7) subsequent days of endoluminal vacuum therapy. Six of seven early-treated pigs sealed their anastomotic defect, while two of the four treated pigs in this extended group sealed the defect. Endoluminal vacuum therapy is feasible and well tolerated in a pig model, and it has been shown to seal a significant number of freely leaking anastomoses in the early period (86%). This technology warrants further study as it may provide a noninvasive means to treatment of anastomotic leaks. PMID:24456480

  9. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

  10. Dornase alpha inhalations as a treatment option for recurrent lower respiratory tract infections in a child with Sotos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Philipp; Fazekas, Tamas; Wank, Hans; Kastner, Ulrike

    2014-07-01

    Recurrent episodes of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a rare complication of muscular hypotonia in patients with Sotos syndrome. We report on a male child suffering from repeated LRTIs including bronchitis, pneumonia, and atelectasis during infancy despite inhalations with salbutamol and fluticasone combined with manual chest percussion therapy. After initiation of dornase alpha inhalations in addition to the current treatment, we observed an improvement in the respiratory symptoms as well as a reduction in the rate of hospitalizations and in the occurrence of LRTIs. We assume that dornase alpha inhalations, in combination with airway clearance techniques, reduced the viscosity of airway secretions and by this improved mucociliary clearance and coughing efficiency. PMID:24899541

  11. The iontophoretic transdermal system formulation of sumatriptan as a new option in the acute treatment of migraine: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Spingos, Konstantinos C.; Rapoport, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    An iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) (skin patch) formulation of sumatriptan for the acute treatment of migraine attacks was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2013. This transdermal system bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, as it uses low electrical current to move sumatriptan transdermally into the subcutaneous tissue. Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials have demonstrated minimal triptan-related side effects and superior efficacy versus placebo, comparable with other sumatriptan formulations. Sumatriptan ITS can be applied successfully during a mild or severe migraine attack. According to pharmacokinetic properties and clinical data, sumatriptan ITS may be a good choice for people with migraine and severe nausea, vomiting or gastroparesis, those with intolerable triptan-related adverse events and those not responding optimally to oral medications. PMID:26136843

  12. Options for Heart Valve Replacement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... replacement. In this condition, the mitral valve allows oxygenated blood to flow backwards into the lungs instead ... step interactive guide explaining your valve issue and treatment options with helpful videos, text summaries and links ...

  13. A novel intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant (Iluvien®) in the treatment of patients with chronic diabetic macular edema that is insufficiently responsive to other medical treatment options: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Schmit-Eilenberger, Vera K

    2015-01-01

    Background Iluvien® is a novel, nonbiodegradable, sustained-release drug delivery system (0.2 ?g/d fluocinolone acetonide [FAc]) indicated in Europe for the treatment of vision impairment associated with chronic diabetic macular edema (DME), considered insufficiently responsive to available therapies. Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 190-?g FAc implant in patients with chronic DME refractory to other medical treatment options in a clinical setting. Methods Retrospective registry data were collected by using standard case report forms (CRFs). Prior to intravitreal injection of the FAc implant, all patients were treated either with a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonist and/or a steroid (triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant). Patients were excluded from receiving FAc if they had a known history of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) following corticosteroid therapy, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, or any contraindications cited in the summary of product characteristics. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was the main study parameter. Central fovea thickness (CFT) and IOP were measured concurrently. These parameters were recorded prior to and after the injection of the 190-?g FAc implant (between 1 week and 9 months). Injections were performed between May 2013 and March 2014. Results Fifteen eyes from ten patients were treated. Thirteen eyes (nine patients) were pseudophakic, and seven eyes (five patients) were vitrectomized prior to receiving therapy. BCVA improved in eleven eyes (73.3%), remained unchanged in two eyes (13.3%), and decreased slightly in two eyes (13.3%) at the last follow-up visit versus baseline levels. IOP increased in two patients and was controlled using fixed-combination of IOP-lowering eyedrops or sectorial cyclocryotherapy (n=1). Conclusion The 190-?g FAc implant was efficacious and showed a favorable benefit-to-risk profile in the patient population with chronic DME of this case series that were refractory to other therapies. The longer-term efficacy and safety in a real-life setting is still being assessed in this center. FAc may offer an important treatment option for patients with chronic DME refractory to other treatment options. PMID:25999689

  14. The Treatment of Giant Periurethral Condyloma in Pregnancy Using an Ultrasonic Thermal Scalpel: A Case Report and New Single Session Treatment Option

    PubMed Central

    Yavuzcan, Ali; Ça?lar, Mete; Turan, Hakan; Tekin, Ali; Topuz, Seren; Yavuzcan, Gizem; Dilbaz, Serdar; Üstün, Yusuf; Alia?ao?lu, Cihangir; Kumru, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple large polypoid lesions with exophytic appearance occurring in anal and perineal region as a result of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection are referred to as giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA). The conventional treatment of these lesions involves the use of surgical excision, laser, electrocautery, and/or application of trichloroacetic acid. A 28-year-old primigravid patient at 22 weeks of pregnancy presented to the hospital complaining of vaginal bleeding and palpable mass in the vulva. The physical examination revealed a 60 × 35?mm broad-based, fragile, and patchy hemorrhagic polypoid lesion originating 1?cm below the clitoris and completely occupying urethral orifice and partially occluding vaginal vestibule. The patient underwent excision of GCA in the midtrimester using an ultrasonic thermal scalpel (Harmonic Scalpel) without any additional treatment and subsequently delivered a single live healthy baby. The excision of GCA occurring during pregnancy using Harmonic Scalpel can be regarded as a new successful method. Prospective, randomized, and controlled studies are warranted in order to provide clear evidence of the efficiency and safety of HS in the treatment of GCA. PMID:25648983

  15. Xenotransplantation of porcine islet cells as a potential option for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in the future.

    PubMed

    Reichart, B; Niemann, H; Chavakis, T; Denner, J; Jaeckel, E; Ludwig, B; Marckmann, G; Schnieke, A; Schwinzer, R; Seissler, J; Tönjes, R R; Klymiuk, N; Wolf, E; Bornstein, S R

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ and cell transplantation, including pancreatic islets constitute the treatment of choice for chronic terminal diseases. However, the clinical use of allogeneic transplantation is limited by the growing shortage of human organs. This has prompted us to initiate a unique multi-center and multi-team effort to promote translational research in xenotransplantation to bring xenotransplantation to the clinical setting. Supported by the German Research Foundation, an interdisciplinary group of surgeons, internal medicine doctors, diabetologists, material sciences experts, immunologists, cell biologists, virologists, veterinarians, and geneticists have established a collaborative research center (CRC) focusing on the biology of xenogeneic cell, tissue, and organ transplantation. A major strength of this consortium is the inclusion of members of the regulatory bodies, including the Paul-Ehrlich Institute (PEI), infection specialists from the Robert Koch Institute and PEI, veterinarians from the German Primate Center, and representatives of influential ethical and religious institutions. A major goal of this consortium is to promote islet xenotransplantation, based on the extensive expertise and experience of the existing clinical islet transplantation program. Besides comprehensive approaches to understand and prevent inflammation-mediated islet xenotransplant dysfunction [immediate blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR)], we also take advantage of the availability of and experience with islet macroencapsulation, with the goal to improve graft survival and function. This consortium harbors a unique group of scientists with complementary expertise under a cohesive program aiming at developing new therapeutic approaches for islet replacement and solid organ xenotransplantation. PMID:25506683

