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1

Osteoanabolic therapy: a non-surgical option of treatment for Kümmell's disease?  

PubMed

Kümmell's disease is the current eponym of avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) of a vertebral body leading to a delayed non-healing vertebral compression fracture (VCF) and thus pseudo-arthrosis. AVN is characterized by production of gas that outlines a radiolucent zone in the vertebral body, called vacuum cleft sign (VCS) or "Kümmell's sign". This sign has been observed in up to one-third of VCFs and is often associated with osteoporosis and never with malignant or inflammatory diseases. Generally, treatment strategies are conservative management and percutaneous vertebroplasty. Teriparatide (rhPTH [1-34]) is an osteoanabolic agent approved for treatment of osteoporosis and helpful in fracture's healing too. Here, we describe the case of an 81-year-old osteoporotic woman presented with a 1-year history of persistent low back pain onset after a trauma. A lumbar spine Computer Tomography (CT) scan performed 2 months after the injury (November 2006) showed the VCS within a VCF of the first lumbar vertebra; a control CT scan 1 year later showed persistence of the finding. After 12 months of treatment with teriparatide 20 mcg/day, symptoms disappeared and vacuum was significantly reduced. In conclusion, Kümmell's disease may be hypothesized in patients with chronic spinal symptoms, especially in the presence of osteoporosis. Moreover in this condition, osteoanabolic treatment may be used in patients with Kümmell's disease to enhance vertebral fracture's healing and contribute to back pain relief. PMID:20306047

Fabbriciani, Gianluigi; Pirro, Matteo; Floridi, Piero; Callarelli, Laura; Manfredelli, Maria Rosaria; Scarponi, Anna Maria; Mannarino, Elmo

2012-05-01

2

Non surgical treatment in congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilation of blood vessels transluminally was demonstrated by Dr Andreas Gruntzig in 1978. In 1982, Kan demonstrated that congenitally\\u000a stenosed valve can be dilated with the use of cylindrical balloon and opened up new vistas in the non-surgical treatment of\\u000a congenital heart lesions. Rapid progress has been now made in (1) Understanding of mechanism of success or failure of balloon

S. Radhakrishnan; S. Shrivastava

1998-01-01

3

Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome: an overview of non-surgical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome, which represents one of the major cause of dyspareunia, is a puzzling clinical entity. Although many treatment options have been employed, a rationale therapeutic strategy is still not stated. The present article reviews the most popular medical approaches of such entity (biofeedback, tricyclic antidepressants, interferon psychologic-behavioural therapy, diet modification), as well as those to avoid.Tricyclic antidepressants and

L. Mariani

2002-01-01

4

Non-surgical treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion.  

PubMed

The incidence of skeletal class III malocclusion has a mean of 3% in the Caucasian population, 5% in African-American adolescents and about 14% in the Asian population. In India, the incidence of class III malocclusion is reported to be 3.4%. A patient having class III malocclusion shows findings ranging from edge-to-edge bite to large reverse overjet, with extreme variations of underlying skeletal jaw bases and craniofacial form. This is a case report of a 20-year-old man having skeletal class III malocclusion with concave profile, anterior crossbite and a negative overjet of 3 mm treated non-surgically with extraction of only one lower left first premolar. PMID:24722711

Kapadia, Romina M; Shah, Adit P; Diyora, Shamil D; Rathva, Vandana J

2014-01-01

5

Non-surgical treatment of condylar fractures in adults: a retrospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the results of non-surgical treatment of condylar fractures in a group of 60 patients with 71 condylar fractures, in order to establish a protocol to select patients for surgical treatment of condylar fractures.Material: Out of a group of 91 patients treated in a non-surgical fashion, 60 patients with a total of

Luc M. H Smets; Philip A Van Damme; Paul J. W Stoelinga

2003-01-01

6

Non-surgical treatment of post-surgical bile duct injury: Clinical implications and outcomes  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prognostic factors determining the success rate of non-surgical treatment in the management of post-operative bile duct injuries (BDIs). METHODS: The study patients were enrolled from the pancreatobiliary units of a tertiary teaching hospital for the treatment of BDIs after hepatobiliary tract surgeries, excluding operations for liver transplantation and malignancies, from January 1999 to August 2010. A total of 5167 patients underwent operations, and 77 patients had BDIs following surgery. The primary end point was the treatment success rate according to different types of BDIs sustained using endoscopic or percutaneous hepatic approaches. The type of BDI was defined using one of the following diagnostic tools: endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance cholangiography. Patients with a final diagnosis of BDI underwent endoscopic and/or percutaneous interventions for the treatment of bile leak and/or stricture if clinically indicated. Patient consent was obtained, and study approval was granted by the Institutional Review Board in accordance with the legal regulations of the Human Clinical Research Center at the Seoul National University Hospital in Seoul, South Korea. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients were enrolled in the study. They were divided into three groups according to type of BDI. Among them, 55 patients (71%) underwent cholecystectomy. Thirty-six patients (47%) had bile leak only (type 1), 31 patients had biliary stricture only (type 2), and 10 patients had both bile leak and biliary stricture (type 3). Their initial treatment modalities were non-surgical. The success rate of non-surgical treatment in each group was as follows: BDI type 1: 94%; type 2: 71%; and type 3: 30%. Clinical parameters such as demographic factors, primary disease, operation method, type of operation, non-surgical treatment modalities, endoscopic procedure steps, type of BDI, time to diagnosis and treatment duration were evaluated to evaluate the prognostic factors affecting the success rate. The type of BDI was a statistically significant prognostic factor in determining the success rate of non-surgical treatment. In addition, a shorter time to diagnosis of BDI after the operation correlated significantly with higher success rates in the treatment of type 1 BDIs. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic or percutaneous hepatic approaches can be used as an initial treatment in type 1 and 2 BDIs. However, surgical intervention is a treatment of choice in type 3 BDI.

Eum, Young Ook; Park, Joo Kyung; Chun, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sang-Hyub; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae; Yoon, Yong-Bum; Yoon, Chang Jin; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok

2014-01-01

7

Non-surgical instrumentation associated with povidone-iodine in the treatment of interproximal furcation involvements  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of topically applied povidone-iodine (PVP-I) used as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of interproximal class II furcation involvements. Material and methods Thirty-two patients presenting at least one interproximal class II furcation involvement that bled on probing with probing pocket depth (PPD) ?5 mm were recruited. Patients were randomly chosen to receive either subgingival instrumentation with an ultrasonic device using PVP-I (10%) as the cooling liquid (test group) or identical treatment using distilled water as the cooling liquid (control group). The following clinical outcomes were evaluated: visible plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), position of the gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL), PPD and relative horizontal attachment level (RHAL). BAPNA (N-benzoyl-Larginine-p-nitroanilide) testing was used to analyze trypsin-like activity in dental biofilm. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months after non-surgical subgingival instrumentation. Results Six months after treatment, both groups had similar means of PPD reduction, RAL and RHAL gain (p>0.05). These variables were, respectively, 2.20±1.10 mm, 1.27±1.02 mm and 1.33±0.85 mm in the control group and 2.67±1.21 mm, 1.50±1.09 mm and 1.56±0.93 mm in the test group. No difference was observed between groups at none of the posttreatment periods, regarding the number of sites showing clinical attachment gain ?2 mm. However, at 6 months posttreatment, the test group presented fewer sites with PPD ?5 mm than the control group. Also at 6 months the test group had lower BAPNA values than control group. Conclusion The use of PVP-I as an adjunct in the non-surgical treatment of interproximal class II furcation involvements provided limited additional clinical benefits.

RIBEIRO, Erica Del Peloso; BITTENCOURT, Sandro; SALLUM, Enilson Antonio; SALLUM, Antonio Wilson; NOCITI JUNIOR, Francisco Humberto; CASATI, Marcio Zaffalon

2010-01-01

8

The lived experience of dysphagia following non-surgical treatment for head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Abstract The prevalence and severity of dysphagia in people treated non-surgically for primary head and neck cancer (HNC) is well documented. However, few studies have looked beyond the physiological impairment to explore the lived experience of dysphagia in the post-treatment period of HNC. The current study adopted a person-centred, qualitative approach to describe the experiences of people living with dysphagia in the months and years following non-surgical treatment for HNC. Using maximum variation sampling, 24 participants who had undergone radiotherapy treatment for HNC were recruited. Individual interviews were conducted to explore the impact of dysphagia on participants' everyday lives. The themes identified included: (1) physical changes related to swallowing; (2) emotions evoked by living with dysphagia; (3) altered perceptions and changes in appreciation of food; and (4) personal and lifestyle impacts. The data revealed the breadth and significance of the impact of dysphagia on the lives of people treated curatively for HNC. Assessment and management in the post-treatment period must be sufficiently holistic to address both the changing physical states and the psychosocial needs of people with dysphagia following HNC. Rehabilitation services which focus only on impairment-based management will fail to fully meet the support needs of this clinical population. PMID:24345002

Nund, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V

2014-06-01

9

The methodological quality of systematic reviews comparing temporomandibular joint disorder surgical and non-surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD) are multifactor, complex clinical problems affecting approximately 60–70% of the general population, with considerable controversy about the most effective treatment. For example, reports claim success rates of 70% and 83% for non-surgical and surgical treatment, whereas other reports claim success rates of 40% to 70% for self-improvement without treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1) identify systematic reviews comparing temporomandibular joint disorder surgical and non-surgical treatment, (2) evaluate their methodological quality, and (3) evaluate the evidence grade within the systematic reviews. Methods A search strategy was developed and implemented for MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, and Brazilian Dentistry Bibliography databases. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews (± meta-analysis) comparing surgical and non-surgical TMJD treatment, published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, or German between the years 1966 and 2007(up to July). Exclusion criteria were: in vitro or animal studies; narrative reviews or editorials or editorial letters; and articles published in other languages. Two investigators independently selected and evaluated systematic reviews. Three different instruments (AMSTAR, OQAQ and CASP) were used to evaluate methodological quality, and the results averaged. The GRADE instrument was used to evaluate the evidence grade within the reviews. Results The search strategy identified 211 reports; of which 2 were systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The first review met 23.5 ± 6.0% and the second met 77.5 ± 12.8% of the methodological quality criteria (mean ± sd). In these systematic reviews between 9 and 15% of the trials were graded as high quality, and 2 and 8% of the total number of patients were involved in these studies. Conclusion The results indicate that in spite of the widespread impact of TMJD, and the multitude of potential interventions, clinicians have expended sparse attention to systematically implementing clinical trial methodology that would improve validity and reliability of outcome measures. With some 20 years of knowledge of evidence-based healthcare, the meager attention to these issues begins to raise ethical issues about TMJD trial conduct and clinical care.

Bessa-Nogueira, Ricardo V; Vasconcelos, Belmiro CE; Niederman, Richard

2008-01-01

10

Non-surgical treatment of an Angle Class III malocclusion in adults  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the application of a modified fixed reverse twin-block appliance (TBA) in adults with an Angle Class III malocclusion and anterior crossbite. Participants: Thirty-two adults with an Angle III malocclusion were recruited. An associated temporomandibular disorder (TMD) was found in 18 patients, laterognathism in 21, and both conditions in the remaining 12 patients. Methods: A modified fixed reverse TBA was used to posture the mandible back, divert bite force and centre the dentition. The malocclusion, laterognathism and temporomandibular disorders were concurrently treated. The outcome was evaluated radiographically and the findings were analyzed via Electronic Measurement Scale software. Results: Treatment was shown to be effective and could significantly shorten the course of treatment and avoid orthognathic surgery. The average course of treatment was 14 months, during which time, the mandible was postured back and the dentition was successfully aligned and levelled. Most patients achieved an edge-to-edge occlusion of the anterior teeth after 7-10 days of appliance wear. Most symptoms of TMD were relieved after 1 month and the laterognathism resolved in 4-5 months. Conclusion: A modified fixed reverse TBA was an effective non-surgical strategy for the treatment of selected Angle Class III malocclusions with an anterior crossbite in adults.

Liu, Hong; Li, Jian-Xue

2013-01-01

11

Surgical versus non-surgical treatment of chronic low back pain: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.  

PubMed

We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to investigate the effectiveness of surgical fusion for the treatment of chronic low back pain compared to non-surgical intervention. Several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Science Citation Index) were searched from 1966 to 2005. The meta-analysis comparison was based on the mean difference in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) change from baseline to the specified follow-up of patients undergoing surgical versus non-surgical treatment. Of the 58 articles identified, three studies were eligible for primary analysis and one study for sensitivity analysis, with a total of 634 patients. The pooled mean difference in ODI between the surgical and non-surgical groups was in favour of surgery (mean difference of ODI: 4.13, 95%CI: -0.82 to 9.08, p = 0.10, I(2) = 44.4%). Surgical treatment was associated with a 16% pooled rate of early complication (95%CI: 12-20, I(2) = 0%). Surgical fusion for chronic low back pain favoured a marginal improvement in the ODI compared to non-surgical intervention. This difference in ODI was not statistically significant and is of minimal clinical importance. Surgery was found to be associated with a significant risk of complications. Therefore, the cumulative evidence at the present time does not support routine surgical fusion for the treatment of chronic low back pain. PMID:17119962

Ibrahim, T; Tleyjeh, I M; Gabbar, O

2008-02-01

12

"Beating osteoARThritis": development of a stepped care strategy to optimize utilization and timing of non-surgical treatment modalities for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Inadequacies in health care practices have been reported despite existing guidelines to manage hip or knee osteoarthritis. To facilitate guideline implementation and improve utilization of non-surgical treatment options a care strategy should be developed. This study describes the development of an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, patient-centered, stepped care strategy. A national, multidisciplinary, steering group developed the strategy in three phases: (1) consensus among steering group members (first draft); (2) written consultation of 23 representatives of patient organizations and professional associations involved in osteoarthritis care (second draft); (3) consensus of the final draft after discussion in two rounds during a conference with representatives from the different disciplines. The final stepped care strategy presents, in three tiers, the optimal order for non-surgical treatment modalities. It recommends that more advanced options should only be considered if options listed in previous steps failed to produce satisfactory results. Hence, the first step treatment options can be offered to all patients but may also be provided through self care (education, life style advice, and acetaminophen). The second step (exercise therapy, dietary therapy, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and third step treatment options (multidisciplinary care, intra-articular injections, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) can be considered for people with persisting complaints. Trough a consensus procedure, we succeeded to develop a multidisciplinary, patient-centered, stepped care strategy based on national guidelines. This strategy provides a framework for health care providers and patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis to discuss the optimal timing of the various treatment options. PMID:21887488

Smink, Agnes J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; Swierstra, Bart A; Kortland, Joke H; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; Voorn, Theo B; Schers, Henk J; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Dekker, Joost

2011-12-01

13

Explore Your Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... New Account Search Effective Health Care Explore Your Treatment Options It’s Your Health. Home Why Explore Your Options ... for a long time, ask your doctor about treatment options. The answers you get may help improve your ...

14

Non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis with the adjunctive use of an 810-nm diode laser.  

PubMed

An 810-nm diode laser was used to non-surgically treat a 7-mm pocket around an implant that had five threads of bone loss, BoP+, and exudate, and the patient was followed up for 5 years. Non-surgical treatment, home care reinforcement, clinical indices records, and radiographic examination were completed in two consecutive 1-h appointments within 24 h. The patient was monitored frequently for the first 3 months. Subsequently, maintenance debridement visits were scheduled at 3-month intervals. The patient had a decreased probing pocket depth and a negative BoP index compared to initial clinical data, and the results were stable after 1 year. After 5 years of follow-up visits, there appeared to be rebound of the bone level radiographically. Within the limits of this case report, conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy with the adjunctive use of an 810-nm diode laser may be a feasible alternative approach for the management of peri-implantitis. The 5-year clinical and radiographic outcomes indicated maintenance of the clinical improvement. PMID:24554897

Roncati, Marisa; Lucchese, Alessandra; Carinci, Francesco

2013-11-01

15

Non-surgical Treatment of Vaginal Agenesis Using a Simplified Version of Ingram's Method  

PubMed Central

Non-surgical vaginal dilation is a safe and effective method for the creation of neovagina in the patient with vaginal agenesis. Compared to surgical methods, non-surgical vaginal dilation has the advantage of low morbidity, the creation of a more physiologic vaginal milieu, and no surgical scarring. To overcome some technical limitations of original Frank's method, in 1981 Ingram proposed a modification of the technique that used dilators of gradually increasing size mounted on a bicycle seat stool. Although several studies have shown satisfactory outcomes using Ingram's method, there are some practical difficulties in making and handling the bicycle seat stool. This article reports a case of a 24-year-old woman with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome whose vaginal agenesis is successfully treated with a simplified version of Ingram's method. This method uses dilators of gradually increasing size mounted on an ordinary chair instead of a bicycle seat stool. When necessary, the patient may use a fulcrum under the dilator.

2006-01-01

16

Non-surgical treatment of osteoarthritis-related pain in the elderly.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA), the third most common diagnosis in the elderly [1], causes significant pain leading to disability and decreased quality of life in subjects 65 years and older [2]. Traditionally, clinicians have relied heavily on the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat the pain of OA, as numerous studies have proven these agents to be effective. The cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic toxicities of NSAIDs have limited their use, particularly in the elderly. Acetaminophen has been recommended as initial therapy due to relative safety. Several other topical, oral and intra-articular agents are available today, with use limited by efficacy and side effect profiles. Many non-pharmacologic approaches are available but underused, and may be attractive choices to avoid poly-pharmacy in older patients. We will attempt to highlight the evidence behind available non-surgical therapies for OA while paying specific attention to issues in geriatric patients. PMID:21701816

Mushtaq, Saulat; Choudhary, Rabeea; Scanzello, Carla R

2011-09-01

17

Effectiveness of mechanical traction as a non-surgical treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome compared to care as usual: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common condition (prevalence of 4%) where the median nerve is compressed within the carpal tunnel resulting in numbness, tingling, and pain in the hand. Current non-surgical treatment options (oral medication, corticosteroid injections, splinting, exercise, and mobilization) show limited effects, especially in the long-term. Carpal tunnel release (CTR) surgery is effective in 70 to 75% of patients, but is relatively invasive and can be accompanied by complications. In an observational study, mechanical traction proved to be effective in up to 70% of patients directly after treatment and in 60% after two years follow-up. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) will examine the effectiveness of mechanical traction compared to care as usual in CTS. Methods/Design Patients diagnosed with CTS will be recruited from an outpatient neurology clinic and randomly assigned to the intervention group (mechanical traction) or the control group (care as usual). Participants in the intervention group will receive 12 treatments with mechanical traction during six consecutive weeks. Primary outcome is symptom severity and functional status, which are measured with the Boston Carpel Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Secondary outcomes are quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), health related resource utilization, and absenteeism from work. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 3, 6, and 12 months after inclusion. Linear mixed effect models will be used to determine the change from baseline at 12 months on the BCTQ, WHOQOL-BREF, absenteeism from work and health related resource utilization. The baseline measurement, change from baseline at three and six months, as well as duration of symptoms until inclusion, age, gender, and co-morbidity will be included as covariates The Pearson’s correlation coefficient will be generated to assess the correlation between depression and anxiety and treatment outcome. Discussion Since current non-surgical treatment options are not effective long-term and CTR is relatively invasive, there is a need for an effective and non-invasive treatment option. Mechanical traction is a safe treatment option that may provide a good alternative for the usual care. Considering the prevalence of CTS, the study is of great clinical value to a large patient population. Trial registration Clinical Trials NL44692.008.13 (registered on 19 September 2013).

2014-01-01

18

Comparison of non-surgical treatment methods for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common reason for spinal surgery in older adults. Previous studies have shown that surgery is effective for severe cases of stenosis, but many patients with mild to moderate symptoms are not surgical candidates. These patients and their providers are seeking effective non-surgical treatment methods to manage their symptoms; yet there is a paucity of comparative effectiveness research in this area. This knowledge gap has hindered the development of clinical practice guidelines for non-surgical treatment approaches for lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods/design This study is a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial that will be conducted from November 2013 through October 2016. The sample will consist of 180 older adults (>60 years) who have both an anatomic diagnosis of stenosis confirmed by diagnostic imaging, and signs/symptoms consistent with a clinical diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis confirmed by clinical examination. Eligible subjects will be randomized into one of three pragmatic treatment groups: 1) usual medical care; 2) individualized manual therapy and rehabilitative exercise; or 3) community-based group exercise. All subjects will be treated for a 6-week course of care. The primary subjective outcome is the Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire, a self-reported measure of pain/function. The primary objective outcome is the Self-Paced Walking Test, a measure of walking capacity. The secondary objective outcome will be a measurement of physical activity during activities of daily living, using the SenseWear Armband, a portable device to be worn on the upper arm for one week. The primary analysis will use linear mixed models to compare the main effects of each treatment group on the changes in each outcome measure. Secondary analyses will include a responder analysis by group and an exploratory analysis of potential baseline predictors of treatment outcome. Discussion Our study should provide evidence that helps to inform patients and providers about the clinical benefits of three non-surgical approaches to the management of lumbar spinal stenosis symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01943435

2014-01-01

19

Effect of Intensive Non-Surgical Treatment on the Level of Serum Inflammatory Markers in Advanced Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess whether non-surgical periodontal treatment is associated with changes in serological markers of systemic inflammation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five systemically healthy subjects with severe generalized periodontitis meeting the inclusion criteria participated in a four-month single blind interventional trial of which thirty-two completed the study. Periodontal parameters and inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma fibrinogen] and also the white blood cell count (WBC) were evaluated prior to and four months after delivery of intensive non-surgical periodontal therapy with simultaneous lavage of chlorhexidine 0.1% from the tip of the ultrasonic instrument into the pockets. Results: Significant differences in serum CRP levels were observed four months after treatment compared to the baseline (1.85, SD=1.93 vs 2.46, SD=2.32, respectively, P<0.0001). Periodontal treatment also resulted in a significant difference in WBC and neutrophil counts compared to the baseline (P<0.0001). The reduction in fibrinogen levels was not significant at the end of the research period. Significant improvement in the pocket probing depth and clinical attachment level for pockets with initially 4–6 mm and then more than 7 mm depth was observed. Changes in plaque and bleeding scores were also statistically significant (82.75 vs. 35.84 and 19.03 vs. 1.81, respectively). Conclusion: Periodontal treatment is effective in reducing CRP levels and white blood cell count, while fibrinogen levels are not influenced by periodontal therapy. Periodontal treatment may therefore decrease the systemic inflammatory burden in patients with advanced periodontitis.

Radafshar, G.; Shad, B.; Ariamajd, E.; Geranmayeh, S.

2010-01-01

20

A non-surgical uterine lavage technique in large cats intended for treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility.  

PubMed

This paper presents the successful use of a non-surgical, transcervical uterine lavage technique for the treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility in three female large cats. We developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. The entire procedure was performed under general anaesthesia (duration of anesthesia ranged from 40 to 70 min). It was successfully applied in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), a Corbett tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) and an Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). The tigers were treated only once, whereas the leopard received four uterine treatments, due to re-infection after mating. Decisions to conduct uterine treatments were based on detection of uterine fluid during previous transrectal ultrasound examinations. The catheter was guided into the vagina, with the aid of an endoscope, passing the urethra, and then into the uterus, with the aid of transrectal ultrasonography. Both uterine horns were separately flushed with approximately 300 mL of cell medium M199, followed by an antibiotic infusion. Upon ultrasonographic re-examination, the topical uterine treatments resulted in an apparent decline in the inflammatory and/or degenerative processes. The Corbett tiger had the most severe uterine alterations, in addition to an aseptic pyometra. As a result, she was treated 1 month prior to ovariohysterectomy (in order to reduce the surgical risk). The Sumatran tiger was artificially inseminated twice after hormone-induced estrus, and the Amur leopard expressed a spontaneous estrus and re-initiated mating behaviour. PMID:16530816

Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Boardman, W; Strike, T; Strauss, G; Jewgenow, K

2006-10-01

21

The developing role for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the non-surgical treatment of brain metastases  

PubMed Central

Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the standard non-surgical treatment for brain metastatic disease, but rarely eradicates bulky metastases from most common cancers. Recent literature has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of delivering very high focal doses of radiation (by radiosurgical techniques) to the gross tumour volume of bulky brain metastases, thereby obtaining more certain local control than is achieved by WBRT. In this paper we report a study of 11 patients with bulky brain metastases in whom an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) facility has been used to concomitantly boost the gross tumour volume of bulky brain metastatic disease (to 40 Gy) during a standard 30 Gy in 10 fractions WBRT schedule. No acute or subacute morbidity was encountered, and good early control data were noted. We discuss the perceived advantages of such a technique.

Edwards, A A; Keggin, E; Plowman, P N

2010-01-01

22

Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... changes Dietary changes Medication Bowel management/retraining program Biofeedback therapy Surgical treatments Newer procedures or devices Tips ...

23

Non-Surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence: A Review of the Research for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatments for Urinary Incontinence: A Review of the Research for Women Formats View PDF (PDF) 433 kB ... be used for mixed incontinence. What does the research say about treatments for UI? How do I ...

24

Research into the Development of A Conservative, Non-Surgical Rehabilitation Treatment Program for Idiopathic Scoliosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study of 291 patients who had undergone nonoperative treatment for scoliosis using the EDF plaster jacket and Milwaukee brace, an attempt was made to determine the indications for definitive treatment as opposed to those conditions requiring surge...

1977-01-01

25

Effect sizes of non-surgical treatments of non-specific low-back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous randomized trials have been published investigating the effectiveness of treatments for non-specific low-back pain\\u000a (LBP) either by trials comparing interventions with a no-treatment group or comparing different interventions. In trials comparing\\u000a two interventions, often no differences are found and it raises questions about the basic benefit of each treatment. To estimate\\u000a the effect sizes of treatments for non-specific LBP

A. Keller; J. Hayden; C. Bombardier; M. van Tulder

2007-01-01

26

Changing spectrum of Budd-Chiari syndrome in India with special reference to non-surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate patterns of obstruction, etiological spectrum and non-surgical treatment in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome in India. METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive cases of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) were prospectively evaluated. All patients with refractory ascites or deteriorating liver function were, depending on morphology of inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or hepatic vein (HV) obstruction, triaged for radiological intervention, in addition to anticoagulation therapy. Asymptomatic patients, patients with diuretic-responsive ascites and stable liver function, and patients unwilling for surgical intervention were treated symptomatically with anticoagulation. RESULTS: Mean duration of symptoms was 41.5 ± 11.2 (range = 1-240) mo. HV thrombosis (HVT) was present in 29 (59.1%), IVC thrombosis in eight (16.3%), membranous obstruction of IVC in two (4%) and both IVC-HV thrombosis in 10 (20.4%) cases. Of 35 cases tested for hypercoagulability, 27 (77.1%) were positive for one or more hypercoagulable states. Radiological intervention was technically successful in 37/38 (97.3%): IVC stenting in seven (18.9%), IVC balloon angioplasty in two (5.4%), combined IVC-HV stenting in two (5.4%), HV stenting in 11 (29.7%), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in 13 (35.1%) and combined TIPS-IVC stenting in two (5.4%). Complications encountered in follow-up: death in five, re-stenosis of the stent in five (17.1%), hepatic encephalopathy in two and hepatocellular carcinoma in one patient. Of nine patients treated medically, two showed complete resolution of HVT. CONCLUSION: In our series, HVT was the predominant cause of BCS. In the last five years with the availability of sophisticated tests for hypercoagulability, etiologies were defined in 85.7% of cases. Non-surgical management was successful in most cases.

Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Punamiya, Sundeep J; Patel, Nikhil D

2008-01-01

27

New developments in diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis is progressive and irreversible, leading to digestive and absorptive disorders by destruction of the exocrine pancreas and to diabetes mellitus by destruction of the endocrine pancreas. When complications such as pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst occur, elevated pancreatic ductal pressure exacerbates pain and induces other complications, worsening the patient's general condition. Combined treatment with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and endoscopic lithotripsy is a useful, minimally invasive, first-line treatment approach that can preserve pancreatic exocrine function. Pancreatic duct stenosis elevates intraductal pressure and favor both pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst formation, making effective treatment vitally important. Endoscopic treatment of benign pancreatic duct stenosis stenting frequently decreases pain in chronic pancreatitis. Importantly, stenosis of the main pancreatic duct increases risk of stone recurrence after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. Recently, good results were reported in treating pancreatic duct stricture with a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent, which shows promise for preventing stone recurrence after lithotripsy in patients with pancreatic stricture. Chronic pancreatitis has many complications including pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatic atrophy, and loss of exocrine and endocrine function, as well as frequent recurrence of stones after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. As early treatment of chronic pancreatitis is essential, the new concept of early chronic pancreatitis, including characteristics findings in endoscopic ultrasonograms, is presented. PMID:24251715

Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Miyoshi, Hironao; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi

2013-12-01

28

Efect of periodontal disease and non surgical periodontal treatment on C-reactive protein. Evaluation of type 1 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze how anti-infectious periodontal treatment affects C reactive protein (CRP) values in patients with type 1 diabetes, and correlate baseline CRP levels with periodontal disease severity. Study Design: A cohort of fifty three subjects with type 1 diabetes and moderate to severe periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal parameters were measured, and blood samples were obtained to evaluate high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Group 1 was treated with scaling, root planning, and systemic administration of doxycycline. Group 2 received only scaling and root planning. Results: Hs-CRP was reduced after periodontal treatment in group 1 (-0.22 mg/l) and 2 (-0.21 mg/l ) but this reduction was not statistically significant, even in the patients with the best response to periodontal treatment. However, significant correlation appeared between hs-CRP and mean probing pocket depth (PPD) (p=0, 01) and mean clinical attachment level (CAL) (p=0,03). Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal treatment couldn’t reduce hs-CRP values, however, it was found an association between advanced periodontitis and elevated blood hs-CRP levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. It can be speculated that periodontal disease increases production of pro-inflammatory mediators in patients with type 1 diabetes, but other producing sources of these pro-inflammatory substances may exist. Key words:Periodontal disease, periodontitis, diabetes mellitus type 1, periodontal therapy, C reactive protein.

Llambes, Fernando; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio; Guiha, Rami; Bautista, Daniel; Caffesse, Raul

2012-01-01

29

Treatment of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by full-mouth disinfection: A non-surgical approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a common finding in the modern era. These gingival overgrowths are usually treated by various modalities namely substitution of drugs, surgical, and non-surgical treatment. The recent concept mainly involves full-mouth scaling and root planing (the entire dentition in two visits within 24 hours, i.e., two consecutive days) followed by chair side mouth rinsing by the patient with a 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and brushing the tongue of the patient with 1% chlorhexidine gel. This is followed by an additional subgingival irrigation (three times, repeated within 10 minutes) of all pockets with a 1% chlorhexidine gel. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients between the ages of 20 and 50 years with drug-induced gingival overgrowth were treated using the full-mouth disinfection approach. The patients were evaluated at 3 months and 6 months after therapy. The data obtained for plaque index, bleeding on probing index, probing pocket depth, and gingival overgrowth scores were tabulated and compared statistically using the one sample unpaired t test. Statistical Analysis: Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in PI GBI, PPD, and GO score between baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: All clinical parameters improved significantly after therapy without the need of further surgical treatment. Conclusions: Full-mouth disinfection might be a beneficial treatment concept in patients with drug-induced gingival overgrowth, thus decreasing the need for surgical therapy.

Pundir, Aena Jain; Pundir, Siddharth; Yeltiwar, R. K.; Farista, Sana; Gopinath, V.; Srinivas, T. S.

2014-01-01

30

Porphyria Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

31

Treatment options for paraphimosis.  

PubMed

Paraphimosis is a frequently presented complaint in the emergency department. This review outlines the treatment options available for resolving this condition: manual reduction methods, osmotic methods, puncture and aspiration methods and treatments using sharp incision. The technique of penile block local anaesthesia is described. A technique sequence for treatment is suggested. PMID:15857356

Little, B; White, M

2005-05-01

32

Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ... gland or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview There are different types of treatment ...

33

Treatment options for hyperhidrosis.  

PubMed

Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating beyond what is expected for thermoregulatory needs and environmental conditions. Primary hyperhidrosis has an estimated prevalence of nearly 3% and is associated with significant medical and psychosocial consequences. Most cases of hyperhidrosis involve areas of high eccrine density, particularly the axillae, palms, and soles, and less often the craniofacial area. Multiple therapies are available for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Options include topical medications (most commonly aluminum chloride), iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injections, systemic medications (including glycopyrrolate and clonidine), and surgery (most commonly endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy [ETS]). The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the literature on the subject, with a focus on new and emerging treatment options. Updated therapeutic algorithms are proposed for each commonly affected anatomic site, with practical procedural guidelines. For axillary and palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, topical treatment is recommended as first-line treatment. For axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinum toxin injections are recommended as second-line treatment, oral medications as third-line treatment, local surgery as fourth-line treatment, and ETS as fifth-line treatment. For palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, we consider a trial of oral medications (glycopyrrolate 1-2 mg once or twice daily preferred to clonidine 0.1 mg twice daily) as second-line therapy due to the low cost, convenience, and emerging literature supporting their excellent safety and reasonable efficacy. Iontophoresis is considered third-line therapy for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high although so are the initial levels of cost and inconvenience. Botulinum toxin injections are considered fourth-line treatment for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high though the treatment remains expensive, must be repeated every 3-6 months, and is associated with pain and/or anesthesia-related complications. ETS is a fifth-line option for palmar hyperhidrosis but is not recommended for plantar hyperhidrosis due to anatomic risks. For craniofacial hyperhidrosis, oral medications (either glycopyrrolate or clonidine) are considered first-line therapy. Topical medications or botulinum toxin injections may be useful in some cases and ETS is an option for severe craniofacial hyperhidrosis. PMID:21714579

Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

2011-10-01

34

Paraphimosis: current treatment options.  

PubMed

Paraphimosis is a urologic emergency, occurring in uncircumcised males, in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the corona and forms a tight band of constricting tissue. Often iatrogenically induced, paraphimosis can be prevented by returning the prepuce to cover the glans following penile manipulation. Treatment often begins with reduction of edema, followed by a variety of options, including mechanical compression, pharmacologic therapy, puncture technique and dorsal slit. Prevention and early intervention are key elements in the management of paraphimosis. PMID:11142469

Choe, J M

2000-12-15

35

Novel preventive treatment options.  

PubMed

A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral health can be best supported through novel preventive systems. Further research is also required involving double-blind randomized controlled trials in order to bring further benefits of more effective caries control to patients. Implementation in practice should follow promptly as new techniques are shown to be clinically valuable for individual patients. PMID:19494683

Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D; Kambara, M

2009-01-01

36

Embryo retrieval after hormonal treatment to control ovarian function and non-surgical artificial insemination in African lions (Panthera leo).  

PubMed

Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for propagating endangered wild felids. Artificial insemination (AI) has been reported in several wild feline species, but pregnancy rates are low, partially owing to failures of current hormonal stimulation protocols. Therefore, this study describes the application of reliable methods to monitor ovarian activity and the development of an effective hormonal protocol to induce oestrus and ovulation in African lions. Application of porcine FSH and porcine LH was shown to be effective for inducing follicular growth and ovulation, and this regimen appeared to be superior to protocols described earlier in terms of ovulation and fertilization rates. Furthermore, non-surgical AI was performed successfully in lions, and uterine-stage embryos were collected and cryopreserved. African lions may serve as a valuable model to develop assisted reproduction for propagation of relic zoo populations in the critically endangered Asian lion or Barbary lion. PMID:23279488

Goeritz, F; Painer, J; Jewgenow, K; Hermes, R; Rasmussen, K; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B

2012-12-01

37

Treatment Options for Overactive Bladder Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment Options for OAB Treatment Options for Overactive Bladder Overactive bladder treatment is generally approached using one or a ... includes dietary changes , fluid management , pelvic muscle exercises , bladder retraining , and biofeedback ; over the Counter Non-Prescription ...

38

Assessment of maximum weight change and duration of therapeutic effect for non-surgical treatment of obesity using an exponential model.  

PubMed

Efficacy of weight loss and maintenance therapies in obesity is difficult to quantify due to continuous weight changes over time. We assessed a single exponential model of weight changes during selected non-surgical therapies of non-diabetic obese subjects. We analyzed published mean weight data from 6 studies of ?12 weeks duration, with comparable treatment groups, and ?4 weight measurements during very low carbohydrate or fat diets, or treatment with Lorcaserin, Sibutramine or Orlistat. We fit data to a single exponential model to estimate maximum predicted weight loss or regain and duration of weight loss or regain for each therapy. A single exponential is the appropriate model as determined by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, constant variance, and Durbin-Watson tests. Validity of parameter estimates was indicated by coefficients of variation <25%. Sensitivity analysis showed that weight regain at the end of the weight loss phase affected parameter estimates in some instances, with variations of weight loss of 0.2-0.7% of basal. Estimated weight loss and regain were similar to observed weight changes in all studies. The model could also be used to assess dose-response relationships. Estimates from the model were used to compare concurrent obesity regimens using 95% confidence intervals, taking into account pre-determined minimal clinically important differences. This exponential model may provide accurate estimates of maximum achievable weight loss or regain and optimal duration of efficacy for a variety of non-surgical weight loss and maintenance regimens from published mean weight data and may be useful to more accurately evaluate weight loss and maintenance regimens. PMID:23007276

Kaptein, E M; Chan, L S; Kaptein, J S

2012-12-01

39

Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... following stages are used for bladder cancer: Stage 0 (Papillary Carcinoma and Carcinoma in Situ) Enlarge Stage ... staging tests , above. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Papillary Carcinoma and Carcinoma in Situ) Treatment of ...

40

OCD Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Login Search this site: Understanding the Facts Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Symptoms Treatment News and Research GAD vs. ... Problems and PTSD Treatment News and Research Social Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Symptoms Treatment Conquering Stage ...

41

Non-surgical treatment of canine oral malignant melanoma: A case study of the application of complementary alternative medicine  

PubMed Central

This report describes a dog with a clinical stage III oral malignant melanoma that was treated with complementary alternative medicine (CAM). The CAM included high temperature hyperthermia, dendritic cell therapy and lupeol injections. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy were not performed. Two months after the start of treatment, the tumor disappeared and after six months, the follow-up examinations revealed no recurrence or metastasis of the tumor. Quality of life (QOL) of the dog was maintained; therefore, the application of CAM may be an effective treatment for canine oral malignant melanoma. The effective application of CAM has the potential to prolong life and maintain an excellent QOL for pets.

ITOH, HIROYASU; MUKAIYAMA, TOSHIYUKI; GOTO, TAKAHIRO; HATA, KEISHI; AZUMA, KAZUO; TSUKA, TAKASHI; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; OKAMOTO, YOSHIHARU

2014-01-01

42

Is photodynamic therapy with adjunctive non-surgical periodontal therapy effective in the treatment of periodontal disease under immunocompromised conditions?  

PubMed

The aim was to assess whether or not photodynamic therapy (PDT) with adjunctive scaling-and-root-planing (SRP) is effective in the treatment of periodontitis under immunocompromised conditions. PubMed/Medline and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1967 to May 2013 using various key words. Six studies (five experimental and one clinical) were included. In the clinical study, SRP with PDT was reported to be ineffective in treating chronic periodontitis in T2DM patients. All experimental studies reported significantly less bone loss in periodontal defects treated with SRP+PDT than those treated with SRP alone. Efficacy of PDT+SRP in the treatment of periodontal disease under immunocompromised conditions remains unclear. PMID:24112260

Javed, Fawad; Qadri, Talat; Ahmed, Hameeda Bashir; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Corbet, Francis Esmonde; Romanos, Georgios E

2013-10-01

43

Treatment Option Overview (Melanoma)  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments will also be taken. Lymph node mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy : Procedures in which ... the normal tissue around it. Sometimes lymph node mapping and removal of lymph nodes is also done. ...

44

Treatment Option Overview (Neuroblastoma)  

MedlinePLUS

... be removed, a biopsy may be done instead. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ... Neuroblastoma for more information. High-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy with stem cell rescue High-dose chemotherapy and ...

45

Therapeutic Efficacy of Subgingivally Delivered Doxycycline Hyclate as an Adjunct to Non-surgical Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives Locally used doxycycline has been shown to concentrate in crevicular fluid and demonstrates a wide spectrum of activity against the periodontal pathogens. The aim of the present clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of doxycyline hyclate 10% as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods 60 systemically healthy, chronic periodontitis patients were included in the study. Randomized clinical trial was performed over the 6 month period. Test group was treated by scaling and root planing followed by local delivery of doxycycline hyclate 10%, while the control group was treated by scaling and root planing along with placebo. Results Significantly greater (P < 0.001) reduction in the mean probing pocket depth was demonstrated in the test group (3.03 ± 0.92 mm) when compared with the control group (2.3 ± 0.65 mm). When the differences in clinical attachment level gain for the test group (2.0 ± 0.64 mm) versus control group (1.13 ± 1.07 mm) were analyzed by Student's unpaired t-test, test group showed statistically greater clinical attachment level gain (0.87 ± 0.22 mm, P < 0.001). Conclusions From the analysis of the results it can be concluded that the use of doxycyline hyclate 10% as an adjunct to scaling and root planing provides more favourable and statistically significant (P < 0.001) reductions in probing pocket depth and gains in clinical attachment level compared to scaling and root planing alone.

Ansari, Salman; Mandia, Sunita; Bhongade, Manohar

2011-01-01

46

Treatment Options in Cushing's Disease.  

PubMed

Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a grave disease that requires a multidisciplinary and individualized treatment approach for each patient. Approximately 80% of all patients harbour a corticotroph pituitary adenoma (Cushing's disease) with excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropin-hormone (ACTH) and, consecutively, cortisol. The goals of treatment include normalization of hormone excess, long-term disease control and the reversal of comorbidities caused by the underlying pathology. The treatment of choice is neurosurgical tumour removal of the pituitary adenoma. Second-line treatments include medical therapy, bilateral adrenalectomy and radiation therapy. Drug treatment modalities target at the hypothalamic/pituitary level, the adrenal gland and at the glucocorticoid receptor level and are commonly used in patients in whom surgery has failed. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the second-line treatment for persistent hypercortisolism that offers immediate control of hypercortisolism. However, this treatment option requires a careful individualized evaluation, since it has the disadvantage of permanent hypoadrenalism which requires lifelong glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy and bears the risk of developing Nelson's syndrome. Although there are some very promising medical therapy options it clearly remains a second-line treatment option. However, there are numerous circumstances where medical management of CD is indicated. Medical therapy is frequently used in cases with severe hypercortisolism before surgery in order to control the metabolic effects and help reduce the anestesiological risk. Additionally, it can help to bridge the time gap until radiotherapy takes effect. The aim of this review is to analyze and present current treatment options in Cushing's disease. PMID:22346367

Rizk, Ahmed; Honegger, Juergen; Milian, Monika; Psaras, Tsambika

2012-01-01

47

Alternative Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With regard to the relatively high rate of spontaneous thrombosis of dural cavernous sinus fistulas (DCSFs) in some studies,\\u000a a number of investigators consider conservative management the first line of treatment, especially if symptoms are mild, no\\u000a cortical venous drainage is present and the angiographic evaluation reveals a low-flow shunt. This may include observing and\\u000a following patients, while they are

Goetz Benndorf

48

Hyperphosphataemia: treatment options.  

PubMed

Hyperphosphataemia can be induced by three main conditions: a massive acute phosphate load, a primary increase in renal phosphate reabsorption, and an impaired renal phosphate excretion due to acute or chronic renal insufficiency. Renal excretion is so efficient in normal subjects that balance can be maintained with only a minimal rise in serum phosphorus concentration even for a large phosphorus load. Therefore, acute hyperphosphataemia usually resolves within few hours if renal function is intact. The most frequent cause of chronic hyperphosphataemia is chronic renal failure. Hyperphosphataemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lowering the phosphate load and maintaining serum phosphorus levels within the normal range are considered important therapeutic goals to improve clinical outcomes in CKD patients. Treatment consists of diminishing intestinal phosphate absorption by a low phosphate diet and phosphate binders. In CKD patients on dialysis an efficient dialysis removal of phosphate should be ensured. Dietary restriction of phosphorus while maintaining adequate protein intake is not sufficient to control serum phosphate levels in most CKD patients; therefore, the prescription of a phosphate binder is required. Aluminium-containing agents are efficient but no longer widely used because of their toxicity. Calcium-based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used, but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcaemia, parathyroid gland suppression, adynamic bone disease, and vascular and extraosseous calcification. The average daily dose of calcium acetate or carbonate prescribed in the randomised controlled trials to control hyperphosphataemia in dialysis patients ranges between 1.2 and 2.3 g of elemental calcium. Such doses are greater than the recommended dietary calcium intake and can lead to a positive calcium balance. Although large amounts of calcium salts should probably be avoided, modest doses (<1 g of elemental calcium) may represent a reasonable initial approach to reduced serum phosphorus levels. A non-calcium-based binder can then be added when large doses of binder are required. At present, there are three types of non-calcium-based phosphate binders available: sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate and magnesium salts. Each of these compounds is as effective as calcium salts in lowering serum phosphorus levels depending on an adequate prescribed dose and adherence of the patient to treatment. Sevelamer is the only non-calcium-containing phosphate binder that does not have potential for systemic accumulation and presents pleiotropic effects that may impact on cardiovascular disease. In contrast, lanthanum carbonate and magnesium salts are absorbed in the gut and their route of excretion is biliary for lanthanum and urinary for magnesium. There are insufficient data to establish the comparative superiority of non-calcium binding agents over calcium salts for such important patient-level outcomes as all-cause mortality and cardiovascular end points. Moreover, full adoption of sevelamer and lanthanum by government drug reimbursement agencies in place of calcium salts would lead to a large increase in health-care expenditure. Therefore, the choice of phosphate binder should be individualised, considering the clinical context, the costs, and the individual tolerability the concomitant effects on other parameters of mineral metabolism, such as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone, besides those on serum phosphorus. PMID:23625273

Malberti, Fabio

2013-05-01

49

CHRONIC URTICARIA AND TREATMENT OPTIONS  

PubMed Central

Chronic urticaria has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and causes. Still, despite our best efforts no cause may be found in the majority of cases. The treatment options are: Primary prevention in the form of avoidance of aggravating factors; counseling; antihistamines; leukotriene receptor antagonists; prednisolone; sulfasalazine and a host of immunosuppressives like methotrexate, cyclosporine, omalizumab etc.

Godse, Kiran Vasant

2009-01-01

50

Cholangiocarcinoma--current treatment options.  

PubMed

The treatment for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains a challenge because of the aggressive nature of the disease and the absence of effective treatments besides surgical resection (HR) and liver transplantation (LT). In intrahepatic CCA, HR remains the treatment of choice whereas with concomitant liver disease such as cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), LT is the only option. Hilar CCA or Klatskin tumours have in recent decades been managed with a more aggressive surgical approach to achieve R0 resection. This approach usually involves preoperative portal embolisation, followed by liver resection – sometimes extensive and even with portal vein resection. The recent protocols that combine preoperative neoadjuvant chemoirridation and LT show promising results that need to be confirmed. The development of diagnostic modalities (tumour markers, cytology and radiology) are of the utmost importance to identify these patients at an early stage to preserve radical surgery possible. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant disease of the epithelial cells in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. While still a rare malignant disease, CCA is the second most common primary malignancy of the liver. The incidence is increasing; especially the incidence of intrahepatic CCA (1). The treatment of CCA is challenging as it is usually difficult to diagnose when radical surgical treatment, resection (HR) or liver transplantation (LT) is possible. The lack of effective medical treatment makes a radical surgical resection or hepatectomy the only therapeutic option. Most of the CCAs are unresectable at presentation and the prognosis for these patients is dismal. PMID:21491796

Friman, S

2011-01-01

51

Treatment options for actinic keratoses.  

PubMed

Actinic keratoses are rough, scaly lesions that commonly occur on sun-exposed areas of the skin. The prevalence of the condition increases with age. Actinic keratoses are thought to be carcinomas in situ, which can progress to squamous cell carcinomas. The decision to treat can be based on cosmetic reasons; symptom relief; or, most importantly, the prevention of malignancy and metastasis. Treatment options include ablative (destructive) therapies such as cryosurgery, curettage with electrosurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Topical therapies are used in patients with multiple lesions. Fluorouracil has been the traditional topical treatment for actinic keratoses, although imiquimod 5% cream and diclofenac 3% gel are effective alternative therapies. There are too few controlled trials comparing treatment modalities for physicians to make sound, evidence-based treatment decisions. PMID:17894135

McIntyre, William J; Downs, Michael R; Bedwell, Sondra A

2007-09-01

52

Treatment options of spontaneous pneumothorax.  

PubMed

Penumothorax is a benign condition with high morbidity and high recurrence rate; and remains a significant clinical problem worldwide. The exact underlying pathogenesis is probably multifocal and is still unclear. The initial approach to the management of spontaneous pneumothorax differs from country to country and it is very difficult to establish an international standard protocol. Needless to say, that the safest and most cost-effective treatment protocol for a particular center should be used. However, first episode of primary spontaneous pneumothorax can be managed conservatively and there is no consensus on optimal treatment of patients presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax specially those with first event. On the contrary, there is some consensus that some treatment is mandatory with second or recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Regardless of the chosen therapeutic modality, the treatment goals of spontaneous pneumothorax consist of elimination of the pleural air and also prevention of future recurrence. Therapeutic options include bed rest, oxygen supplementation, manual aspiration, chest tube drainage, thoracoscopic and surgical interventions. Till present, there are no prospective, randomised comparative studies between various treatment strategies but only few between various therapeutic techniques are available. PMID:18610677

Al-Qudah, Abdullah

2006-01-01

53

Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... used for cervical cancer: Carcinoma in Situ (Stage 0) In carcinoma in situ (stage 0) , abnormal cells ... Treatment Options by Stage Carcinoma in Situ (Stage 0) Treatment of carcinoma in situ (stage 0) may ...

54

Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma Treatment of basal cell carcinoma ... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma may include the ...

55

Non-surgical endodontics in retreatment of periapical lesions - two representative case reports  

PubMed Central

This article reports non-surgical endodontic retreatment of two patients with persistent or recurrent periapical lesions, who had previously undergone surgical and non-surgical endodontic therapy respectively. It further discusses and reviews the relevance of classification of periapical lesions, the explanation behind healing of periapical lesions by endodontic therapy alone, causes of persistence of periapical lesions, choice of treatment modalities (whether surgical or nonsurgical) and materials such as intracanal medicaments and irrigants for optimal healing. Key words:Non-surgical, retreatment, periapical, calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine irrigation.

Paul, Samrity

2012-01-01

56

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Craniopharyngioma)  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms that begin before diagnosis and continue for months or years. Signs and symptoms caused by the ... treatment. Some treatments for tumors cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

57

Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms that begin before diagnosis and continue for months or years. Signs and symptoms caused by the ... treatment. Some treatments for tumors cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

58

Zinc Bromide Waste Solution Treatment Options  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort was to identify treatment options for 20,000 gallons of low-level radioactively contaminated zinc bromide solution currently stored in C-Area. These options will be relevant when the solutions are declared waste.

Langston, C.A.

2001-01-16

59

Multiple Myeloma: Treatment Options by Stage  

MedlinePLUS

... information for multiple myeloma Treatment options for multiple myeloma by stage Solitary plasmacytomas These are often treated ... is only used if multiple myeloma develops. Early myeloma Early myeloma includes smoldering myeloma and stage I ...

60

Treatment Options for Dry AMD  

MedlinePLUS

... trials for dry AMD, Click Here. Implantable Miniature Telescope While there are no medical treatments for dry ... the eye and replace it with a miniature telescope. This is followed by an extensive training program ...

61

Chiropractic: A Safe Treatment Option  

MedlinePLUS

... therapies available for the treatment of back pain, neck pain, joint pain of the arms or legs, headaches, ... pain than a variety of medications. Neck Adjustments Neck pain and some types of headaches are treated through ...

62

Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... prostate. The probe is used to bounce high-energy sound waves ( ultrasound ) off internal tissues or organs and make ... ultrasound is a treatment that uses ultrasound (high-energy sound waves) to destroy cancer cells. To treat prostate cancer, ...

63

Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy ... kill cancer cells. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the ...

64

Treatment Option Overview (Testicular Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy ... kill cancer cells. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the ...

65

Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy ... kill cancer cells. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the ...

66

Treatment options for autonomic neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Autonomic disorders may present in a varied fashion. Symptoms that may require treatment include orthostatic intolerance,\\u000a gastrointestinal distress, sudomotor abnormalities, and urologic and sexual dysfunction. Realistic treatment goals should\\u000a be outlined for patients, with the expectations that symptoms can be improved, but that the disease is unlikely to be cured\\u000a and long-term therapy may be required. Orthostatic intolerance is

Christopher H. Gibbons; Roy Freeman

2006-01-01

67

Immunological treatment options for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The exact pathophysiological mechanism leading to dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia is still unclear, but inflammation is postulated to be a key player: a dysfunction in the activation of the type 1 immune response seems to be associated with decreased activity of the key enzyme in tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism, indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase (IDO), resulting in increased production of kynurenic acid - a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist in the central nervous system (CNS) - and reduced glutamatergic neurotransmission. The differential activation of microglia cells and astrocytes as functional carriers in the immune system in the CNS may also contribute to this imbalance. Existing antipsychotics, which predominantly act as dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, have several shortcomings. The immunological effects of many existing antipsychotics, however, rebalance in part the immune imbalance and the overproduction of kynurenic acid. The immunological imbalance results in an inflammatory state with increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and increased cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Growing evidence from clinical studies with COX-2 inhibitors points to favourable effects of anti-inflammatory therapy in schizophrenia, in particular in an early stage of the disorder. Further options for immunomodulating therapies in schizophrenia will be discussed. PMID:22283758

Müller, Norbert; Myint, Aye-Mu; Schwarz, Markus J

2012-06-01

68

Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... doctors now know much more about how cancer cells function. New cancer therapies use this information to target cancer cell functions and stop them. Called targeted therapies, they can be more specific in stopping cancer cells from growing and may make other treatments ...

69

Current treatment options for HBV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the increase in agents approved for treating chronic hepatitis B has expanded the therapeutic options for clinicians\\u000a treating such patients, it also has made selecting the most appropriate agent in a particular clinical setting significantly\\u000a more confusing. This review critiques the most recent data regarding the treatment options in different subsets of patients\\u000a with chronic hepatitis B virus (ie,

Dimitrios Vassilopoulos; Stephanos J. Hadziyannis

2009-01-01

70

Cyclic vomiting syndrome: treatment options.  

PubMed

Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of severe nausea and vomiting separated by symptom-free periods. Our aims were to review treatments of adult cyclic vomiting syndrome as well as to identify areas for further clinical research and the unanswered questions in this field. We conducted a PubMed search using such keywords as "cyclic vomiting syndrome," "nausea," "vomiting," "treatment," "trigger factors" and "tricyclic antidepressants" and combined this information with the knowledge and clinical research from the authors. Available data show that in adult cyclic vomiting syndrome, there is an impressive and sustained response to high-dose tricyclic antidepressants. In up to 13 % who are regarded as poor responders to tricyclic antidepressants, a predictable profile can be identified related to coexisting psychological disorders, marijuana use, poorly controlled migraine headache or chronic narcotic use. Cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults is being an increasingly recognized entity. Tricyclic antidepressants are the main treatment for controlling symptoms. Eliminating and addressing trigger factors are an essential part of management. PMID:24862509

Hejazi, Reza A; McCallum, Richard W

2014-08-01

71

The use of povidone-iodine and hydrogen peroxide mixture as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of slight to moderate chronic periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of the adjunctive use of povidone–iodine with or without hydrogen peroxide as coolant and disinfectant during ultrasonic scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods Sixteen patients initially participated in the study. Thirteen patients (8 males and 5 females) completed the 3-month follow-up period. Their mean (±SD) age was 42.92 ± 7.55 years. In each experimental subject, the mouth was split into four quadrants. A randomly selected quadrant was chosen to receive one of the three treatment group modalities which were: Group 1 – ultrasonic scaling and root planing plus irrigation with 1% povidone–iodine and 3.0% hydrogen peroxide mixture; Group 2 – ultrasonic scaling and root planing plus irrigation with 1% povidone–iodine; Group 3 – ultrasonic scaling and root planing plus irrigation with normal saline. The fourth quadrant served as a control group. Results At the 3-month evaluation, there was no significant difference between the three treatment groups in terms of probing depth reduction, clinical attachment gain, gingival recession increase, reduction in the bleeding upon probing or plaque score reduction (P > 0.05). However, the three treatment groups had statistically significant higher mean reduction in the probing depth, gain in the clinical attachment level and reduction in the bleeding upon probing than the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion There were no added benefits of using a mixture of povidone–iodine and hydrogen peroxide or povidone–iodine as disinfectants during ultrasonic scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

Al-Saeed, Mohammed Y.; Babay, Nadir

2009-01-01

72

Kleptomania: diagnosis and treatment options.  

PubMed

Kleptomania--the inability to resist the impulse to steal objects, not for personal use or monetary gain--is currently classified in psychiatric nomenclature as an impulse control disorder. However, some of the principle features of the disorder, which include repetitive intrusion thoughts, inability to resist the compulsion to perform the thievery and the relief of tension following the act, suggest that kleptomania may constitute an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. Kleptomania is commonly under-diagnosed and is often accompanied by other psychiatric conditions, most notably affective, anxiety and eating disorders, and alcohol and substance abuse. Individuals with the disorder are usually referred for treatment due to the comorbid psychiatric complaints rather than kleptomanic behaviour per se. Over the past century there has been a shift from psychotherapeutic to psychopharmacological interventions for kleptomania. Pharmacological management using selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants, mood stabilisers and opioid receptor antagonists, as adjuvants to cognitive-behavioural therapy, has produced promising results. PMID:11463127

Durst, R; Katz, G; Teitelbaum, A; Zislin, J; Dannon, P N

2001-01-01

73

Chronic constipation: Current treatment options  

PubMed Central

Chronic constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects patients of all ages. In 2007, a consensus group of 10 Canadian gastroenterologists developed a set of recommendations pertaining to the management of chronic constipation and constipation-dominant irritable bowel syndrome. Since then, tegaserod has been withdrawn from the Canadian market. A new, highly selective serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonist, prucalopride, has been examined in several large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the management of patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies evaluating the use of stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation have also been published. The present review summarizes the previous recommendations and new evidence supporting different treatment modalities – namely, diet and lifestyle, bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, prucalopride and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation. A brief summary of lubiprostone and linaclotide is also presented. The quality of evidence is presented by adopting the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Finally, a management pyramid for patients with chronic constipation is proposed based on the quality of evidence, impact of each modality on constipation and on general health, and their availabilities in Canada.

Liu, Louis Wing Cheong

2011-01-01

74

Metronidazole alone or with amoxicillin as adjuncts to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: a secondary analysis of microbiological results from a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Aim: To evaluate the changes occurring in the subgingival microbial profile of subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (ChP) treated by scaling and root planing (SRP) alone or with metronidazole (MTZ) or MTZ + amoxicillin(AMX). A secondary aim was to examine a possible added effect of chlorhexidine(CHX) to these therapies.Methods: One hundred and eighteen subjects were randomly assigned to receive SRP-only or with MTZ [400 mg/thrice a day (TID)] or MTZ + AMX (500 mg/TID) for 14 days. Half of the subjects in each group rinsed with 0.12% CHX twice a day (BID) for 2 months. Nine subgingival plaque samples/subject were analysed by checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization for 40 bacterial species at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-therapy.Results: At 12 months, the antibiotic-treated groups harboured lower mean counts and proportions of key periodontal pathogens than the SRP group (p < 0.05). These benefits were observed at initially deep and shallow sites. Initial reductions in periodontal pathogens obtained with SRP partially rebound after 12 months. CHX rinsing enhanced the microbiological effects of the MTZ + AMX treatment in shallow sites.Conclusion: The adjunctive use of MTZ and MTZ + AMX results in a greater reduction in the levels of periodontal pathogens in generalized ChP subjects compared to SRP alone. PMID:24834504

Soares, Geisla M S; Mendes, Juliana A V; Silva, Maike P; Faveri, Marcelo; Teles, Ricardo; Socransky, Sigmund S; Wang, Xiaoshan; Figueiredo, Luciene C; Fere, Magda

2014-04-01

75

Treatment Options in Pediatric Femoral Shaft Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Fracture of the femur in a pediatric patient presents special problems, and a variety of treatment options. Child abuse and neglect should be considered and evaluated. Fractures in infants (0-18 months) may be treated successfully in a Pavlik Harness. Spica casting is safe and effective in children up to about 6 years or 100 pounds, although complications can occur

Jeffrey O. Anglen; Luke Choi

2005-01-01

76

Outcome comparisons by prescribable treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome comparisons by prescribable treatment options. Mortality and morbidity of hemodialysis patients results from a number of factors, some of which are potentially under the control of the nephrologist. Dialysis dose is the most important of these factors, but other comorbid factors have been identified. These include attainment of appropriate hemoglobin concentrations, good nutrition, control of calcium and phosphorus metabolism,

Nathan W. Levin

2000-01-01

77

Emerging treatment options for early mycosis fungoides  

PubMed Central

Mycosis fungoides is a candidate for skin-directed therapies in its initial stages. In recent years, therapeutic options outside of the normal treatment recommendations such as topical imiquimod, topical tazarotene, topical methotrexate, excimer light sources, and photodynamic therapy have been published with variable results. These alternatives have been useful in cases of localized mycosis fungoides that do not respond to routine treatments; nevertheless, more studies on these methods are still needed. This article summarizes the literature and data that are known so far about these treatments.

Fernandez-Guarino, Montserrat

2013-01-01

78

Treatment Options for Brachial Plexus Injuries  

PubMed Central

The incidence of brachial plexus injuries is rapidly growing due to the increasing number of high-speed motor-vehicle accidents. These are devastating injuries leading to significant functional impairment of the patients. The purpose of this review paper is to present the available options for conservative and operative treatment and discuss the correct timing of intervention. Reported outcomes of current management and future prospects are also analysed.

Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Badilas, Nikolaos K.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Mazis, George; Kotoulas, Helias K.; Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios; Tagkalegkas, Ioannis; Sofianos, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

79

Meningioma: Current treatment options and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Benign meningiomas can be observed if not symptomatic or growing. When treatment is indicated, the options are surgery, radiosurgery,\\u000a fractionated radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities. Except in certain cases, such as large tumors that require\\u000a debulking for relief of symptoms, we do not recommend the routine use of combination therapy. Intracranial meningiomas have\\u000a usually been treated

Kevin P. McMullen; Volker W. Stieber

2004-01-01

80

Treatment Options for Osteoarthritis of the Hip  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Strength training and aerobic exercise can reduce pain and improve function and health status in patients with hip osteoarthritis\\u000a and should be recommended for all patients (SOR = C). Acetaminophen is recommended as the first line of pharmacologic therapy\\u000a in hip osteoarthritis (SOR = C). Additional therapeutic options include intra-articular injections, nutritional supplements\\u000a and alternative therapies. Current treatment is focused

Heather M. Gillespie; William W. Dexter

81

Treatment options for localized prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe treatment options for clinically localized prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy, external beam radiation, and active surveillance. Quality of evidence Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) outcomes presented are from non-randomized, cohort, and other comparisons trials (level II evidence). We describe PSA outcomes from Canadian centres when they are available. One small randomized controlled trial (level I evidence) in localized prostate cancer is available to compare radical prostatectomy with brachytherapy. Main message Treatment choice in prostate cancer is based on initial PSA level, clinical stage of disease, and Gleason score, together with baseline urinary function, comorbidities, and patient age. In this article, we describe patients’ eligibility for and the common side effects of all treatment options. Prostate brachytherapy and active surveillance have evolved as new standard treatments of localized prostate cancer. We give a brief overview of the brachytherapy procedure, side effects, and PSA outcomes across Canada, as well as active surveillance guidelines. Conclusion Prostate cancer treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with input from both urology and radiation oncology. Input from family physicians is often as important in helping guide patients through the treatment decision process.

Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morton, Gerard; Vigneault, Eric; Usmani, Nawaid; Morris, W. James

2013-01-01

82

Current state of Clostridium difficile treatment options.  

PubMed

Recent reports of reduced response to standard therapies for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the risk for recurrent CDI that is common with all currently available treatment agents have posed a significant challenge to clinicians. Current recommendations include metronidazole for treatment of mild to moderate CDI and vancomycin for severe CDI. Results from small clinical trials suggest that nitazoxanide and teicoplanin may be alternative options to standard therapies, whereas rifaximin has demonstrated success in uncontrolled trials for the management of multiple recurrences. Anecdotal reports have also suggested that tigecycline might be useful as an adjunctive agent for the treatment of severe complicated CDI. Reports of resistance will likely limit the clinical use of fusidic acid and bacitracin and, possibly, rifaximin if resistance to this agent becomes widespread. Treatment of patients with multiple CDI recurrences and those with severe complicated CDI is based on limited clinical evidence, and new treatments or strategies are needed. PMID:22752868

Venugopal, Anilrudh A; Johnson, Stuart

2012-08-01

83

Chronic rhinosinusitis and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

This review describes the epidemiology and various treatments in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Evidence for short-term use of systemic corticosteroids has been shown to be favorable in CRSwNP, but still limited in CRSsNP. Topical corticosteroids improve symptom scores in both CRS subgroups. The role of microbes in CRS is still controversial. Culture-directed antibiotics are recommended for CRSsNP with exacerbation. Long-term use of low dosage antibiotics is recommended for CRSsNP for their anti-inflammatory effects. Other emerging treatment options are also discussed.

Piromchai, Patorn; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Laohasiriwong, Supawan; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak

2013-01-01

84

Emerging treatment options for meibomian gland dysfunction.  

PubMed

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the most common diseases observed in clinics; it influences a great number of people, and is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye. Given the increased recognition of the importance of MGD, a great amount of attention has been paid to therapies targeting this condition. The traditional treatments of MGD consist of warm compresses and lid hygiene for removing an obstructed meibum, as well as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents to improve the quality of the meibum. However, each of these treatments has a different shortcoming and the treatment of MGD remains challenging. Despite the numerous possible treatment options for MGD, it is still difficult to obtain complete relief of signs and symptoms. This review focuses on current emerging treatment options for MGD including intraductal meibomian gland probing, emulsion eye drops containing lipids, the LipiFlow® thermal pulsation system, N-acetyl-cysteine, azithromycin, oral supplementation with omega-3 essential fatty acids, and cyclosporine A. PMID:24043929

Qiao, Jing; Yan, Xiaoming

2013-01-01

85

Emerging treatment options for meibomian gland dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the most common diseases observed in clinics; it influences a great number of people, and is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye. Given the increased recognition of the importance of MGD, a great amount of attention has been paid to therapies targeting this condition. The traditional treatments of MGD consist of warm compresses and lid hygiene for removing an obstructed meibum, as well as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents to improve the quality of the meibum. However, each of these treatments has a different shortcoming and the treatment of MGD remains challenging. Despite the numerous possible treatment options for MGD, it is still difficult to obtain complete relief of signs and symptoms. This review focuses on current emerging treatment options for MGD including intraductal meibomian gland probing, emulsion eye drops containing lipids, the LipiFlow® thermal pulsation system, N-acetyl-cysteine, azithromycin, oral supplementation with omega-3 essential fatty acids, and cyclosporine A.

Qiao, Jing; Yan, Xiaoming

2013-01-01

86

Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections.  

PubMed

Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T; Stark, Damien

2012-12-01

87

Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections  

PubMed Central

Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis.

Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

2012-01-01

88

Protocol for the ProFHER (PROximal Fracture of the Humerus: Evaluation by Randomisation) trial: a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of surgical versus non-surgical treatment for proximal fracture of the humerus in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Proximal humeral fractures, which occur mainly in older adults, account for approximately 4 to 5% of all fractures. Approximately 40% of these fractures are displaced fractures involving the surgical neck. Management of this group of fractures is often challenging and the outcome is frequently unsatisfactory. In particular it is not clear whether surgery gives better outcomes than non-surgical management.

Helen Handoll; Stephen Brealey; Amar Rangan; David Torgerson; Laura Dennis; Alison Armstrong; Ling-Hsiang Chuang; Ben Cross; Jo Dumville; Sarah Gardner; Lorna Goodchild; Sharon Hamilton; Catherine Hewitt; Rajan Madhok; Nicola Maffulli; Lucy Micklewright; Valerie Wadsworth; Angus Wallace; John Williams; Gill Worthy

2009-01-01

89

Osteoarthritis: a review of treatment options.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of disability in the United States, especially among older adults. Treatment options have primarily focused on alleviating the pain often associated with this condition. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often employed for relief of mild-to moderate pain associated with OA. NSAIDs are typically more effective than acetaminophen; however, because of adverse effects associated with long-term use of NSAIDS, acetaminophen is considered first-line therapy. Safety concerns of traditional pharmacotherapeutic agents used in the management of OA, such as NSAIDs and opioids, have led healthcare professionals to seek other options. Trials of disease modulating agents that focus on preventing further damage to the joints have the potential to change how this disease state is managed. This article reviews nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to management of OA of the knee and hip. PMID:20726384

Seed, Sheila M; Dunican, Kaelen C; Lynch, Ann M

2009-10-01

90

Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia: Rationale and Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rational approach to the treatment of chronic myocardial ischemia requires an appreciation of the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and the treatment options available. Any factor that causes an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand can provoke ischemia. Myocardial oxygen requirements rise with increases in heart rate, contractility, or left ventricular wall stress. Myocardial oxygen supply is determined

Peter F. Cohn

1998-01-01

91

Brachial plexus injury: treatment options and outcomes.  

PubMed

The brachial plexus is a series of nerves formed by roots of cervical segments 5 to 8 (C5-C8) as well as the first thoracic nerve (T1). It functions to provide sensation and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the chest and upper limb. It does so through different segments: roots, trunks, divisions, and cords. Injuries to the brachial plexus occur relatively frequently and are due mainly to traumatic accidents that lead to traction or compression of the nerve roots. When considering the etiology and treatment of such injuries, it is important to make a distinction between adult versus obstetric brachial plexus injury. Although several surgical treatment options are described and used for patients with brachial plexus injury, no perfect remedy currently exists. Prevention and safety should be the focus. At the same time, high-quality studies and new technology and techniques are needed to determine more effective treatments for this group. PMID:25006897

Arzillo, Samantha; Gishen, Kriya; Askari, Morad

2014-07-01

92

[Treatment options for age-related infertility].  

PubMed

There has been a consistent trend towards delayed childbearing in most Western countries. Treatment options for age-related infertility includes controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF). A sharp decline in pregnancy rate with advancing female age is noted with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including IVF. Evaluation and treatment of infertility should not be delayed in women 35 years and older. No treatment other than oocyte donation has been shown to be effective for women over 40 and for those with compromised ovarian reserve, but its pratice is not easy in France hence the procreative tourism. As an increasing number of couples choose to postpone childbearing, they should be informed that maternal age is an important risk factor for failure to conceive. PMID:20623902

Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

2010-06-20

93

Current treatment options for recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer  

PubMed Central

Loco-regional control rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has improved significantly in the past decade. However, local recurrence still represents a major cause of mortality and morbidity in advanced stages, and management of local failure remains a challenging issue in NPC. The best salvage treatment for local recurrent NPC remains to be determined. The options include brachytherapy, external radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and nasopharyngectomy, either alone or in different combinations. In this article we will discuss the different options for salvage of locally recurrent NPC. Retreatment of locally recurrent NPC using radiotherapy, alone or in combination with other treatment modalities, as well as surgery, can result in long-term local control and survival in a substantial proportion of patients. For small-volume recurrent tumors (T1–T2) treated with external radiotherapy, brachytherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery, comparable results to those obtained with surgery have been reported. In contrast, treatment results of advanced-stage locally recurrent NPC are generally more satisfactory with surgery (with or without postoperative radiotherapy) than with reirradiation.

Suarez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Shaha, Ashok R.

2010-01-01

94

Locally delivered antimicrobials in periodontal treatment.  

PubMed

The management of periodontal diseases has included both non-surgical and surgical treatment options. Non-surgical treatment traditionally has referred to the role of mechanical instrumentation of the root surface with either scalers or curettes. However, the introduction of locally delivered anti-microbial medications, which can be placed directly into a periodontal pocket, has provided the practitioner with another treatment option. This article looks at the different locally delivered anti-microbial medications being used in the non-surgical management of periodontal diseases. PMID:12221999

John, Vanchit; Phillips, Greg

2002-01-01

95

Tackling sleeplessness: Psychological treatment options for insomnia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present paper is to review and summarize the research supporting nonpharmacologic treatment options for insomnia. The different treatment approaches are described followed by a review of both original research articles and meta-analyses. Meta-analytic reviews suggest that common nonpharmacologic approaches exert, on average, medium to large effect sizes on SOL, WASO, NWAK, SQR, and SE while smaller effects are seen for TST. Stimulus control therapy, relaxation training, and CBT-I are considered standard treatments for insomnia by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Sleep restriction, multicomponent therapy without cognitive therapy, paradoxical intention, and biofeedback approaches have received some levels of support by the AASM. Sleep hygiene, imagery training, and cognitive therapy did not receive recommendation levels as single (standalone) therapies by the AASM due to lack of empirical evidence. Less common approaches have been introduced (Internet-based interventions, bright light treatment, biofeedback, mindfulness, acupuncture, and intensive sleep retraining) but require further research. Brief and group treatments have been shown to be as efficacious as longer and individually-administered treatments. Considerations are presented for special populations, including older adults, children and teens, individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds, insomnia comorbid with other disorders, and individuals who are taking hypnotics.

Dautovich, Natalie D; McNamara, Joseph; Williams, Jacob M; Cross, Natalie J; McCrae, Christina S

2010-01-01

96

The changing treatment options for CMV retinitis.  

PubMed

The author examines new treatment options and services for people with cytomegalovirus (CMV), a major opportunistic infection of people with advanced AIDS. The following CMV drugs: ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir, ISIS 2922, and MSL 109, are examined in terms of their mechanism of action and how the virus evades them. The use of ganciclovir implants and oral ganciclovir are examined, as are efforts of testing for CMV in the central nervous system. It is revealed that effective, less harsh combinations of drugs to manage CMV are gradually emerging, but that corporate strategies and scientific mishap are impeding achievement of optimal therapeutic strategies. The only treatment currently and easily available is intravenous ganciclovir and foscarnet combined, which requires long-term infusion and has adverse effects. PMID:11362648

Gilden, D

1995-01-01

97

Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise) and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms. PMID:21339935

Badawy, Ahmed; Elnashar, Abubaker

2011-01-01

98

ARSENIC REMOVAL TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR SINGLE FAMILY HOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation provides information on POU and POE arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems. The presentation provides information on the arsenic rule, arsenic chemistry and arsenic treatment. The arsenic treatment options proposed for POU and POE treatment consist prim...

99

EVALUATION OF ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A literature review of published and unpublished data was conducted to identify all conceivable alternative on-site systems, including wastewater manipulation, treatment and disposal options. Wastewater manipulation options included flow reduction, wasteload reduction and waste s...

100

[Diagnosis and treatment options of neuroendocrine tumours].  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine neoplasms belong to the group of rare tumours. Their clinical importance may be highlighted by their high prevalence despite low incidence. Since survival rate is similar to other progressive neoplastic diseases in metastatic cases, early recognition and appropriate therapy of these neoplasms are equally important. Classification of neuroendocrine tumours is based on their pathologic characteristics according to the 2010 WHO recommendation. Non-functioning tumours cause local symptoms due to their mass effect, while functioning tumours produce well-defined endocrine syndromes. Among laboratory tests, serum chromogranin-A is considered the most important biomarker of both non-functioning and functioning neuroendocrine tumours. Localization of these tumours includes the use of conventional diagnostic imaging, endoscopic examinations, and functional imaging studies. With respect to treatment, elimination of the primary tumour remains one of the most important issues. In advanced cases of the disease metastasectomy, interventional radiologic methods, medical treatment and endoradiotherapy can be used. The aim of this review is to summarize briefly the symptoms, diagnostic methods and treatment options of neuroendocrine tumours. PMID:24058100

Uhlyarik, Andrea; Pápai, Zsuzsanna

2013-09-29

101

Surgical and non-surgical prosthetic hands control: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns on the review between the surgical and non-surgical method of active control of a prosthetic hand. For active prosthetic hand, there are two standard methods for signal extraction namely surgical and non-surgical. Active prosthetic hands which are based on Surface Electromyography (sEMG) and Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR) are selected for a comparison between non-surgical and surgical type

Mohd Hanif Mohd Zaini; Siti A. Ahmad

2011-01-01

102

Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored.