  16. Diabetic ketoacidosis and acute mountain sickness: case report and review of treatment options in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steven C M

    2015-06-01

    A 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus and no microvascular complications traveled from near sea level to an altitude of 3000 m within 6 hours. At altitude, his blood glucose levels began to rise, necessitating increased insulin delivery. Typical symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) developed, and he became increasingly hyperglycemic and unwell. Upon presentation to an emergency clinic, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was diagnosed and was managed with insulin, intravenous fluids with potassium, and acetazolamide orally. No other potential causes for diabetic ketoacidosis were identified. Hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis resolved with treatment as expected, but an increased insulin requirement was noted for the next 48 hours, until returning to expected levels when acetazolamide was discontinued. This case describes an episode of mild diabetic ketoacidosis potentially precipitated by moderate to severe acute mountain sickness, and an apparent hyperglycemic effect of acetazolamide. Individuals with type 1 diabetes traveling to altitude and their physicians should be vigilant for this complication and should be aware of the effects of conventional first-line therapies for acute mountain sickness on insulin requirement, glycemic control, and preexisting microvascular diabetes complications. PMID:25899916

  17. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas: diagnosis and treatment options. Proceedings from a live roundtable, August 17, 2011, Kauai, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cheson, Bruce D; Horwitz, Steven M; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2011-11-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a collection of rare diseases, most of which have a poor prognosis. The basic categories include precursor lymphoid neoplasms (eg, lymphoblastic lymphoma); mature natural killer/T-cell neoplasms and extranodal lymphomas, including enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma; hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma; and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma. The most common varieties are the nodal types, which include peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified, anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas. Each of the subtypes has characteristic clinical manifestations. The frequencies of the subtypes vary by geographic region. The diagnosis can be difficult, and the World Health Organization classification system was recently evaluated to assess its clinical applicability and reproducibility for peripheral T-cell lymphomas and natural killer/T-cell lymphomas. At least 10% of patients are incorrectly diagnosed by local laboratories, and many subtypes need better diagnostic markers and criteria. Currently, an increasing number of effective and tolerable therapies are becoming available, including pralatrexate, brentuximab vedotin, romidepsin, and bendamustine. Accurate diagnosis is necessary to allow appropriate treatment, as exemplified by patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma that expresses high levels of CD30, who have high response rates to brentuximab vedotin. Patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma should be enrolled in clinical trials when possible. New medications should be incorporated into therapies in well-designed clinical trials to develop appropriate safety and efficacy data. PMID:22362328

  18. Estrogen as a new option for prevention and treatment of breast cancer - does this need a 'time gap'?

    PubMed

    Mueck, A O; Seeger, H

    2015-08-01

    Due to experimental and clinical data, the hypothesis has been raised that a 'time gap' is necessary to achieve 'carcinoprotection' by estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women, possibly also in combination with certain ('neutral') progestogens. As the mechanism, apoptotic effects are discussed, which, however, would only work after long-term estrogen deprivation. Based on this hypothesis, in general, an early initiation of menopausal hormone therapy would increase the risk of breast cancer, in sharp contrast to the beneficial cardiovascular effects, only protective within the 'window of opportunity' directly after menopause. However, other mechanisms are possible which could work without a time gap, leading to a decreased risk of breast cancer or even being carcinoprotective compared with no treatment. For example, within estradiol metabolism, carcinoprotective enzymes can be upregulated and protective estradiol metabolites can be produced, as shown, for example, especially in women with balanced nutrition and physical activity. In addition, it has to be considered that a long time is needed to see any clinical effects based on the biological mechanisms which may start early after estrogen exposure. Thus, more research and studies are needed to prove the 'gap hypothesis', and it may be that estrogen is beneficial for a woman at any time of her life. PMID:25958921

  19. Numa Option Calculator: The Original Option Webulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly. For those interested in pricing their own options, this Option Calculator, provided by Numa Financial Systems Ltd., calculates the adjusted Black-Scholes model to value European options.

  20. Acquisitions as a Real Options Bidding Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han T. J. Smit; Ward A. van den Berg; Wouter De Maeseneire

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a unified treatment of real options and game theory to examine value appropriation in takeovers within a competitive environment of imperfect information. The integrated model considers a potential target as a shared real option on a bundle of resources. Competing potential buyers may sequentially perform due diligence and incur costs (option premium) to become informed about their

  1. Acquisitions as a Real Options Bidding Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. J. Smit; Berg van den W. A; Maeseneire de W

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a unified treatment of real options and game theory to examine value appropriation in takeovers within a competitive environment of imperfect information. The integrated model considers a potential target as a shared real option on a bundle of resources. Competing potential buyers may sequentially perform due diligence and incur costs (option premium) to become informed about their

  2. Skills Training of Health Workers in the Use of a Non Surgical Device (PrePex) for Adult Safe Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Galukande, Moses; Duffy, Kevin; Bitega, Jean Paul; Wooding, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) is a proven approach for partial protection of men from acquisition of HIV infection. Several sub-Saharan African countries have a target to circumcise 80% of males aged 15 to 49. The use of devices such as PrePex would aid scaling up of SMC. Since most health workers would have no prior experience with use of devices, skills training is needed. This paper explores a skills transfer model at an urban site in Uganda. Objective To assess the practicability and feasibility of rapid short duration training for safe PrePex device use. Methods A prospective study, conducted over 8 weeks (August–October 2012) at International Hospital Kampala, an urban Kampala hospital, examining the performance of various health worker cadres after training in the use of a non-surgical device (PrePex). The prospective study obtained approval from the Makerere School of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee and the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. If eligible, and after the subject signed the informed consent form, they were enrolled into the study. Results Ten health workers were successfully trained in use of PrePex during a 3 day non-residential on-the-job training course. After the first three days of training, the trained health workers performed 561 placements and 529 device removals successfully. Over all adverse events (AE) rates were below ?2%; however, there were some differences in AE rates across the cadres trained but not significant (p>0.25 for moderate AEs). Conclusion Rapid training for safe use of the PrePex device is feasible for the range of health workers available for SMC in resource limited settings, but among those with past SMC experience. PMID:25118716

  3. Evaluation of Retinoids for Induction of the Redundant Gene ABCD2 as an Alternative Treatment Option in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Franziska D.; Weinhofer, Isabelle; Einwich, Angelika; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Muneer, Zahid; Maier, Harald; Weber, Willi H. A.; Berger, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most common peroxisomal disorder, is a clinically heterogeneous disease that can manifest as devastating inflammatory cerebral demyelination (CALD) leading to death of affected males. Currently, the only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, HSCT is only effective when performed at an early stage because the inflammation may progress for eighteen months after HSCT. Thus, alternative treatment options able to immediately halt the progression are urgently needed. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, encoding the peroxisomal membrane protein ABCD1, resulting in impaired very long-chain fatty acid metabolism. The related ABCD2 protein is able to functionally compensate for ABCD1-deficiency both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, we demonstrated that of the cell types derived from CD34+ stem cells, predominantly monocytes but not lymphocytes are metabolically impaired in X-ALD. As ABCD2 is virtually not expressed in these cells, we hypothesize that a pharmacological up-regulation of ABCD2 should compensate metabolically and halt the inflammation in CALD. Retinoids are anti-inflammatory compounds known to act on ABCD2. Here, we investigated the capacity of selected retinoids for ABCD2 induction in human monocytes/macrophages. In THP-1 cells, 13-cis-retinoic acid reached the highest, fivefold, increase in ABCD2 expression. To test the efficacy of retinoids in vivo, we analyzed ABCD2 mRNA levels in blood cells isolated from acne patients receiving 13-cis-retinoic acid therapy. In treated acne patients, ABCD2 mRNA levels were comparable to pre-treatment levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Nevertheless, when primary monocytes were in vitro differentiated into macrophages and treated with 13-cis-retinoic acid, we observed a fourfold induction of ABCD2. However, the level of ABCD2 induction obtained by retinoids alone is probably not of therapeutic relevance for X-ALD. In conclusion, our results suggest a change in promoter accessibility during macrophage differentiation allowing induction of ABCD2 by retinoids. PMID:25079382

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Progress Annual ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Progress Annual ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Ependymoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Progress Annual ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer cells. The following stages are used for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Stage 0 (High-grade Dysplasia) ... is also called high-grade dysplasia. Stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus Stage I is divided into ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery, the following procedures may be used: Endoluminal stent placement: A procedure to insert a stent (a thin, expandable tube) in order to keep ... stomach, surgery may be done to place a stent from the esophagus to the stomach or from ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Situ (Stage 0) In carcinoma in situ (stage 0) , abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the cervix . These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue . Enlarge Millimeters (mm). A sharp pencil point is about 1 mm, a new crayon point ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... benzene . Being exposed to heavy metals, such as mercury or lead. The cause of myelodysplastic syndromes in ... makes it. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy : The removal of bone marrow, blood, and a small piece ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Cancer Cancer Library For Survivors and Caregivers Changes to This Summary ( ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... energy sound waves ( ultrasound ) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram . Biopsy : The removal of cells or tissues so they can be ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chest x-ray : An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body. Biopsy : The removal of cells or tissues so they can be ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page. Contact Us More information about contacting us or receiving ... US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube RSS Google+ LinkedIn CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Grant Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements Cross-Cutting Public Policies Grants Management Contacts Training Cancer Training ... Grant Closeout NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements Cross-Cutting Public Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Nasopharyngeal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or smaller; or is found in the parapharyngeal space. Cancer may have spread to one or more ... of the tongue, and the tonsils . The parapharyngeal space is a fat-filled, triangular area near the ...

  17. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type of cancer being treated. Liposomal chemotherapy uses liposomes (very tiny fat particles) to carry anticancer drugs. ... doxorubicin is used to treat Kaposi sarcoma. The liposomes build up in Kaposi sarcoma tissue more than ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Gallbladder Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... following stages are used for gallbladder cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells are found in the inner ( mucosal ) ... cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue . Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ . Stage I ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Urethral Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the picture. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Urethrography : A series of x-rays of the urethra. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and ...

  20. Treatment Options for Ewing Sarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The RAS Initiative Progress Annual Report to the Nation Snapshots of Specific Types of Cancer Milestones in ... specific cancer type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery ...

  1. Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pituitary tumor include problems with vision and certain physical changes. Signs and symptoms can be caused by ... also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Blood chemistry study : A procedure in which a blood sample ...

  2. Treatment Options for Parathyroid Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page. Contact Us More information about contacting us or receiving ... US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube RSS Google+ LinkedIn CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Chest x-ray : An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and ...

  4. Reconstruction options for acetabular revision

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Erica D; Browne, James A

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes reconstruction options available for acetabular revision following total hip arthroplasty. A thoughtful methodology to the evaluation and treatment of patients with implant failure after joint replacement is essential to guarantee accurate diagnoses, appropriate triage to reconstruction options, and optimal clinical outcomes. In the majority of patients who undergo acetabular revision, factors such as bone loss and pelvic discontinuity provide a challenge in the selection and implementation of the proper reconstruction option. With advanced evaluation algorithms, imaging techniques, and implant designs, techniques have evolved to rebuild the compromised acetabulum at the time of revision surgery. However, clinical outcomes data for these techniques continue to lag behind the exponential increase in revision hip arthroplasty cases predicted to occur over the next several years. We encourage those involved in the treatment of patients undergoing hip replacement surgery to participate in well-designed clinical studies to enhance evidence-based knowledge regarding revision acetabular reconstruction options. PMID:22816064

  5. Parisian exchange options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An Chen; Michael Suchanecki

    2010-01-01

    The option to exchange one asset for another is one of the oldest and one of the most popular exotic options. In the present article, we extend the existing literature on options to Parisian exchange options, i.e. the option to exchange one asset for the other contingent on the occurrence of the Parisian time. Thus, these options are a special

  6. Options in Renal Replacement Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex M. Davison

    Since the introduction over forty years ago of regular dialysis therapy for the management of end stage renal failure there\\u000a have been dramatic changes in the way this treatment is provided. In pioneering days only a few highly selected patients were\\u000a considered for treatment and only one treatment option was available (9). Generally, patients were treated twice weekly by haemodialysis

  7. Options Strategy Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Numa Financial Systems provide an easy-to-use Options Strategy Guide where the options strategies are categorized to the user's expectations of the stock price. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly.

  8. Option Pricing Andrea Gagliano

    E-print Network

    Morrow, James A.

    Option Pricing Andrea Gagliano June 3, 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Terminology 3 2.1 Financial of these unusual trading techniques are referred to as financial derivatives. Options, a type of financial, it is important in the financial realm to approximate the value of options. Option valuation is also a useful

  9. Patient-friendly financial options.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    1999-03-01

    Having flexible payment options ensures that patients will have all of the motivation and information they need to accept care in your office. The HCCC simply offers the chance to make more expensive treatment available to those who need or want it. The small cost of using a HCCC program more than pays for itself--in fact, it costs less than one-third of what you would spend if you were to bill these patients instead. Having consistent financial policies and flexible payment options can dramatically increase your office's productivity and profitability, while expressing your commitment to customer service and high-quality dentistry. PMID:10344121

  10. Dark circles: etiology and management options.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Daniel P; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2015-01-01

    Given their multifactorial nature and the fact that individual patients may have more than a single underlying cause, cosmetic practitioners should be well versed in a number of potential treatment options encompassing all facets of under-eye dark circles. New therapeutic options are also forthcoming. Longer-lasting HA fillers, wavelength tunable laser devices, and topicals speeding up healing and enhancing results after fractionated laser therapy will all serve to make the future of dark circle treatment unabatedly bright. PMID:25440739

  11. Benign prostate hyperplasia: evaluation of treatment response with DCE MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Heverhagen; H. von Tengg-Kobligk; K. T. Baudendistel; G. Jia; H. Polzer; H. Henry; A. L. Levine; T. J. Rosol; M. V. Knopp

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a major disease and its non-surgical therapy a major area of interest. The purpose of this study was to establish perfusion parameters in beagles with BPH using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and to investigate changes due to the effects of finasteride treatment. Twelve male beagles (mean age 4.4±0.9,years) were divided into a control and treatment

  12. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology: Task 1 -- Evaluation of treatment zone formation options. Topical report, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, S.H.; Landis, R.C.; Griffith, R.J.; Schultz, D.S. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Quinton, G.E. [E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report presents the results of evaluations by E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc. of treatment zone and electrode emplacement alternatives for use in the integrated treatment process. Specifically, the scope of this study was limited to vertical configuration emplacements. Several promising alternatives were identified ranging from approaches involving standard excavation techniques to relatively specialized geotechnical construction methods which could be modified for the treatment zone emplacement purpose. Information developed in this report is designed to help the user select the most promising emplacement method(s) for a given site on the basis of (1) depth of emplacement, and (2) restrictions on handling excavated soils. Advantages, disadvantages, and estimated costs are identified for each alternative, and possible bases for improvement and cost reduction through further development are described.