Sandhu, Jaspreet S

2009-01-01

103

[Non-surgical forms of cerebellar hematoma (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage is a significant clinical entity because of its important incidence (more than 10 percent of intracranial hemorrhages) and its therapeutic possibilities. The diagnosis of this condition is difficult, but at the presnet time the Emi-scanner easily confirms the diagnosis. The surgical treatment was up until recently the only possible therapeutic approach, and it has been indiscriminately applied to all patients because of the high mortiality rate of this condition (80 percent). Two hypertensive patients who presented spontaneous cerebellar hematomas, verified by the scanner, were not submitted to surgery and both recovered spontaneously without sequelae. The existence of non-surgical forms of spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage is discussed. Special attention is placed upon the variations in the level of consciousness and the presence or absence of acute hydrocephalus in the scanner in order to indicate the convenience of a surgical procedure. PMID:7366272

Jiménez García, M; Galdós Alcelay, L; Feijoo de Freixo, M

1980-02-10

104

College Student Receptiveness to Various Alcohol Treatment Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Heavy episodic drinking remains a significant problem on college campuses. Although most interventions for college students are behavioral, pharmacological treatments, such as naltrexone, could provide additional options. Participants: The authors evaluated receptivity to various alcohol treatment options in a general population of…

Epler, Amee J.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Loomis, Tiffany B.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

2009-01-01

105

Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... found in the small intestine are adenocarcinoma , sarcoma , carcinoid tumors , gastrointestinal stromal tumor , and lymphoma . This summary ... Lymphoma Treatment Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Treatment Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Treatment Diet and ...

106

Strategies to reduce perioperative blood loss related to non-surgical bleeding.  

PubMed

The treatment of critically ill patients has advanced markedly over the last decade. However, non-surgical bleeding of a diffuse nature from numerous tiny capillaries still remains a challenge. Once initiated, this type of bleeding may be troublesome and a vicious circle develops since it is not a single vessel contributing to this blood loss. The description 'non-surgical blood loss' is often given to this. This review describes a step-by-step approach for the treatment of non-surgical bleeding and includes various measures, such as desmopressin, blood components, antifibrinolytics, antithrombin III, prothrombin complex concentrates and factor XIII. While most non-surgical bleedings can be managed using the approach described here, a number of patients still continue to bleed. In these cases, the surgeon should re-evaluate the bleeding in terms of its surgical origin. If this can positively be excluded and if all of measures described fail to reduce or stop the bleeding, further treatment of such uncontrolled bleeding remains symptomatic. PMID:14580046

Menzebach, A; Cassens, U; Van Aken, H; Booke, M

2003-10-01

107

Current treatment options for the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optional statement  The metabolic syndrome is defined as a condition characterized by a set of clinical criteria: insulin resistance, visceral\\u000a obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The major risk factors leading to the epidemic of this syndrome in the\\u000a United States are visceral obesity, physical inactivity, and an atherogenic diet. The available current evidence suggests\\u000a that the first step in management of

Prakash C. Deedwania; Natalia Volkova

2005-01-01

108

Review of treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Although the future of NAFLD and NASH treatment has many promising agents, clinicians are currently faced with limited options with an emphasis on lifestyle modification. Figs. 1 and 2 summarize current practices for the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD with the understanding that each patient's treatment must be customized to their comorbidities, exercise tolerance, and willingness to comply with therapy. PMID:24266914

Corrado, Richele L; Torres, Dawn M; Harrison, Stephen A

2014-01-01

109

Tinea capitis: diagnostic criteria and treatment options.  

PubMed

Tinea capitis is a fungal infection involving the hair shaft of the scalp. It is commonly referred to as ringworm and occurs primarily in children. Treatment with a systemic anti-fungal rather than topical treatment is required. Currently, two medications, griseofulvin (Grifulvin) and terbinafine (Lamisil Granules), are FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis. Treatment with griseofulvin is usually 6 to 8 weeks, while treatment with terbinafine requires 6 weeks. There are other medications currently not FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis that have similar cure rates and shorter durations of treatment for tinea capitis, and as a result, are being used off-label. This article reviews the research-based literature related to the treatment of tinea capitis with various pharmacologic agents. PMID:19378575

Meadows-Oliver, Mikki

2009-01-01

110

Tinea capitis: diagnostic criteria and treatment options.  

PubMed

Tinea capitis is a fungal infection involving the hair shaft of the scalp. It is commonly referred to as ringworm and occurs primarily in children. Treatment with a systemic anti-fingal rather than topical treatment is required. Currently, two medications, griseofulvin (Grifulvin) and terbinafine (Lamisil Granules), are FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis. Treatment with griseofulvin is usually 6 to 8 weeks, while treatment with terbinafine requires 6 weeks. There are other medications currently not FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis that have similar cure rates and shorter durations of treatment for tinea capitis, and as a result, are being used off-label. The research-based literature related to the treatment of tinea capitis with various pharmacologic agents is reviewed. PMID:19873694

Meadows-Oliver, Mikki

2009-01-01

111

Treatment Options for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... a blood vessel in the chest. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is a cancer treatment that may be ... given to the patient through one or more infusions. The lymphocytes see the patient’s cancer cells as ...

112

Treatment Options for Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma for more information. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ... available from the NCI Web site . Proton beam radiation therapy Proton-beam therapy is a type of high- ...

113

Treatment Option Overview (Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma)  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy ... them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the ...

114

Cognitive and behavioral treatment options for insomnia.  

PubMed

Insomnia is a costly disorder that affects a significant number of people. In many cases, insomnia is comorbid with other illnesses, which complicates its diagnosis and treatment. Most often it is treated with medication; however, patients are not always safe using hypnotics, and medication does not attack the source of the disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapies are better for long-term treatment because they address factors causing or perpetuating insomnia, as opposed to treatments that focus on symptoms. This article examines various nonpharmacological treatments for insomnia. In addition, because circadian rhythm disorders may exhibit symptoms similar to insomnia, there is also a brief overview of 2 common circadian rhythm disorders, delayed sleep phase syndrome and advanced sleep phase syndrome. PMID:22786741

Ebben, Matthew R; Narizhnaya, Mariya

2012-01-01

115

Current Treatment Options for Pancreatic Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreas cancer is a significant cause of cancer mortality; therefore, the development of early diagnostic strategies and\\u000a effective treatment is essential. Improvements in imaging technology, as well as use of biomarkers such as CA 19–9, are changing\\u000a the way that pancreas cancer is diagnosed and staged. Although progress in treatment for pancreas cancer has been incremental,\\u000a development of combination therapies

Emily Castellanos; Jordan Berlin; Dana Backlund Cardin

2011-01-01

116

Narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches.  

PubMed

The management of narcolepsy is presently at a turning point. Three main avenues are considered in this review: 1) Two tendencies characterize the conventional treatment of narcolepsy. Modafinil has replaced methylphenidate and amphetamine as the first-line treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep attacks, based on randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of modafinil, but on no direct comparison of modafinil versus traditional stimulants. For cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations, new antidepressants tend to replace tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in spite of a lack of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of these compounds; 2) The conventional treatment of narcolepsy is now challenged by sodium oxybate, the sodium salt of gammahydroxybutyrate, based on a series of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials and a long-term open label study. This treatment has a fairly good efficacy and is active on all symptoms of narcolepsy. Careful titration up to an adequate level is essential both to obtain positive results and avoid adverse effects; 3) A series of new treatments are currently being tested, either in animal models or in humans, They include novel stimulant and anticataplectic drugs, endocrine therapy, and, more attractively, totally new approaches based on the present state of knowledge of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with cataplexy, hypocretine-based therapies, and immunotherapy. PMID:18830438

Billiard, Michel

2008-06-01

117

Alcohol use disorder: pathophysiology, effects, and pharmacologic options for treatment  

PubMed Central

Alcohol use disorders (AUD) continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved) treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence.

Wackernah, Robin C; Minnick, Matthew J; Clapp, Peter

2014-01-01

118

Chemotherapy and cognitive impairment: treatment options.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy has improved survival rates in patients with many of the common cancers. However, there is reliable evidence that, as a result of treatment, a subset of cancer survivors experience cognitive problems that can last for many years after the completion of chemotherapy. The etiology of this phenomenon is largely unknown, and currently there are no proven treatments. This article explores the clinical and preclinical literature on potential therapies for chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairments. Emerging results suggest that both pharmacological and behavioral approaches may offer patients some benefits. However, research in this area has been limited and is sometimes fraught with methodological flaws. As a result, it is difficult to draw definite conclusions regarding treatment efficacy. These issues, along with predictors of cognitive decline, are discussed in the light of possible interventions. PMID:21814191

Fardell, J E; Vardy, J; Johnston, I N; Winocur, G

2011-09-01

119

Treatment options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The main goal in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is to maintain ambulation for as long as possible and to anticipate and manage the associated complications, such as joint contractures, scoliosis, cardiomyopathy, respiratory insufficiency, and weight gain. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms occur in about one third of patients, and it is important to recognize and manage them promptly, developing an individualized plan at school and at home to maximize the patient's cognitive abilities. In the late phase of the disease, palliative care is of paramount importance. Corticosteroid therapy (prednisone and deflazacort) is the only effective pharmacologic treatment for DMD. Daily prednisone treatment increases muscle strength and function, improves pulmonary function, and significantly slows the progression of weakness. Deflazacort has a similar effect on muscle strength, but it is not available in the United States. Treatment with corticosteroid should be offered to all patients with DMD, but the beneficial effects and potential adverse effects should be fully discussed before treatment begins. The optimal dose of prednisone is 0.75 mg/kg per day, up to a maximum of 40 mg/d. If adverse effects occur, a decrease in dosage is appropriate. Monitoring of muscle function and adverse effects by a neurologist or neuromuscular specialist is strongly recommended. Physical and occupational therapists should be involved early in the treatment of patients with DMD to develop a program that includes heel cord stretching and exercise. In the later phases, these therapists can recommend adaptive equipment and maximize independence. Orthopedic consultation is important in monitoring and managing scoliosis and joint contractures in the nonambulatory phase of the disease. Pulmonary evaluation for ventilatory care is important; pulmonary consultation is essential when vital capacity declines. The use of assistive cough devices, nasal bilevel positive airway pressure, and tracheostomy must be discussed with patients and their families. For all patients with DMD, particularly those receiving prednisone, consultation with a dietitian is very helpful to control weight and maintain a healthy diet. PMID:18334131

Ciafaloni, Emma; Moxley, Richard T

2008-03-01

120

Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

Griebling, Tomas L.

2009-01-01

121

Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and ... therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep ...

122

Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)  

MedlinePLUS

... inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and ... therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep ...

123

Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and ... therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep ...

124

Treatment Options for Childhood Liver Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... in the abdomen. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body onto ... therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep ...

125

Treatment Options for Children with Undescended Testicles  

MedlinePLUS

... What activities should my child avoid right after surgery? Sources The information in this summary comes from the report Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism , December 2012. The report was produced by the Vanderbilt Evidence-Based Practice Center through funding by the Agency for ...

126

Treatment options for osteoarthritis: considerations for older adults.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of disability among older adults in the United States. Treatment options such as acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most widely used agents to manage mild-to-moderate pain. Treatment with tramadol or opioids is usually reserved for severe pain associated with OA. These agents do not come without risk, especially for older adults. Patient-specific parameters and comorbid conditions must be considered when evaluating treatment options for older adults. This article reviews pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the management of OA in older adults. PMID:21441760

Seed, Sheila M; Dunican, Kaelen C; Lynch, Ann M

2011-02-01

127

Prepubertal bipolar disorder: available pharmacological treatment options.  

PubMed

Awareness of bipolar spectrum disorders in children is rapidly increasing, with a more precise definition of their clinical subtypes and early signs. Paediatric bipolar disorder can lead to an important impairment in scholastic, familial and social functioning, and to a higher risk for substance abuse and suicide. In the context of a multimodal approach, the core treatment of early-onset bipolar disorder is pharmacological. This review focuses on the empirical evidence for pharmacotherapy in paediatric bipolar disorder. Mood stabilizers, including lithium, and older and newer anticonvulsivants will be considered, in mono- or polypharmacy. Atypical antipsychotics will be considered in more severe and/or treatment-resistant manic or mixed episodes. Finally, the prophylaxis of intercritical phases and the management of specific challenging conditions, such as bipolar depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, with bipolar comorbidity, will be reviewed. PMID:15934881

Masi, Gabriele

2005-04-01

128

Current and future treatment options for gonorrhoea.  

PubMed

The delivery of effective antimicrobial therapy is essential for public health control of gonorrhoea, in the absence of a suitable vaccine. The antimicrobial agent chosen should have high efficacy and quality, lack toxicity and give >95% success when given empirically. Guidelines, which are informed by surveillance data, are used to aid clinicians in their choice of appropriate agent. Historically, gonorrhoea treatment has been delivered as a single, directly observed dose but this has resulted in failure of successive antimicrobial agents which have been replaced by a new antimicrobial to which resistance has been rare or non-existing. Following the drift towards decreased susceptibility and treatment failure to the extended spectrum cephalosporins, and the lack of 'new' alternative antimicrobials, the threat of difficult to treat or untreatable gonorrhoea has emerged. The challenge of maintaining gonorrhoea as a treatable infection has resulted in national, regional and global response or action plans. This review discusses different approaches to the future treatment of gonorrhoea including; use of ceftriaxone, the injectable cephalosporin at increased dosage; dual antimicrobial therapy; use of drugs developed for other infections and use of older agents, directed by rapid point of care tests, to susceptible infections. Finally, it is considered whether the time is right to readdress the possibility of developing an effective gonococcal vaccine, given the major advances in our understanding of natural infection, molecular pathogenesis and the revolution in molecular biology techniques. PMID:24106339

Ison, Catherine A; Deal, Carolyn; Unemo, Magnus

2013-12-01

129

Novel treatment options of binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major problem of modern societies that sometimes, but not necessarily, is associated with binge-eating disorder (BED), a relatively new disorder characterized by binge eating without purging. The purpose of this article is to review the rationale for the potential use of pharmacological treatments in BED, and the potential use of the recently proposed compounds. Therefore, a careful medline of published articles from 1980 to December 2010 was carried out using the following keywords: BED and treatment, topiramate, zonisamide, sibutramine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, ghrelin, opiate blockers. Single case reports, observational studies, opinion articles, and studies concerning adults with syndromes resulting in BED (i.e., night eating syndrome) were also reviewed. All examined papers would indicate that the pharmacological treatment of BED is still heterogenous and poorly established, mainly for the lack of controlled studies in large samples of patients. In any case, the data on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and on novel anticonvulsants seem quite promising in terms of efficacy and tolerability. In addition, the preliminary findings on the possibility of modulating appetite through the interference with the ghrelin system suggest new and intriguing ways of intervention in BED. PMID:22050761

Marazziti, D; Rossi, L; Baroni, S; Consoli, G; Hollander, E; Catena-Dell'Osso, M

2011-01-01

130

Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug-drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis. PMID:22287857

Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker

2011-01-01

131

Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis.

Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker

2011-01-01

132

Surgical options for treatment of atrial fibrillation  

PubMed Central

If we want to improve the outcomes, increase the success and reduce the complication rate of existing treatment strategies in concomitant and stand-alone atrial fibrillation (AF) procedures, we will have to increase our understanding of the pathophysiology, and of the disease, the limitations of current energy sources and ablation catheters, the different possible lesion sets, as well as improve communication between the electrophysiologist and cardiac surgeon. The technical limitations of percutaneous endocardial ablation procedures and the empirical techniques in surgical AF procedures necessitate new and innovative approaches. Surgeons should aim to improve the quality of the lesion set and minimize the invasiveness of existing techniques. The Maze procedure remains the basis upon which most of the more limited concomitant ablation procedures are and will be designed, but in stand-alone patients, recent progress has directed us towards either a single-step or sequential combined percutaneous endocardial procedure with a thoracoscopic epicardial procedure on the beating heart. A dedicated team of electrophysiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons can now work together to perform AF procedures. This can guide us to determine if there is an additional value of limiting the lesion set of the Maze procedure in concomitant surgery, and of an epicardial access in the treatment of stand-alone AF on the beating heart. If so, we will better understand which energy sources, lesion sets and surgical techniques are able to give us a three-dimensional knowledge and a three-dimensional treatment of AF. As a result, we can expect to obtain a higher single procedure long-term success rate with an acceptable low complication rate.

2014-01-01

133

Treatment options for advanced pancreatic cancer: a review.  

PubMed

Advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma historically has a poor prognosis and the mortality rate has remained unchanged for over a decade. Common treatment options for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer include chemoradiation and/or chemotherapy. Single-agent gemcitabine has been considered the standard of care since 1997. Recently published findings indicate that the oxaliplatin, irinotecan, fluorouracil and leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) treatment regimen significantly improves overall survival compared with gemcitabine. Research has shifted to focus on understanding the causes the resistance of pancreatic cancer to chemotherapy and potential methods to overcome it. This review will focus on the current treatment options, the evolution of targeted therapy, novel agents on the horizon and potential options to ameliorate chemoresistance. PMID:23176620

Warsame, Rahma; Grothey, Axel

2012-10-01

134

Treatment options in recurrent cervical cancer (Review).  

PubMed

The management of recurrent cervical cancer depends mainly on previous treatment and on the site and extent of recurrence. Concurrent cisplatin-based chemo-radiation is the treatment of choice for patients with pelvic failure after radical hysterectomy alone. However, the safe delivery of high doses of radiotherapy is much more difficult in this clinical setting compared with primary radiotherapy. Pelvic exenteration usually represents the only therapeutic approach with curative intent for women with central pelvic relapse who have previously received irradiation. In a recent series, the 5-year overall survival and operative mortality after pelvic exenteration ranged from 21 to 61% and from 1 to 10%, respectively. Free surgical margins, negative lymph nodes, small tumour size and long disease-free interval were associated with a more favourable prognosis. Currently, pelvic reconstructive procedures (continent urinary conduit, low colorectal anastomosis, vaginal reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps) are strongly recommended after exenteration. Concurrent cisplatin-based chemo-radiation is the treatment of choice for isolated para-aortic lymph node failure, with satisfactory chances of a cure in asymptomatic patients. Chemotherapy is administered with palliative intent to women with distant or loco-regional recurrences not amenable by surgery or radiotherapy. Cisplatin is the most widely used drug, with a response rate of 17-38% and a median overall survival of 6.1-7.1 months. Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy achieves higher response rates (22-68%) when compared with single-agent cisplatin, but median overall survival is usually less than one year. In a recent Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) trial the combination topotecan + cisplatin obtained a significantly longer overall survival than single-agent cisplatin in patients with metastatic or recurrent or persistent cervical cancer. A subsequent GOG study showed a trend in terms of longer overall survival and better quality of life for the doublet cisplatin + paclitaxel vs. the doublets cisplatin + topotecan, cisplatin + vinorelbine, and cisplatin + gemcitabine. Molecularly targeted therapy may represent a novel therapeutic tool, but its use alone or in combination with chemotherapy is still investigational. PMID:22966247

Gadducci, Angiolo; Tana, Roberta; Cosio, Stefania; Cionini, Luca

2010-01-01

135

Treatment options in recurrent cervical cancer (Review)  

PubMed Central

The management of recurrent cervical cancer depends mainly on previous treatment and on the site and extent of recurrence. Concurrent cisplatin-based chemo-radiation is the treatment of choice for patients with pelvic failure after radical hysterectomy alone. However, the safe delivery of high doses of radiotherapy is much more difficult in this clinical setting compared with primary radiotherapy. Pelvic exenteration usually represents the only therapeutic approach with curative intent for women with central pelvic relapse who have previously received irradiation. In a recent series, the 5-year overall survival and operative mortality after pelvic exenteration ranged from 21 to 61% and from 1 to 10%, respectively. Free surgical margins, negative lymph nodes, small tumour size and long disease-free interval were associated with a more favourable prognosis. Currently, pelvic reconstructive procedures (continent urinary conduit, low colorectal anastomosis, vaginal reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps) are strongly recommended after exenteration. Concurrent cisplatin-based chemo-radiation is the treatment of choice for isolated para-aortic lymph node failure, with satisfactory chances of a cure in asymptomatic patients. Chemotherapy is administered with palliative intent to women with distant or loco-regional recurrences not amenable by surgery or radiotherapy. Cisplatin is the most widely used drug, with a response rate of 17–38% and a median overall survival of 6.1–7.1 months. Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy achieves higher response rates (22–68%) when compared with single-agent cisplatin, but median overall survival is usually less than one year. In a recent Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) trial the combination topotecan + cisplatin obtained a significantly longer overall survival than single-agent cisplatin in patients with metastatic or recurrent or persistent cervical cancer. A subsequent GOG study showed a trend in terms of longer overall survival and better quality of life for the doublet cisplatin + paclitaxel vs. the doublets cisplatin + topotecan, cisplatin + vinorelbine, and cisplatin + gemcitabine. Molecularly targeted therapy may represent a novel therapeutic tool, but its use alone or in combination with chemotherapy is still investigational.

GADDUCCI, ANGIOLO; TANA, ROBERTA; COSIO, STEFANIA; CIONINI, LUCA

2010-01-01

136

Pretibial myxedema: pathophysiology and treatment options.  

PubMed

Pretibial myxedema or localized myxedema or thyroid dermopathy is an autoimmune manifestation of Graves' disease. It also occasionally occurs in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Lesions of thyroid dermopathy are usually asymptomatic and have only cosmetic importance. Advanced forms of dermopathy are associated with elephantiasis or thyroid acropachy. Almost all cases of thyroid dermopathy are associated with relatively severe ophthalmopathy. Usually ophthalmopathy appears first and dermopathy much later. All patients with localized myxedema have high serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, indicating the severity of the autoimmune condition. Occurrence of thyroid dermopathy in areas other than pretibial skin indicates a systemic process. Similar to Graves' ophthalmopathy, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors in the connective tissue may be the antigen responsible for the immune process. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms are involved in the stimulation of fibroblasts and the production of large amounts of glycosaminoglycans. Localization in the pretibial area relates to mechanical factors and dependent position. Diagnosis of thyroid dermopathy is based on signs and typical pretibial skin lesions in association with a history of Graves' hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy. In some cases, skin biopsy is needed for confirmation. The lesions are usually mild and are overshadowed by more symptomatic ophthalmopathy. Most cases of thyroid dermopathy do not require any therapy. In mildly severe symptomatic cases and when there is cosmetic concern, topical corticosteroids applied under occlusive dressing are beneficial. In more severe cases, systemic immunomodulation may be necessary; however, conclusive evidence for long-term efficacy of these modalities is lacking. When significant edema and elephantiasis are present, local compressive therapy may have added benefit. In mild cases that do not require treatment, 50% of patients achieve complete remission after several years. Severe cases that receive topical corticosteroids or other therapies do not have a better outcome than untreated milder cases. Current treatment modalities for thyroid dermopathy and acropachy are at best palliative. Better and safer means of immunomodulation are needed. PMID:16252929

Fatourechi, Vahab

2005-01-01

137

Emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is endemic in Asia and is etiologically associated with Epstein–Barr virus. Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality. The role of systemic therapy has become more prominent. Based on multiple phase III studies and meta-analyses, concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy is the current standard of care for locally advanced disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer manual [7th edition] stages II–IVb). The reported failure-free survival rates from phase II trials are encouraging for induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Data from ongoing phase III trials comparing induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy will validate the results of these phase II studies. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques are recommended if the resources are available. Locoregional control exceeding 90% and reduced xerostomia-related toxicities can now be achieved using intensity-modulated radiotherapy, although distant control remains the most pressing research problem. The promising results of targeted therapy and Epstein–Barr virus-specific immunotherapy from early clinical trials should be validated in phase III clinical trials. New technology, more effective and less toxic chemotherapy regimens, and targeted therapy offer new opportunities for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Zhang, Lu; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Huai; Tang, Lin-Quan; Mai, Hai-Qiang

2013-01-01

138

Treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become increasingly recognized as the most common cause of abnormal liver enzymes in the last few decades and is among the most common forms of chronic liver disease in the Western world and across the globe. With the growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes, NAFLD is estimated to affect about one-quarter of the US population. Although most patients with NAFLD have nonprogressive bland steatosis, a minority of patients develop the histological subtype of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related death. This is especially true when NASH patients have type 2 diabetes. Treatment of NAFLD should therefore be directed towards patients with established NASH. Sustained weight loss seems to improve insulin resistance and associated NASH. In fact, weight loss with bariatric surgery leads to biochemical and histological improvement in morbidly obese patients with NASH. Several pharmacologic agents have been studied in an effort to improve insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory mediators potentially responsible for the development and progression of NASH. While some studies have shown initial promise, none has established long-term efficacy using randomized clinical trials. This paper briefly reviews the epidemiology, natural history, and pathophysiology of NAFLD and NASH and then focuses on the clinical trials of various therapeutic modalities for NAFLD. These include weight loss agents, bariatric surgery, insulin-sensitizing agents, lipid-lowering agents, antioxidants, probiotics, anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, cytoprotective and other novel agents.

Lam, Brian; Younossi, Zobair M.

2010-01-01

139

Birdshot uveitis: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a relatively uncommon subtype of idiopathic posterior uveitis with distinct clinical characteristics and a strong genetic association with the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A29 allele. The diagnosis remains clinical and is based on the presence of typical clinical features, including multiple, distinctive, hypopigmented choroidal lesions throughout the fundus. The long-term visual prognosis of this disorder, however, remains guarded – central visual acuity can be preserved until late in the disease and it is not uncommon for patients to receive inadequate immunosuppressive treatment, leading to a poor long-term outcome in which peripheral retinal damage eventually leads to visual deterioration. Birdshot chorioretinopathy has proven a particularly attractive area of study within the field of uveitis, as it is a relatively easily defined disease with an associated human leukocyte antigen haplotype. Despite this, however, the immune mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis remain unclear, and some patients continue to lose retinal function despite therapy with corticosteroids and conventional immunosuppressive agents. Laboratory research continues to investigate the underlying mechanisms of disease, and clinical research is now being driven to improve the phenotyping and monitoring of this condition as, in the era of so-called personalized medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to identify patients at risk of visual loss early so that they can be treated more aggressively with targeted therapies such as the newer biological agents. This approach requires the formation of collaborative groups, as the relative rarity of the condition makes it difficult for one center to accumulate enough patients for worthwhile studies. Nevertheless, results obtained with newer therapies, such as biological agents directed against particular cytokines or cell-surface receptors, demonstrate ever improving control of the inflammation in refractory cases, providing hope that the outlook for visual function in this condition can only improve.

Menezo, Victor; Taylor, Simon RJ

2014-01-01

140

New treatment options for patients with metastatic prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. When metastasised (40% of patients), classic anti-androgen therapy is the first-line treatment. Usually, this treatment becomes ineffective when castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) develops. Thus far, docetaxel was the only chemotherapeutic option that has shown to be able to extend overall survival and improve quality of life in these patients. Recently, cabazitaxel and abiraterone have shown significant survival benefits for patients progressive on or after docetaxel treatment, as did enzalutamide and radium-223. In North America, immune therapy (sipuleucel-T) became available for a subgroup of CRPC patients. These new treatment options will change the treatment paradigm of patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. A multidisciplinary approach by both medical oncologists and urologists seems mandatory. PMID:23956309

Snoeks, L L; Ogilvie, A C; van Haarst, E P; Siegert, C E H

2013-01-01

141

Technical note: porcine non-surgical embryo transfer.  

PubMed

The cervix is a barrier for transferring porcine embryos non-surgically. A non-surgical embryo transfer instrument composed of four parts has been developed that allows the delivery of embryos into the lumen of one uterine horn. Part 1, a modified artificial insemination spirette, is used to produce a cervical lock and to assist in manipulating Part 2 through the cervix. Part 2 is made of stainless steel tubing with a unique curved tip that can be manipulated through the folds of the cervix. Part 3 is a testing bar to ensure that the tip of Part 2 reaches the bifurcation of the uterus. Part 4, a disposable tubing complex for embryo delivery, is composed of a soft plastic leader tubing, a double opened connector for embryo loading and unloading, a semi-hard plastic tubing, and a hard tubing with a water-sealable plunger. Embryos (4-cell to blastocyst stages) were surgically collected and maintained in vitro up to 5 h before the non-surgical embryo transfer. Five of 16 recipients became pregnant (31%) and farrowed an average of 6.2 +/- 3.1 pigs per litter. This easily learned non-surgical embryo transfer technique will simplify embryo transfer in the swine industry and may lead to improvements in swine breeding and scientific research. PMID:8880431

Li, J; Rieke, A; Day, B N; Prather, R S

1996-09-01

142

TAILORx (Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment)  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about TAILORx -- the Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment (Rx) -- which was designed to determine whether adjuvant hormonal therapy alone is as effective as adjuvant hormonal therapy in combination with chemotherapy for certain women with early-stage breast cancer.

143

Trial Suggests New Treatment Option for Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Intermediate results from a phase II clinical trial presented at the 2010 American Society of Hematology annual meeting indicate that an investigational agent called brentuximab vedotin may be an effective alternative for some patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who have few viable treatment options.

144

Natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma and current treatment options.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver cancer and the most severe complication of chronic liver disease. The annual number of new cases worldwide is approximately 550,000, representing more than 5% of human cancers and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The stages of the malignancy as well as the severity of the underlying liver disease are essential factors in planning the therapeutic approach. Curative treatment options are represented mainly by surgery (ie, resection or transplantation), but most patients are not candidates for a curative option, and only palliative treatment could be given to these patients. Among palliative treatments, only chemoembolization has been proven to be effective, but other options are currently being investigated. Major risk factors for HCC are well known and are dependent on the geographic area. In Europe, the United States, and Japan, the main risk factors are liver cirrhosis, hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol, and tobacco; in contrast, in Africa and Asia, these factors are hepatitis B and C virus, tobacco use, and aflatoxin exposure. Cirrhosis from any cause is a predisposing factor for HCC and could be considered as a premalignant condition. The present concept of carcinogenesis in HCC is a multistage process. This article describes the natural history of HCC and discusses the various treatment options available at present. PMID:18243838

Raoul, Jean-Luc

2008-03-01

145

The Natural History and Treatment Options for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in angiographic technique have raised our awareness of the presence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). However, the appropriate management for these lesions remains controversial. To optimize patient outcomes, the physician must weigh aneurysmal rupture risk associated with observation against the complication risks associated with intervention. In the case that treatment is chosen, the two available options are surgical clipping and endovascular coiling. Our paper summarizes the current body of literature in regards to the natural history of UIAs, the evolution of the lesion if it progresses uninterrupted, as well as the safety and efficacy of both treatment options. The risks and benefits of treatment and conservative management need to be evaluated on an individual basis and are greatly effected by both patient-specific and aneurysm-specific factors, which are presented in this paper. Ultimately, this body of data has led to multiple sets of treatment guidelines, which we have summated and presented in this paper.

Loewenstein, Joshua E.; Gayle, Shaneze C.; Duffis, E. Jesus; Prestigiacomo, Charles J.; Gandhi, Chirag D.

2012-01-01

146

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment)  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms that begin before diagnosis and continue for months or years. Childhood brain stem gliomas may cause ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

147

Waste battery treatment options: comparing their environmental performance.  

PubMed

Waste consumer batteries are recycled using different routes based on hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. Two hydrometallurgical and two pyrometallurgical treatment scenarios are compared starting from an average composition of Belgian waste batteries. The environmental performance is compared using life cycle analysis (LCA). The recycling rate is studied through mass balance calculation. Each treatment scenario results in a specific recycling rate. The environmental impact and benefits also vary between the treatment options. There is no such thing as a typical hydrometallurgical or pyrometallurgical treatment. When applying a hydrometallurgical treatment scenario, the focus lies on zinc and iron recycling. When allowing manganese recycling, the energy demand of the hydrometallurgical process increases considerably. Both pyrometallurgical options recycle zinc, iron and manganese. According to the LCA, none of the treatment scenarios performs generally better or worse than the others. Each option has specific advantages and disadvantages. The Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC sets out a recycling rate of 50% for consumer waste batteries. Based on metal recycling alone, the mass balances show that the target is difficult to obtain. PMID:19386482

Briffaerts, K; Spirinckx, C; Van der Linden, A; Vrancken, K

2009-08-01

148

Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests  

SciTech Connect

A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

1992-10-16

149

Painful bladder syndrome and interstitial cystitis: treatment options.  

PubMed

Painful bladder syndrome (PBS) and interstitial cystitis (IC) are associated with bladder pain, increased urinary frequency, urgency and reduced quality of life. The cause is still unknown, although there are several possible hypotheses. PBS/IC may significantly impact all areas of a patient's life as they try to manage their symptoms. Treatment options usually involve diet and fluid modifications, oral medications, intravesical therapy or as a last resort, surgery. The bladder is protected by a mucous layer known as the GAG layer and is thought to protect the underlying urothelium from coming into contact with potassium ions and other irritants contained in urine. Due to research suggesting that sufferers of PBS/IC have dysfunctional GAG layers, there is rationale for intravesical GAG replacement therapy as a treatment option in reducing PBS/IC symptoms such as pain, frequency and urgency. Early diagnosis and treatment may lead to better long-term outcomes. PMID:23752572

Fiander, Natalie

150

Parents' Online Portrayals of Pediatric Treatment and Research Options  

PubMed Central

Parents of seriously ill children face difficult decisions when standard therapies are limited or ineffective. In their search for information, they may turn to websites created by other parents facing similar experiences. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 21 websites created by families with children affected by cancer or genetic disease, two serious conditions with a range of treatment and clinical trial options. Our research questions address how parent authors portray serious pediatric illness, available options, parties to decision making, and sources of influence. In addition, we examine what these sites reveal about family vulnerability to various risks, particularly the risk of misunderstanding the distinction between standard treatment and research and the risk of overestimating the likely benefits of research participation, as well as whether vulnerability varies by type of condition. Our results demonstrate typically favorable views on research, but with inadequate distinctions between research and treatment and a complex set of trade-offs in consideration of research risks and potential benefits. While portraits of vulnerability emerge for both parents and children, so do portraits of strength and resilience. As a result, parents describe frustration with both under- and over-protection from research participation. Our discussion of these findings clarifies the potential for parent-authored websites to inform and influence families considering research and treatment options for their seriously ill children.

Schaffer, Rebecca; Henderson, Gail E.; Churchill, Larry R.; King, Nancy M. P.; Rothschild, Barbra B.; Lohser, Sara; Davis, Arlene M.

2012-01-01

151

Second and third line treatment options for Helicobacter pylori eradication  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful bacterium with a high global prevalence and the infection carries significant disease burden. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to eradicate and the main reason for this is growing primary antibiotic resistance rates in a world where antibiotics are frequently prescribed and readily available. Despite knowing much more about the bacterium since its discovery, such as its genomic makeup and pathogenesis, we have seen declining treatment success. Therefore, clinicians today must be prepared to face one, two or even multiple treatment failures, and should be equipped with sufficient knowledge to decide on the appropriate salvage therapy when this happens. This article discusses the factors contributing to treatment failure and reviews the second and third-line treatment strategies that have been investigated. Established empiric second line treatment options include both bismuth based quadruple therapy and levofloxacin based triple therapy. Antibiotic testing is recommended prior to initiating third line treatment. In the event that antibiotic susceptibility testing is unavailable, third line treatment options include rifabutin, rifaximin and sitafloxacin based therapies.

Song, Mingjun; Ang, Tiing Leong

2014-01-01

152

Second and third line treatment options for Helicobacter pylori eradication.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful bacterium with a high global prevalence and the infection carries significant disease burden. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to eradicate and the main reason for this is growing primary antibiotic resistance rates in a world where antibiotics are frequently prescribed and readily available. Despite knowing much more about the bacterium since its discovery, such as its genomic makeup and pathogenesis, we have seen declining treatment success. Therefore, clinicians today must be prepared to face one, two or even multiple treatment failures, and should be equipped with sufficient knowledge to decide on the appropriate salvage therapy when this happens. This article discusses the factors contributing to treatment failure and reviews the second and third-line treatment strategies that have been investigated. Established empiric second line treatment options include both bismuth based quadruple therapy and levofloxacin based triple therapy. Antibiotic testing is recommended prior to initiating third line treatment. In the event that antibiotic susceptibility testing is unavailable, third line treatment options include rifabutin, rifaximin and sitafloxacin based therapies. PMID:24587627

Song, Mingjun; Ang, Tiing Leong

2014-02-14

153

Gastroparesis: a review of current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Gastroparesis is a motility disorder of the stomach causing delay in food emptying from the stomach without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. The majority of cases are idiopathic. Patients need to be diagnosed properly by formal testing, and the evaluation of the severity of the gastroparesis may assist in guiding therapy. Initially, dietary modifications are encouraged, which include frequent and small semisolid-based meals. Promotility medications, like erythromycin, and antiemetics, like prochlorperazine, are offered for symptom relief. In patients who are refractory to pharmacologic treatment, more invasive options, such as intrapyloric botulinum toxin injections, placement of a jejunostomy tube, or implantation of a gastric stimulator, can be considered. Hemin therapy and gastric electric stimulation are emerging treatment options that are still at different stages of research. Regenerative medicine and stem cell-based therapies also hold promise for gastroparesis in the near future.

Enweluzo, Chijioke; Aziz, Fahad

2013-01-01

154

New Treatment Options for Patients with Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Well- to moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies for which a range\\u000a of therapeutic options have been employed. For patients with localized NET, surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment.\\u000a Surgical resection of hepatic metastases or hepatic artery embolization may also be beneficial in patients with hepatic-predominant\\u000a metastatic disease. Symptoms of hormonal excess, such

Jennifer A. Chan; Matthew H. Kulke

2011-01-01

155

Carotid Stump Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Endovascular Treatment Options  

SciTech Connect

Carotid stump syndrome is one of the recognised causes of recurrent ipsilateral cerebrovascular events after occlusion of the internal carotid artery. It is believed that microemboli arising from the stump of the occluded internal carotid artery or the ipsilateral external carotid artery can pass into the middle cerebral artery circulation as a result of patent external carotid-internal carotid anastomotic channels. Different pathophysiologic causes of this syndrome and endovascular options for treatment are discussed.

Lakshminarayan, Raghuram; Scott, Paul M.; Robinson, Graham J.; Ettles, Duncan F., E-mail: duncan.ettles@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

156

For Some Breast Cancers, New Drug May Be Treatment Option  

Cancer.gov

Results from an international clinical trial suggest that women with metastatic, HER2-positive breast cancer that is no longer responding to the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin) may soon have a new treatment option. Women who received the investigational drug trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) lived more than 3 months longer without their tumors progressing than women who received the chemotherapy drug capecitabine (Xeloda) and the targeted drug lapatinib (Tykerb).