  13. Supply-side options

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Over 100 different supply-side options were identified during the course of Energy Vision 2020. These options represent a broad spectrum of options-both in terms of fuel source and operating characteristics. While the full range of supply-side options is nearly unlimited, this set provides a reasonable representation of the options that are available. In some cases, two or more similar options were defined in order to better evaluate specific differences. In most cases, however, the options represent a {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} configuration and not necessarily the only design that could be considered. This document provides additional descriptions and characterizations of each of the options that have been identified.

  14. Earth Sciences Geography Option

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Earth Sciences with Geography Option Geography is the study of Earth's environments, landscapes, international development, diplomacy, military service; · Teaching and research. #12;Earth Sciences with Geography Option What to know about Oregon State University Student Services & Advising College of Earth

  15. Gefitinib-induced interstitial lung disease-addition of intravenous cyclophosphamide to corticosteroids is a valuable treatment option: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Goto; Masayuki Hojo; Yuichiro Takeda; Nobuyuki Kobayashi; Koichiro Kudo

    2010-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as having advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and was started on treatment with gefitinib.\\u000a Fifty days after the start of treatment, the patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of dry cough, fever, and\\u000a shortness of breath. A diagnosis of gefitinib-induced interstitial lung disease was made, and administration of high-dose\\u000a prednisolone (1 g\\/day of intravenous

  16. Anakinra for Difficult-to-Treat Neutrophilic Panniculitis: IL1 Blockade as a Promising Treatment Option for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory Skin Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Lipsker; Cécile Perrigouard; Audrey Foubert; Bernard Cribier

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of neutrophilic panniculitis can be challenging. We report a patient with a difficult-to-treat neutrophilic panniculitis who had a spectacular response to a short treatment course with the IL-1 antagonist anakinra. A 61-year-woman had a 12-year history of a serious febrile neutrophilic panniculitis and a personal history of steroid- induced pancreatitis and life-threatening methemoglobinemia under antimalarials and dapsone. When

  17. Breast reconstruction options following mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Djohan, Risal; Gage, Earl; Bernard, Steven

    2008-03-01

    Breast reconstruction can help to address the disfigurement and sense of loss that often follow mastectomy. The decision whether to pursue reconstruction and the choice of reconstructive strategy are individualized decisions that must take into account the patient's body characteristics, overall health, breast cancer treatment plan, and personal preferences. Options for reconstruction broadly include placement of breast implants or use of the patient's own tissue (autologous reconstruction). Both saline-filled and silicone gel-filled implants are safe and effective options for implant-based reconstruction. Autologous reconstruction usually involves transfer of tissue from the abdomen, with recent advances allowing preservation of the abdominal muscles. Both implant-based and autologous procedures have advantages and drawbacks, and both types of reconstruction may be compromised by subsequent radiation therapy. For this and other reasons, consultation with a plastic surgeon early in treatment planning is important for women considering postmastectomy reconstruction. PMID:18457193

  18. Understanding Index Option Returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Broadie; Mikhail Chernov; Michael Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Previous research concludes that options are mispriced based on the high average returns, CAPM alphas, and Sharpe ratios of various put selling strategies. One criticism of these conclusions is that these benchmarks are ill suited to handle the extreme statistical nature of option returns generated by nonlinear payoffs. We propose an alternative way to evaluate the statistical significance of option

  19. Application of talcum powder, trichloroacetic acid and silver nitrate in female rats for non-surgical sterilization: evaluation of the apoptotic pathway mRNA and miRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Yumrutas, Onder; Kara, Murat; Atilgan, Remzi; Kavak, Salih Burcin; Bozgeyik, Ibrahim; Sapmaz, Ekrem

    2015-04-01

    There are several methods used for non-surgical sterilization in birth control including quinacrine, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), erythromycin, tetracycline, silver nitrate and talcum powder. Among these, talcum powder, TCA and silver nitrate are the most commonly used. However, the toxic and carcinogenic activities of these chemicals in ovarian tissue have been poorly elucidated. This study demonstrates the expression levels of antioxidant, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes after administration of talc powder, TCA and silver nitrate for non-surgical sterilization in female rat models. The expression changes of some microRNAs (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-34a and miR-98) that play key roles in the apoptosis pathway were also included. All expression analyses were evaluated with real-time PCR. The expression levels of all genes appeared to be upregulated in the talcum powder group, but the results were not statistically significant. Increased expression of Gsr and Sod1 genes was statistically significant in the talcum powder group. In TCA and silver nitrate group, expression of all genes was appeared to be elevated but only the Gsr expression was statistically significant in the TCA-administrated group; there were no statistically significant changes in the silver nitrate group. miRNA expression levels were increased in talcum powder and TCA-administrated groups, but these results were not significant. Expression levels of miR-15b, miR-21 and miR-98 in the silver nitrate group were significantly increased. Consequently, these chemicals appear to be non-carcinogenic agents for rat ovarian tissue which do not induce apoptosis. However, talcum powder and TCA can be considered as agents that are toxic to ovarian tissue. PMID:25885949

  20. Exemestane blocks mesothelioma growth through downregulation of cAMP, pCREB and CD44 implicating new treatment option in patients affected by this disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that aromatase may be involved in the pathogenesis of malignant mesothelioma. Here, we evaluated the effect of exemestane, an inhibitor of aromatase, in the treatment of mesothelioma using in vitro and in vivo preclinical models. Results We show a significant reduction of cell proliferation, survival, migration and block of cells in S phase of cell cycle in mesothelioma cells upon exemestane treatment. Moreover, we find that CD44, which is involved in mesothelioma cells migration, was modulated by exemestane via cAMP and pCREB. Most importantly, in mice mesothelioma xenograft exemestane causes a significant decrease in tumor size and the association pemetrexed/exemestane is more effective than pemetrexed/cisplatin. Conclusion The preclinical mesothelioma model suggests that exemestane might be beneficial in mesothelioma treatment. PMID:24655565

  1. Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Symptoms of Severe Agitation and Aggression: Consensus Statement on Treatment Options, Clinical Trials Methodology, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Salzman, C; Jeste, D; Meyer, RE; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Cummings, J; Grossberg, G; Jarvik, L; Kraemer, H; Lebowitz, B; Maslow, K; Pollock, B; Raskind, M; Schultz, S; Wang, P; Zito, JM; Zubenko, GS