157

Current options for the treatment of optic neuritis  

PubMed Central

Optic neuritis can be defined as typical (associated with multiple sclerosis, improving independent of steroid treatment), or atypical (not associated with multiple sclerosis, steroid-dependent improvement). Causes of atypical optic neuritis include connective tissue diseases (eg, lupus), vasculitis, sarcoidosis, or neuromyelitis optica. In this manuscript, updated treatment options for both typical and atypical optic neuritis are reviewed. Conventional treatments, such as corticosteroids, therapeutic plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are all discussed with commentary regarding evidence-based outcomes. Less commonly used treatments and novel purported therapies for optic neuritis are also reviewed. Special scenarios in the treatment of optic neuritis – pediatric optic neuritis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, and optic neuritis occurring during pregnancy – are specifically examined.

Pula, John H; MacDonald, Christopher J

2012-01-01

158

Vaginitis: Making Sense of Over-the-Counter Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

Background. The FDA approved over-the-counter (OTC) use of vaginal antifungals in 1990. Subsequently, a plethora of OTC products have become available to women on drugstore shelves. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of OTC products marketed for the treatment of vaginitis and to determine if their efficacy had been confirmed by published prospective randomized control trials (RCTs). Materials and methods. The authors chose four retail locations frequented by women seeking vaginitis treatment. All products deemed a viable treatment option were purchased. Results. All intravaginal imidazoles purchased, regardless of treatment duration or active ingredient, were found to be of proven efficacy. We were unable to find an RCT confirming the effectiveness of vaginal anti-itch creams and homeopathic treatments for vaginitis. Conclusion. 45% of products available to women in the feminine hygiene section of the stores surveyed could not be confirmed to be effective for treating infectious vaginitis.

B. Angotti, Lauren; C. Lambert, Lara; E. Soper, David

2007-01-01

159

Oral vitamin D, still a viable treatment option for psoriasis.  

PubMed

Vitamin D as a topical treatment has become one of the mainstays for treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Oral vitamin D on the other hand has for the most part become a forgotten option. But a review of the literature on oral vitamin D as a treatment for psoriasis reveals that this treatment is efficacious. The main side effect of this therapy is hypercalcemia, which appears to be easily monitored and avoidable with proper dosing and monitoring. The literature also suggests a correlation between low levels of serum vitamin D in this patient population associated with increased severity of disease involvement. In addition, oral vitamin D improves psoriatic arthropathy. Moreover, vitamin D has been proven to have many health benefits such as prevention of cancer, improved cardiovascular health among many others. Psoriatic patients as a population are at increased risk of developing adverse health complications such as cardiovascular disease, and oral vitamin D may prove to be of benefit in this population. Oral vitamin D is inexpensive and easily available. It is still a viable option and should not be forgotten as a possible treatment for psoriasis. PMID:22103655

Kamangar, Faranak; Koo, John; Heller, Misha; Lee, Eric; Bhutani, Tina

2013-08-01

160

New treatment options for fibromyalgia: critical appraisal of duloxetine.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain, tender points, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. FMS leads to high disability levels, poor quality of life, and extensive use of medical care. Effective pharmacological treatment options are rare, and treatment effects are often of limited duration. Duloxetine is a new selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that is licensed for the treatment of pain in diabetic neuropathy. So far two randomized, placebo-controlled trials have investigated the short-term safety and efficacy of duloxetine 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day in patients suffering from FMS over a period of 12 weeks. Both dosages were superior to placebo in pain relief, and improvement in quality of life and depressive symptoms. The analgesic effect was largely independent of the antidepressant action of duloxetine. The higher dose of 120 mg/day further reduced the tender point count and elevated the tender point pain thresholds. Only mild to moderate adverse effects were reported. Duloxetine 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day has proven to be beneficial in the treatment of FMS symptoms. As true for other antidepressants further studies are needed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of duloxetine as an additional pharmacological treatment option in FMS. PMID:18830399

Uçeyler, Nurcan; Offenbächer, Martin; Petzke, Frank; Häuser, Winfried; Sommer, Claudia

2008-06-01

161

Options and opportunities for clinical management and treatment of psoriasis.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a complex, multifactorial disease that appears to be influenced by immune-mediated components. For many years the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been discordant; the clinical picture suggested that the psoriasis was secondary to abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, but later the role of the T cell was revealed. A variety of treatment options range from topical agents (e.g., coal tar, dithranol, and emollients for milder forms) to systemic agents (i.e., methotrexate or cyclosporin), and phototherapy. Recently, biologics have been added to this list that target particular steps in the immune or inflammatory pathways. Various nanocarriers (e.g., liposomes, niosomes, and microemulsions) have been successfully exploited for the delivery of several antipsoriatic drugs. This review provides insight into various psoriasis treatment strategies-from conventional to novel-currently in use or in development as well as the novel targets that have been explored and/or investigated for anti-psoriatic therapy. The pathogenesis of psoriasis and some of the topical, systemic biological, and novel approaches currently in use or in development are reviewed here. The pros and cons of each treatment strategy are presented, as are some of the animal models used to study features reminiscent of psoriasis. This information can be used to better the understanding of treatment options for this disease. PMID:23510110

Agrawal, Udita; Gupta, Madhu; Dube, Devyani; Vyas, Suresh P

2013-01-01

162

Intracranial aneurysms: review of current treatment options and outcomes.  

PubMed

Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience. PMID:21779274

Seibert, Brad; Tummala, Ramachandra P; Chow, Ricky; Faridar, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed A; Divani, Afshin A

2011-01-01

163

Intracranial Aneurysms: Review of Current Treatment Options and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience.

Seibert, Brad; Tummala, Ramachandra P.; Chow, Ricky; Faridar, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed A.; Divani, Afshin A.

2011-01-01

164

Effect of surgical and non-surgical periodontal debridement on vascular thrombotic markers in hypertensives  

PubMed Central

Background: Periodontal debridement has an impact on the vascular thrombotic markers in healthy individuals. This study aimed to investigate changes in several vascular thrombotic markers after surgical and non-surgical periodontal debridement in hypertensives with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 40 hypertensives, 27 males and 13 females, 37-68 year old, mean 51.2 years, with moderate to severe periodontitis, were divided into two groups, (n = 20 for each); the first received comprehensive one session non-surgical periodontal debridement, (pockets 4-6 mm), while the second received comprehensive supragingival scaling with surgical debridement at one quadrant, (Pockets > 6 mm). Periodontal parameters included; plaque index (PI), gingival inflammation (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth (PPD). Vascular thrombotic tests included; platelets count (Plt), fibrinogen (Fib), Von Willebrand factor antigen activity (vWF:Ag), and D-dimers (DD). Results: PI, GI, BOP, PPD, decreased significantly (P = 0.001) after 6 weeks of periodontal debridement in both groups, while BOP and PPD remained higher in the surgical one (P < 0.05). Thrombotic vascular markers changes through the three-time intervals were significant in each group (P = 0.001), and time-group interception effect was significant for vWF:Ag (P = 0.005), while no significant differences between groups after treatment (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal debridement, surgical and non-surgical, improved the periodontal status in hypertensives. Periodontal treatment activated the coagulation system in hypertensives and recessed later while the treatment modality did not affect the degree of activation.

Albush, Muhammad M.; Razan, Khattab K.; Raed, Al Dieri M.

2013-01-01

165

Current and emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In this article, we focus on the current and emerging treatments in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). A detailed evolution of the current standard of care, and new techniques and treatment options will be reviewed. Intergroup 0099 established the role for chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT) in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Multiple randomized Phase III trials have shown the benefit of chemo-RT; however, none of these studies utilized modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). IMRT has the ability to deliver high doses of radiation to the target structures while sparing adjacent bystander healthy tissues, and has now become the preferred RT treatment modality. Chemotherapy also has had a shifting paradigm of induction and/or adjuvant chemotherapy combined with RT alone, to the investigation with concurrent chemo-RT. New treatment options including targeted monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being studied in NPC. These new biologic therapies have promising in vitro activity for NPC, and emerging clinical studies are beginning to define their role. RT continues to expand its capabilities, and since IMRT and particle therapy, specifically intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), has reports of impressive dosimetric efficacy in-silica. Adaptive RT is attempting to reduce toxicity while maintaining treatment efficacy, and the clinical results are still in their youth. Lastly, Epstein– Barr virus (EBV) DNA has recently been studied for prediction of tumor response and its use as a biomarker is increasingly promising to aid in early detection as well as supplementing the current staging system. RT with or without chemotherapy remains the standard of care for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Advances in RT technique, timing of chemotherapy, biologically targeted agents, particle therapy, adaptive RT, and the incorporation of EBV DNA as a biomarker may aid in the current and future treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer.

Spratt, Daniel E; Lee, Nancy

2012-01-01

166

Non-surgical management of a pediatric "intoed" gait pattern - a systematic review of the current best evidence  

PubMed Central

Background An intoed gait pattern is one of the most common referrals for children to an orthopedic consultation. Parental concern as to the aesthetics of the child’s gait pattern and/or its symptomatic nature will primarily drive these referrals during a child’s early developmental years. Whilst some of these referrals prove to be the result of a normal growth variant, some children will present with a symptomatic intoed gait pattern. Various treatments, both conservative and surgical, have been proposed including: braces, wedges, stretches and exercises, shoe modifications, and surgical procedures. However, which treatments are effective and justified in the management of this condition is not clear within the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to therefore identify and critique the best available evidence for the non-surgical management of an intoed gait pattern in a pediatric population. Method A systematic review was conducted of which only experimental studies investigating a management option for an intoeing gait pattern were included. Studies needed to be written in English, pertaining to a human pediatric population, and published within a peer reviewed journal. Electronic databases were searched: Ovid (Medline), EMBASE, AMED, PubMed, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. The National Health and Medical Research Council’s designation of levels of hierarchy and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme cohort studies critical appraisal tool were used. Results Five level IV studies were found. The studies were of varied quality and with mixed results. Gait plates, physiologic/standardized shoes, and orthotic devices (with gate plate extension) were shown to produce a statistically significant improvement to an intoed gait pattern. Shoe wedges, torqheels, and a leather counter splint were not able to reduce an intoed gait pattern. Conclusion There is limited evidence to inform the non-surgical management of a pediatric intoed gait pattern. The body of evidence that does exist is small (n = 5) and of varied quality, which means recommendations arising from this evidence base should be interpreted with caution. There is generally weak evidence that suggests that gait plates and orthotic devices with a gait plate extension may assist in the management of a pediatric intoed gait pattern.

Uden, Hayley; Kumar, Saravana

2012-01-01

167

Prevention and Treatment Options for Postoperative Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

The majority of patients with Crohn’s disease require surgery for disease-related complications. Postoperative Crohn’s disease recurrence is common after intestinal resection. The optimal management strategy for postoperative recurrence of Crohn’s disease is controversial. In the absence of universally adopted guidelines, clinicians and patients must discuss and weigh the risks and benefits of postoperative pharmacotherapy. Those patients at low risk of disease recurrence may not require treatment. On the other hand, patients with more aggressive disease and high risk of recurrence may be best treated early in the postoperative period with an immunomodulator or antitumor necrosis factor agents. Ideally, postoperative treatment decisions would be made using predictable, reliable, and reproducible clinical prediction criteria that would guide treatment. This article reviews the data on postoperative Crohn’s disease, including predictors of early recurrence, available options for postoperative monitoring, timing of initiation, and choice of postoperative therapy for prevention and management.

Clarke, Kofi

2009-01-01

168

Management of tuberculosis in children and new treatment options.  

PubMed

Childhood tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a neglected disease in areas where limited resources restrict the focus of national TB control programmes to only the most infectious sputum smear-positive cases. However, appreciation that children contribute a significant proportion to the global TB disease burden and suffer severe TB-related morbidity and mortality is growing. The World Health Organization (WHO) published guidelines on the management of paediatric TB in 2006 and child friendly drug formulations have been made available to deserving nations via the Global Drug Facility (GDF) since 2008. These advances also served to emphasize the considerable programmatic barriers that remain in resource-limited settings. This review provides an overview of current treatment practices, presenting the authors personal perspectives on issues related to the treatment of childhood TB, together with a brief synopsis of potential future treatment options. PMID:21406050

Marais, B J; Schaaf, H S; Donald, P R

2011-04-01

169

Treatment options for the relief of chronic idiopathic urticaria symptoms.  

PubMed

Chronic urticaria is a cutaneous condition in which recurrent pruritic wheals (hives) manifest on the body and typically last for longer than 6 weeks. Chronic urticaria, including physically induced urticarias, such as cold, solar exposure or delayed pressure urticaria, is estimated to occur in approximately 25% of urticaria patients. Of these patients, 75% present with idiopathic disease, which is essentially an exclusionary diagnosis when no contributing factors can be determined that cause the cutaneous reaction. Chronic urticaria symptoms can have a profound effect on a patient's quality of life (QoL); therefore, treatment should address both physical symptom relief and improvements in QoL. This review will discuss the benefits and limitations of several treatment options available to relieve urticarial symptoms, including H1- and H2-receptor antagonists, doxepin, antileukotriene therapy and corticosteroids. Other experimental therapies, such as immunomodulatory agents, plasmapheresis treatment, i.v. immunoglobulins, and omalizumab will also be discussed. PMID:18364622

Fromer, Leonard

2008-02-01

170

Treatment options for vasomotor symptoms in menopause: focus on desvenlafaxine  

PubMed Central

Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), including hot flashes and night sweats, occur in as many as 68.5% of women as a result of menopause. While the median duration of these symptoms is 4 years, approximately 10% of women continue to experience VMS as many as 12 years after their final menstrual period. As such, VMS have a significant impact on the quality of life and overall physical health of women experiencing VMS, leading to their pursuance of treatment to alleviate these symptoms. Management of VMS includes lifestyle modifications, some herbal and vitamin supplements, hormonal therapies including estrogen and tibolone, and nonhormonal therapies including clonidine, gabapentin, and some of the serotonin and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. The latter agents, including desvenlafaxine, have been the focus of increased research as more is discovered about the roles of serotonin and norepinephrine in the thermoregulatory control system. This review will include an overview of VMS as they relate to menopause. It will discuss the risk factors for VMS as well as the proposed pathophysiology behind their occurrence. The variety of treatment options for VMS will be discussed. Focus will be given to the role of desvenlafaxine as a treatment option for VMS management.

Umland, Elena M; Falconieri, Laura

2012-01-01

171

Treatment options for vasomotor symptoms in menopause: focus on desvenlafaxine.  

PubMed

Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), including hot flashes and night sweats, occur in as many as 68.5% of women as a result of menopause. While the median duration of these symptoms is 4 years, approximately 10% of women continue to experience VMS as many as 12 years after their final menstrual period. As such, VMS have a significant impact on the quality of life and overall physical health of women experiencing VMS, leading to their pursuance of treatment to alleviate these symptoms. Management of VMS includes lifestyle modifications, some herbal and vitamin supplements, hormonal therapies including estrogen and tibolone, and nonhormonal therapies including clonidine, gabapentin, and some of the serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. The latter agents, including desvenlafaxine, have been the focus of increased research as more is discovered about the roles of serotonin and norepinephrine in the thermoregulatory control system. This review will include an overview of VMS as they relate to menopause. It will discuss the risk factors for VMS as well as the proposed pathophysiology behind their occurrence. The variety of treatment options for VMS will be discussed. Focus will be given to the role of desvenlafaxine as a treatment option for VMS management. PMID:22870045

Umland, Elena M; Falconieri, Laura

2012-01-01

172

Treatment options of inflammatory appendiceal masses in adults  

PubMed Central

At present, the treatment of choice for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in adults continues to be surgical. The inflammation in acute appendicitis may sometimes be enclosed by the patient’s own defense mechanisms, by the formation of an inflammatory phlegmon or a circumscribed abscess. The management of these patients is controversial. Immediate appendectomy may be technically demanding. The exploration often ends up in an ileocecal resection or a right-sided hemicolectomy. Recently, the conditions for conservative management of these patients have changed due to the development of computed tomography and ultrasound, which has improved the diagnosis of enclosed inflammation and made drainage of intra-abdominal abscesses easier. New efficient antibiotics have also given new opportunities for nonsurgical treatment of complicated appendicitis. The traditional management of these patients is nonsurgical treatment followed by interval appendectomy to prevent recurrence. The need for interval appendectomy after successful nonsurgical treatment has recently been questioned because the risk of recurrence is relatively small. After successful nonsurgical treatment of an appendiceal mass, the true diagnosis is uncertain in some cases and an underlying diagnosis of cancer or Crohn’s disease may be delayed. This report aims at reviewing the treatment options of patients with enclosed appendiceal inflammation, with emphasis on the success rate of nonsurgical treatment, the need for drainage of abscesses, the risk of undetected serious disease, and the need for interval appendectomy to prevent recurrence.

Tannoury, Jenny; Abboud, Bassam

2013-01-01

173

Hepatic hydatid cyst: a non-surgical approach.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is common in societies where agriculture and livestock are frequent, and represents a public health problem. The therapeutic management depends on the cyst's characteristics, the patient, and surgical contraindications. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of complicated hepatic hydatid disease. Ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic, therapeutic and follow-up tool. The authors report a case of a 56 years old patient who was diagnosed with a hepatic hydatid cyst in the IVa/VIII segments, describe the therapeutic options and 50 months of disease-free follow-up. PMID:23295888

Vaz, Pedro Silva; Pereira, Eduardo; Usurelu, Sergiu; Monteiro, Ana; Caldeira, Ana; Melo, Gina; Sousa, Rui; Gouveia, António; Loureiro, Arnandina

2012-12-01

174

Options for pharmacological treatment of refractory bipolar depression.  

PubMed

Bipolar disorders of types I and II, even when treated by currently standard options, show a marked excess of depressive morbidity. Treated, type I patients in mid-course or from the onset of illness are ill, overall, 50 % of weeks of follow-up, and 75 % of that unresolved morbidity is depressive. Currently widely held impressions are that bipolar depression typically is poorly responsive to antidepressants, that treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is characteristic of the disorder, and that risk of mania with antidepressant treatment is very high. However, none of these views is supported consistently by available research. TRD may be more prevalent in bipolar than unipolar mood disorders. Relatively intense research attention is directed toward characteristics and treatments of TRD in unipolar depression, but studies of bipolar TRD are uncommon. We found only five controlled trials, plus 10 uncontrolled trials, providing data on a total of 13 drug treatments, all of which involved one or two trials, in 87 % as add-ons to complex, uncontrolled regimens. In two controlled trials, ketamine was superior to placebo but it is short-acting and not orally active; pramipexole was weakly superior to placebo in one controlled trial; three other drugs failed to outperform controls. Other pharmacotherapies are inadequately evaluated and nonpharmacological options are virtually untested in bipolar TRD. The available research supports the view that antidepressants may be effective in bipolar depression provided that currently agitated patients are excluded, that risk of mania with antidepressants is only moderately greater than risk of spontaneous mania, and that bipolar TRD is not necessarily resistant to all treatments. PMID:24425269

Tondo, Leonardo; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Baldessarini, Ross J

2014-02-01

175

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR SLEEP DISTURBANCES DURING ALCOHOL RECOVERY  

PubMed Central

Sleep disturbances are extremely common in the early stages of recovery from alcohol dependence and may persist for several months despite continued abstinence. Studies indicate that sleep disturbances independently increase the risk for relapse to alcohol, suggesting that targeting these problems during recovery may support continued abstinence. However, there is limited information in the addiction literature about available and effective treatments for sleep disturbances in recovering alcoholic patients. The primary goals of this article are to describe the phenomenology of sleep disturbances during recovery from alcohol dependence, to outline the evidence linking sleep problems with alcohol relapse, and to describe available pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options, including the evidence regarding their efficacy in recovering alcoholic patients. Recommendations for future research are provided along with special considerations for treating insomnia in this population, including avoiding cross-dependent sedatives, such as benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BzRAs).

Arnedt, J. Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A.; Brower, Kirk J.

2009-01-01

176

New treatment options for the management of restless leg syndrome.  

PubMed

Restless leg syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a condition that includes sensations such as crawling, tingling, or aching in the limbs and creates an urge to move. The prevalence is estimated at 3% to 15% of the population and may present as primary RLS or secondary RLS. Secondary RLS may be a result of some medications, iron deficiency, or conditions such as neuropathies, or it may be related to pregnancy. The guidelines for diagnosis, which is usually made on clinical presentation, are discussed in the article. Medication use is not always necessary in the management of RLS. Multiple options are available and are reviewed within the article. Since 2011, two medications have been approved for the treatment of RLS, and these are discussed in detail. Neupro (rotigotine) is a dopamine agonist available as a patch that has been approved for the treatment of RLS as well as Parkinson disease. One of the major issues in treating RLS with dopamine agonists is augmentation, meaning symptoms occur earlier in the day due to medication use. This rate of augmentation with use of rotigotine is significantly lower than other dopamine agonists. Horizant (gabapentin enacarbil) is the only nondopaminergic medication approved for the treatment of RLS. Bioavailability is greater in gabapentin enacarbil as compared to gabapentin. Augmentation has not been associated with gabapentin or gabapentin enacarbil. Neupro (rotigotine) and Horizant (gabapentin enacarbil) provide additional treatment options for patients with RLS who are in need of medications. Consideration of each individual patient is necessary when determining if medication is needed and in choosing the appropriate agent. PMID:24992148

Toro, Beatriz Elizabeth Carmona

2014-08-01

177

Treatment Options for HCV Nonresponders and Relapse Patients  

PubMed Central

The current standard-of-care treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, peginterferon plus ribavirin, results in a sustained virological response in 39–46% of genotype 1 patients, based on published reports and recently re-affirmed by findings in the IDEAL trial. While several directly targeted oral antiviral medications in development appear promising to decrease genotype 1 treatment failure, these agents are not yet approved for general clinical use, and their contribution to the management of relapsed or refractory HCV patients is uncertain. Other re-treatment approaches may include “watch and wait” or other strategies such as the use of consensus interferon plus ribavirin. Consensus interferon, a wholly synthetic interferon, was developed based on the most commonly represented amino acid sequence of the 14 different subtypes of interferon-? and has been shown in clinical trials to produce sustained virological responses in up to one-third of patients who do not respond to initial therapy and up to 50% of those that relapse after treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin. In this monograph, the benefits and challenges of each of these available and future treatment options will be discussed with an eye toward optimizing therapy for an individual patient.

Pearlman, Brian L.; Sjogren, Maria H.

2010-01-01

178

Novel treatment options for epilepsy: focus on perampanel.  

PubMed

Perampanel is a new chemical entity recently approved in the United States (US) and European Union (EU) as adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures with and without secondary generalization in patients with epilepsy aged 12 years and older. Pharmacological studies suggest that perampanel acts with a new mechanism of action via non-competitive antagonism of the ionotropic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA) receptor of glutamate, the main mediator of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Perampanel is completely absorbed after oral administration. The drug is 95% bound to plasma proteins and is extensively metabolized by oxidation followed by glucuronidation. Perampanel has an elimination half-life of approximately 52-129h, allowing once daily dosing, with peak plasma levels observed 0.25-2h post-dose. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of adjunctive treatment have demonstrated that once-daily perampanel doses of 4-12mg/day significantly reduced partial-onset seizure frequency in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy along with a favorable tolerability profile. In perampanel pivotal trials, the most frequently reported treatment emergent adverse events (>10%) included dizziness, somnolence, fatigue and headache. Perampanel therapeutic response was maintained in patients included in the long term open-label extension studies for up to 4 years. Based on these data, perampanel offers a valuable option in the add-on treatment of partial-onset and secondarily generalized seizures. PMID:23287426

Franco, V; Crema, F; Iudice, A; Zaccara, G; Grillo, E

2013-04-01

179

An emerging treatment option for glaucoma: Rho kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors are a novel potential class of glaucoma therapeutics with multiple compounds currently in Phase II and III US Food and Drug Administration trials in the United States. These selective agents work by relaxing the trabecular meshwork through inhibition of the actin cytoskeleton contractile tone of smooth muscle. This results in increased aqueous outflow directly through the trabecular meshwork, achieving lower intraocular pressures in a range similar to prostaglandins. There are also animal studies indicating that ROCK inhibitors may improve blood flow to the optic nerve, increase ganglion cell survival, and reduce bleb scarring in glaucoma surgery. Given the multiple beneficial effects for glaucoma patients, ROCK inhibitors are certainly a highly anticipated emerging treatment option for glaucoma.

Wang, Sean K; Chang, Robert T

2014-01-01

180

Respiratory syncytial virus: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important respiratory pathogen in infants and children worldwide. Although RSV typically causes mild upper respiratory infections, it frequently causes severe morbidity and mortality, especially in premature infants and children with other chronic diseases. Treatment of RSV is limited by a lack of effective antiviral treatments; however, ribavirin has been used in complicated cases, along with the addition of intravenous immune globulin in specific patients. Vaccination strategies for RSV prevention are heavily studied, but only palivizumab (Synagis®) has been approved for use in the United States in very select patient populations. Research is ongoing in developing additional vaccines, along with alternative therapies that may help prevent or decrease the severity of RSV infections in infants and children. To date, we have not seen a decrement in RSV morbidity and mortality with our current options; therefore, there is a clear need for novel RSV preventative and therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss the current and evolving trends in RSV treatment for infants and children.

Turner, Tiffany L; Kopp, Benjamin T; Paul, Grace; Landgrave, Lindsay C; Hayes, Don; Thompson, Rohan

2014-01-01

181

Management of patients with resistant hypertension: current treatment options.  

PubMed

Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is an increasingly common clinical problem that is often heterogeneous in etiology, risk factors, and comorbidities. It is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure on optimal doses of three antihypertensive agents, ideally one being a diuretic. The definition also includes controlled hypertension with use of four or more antihypertensive agents. Recent observational studies have advanced the characterization of patients with RHTN. Patients with RHTN have higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality compared with patients with more easily controlled hypertension. Secondary causes of hypertension, including obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renovascular disease, are common in patients with RHTN and often coexist in the same patient. In addition, RHTN is often complicated by metabolic abnormalities. Patients with RHTN require a thorough evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and optimize treatment, which typically includes a combination of lifestyle adjustments, and pharmacologic and interventional treatment. Combination therapy including a diuretic, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a beta blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist where warranted is the classic regimen for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists like spironolactone or eplerenone have been shown to be efficacious in patients with RHTN, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and primary aldosteronism. Novel interventional therapies, including baroreflex activation and renal denervation, have shown that both of these methods may be used to lower blood pressure safely, thereby providing exciting and promising new options to treat RHTN. PMID:24231917

Kumar, Nilay; Calhoun, David A; Dudenbostel, Tanja

2013-01-01

182

Management of patients with resistant hypertension: current treatment options  

PubMed Central

Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is an increasingly common clinical problem that is often heterogeneous in etiology, risk factors, and comorbidities. It is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure on optimal doses of three antihypertensive agents, ideally one being a diuretic. The definition also includes controlled hypertension with use of four or more antihypertensive agents. Recent observational studies have advanced the characterization of patients with RHTN. Patients with RHTN have higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality compared with patients with more easily controlled hypertension. Secondary causes of hypertension, including obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renovascular disease, are common in patients with RHTN and often coexist in the same patient. In addition, RHTN is often complicated by metabolic abnormalities. Patients with RHTN require a thorough evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and optimize treatment, which typically includes a combination of lifestyle adjustments, and pharmacologic and interventional treatment. Combination therapy including a diuretic, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a beta blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist where warranted is the classic regimen for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists like spironolactone or eplerenone have been shown to be efficacious in patients with RHTN, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and primary aldosteronism. Novel interventional therapies, including baroreflex activation and renal denervation, have shown that both of these methods may be used to lower blood pressure safely, thereby providing exciting and promising new options to treat RHTN.

Kumar, Nilay; Calhoun, David A; Dudenbostel, Tanja

2013-01-01

183

Quinagolide--a valuable treatment option for hyperprolactinaemia.  

PubMed

Hyperprolactinaemia is characterised by gonadal dysfunction, including infertility and reduced libido and, if left untreated, is associated with an increased risk of long-term complications, such as osteoporosis. The first-line therapy for patients with hyperprolactinaemia is pharmacological intervention with a dopamine agonist. Currently, there are three dopamine agonists available for hyperprolactinaemia therapy: bromocriptine, quinagolide and cabergoline. Bromocriptine has a long history of use; however, a range of 5-18% of patients are reported to show bromocriptine resistance, with only partial lowering of plasma prolactin levels and an absence of tumour shrinkage. The newer dopamine agonists, quinagolide and cabergoline, offer improved efficacy over bromocriptine, with a lower incidence of adverse events. Quinagolide and cabergoline have also demonstrated efficacy in many patients intolerant or resistant to bromocriptine. Thus, the selection of dopamine agonists available provides more than one option for pharmacological intervention of hyperprolactinaemia. This review discusses the clinical use of quinagolide in comparison to other dopamine agonists for hyperprolactinaemia therapy. Quinagolide may improve patient compliance to treatment owing to its reduced side effect profile, simple and rapid titration over just 7 days, once-daily dosing regimen and easy to use starter pack (available in some countries). Quinagolide offers an additional benefit for patients wishing to become pregnant, as it can be used until the point of confirmation of pregnancy. Therefore, as a well tolerated and effective therapy, with a simple dosing regimen, quinagolide should be considered as a first-line therapy in the treatment of hyperprolactinaemia. PMID:16452531

Barlier, Anne; Jaquet, Philippe

2006-02-01

184

Current and emerging treatment options for Graves' hyperthyroidism  

PubMed Central

Radioiodine, antithyroid drugs and surgery have been well established therapies for Graves’ hyperthyroidism for several decades. However there remain large variations in practice among physicians in the preferred modality and the method of administration. Patient choice and perceptions also play a big role in the choice of treatment. Radioiodine may be given using fixed high doses or by calculated doses following uptake studies. The risks of radioiodine including eye disease and the role of prophylactic steroid therapy are discussed. The commonly used antithyroid drugs include carbimazole, methimazole and propylthiouracil; however a number of other agents have been tried in special situations or in combination with these drugs. The antithyroid drugs may be given in high (using additional levothyroxine in a block–replace regimen) or low doses (in a titration regimen). This review examines the current evidence and relative benefits for these options as well as looking at emerging therapies including immunomodulatory treatments such as rituximab which have come into early clinical trials. The use of antithyroid therapies in special situations is also discussed as well as clinical practice issues which may influence the choices.

Abraham, Prakash; Acharya, Shamasunder

2010-01-01

185

Cachexia and pancreatic cancer: Are there treatment options?  

PubMed Central

Cachexia is frequently described in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is associated with reduced survival and quality of life. Unfortunately, the therapeutic options of this multi-factorial and complex syndrome are limited. This is due to the fact that, despite extensive preclinical and clinical research, the underlying pathological mechanisms leading to PDAC-associated cachexia are still not fully understood. Furthermore, there is still a lack of consensus on the definition of cachexia, which complicates the standardization of diagnosis and treatment as well as the analysis of the current literature. In order to provide an efficient therapy for cachexia, an early and reliable diagnosis and consistent monitoring is required, which can be challenging especially in obese patients. Although many substances have been tested in clinical and preclinical settings, so far none of them have been proven to have a long-term effect in ameliorating cancer-associated cachexia. However, recent studies have demonstrated that multidimensional therapeutic modalities are able to alleviate pancreatic cancer-associated cachexia and ultimately improve patients’ outcome. In this current review, we propose a stepwise and pragmatic approach to facilitate and standardize the treatment of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients. This strategy consists of nutritional, dietary, pharmacological, physical and psychological methods.

Mueller, Tara C; Burmeister, Marc A; Bachmann, Jeannine; Martignoni, Marc E

2014-01-01

186

Non-Surgical Repair of Internal Resorption with MTA: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Internal resorption is rare in permanent teeth. Treatment is usually performed through warm gutta-percha technique. If the resorptive process perforates the root, treatment may be more difficult and is usually performed via surgical approach. Non-surgical repair of a perforating internal root resorption with MTA was conducted in this case. Before repairing the resorption, a master gutta-percha point was placed in the canal to maintain negotiability of the original canal path. Then, MTA was prepared and applied with a small carrier in the resorption area and compacted. Thereafter gutta-percha was retrieved and the access cavity was closed with a temporary filling material. In the second visit, the root canal was obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique and subsequently, the crown was restored. The symptoms and signs ceased and the result was satisfactory at the 18 month follow-up visit. PMID:23130082

Mohammadi, Zahed; Yazdizadeh, Mohammad; Shalavi, Sousan

2012-01-01

187

Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S M; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

2013-01-01

188

Non-Surgical Management of Cord Compression in Tuberculosis: A Series of Surprises  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We present a series of 50 patients with tuberculous cord compression who were offered systematic non-surgical treatment, and thereby, the author proposes that clinico-radiological soft tissue cord compression is not an emergency indication for surgery. Overview of Literature Spinal cord compression whether clinical or radiological has usually been believed to be an indication for emergency surgery in spinal tuberculosis. Methods Fifty adults were prospectively studied at our clinic for spinal cord compression due to tuberculous spondylitis, between May 1993 and July 2002. The inclusion criteria were cases with clinical and/or radiological evidence of cord compression (documented soft tissue effacement of the cord with complete obliteration of the thecal sac at that level on magnetic resonance imaging scan). Exclusion criteria were lesions below the conus level, presence of bony compression, severe or progressive neurological deficit (non-surgical protocol including hospital admission, antitubercular medications, baseline somatosensory evoked potentials and a regular clinico-radiological follow-up. Results At the time of presentation, 10 patients had a motor deficit, 18 had clinically detectable hyper-reflexia and 22 had normal neurology. Forty-seven of the 50 patients responded completely to non-operative treatment and healed with no residual neurological deficit. Three patients with progressive neurological deficit while on treatment were operated on with eventual excellent recovery. Conclusions Radiological evidence of cord compression and early neurological signs need not be an emergency surgical indication in the management of spinal tuberculosis.

Patil, Sanganagouda Shivanagouda; Mohite, Sheetal; Varma, Raghuprasad; Bhojraj, Shekhar Y; Nene, Abhay Madhusudan

2014-01-01

189

Treatment options for patients with poor clopidogrel response.  

PubMed

A significant percentage of patients demonstrate a poor antiplatelet response to clopidogrel. With the emergence of testing for genetic variations in drug-metabolizing enzyme function and testing for platelet function, it is becoming more common to identify patients as poor responders to clopidogrel. This leaves the clinician in a difficult situation when confronted with a patient deemed to be a poor clopidogrel responder as there is no clear therapeutic strategy for treating these patients. In this situation, a number of alternatives to conventional dosing of clopidogrel have been investigated, including increasing the dosage of clopidogrel, switching from clopidogrel to either prasugrel or ticagrelor, or adding cilostazol to clopidogrel therapy. All of these options have demonstrated pharmacologic benefit in terms of greater antiplatelet effects compared with standard clopidogrel dosing in patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity or a genetic loss-of-function variant of CYP2C19, the main enzyme responsible for clopidogrel activation. However, the impact of each of these alternative therapies on clinical outcomes is poorly understood. Early studies have not shown a clinical benefit by increasing the clopidogrel dosage or switching to prasugrel although there is still much to be discovered in this area. Of the alternatives to standard dosing of clopidogrel, switching to either prasugrel or ticagrelor has the most potential benefit, but again, there is limited evidence to support this practice in patients who demonstrate high on-treatment platelet reactivity while on clopidogrel although the evidence is somewhat more supportive in patients who have a CYP2C19 loss-of-function variant allele. The evidence for increasing the dosage of clopidogrel or adding cilostazol is the least supportive, making these alternatives difficult to justify. Given the limited evidence to support switching treatments, some providers may simply opt to continue standard dosing of clopidogrel pending the results of ongoing trials. Much research is needed and is currently underway in this area, which will be helpful in establishing future treatment protocols for patients with poor clopidogrel response. PMID:24096929

Roberts, Daniela I; Nawarskas, James J

2013-01-01

190

Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS): treatment options and considerations.  

PubMed

The term Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS) has traditionally been used in the forensic literature to describe findings in a subgroup of patients with delirium who suffered lethal consequences from their untreated severe agitation.(1-5) Excited delirium syndrome, also known as agitated delirium, is generally defined as altered mental status and combativeness or aggressiveness. Although the exact signs and symptoms are difficult to define precisely, clinical findings often include many of the following: tolerance to significant pain, rapid breathing, sweating, severe agitation, elevated temperature, delirium, non-compliance or poor awareness to direction from police or medical personnel, lack of fatiguing, unusual or superhuman strength, and inappropriate clothing for the current environment. It has become increasingly recognized that individuals displaying ExDS are at high risk for sudden death, and ExDS therefore represents a true medical emergency. Recently the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) published the findings of a white paper on the topic of ExDS to better find consensus on the issues of definition, diagnosis, and treatment.(6) In so doing, ACEP joined the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) in recognizing ExDS as a medical condition. For both paramedics and physicians, the difficulty in diagnosing the underlying cause of ExDS in an individual patient is that the presenting clinical signs and symptoms of ExDS can be produced by a wide variety of clinical disease processes. For example, agitation, combativeness, and altered mental status can be produced by hypoglycemia, thyroid storm, certain kinds of seizures, and these conditions can be difficult to distinguish from those produced by cocaine or methamphetamine intoxication.(7) Prehospital personnel are generally not expected to differentiate between the multiple possible causes of the patient's presentation, but rather simply to recognize that the patient has a medical emergency and initiate appropriate stabilizing treatment. ExDS patients will generally require transfer to an emergency department (ED) for further management, evaluation, and definitive care. In this paper, we present a typical ExDS case and then review existing literature for current treatment options. PMID:22390995

Vilke, Gary M; Bozeman, William P; Dawes, Donald M; Demers, Gerard; Wilson, Michael P

2012-04-01

191

Treatment options and outcomes for glioblastoma in the elderly patient.  

PubMed

Age remains the most powerful prognostic factor among glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Half of all patients with GBM are aged 65 years or older at the time of diagnosis, and the incidence rate of GBM in patients aged over 65 years is increasing rapidly. Median survival for elderly GBM patients is less than 6 months and reflects less favorable tumor biologic factors, receipt of less aggressive care, and comorbid disease. The standard of care for elderly GBM patients remains controversial. Based on limited data, extensive resection appears to be more beneficial than biopsy. For patients with favorable Karnofsky performance status (KPS), adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has a demonstrated survival benefit with no observed decrement in quality of life. Concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) along with RT to 60 Gy have not been prospectively studied among patients aged over 70 years but should be considered for patients aged 65-70 years with excellent KPS. Based on the recent NOA-08 and Nordic randomized trials, testing for O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation should be performed routinely immediately after surgery to aid in adjuvant treatment decisions. Patients aged over 70 years with favorable KPS, or patients aged 60-70 years with borderline KPS, should be considered for monotherapy utilizing standard TMZ dosing for patients with MGMT-methylated tumors, and hypofractionated RT (34 Gy in ten fractions or 40 Gy in 15 fractions) for patients with MGMT-unmethylated tumors. The ongoing European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada trial will help clarify the role for concurrent TMZ with hypofractionated RT. For elderly patients with poor KPS, reasonable options include best supportive care, TMZ alone, hypofractionated RT alone, or whole brain RT for symptomatic patients needing to start treatment urgently. Given the balance between short survival and quality of life in this patient population, optimal management of elderly GBM patients must be made individually according to patient age, MGMT methylation status, performance score, and patient preferences. PMID:24591820

Arvold, Nils D; Reardon, David A

2014-01-01

192

Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents: current and future treatment options.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common disorder affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The pivotal endocrine abnormalities of this syndrome are insulin resistance and ovarian and, to a lesser degree, adrenal hypersensitivity to hormonal stimulation. PCOS may manifest itself as early as the first decade of life by premature pubarche or menarche. Oligoamenorrhea in the first postpubarchal years, although very common, may be an early symptom of PCOS, especially in overweight girls with hirsutism or acne. Girls with low birth weight as well as a family history of diabetes mellitus or premature cardiovascular disease are at high risk for developing PCOS. Circulating bioavailable testosterone levels are usually elevated, while total testosterone may be normal due to low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. The typical sonographic appearance of PCOS ovaries consists of high ovarian volume (>10 mL) and the presence of 12 or more follicles in each ovary measuring 2-9 mm in diameter. However, this finding is not specific, since it may occur in >20% of healthy girls. The therapeutic goals in adolescents with PCOS is first to restore bodyweight and menses and to reduce the signs of hyperandrogenism. The reduction of bodyweight in this young age group may require the collaboration of the pediatrician, dietitian, and psychotherapist. The adolescent should be urged to adopt a healthy lifestyle with the aim to maintain a normal body mass index throughout adolescence and adult life. The choice of medical therapy depends on the clinical presentation. Oral contraceptives are a good option when acne and hirsutism are the principal complaints. Adolescents with isolated cycle irregularity may be placed on a cyclical progestin regimen to induce withdrawal bleeding. Metformin, by decreasing insulin resistance, alleviates many of the hormonal disturbances and restores menses in a considerable proportion of patients. It may be used alone or in combination with oral contraceptives. Independently of medical treatment, restoration and maintenance of bodyweight within normal range is of paramount importance. PMID:17037948

Mastorakos, George; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Creatsas, George

2006-01-01

193

Current options for the treatment of systemic scleroderma.  

PubMed

The epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and clinical manifestations of systemic scleroderma (SSc) are described, and therapeutic options are discussed. SSc is a rare condition of unknown etiology that occurs in a subset of scleroderma patients. It is distinguished by involvement of the small arteries, microvessels, and diffuse connective tissue. The degree of internal organ involvement is the main determinant of morbidity and mortality. Management of SSc may entail supportive, palliative, remittive, and immunosuppressive therapies. Supportive therapy involves maintaining the affected extremities at warm temperatures and the use of emollient creams. Results of palliative treatment are mixed. Toxic reactions may be associated with many of these medications. Dermatologic manifestations have been treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, low-dose corticosteroids, dimethyl sulfoxide, and edetate disodium; peripheral and internal-organ vascular obstruction, with alpha-adrenergic blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, and calcium-channel blockers. Antacids with alginic acid, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, sucralfate, and cholinergic-acting agents may be used to relieve GI symptoms. Lung infections should be treated promptly with antibiotics. No drug therapy has been successful in reducing the incidence of fatal cardiac arrhythmias or in preventing cardiac fibrosis. Captopril and enalapril are essential in the control of SSc renal crisis. Penicillamine may hold promise as a remittive therapy. The immunosuppressive agents fluorouracil, cyclosporine, and methotrexate, which have shown limited effectiveness in preliminary studies, merit further investigation. No therapeutic agent has yet been shown to alter the course of SSc on a consistent or long-term basis. Toxicity and drug interactions remain a major concern in patient management, and aggressive monitoring is essential. PMID:1999084

McGee, B A; Barnett, M D; Small, R E

1991-01-01

194

Stochastic water quality: Timing and option value of treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An option-pricing model is developed to rank investments that might improve water quality. The model presumes that two investment options exist that have the potential to alter the stochastic drift of a pollutant. The investments have capital and operating costs and are irreversible once constructed. A stochastically evolving pollutant induces damage. The model provides a criterion for determining when it is optimal to adopt the investment with the highest option value. Option value, in this model, measures the expected present value of reduced damage, relative to doing nothing. If the investments are mutually exclusive, it is possible to obtain closed-form solutions for the barriers which would trigger investment. If the investments can be sequentially adopted, a methodology is developed to calculate option values for all possible combinations of adoption dates. To illustrate the option-pricing approach, a stylized analysis of investments to protect New York City's water supply is presented. Watershed management dominates filtration and, in the case of mutually exclusive investments, is initiated when the concentration of phosphorus reaches 22.80 ?g/L.

Conrad, Jon M.; López, Andrés

2002-05-01

195

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors)  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms that begin before diagnosis and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

196

Visual Aids for Multimodal Treatment Options to Support Decision Making of Patients with Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of multimodal treatment options are available for colorectal cancer and many patients want to be involved in decisions about their therapies. However, their desire for autonomy is limited by lack of disease-specific knowledge. Visual aids may be helpful tools to present complex data in an easy-to-understand, graphic form to lay persons. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment preferences of healthy persons and patients using visual aids depicting multimodal treatment options for colorectal cancer. Methods We designed visual aids for treatment scenarios based on four key studies concerning multimodal treatment of colorectal cancer. The visual aids were composed of diagrams depicting outcome parameters and side effects of two treatment options. They were presented to healthy persons (n?=?265) and to patients with colorectal cancer (n?=?102). Results Most patients and healthy persons could make immediate decisions after seeing the diagrams (range: 88% – 100%). Patients (79%) chose the intensive-treatment option in the scenario with a clear survival benefit. In scenarios without survival benefit, all groups clearly preferred the milder treatment option (range: 78% - 90%). No preference was seen in the scenario depicting equally intense treatment options with different timing (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant) but without survival benefit. Conclusions Healthy persons’ and patients’ decisions using visual aids seem to be influenced by quality-of-life aspects rather than recurrence rates especially in situations without survival benefit. In the future visual aids may help to improve the management of patients with colorectal cancer.

2012-01-01

197

Approved and Off-Label Uses of Obesity Medications, and Potential New Pharmacologic Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

Available anti-obesity pharmacotherapy options remain very limited and development of more effective drugs has become a priority. The potential strategies to achieve weight loss are to reduce energy intake by stimulating anorexigenic signals or by blocking orexigenic signals, and to increase energy expenditure. This review will focus on approved obesity medications, as well as potential new pharmacologic treatment options.

Isidro, Maria Luisa; Cordido, Fernando

2010-01-01

198

Anterior Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Diverse Disease with Evolving Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

Anterior femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a major etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of hip arthritis. In this condition, mechanical abnormalities of the hip joint lead to early hip dysfunction, inflammation, cartilage injury, and eventual joint degradation. FAI is now more commonly diagnosed and there is an increasing need for a thorough understanding of the broad spectrum of clinical presentation for the disease as well as more precise definition of the possible surgical options.

Zebala, Lukas P; Schoenecker, Perry L; Clohisy, John C

2007-01-01

199

Effects of Alternative Decision Support Technologies on Breast Cancer Patients' Knowledge of Options and Satisfaction With Treatment Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the research were to (1) develop an innovative CDSS that will enable women to integrate the information available to them, understand diagnoses, treatment options, and risks associated with treatment options, construct and structure thei...

D. H. Gustafson

2003-01-01

200

Pelvic pain in urogynecology. Part II: treatment options in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.  

PubMed

Therapeutic options for chronic pelvic pain in women offer only a limited symptom relief. Especially in the patient with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), where overlap of pain, storage and voiding symptoms is common, data on the efficacy of treatment of pain are limited. We conducted a literature review to detect articles which pertained to female patients with LUTS and pelvic pain and we included articles which evaluated the efficacy of the treatment of pelvic pain. Forty-one articles were detected, which included nerve stimulation (sacral and pudendal), intravesical instillations and injections, oral pharmacological treatments, periurethral injections as well as physical and manual therapy as treatment options. Only five controlled trials were found, which did not show superiority of the active treatment versus placebo. Although some treatment options show promising results in the treatment of pelvic pain in patients with LUTS, more randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22270729

Kavvadias, Tilemachos; Baessler, Kaven; Schuessler, Bernhard

2012-05-01

201

Does Physician Description of Therapeutic Options Influence Breast Cancer Patient Treatment Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Patients with metastatic breast cancer frequently undergo aggressive therapies that have an uncertain quality-adjusted survival advantage. Framing theory suggests that individuals may not maximize their expected utility if presented with treatment options...

K. A. Schulman K. R. Yabroff K. F. Gold N. J. Meropol L. E. Rubenstein

1995-01-01

202

Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ... and stage of the cancer being treated. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy Hyperfractionated radiation therapy is radiation treatment in which ...

203

Treatment Options by Stage (Mycosis Fungoides and the Sezary Syndrome)  

MedlinePLUS

... skin. High-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy with stem cell transplant This treatment is a method of giving ... blood-forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the bone ...

204

Treatment Options for Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ... cancer cells in those areas ( regional chemotherapy ). Hyperfractionated radiation therapy Hyperfractionated radiation therapy is radiation treatment in which ...

205

Somatostatin: a new therapeutic option for the treatment of chylothorax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The standard treatment of chylothorax in pediatric intensive care today includes conservative therapy with fat-free nutrition, total parenteral nutrition and, if this is not successful, operative treatment (pleurodesis, ligation of the duct, pleuroperitoneal shunt). Patients: We describe four patients who were not in a suitable condition for operative treatment and who were treated with continuous infusion of somatostatin. Results:

V. Buettiker; M. Hug; R. Burger; O. Baenziger

2001-01-01

206

Potential treatment options and future research to increase hepatitis C virus treatment response rate  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a liver-tropic blood-borne pathogen that affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Although acute infections are usually asymptomatic, up to 90% of HCV infections persist with the possibility of long-term consequences such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, steatosis, insulin resistance, or hepatocellular carcinoma. As such, HCV-associated liver disease is a major public health concern. Although the currently available standard of care therapy of pegylated interferon ? plus ribavirin successfully treats infection in a subset of patients, the development of more effective, less toxic HCV antivirals is a health care imperative. This review not only discusses the limitations of the current HCV standard of care but also evaluates upcoming HCV treatment options and how current research elucidating the viral life cycle is facilitating the development of HCV-specific therapeutics that promise to greatly improve treatment response rates both before and after liver transplantation.

TenCate, Veronica; Sainz, Bruno; Cotler, Scott J; Uprichard, Susan L

2010-01-01

207

Environmental and economic comparison of waste solvent treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable development and consumption need more efficient use of natural resources. As a consequence, the use of industrial\\u000a solvents demands their recovery instead of end-of-pipe treatment. It is not always clear, however, which treatment alternative\\u000a should be applied. Based on an industrial case study, the environmental and economic evaluation and comparison of the treatment\\u000a alternatives of a non-ideal solvent

Tamas Benko; Agnes Szanyi; Peter Mizsey; Zsolt Fonyo

2006-01-01

208

[Coccygectomy can be a treatment option in chronic coccygodynia].  

PubMed

Coccygodynia is pain in the region of the coccyx. Treatment is primarily conservative, but some patients have persistent pain and may require surgical treatment. This study was performed to investigate if patients benefit from coccygectomy where conservative treatment has failed. Via a search on MedLine, we found 24 studies including a total of 702 patients who had undergone coccygectomy. Overall, 83% had an excellent or good result. We recommend coccygectomy for selected patients with intractable coccygodynia. PMID:21320414

Aarby, Nanett Skjellerup; Trollegaard, Anton Mitchell; Hellberg, Steen

2011-02-14

209

Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... Pediatric surgeon or urologist . Radiation oncologist . Rehabilitation specialist . Pediatric nurse specialist . Social worker . Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after ...

210

Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic inflammatory response. Successful treatment requires adherence to a regime that is uncomfortable at best and at worst painful. Topical treatments can be successful in motivated adherent patients willing to accept these side effects. PMID:23788834

Weis, Stephen E

2013-01-01

211

Treatment options for patients with triple-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of different subtypes, characterized by their different clinicopathological characteristics, prognoses and responses to treatment. In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer sensitive to hormonal treatments, as well as in patients whose malignant cells overexpress or amplify HER2. In contrast, mainly due to the lack of molecular targets, little progress has been made in the treatment of patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Recent improved understanding of the natural history, pathophysiology, and molecular features of triple-negative breast cancers have provided new insights into management and therapeutic strategies for women affected with this entity. Ongoing and planned translational clinical trials are likely to optimize and improve treatment of women with this disease.

2010-01-01

212

Fertility-Preserving Treatment Options in Patients with Malignant Hematological Diseases  

PubMed Central

The number of patients of reproductive age diagnosed with various malignant hematological diseases increases every year. These patients undergo chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and various other treatments that may have gonadotoxic effects. The life expectancy of these patients is increasing rapidly due to the variety of treatment options. As such, an increasing number of patients—as well as their parents and spouses—express their concerns about the patient’s fertility post treatment. In the present review it was aimed to provide an overview of current fertility-preserving treatment options and the future of fertility preservation.

Kucuk, Mert; Bolaman, Ali Zahit; Yavasoglu, Irfan; Kad?koylu, Gurhan

2012-01-01

213

Pityriasis versicolor: an update on pharmacological treatment options.  

PubMed

Introduction: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia species; a yeast that naturally colonizes on the skins surface. High efficacy rates are generally obtained with both topical and systemic treatments. However, recurrence rates following successful treatment remain high and there are no dosage guidelines available for administration of systemic antifungal agents that carry risks of adverse events. Areas covered: This review focused on providing an overview of existing treatments for PV and an introduction to new treatments. A literature search was conducted using the search strategy, pityriasis versicolor OR tinea versicolor. Over the past decade, few new treatments have been introduced, but the efficacy and the dosing regimens of existing treatments have been systematically reviewed. The results of these reviews are discussed. Expert opinion: Existing topical and systemic agents are both effective treatments against PV. Previous dosage recommendations for systemic agents have been modified based on recent evidence elucidated in systematic reviews. However, the absence of standardized collection and reporting practices in clinical trials precludes any conclusions to be drawn regarding the efficacy and safety of topical and systemic agents in comparison or in concert with each other. PMID:24991691

Gupta, Aditya K; Lyons, Danika Ca

2014-08-01

214

Emerging treatment options for refractory angina pectoris: ranolazine, shock wave treatment, and cell-based therapies.  

PubMed

A challenge of modern cardiovascular medicine is to find new, effective treatments for patients with refractory angina pectoris, a clinical condition characterized by severe angina despite optimal medical therapy. These patients are not candidates for surgical or percutaneous revascularization. Herein we review the most up-to-date information regarding the modern approach to the patient with refractory angina pectoris, from conventional medical management to new medications and shock wave therapy, focusing on the use of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) in the treatment of this condition. Clinical limitations of the efficiency of conventional approaches justify the search for new therapeutic options. Regenerative medicine is considered the next step in the evolution of organ replacement therapy. It is driven largely by the same health needs as transplantation and replacement therapies, but it aims further than traditional approaches, such as cell-based therapy. Increasing knowledge of the role of circulating cells derived from bone marrow (EPCs) on cardiovascular homeostasis in physiologic and pathologic conditions has prompted the clinical use of these cells to relieve ischemia. The current state of therapeutic angiogenesis still leaves many questions unanswered. It is of paramount importance that the treatment is delivered safely. Direct intramyocardial and intracoronary administration has demonstrated acceptable safety profiles in early trials, and may represent a major advance over surgical thoracotomy. The combined efforts of bench and clinical researchers will ultimately answer the question of whether cell therapy is a suitable strategy for treatment of patients with refractory angina. PMID:24762464

Gennari, Marco; Gambini, Elisa; Bassetti, Beatrice; Capogrossi, Maurizio; Pompilio, Giulio

2014-01-01

215

Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Non-surgical Methods  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of studies that have evaluated non-surgical approaches for detoxification of implant body surfaces in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate clinical trials on the use of these methodologies for treating peri-implant disease. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed) from 1966 to 2013. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on non-surgical therapy were evaluated. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing; radiographic bone fill and histological re-osseointegration. Results: From 134 articles found 35 were analyzed. The findings, advantages and disadvantages of using lasers as well as mechanical and chemical methods are discussed. Most of the in vivo and human studies used combination therapies which makes determining the efficacy of one specific method difficult. Most human studies are case series with short term longitudinal analysis without survival or failure reports. Conclusion: Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve using these approaches. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Re-osseointegration may be difficult to achieve if not impossible without surgical access to ensure thorough debridement of the defect and detoxification of the implant surface. Combination protocols for non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical results but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed.

Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Mayra G; Cantu, Myrna G; Wilson, Thomas G

2014-01-01

216

Treatment options for pregnant women with ovarian tumors.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of ovarian mass during pregnancy is a rare event. Treatment of ovarian malignancies during pregnancy depends on histology, grade, stage, and gestational weeks. When possible, surgical excision is indicated, and sometimes, fertility-sparing surgery is recommended. Administration of systemic treatment before or after surgery is indicated as in nonpregnant women. Preliminary data suggest that platinum salts and taxanes are safe during pregnancy. Management of ovarian tumors in pregnancy requires a multidisciplinary approach to guarantee an optimal treatment for the mother and the fetus. PMID:24978707

Mancari, Rosanna; Tomasi-Cont, Nicoletta; Sarno, Maria Anna; Azim, Hatem A; Franchi, Dorella; Carinelli, Silvestro; Biglia, Nicoletta; Colombo, Nicoletta; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro

2014-07-01

217

Treatment Option Overview (Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors)  

MedlinePLUS

Search Español Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: 05/22/2014 General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Wilms tumor and other childhood ...

218

Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Treatment Options by Stage)  

MedlinePLUS

Search Español Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: 12/26/2013 General Information About Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity ...

219

Treatment Option Overview (Mycosis Fungoides and the Sezary Syndrome)  

MedlinePLUS

... A light , and put back into the body. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ... available from the NCI Web site . Ultraviolet B radiation therapy Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation therapy uses a special ...

220

Treatment Options for Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides and the Sezary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... A light , and put back into the body. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ... available from the NCI Web site . Ultraviolet B radiation therapy Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation therapy uses a special ...

221

Treatment Options by Type of Adult Brain Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy . Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ... available from the NCI Web site . Proton beam radiation therapy Proton beam radiation therapy is a type of ...

222

Parkinson Disease Treatment Options - Medications (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... energy, unusual thoughts). Impulsive behaviors, such as compulsive gambling or sexual behaviors, can also occur. Treatment with ... risk of impulse control disorders, such as pathologic gambling, compulsive sexual behavior, or compulsive buying. Decreasing or ...

223

Current and emerging options for the drug treatment of narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency (now called type 1 narcolepsy) is a lifelong neurologic disorder with well-established diagnostic criteria and etiology. Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and symptoms of dissociated rapid eye movement sleep such as cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone), hypnagogic hallucinations (sensory events that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep), sleep paralysis (inability to perform movements upon wakening or sleep onset), and nocturnal sleep disruption. As these symptoms are often disabling, most patients need life-long treatment. The treatment of narcolepsy is well defined, and, traditionally, amphetamine-like stimulants (i.e., dopaminergic release enhancers) have been used for clinical management to improve EDS and sleep attacks, whereas tricyclic antidepressants have been used as anticataplectics. However, treatments have evolved to better-tolerated compounds such as modafinil or armodafinil (for EDS) and adrenergic/serotonergic selective reuptake inhibitors (as anticataplectics). In addition, night-time administration of a short-acting sedative, c-hydroxybutyrate (sodium oxybate), has been used for the treatment for EDS and cataplexy. These therapies are almost always needed in combination with non-pharmacologic treatments (i.e., behavioral modification). A series of new drugs is currently being tested in animal models and in humans. These include a wide variety of hypocretin agonists, melanin- concentrating hormone receptor antagonists, antigenspecific immunopharmacology, and histamine H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists (e.g., pitolisant), which have been proposed for specific therapeutic applications, including the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and more recently, narcolepsy. Even though current treatment is strictly symptomatic, based on the present state of knowledge of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy, we expect that more pathophysiology-based treatments will be available in the near future. PMID:24122734

De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K; García-García, Fabio

2013-11-01

224

Treatment options for hepatitis C infection in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Multiple factors support treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children. These factors include the anticipated\\u000a long duration of infection after early acquisition, relatively good tolerance of antiviral medications, and avoidance of social\\u000a stigmatization. Nevertheless, careful selection of appropriate candidates for therapy is important. If a contraindication\\u000a to current therapeutic agents is present, treatment should be withheld until

Aymin Delgado-Borrego; Maureen M. Jonas

2004-01-01

225

Current options and perspectives in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

We aimed to summarise recent advances in the therapy of diabetic neuropathy. Although all therapeutic choices in the treatment of diabetes mellitus itself are based on clear pathophysiological basis, this approach is less present in the treatment of the "forgotten complication", diabetic neuropathy. As part of pathogenetic oriented treatment, the role of glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors are reviewed. The mode of action of benfotiamine is based on inhibition of key alternative pathways, including the polyol, hexosamine, protein-kinase-C pathways, and inhibition of advanced glycation end products formation, just as on activation of transketolase. Alpha- lipoic-acid is considered as the most potent antioxidant. Other forms of pathogenetic oriented treatment, including actovegin, will be summarised. The anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin, as well as the antidepressant duloxetine represent the most important new drugs among agents for symptomatic relief. Most likely, we should offer combination treatment to our patients much more often, first of all combination of pathogenetic and symptomatic drugs. Finally, the broad spectrum of non-pharmacological treatment will be reviewed. PMID:23278494

Várkonyi, Tamás; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Keresztes, Katalin; Martos, Tímea; Lengyel, Csaba; Stirban, Alin; Jermendy, György; Kempler, Peter

2013-01-01

226

New options in the treatment of chronic hepatitis.  

PubMed

The short-term aim of chronic hepatitis B treatment is the suppression of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) replication, as shown by the loss of HBV DNA by DNA hybridization and the loss of Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg). Loss of Hepatitis B s Antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA as assayed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is very difficult to achieve. There are two important treatment approaches. The first is immunomodulation, comprising Interferon (IFN) and other cytokine treatment and therapeutic vaccination. The second is antiviral treatment, which mainly includes treatment with nucleoside analogs. There are many limitations to IFN treatment, because it has succeeded only in a small number of patients with a high level of transaminase and a low level of HBV DNA. The theoretical basis of therapeutic vaccination is the use of a vaccine that contains epitopes known to stimulate Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-restricted cytotoxic T cell activity in order to lyse the HBV-infected hepatocytes. Several strategies of hepatitis vaccination are the incorporation of both pre-S and S antigen, the incorporation of a Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL)-specific antigen, the use of an HBV vaccine complexed to Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG), and DNA vaccination. One of the limitations of therapeutic vaccination is the short duration of immunity to the CTL antigen. Lamivudine is an oral nucleoside analog with potent antiviral action. It rapidly reduces the HBV DNA level, a level that soon returns to pretreatment level after drug administration is terminated. This drug does not affect the covalently bond closed circular (ccc)DNA of infected hepatocytes; it only inhibits the formation of new viruses. One-year of Lamivudine treatment significantly improved necroinflammation and reduced the progression of fibrosis and the histologic activity index. HBeAg seroconversion occurred after prolonged treatment. The emergence of a tyrosine-methionine asparagine aspargine YMDD mutant is one of the drawbacks of lamivudine treatment. Therefore a combination with other antiviral agents or immune modulators, such as therapeutic vaccination, is likely to be more effective. PMID:12916791

Soemohardjo, Soewignjo

2003-01-01

227

Acute aortic syndromes: definition, prognosis and treatment options.  

PubMed

Acute aortic syndromes (AAS) are life-threatening vascular conditions of the thoracic aorta presenting with acute pain as the leading symptom in most cases. The incidence is approximately 3-5/100,000 in western countries with increase during the past decades. Clinical suspicion for AAS requires immediate confirmation with advanced imaging modalities. Initial management of AAS addresses avoidance of progression by immediate medical therapy to reduce aortic shear stress. Proximal symptomatic lesions with involvement of the ascending aorta are surgically treated in the acute setting, whereas acute uncomplicated distal dissection should be treated by medical therapy in the acute period, followed by surveillance and repeated imaging studies. Acute complicated distal dissection requires urgent invasive treatment and thoracic endovascular aortic repair has become the treatment modality of choice because of favorable outcomes compared to open surgical repair. Intramural hematoma, penetrating aortic ulcers, and traumatic aortic injuries of the descending aorta harbor specific challenges compared to aortic dissection and treatment strategies are not as uniformly defined as in aortic dissection. Moreover these lesions have a different prognosis. Once the acute period of aortic syndrome has been survived, a lifelong medical treatment and close surveillance with repeated imaging studies is essential to detect impending complications which might need invasive treatment within the short-, mid- or long-term. PMID:24796906

Carpenter, S W; Kodolitsch, Y V; Debus, E S; Wipper, S; Tsilimparis, N; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Diener, H; Kölbel, T

2014-04-01

228

New treatment options in intermittent claudication: the US experience.  

PubMed

The goals of treatment in intermittent claudication are to modify cardiovascular risk factors and to reduce claudication pain, increase walking distance and improve quality of life. Walking distance in intermittent claudication can be improved both by exercise rehabilitation and by pharmacological treatments. At present, the only two drugs licensed in the US for the treatment of claudication symptoms are oxpentifylline and cilostazol. Although oxpentifylline has been shown to increase maximal and pain-free walking distance in a number of trials, other studies call its efficacy into question. Eight double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have established that cilostazol improves both maximal and pain-free walking distance in patients with moderate to severe intermittent claudication, with highly statistically significant differences compared with placebo. Cilostazol has also been shown to improve the physical dimensions of quality of life. Naftidrofuryl is licensed for the treatment of intermittent claudication in Europe, but not in the US. Some clinical trials have shown it to be effective in treating intermittent claudication. Promising new agents in the treatment of intermittent claudication include L-arginine, propionyl-L-carnitine, prostaglandins, and angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. PMID:11355276

Hiatt, W R

2001-04-01

229

Diagnostic tests and treatment options in glomerular disease: 2014 update.  

PubMed

Glomerular diseases historically have been challenging disorders to comprehend and treat for patients and physicians alike. Kidney biopsy is the gold standard of diagnosis, but the link between pathophysiology and the histologic representation of kidney injury has remained elusive in many of these diseases. As a result, treatment of glomerular disease usually involves therapies that are not specific to disease pathogenesis, such as blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and various immunosuppression regimens. Recent research has resulted in greater insight into some glomerular diseases, leading to the hope that new diagnostic tests and treatments targeting disease-specific mechanisms are on the horizon. We review recent progress on the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of 4 glomerular diseases: immunoglobulin A nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, the C3 glomerulopathies, and idiopathic membranous nephropathy. PMID:24239051

Hogan, Jonathan; Mohan, Prince; Appel, Gerald B

2014-04-01

230

Pityriasis rubra pilaris: evolution of challenges in promising treatment options.  

PubMed

Pityriasis rubra pilaris is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis that is well recognized across the globe. Erythroderma is a common presentation. A precise diagnosis of pityriasis rubra pilaris is based on morphologic features and is classified into 6 types: classic adult onset (type I), atypical adult (type II), classic juvenile (type III), circumscribed juvenile (type IV), atypical juvenile (type V), and human immunodeficiency virus-associated (type VI). Several conventional systemic and/or topical treatments are currently in use. Largely, their results are unsatisfactory and limited by long-term toxicity. The authors investigate the efficacy of a wide spectrum of drugs by examining historical (archive) and promising (modern) treatment modalities for the treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris. PMID:22324172

Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Verma, Prashant

2012-01-01

231

The intoeing child: etiology, prognosis, and current treatment options.  

PubMed

Intoeing, a common entrance complaint in infants, toddlers, and young children, is best defined as internal rotation of the long axis of the foot to the line of progression. Intoeing may be caused by primary deformities within the foot, issues with tibial torsion, and femoral antetorsion (anteversion). Problems within the foot include hallux varus, metatarsus adductus, talipes equinovarus, and pes cavus, each of which has specific treatments available. Treatment must be individualized, and the risks and complications weighed against the predictable morbidity of intoeing. PMID:24075135

Harris, Edwin

2013-10-01

232

Antimalarial drug resistance: new treatments options for Plasmodium.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the world’s most deadly infectious diseases. Millions of lives are threatened by the continued development of resistance in the malaria parasite which is overcoming the effectiveness of current anti- malarial treatments. The scientific community is facing this challenge by developing new and superior therapies to combat, and potentially eradicate, this wide spread plague. New anti-Plasmodium agents derived from phe- notypic screening hits (e.g. spiroindolones) or from target based projects (e.g. DSM265) have recently entered into clinical development and hopefully will provide soon a new wave of antimalarial treatments. PMID:24847657

Gamo, Francisco-Javier

2014-03-01

233

Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... brain) may also be given. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Laser therapy Laser therapy is a cancer treatment that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) to kill ...

234

Treatment Options for Low Back Pain in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Low back pain is one of the most common medical presentations in the general population. It is a common source of pain in athletes, leading to significant time missed and disability. The general categories of treatment for low back pain are medications and therapies. Evidence acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database from 1990 to 2010. A manual review of reference lists of identified sources was also performed. Results: It is not clear whether athletes experience low back pain more often than the general public. Because of a aucity of trials with athlete-specific populations, recommendations on treatments must be made from reviews of treatments for the general population. Several large systemic reviews and Cochrane reviews have compiled evidence on different modalities for low back pain. Superficial heat, spinal manipulation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, and skeletal muscle relaxants have the strongest evidence of benefit. Conclusions: Despite the high prevalence of low back pain and the significant burden to the athletes, there are few clearly superior treatment modalities. Superficial heat and spinal manipulation therapy are the most strongly supported evidence-based therapies. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and skeletal muscle relaxants have benefit in the initial management of low back pain; however, both have considerable side effects that must be considered. Athletes can return to play once they have recovered full range of motion and have the strength to prevent further injury.

Petering, Ryan C.; Webb, Charles

2011-01-01

235

Transdermal treatment options for neurological disorders: impact on the elderly.  

PubMed

As people grow old, their need for medications increases dramatically because of the higher incidence of chronic pain, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and neurological diseases in the elderly population. Furthermore, the elderly require special consideration with respect to drug delivery, drug interactions and adherence. In particular, patients with chronic neurological diseases often require multiple administration of drugs during the day to maintain constant plasma medication levels, which in turn increases the likelihood of poor adherence. Consequently, several attempts have been made to develop pharmacological preparations that can achieve a constant rate of drug delivery. For example, transdermal lisuride and apomorphine have been shown to reduce motor fluctuations and duration of 'off' periods in advanced Parkinson's disease, while rotigotine allows significant down-titration of levodopa without severe adverse effects. Thus, parkinsonian patients with long-term levodopa syndrome or motor disorders during sleep could benefit from use of transdermal lisuride and apomorphine. Moreover, transdermal dopaminergic drugs, particularly rotigotine, seem the ideal treatment for patients experiencing restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder during sleep, disorders that are quite common in elderly people or in association with neurodegenerative diseases. Unlike dopaminergic drugs, transdermal treatments for the management of cognitive and behavioural dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease have inconsistent effects and no clearly established role. Nevertheless, because of their favourable pharmacological profile and bioavailability, the cholinesterase inhibitors tacrine and rivastigmine are expected to show at least the same benefits as oral formulations of these drugs, but with fewer severe adverse effects. Transdermal delivery systems play an important role in the management of neuropathic pain. The transdermal lidocaine (lignocaine) patch is recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Furthermore, in patients with severe persistent pain, transdermal delivery systems using the opioids fentanyl and buprenorphine are able to achieve satisfactory analgesia with good tolerability, comparable to the benefits seen with oral formulations. Transdermal administration is the ideal therapeutic approach for chronic neurological disorders in elderly people because it provides sustained therapeutic plasma levels of drugs, is simple to use, and may reduce systemic adverse effects. Several transdermal delivery systems are currently under investigation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and neuropathic pain. Although most transdermal delivery systems treatments cannot be considered as first-line therapy at present, some of them provide clear advantages compared with other routes of administration and may become the preferred treatment in selected patients. In general, however, most transdermal treatments still require long-term evaluation in large patient groups in order to optimise dosages and evaluate the actual incidence of local and systemic adverse effects. PMID:16823990

Priano, Lorenzo; Gasco, Maria Rosa; Mauro, Alessandro

2006-01-01

236

Chronic sacroiliac joint pain: fusion versus denervation as treatment options  

PubMed Central

Study design:?Systematic review Objective:?To compare the safety and effectiveness of fusion versus denervation for chronic sacroiliac joint pain after failed conservative management. Summary of background:?Methods of confirming the sacroiliac joint as a pain source have been extensively studied and reported in the literature. After confirmation of the origin of the pain by positive local anesthetic blocks, chronic sacroiliac joint pain is usually managed with a combination of medication, physical therapies, and injections. We have chosen to compare two alternative treatments for sacroiliac pain that was refractory to conservative therapies. Methods:?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and June 2010. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating fusion or denervation for chronic sacroiliac joint pain after failed conservative management. Studies involving only conservative treatment or traumatic onset of injury were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results:?We identified eleven articles (six fusion, five denervation) meeting our inclusion criteria. The majority of patients report satisfaction after both treatments. Both treatments reported mean improvements in pain and functional outcome. Rates of complications were higher among fusion studies (13.7%) compared to denervation studies (7.3%). Only fusion studies reported infections (5.3%). No infections were reported among denervation patients. The evidence for all findings were very low to low; therefore, the relative efficacy or safety of one treatment over another cannot be established. Conclusions:?Sacroiliac joint fusion or denervation can reduce pain for many patients. Whether a true arthrodesis of the joint is achieved by percutaneous techniques is open to question and whether denervation of the joint gives durable pain relief is not clear. Further comparative studies of these two techniques may provide the answers.

Ashman, Bryan; Norvell, Daniel C.; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T.

2010-01-01

237

Current and Emerging Therapeutic Options in Adrenocortical Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare endocrine tumour, with variable prognosis, depending on tumour stage and time of diagnosis. The overall survival is five years from detection. Radical surgery is considered the therapy of choice in the first stages of ACC. However postoperative disease-free survival at 5 years is only around 30% and recurrence rates are frequent. o,p'DDD (ortho-, para'-, dichloro-, diphenyl-, dichloroethane, or mitotane), an adrenolytic drug with significant toxicity and unpredictable therapeutic response, is used in the treatment of ACC. Unfortunately, treatment for this aggressive cancer is still ineffective. Over the past years, the growing interest in ACC has contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies in order to contrast the neoplastic spread. In this paper we discuss the most promising therapies which can be used in this endocrine neoplasia.

Stigliano, Antonio; Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Bucci, Barbara; Toscano, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

238

Nephrolithiasis-associated bone disease: pathogenesis and treatment options  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis remains a formidable health problem in the United States and worldwide. A very important but underaddressed area in nephrolithiasis is the accompanying bone disease. Epidemiologic studies have shown that osteoporotic fractures occur more frequently in patients with nephrolithiasis than in the general population. Decreased bone mineral density and defects in bone remodeling are commonly encountered in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. The pathophysiologic connection of bone defects to kidney stones is unknown. Hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are two important risk factors for stone disease, and treatments with thiazide diuretics and alkali, respectively, have been shown to be useful in preventing stone recurrence in small prospective trials. However, no studies have examined the efficacy of these agents or other therapies in preventing continued bone loss in calcium stone formers. This manuscript reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and potential treatments of bone disease in patients with nephrolithiasis.

Sakhaee, Khashayar; Maalouf, Naim M.; Kumar, Rajiv; Pasch, Andreas; Moe, Orson W.

2011-01-01

239

Options for radiotherapy in the treatment of liver metastases.  

PubMed

Technologic advances have provided the means to deliver tumoricidal doses of radiation therapy (RT) to patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases, while avoiding critical normal tissues, providing the opportunity to use RT for curative intent treatment of metastatic disease. For the current report, the expanded role of RT, with its different techniques in the setting of metastatic colorectal cancer, from palliation to cure was reviewed. PMID:18940744

Gasent Blesa, Joan Manel; Dawson, Laura A

2008-10-01

240

Treatment options for tank farms long-length contaminated equipment  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated a variety of treatment and disposal technologies for mixed waste (MW) meeting the following criteria: 1. Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank System (tank farms) equipment and other debris; 2. length greater than 12 feet; and contaminated with listed MW from the tank farms. This waste stream, commonly referred to as tank farms long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE), poses a unique and costly set of challenges during all phases of the waste management lifecycle.

Josephson, W.S.

1995-10-16

241

Current treatment options for depression after mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is the most common neurologic condition in the United States; about 503 of every 100,000\\u000a persons visiting the emergency department have this diagnosis. A complex cluster of neurologic signs and symptoms are associated\\u000a with an acceleration-deceleration mechanism of injury. Unfortunately, many persons do not seek treatment for MTBI. Depression\\u000a following MTBI adds to the

Esther Bay

2009-01-01

242

Current options for the prevention and treatment of migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Migraine is a common condition affecting ?18% of women and 6% of men in the United States. The goals of managing migraine are 2-fold: to prevent attacks from occurring and to effectively and rapidly end them when they do occur.Objective: This article reviews the acute and prophylactic treatment of migraine.Methods: Information for inclusion in this review was identified through

James U. Adelman; Richard D. Adelman

2001-01-01

243

Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Patients with Relapsed Myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic disorder. It results from proliferation of clonal plasma cells in bone marrow with production of monoclonal proteins, which are detectable in serum or urine. MM is clinically characterized by destructive bone lesions, anemia, hypercalcemia and renal insufficiency. Its prognosis is severe, with a median survival after diagnosis of approximately 3 years due to frequent relapses. Treatments for patients with relapsed/refractory MM include hematopoietic cell transplantation, a rechallenge using a previous chemotherapy regimen or a trial of a new regimen. The introduction of new drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib has markedly improved MM outcomes. When relapse occurs, the clinician’s challenge is to select the optimal treatment for each patient while balancing efficacy and toxicity. Patients with indolent relapse can be first treated with a 2-drug or a 3-drug combination. Patients with more aggressive relapse often require therapy with a combination of multiple active agents. Autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered as salvage therapy at first relapse for patients who have cryopreserved stem cells early in the disease course. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the pharmacological and molecular action of treatments used for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Castelli, Roberto; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Orofino, Nicola; Losurdo, Agnese; Gandolfi, Sara; Cugno, Massimo

2013-01-01

244

Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options  

SciTech Connect

The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

1984-09-01

245

Review of the treatment options for chronic constipation.  