    2009-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been used off-label in clinical practice for treatment of serious dementia-associated agitation and aggression. Following reports of cerebrovascular adverse events associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic in elderly patients with dementia, the FDA issued black box warnings for several atypical antipsychotics, titled “Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia.” Subsequently, the FDA initiated a meta-analysis of safety data from 17 registration trials across six antipsychotic drugs (five atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol). In 2005, the Agency issued a black box warning regarding increased risk of mortality associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in this patient population. Geriatric mental health experts participating in a 2006 consensus conference reviewed evidence on the safety and efficacy of antipsychotics, as well as nonpharmacologic approaches, in treating dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression. They concluded that, while problems in clinical trials design may have been one of the contributors to the failure to find a signal of drug efficacy, the findings related to drug safety should be taken seriously by clinicians in assessing the potential risks and benefits of treatment in a frail population, and in advising families about treatment. Information provided to patients and family members should be documented in the patient’s chart. Drugs should be used only when non-pharmacologic approaches have failed to adequately control behavioral disruption. Participants also agreed that that there is a need for an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of severe, persistent or recurrent dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression (even in the absence of psychosis), that are unresponsive to nonpharmacologic intervention. The authors have outlined methodological enhancements to better evaluate treatment approaches in future registration trials, and they provided an algorithm for improving the treatment of these patients in nursing home and non-nursing home settings. PMID:18494535

  2. [Controlled release oxycodone--a new option in the treatment of severe and very severe pain. Review of studies on neuropathic, physical activity-related and postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Stiehl, M

    2004-08-01

    Opioids are used not only in the treatment of cancer pain, but also pain of non-malignant genesis. In recent years, the efficacy of controlled release (CR) oxycodone in the treatment of the above-mentioned types of pain has been investigated in a number of clinical studies. The present article reviews the clinical studies that have been already published. Thanks to its outstanding pharmacological and pharmacodynamic properties, CR oxycodone is fast acting and brings about long lasting pain relief, coupled with benefits for physical and mental activities. This results in a significant quality-of-life improvement. Oral therapy with CR oxycodone is safe and can be precisely controlled. Since there are no clinical relevant metabolites, there is no danger of accumulation in patients with renal infarction due to these metabolites. Side effects are those typical for opioids, and are readily manageable. CR oxycodone is a good alternative in the treatment of non-cancer pain and can be recommended as first-line treatment for the above-mentioned indications. PMID:16739361

  3. Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  4. Towards non-surgical therapy for uterine fibroids: catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor shrinks uterine fibroid lesions in the Eker rat model

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, M.H.; Fouad, H.; Bahashwan, S.; Al-Hendy, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common pelvic tumors in women. We assessed the potential therapeutic utility of Ro 41-0960, a synthetic catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor (COMTI), in the Eker rat. METHODS We randomized uterine fibroid-bearing Eker rats for treatment with Ro 41-0960 (150 mg/kg/12 h) versus vehicle for 2 and 4 weeks. The fibroids were measured by caliper and subjected to histological evaluation. Urinary levels of 2-hydroxy estrogen (E2), 16-hydroxy E2 and DPD (osteoporosis marker) and serum liver enzymes were evaluated. Expressions of Cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase1 (PARP1), tumor suppressor gene (P53) and transforming growth factor (TGF?3) were assessed in fibroids using immunohistochemical analysis or RT–PCR. Apoptosis was confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). RESULTS Ro 41-0960-treated rats exhibited fibroid volumes of 86 ± 7% and 105 ± 12% of initial burden, at 2 and 4 weeks post-treatment, respectively, significantly lower than control group (240 ± 15% and 300 ± 18%; P< 0.01). Ro 41-0960 increased the urinary 2-hydroxy E2/16-hydroxy E2 ratio, level of p53 mRNA and TUNEL positivity (P< 0.05) and decreased PARP1, PCNA and cyclin D1 proteins and TGF?3 mRNA (P< 0.05). Ro 41-0960 did not change normal tissue histology, liver functions or urinary DPD level. CONCLUSIONS Ro 41-0960 (COMTI) arrested growth/shrunk uterine fibroids in Eker rats. This result may be related to modulation of estrogen-dependent genes involved in apoptosis, proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition via accumulation of 2-hydroxy estrogen. The efficacy and safety of Ro 41-0960 in rats suggest its candidacy for treatment of uterine fibroids. PMID:21896544

  5. The VACS Index Accurately Predicts Mortality and Treatment Response among Multi-Drug Resistant HIV Infected Patients Participating in the Options in Management with Antiretrovirals (OPTIMA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sheldon T.; Tate, Janet P.; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Kirkwood, Katherine A.; Holodniy, Mark; Goulet, Joseph L.; Angus, Brian J.; Cameron, D. William; Justice, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The VACS Index is highly predictive of all-cause mortality among HIV infected individuals within the first few years of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, its accuracy among highly treatment experienced individuals and its responsiveness to treatment interventions have yet to be evaluated. We compared the accuracy and responsiveness of the VACS Index with a Restricted Index of age and traditional HIV biomarkers among patients enrolled in the OPTIMA study. Methods Using data from 324/339 (96%) patients in OPTIMA, we evaluated associations between indices and mortality using Kaplan-Meier estimates, proportional hazards models, Harrel’s C-statistic and net reclassification improvement (NRI). We also determined the association between study interventions and risk scores over time, and change in score and mortality. Results Both the Restricted Index (c?=?0.70) and VACS Index (c?=?0.74) predicted mortality from baseline, but discrimination was improved with the VACS Index (NRI?=?23%). Change in score from baseline to 48 weeks was more strongly associated with survival for the VACS Index than the Restricted Index with respective hazard ratios of 0.26 (95% CI 0.14–0.49) and 0.39(95% CI 0.22–0.70) among the 25% most improved scores, and 2.08 (95% CI 1.27–3.38) and 1.51 (95%CI 0.90–2.53) for the 25% least improved scores. Conclusions The VACS Index predicts all-cause mortality more accurately among multi-drug resistant, treatment experienced individuals and is more responsive to changes in risk associated with treatment intervention than an index restricted to age and HIV biomarkers. The VACS Index holds promise as an intermediate outcome for intervention research. PMID:24667813

  6. Empirical Testing of the External Validity of a Discrete Choice Experiment to Determine Preferred Treatment Option: The Case of Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Krucien, Nicolas; Gafni, Amiram; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    There is an increasing use of the discrete choice experiment (DCE) method in health care to estimate preferences of individuals and the public for different services. Despite this increasing use, there are few studies that investigate the validity of the DCE in health. This study investigates the external validity of DCE by comparing the predicted treatment choices from the DCE to the actual treatment choices made by the same respondents using a decision board (DB) approach. The sample includes 140 patients who came for a sleep apnea routine visit in a hospital setting. Each respondent answered 10 DCE tasks and 1 DB task. The preferences were estimated with a generalized multinomial logit model and the predicted and actual treatment choices were compared both at the sample and individual levels. The results raise questions about the external validity of DCE in health. At the sample level, the comparison showed large but not significant differences between the two methods. This can be explained in part by the aggregation process that obscures variability in the individuals' preferences. At the individual level, the comparison showed that the two methods led to significantly different patterns of choices. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24986760

  7. Functional outcome after non-surgical management of orbital fractures--the bias of decision-making according to size of defect: critical review of 48 patients.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Christoph; Sigron, Guido R; Jaquiéry, Claude