PubMed

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal motility disorder that is often chronic, negatively affects patients' daily lives, and is associated with high healthcare costs. There is a considerable range of treatment modalities available for patients with constipation; however, the clinical evidence supporting their use varies widely. Nonpharmacologic modalities, such as increased exercise or fluid intake and bowel habit training, are generally recommended as first-line approaches, but data on the effectiveness of these measures are limited. The clinical benefits of various traditional pharmacologic agents (many of which are available over the counter, such as laxatives and fiber supplements) remain unclear. Although these modalities may benefit some patients with temporary constipation, their efficacy in patients for whom constipation is chronic is less well defined. Some studies suggest benefit with psyllium, polyethylene glycol, and lactulose; however, the use of other agents, such as calcium polycarbophil, methylcellulose, bran, magnesium hydroxide, and stimulant laxatives, is not supported by strong clinical evidence. More recently, newer agents have been approved for the treatment of patients with chronic constipation on the basis of comprehensive clinical investigation programs. Tegaserod, with its well-established clinical profile, and lubiprostone, the latest addition to the treatment armamentarium, represent the new generation of therapies for chronic constipation. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of traditional therapies used in the management of the multiple symptoms associated with chronic constipation and discusses recently approved and emerging therapies for this disorder. PMID:17955081

Johanson, John F

2007-01-01

246

Pathophysiology, epidemiology, classification and treatment options for polycystic liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Polycystic liver diseases (PLD) represent a group of genetic disorders in which cysts occur in the liver (autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease) or in combination with cysts in the kidneys (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). Regardless of the genetic mutations, the natural history of these disorders is alike. The natural history of PLD is characterized by a continuous increase in the volume and the number of cysts. Both genders are affected; however, women have a higher prevalence. Most patients with PLD are asymptomatic and can be managed conservatively. Severe symptoms can affect 20% of patients who develop massive hepatomegaly with compression of the surrounding organs. Rrarely, patients with PLD suffer from acute complications caused by the torsion of hepatic cysts, intraluminal cystic hemorrhage and infections. The most common methods for the diagnosis of PLD are cross sectional imaging studies. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography are the two most frequently used investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive and specific, and it is a valuable test for patients with intravenous contrast allergies or renal dysfunction. Different treatment modalities are available to physicians caring for these patients. Medical treatment has been ineffective. Percutaneous sclerotherapy, trans-arterial embolization, cyst fenestration, hepatic resection and liver transplantation are indicated to specific groups of patients and have to be tailored according to the extent of disease. This review outlines the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment strategies of PLD.

Abu-Wasel, Bassam; Walsh, Caolan; Keough, Valerie; Molinari, Michele

2013-01-01

247

Review of the Treatment Options for Chronic Constipation  

PubMed Central

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal motility disorder that is often chronic, negatively affects patients' daily lives, and is associated with high healthcare costs. There is a considerable range of treatment modalities available for patients with constipation; however, the clinical evidence supporting their use varies widely. Nonpharmacologic modalities, such as increased exercise or fluid intake and bowel habit training, are generally recommended as first-line approaches, but data on the effectiveness of these measures are limited. The clinical benefits of various traditional pharmacologic agents (many of which are available over the counter, such as laxatives and fiber supplements) remain unclear. Although these modalities may benefit some patients with temporary constipation, their efficacy in patients for whom constipation is chronic is less well defined. Some studies suggest benefit with psyllium, polyethylene glycol, and lactulose; however, the use of other agents, such as calcium polycarbophil, methylcellulose, bran, magnesium hydroxide, and stimulant laxatives, is not supported by strong clinical evidence. More recently, newer agents have been approved for the treatment of patients with chronic constipation on the basis of comprehensive clinical investigation programs. Tegaserod, with its well-established clinical profile, and lubiprostone, the latest addition to the treatment armamentarium, represent the new generation of therapies for chronic constipation. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of traditional therapies used in the management of the multiple symptoms associated with chronic constipation and discusses recently approved and emerging therapies for this disorder.

Johanson, John F.

2007-01-01

248

Chronic urticaria: aetiology, management and current and future treatment options.  

PubMed

Chronic urticaria is a common condition that can be very disabling when severe. A cause for chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is only infrequently identified. Potential causes include reactions to food and drugs, infections (rarely) and, apart from an increased incidence of thyroid disease, uncomplicated urticaria is not usually associated with underlying systemic disease or malignancy. About one-third of patients with CIU have circulating functional autoantibodies against the high affinity IgE receptor or against IgE, although it is not known why such antibodies are produced, or how the presence of such antibodies alters the course of the disease or response to treatment. There are only a few publications relating to childhood urticaria, but it is probably similar to the adult form, except that adult urticaria is more common. The diagnosis is based on patient history and it is vital to spend time documenting this in detail. Extensive laboratory tests are not required in the vast majority of patients. Chronic urticaria resolves spontaneously in 30-55% of patients within 5 years, but it can persist for many years. Treatment is aimed firstly at avoiding underlying causative or exacerbating factors. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists remain the mainstay of oral treatment for all forms of urticaria. The newer low-sedating antihistamines desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine and mizolastine should be tried first. Sedating antihistamines have more adverse effects but are useful if symptoms are causing sleep disturbance. Low-dose dopexin is effective and especially suitable for patients with associated depression. There is controversy as to whether the addition of an histamine H2 receptor antagonist or a leukotriene antagonist is helpful. For CIU, second-line agents include ciclosporin (cyclosporine) [which is effective in approximately 75% of patients], short courses of oral corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis, although the last two were found to be beneficial in small trials only. Treatments for CIU with only limited or anecdotal supportive evidence include sulphasalazine, methotrexate, stanazol, rofecoxib and cyclophosphamide. The efficacy of photo(chemo)therapy is controversial. Physical urticarias may respond to H1 receptor antagonists, although in delayed pressure urticaria, and cold, solar and aquagenic urticaria, the response may be disappointing. Second-line agents for physical urticarias vary depending on the urticaria and most have limited supportive evidence. The potential for spontaneous resolution, the variation in the disease activity and the unpredictable nature of the disease makes the efficacy of treatments difficult to assess. PMID:15516152

Kozel, Martina M A; Sabroe, Ruth A

2004-01-01

249

Clinical significance of non-surgical periodontal therapy: an evidence-based perspective of scaling and root planing.  

PubMed

Analysis of Egyptian hieroglyphics and medical papyri indicate that non-surgical periodontal treatment was common 3000-4000 years ago. Even today, scaling and root planing (SRP) remains an essential part of successful periodontal therapy. The collective evidence from numerous clinical trials reveals a consistency of clinical response in the treatment of chronic periodontitis by SRP using manual, sonic, or ultrasonic instrumentation. Thus, SRP remains the 'gold standard' to which more recently developed therapeutic modalities must be compared. Inherent to the clinical evaluation of SRP are such concerns as manual versus sonic and ultrasonic instrumentation, control of sub-gingival bacterial populations, removal of calculus, root smoothness and changes in various clinical parameters, e.g. probing depth, attachment levels, bleeding on probing and gingival inflammation. Lastly, an abbreviated discussion is presented on a relatively new paradigm of complete mouth 'disinfection' in a compressed time-frame that includes SRP as a significant component of the treatment regimen. PMID:12010523

Cobb, Charles M

2002-05-01

250

Pretubulysin: a new option for the treatment of metastatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Tubulin-binding agents such as taxol, vincristine or vinblastine are well-established drugs in clinical treatment of metastatic cancer. However, because of their highly complex chemical structures, the synthesis and hence the supply issues are still quite challenging. Here we set on stage pretubulysin, a chemically accessible precursor of tubulysin that was identified as a potent microtubule-binding agent produced by myxobacteria. Although much simpler in chemical structure, pretubulysin abrogates proliferation and long-term survival as well as anchorage-independent growth, and also induces anoikis and apoptosis in invasive tumor cells equally potent to tubulysin. Moreover, pretubulysin posseses in vivo efficacy shown in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with T24 bladder tumor cells, in a mouse xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 mammary cancer cells and finally in a model of lung metastasis induced by 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells. Pretubulysin induces cell death via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by abrogating the expression of pivotal antiapoptotic proteins, namely Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, and shows distinct chemosensitizing properties in combination with TRAIL in two- and three-dimensional cell culture models. Unraveling the underlying signaling pathways provides novel information: pretubulysin induces proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (especially JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)) and phosphorylation of Mcl-1, which is then targeted by the SCFFbw7 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for ubiquitination and degradation. In sum, we designate the microtubule-destabilizing compound pretubulysin as a highly promising novel agent for mono treatment and combinatory treatment of invasive cancer.

Braig, S; Wiedmann, R M; Liebl, J; Singer, M; Kubisch, R; Schreiner, L; Abhari, B A; Wagner, E; Kazmaier, U; Fulda, S; Vollmar, A M

2014-01-01

251

Pretubulysin: a new option for the treatment of metastatic cancer.  

PubMed

Tubulin-binding agents such as taxol, vincristine or vinblastine are well-established drugs in clinical treatment of metastatic cancer. However, because of their highly complex chemical structures, the synthesis and hence the supply issues are still quite challenging. Here we set on stage pretubulysin, a chemically accessible precursor of tubulysin that was identified as a potent microtubule-binding agent produced by myxobacteria. Although much simpler in chemical structure, pretubulysin abrogates proliferation and long-term survival as well as anchorage-independent growth, and also induces anoikis and apoptosis in invasive tumor cells equally potent to tubulysin. Moreover, pretubulysin posseses in vivo efficacy shown in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with T24 bladder tumor cells, in a mouse xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 mammary cancer cells and finally in a model of lung metastasis induced by 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells. Pretubulysin induces cell death via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by abrogating the expression of pivotal antiapoptotic proteins, namely Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, and shows distinct chemosensitizing properties in combination with TRAIL in two- and three-dimensional cell culture models. Unraveling the underlying signaling pathways provides novel information: pretubulysin induces proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (especially JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)) and phosphorylation of Mcl-1, which is then targeted by the SCF(Fbw7) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for ubiquitination and degradation. In sum, we designate the microtubule-destabilizing compound pretubulysin as a highly promising novel agent for mono treatment and combinatory treatment of invasive cancer. PMID:24434509

Braig, S; Wiedmann, R M; Liebl, J; Singer, M; Kubisch, R; Schreiner, L; Abhari, B A; Wagner, E; Kazmaier, U; Fulda, S; Vollmar, A M

2014-01-01

252

Evolving treatment options for locally advanced unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The best treatment strategy for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains the subject of considerable debate. This report presents a case of a 58-year-old woman with locally advanced unresectable PDAC who was treated with sequential FOLFIRINOX for 8 cycles followed by chemoradiation, and continues to show durable disease control 18 months later. The respective roles of systemic therapy and chemoradiation for locally advanced PDAC are discussed, including optimal sequencing of these modalities, recent improvements in chemotherapy, and the question of whether radiotherapy improves survival outcomes in this disease context. PMID:24586078

Cinar, Pelin; Ko, Andrew H

2014-02-01

253

Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: physiology and treatment options.  

PubMed

Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare condition that can lead to pain, rectal bleeding and mucus. It is associated with chronic straining and abnormal defaecatory behaviour, including digitating and several unsuccessful visits to the toilet daily. Other symptoms can include tenesmus, altered bowel habit and incontinence. It can also be accompanied with a rectal prolapse, which may involve protrusion of either the rectal mucosa or the entire wall of the rectum. SRUS is known for its chronicity and can be difficult to treat. This article reviews SRUS, discussing possible causes and the various treatments that might be used, including medication, surgery and biofeedback therapy. PMID:20081680

Swatton, Anna

254

Current and future systemic treatment options in metastatic pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Although pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer death, only modest improvement has been observed in the past two decades, single agent gemcitabine has been the only standard treatment in patients with advanced disease. Recently newer agents such as nab-paclitaxel, nimotuzumab and regimens such as FOLFIRINOX have been shown to have promising activity being superior to gemcitabine as a single agent. With better understanding of tumour biology coupled with the improvements in targeted and immunotherapies, there is increasing expectation for better response rates and extended survival in pancreatic cancer.

Arslan, Cagatay

2014-01-01

255

Circadian rhythm disorders among adolescents: assessment and treatment options.  

PubMed

Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) - a circadian rhythm sleep disorder - is most commonly seen in adolescents. The differential diagnosis between DSPD and conventional psychophysiological insomnia is important for correct therapeutic intervention. Adolescent DSPD sleep duration is commonly 9 hours or more. Depression may be comorbid with DSPD. DSPD has a negative impact on adolescent academic performance. DSPD treatments include bright light therapy, chronotherapeutic regimens, and administration of melatonin as a chronobiotic (as distinct from a soporific). Attention to non-photic and extrinsic factors including healthy sleep parameters is also important to enable better sleep and mood outcomes in adolescents. PMID:24138360

Bartlett, Delwyn J; Biggs, Sarah N; Armstrong, Stuart M

2013-10-21

256

Breast cancer and sexuality: multi-modal treatment options.  

PubMed

The sexual consequences of breast cancer and its treatments are well known and previously reviewed. Alterations in body image, with or without breast reconstruction, changes in sexual self-esteem and self-efficacy, vulvovaginal atrophy as a result of chemotherapy and/or adjuvant hormone therapy, and loss of libido secondary to dyspareunia and body image issues are common in survivors of breast cancer. Medications that are prescribed for long-term use including those in the class of aromatase inhibitors can have far-reaching implications on quality of life by contributing to vulvar and vaginal atrophic changes. While this is an important issue, there are few widely accepted treatments that have been evaluated for efficacy and safety for these sexual challenges in the breast cancer population. However, progress is being made in finding new and innovative solutions for many of the sexual problems faced by breast cancer survivors and their partners. Many institutions are now compelled to address survivorship concerns and addressing sexuality and intimacy are paramount issues in survivorship care. In this article, we present the evidence for the multimodal approach to the management of sexuality concerns in the breast cancer survivor. Pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and psychosocial interventions will be reviewed. PMID:22151953

Krychman, Michael L; Katz, Anne

2012-01-01

257

Dosimetric Study of Current Treatment Options for Radiotherapy in Retinoblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the best treatment technique for patients with retinoblastoma requiring radiotherapy to the whole eye. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for 3 patients with retinoblastoma were developed using 10 radiotherapy techniques including electron beams, photon beam wedge pair (WP), photon beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), photon volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and helical tomotherapy (HT). Dose-volume analyses were carried out for each technique. Results: All techniques provided similar target coverage; conformity was highest for VMAT, nine-field (9F) IMRT, and HT (conformity index [CI] = 1.3) and lowest for the WP and two electron techniques (CI = 1.8). The electron techniques had the highest planning target volume dose gradient (131% of maximum dose received [D{sub max}]), and the CRT techniques had the lowest (103% D{sub max}) gradient. The volume receiving at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20Gy}) for the ipsilateral bony orbit was lowest for the VMAT and HT techniques (56%) and highest for the CRT techniques (90%). Generally, the electron beam techniques were superior in terms of brain sparing and delivered approximately one-third of the integral dose of the photon techniques. Conclusions: Inverse planned image-guided radiotherapy delivered using HT or VMAT gives better conformity index, improved orbital bone and brain sparing, and a lower integral dose than other techniques.

Eldebawy, Eman [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Children's Cancer Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Parker, William, E-mail: william.parker@mcgill.ca [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Abdel Rahman, Wamied [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Freeman, Carolyn R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2012-03-01

258

Agomelatine: a new option for treatment of depression?  

PubMed

A number of diverse antidepressants with different mechanisms of action are available today. However, the mechanisms of action of US FDA-approved antidepressants still mainly rely on targeting monoamine neurotransmitters. The inadequate remission and response rates achieved by antidepressant treatment for depression have been well known through a number of manufacturer-sponsored randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials (RCTs), independent RCTs, some large practical clinical trials and many meta-analyses. In the light of the limited efficacy of currently available antidepressants and the need for an antidepressant with a novel mechanism of action, the availability of agomelatine is prudent and timely for clinical practice. Although agomelatine has been approved for the treatment of depression in Europe and some other countries, its clear efficacy has been questionable based on results from individual RCTs and meta-analyses. However, agomelatine may be more beneficial in specific populations such as those who suffer from unwanted adverse events (AEs) (i.e., sexual dysfunction) by current antidepressants or elderly populations who are vulnerable to AEs. Based on currently available findings, agomelatine may not be recommendable as the first-line antidepressant for treating depression; especially, its putative benefits compared with other antidepressants must be thoroughly studied in adequately powered and well-designed future clinical trials. PMID:24397553

Pae, Chi-Un

2014-03-01

259

Contemporary treatment options for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, encompassing both neuroinflammatory as well as prominent neurodegenerative aspects. A significant proportion of MS patients will develop neurological disability over time and up until recently licensed drugs could not satisfactorily halt this process. However, in the last years MS treatment has raised a stage of rapid progress. Several new drugs with significantly improved efficacy have entered the therapeutic field and several others are currently undergoing phase III clinical trials. In this review, we will summarize efficacy data as well as safety and tolerability issues of currently licensed drugs for relapsing-remitting MS and will give a short update on new drugs currently undergoing late-stage clinical trials. PMID:24918837

Salhofer-Polanyi, S; Leutmezer, F

2014-05-01

260

Managing pediatric hepatitis C: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Since 1992, the maternal–fetal route of transmission has become the dominant route for acquisition of hepatitis C (HCV) infection by children. With increasing knowledge of antiviral treatment for HCV infection, the main goal of therapy is to achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) as defined by undetectable serum HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction assay six months after cessation of therapy. In young children, interferon therapy is more effective than in adults with chronic HCV infection (CHC). Although children clearly have a milder degree of liver pathology, data have indicated that hepatic inflammation from HCV infection can progress to fibrosis or cirrhosis in children. Hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported in adolescents with CHC. In this article, recent improvements in therapy of children with CHC and in the clinical development of new emerging drugs with potential use in children will be reviewed.

Karnsakul, Wikrom; Alford, Mary Kay; Schwarz, Kathleen B

2009-01-01

261

New and emerging treatment options for biliary tract cancer.  

PubMed

Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a group of relatively rare tumors with a poor prognosis. The current standard of care consists of doublet chemotherapy (platinum plus gemcitabine); however, even with cytotoxic therapy, the median overall survival is less than 1 year. The genetic basis of BTC is now more clearly understood, allowing for the investigation of targeted therapy. Combinations of doublet chemotherapy with antiepidermal growth factor receptor agents have provided modest results in Phase II and Phase III setting, and responses with small molecule inhibitors are limited. Moving forward as we continue to characterize the genetic hallmarks of BTC, a stepwise, strategic, and cooperative approach will allow us to make progress when developing new treatments. PMID:24204165

Noel, Marcus S; Hezel, Aram F

2013-01-01

262

New and emerging treatment options for biliary tract cancer  

PubMed Central

Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a group of relatively rare tumors with a poor prognosis. The current standard of care consists of doublet chemotherapy (platinum plus gemcitabine); however, even with cytotoxic therapy, the median overall survival is less than 1 year. The genetic basis of BTC is now more clearly understood, allowing for the investigation of targeted therapy. Combinations of doublet chemotherapy with antiepidermal growth factor receptor agents have provided modest results in Phase II and Phase III setting, and responses with small molecule inhibitors are limited. Moving forward as we continue to characterize the genetic hallmarks of BTC, a stepwise, strategic, and cooperative approach will allow us to make progress when developing new treatments.

Noel, Marcus S; Hezel, Aram F

2013-01-01

263

Pancreas transplantation: a treatment option for people with diabetes.  

PubMed

Since the first pancreas transplants in the early 1960s, whole-organ pancreas transplantation, either alone or combined with kidney transplantation, has become commonplace in many countries around the world. Whole-organ pancreas transplantation is available in the UK, with ~200 transplants currently carried out per year. Patient survival and pancreas graft outcome rates are now similar to other solid organ transplant programmes, with high rates of long-term insulin independence. In the present review, we will discuss whole-pancreas transplantation as a treatment for diabetes, focusing on indications for transplantation, the nature of the procedure performed, graft survival rates and the consequences of pancreas transplantation on metabolic variables and the progression of diabetes-related complications. PMID:24313883

Mittal, S; Gough, S C L

2014-05-01

264

Treatment options: biological basis of regenerative endodontic procedures.  

PubMed

Dental trauma occurs frequently in children and often can lead to pulpal necrosis. The occurrence of pulpal necrosis in the permanent but immature tooth represents a challenging clinical situation because the thin and often short roots increase the risk of subsequent fracture. Current approaches for treating the traumatized immature tooth with pulpal necrosis do not reliably achieve the desired clinical outcomes, consisting of healing of apical periodontitis, promotion of continued root development, and restoration of the functional competence of pulpal tissue. An optimal approach for treating the immature permanent tooth with a necrotic pulp would be to regenerate functional pulpal tissue. This review summarizes the current literature supporting a biological rationale for considering regenerative endodontic treatment procedures in treating the immature permanent tooth with pulp necrosis. PMID:23439043

Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Diogenes, Anibal; Teixeira, Fabricio B

2013-03-01

265

Treatment options: biological basis of regenerative endodontic procedures.  

PubMed

Dental trauma occurs frequently in children and often can lead to pulpal necrosis. The occurrence of pulpal necrosis in the permanent but immature tooth represents a challenging clinical situation because the thin and often short roots increase the risk of subsequent fracture. Current approaches for treating the traumatized immature tooth with pulpal necrosis do not reliably achieve the desired clinical outcomes, consisting of healing of apical periodontitis, promotion of continued root development, and restoration of the functional competence of pulpal tissue. An optimal approach for treating the immature permanent tooth with a necrotic pulp would be to regenerate functional pulpal tissue. This review summarizes the current literature supporting a biological rationale for considering regenerative endodontic treatment procedures in treating the immature permanent tooth with pulp necrosis. PMID:23635981

Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Diogenes, Anibal; Teixeira, Fabricio B

2013-01-01

266

The Androgen-Deficient Aging Male: Current Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

All delivery forms of testosterone should be equally efficacious in treating the androgen-deficient aging male if adequate serum testosterone levels are obtained. The testosterone preparations available in North America include the oral undecanoate, injectable testosterone esters, the scrotal patch, the nonscrotal transdermal patch, and the transdermal gels. Selection of a specific testosterone preparation for replacement therapy depends on many factors, including the magnitude and pattern of serum testosterone levels produced, side effects of the particular formulation, reversibility if an adverse event should occur, convenience of use, cosmetic issues related to the preparation, and cost. In addition, potential adverse effects of testosterone therapy applicable to all forms of testosterone delivery, such as fluid retention, gynecomastia, polycythemia, worsening of sleep apnea, change in cardiovascular-disease risk, or alterations in prostate health, need to be considered both prior to therapy and during treatment monitoring.

Tenover, J. Lisa

2003-01-01

267

Treatment Options: Biological Basis of Regenerative Endodontic Procedures  

PubMed Central

Dental trauma occurs frequently in children and often can lead to pulpal necrosis. The occurrence of pulpal necrosis in the permanent but immature tooth represents a challenging clinical situation since the thin and often short roots increase the risk of subsequent fracture. Current approaches for treating the traumatized immature tooth with pulpal necrosis do not reliably achieve the desired clinical outcomes, consisting of healing of apical periodontitis, promotion of continued root development and restoration of the functional competence of pulpal tissue. An optimal approach for treating the immature permanent tooth with a necrotic pulp would be to regenerate functional pulpal tissue. This review summarizes the current literature supporting a biological rationale for considering regenerative endodontic treatment procedures in treating the immature permanent tooth with pulp necrosis.

Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Diogenes, Anibal; Teixeira, Fabricio B.

2013-01-01

268

Treatment options for fractures of the distal femur.  

PubMed

The correct use of the available implants is technically demanding, but the technique can be mastered if the surgeon follows a methodical approach to developing skills and confidence. If facilities are available, practice on artificial bones will improve your understanding of the instruments and your skills, as will assisting on as many cases as possible with experienced surgeons. Begin with relatively simple fractures and progress gradually to the more difficult ones. In order to achieve a good result with surgical treatment of distal femur fractures, the basic principles developed by the AO/ASIF must be followed: good preoperative planning careful surgical technique; accurate anatomic reduction; stable internal fixation; bone grafting of any defects; and early, active rehabilitation. PMID:9097141

Mize, R

1994-01-01

269

New treatment options for chronic constipation: Mechanisms, efficacy and safety  

PubMed Central

The present review has several objectives, the first of which is to review the pharmacology and selectivity of serotonergic agents to contrast the older serotonergic agents (which were withdrawn because of cardiac or vascular adverse effects) with the newer generation serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonists. Second, the chloride ion secretagogues that act through the guanylate cyclase C receptor are appraised and their pharmacology is compared with the approved medication, lubiprostone. Third, the efficacy and safety of the application of bile acid modulation to treat constipation are addressed. The long-term studies of surgically induced excess bile acid delivery to the colon are reviewed to ascertain the safety of this therapeutic approach. Finally, the new drugs for opiate-induced constipation are introduced. Assuming these drugs are approved, practitioners will have a choice; however, patient responsiveness will be based on trial and error. Nevertheless, the spectrum of mechanisms and demonstrated efficacy and safety augur well for satisfactory treatment outcomes.

Camilleri, Michael

2011-01-01

270

Papase as a treatment option for the overgranulating wound.  

PubMed

Overgranulation (also commonly known as hypergranulation) is a common problem in chronic wound management. We describe a case involving a 57-year-old lady with a chronic diabetic foot ulcer, complicated with overgranulation for the past year. She was administered with various treatments, including hydrocortisone 1% cream and hydrofiber, which proved ineffective and further delayed the healing process of her ulcer. We then decided to use crushed Papase tablets applied to her ulcer after a normal saline dressing and prior to an application of secondary dressing. The patient was instructed clearly on the dressing technique to be performed daily at home and was monitored weekly in a foot care clinic. The overgranulation resolved within 5 weeks and the patient continues recieving care to promote epithelialisation. PMID:24526167

Mustafah, N M; Chung, T Y

2014-02-01

271

Breakthrough pain in elderly patients with cancer: treatment options.  

PubMed

The prevalence of pain is high in the elderly and increases with the occurrence of cancer. Pain treatment is challenging because of age-related factors such as co-morbidities, and over half of the patients with cancer pain experience transient exacerbation of pain that is known as breakthrough pain (BTP). As with background pain, BTP should be properly assessed before being treated. The first step to be taken is optimizing around-the-clock analgesia with expert titration of the painkiller. Rescue medication should then be provided as per the requested need, while at the same time preventing identified potential precipitating factors. In the elderly, starting treatment with a lower dose of analgesics may be justified because of age-related physiological changes such as decreased hepatic and renal function. Whenever possible, oral medication should be provided prior to a painful maneuver. In the case of unpredictable BTP, immediate rescue medication is mandatory and the subcutaneous route is preferred unless patient-controlled analgesia via continuous drug infusion is available. Recently, transmucosal preparations have appeared in the medical armamentarium but it is not yet known whether they represent a truly efficient alternative, although their rapid onset of activity is already well recognized. Adjuvant analgesics, topical analgesics, anesthetic techniques and interventional techniques are all valid methods to help in the difficult management of pain and BTP in elderly patients with cancer. However, none has reached a satisfying scientific level of evidence as to nowadays make the development of undisputed best practice guidelines possible. Further research is therefore on the agenda. PMID:24817569

Pautex, Sophie; Vogt-Ferrier, Nicole; Zulian, Gilbert B

2014-06-01

272

Non-surgical management of superior mesenteric artery thrombosis using spinal cord stimulation.  

PubMed

We report the use of a spinal cord stimulator (SCS) for non-surgical management of superior mesenteric artery thrombosis. A 59-year-old woman with polycythaemia rubra vera presented with extensive superior mesenteric artery thrombosis not amenable to surgical or endovascular revascularisation. A SCS was implanted for analgesia thereby allowing enteral feeding to be tolerated during the acute period. Four months later the patient developed a focal ischaemic jejunal stricture and underwent resection of a short segment of small bowel with primary anastomosis that healed without complication. Spinal cord stimulation can facilitate non-surgical management of mesenteric ischaemia. PMID:23917358

Tod, Laura; Ghosh, Jonathan; Lieberman, Ilan; Baguneid, Mohamed

2013-01-01

273

Rates of clinically apparent heparin-induced thrombocytopenia for unfractionated heparin vs. low molecular weight heparin in non-surgical patients are low and similar  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE), it is important to provide an evidence-based comparison with unfractionated heparin (UFH) concerning rates of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Such comparisons are essential in clinical decision-making and cost-modeling. In this paper we review data regarding non-surgical (medical) patients. We conclude that the lack of

Charles FS Locke; John Dooley; Jonathan Gerber

2005-01-01

274

[Alemtuzumab: a further option for treatment of multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal therapeutic antibody that targets the CD52 antigen which s expressed on most cells of the lymphoid lineage, exclusive of precursors. Alemtuzumab rapidly depletes CD52(+)?cells from the peripheral blood. This depletion is long-lasting, and cells repopulate in a specific pattern with B cells and regulatory T cells peaking first. Alemtuzumab was examined for clinical utility in two open-labelled intervention trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). Because of very promising results its clinical efficacy was further explored in a clinical phase-II trial using s.c. interferon beta-1a as the active comparator. Severe or opportunistic infections were surprisingly rare given the long-term lymphopenia. However, up to 30% of patients developed some antibody-mediated autoimmunity. The thyroid gland was the most frequently affected organ. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenic purpura and Goodpasture's syndrome were additionally observed. This review summarizes the pre-clinical and clinical development of alemtuzumab and discusses potential modes of action as well as the pathogenetic link to the treatment emergent autoimmune phenomena. PMID:22038387

Menge, T; Kieseier, B C; Warnke, C; Aktas, O; Hartung, H-P

2012-04-01

275

Renal denervation: a new treatment option in resistant arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. Despite this high prevalence and a broad availability of effective pharmaceutical agents, a significant proportion of patients do not reach treatment goals. Partly this can be explained by secondary causes of hypertension or non-compliance of patients. Nevertheless, a subgroup of patients can be diagnosed with 'resistant hypertension'. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is known to be an important factor in the development and progression of systemic hypertension. In this context, a percutaneous, catheter-based approach has been developed using radiofrequency energy to disrupt renal sympathetic nerves. The first studies have shown this technique to be safe, illustrated by a lack of vascular or renal injury. More importantly, catheter-based renal nerve ablation resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure on top of traditional medical therapy. Additional to the encouraging effects shown on hypertension, a positive influence of this intervention in other conditions, characterised by sympathetic overactivation, may be expected. Though this technique seems promising, further studies are needed to address long-term safety and efficacy of renal denervation in hypertension and other disease states. PMID:23197050

Verloop, W L; Voskuil, M; Doevendans, P A

2013-02-01

276

Targeting metastatic colorectal cancer - present and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Metastatic colorectal cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and around the world. While several novel cytotoxic and biologic therapies have been developed and proven efficacious in the past two decades, their optimal use in terms of patient selection, drug combinations, and regimen sequences has yet to be defined. Recent investigations regarding anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapies include the comparison of single-agent panitumumab and cetuximab, the benefit of adding cetuximab to chemotherapy in the conversion therapy setting, the comparison of cetuximab and bevacizumab when added to first-line chemotherapy, and predictive biomarkers beyond KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13) mutations. With respect to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies, new data on continuing bevacizumab beyond disease progression on a bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy regimen, the addition of bevacizumab to triplet chemotherapy in the first-line setting, maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus either capecitabine or erlotinib, the addition of aflibercept to chemotherapy, and regorafenib as monotherapy have emerged. Recent scientific and technologic advances in the field of metastatic colorectal cancer promise to elucidate the biological underpinnings of this disease and its therapies for the goal of improving personalized treatments for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Ciombor, Kristen K; Berlin, Jordan

2014-01-01

277

Skeletal complications of ADT: disease burden and treatment options  

PubMed Central

Therapy based on androgenic deprivation is one of the standard treatments that many prostate cancer patients receive. Moreover, its use is increasing owing to a clear expansion of the indications for this therapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. Despite classically being considered to be well tolerated, androgenic deprivation has adverse effects. Of these, the loss of mineral bone mass is particularly notable and can lead to osteoporosis, as well as an increased risk of bone fracture. Some fractures, such as hip fractures, may have serious consequences. Useful procedures such as bone densitometry can aid in the diagnosis of these conditions. Once diagnosed, decreases in mineral bone mass can be managed by dietary recommendations, general changes in lifestyle or medication. We review the most important randomized controlled trials evaluating different drugs (bisphosphonates, denosumab and toremifene) in the prevention of bone loss and in the reduction in fracture risk in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen-deprivation therapy. Following the applicable recommendations, urologists must carefully monitor the bone health of prostate cancer patients subjected to androgenic deprivation to obtain an early diagnosis and apply the appropriate general and/or therapeutic measures if necessary.

Planas Morin, Jacques; Morote Robles, Juan

2012-01-01

278

Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake  

SciTech Connect

Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

Lee, Hom-Ti [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

1996-04-01

279

Lipoprotein(a): medical treatment options for an elusive molecule.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) are causally related to premature atherosclerosis. It is therefore of interested to evaluate by which treatment modalities elevated lipoprotein(a) levels can be decreased. With the exception of niacin, currently available lipid modifying drugs have only little effect on lipoprotein(a) levels. Niacin can decrease lipoprotein(a) concentration in a dose dependent fashion by approximately 20-30%. Similarly, acetylsalicylic acid and L-carnitine as well as some medications in development (mipomersen, eprotirome, Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK-9) inhibitors, Cholesterol-ester-transfer protein (CETP inhibitors) can decrease elevated lipoprotein(a) concentrations. It is unclear whether this lipoprotein(a) reduction also translates into a decreased cardio-vascular morbidity or mortality. Estrogen (with or without progesterone) and tibolone but not tamoxifene or raloxifene can also decrease elevated lipoprotein(a) concentrations. The most dramatic change in lipoprotein(a) concentration can be achieved with regular lipid apheresis. PMID:21476974

Parhofer, Klaus G

2011-01-01

280

Lacosamide as a new treatment option in status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Status epilepticus is among the most common neurologic emergencies, with a mortality rate of up to 20%. The most important therapeutic goal is fast, effective, and well-tolerated cessation of status epilepticus. Intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin, phenobarbital, or valproate is the current standard treatment after failure of benzodiazepines. Lacosamide as a new antiepileptic drug has been available as an intravenous solution since 2009. To date, PubMed lists 19 studies (10 single case reports and 9 case series), reporting a total of 136 episodes of refractory status epilepticus (50% nonconvulsive status epilepticus, 31% focal status epilepticus, and 19% convulsive status epilepticus) treated with lacosamide. The most often used bolus dose was 200-400 mg over 3-5 min. The overall success rate was 56% (76/136). Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 25% (34/136) of patients: mild sedation in 25 cases, 1 patient with possible angioedema, 2 with allergic skin reaction, 4 with hypotension, and 1 with pruritus. One patient developed a third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block and paroxysmal asystole. Overall, the rate of AEs was low. Current evidence on the use of intravenous lacosamide in acute seizures and status epilepticus is restricted to retrospective case reports and case series (class IV). Further prospective studies to inform clinicians are necessary. PMID:23293881

Höfler, Julia; Trinka, Eugen

2013-03-01

281

Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update  

PubMed Central

In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems.

Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

2012-01-01

282

Treatment Options for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are chronic cholestatic liver diseases that affect 0.5 to 40 per 100,000 and 1 to 6 per 100,000 Americans, respectively. Prompt recognition and management of the clinical manifestations of these diseases is essential for the patients' well-being and ultimate outcome. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 13 to 15 mg/kg per day, is the standard therapy for PBC and should be offered to every patient. It has been shown to slow progression of the disease and prevent the need for liver transplantation, which is the last recourse for patients with end-stage disease. However, there is no effective therapy for PSC yet. Patients are managed symptomatically, with surgical or endoscopic interventions as needed in cases of significant biliary obstruction. Complications of chronic cholestasis are seen in both PBC and PSC, with pruritus and fatigue being the most common complaints. The first choice for the treatment of pruritus is still cholestyramine, starting at 4 g/d. The pathogenesis of fatigue is poorly understood in this population; unrecognized hypothyroidism should be excluded. The use of antidepressants is currently under evaluation, but there is no specific therapy for fatigue as of yet. For prevention of severe osteoporosis, we recommend supplementation with 800 IU vitamin D and 1500 mg calcium/d. In patients with PBC and established osteoporosis, the use of alendronate and vitamin K appears to cause an increase in bone mineral density. Further studies are necessary before either of these drugs is routinely recommended. Finally, fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies are noted with more advanced disease. We recommend that serum levels be checked in high-risk patients, and that vitamins are replaced as appropriate with water-soluble supplements. However, other causes of malabsorption must be ruled out, including pancreatic insufficiency and celiac sprue. PMID:12628068

Levy, Cynthia; Lindor, Keith D.

2003-04-01

283

Distal biceps tendon injuries--current treatment options.  