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of mild and moderate fractures of the orbital wall is controversial. Apart from clinical signs, the size of the defect is often used to aid the decision about treatment. We hypothesised that variables would be present that had an impact on the position and motility of the globe but were independent of the size of the defect, and prevented a balanced judgement of the outcome of conservative treatment. Between January 2000 and December 2007, 48 of 127 patients were included in this retrospective study to analyse the functional outcome of orbital fractures managed without operation. Selection was dependent on the availability of complete clinical records, post-traumatic computed tomographic (CT) scans (axial and coronal sections) and ophthalmic examination. All 48 defects were analysed and allocated to categories of a semiquantitative classification. The area of fracture of each defect was calculated with an integral calculus or geometrical formula and correlated with the associated category. Category A included all orbital walls as a single unit (A1) and combined fracture patterns (A2 and higher). Category B described isolated fractures of the medial wall. There was a significant correlation between classes A1 and A2 (p<0.01) and absolute area of the fracture (0.98 (0.4)cm(2) and 2.42 (0.8)cm(2)). Diplopia was most often seen in fractures in category B1 (the anterior third of the medial wall) and the post-traumatic position of the globe significantly correlated with the area of the fracture (p=0.04). The degree of diplopia was less severe in fractures of the posterior portion of the orbit (zones 2 and 3) compared with fractures of the anterior orbit, even if the defect was larger. The conservative management of category A1-3 and B1-3 fractures up to 2.42 (3.15)cm(2) showed no functional impairment, provided that enophthalmos was less than 2mm and there was no entrapment of periorbital tissue or extraocular muscles. We found good correlation between enopthalmos and the size of the fracture, but not for diplopia or motility of the eye. We conclude that conservative management of an orbital fracture in which the defect is less than 3cm(2) has a low risk of permanent functional damage if enophthalmos is less than 2mm and entrapment of soft tissue or muscles is excluded. PMID:23141199

  8. Supply-side options

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report addresses the supply-side options considered in this report. Even with medium load growth, the need for additional capacity is both clear and substantial, and new generating capability is needed. A central issue in this discussion was a decision on the status of the nuclear units in construction or restart. Several options were considered for the nuclear units, and it was concluded that TVA will not complete or restart any of these units without a financial partner. TVA also created an extensive list of other generating options spanning the full range of current and near-term developing technologies. TVA has also identified options that would give greater flexibility. These options include the purchase of competitively priced power from other suppliers. All the supply-side options were catagorized by performance, cost, and relevant environmental emission.

  9. Intra-tumoral gene delivery of feIL-2, feIFN-gamma and feGM-CSF using magnetofection as a neoadjuvant treatment option for feline fibrosarcomas: a phase-I study.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, A; Hirschberger, J; Fischer, C; Brill, T; Köstlin, R; Plank, C; Küchenhoff, H; Krieger, S; Kamenica, K; Schillinger, U

    2007-12-01

    Despite aggressive pre- or postoperative treatment, feline fibrosarcomas have a high relapse rate. In this study, a new treatment option based on immune stimulation by intra-tumoral delivery of three feline cytokine genes was performed. The objective of this phase-I dose-escalation study was to determine a safe dose for further evaluation in a subsequent phase-II trial. Twenty-five client-owned cats with clinical diagnosis of fibrosarcoma - primary tumours as well as recurrences - entered the study. Four increasing doses of plasmids coding for feIL-2, feIFN-gamma or feGM-CSF, respectively, were previously defined. In groups I, II, III and IV these doses were 15, 50, 150 and 450 microg per plasmid and a corresponding amount of magnetic nanoparticles. Two preoperative intra-tumoral injections of the magnetic DNA solution were followed by magnetofection. A group of four control cats received only surgical treatment. Side effects were registered and graded according to the VCOG-CTCAE scale and correlated to treatment. Statistical analyses included one-way anova, post hoc and Kruskal-Wallis tests. ELISA tests detecting plasma feIFN-gamma and plasma feGM-CSF were performed. One cat out of group IV (450 microg per plasmid) showed adverse events probably related to gene delivery. As these side effects were self-limiting and occurred only in one of eight cats in group IV, this dose was determined to be well tolerable. Altogether six cats developed local recurrences during a 1-year observation period. Four of these cats had been treated with dose IV. Regarding these observations, a subsequent phase-II trial including a representative amount of cats should be tested for the efficacy of dose IV as well as dose III. PMID:18045346

  10. The Leaflex™ Catheter System - a viable treatment option alongside valve replacement? Preclinical feasibility of a novel device designed for fracturing aortic valve calcification.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Michael; Rozenman, Yoseph; Moshkovitz, Yaron; Hamdan, Ashraf; Kislev, Yael; Tirosh, Nitzan; Sax, Sharon; Trumer, Dror; Golan, Erez; Raanani, Ehud

    2014-11-25

    Aims: To demonstrate the feasibility of the Leaflex™ Catheter System, a novel percutaneous device for fracturing valve calcification using mechanical impact in order to regain leaflet mobility. Methods and results: Radiographic analysis of calcium patterns in 90 ex vivo human aortic valve leaflets demonstrated that 82% of leaflets had a typical "bridge" or "half-bridge" pattern, which formed the basis for the catheter design. The therapeutic effect was quantified in 13 leaflets showing a reduction of 49±16% in leaflet resistance to folding after treatment. A pulsatile flow simulator was then used with 11 ex vivo valves demonstrating an increase in aortic valve area of 35±12%. Using gross pathology and histology on fresh calcified leaflets, we then verified that mechanical impacts do not entail excessive risk of embolisation. In vivo safety and usability were then confirmed in the ovine model. Conclusions: We demonstrated preclinically that it is feasible to improve valve function using the Leaflex™ technology. Once demonstrated clinically, such an approach may have an important role as preparation for or bridging to TAVI, as destination treatment for patients where TAVI is clinically or economically questionable and, in the future, maybe even as a means to slow disease progression in asymptomatic patients. PMID:25420790

  11. Anti-TNF alpha in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a valid approach for organ-sparing or an expensive option to delay surgery?

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Pugliese, Daniela; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Coco, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease affecting large bowel with variable clinical course. The history of disease has been modified by the introduction of biologic therapy, in particular Infliximab (IFX), that has demonstrated efficacy in inducing fast symptoms remission, promoting mucosal healing and maintaining long-term remission. However, surgery is still needed for UC patients: in case of failure of medical therapy and if acute complications or a malignancy occurred. Surgical treatment is associated with a short-term post-operative mortality and morbidity respectively of 0%-4% and 30%. In this study we systematically analyzed: the role of IFX in reducing the colectomy rate, the risk of post-operative morbidity in pre-operatively IFX-treated patients and the cost-effectiveness of IFX therapy. Four of 5 analyzed randomized controlled trials demonstrated that therapy with IFX significantly reduces the colectomy rate. Moreover, pre-operative treatment with IFX doesn't seem to increase post-operative infectious complications. By an economic point of view, the cost-effectiveness of IFX-therapy was demonstrated for UC patients suffering from moderate to severe UC in a study based on a cost estimation of the National Health Service of England and Wales. However, the argument is debated. PMID:24803795

  12. What could Nintedanib (BIBF 1120), a triple inhibitor of VEGFR, PDGFR, and FGFR, add to the current treatment options for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Capdevila, Jaume; Carrato, Alfredo; Tabernero, Josep; Grande, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Increasing knowledge of the pro-angiogenic processes involved in the progression of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has resulted in the clinical development of several anti-angiogenic agents, with bevacizumab currently being the only approved agent for mCRC. Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) has been shown to block the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). By targeting FGFR signaling, nintedanib may overcome resistance to previous anti-VEGF treatments, and may represent a better approach in patients with high basal levels of circulating FGFs. In this article, the angiogenic mechanisms implicated in mCRC are reviewed (focusing on the signaling pathways activated by VEGFR, PDGFR, and FGFR), along with the clinical data for nintedanib in the context of other anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors under clinical development for mCRC. Biomarkers that could predict response to nintedanib are also discussed. PMID:24924525

  13. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  14. Options Study - Phase II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-01-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel

  15. Electricity Real Options Valuation

    E-print Network

    Ewa Broszkiewicz-Suwaj

    2006-08-16

    In this paper a real option approach for the valuation of real assets is presented. Two continuous time models used for valuation are described: geometric Brownian motion model and interest rate model. The valuation for electricity spread option under Vasicek interest model is placed and the formulas for parameter estimators are calculated. The theoretical part is confronted with real data from electricity market.

  16. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  17. Long term maintenance of weight loss with non-surgical interventions in obese adults: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review and describe currently available approaches to supporting maintenance of weight loss in obese adults and to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study selection Studies were identified through to January 2014. Randomised trials of interventions to maintain weight loss provided to initially obese adults (aged ?18) after weight loss of ?5% body weight with long term (?12 months) follow-up of weight change (main outcome) were included. Study appraisal and synthesis Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate; study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of interventions on weight loss maintenance with the inverse variance method and a random effects model. Results are presented as mean differences in weight change, with 95% confidence intervals. Results 45 trials involving 7788 individuals were included. Behavioural interventions focusing on both food intake and physical activity resulted in an average difference of ?1.56 kg (95% confidence interval ?2.27 to ?0.86 kg; 25 comparisons, 2949 participants) in weight regain compared with controls at 12 months. Orlistat combined with behavioural interventions resulted in a ?1.80 kg (?2.54 to ?1.06; eight comparisons, 1738 participants) difference compared with placebo at 12 months. All orlistat studies reported higher frequencies of adverse gastrointestinal events in the experimental compared with placebo control groups. A dose-response relation for orlistat treatment was found, with 120 mg doses three times a day leading to greater weight loss maintenance (?2.34 kg, ?3.03 to ?1.65) compared with 60 mg and 30 mg three times a day (?0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval ?1.92 to 0.52), P=0.02. Conclusions Behavioural interventions that deal with both diet and physical activity show small but significant benefits on weight loss maintenance. PMID:25134100

  18. [Subtotal Segment Resection, Augmenting Angle-Stable Plate Osteosynthesis and Allogenic Bone Graft as Treatment Option for Juxtacortical Osteosarcoma in the Knee Region].

    PubMed

    Zajonz, D; Pfraenger, J R; Dubitzki, S; Panzert, S; Seider, D; Lingscheidt, T; Hammer, N; Prietzel, T

    2015-06-01

    Juxtacortical osteosarcomas are a group of rare primary bone tumours. They differ from medullary osteosarcomas in their anatomic location (outside of the corticalis), low metastasis rate and better prognosis. The only evidence-based treatment of juxtacortical osteosarcomas is the wide surgical resection. In this technical report we will introduce a new surgical technique, including the subtotal resection of the tumour-bearing bone segment, defect reconstruction by means of an augmenting fixed-angle plate osteosynthesis and homologous cancellous bone graft. If necessary, a subsequent plastic coverage of the soft tissue defect was performed. The technique will be presented by means of three illustrated cases of young patients with juxtacortical osteosarcomas in the proximity of the knee joint. Following diagnostic confirmation by means of an incision biopsy and tumour staging, the three patients underwent this new surgical technique. In the postoperative follow-up and re-staging, two to seven years after surgery, all patients were under complete remission, had functionally restored knee joints (Karnofsky score 90?% or higher) and showed good aesthetic results. The surgical technique described may therefore be an adequate alternative to the complete resection of the tumour-bearing bone segment with prosthetic reconstruction and should be considered on the basis of the illustrated functional results in individual cases. PMID:26114561

  19. Is Early Treatment with a Cervical Pessary an Option in Patients with a History of Surgical Conisation and a Short Cervix?

    PubMed

    Kyvernitakis, I; Khatib, R; Stricker, N; Arabin, B

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Patients with a history of one or more conizations have an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of pregnancies in patients with a history of conization and early treatment with a cervical pessary. Methods: In this pilot observational study we included 21 patients and evaluated the obstetric history, the interval between pessary placement and delivery, gestational age at delivery, the neonatal outcome and the number of days of maternal and neonatal admission. Results: Among the study group of 21 patients, 20 patients had a singleton and one had a dichorionic/diamniotic twin pregnancy. At insertion, the mean gestational age was 17?+?2 (10?+?5-24?+?0) weeks and the mean cervical length was 19 (4-36) mm. Six patients presented with funneling at insertion with a mean funneling width of 19.7 (10-38) mm and funneling length of 19.9 (10-37) mm. Five patients had already lost at least one child due to early spontaneous preterm birth and another five had at least one previous abortion, who have now delivered beyond 34 weeks. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 (31?+?1-41?+?0) gestational weeks and the mean interval between insertion and delivery was 145 (87-182) days. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a beneficial effect of an early pessary placement for patients at high-risk for preterm birth due to conization. PMID:25484374

  20. Active Management of Real Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom W. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Business opportunities to introduce new products at a later date are treated as real options. These real options are modeled as exchange options for which both the underlying and strike assets are risky. The distance to breakeven for an exchange option measures how far a real option is currently expected to be from having a net present value of zero

  1. Public opinion on water reuse options

    SciTech Connect

    Bruvold, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Public policy on waste water reuse options must be informed by public opinion because it is the public who must pay the cost of developing the option and who will be served by the option in the future. For public policy on reuse, guidance for innovative reuse is not as simple as first believed. It seems that public opinion regarding actual community reuse options is affected by the linkage of several factors, including water conservation, health protection, treatment and distribution costs, and environmental enhancement. Probability sampling was used in 7 studies to select respondents who were queried regarding their opinions on various reclaimed water uses such as ranging from cooling tower water to full domestic use. These 7 are briefly reviewed.

  2. Decision quality instrument for treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis: a psychometric evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A high quality decision requires that patients who meet clinical criteria for surgery are informed about the options (including non-surgical alternatives) and receive treatments that match their goals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical sensibility of a patient self report instrument, to measure the quality of decisions about total joint replacement for knee or hip osteoarthritis. Methods The performance of the Hip/Knee Osteoarthritis Decision Quality Instrument (HK-DQI) was evaluated in two samples: (1) a cross-sectional mail survey with 489 patients and 77 providers (study 1); and (2) a randomized controlled trial of a patient decision aid with 138 osteoarthritis patients considering total joint replacement (study 2). The HK-DQI results in two scores. Knowledge items are summed to create a total knowledge score, and a set of goals and concerns are used in a logistic regression model to develop a concordance score. The concordance score measures the proportion of patients whose treatment matched their goals. Hypotheses related to acceptability, feasibility, reliability and validity of the knowledge and concordance scores were examined. Results In study 1, the HK-DQI was completed by 382 patients (79%) and 45 providers (58%), and in study 2 by 127 patients (92%), with low rates of missing data. The DQI-knowledge score was reproducible (ICC = 0.81) and demonstrated discriminant validity (68% decision aid vs. 54% control, and 78% providers vs. 61% patients) and content validity. The concordance score demonstrated predictive validity, as patients whose treatments were concordant with their goals had more confidence and less regret with their decision compared to those who did not. Conclusions The HK-DQI is feasible and acceptable to patients. It can be used to assess whether patients with osteoarthritis are making informed decisions about surgery that are concordant with their goals. PMID:21729315

  3. Warts: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dermatologist may use one of the following treatments: Laser treatment : Laser treatment is an option, mainly for warts that have not responded to other therapies. Before laser treatment, the dermatologist may numb the wart with ...