PubMed

Three percent of all biceps tendon ruptures occur at the distal aspect, where the tendon inserts into the radial tuberosity. Distal bicep tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males after an eccentric extension load is applied to the elbow. Patients usually complain of a sudden, sharp, and painful tearing sensation in the antecubital region, with a palpable defect. The biceps squeeze and hook tests are specific maneuvers by which to diagnose distal biceps ruptures on physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound maybe be helpful to distinguish between partial and complete tears. Anatomic studies suggest there are two distinct insertions for the short and long heads of the distal biceps. The short head may be a more powerful flexor, and the long head may be a more powerful supinator. Nonoperative treatment typically results in loss of flexion and supination strength and endurance. Early anatomic re-attachment is the goal. Surgical approaches include one- or two-incision techniques, and tendon fixation methods include the use of suture anchors, bone tunnels, an endobutton, or biotenodesis screws. Biomechanical studies have shown that endobuttons have higher load-to-failure strengths, compared to the other fixation methods. However, clinical studies have demonstrated that patients do well regardless of surgical approach or fixation method. Possible complications include nerve injuries, heterotopic ossification, postoperative fracture, tendon rerupture, complex regional pain syndrome, and wound infection. Partial ruptures are significantly less common and initially can be treated conservatively. Chronic tears are more difficult to treat because of possible tendon retraction and poor tissue quality. Tendon grafts using semitendinosus, fascia lata, hamstring, Achilles (calcaneal), or flexor carpi radialis have been successfully used for length restoration in these cases. PMID:20632985

Quach, Tony; Jazayeri, Reza; Sherman, Orrin H; Rosen, Jeffrey E

2010-01-01

284

Systemic antimicrobial therapy (minocycline) as an adjunct to non-surgical approach to recurrent chronic generalized gingival hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Systemic antibiotic treatment has emerged as a powerful adjunct to conventional mechanical debridement for therapeutic management of the periodontal diseases. The conceptual basis for treating periodontal diseases as infections is particularly attractive in part because of substantial data indicating that these diseases may be associated with specific putative pathogens. Further, discrete groups of patients respond well to systemic antibiotics and exhibit improvement of clinical parameters, including attachment level and inflammation. This bacterial-host interaction, which is ever-so-present in periodontitis, directs us toward utilizing antimicrobial agents along with the routine mechanical debridement. This case report presents a case of a female patient with recurrence of the chronic generalized periodontitis with gingival enlargement, which is treated thrice by referral dentist. A through clinical examination was carried out pre-operatively and treatment was planned with systemic minocycline in conjunction with the conventional non-surgical approach. There was a significant reduction of pocket depth, gain in attachment with dramatic improvement clinically.

Khatri, Parag M.; Bacha, Shraddanand

2014-01-01

285

Three-year follow-up results for non-surgical root canal therapy of idiopathic external root resorption on a maxillary canine with MTA: a case report  

PubMed Central

External root resorption (ERR) is an uncommon and intractable disease. Treatment alternatives are case-dependant and aim for the repair of the resorptive lesion and long-term retention of the tooth. A forty-year-old Asian female was diagnosed with idiopathic ERR on tooth #11 (the left maxillary canine) by CBCT. Non-surgical root canal therapy was completed with the aid of an operating microscope. The apical third of the root canal was filled with warm gutta-percha and the resorption defect was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). The periapical radiographs were taken immediately after operation, one-month follow-up, six-month follow-up and three-year follow-up, respectively. Clinically, the canine was asymptomatic, and no evidence of any further resorption was found. The six-month follow-up radiograph showed initial healing of the bony lesion, while the three-year follow-up radiograph manifested almost complete healing. MTA can be a superior material to be successfully used in the non-surgical treatment of ERR. CBCT is very useful for evaluating the true nature and severity of absorption lesions in root resorption. It is the first complete case report from China about non-surgical treatment of severe ERR along with a relatively long term follow-up.

Huang, Zheng; Chen, Li-Li; Wang, Cong-Yi; Dai, Lin; Cheng, Bo; Sun, Jun; Sun, Jun

2014-01-01

286

Treatment of seriously compromised teeth: decision- making criteria and treatment options.  

PubMed

The aim of this article was to describe the case of a patient who presented to our attention with severe periodontal disease, complicated by furcation involvement on elements 16 and 17. In addition, the radiographic exam revealed the presence of a deep intrabony defect distal to tooth 15. Surgical therapy is performed after the resolution of the endodontic component of the intra-bony defect on the element 15 and consists on osteoplasty and ostectomy on 16, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) on 15, extraction of 17 and bi-laminar connective tissue graft for the coverage of the recession on tooth 13. The patient is visited monthly and 9 months after surgery, the definitive metal-ceramic crown is delivered and adapted to tooth 16. At 18 months, the patient's periodontal situation is re-evaluated and the pocket depth results healthy (probing depth of tooth 15=2 mm). The surgical practices reported in this work allowed for functional and esthetic rehabilitation of periodontally compromised teeth. The RSR and the GTR represent conservative surgery that allow the preservation of compromised dental elements and if properly performed, guarantee excellent survival rates of the elements in the arch. For these reasons, when it is possible, the RSR and the GTR are a valid alternative to implantology and are to be considered as the first therapeutic option in the treatment plan. PMID:24126598

Censi, R; De Micheli, L; Borgonovo, A E; Vavassori, V; Re, D

2013-09-01

287

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: New Treatment Options and How to Test Their Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) represents a slowly progressing cystic kidney disorder which evolves into end-stage renal disease in the majority of patients. Currently, there are no established treatments to retard the progression of the disease, but several promising therapeutic options are being tested in ongoing clinical trials. An inherent dilemma for the investigation of therapies in ADPKD is

Rudolf P. Wüthrich; Andreas L. Serra; Andreas D. Kistler

2009-01-01

288

Treatment Options for Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Resistant to Macrolides, Tetracycline, Quinolones, or Trimethoprim\\/Sulfamethoxazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, significant changes have been observed in the epidemiology of pneumococcal infections that have complicated their treatment, e.g. the emergence of strains resistant to penicillin and other antimicrobial agents [1]. In order to respond to the increasing levels of resistance, two options are currently available. (i) Existing antibiotics can be used in a more appropriate and rational manner,

F.-J. Schmitz; J. Verhoef; D. Milatovic; A. Fluit

2001-01-01

289

Surgical Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatments for Spinal Pain Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artificial Disc Replacement Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic ... Discectomy Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy Spinal Fusion ... Medicine Surgical Options Anterior Cervical ...

290

Rehabilitation Options  

MedlinePLUS

... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Rehabilitation Options SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments ... Finish Home > Treatment and Care > Continuum of Care > Rehabilitation Options Listen Beginning the Healing Process After undergoing ...

291

Update on the pathogenic potential and treatment options for Blastocystis sp  

PubMed Central

Although Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites, there is still much controversy surrounding the pathogenicity and potential treatment options for this parasite. In this review we look at the evidence supporting Blastocystis as an intestinal pathogen as shown by numerous case studies and several in vivo studies and the evidence against. We describe the chronic nature of some infections and show the role of Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients and the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and Blastocystis infection. There have been several studies that have suggested that pathogenicity may be subtype related. Metronidazole is the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis but several cases of treatment failure and resistance have been described. Other treatment options which have been suggested include paromomycin and trimethroprim- sulfamethoxazole.

2014-01-01

292

[New options in the treatment of various forms of diabetic neuropathy].  

PubMed

The classification and incidence of diabetic neuropathy, and the therapeutic options available, are presented in the evidence-based guidelines of the German Diabetes Association for sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy (www. AWMF.de). Treatment decisions relating basic measures (e.g. optimization of management, multifactorial medication), neuropathic pain and diabetic-neuropathic foot syndrome can be taken on the basis of a simple care pathway. More recent therapeutic options in the treatment of pain are gabapentin, pregabalin, duloxetine and other drugs. For the treatment of erectile dysfunction, the new PDE5 inhibitors vardenafil and tadalafil are now available in addition to sildenafil. A new candidate for a pathogenetically valid treatment is the PKC inhibitor ruboxistaurin. PMID:15373085

Haslbeck, M

2004-05-20

293

Current management of fecal incontinence: choosing amongst treatment options to optimize outcomes.  

PubMed

The severity of fecal incontinence widely varies and can have dramatic devastating impacts on a person's life. Fecal incontinence is common, though it is often under-reported by patients. In addition to standard treatment options, new treatments have been developed during the past decade to attempt to effectively treat fecal incontinence with minimal morbidity. Non-operative treatments include dietary modifications, medications, and biofeedback therapy. Currently used surgical treatments include repair (sphincteroplasty), stimulation (sacral nerve stimulation or posterior tibial nerve stimulation), replacement (artificial bowel sphincter or muscle transposition) and diversion (stoma formation). Newer augmentation treatments such as radiofrequency energy delivery and injectable materials, are minimally invasive tools that may be good options before proceeding to surgery in some patients with mild fecal incontinence. In general, more invasive surgical treatments are now reserved for moderate to severe fecal incontinence. Functional and quality of life related outcomes, as well as potential complications of the treatment must be considered and the treatment of fecal incontinence must be individualized to the patient. General indications, techniques, and outcomes profiles for the various treatments of fecal incontinence are discussed in detail. Choosing the most effective treatment for the individual patient is essential to achieve optimal outcomes in the treatment of fecal incontinence. PMID:24409050

Van Koughnett, Julie Ann M; Wexner, Steven D

2013-12-28

294

Are You Blue? What Can You Do? A Case Study on Treatment Options for Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study introduces students to treatment alternatives for depression using a jigsaw method in which groups of students are divided up so that each member of the “home group” becomes the “resident expert” in one of five possible treatment options. Designed for a course in abnormal psychology, this case could be adapted for courses in physiological psychology, pharmacy, and neurobiology.

Grossman, Robert W.; Pettigrew, Amy; Walsh, Linda; Boje, Kathleen

2002-01-01

295

Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... medical history and other important conditions. Non-pharmacologic management of pf Your medical provider may recommend important ... of lung transplantation with their medical professional. pharmacologic management of pf Several different medications have been used ...

296

Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... rare bleeding disorders are usually made from human plasma and are treated to eliminate viruses like HIV ... made in the laboratory and not from human plasma, so they carry no risk of infectious disease. ...

297

Non-pharmacological treatment options for refractory epilepsy: an overview of human treatment modalities and their potential utility in dogs.  

PubMed

Refractory epilepsy is a common disorder both in humans and dogs and treatment protocols are difficult to optimise. In humans, different non-pharmacological treatment modalities currently available include surgery, the ketogenic diet and neurostimulation. Surgery leads to freedom from seizures in 50-75% of patients, but requires strict patient selection. The ketogenic diet is indicated in severe childhood epilepsies, but efficacy is limited and long-term compliance can be problematic. In the past decade, various types of neurostimulation have emerged as promising treatment modalities for humans with refractory epilepsy. Currently, none of these treatment options are used in routine daily clinical practice to treat dogs with the condition. Since many dogs with poorly controlled seizures do not survive, the search for alternative treatment options for canine refractory epilepsy should be prioritised. This review provides an overview of non-pharmacological treatment options for human refractory epilepsy. The current knowledge and limitations of these treatments in canine refractory epilepsy is also discussed. PMID:24309438

Martlé, Valentine; Van Ham, Luc; Raedt, Robrecht; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul; Bhatti, Sofie

2014-03-01

298

Decision-making and preventive non-surgical therapy in the context of a European Core Curriculum in Cariology.  

PubMed

This paper is part of a series of papers towards a European Core Curriculum in Cariology for undergraduate dental students. The European Core Curriculum in Cariology is the outcome of a joint workshop of the European Organisation for Caries Research (ORCA) together with the Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE), which was held in Berlin from 27 to 30 June 2010. The present paper covers decision-making and non-surgical treatment. In particular, it will provide some background information on this part of the European core curriculum. The dentist, on graduation, must be competent at applying the principles of prevention of dental hard tissue disease processes (primary prevention) and progression when it has manifested itself (secondary prevention). The competences should apply in differing ways to patients of all ages. Goals of prevention should be clearly defined in order for outcomes to be evaluated, and a dentist should be competent at determining these outcomes. Although this concept is recognised by many academics and experts, clinical teaching, practice and health insurance coverage frequently emphasise surgical treatment. There are many reasons and obstacles that might account for this, and this paper suggests some reasons why this might be and makes suggestions for how these can be addressed in the future. One factor that is essential in the provision of a preventive, non-surgical approach is that of communication with the patient. However, this unfortunately takes less space in the dental curricula compared with technical skills aimed at restorative procedures; this weighting needs to be more equally balanced. PMID:22023544

Bottenberg, P; Ricketts, D N J; Van Loveren, C; Rahiotis, C; Schulte, A G

2011-11-01

299

New treatment option for an incomplete vertical root fracture-a preliminary case report  

PubMed Central

Instead of extraction this case report presents an alternative treatment option for a maxillary incisor with a vertical root fracture (VRF) causing pain in a 78-year-old patient. After retreatment of the existing root canal filling the tooth was stabilized with a dentine adhesive and a composite restoration. Then the tooth was extracted, the VRF gap enlarged with a small diamond bur and the existing retrograde root canal filling removed. The enlarged fracture line and the retrograde preparation were filled with a calcium-silicate-cement (Biodentine). Afterwards the tooth was replanted and a titanium trauma splint was applied for 12d. A 24 months clinical and radiological follow-up showed an asymptomatic tooth, reduction of the periodontal probing depths from 7 mm prior to treatment to 3 mm and gingival reattachment in the area of the fracture with no sign of ankylosis. Hence, the treatment of VRF with Biodentine seems to be a possible and promising option.

2014-01-01

300

Piriformis syndrome: implications of anatomical variations, diagnostic techniques, and treatment options.  

PubMed

Details of piriformis syndrome, including the proper diagnosis and most effective form of treatment, continue to be controversial. While the cause, diagnosis, and treatment of piriformis syndrome remain elusive, many studies have been conducted to investigate newly developed diagnostic techniques as well as various treatment options for piriformis-induced sciatica. Despite the quantity of literature, few studies have demonstrated statistically significant results that support one form of treatment over another. Thus, despite the evidence supporting the newer treatment methodologies for piriformis syndrome, research should continue. It is important not only to evaluate treatment outcomes based on associated pain relief, but also to investigate the functional and anatomical return that patients experience from these studied treatments in order to fully explore the most effective form of therapy for piriformis syndrome. PMID:22327640

Cassidy, Lindsey; Walters, Andrew; Bubb, Kathleen; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

2012-08-01

301

Therapeutic Success of the Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Option for Epilepsy: a Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically evaluate therapeutic success of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a treatment option for epilepsy. Methods Using MEDLINE and Google Scholar search, we searched for studies investigating the therapeutic success of ketogenic diet for epilepsy. We estimated therapeutic success rate for ketogenic diet as a treatment option for epilepsy and its 95% CIs using generic inverse variance method. Findings A total of 38 studies met the inclusion criteria. In retrospective studies, the weighted success rate of the patients who take the KD as a treatment option for epilepsy was 58.4% (95% confidence interval (95%CI)=48.7% – 69.9%) at 3 months (n=336); 42.8% (95%CI =36.3% – 50.3%) at 6 months (n=492), and 30.1% (95%CI =24.3% – 37.2%) at 12 months (n=387); in prospective studies, weighted success rate was 53.9% (95%CI 45.5% – 63.8%) at 3 months (n=474); 53.2% (95%CI =44.0% – 64.2%) at 6 months (n=321), and 55.0% (95%CI =45.9% – 65.9%) at 12 months (n=347). Conclusion This meta-analysis provides formal statistical support for the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic patients.

Li, Hai-feng; Zou, Yan; Ding, Gangqiang

2013-01-01

302

Fulvestrant: expanding the endocrine treatment options for patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.  

PubMed

With the aromatase inhibitors (AIs) replacing tamoxifen as the first-line treatment for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early and advanced breast cancer, there is a need to evaluate appropriate endocrine treatment options following AI failure. However, until recently, there were no Phase III trial data in this area. Fulvestrant (Faslodex) is an oestrogen receptor antagonist utilised for the treatment of postmenopausal women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer following progression or recurrence on anti-oestrogen therapy. Fulvestrant has a mode of action that is distinct from the AIs and the selective oestrogen receptor modulators, and thus may offer an effective treatment option in the post-AI setting. The Evaluation of Faslodex and Exemestane Clinical Trial (EFECT) is the first Phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of fulvestrant and the steroidal AI, exemestane, in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who have progressed or recurred while receiving a non-steroidal AI. EFECT confirmed that fulvestrant and exemestane offer effective treatment options in this setting. Similar efficacy was seen in both treatment groups and there were no significant differences in reported adverse events between fulvestrant and exemestane. The EFECT data provide further evidence for the activity of fulvestrant in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Other ongoing fulvestrant trials will further define its full role, including the potential for a high-dose regimen, combination of fulvestrant with an AI, and identification of clinical and biological markers to help in targeting those patients who are most likely to respond to treatment. PMID:18353647

Chia, Stephen; Gradishar, William

2008-04-01

303

EMG monitoring during functional non-surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture.  

PubMed

After surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture, neuromuscular changes may persist, even one year after surgery. We were interested whether these changes are also evident following a non-surgical functional therapy (Variostabil therapy boot/Adidas). Twenty-one patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture were enrolled in the study (mean age 38.5 years, range 24 to 60; 18 men, three women) and followed-up clinically and with surface EMG of the gastrocnemius muscles after four, eight, 12 weeks, and one year after rupture. EMG differences between the affected and non-affected side could only be observed at baseline and after four weeks following Achilles tendon rupture. The results from our study show that EMG changes are not found following non-surgical functional therapy. PMID:12146771

Hüfner, Tobias; Wohifarth, Kai; Fink, Matthias; Thermann, H; Rollnik, Jens D

2002-07-01

304

Chemotherapy and biological treatment options in breast cancer patients with brain metastasis: an update.  

PubMed

Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cause of CNS metastasis. Ten to 20% of all, and 38% of human epidermal growth factor-2(+), metastatic BC patients experience brain metastasis (BM). Prolonged survival with better control of systemic disease and limited penetration of drugs to CNS increased the probability of CNS metastasis as a sanctuary site of relapse. Treatment of CNS disease has become an important component of overall disease control and quality of life. Areas covered: Current standard therapy for BM is whole-brain radiotherapy, surgery, stereotactic body radiation therapy for selected cases, corticosteroids and systemic chemotherapy. Little progress has been made in chemotherapy for the treatment of BM in patients with BC. Nevertheless, new treatment choices have emerged. In this review, we aimed to update current and future treatment options in systemic treatment for BM of BC. Expert opinion: Cornerstone local treatment options for BM of BC are radiotherapy and surgery in selected cases. Efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics is limited. Among targeted therapies, lapatinib has activity in systemic treatment of BM particularly when used in combination with capecitabine. Novel agents are currently investigated. PMID:25032884

Arslan, Cagatay; Dizdar, Omer; Altundag, Kadri

2014-08-01

305

A non-derivative, non-surgical tracheostomy: the translaryngeal method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To present a new technique for non-surgical tracheostomy. Design: An open, clinical trial on patients requiring elective tracheostomy. Setting: Intensive care unit of a community hospital. Patients: 95 adults, mean age 60 years, and 14 infants and children, mean age 26 months (2 months–7 years) with common indications\\u000a for tracheostomy. Intervention: Through a needle inserted in the trachea, a

A. Fantoni; D. Ripamonti

1997-01-01

306

Need for new materials, biofunctionalization and non-surgical heart valve technology  

PubMed Central

Transition from non-surgical heart valve defects repair from bench to bedside is a reality. Some biological material-based designs for transcatheter aortic valve implantation are ready for use. Their drawback, however is their unknown functional as well as structural durability. Moreover, research on new non-biological materials is essential to replace classical animal-derived sources of human heart valve prostheses.

Sochman, Jan

2010-01-01

307

Fully-customized lingual appliances: how lingual orthodontics became a viable treatment option.  

PubMed

Despite being available for over 30 years, it is perhaps only over the past decade or so that lingual therapy has entered into the mainstream and become a viable treatment option. This paper outlines the problems encountered with traditional lingual techniques and describes how fully-customized lingual appliances have been designed to overcome many of the issues that had risked confining lingual orthodontics to the margins of clinical practice. PMID:24005954

George, Richard D; Hirani, Sunil

2013-09-01

308

Renal Artery Embolization - A First Line Treatment Option For End-Stage Hydronephrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally poorly functioning hydronephrotic kidneys have been removed if they are symptomatic. In our unit, patients are offered renal artery embolization as an alternative treatment option. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients (11 male, 4 female) with a mean age of 32.9 yr (20–51 yrs) have undergone renal artery embolization for symptomatic hydronephrosis with poor function. Mean follow-up was 64.13 weeks

Kakali Mitra; Vikramaditya Prabhudesai; R. Lester James; Robert W. A. Jones; Michael E. French; Mark Cowling; David J. West

2004-01-01

309

Treatment options for patients with large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung.  

PubMed

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is categorized as a variant of large cell carcinomas, and LCNEC tumors display biological behaviors resembling those of small cell lung carcinomas and features of high-grade neuroendocrine tumors. Because patients with LCNEC have a poor prognosis, surgery alone is not sufficient. Multimodality therapies, including adjuvant chemotherapy, appear promising for improved prognosis in patients with LCNEC. In this review article, we discuss treatment options for patients with LCNEC of the lung. PMID:24719260

Iyoda, Akira; Makino, Takashi; Koezuka, Satoshi; Otsuka, Hajime; Hata, Yoshinobu

2014-06-01

310

Current and emerging treatment options in the management of Friedreich ataxia  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal recessive ataxia. Oxidative damage within the mitochondria seems to have a key role in the disease phenotype. Therefore, FRDA treatment options have been mostly directed at antioxidant protection against mitochondrial damage. Available evidence seems to suggest that patients with FRDA should be treated with idebenone, because it is well tolerated and may reduce cardiac hypertrophy and, at higher doses, also improve neurological function, but large controlled clinical trials are still needed. Alternatively, gene-based strategies for the treatment of FRDA may involve the development of small-molecules increasing frataxin gene transcription. Animal and human studies are strongly needed to assess whether any of the potential new treatment strategies, such as iron-chelating therapies or treatment with erythropoietin or histone deacetylase inhibitors and other gene-based strategies, may translate into an effective therapy for this devastating disorder. In this review, we try to provide an answer to some questions related to current and emerging treatment options in the management of FRDA.

Mancuso, Michelangelo; Orsucci, Daniele; Choub, Anna; Siciliano, Gabriele

2010-01-01

311

Male Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Review of Surgical Treatment Options and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Objective. Iatrogenic male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) affects a percentage of men undergoing urologic procedures with a significant impact on quality of life. The treatment of male SUI has evolved significantly with multiple current options for treatment available. The current paper discusses preoperative evaluation of male SUI, available surgical options with reported outcomes, and postoperative complication management. Methods. A pubMed review of available literature was performed and summarized on articles reporting outcomes of placement of the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) or male slings including the bone anchored sling (BAS), retrourethral transobturator sling (RTS), adjustable retropubic sling (ARS), and quadratic sling. Results. Reported rates of success (variably defined) for BAS, RTS, ARS, and AUS are 36–67%, 9–79%, 13–100%, and 59–91% respectively. Complications reported include infection, erosion, retention, explantation, and transient pain. Male slings are more commonly performed in cases of low-to-moderate SUI with decreasing success with higher degrees of preoperative incontinence. Conclusions. An increasing number of options continue to be developed for the management of male SUI. While the AUS remains the gold-standard therapy for SUI, male sling placement is a proven viable alternative therapy for low-to-moderate SUI.

Trost, Landon; Elliott, Daniel S.

2012-01-01

312

Emerging contaminants and treatment options in water recycling for indirect potable use.  

PubMed

Solutions to global water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. The utilisation of alternative water sources like reclaimed municipal wastewater is one of the most obvious and promising options in integrated water resources management. Among the various beneficial uses of reclaimed wastewater Aquifer Recharge (AR) receives growing attention because it features advantages such as additional natural treatment, storage capacity to buffer seasonal variations of supply and demand as well as mixing with natural water bodies which promotes the acceptance of further uses, particularly indirect potable use. Major concerns about the safety of this exploitation route of an alternative water source are connected to microbial and chemical contaminants occurring in wastewater, among which are emerging trace organics like endocrine disrupters and pharmaceuticals. This paper reviews the current international debate about the relevance of emerging contaminants and technical mitigation options in water recycling for indirect potable use. PMID:18192746

Wintgens, T; Salehi, F; Hochstrat, R; Melin, T

2008-01-01

313

Awareness among patients regarding Implants as a treatment option for replacement of missing teeth in Chattisgarh.  

PubMed Central

Background: This survey was done to know awareness of patients regarding dental implants as a treatment option for replacement of missing teeth. Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study was done among 483 subjects coming to dental college using a self administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was pre-tested through a pilot survey. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 16.0. The Student's T-test and ANOVA test were used as test of significance at p < 0.05. Results: Out of 483 participants, 290 were males and 193 females. Around 41.7% of the subjects were aware of dental implants but still few (4.1%) had undergone this procedure. Dental professionals were the main source of information followed by media about implants and level of awareness increased with education. High cost of the procedure was the main factor for not undergoing treatment procedure (35.2%). Conclusion: More than half of the participants were not having information regarding implants and very few had undergone this procedure. It also showed that need for providing more information to the patients about this treatment modality. So, dental education is necessary for developing positive attitude among population regarding dental implants. How to cite this article: Saha A, Dutta S, Vijaya V, Rajnikant N. Awareness among patients regarding Implants as a treatment option for replacement of missing teeth in Chattisgarh. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):48-52.

Saha, Ashistaru; Dutta, Sudipto; Vijaya, V; Rajnikant, N

2013-01-01

314

Treatment options in patients with rheumatoid arthritis failing initial TNF inhibitor therapy: a critical review  

PubMed Central

Conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs such as methotrexate are the mainstay of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. More recently, biologic agents such as etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab, which act by inhibiting tumour necrosis factor (TNF), have become available. TNF inhibitors have proved to be very effective in patients not responding to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. However, about 20% to 40% of patients treated with a TNF inhibitor fail to achieve a 20% improvement in American College of Rheumatology criteria, and more lose response over time (secondary failure or acquired therapeutic resistance) or experience adverse events following treatment with a TNF inhibitor. In this group of patients, therapeutic options were limited until recently and an established treatment approach was to switch from one TNF inhibitor to another. In recent years, therapeutic options in these patients have increased with the introduction of biologic agents with novel mechanisms of action, such as rituximab and abatacept. This review outlines the current evidence in support of the available treatment strategies in patients with an inadequate response or intolerance to an initial TNF inhibitor.

Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Finckh, Axel

2009-01-01

315

A systematic review of active treatment options in patients with desmoid tumours  

PubMed Central

Introduction We conducted a systematic review to determine the optimal treatment options in patients with desmoid tumours who have declined observational management. Methods A search was conducted of the medline and embase databases (1990 to September 2012), the Cochrane Library, and relevant guideline Web sites and conference materials. Results One systematic review and forty-six studies met the preplanned study selection criteria; data from twenty-eight articles were extracted and analyzed. For local control, three studies reported a statistically significant difference in favour of surgery plus radiotherapy (rt) compared with surgery alone, and one study did not; two studies reported the lack of a statistical difference between surgery plus rt and rt alone in maintaining local control. Multivariate risk factors for local recurrence included positive surgical margins and young patient age. Single-agent imatinib led to a progression-free survival rate of 55% at 2 years and 58% at 3 years. Methotrexate plus vinblastine led to a progression-free survival rate of 67% at 10 years. Significant toxicities were reported for all treatment modalities, including surgical morbidity, and rt- and chemotherapy-related toxicities. Conclusions In patients who have declined observational management, the local control rate was higher with surgery plus rt than with surgery alone. However, the additional rt-related complications should be considered in treatment decision-making. Surgery, rt, and systemic therapy are all reasonable treatment options for patients with desmoid tumours.

Yao, X.; Corbett, T.; Gupta, A.A.; Kandel, R.A.; Verma, S.; Werier, J.; Ghert, M.

2014-01-01

316

Restoration of disk height through non-surgical spinal decompression is associated with decreased discogenic low back pain: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Because previous studies have suggested that motorized non-surgical spinal decompression can reduce chronic low back pain (LBP) due to disc degeneration (discogenic low back pain) and disc herniation, it has accordingly been hypothesized that the reduction of pressure on affected discs will facilitate their regeneration. The goal of this study was to determine if changes in LBP, as measured on a verbal rating scale, before and after a 6-week treatment period with non-surgical spinal decompression, correlate with changes in lumbar disc height, as measured on computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods A retrospective cohort study of adults with chronic LBP attributed to disc herniation and/or discogenic LBP who underwent a 6-week treatment protocol of motorized non-surgical spinal decompression via the DRX9000 with CT scans before and after treatment. The main outcomes were changes in pain as measured on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10 during a flexion-extension range of motion evaluation and changes in disc height as measured on CT scans. Paired t-test or linear regression was used as appropriate with p < 0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Results We identified 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation with an average age of 65 years, body mass index of 29 kg/m2, 21 females and 9 males, and an average duration of LBP of 12.5 weeks. During treatment, low back pain decreased from 6.2 (SD 2.2) to 1.6 (2.3, p < 0.001) and disc height increased from 7.5 (1.7) mm to 8.8 (1.7) mm (p < 0.001). Increase in disc height and reduction in pain were significantly correlated (r = 0.36, p = 0.044). Conclusions Non-surgical spinal decompression was associated with a reduction in pain and an increase in disc height. The correlation of these variables suggests that pain reduction may be mediated, at least in part, through a restoration of disc height. A randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these promising results. Clinical trial registration number NCT00828880

2010-01-01

317

Usefulness of gadolinium in MRI evaluation of non surgically treated herniated disk.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The rationale for the use of Gadolinium (Gd) in the MRI evaluation of non surgically treated herniated disk is based on the known presence of inflammatory granulation tissue and neoangiogenesis which plays an important role in both pain and the spontaneous resorption of the hernia. The AIM: of this study was to determine the usefulness of Gd in MRI examination for detecting the inflammatory reaction around the discal hernia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (mean age 45 years; range 20-70 years) with non surgically treated herniated disk were evaluated with MRI between January 2000 and July 2004. T2w-FAST-SE sagittal and T1w-SE transaxial and sagittal images were acquired before and after the administration of Gd. RESULTS: Twenty out of 22 patients with acute sciatic pain (symptoms =/< 40 days) showed significant peri-hernial enhancement which facilitated the differential diagnosis with other extradural lesions, such as synovial cysts (2/22 cases), as well as the correct definition of the extension of discal hernia in the spinal canal. In the remaining 16 with chronic sciatic pain (symptoms > 6 months) the discal hernia did not show peri-hernial enhancement. CONCLUSIONS: In MRI evaluation of the herniated disk, peri-hernial enhancement is correlated with inflammatory reaction around the hernia which is associated with acute symptoms. The absence of peri-hernial enhancement in chronic herniated disk is due to the poorly vascular fibrotic tissue. Therefore, peri-hernial enhancement facilitates the differential diagnosis in uncertain cases and represents a reliable prognostic index of response to non-surgical therapy and of the possible spontaneous resorption of discal hernia. PMID:15973229

Motta, E; Boniotti, V; Miserocchi, L; Caudana, R

2005-01-01

318

Integrating algaculture into small wastewater treatment plants: process flow options and life cycle impacts.  

PubMed

Algaculture has the potential to be a sustainable option for nutrient removal at wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this study was to compare the environmental impacts of three likely algaculture integration strategies to a conventional nutrient removal strategy. Process modeling was used to determine life cycle inventory data and a comparative life cycle assessment was used to determine environmental impacts. Treatment scenarios included a base case treatment plant without nutrient removal, a plant with conventional nutrient removal, and three other cases with algal unit processes placed at the head of the plant, in a side stream, and at the end of the plant, respectively. Impact categories included eutrophication, global warming, ecotoxicity, and primary energy demand. Integrating algaculture prior to activated sludge proved to be most beneficial of the scenarios considered for all impact categories; however, this scenario would also require primary sedimentation and impacts of that unit process should be considered for implementation of such a system. PMID:24834441

Steele, Muriel M; Anctil, Annick; Ladner, David A

2014-05-28

319

Effects of Alternative Decision Support Technologies on Breast Cancer Patients' Knowledge of Options and Satisfaction with Treatment Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the research are to (1) develop an innovative computer-based decision support system (CDSS) that will enable women with breast cancer to integrate the information available to them, understand diagnoses, treatment options and risks assoc...

D. Gustafson

2000-01-01

320

Grey water characteristics and treatment options for rural areas in Jordan.  

PubMed

Low water consumption in rural areas in Jordan had resulted in the production of concentrated grey water. Average COD, BOD and TSS values were 2568mg/l, 1056mg/l and 845mg/l, respectively. The average grey water generation was measured to be 14L/c.d. Three different treatment options were selected based on certain criterions, and discussed in this article. The examined treatment systems are septic tank followed by intermittent sand filter; septic tank followed by wetlands; and UASB-hybrid reactor. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are presented. It was concluded that UASB-hybrid reactor would be the most suitable treatment option in terms of compactness and simplicity in operation. The volume of UASB-hybrid reactor was calculated to be 0.268m(3) with a surface area of 0.138m(2) for each house having 10 inhabitants on average. Produced effluent is expected to meet Jordanian standards set for reclaimed water reuse in irrigating fruit trees. PMID:18299193

Halalsheh, M; Dalahmeh, S; Sayed, M; Suleiman, W; Shareef, M; Mansour, M; Safi, M

2008-09-01

321

Reappraisal of the removable partial denture as a treatment option for the shortened dental arch  

PubMed Central

For patients with shortened dental arches, many treatment options are available. The existing situation can be maintained by stabilizing the present dentition and improving the occlusion without extending the arch. Alternatively, the shortened dental arch can be extended by either a free-end saddle removable partial denture, cantilevered fixed bridge, or by an implant-supported prosthesis. The free-end saddle removable partial denture can be considered a simple, non-invasive, and relatively cheap treatment option for the shortened dental arch. It was believed that such prosthodontic rehabilitation would be beneficial for the patients in terms of improving oral functions. However, the existing literature indicates that the prognosis of free-end saddle removable partial denture is not predictable, it is problematic, and its contribution to oral functions in patients with shortened dental arches is considered to be dubious. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature about the outcome of extending the shortened dental arch by a free-end saddle removable partial denture. It also outlines factors that may affect the prognosis of this prosthetic treatment.

Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Tarakji, Bassel; Baroudi, Kusai; Sakka, Salah

2013-01-01

322

Drug and cell encapsulation: alternative delivery options for the treatment of malignant brain tumors.  

PubMed

Malignant brain tumors including glioblastoma are incurable cancers. Over the last years a number of promising novel treatment approaches have been investigated including the application of inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases and downstream targets, immune-based therapies and anti-angiogenic agents. Unfortunately so far the major clinical trials in glioblastoma patients did not deliver clear clinical benefits. Systemic brain tumor therapy is seriously hampered by poor drug delivery to the brain. Although in glioblastoma, the blood brain barrier is disrupted in the tumor core, the major part of the tumor is largely protected by an intact blood brain barrier. Active cytotoxic compounds encapsulated into liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles constitute novel treatment options because they can be designed to facilitate entry into the brain parenchyma. In the case of biological therapeutics, encapsulation of therapeutic cells and their implantation into the surgical cavity represents another promising approach. This technology provides long term release of the active compound at the tumor site and reduces side effects associated with systemic delivery. The proof of principle of encapsulated cell factories has been successfully demonstrated in experimental animal models and should pave the way for clinical application. Here we review the challenges associated with the treatment of brain tumors and the different encapsulation options available for drugs and living cells, with an emphasis on alginate based cell encapsulation technology. PMID:24491927

Bhujbal, Swapnil V; de Vos, Paul; Niclou, Simone P

2014-04-01

323

Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis and Its Treatment Options: Case Reports and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Generalized aggressive periodontitis results in rapid destruction of the periodontium and can lead to early tooth loss in the affected individuals if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. The diagnostic features of the disease are characteristic, but the clinical presentation and patterns of destructions may vary between patients. Successful management of the disease is challenging especially if diagnosed at advanced stages of the disease, but not impossible with the current therapeutic choices for the disease. A vast array of treatment modalities is available which can be employed in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis with varying success rates, but a definite guideline for the management is yet to be formulated. However, with the exponential rate of developments in periodontal research, regenerative therapy, tissue engineering, and genetic technologies, the future seems promising in regard to options at managing the disease. This paper attempts to describe the clinical and radiographic diagnostic features and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol for comprehensive management of generalized aggressive periodontitis patients with case reports and a brief review.

Roshna, T.; Nandakumar, K.

2012-01-01

324

The Morel-Lavallée lesion: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options.  

PubMed

Morel-Lavallée lesions are posttraumatic hemolymphatic collections related to shearing injury and disruption of interfascial planes between subcutaneous soft tissue and muscle. We review the pathophysiology of Morel-Lavallée lesions, clinical presentation, and potential sites of involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for characterization. We present the MRI classification and highlight the key imaging features that distinguish the different types, focusing on the three most common: seroma, subacute hematoma, and chronic organizing hematoma. Potential mimics of Morel-Lavallée lesions, such as soft tissue sarcoma and hemorrhagic prepatellar bursitis, are compared and contrasted. Treatment options and a management algorithm are also briefly discussed. PMID:23949106

Bonilla-Yoon, Iris; Masih, Sulabha; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Levine, Benjamin D; Chow, Kira; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Matcuk, George R

2014-02-01

325

Impact of minimally invasive surgery in the spectrum of current achalasia treatment options.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive Heller myotomy has evolved the "gold standard" procedure for achalasia in the spectrum of current treatment options. The laparoscopic technique has proved superior to the thoracoscopic approach due to improved visualization of the esophagogastric junction. Operative controversies most recently include the length of the myotomy, especially of its fun-dic part, with respect to the balance between postoperative persistent dysphagia and development of gastroesophageal reflux, as well as the type of the added antireflux procedure. Peri-operative mortality should approach 0%, and favorable long-term results can be achieved in > 90%. PMID:21737381

Gockel, I; Sgourakis, G; Drescher, D G; Lang, H

2011-01-01

326

Systemic antimicrobial therapy (minocycline) as an adjunct to non-surgical approach to recurrent chronic generalized gingival hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Systemic antibiotic treatment has emerged as a powerful adjunct to conventional mechanical debridement for therapeutic management of the periodontal diseases. The conceptual basis for treating periodontal diseases as infections is particularly attractive in part because of substantial data indicating that these diseases may be associated with specific putative pathogens. Further, discrete groups of patients respond well to systemic antibiotics and exhibit improvement of clinical parameters, including attachment level and inflammation. This bacterial-host interaction, which is ever-so-present in periodontitis, directs us toward utilizing antimicrobial agents along with the routine mechanical debridement. This case report presents a case of a female patient with recurrence of the chronic generalized periodontitis with gingival enlargement, which is treated thrice by referral dentist. A through clinical examination was carried out pre-operatively and treatment was planned with systemic minocycline in conjunction with the conventional non-surgical approach. There was a significant reduction of pocket depth, gain in attachment with dramatic improvement clinically. PMID:24872639

Khatri, Parag M; Bacha, Shraddanand

2014-03-01

327

Scaphocapitolunate Arthrodesis and Radial Styloidectomy: A Treatment Option for Posttraumatic Degenerative Wrist Disease  

PubMed Central

Longstanding scaphoid nonunion, scaphoid malunion, and chronic scapholunate dissociation result in malalignment of the carpal bones, progressive carpal collapse, instability, and osteoarthritis of the wrist. The most commonly used procedures to treat scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) and scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) wrists are the four-corner fusion (4CF) and the proximal row carpectomy (PRC). Here we describe a different treatment option: radial styloidectomy and scaphocapitolunate (SCL) arthrodesis. This treatment option is chosen in an effort to maintain the joint contact surface and load transmission across the radiocarpal joint. Twenty patients were treated by the senior author (DLF) with this method with a mean follow-up of 4.6 years. Pain decreased in all patients, and 13 patients were pain-free postoperatively. The average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores decreased from 44 preoperatively to 23 postoperatively. One patient's course was complicated by nonunion, which was successfully treated with revision of the SCL arthrodesis. On follow-up radiographs, no patient had progressive osteoarthritis. This method preserves the normal ulnar-sided joints of the carpus, which are sacrificed during 4CF, and maintains a more physiologic joint surface for radiocarpal load sharing.