  4. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...only intended to include options that require financial settlement and other financial...such.'' Treating all options, financial and physical, as swaps...in either physical or financial settlement of the option. The Commission...

  5. Factors Affecting Option Premium Values 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

    1999-06-23

    Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

  6. Cogeneration System Design Options 

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    COGENERATION SYSTEM DESIGN OPTIONS Joel S. Gilbert, Dames & Moore, Bethesda, Maryland The commercial or industrial firm contemplating cogeneration at its facilities faces numerous basic design choices. The possibilities exist for fue1ing...

  7. ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

  8. Accommodation Options Darwin

    E-print Network

    Accommodation Options ­ Darwin Charles Darwin University #12;· Welcome-campusAccommodationatCDU . . . . . 5 · InternationalHouseDarwin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 · iHomestayNetwork . . . . . . . . . . 20 Contents #12;3 Welcome to Charles Darwin University. We congratulate you for making the decision

  9. Insecticide Options for

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    Insecticide Options for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer Daniel A. Herms, Deborah G. Mc for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer (Second Edition) is funded in part by the USDA-NIFA North Central for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer #12;InsectIcIde OptIOns fOr prOtectIng Ash trees frOm emerald Ash

  10. Non-surgical tubal embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, R; Balmaceda, J P; Ord, T; Asch, R H

    1990-02-01

    Selective cannulation of the Fallopian tubes via the utero-tubal junction, without analgesia, anaesthesia or surgery, has been carried out to replace three embryos in a patient. Cannulating the Fallopian tubes did not appear materially to affect the transport of embryos or the receptivity of the endometrium for implantation. PMID:2324265

  11. Non-surgical collection of ovine embryos

    E-print Network

    Coonrod, Scott Alexander

    1991-01-01

    = Unfertilized Ova ZP = Zona Pellucida TABLE 2. CATHETERIZATION OF CERVIX: 0 SUCCESS FOR EACH CATHETER TYPE Type of Catheter 8-Gauge Foley Ball-Tipped Needle Verres Needle Total Successes/Attempts 8/14 2/5 18/2 5 28/47 Success 57 40 64 Avg. 59... 29 ewes in which catheterization was successful. A total of 203 ova were collected (153 unfertilized eggs, 33 morulae, 10 blastocyst, 2 degenerate ova, 5 zona pellucida) for a 63% recovery rate. Twenty-nine ova of 39 ovulations were collected...

  12. Non-surgical collection of ovine embryos 

    E-print Network

    Coonrod, Scott Alexander

    1991-01-01

    for the introduction of a tenaculum, which was attached to a papillum of the os-cervix. A catheter (14 trials: 8-gauge 2-way Foley; 5 trials: ball-tipped needle; 28 trials: verres needle) was introduced through the speculum, placed in the cervical opening... and manipulated as far into the cervix as possible. A finger was inserted into the rectum, which enabled some degree of cervical manipulation. The catheter was then maneuvered through the cervical folds, and into the body of the uterus when possible...

  13. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to identify any nuclear fuel cycle technology or option that may result in a significant beneficial impact to the issues as compared to the current U.S. approach of once-through use of nuclear fuel in LWRs or similar reactors followed by direct disposal of UNF. This approach was taken because incremental differences may be difficult to clearly identify and justify due to the large uncertainties that can be associated with the specific causes of the issues. Phase II of this Options Study continued the review of nuclear fuel cycle options that was initiated and documented during Phase I, concentrating on reviewing and summarizing the potential of integrated nuclear fuel cycles. However, based on the reviews of previous studies and available data, it was not always possible to clearly determine sufficiently large differences between the various fuel cycle and technology options for some of the issues or evaluation measures, for example, in cases where only incremental differences with respect to the issues might be achieved regardless of the fuel cycle option or technologies being considered, or where differences were insufficient to clearly rise above the uncertainties.

  14. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence of rail is restricted to approximately twelve, without upgrading public highways. There is high uncertainty as to what road upgrades and security/escorts the Nevada Department of Transportation would require to obtain an overweight/overdimensional permit. In addition, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program has indicated that a larger cask weight than that analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement may be required for naval shipments, resulting in additional costs for heavy-haul transport. These uncertainties result in a high cost and schedule risk. Option 3 assumes that the start of rail construction will be delayed until after construction authorization is received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Similar to Option 2, Option 3 uses legal-weight truck shipments and limited heavy haul truck shipments to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as Option 1, until rail becomes available. By using heavy-haul truck for two years, Option 3 contains the same uncertainties and resultant high cost and schedule risk as Option 2. The cost and schedule of legal-weight truck transport are not included in this report as that will be evaluated in the report on national transportation.

  15. Therapeutic options for recurrent malignant glioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximilian Niyazi; Axel Siefert; Silke Birgit Schwarz; Ute Ganswindt; Friedrich-Wilhelm Kreth; Jörg-Christian Tonn; Claus Belka

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Despite the given advances in neuro-oncology most patients with high grade malignant glioma ultimately fail locally or locoregionally. In parallel with improvements of initial treatment options, several salvage strategies have been elucidated and already entered clinical practice. Aim of this article is to review the current status of salvage strategies in recurrent high grade glioma. Material and

  16. Systemic treatment.

    PubMed

    Reig, Maria; Gazzola, Alessia; Di Donato, Roberto; Bruix, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    In the last years the management of patients with liver cancer has been improved. The BCLC staging/treatment strategy identifies the optimal candidates for each treatment option and sorafenib is the only effective systemic treatment. Others (sunitinib, brivanib, linifanib, everolimus, ramucirumab) have failed in terms of safety/survival benefit. Some patients at intermediate/early stage, may be considered for systemic therapy when options of higher priority may have failed or not be feasible. The 800 mg/day is the recommended starting dose. Close follow-up and easy access for the patients so that they can report any adverse event and implement dose adjustments is the key point in the management of them. Development of early dermatologic adverse events has been correlated with better outcome and the pattern of radiologic progression characterizes better the prognosis/outcome of these patients. Treatment beyond progression may be considered if there is no option for a second line research trial. PMID:25260318

  17. Edit Test Options Page 1 Edit Test Options

    E-print Network

    Xu, Shouhuai

    Edit Test Options Page 1 Edit Test Options Format Test Information 1. Enter a Name for the Test. 2. Choose a color for the title text of the Test. (Optional) 3. Enter a Description in the Text Box. The description is visible to Students before they click on the link to take the Test. (Optional) 4. If you want

  18. Treatment Option Overview (AIDS Related-Lymphoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page. Contact Us More information about contacting us or receiving ... US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube RSS Google+ LinkedIn CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION ...

  19. Treatment Options for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stop the growth of cancer cells , either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. ... tests or check-ups. Blood levels of beta human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) will be checked for ...

  20. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Progress Annual ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...