Klausmeyer, Melissa; Fernandez, Diego

2012-01-01

328

Surgical Treatment Options for the Young and Active Middle-Aged Patient with Glenohumeral Arthritis  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic chondral lesions in young and active middle-aged patients continues to be a challenging issue. Surgeons must differentiate between incidental chondral lesions from symptomatic pathology that is responsible for the patient's pain. A thorough history, physical examination, and imaging work up is necessary and often results in a diagnosis of exclusion that is verified on arthroscopy. Treatment of symptomatic glenohumeral chondral lesions depends on several factors including the patient's age, occupation, comorbidities, activity level, degree of injury and concomitant shoulder pathology. Furthermore, the size, depth, and location of symptomatic cartilaginous injury should be carefully considered. Patients with lower functional demands may experience success with nonoperative measures such as injection or anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. When conservative management fails, surgical options are broadly classified into palliative, reparative, restorative, and reconstructive techniques. Patients with lower functional demands and smaller lesions are best suited for simpler, lower morbidity palliative procedures such as debridement (chondroplasty) and cartilage reparative techniques (microfracture). Those with higher functional demands and large glenohumeral defects will usually benefit more from restorative techniques including autograft or allograft osteochondral transfers and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Reconstructive surgical options are best suited for patients with bipolar lesions.

Bhatia, Sanjeev; Hsu, Andrew; Lin, Emery C.; Chalmers, Peter; Ellman, Michael; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.

2012-01-01

329

Uterine artery embolization: a treatment option for symptomatic fibroids in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The authors tested the hypothesis that UAE is an effective treatment option in postmenopausal women with fibroid-related bulk symptoms. The authors retrospectively reviewed a prospectively acquired HI-IQ database. Between 2001 and 2004, 24 women with an average age of 52 years meeting the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria for menopause underwent UAE for fibroid-related bulk symptoms. All patients underwent preprocedural gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to confirm the presence of fibroid disease and exclude other pathology. These patients were followed at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month intervals to assess their clinical response to therapy. Clinical success was defined as a qualitative reduction in bulk symptoms. Postprocedural gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging was performed routinely between 3 and 6 months and at 12 or 24 months, if indicated. Technical success was achieved in 24 of 24 (100%) patients. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 24 months with an average of 9 months. Clinical success was achieved in 22 of 24 (92%) women. There were no major complications in any of the patients. Mean uterine volume was reduced by 564 cc (P < .0001). Mean dominant uterine fibroid volume was reduced by 180 cm(3) (P = .0015). Uterine artery embolization is a viable treatment option in carefully selected postmenopausal women with fibroid-related bulk symptoms. PMID:17377194

Chrisman, Howard B; Minocha, Jeet; Ryu, Robert K; Vogelzang, Robert L; Nikolaidis, Paul; Omary, Reed A

2007-03-01

330

A critical appraisal of systemic treatment options for metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Current guidelines provide most support for the use of temsirolimus in first line therapy for metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC). However, this recommendation is based on scant level 2a evidence. The objective of this review is to examine the evidence supporting first line temsirolimus use in patients with metastatic nccRCC as well as alternative first line treatment options. Six studies, that assessed the efficacy of five agents qualified for inclusion. Among recognized treatment options for metastatic nccRCC, mean weighted progression free survival values of 7.9 months for temsirolimus vs. 7.3 for sunitinib vs. 8.5 months for sorafenib vs. ?4.1 months for erlotinib were recorded based on data from 10, 74, 33 and 51 patients respectively. In conclusion, the data supporting first line temsirolimus for metastatic nccRCC are based on a small patient sample. Sunitinib's efficacy is similar to that of temsirolimus but is based on a bigger patient sample that originates from phase II studies. PMID:24411587

Ismail, Salima; Meskawi, Malek; Hansen, Jens; Bianchi, Marco; Tian, Zhe; Latour, Mathieu; Graefen, Markus; Montorsi, Francesco; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Perrotte, Paul; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Sun, Maxine

2014-04-01

331

Update on necrobiosis lipoidica: a review of etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options.  

PubMed

Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare chronic granulomatous disease that has historically been associated with diabetes mellitus. Debate exists regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of NL with a widely accepted theory that microangiopathy plays a significant role. NL typically presents clinically as erythematous papules on the front of the lower extremities that can coalesce to form atrophic telangiectatic plaques. NL is usually a clinical diagnosis, but if the clinical suspicion is uncertain, skin biopsy specimen can help differentiate it from sarcoidosis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, and granuloma annulare. NL is a difficult disease to manage despite a large armamentarium of treatment options that include topical and intralesional corticosteroids, immunomodulators, biologics, platelet inhibitors, phototherapy, and surgery. Randomized control trials are lacking to evaluate the many treatment methods and establish a standard regimen of care. Disease complications such as ulceration are common, and lesions should also be monitored for transition to squamous cell carcinoma, a less common sequelae. PMID:23969033

Reid, Sophia D; Ladizinski, Barry; Lee, Kachiu; Baibergenova, Akerke; Alavi, Afsaneh

2013-11-01

332

Paediatric Stroke: Review of the Literature and Possible Treatment Options, including Endovascular Approach.  

PubMed

Stroke is among the top 10 causes of death in childhood. More than half of the surviving children have long-term neurological sequelae. Ischemic stroke (IS) includes arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis with venous infarction. Haemorrhagic stroke (HS) includes intracerebral haematoma or subarachnoid haemorrhage. Risk factors for stroke are different in children and in adults. 10-30% of IS have no identified risk factors. However, multiple risk factors are recognizable in the majority of stroke in children; thus, a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is crucial. Vascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, vessel dissection, stenosis, and moyamoya disease, are frequently associated with both IS and HS and lead to high recurrence rates. Endovascular and surgical treatment options are sometimes indicated, performed on the basis of expert opinion, and extrapolated from the adult procedures. In the present paper, we review the recent literature and we discuss the treatment in five cases managed at our institutions. PMID:21789272

Ciceri, Elisa F; Cuccarini, Valeria; Chiapparini, Luisa; Saletti, Veronica; Valvassori, Luca

2011-01-01

333

Paediatric Stroke: Review of the Literature and Possible Treatment Options, including Endovascular Approach  

PubMed Central

Stroke is among the top 10 causes of death in childhood. More than half of the surviving children have long-term neurological sequelae. Ischemic stroke (IS) includes arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis with venous infarction. Haemorrhagic stroke (HS) includes intracerebral haematoma or subarachnoid haemorrhage. Risk factors for stroke are different in children and in adults. 10–30% of IS have no identified risk factors. However, multiple risk factors are recognizable in the majority of stroke in children; thus, a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is crucial. Vascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, vessel dissection, stenosis, and moyamoya disease, are frequently associated with both IS and HS and lead to high recurrence rates. Endovascular and surgical treatment options are sometimes indicated, performed on the basis of expert opinion, and extrapolated from the adult procedures. In the present paper, we review the recent literature and we discuss the treatment in five cases managed at our institutions.

Ciceri, Elisa F.; Cuccarini, Valeria; Chiapparini, Luisa; Saletti, Veronica; Valvassori, Luca

2011-01-01

334

Surrogacy as a good option for treatment of repeated implantation failure: a case series.  

PubMed

Background: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is defined as pregnancy failure after two to six times with at least ten high grade embryo transfer to uterus. A variety of causes have been anticipated for RIF, including anatomical, autoimmune, genetics, endocrine and thrombotic anomalies. Factors responsible for RIF have important implication regarding treatment however in many couples a perfect cause cannot be found. Cases: In these case series, we reported nine couples with RIF that after investigation no definitive etiology was found for RIF and empirical therapy by heparin, aspirin and or immunotherapy was not effective. In these cases we recommended transfer of embryos to surrogate uterus. Nine patients were studied and six of them developed a normal pregnancy (pregnancy rate=66.66%). Conclusion: This study showed that surrogacy is a good option for treatment of RIF. PMID:24639697

Aflatoonian, Nastaran; Eftekhar, Maryam; Aflatoonian, Behrooz; Rahmani, Elham; Aflatoonian, Abass

2013-01-01

335

Surrogacy as a good option for treatment of repeated implantation failure: a case series  

PubMed Central

Background: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is defined as pregnancy failure after two to six times with at least ten high grade embryo transfer to uterus. A variety of causes have been anticipated for RIF, including anatomical, autoimmune, genetics, endocrine and thrombotic anomalies. Factors responsible for RIF have important implication regarding treatment however in many couples a perfect cause cannot be found. Cases: In these case series, we reported nine couples with RIF that after investigation no definitive etiology was found for RIF and empirical therapy by heparin, aspirin and or immunotherapy was not effective. In these cases we recommended transfer of embryos to surrogate uterus. Nine patients were studied and six of them developed a normal pregnancy (pregnancy rate=66.66%). Conclusion: This study showed that surrogacy is a good option for treatment of RIF.

Aflatoonian, Nastaran; Eftekhar, Maryam; Aflatoonian, Behrooz; Rahmani, Elham; Aflatoonian, Abass

2013-01-01

336

Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods  

SciTech Connect

The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

Dziewinski, J.J.

1998-09-28

337

Re-irradiation and bevacizumab in recurrent high-grade glioma: an effective treatment option.  

PubMed

Re-irradiation has been shown to be a meaningful option for recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. Furthermore, bevacizumab exerts certain activity in combination with chemotherapy/as monotherapy and was safely tested in combination with radiotherapy in several previous studies. To our knowledge, this is the largest cohort of patients treated with both re-irradiation and bevacizumab to date. After receiving standard radiotherapy (with or without TMZ) patients with recurrent HGG were treated with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously at d1 and d15) during re-irradiation. Median prescribed radiation dose during re-treatment was 36 Gy, conventionally fractionated. Datasets of 71 re-irradiated patients were retrospectively analyzed. Patients either received bevacizumab (N = 57) or not (N = 14; other substances (N = 4) and sole radiation (N = 10)). In patients receiving bevacizumab, both post-recurrence survival (PRS) (median 8.6 vs. 5.7 months; p = 0.003, log-rank test) and post-recurrence progression-free survival (PR-PFS, 5.6 vs. 2.5 months; p = 0.005, log-rank test; PFS-6 42.1 % for the bevacizumab group) were significantly increased which was confirmed by multivariate analysis. KPS, re-surgery, MGMT methylation status, sex, WHO grade, tumor volume and age were no significant predictors for neither PR-PFS nor PRS (univariate analysis). Re-irradiation with bevacizumab remains a feasible and highly effective treatment schedule. Studies on further salvage strategies and timing of sequential treatment options versus observation are warranted. PMID:24504501

Flieger, Maya; Ganswindt, Ute; Schwarz, Silke Birgit; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; la Fougère, Christian; Ertl, Lorenz; Linn, Jennifer; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Belka, Claus; Niyazi, Maximilian

2014-04-01

338

Dental trauma: part 2. Managing poor prognosis anterior teeth--treatment options for the subsequent space in a growing patient.  

PubMed

Part 1 concentrated on implications of dental trauma especially prior to and during orthodontic treatment. This paper examines the literature supporting various treatment options for poor prognosis anterior teeth and subsequent space generated when these teeth are lost. The role of an interdisciplinary team in managing this clinical situation is essential to obtain optimal results and an orthodontist is an essential member. Although some treatment options are not provided by orthodontists it is important that they have some knowledge of these and the latest research that support their use. Other techniques lie very much within the orthodontic remit. Treatment options can be split into maintaining the failing tooth or extraction and restoration of the edentulous gap. This paper reviews various treatment options including periodontal regeneration, surgical repositioning and distraction osteogenesis, composite build up to incisal levels and decoronation when maintaining a failing tooth. When extraction and restoration of edentulous gap is required the following treatment modalities are discussed: extraction technique to retain bone quantity, orthodontic space closure and opening (site development), autotransplantation, partial denture, resin bonded bridge and implants. All these options should be considered and available to an interdisciplinary team to ensure optimal care of children with anterior teeth of poor prognosis. PMID:18809778

Day, Peter F; Kindelan, Susan A; Spencer, James R; Kindelan, Jay D; Duggal, Monty S

2008-09-01

339

Addressing the unmet needs of patients with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia: emerging pharmacological treatment options  

PubMed Central

The negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent an impairment of normal emotional responses, thought processes and behaviors, and include blunting or flattening of affect, alogia/aprosody, avolition/apathy, anhedonia, and asociality. Negative symptoms contribute to a reduced quality of life, increased functional disability, increased burden of illness, and poorer long-term outcomes, to a greater degree than positive symptoms. Primary negative symptoms are prominent and persistent in up to 26% of patients with schizophrenia, and they are estimated to occur in up to 58% of outpatients at any given time. Negative symptoms respond less well to medications than positive symptoms, and to date treatment options for negative symptoms have been limited, with no accepted standard treatment. Modest benefits have been reported with a variety of different agents, including second-generation antipsychotics and add-on therapy with antidepressants and other pharmacological classes. Recent clinical research focusing on negative symptoms target novel biological systems, such as glutamatergic neurotransmission. Different approaches include: enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function with agents that bind directly to the glycine ligand site or with glycine reuptake inhibitors; influencing the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) with positive allosteric modulators; and stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In conclusion, the lack of clearly efficacious pharmacological treatments for the management of negative symptoms represents a significant unmet need, especially considering the importance of these symptoms on patient outcomes. Hence, further research to identify and characterize novel pharmacological treatments for negative symptoms is greatly needed.

Chue, Pierre; Lalonde, Justine K

2014-01-01

340

Injection of plasmin in local area: a new treatment option for nasal polypsis.  

PubMed

Nasal polypsis(NP), is one of the most difficult challenges in otorhinolaryngology, as the aetiology and pathophysiology are largely unknown unfortunately, medical treatment is unsatisfactory, and, because of frequent recurrences, repeated surgical interventions are often necessary. Now in clinic, the therapy for NP involves a combination of observation, medical, and surgical treatments. But with both treatments of medical and surgical, recurrences are still common. In nasal polypsis, although fibrotic changes do not dominate, myofibroblasts are significantly more abundant in the pedicle where the polyps can be thought to "grow" than in the central or tip areas. But in the "health" nasal mucosa, myofibroblasts can not been observed. Under normal conditions, when the injury is recovery, myofibroblats subsequent disappear from the injured site due to apoptosis. It is very interesting that myofibroblasts can survival in nasal polyps. We hypothesize here that, in nasal polyps, myofibroblasts adopt strategies to avoid apoptosis and consequent clearance by the immune system. In the "grow" area where the conditions are unchecked, deranged or repeated tissue repair, myofibroblasts, as the key factors, push about the formation or growth of the nasal polyps. So we try injecting plasmin in the pedicle of nasal polypsis to promote myofibroblast apoptosis, which may lead to a new treatment option for this incapacitating disease. PMID:19450934

Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shixi

2009-11-01

341

Musculoskeletal Conditions of the Foot and Ankle: Assessments and Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

Musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle are an important public health challenge due to their increasing incidence combined with their substantial negative impact on patients’ quality of life. Non-pharmacological treatments serve as the first line of treatment and are frequently used for patients with musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle. This review provides a summary of the assessments and non-invasive treatment options based upon available evidence. Recent studies show that individuals with foot and ankle pain have multiple co-existing impairments in alignment, motion, load distribution and muscle performance that may be evident in static and/or dynamic tasks. Additionally, both clinical and epidemiological studies support the inter-dependence between the foot and proximal joints. For instance, aberrant foot structure has been linked to foot osteoarthritis (OA), as well as OA and pain at the knee and hip. Most recently, advances in motion capture technology and plantar load distribution measurement offer opportunities for precise dynamic assessments of the foot and ankle. In individuals with musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle, the chief objectives of treatment are to afford pain relief, restore mechanics (alignment, motion and/or load distribution) and return the patient to their desired level of activity participation. Given that most patients present with multiple impairments, combinational therapies that target foot-specific as well as global impairments have shown promising results. In particular, in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, comprehensive rehabilitation strategies including early detection, foot-based interventions (such as orthoses) and wellness-based approaches for physical activity and self-management have been successful. While significant improvements have been made in the last decade to the assessment and treatment of foot and ankle conditions, few randomized clinical trials specifically have investigated patients with foot or ankle conditions to provide global insights into this area. Consequently, current recommendations vary based upon the scope of studies presented in this review as well as the strength of studies. This review indicates a need for more in-depth investigations into the components of assessment and treatment options for foot and ankle musculoskeletal conditions.

Rao, Smita; Riskowski, Jody; Hannan, Marian T.

2012-01-01

342

Non-surgical treatment modalities of facial photodamage: practical knowledge for the oral and maxillofacial professional  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing interest in cosmetic procedures, oral and maxillofacial surgeons are being asked not only to improve oral health and aesthetics but to extend their expertise to provide advice on improving the overall appearance of the face. For the discerning patient, improving overall facial skin appearance is becoming an integral part of the process of surgical cosmetic procedures. Here,

F. Hegedus; R. Diecidue; D. Taub; J. Nyirady

2006-01-01

343

Non-Surgical Procedure Is Effective Treatment for Painful Ovarian Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

... less than 45 years old and in their child-bearing years. Ovarian veins increase in size related to previous pregnancies. Pelvic congestion syndrome is unusual in women who have not been pregnant. Chronic pelvic pain accounts for 15 percent of outpatient gynecologic visits. ...

344

Non-Surgical Chemotherapeutic Treatment Strategies for the Management of Periodontal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Periodontal diseases are initiated by subgingival periodontal pathogens in susceptible periodontal sites. The host immune response towards periodontal pathogens helps to sustain periodontal disease and eventual alveolar bone loss. Numerous adjunctive therapeutic strategies have evolved to manage periodontal diseases. Systemic and local antibiotics, antiseptics, and past and future host immune modulatory agents are reviewed and discussed to facilitate the dental practitioner’s appreciation of this ever-growing field in clinical periodontics.

Krayer, Joe W.; Leite, Renata S.; Kirkwood, Keith L.

2011-01-01

345

Non-surgical treatment of osteoarthritis-related pain in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA), the third most common diagnosis in the elderly [1], causes significant pain leading to disability and decreased quality of life in subjects 65 years and older [2]. Traditionally, clinicians have relied heavily on the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat the\\u000a pain of OA, as numerous studies have proven these agents to be effective. The cardiovascular, gastrointestinal,

Saulat Mushtaq; Rabeea Choudhary; Carla R. Scanzello

346

Non-surgical chemotherapeutic treatment strategies for the management of periodontal diseases.  

PubMed

Periodontal diseases are initiated by subgingival periodontal pathogens in susceptible periodontal sites. The host immune response toward periodontal pathogens helps to sustain periodontal disease and eventual alveolar bone loss. Numerous adjunctive therapeutic strategies have evolved to manage periodontal diseases. Systemic and local antibiotics, antiseptics, and past and future host immune modulatory agents are reviewed and discussed to facilitate the dental practitioner's appreciation of this ever-growing field in clinical periodontics. PMID:20103470

Krayer, Joe W; Leite, Renata S; Kirkwood, Keith L

2010-01-01

347

A 5-year prospective study of non-surgical treatment of retro-trochanteric pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse retro-trochanteric pain occasionally radiating to the lower extremity could be caused by the piriformis or internal\\u000a obturator muscle syndromes. Thirteen patients, with retro-trochanteric pain were included in the study. All patients suffered\\u000a from a diffuse, but intense and often radiating hip pain. The median duration of the symptoms was 8 (1–20) years. The patients\\u000a were treated by a specific

Khaled Meknas; Jüri Kartus; Jan Inge Letto; Magne Flaten; Oddmund Johansen

2009-01-01

348

Non-surgical transpericardial catheter ablation of post-infarction ventricular tachycardia.  

PubMed

Non-surgical transpericardial approach for catheter-based epicardial radiofrequency ablation of post-infarction left ventricular tachycardia has been described as an alternative and additive procedure to standard endocardial technique for delivery of radiofrequency energy in difficult situations. We report our initial experience with this approach in three patients of post-infarction recurrent ventricular tachycardia, refactory to multiple antiarrhythmic drugs. Ablation was successful in terminating the tachycardia in two and in modifying the circuit to be amenable for control with single antiarrhythmic drug in one patient. There were no serious acute or long-term complications related to the procedure. Epicardial approach is an effective and safe adjunct to standard endocardial ablative technique for patients of post-infarction ventricular tachycardia. PMID:15852897

Sharada, K; Sastry, B K S; Reddy, N Krishna; Rao, M Srinivas; Soma Raju, B; Narasimhan, Calambur

2005-01-01

349

Progress in development of immunocontraceptive vaccines for permanent non-surgical sterilization of cats and dogs.  

PubMed

Each year, millions of cats and dogs are euthanized worldwide. There are insufficient resources to control shelter animals in developed countries, as well as feral cat and wild dog population levels, with current surgical sterilization techniques. Thus, population control of these animals will likely depend on the development of new non-surgical methods for cat and dog sterilization. One promising area of research is the development of contraceptive vaccines, or immunocontraceptives. In this article, previous approaches aimed at developing contraceptive vaccines will be reviewed, with a focus on those most related to sterilization of cats and dogs. There are a number of steps in reproduction that have been, or could be, targeted by the immune system, and the advantages and obstacles for inducing immunity to each of these will be discussed. Our current understanding of how these vaccines cause sterility, and our current ability to dissect these mechanisms in cats and dogs, also will be discussed. PMID:22827374

Munks, M W

2012-08-01

350

Current treatment options and response rates in children with chronic hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Vertical transmission has become the most common mode of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in children. The rate of perinatal transmission from an HCV-infected mother to her child ranges from 2% to 5% and the prevalence of HCV in children in developed countries ranges between 0.1% and 0.4%. Spontaneous viral clearance seems to be dependent on the genotype and has been reported between 2.4%-25%. For chronically infected patients, treatment with recombinant polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon ?-2b and daily ribavirin has now been approved as standard treatment for children 2-17 years of age. In five large prospective studies, a total of 318 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years were treated either with subcutaneous PEG-interferon ?-2b at a dose of 1-1.5 ?g/kg or 60 ?g/m² once a week in combination with oral ribavirin (15 mg/kg per day) or PEG-interferon ?-2a with ribavirin. Subjects with genotype 1 and 4 received the medication for 48 wk and individuals with genotype 2 and 3 mainly for 24 wk. Overall sustained viral response (SVR) was achieved in 193/318 (60.7%) of treated patients. Stratified for genotype; 120/234 (51%) with genotype 1, 68/73 (93%) with genotype 2/3, and 6/11 (55%) with genotype 4 showed SVR. Relapse rate was between 7.7% and 17%. Overall, treatment was well tolerated; however, notable side effects were present in approximately 20%. According to recent experiences in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children and adolescents, a combination of PEG-interferon ? with ribavirin has been found to be well tolerated and highly efficacious, particularly in individuals with genotype 2/3. Thus, this treatment can be recommended as standard of care until more effective treatment options will become available for genotype 1 patients.

Wirth, Stefan

2012-01-01

351

[The development of therapeutic education in France: current public policies and treatment options].  

PubMed

Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has significantly expanded in the last few years. This article explains the major trends underpinning and supporting its development in France, and how they have rendered it a central place in the system, and provided an integral role for therapeutic education within the wider perspective of medical care and treatment options. The organisation of TPE is analysed and numerous initiatives in hospitals, medical and health care structures, social centres, cities, and non-profit organisations are described. This analysis suggests a range of proposals in order to structure and integrate TPE in a sustainable manner for the long term, as well as to expand the existing initiatives to have a broader reach across the country. PMID:17933380

Grenier, Béatrice; Bourdillon, François; Gagnayre, Rémi

2007-01-01

352

Locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma: molecular pathways, treatment options and new targeted therapies.  

PubMed

The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified as important to normal embryonic development in living organisms and it is implicated in processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and tissue patterning. Aberrant Hh pathway has been involved in the pathogenesis and chemotherapy resistance of different solid and hematologic malignancies. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma are two well-recognized cancers with mutations in components of the Hh pathway. Vismodegib has recently approved as the first inhibitor of one of the components of the Hh pathway (smoothened). This review attempts to provide current data on the molecular pathways involved in the development of BCC and the therapeutic options available for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic BCC, and the new targeted therapies in development. PMID:24611655

Ruiz Salas, Veronica; Alegre, Marta; Garcés, Joan Ramón; Puig, Lluis

2014-06-01

353

Patent ductus arteriosus: are current neonatal treatment options better or worse than no treatment at all?  

PubMed Central

Although a moderate-size PDA needs to be closed by the time a child is 1–2 years old, there is great uncertainty about whether it needs to be closed during the neonatal period. While 95% of neonatologists believe that a moderate-size PDA should be closed if it persists in infants (born before 28 weeks) who still require mechanical ventilation, the number that treat a PDA when it occurs in infants that do not require mechanical ventilation varies widely. Both the high likelihood of spontaneous ductus closure and the absence of RCTs, specifically addressing the risks and benefits of neonatal ductus closure, adds to the current uncertainty. New information suggests that early pharmacologic treatment has several important short-term benefits for the preterm newborn. On the other hand, ductus ligation, while eliminating the detrimental effects of a PDA on lung development, may create its own set of morbidities that counteract many of the benefits derived from ductus closure.

Clyman, Ronald I.; Couto, Jim; Murphy, Gail M.

2012-01-01

354

Renal Artery Embolization - A First Line Treatment Option For End-Stage Hydronephrosis  

SciTech Connect

Conventionally poorly functioning hydronephrotic kidneys have been removed if they are symptomatic. In our unit, patients are offered renal artery embolization as an alternative treatment option. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients (11 male, 4 female) with a mean age of 32.9 yr (20-51 yrs) have undergone renal artery embolization for symptomatic hydronephrosis with poor function. Mean follow-up was 64.13 weeks (range 14-200). All patients had loin pain and hydronephrosis. Twelve patients had primary pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO). Two patients had poorly functioning hydronephrotic kidneys secondary to chronic calculous obstruction. One patient had chronic pain in an obstructed but reasonably functioning kidney following a previous pyeloplasty for PUJO which demanded intervention. Mean split function on renography was 11% (range 0-46%). Selective renal artery embolization was carried out under antibiotic cover using a 7 Fr balloon occlusion catheter and absolute alcohol, steel coils, and polyvinyl alcohol particles.Results: Nine patients developed post-embolization syndrome of self-limiting pain and pyrexia with no evidence of sepsis. One patient required readmission with this condition. One patient developed a hematoma at the puncture site. Mean hospital stay was 2.3 days. Fourteen patients are happy with the result and are completely pain free. One patient has minor discomfort but is delighted with the result. Nine patients have had follow-up ultrasound confirming resolution of the hydronephrosis. Conclusion: Renal artery embolization is an effective, safe, well-tolerated minimally invasive treatment option in end-stage hydronephrosis and we routinely offer it as an alternative to nephrectomy.

Mitra, Kakali; Prabhudesai, Vikramaditya [Newcastle under Lyme ST4 6QG, University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom); James, R. Lester [Stafford ST16 S5A, Staffordshire General Hospital (United Kingdom); Jones, Robert W. A.; French, Michael E.; Cowling, Mark; West, David J. [Newcastle under Lyme ST4 6QG, University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

2004-09-15

355

Normalization of the vagina by dilator treatment alone in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Various surgical and non-surgical treatment options are available for women with congenital vaginal agenesis. We report results of vaginal dilation therapy delivered by a multi-disciplinary team as first line treat- ment for vaginal agenesis. METHODS: Twenty-six women were recruited into a prospective observational study: 18 had Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) and 8 had Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS). All women

Ida S. Ismail-Pratt; Maligaye Bikoo; Lih-Mei Liao; Gerard S. Conway; Sarah M. Creighton

2007-01-01

356

Abdominal aortic aneurysm: Treatment options, image visualizations and follow-up procedures  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common vascular disease that affects elderly population. Open surgical repair is regarded as the gold standard technique for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm, however, endovascular aneurysm repair has rapidly expanded since its first introduction in 1990s. As a less invasive technique, endovascular aneurysm repair has been confirmed to be an effective alternative to open surgical repair, especially in patients with co-morbid conditions. Computed tomography (CT) angiography is currently the preferred imaging modality for both preoperative planning and post-operative follow-up. 2D CT images are complemented by a number of 3D reconstructions which enhance the diagnostic applications of CT angiography in both planning and follow-up of endovascular repair. CT has the disadvantage of high cummulative radiation dose, of particular concern in younger patients, since patients require regular imaging follow-ups after endovascular repair, thus, exposing patients to repeated radiation exposure for life. There is a trend to change from CT to ultrasound surveillance of endovascular aneurysm repair. Medical image visualizations demonstrate excellent morphological assessment of aneurysm and stent-grafts, but fail to provide hemodynamic changes caused by the complex stent-graft device that is implanted into the aorta. This article reviews the treatment options of abdominal aortic aneurysm, various image visualization tools, and follow-up procedures with use of different modalities including both imaging and computational fluid dynamics methods. Future directions to improve treatment outcomes in the follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair are outlined.

Sun, Zhong-Hua

2012-01-01

357

A treatment option for severe cerebellar hemorrhage with ventricular extension in elderly patients: intraventricular fibrinolysis.  

PubMed

External ventricular drainage (EVD) combined with intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF) is rarely used in severe spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage (SCH) with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Recently, the treatment strategy was repeatedly performed in our hospital to elderly patients with severe SCH + IVH. To analyze its clinical value, we compared it to two treatment strategies which now commonly are used for these patients: conservative management (CM) and clot evacuation (CE). In this study, a total of 118 cases were observed, of which 28 cases received CM, 43 cases received EVD + IVF and 47 cases received CE. The Glasgow Coma Scale score, frequency of complication, mortality in one month, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at six months, and causes of death were analyzed. The outcomes of patients in the CM group were extremely poor compared to patients undergoing surgery (P = 0.034) and the mortality was up to 61.3 % (18/28), which was much higher than those of the two surgical groups (P = 0.026). No significant difference was found in mortality and mRS between the two surgical groups (P > 0.05). Patients in the CE group mostly died of deterioration of comorbidities and postoperative complications, whereas more deaths occurred in the CM group and the EVD + IVF group due to rebleeding, brainstem compression, perilesional edema and tight posterior fossa (? (2), P = 0.006). It is suggested that EVD + IVF is a treatment option for elderly patients with severe SCH + IVH. PMID:24297364

Zhang, Jianjian; Wang, Long; Xiong, Zhongwei; Han, Qingdong; Du, Qidong; Sun, Shoujia; Wang, Yu; You, Chao; Chen, Jincao

2014-02-01

358

Life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment options for small and decentralized communities.  

PubMed

Sustainability has strong implications on the practice of engineering. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an appropriate methodology for assessing the sustainability of a wastewater treatment plant design. The present study used a LCA approach for comparing alternative wastewater treatment processes for small and decentralised rural communities. The assessment was focused on two energy-saving systems (constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration) and a conventional one (activated sludge process). The low environmental impact of the energy-saving wastewater treatment plants was demonstrated, the most relevant being the global warming indicator. Options for reduction of life cycle impacts were assessed including materials used in construction and operational lifetime of the systems. A 10% extension of operation lifetime of constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration systems led to a 1% decrease in CO2 emissions, in both systems. The decrease in the abiotic depletion was 5 and 7%, respectively. Also, replacing steel with HDPE in the activated sludge tank resulted in a 1% reduction in CO2 emission and 1% in the abiotic depletion indicator. In the case of the Imhoff tank a 1% reduction in CO2 emissions and 5% in the abiotic depletion indicator were observed when concrete was replaced by HDPE. PMID:17802833

Machado, A P; Urbano, L; Brito, A G; Janknecht, P; Salas, J J; Nogueira, R

2007-01-01

359

Inflammatory nodules following soft tissue filler use: a review of causative agents, pathology and treatment options.  

PubMed

Nodule development is a common complication following the use of fillers for soft tissue augmentation and is commonly categorized as inflammatory or non-inflammatory in nature. Inflammatory nodules may appear anywhere from days to years after treatment, whereas non-inflammatory nodules are typically seen immediately following implantation and are usually secondary to improper placement of the filler. Although inflammatory nodules are more common with permanent fillers such as silicone, inflammatory nodule development following administration of temporary fillers such as hyaluronic acid and collagen has also been reported. Treated many times with corticosteroids due to their anti-inflammatory properties, inflammatory nodules may be secondary to infection or biofilm formation, warranting the use of alternative agents. Appropriate and prompt diagnosis is important in avoiding delay of treatment or long-term complications for the patient. This paper addresses the etiology, development, and studied treatment options available for inflammatory nodules secondary to each of the major classes of fillers. With this knowledge, practitioners may expeditiously recognize and manage this common side effect and thus maximize functional and aesthetic benefit. PMID:24037757

Ledon, Jennifer A; Savas, Jessica A; Yang, Steven; Franca, Katlein; Camacho, Ivan; Nouri, Keyvan

2013-10-01

360

Review of therapeutic options for adjuvant treatment of focal seizures in epilepsy: focus on lacosamide.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions worldwide, with an age-adjusted incidence of approximately 50 per 100,000 persons per year in developed countries. Antiepileptic therapy can result in long-term remission in 60-70% of patients, but many patients will require combination treatment to achieve optimal seizure control, as monotherapy is ineffective at controlling seizures in 30-53% of patients. Despite the increase in available treatment options, patient outcomes have not improved significantly and there is still a need for more effective therapies. Drugs used in the treatment of focal-onset seizures are a diverse range of compounds, and in most cases their mechanism of action is unknown or poorly defined. This review discusses the efficacy and safety of the newer adjuvant antiepileptic therapies that may improve outcomes in patients unresponsive to monotherapy, including clobazam, vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin, zonisamide and eslicarbazepine, with focus on lacosamide. Lacosamide has been shown to exert its anticonvulsant effects predominantly by enhancement of the slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. Lacosamide is indicated for use as adjuvant treatment of focal-onset seizures in patients with epilepsy, and there is some evidence that it may also be of use in patients with status epilepticus and cancer patients with epilepsy. The efficacy of lacosamide has been assessed in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, all of which have shown lacosamide to be effective at reducing seizure frequency and increasing 50% responder rates in patients with focal-onset seizures. Long-term lacosamide treatment is generally well tolerated and is not associated with significant drug interactions; the availability of an intravenous form of the drug also makes it particularly useful for a broad range of patients. PMID:22141347

Becerra, Juan Luis; Ojeda, Joaquín; Corredera, Enrique; Ruiz Giménez, Jesús

2011-12-01

361

Comparative evaluation of plasma ROM levels in chronic periodontitis patients before and after non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy: A clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Objective: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is associated with increased levels of blood reactive oxygen species (ROS). So, treatment of CP may lead to decrease in blood ROS. However, not much literature is available comparing the effect of surgical and non-surgical periodontal treatment on blood ROS levels. Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are a useful measure of blood ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of periodontal treatment on plasma ROM levels in CP patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty CP patients and 15 controls were monitored. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and the clinical parameters were recorded. The CP patients were randomly divided into two groups: Scaling and root planing (Group II) and periodontal flap surgery (Group III). Both groups were re-evaluated 1 and 2 months after therapy. Clinical parameters were reviewed, plasma samples collected, and ROM levels were determined using a spectrophotometric technique. Results: At baseline, the ROM levels for Group II and Group III were 519.8 ± 62.4 and 513.4 ± 74.7 CARR U, respectively, which were higher than Group I value (282.9 ± 23.9, P < 0.001). Periodontal treatment in CP patients resulted in improvement of clinical parameters and a highly significant reduction in plasma ROM level (P < 0.001) after 2 months. Also, there was a more significant reduction in plasma ROM levels in Group III as compared to Group II (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In CP patients, surgical periodontal treatment was more effective in lowering the plasma ROM levels than when non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed alone and, therefore, may be more beneficial in reducing systemic oxidative stress.

Chaudhary, Sohini; Gowda, Triveni M.; Mehta, Dhoom S.; Kumar, Tarun A. B.

2014-01-01

362

Treatment options for the management of hypertriglyceridemia: strategies based on the best-available evidence.  

PubMed

A severe elevation in triglycerides (TG; ?500 mg/dL) increases the risk for pancreatitis. TG levels ?200 mg/dL are associated with a greater risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, no outcomes trials exist to assess the efficacy of TG lowering for preventing pancreatitis in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Similarly, no completed prospective outcomes trial exists to support or refute a reduction in CHD risk resulting from lipid-altering therapy in patients specifically selected for the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. This review examines the available evidence for the use of statins, omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, and niacin in the management of hypertriglyceridemic patients. Results from CHD outcomes trials support statins as the first-line lipid-altering drug therapy to reduce CHD in hypercholesterolemic patients, and subgroup analyses suggest statins are efficacious in hypertriglyceridemic patients with fasting TG levels <500 mg/dL. Omega-3 fatty acids and fibrates are reasonable first drug options for patients with TG ?500 mg/dL and often are used to lower TG levels with the objective of reducing pancreatitis risk, although a statin or niacin may also be reasonable options. Combination lipid drug therapy may be needed to achieve both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goals for CHD prevention in patients with elevated TG levels, particularly those with TG ?500 mg/dL. Additional clinical outcomes data are needed to provide a more evidence-based rationale for clinical lipid management of hypertriglyceridemic patients. PMID:23009777

Maki, Kevin C; Bays, Harold E; Dicklin, Mary R

2012-01-01

363

Trabectedin for desmoplastic small round cell tumours: a possible treatment option?  

PubMed Central

Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT) is a rare sarcoma typically affecting young males and usually widely metastatic at presentation. Despite multimodal treatment approaches, the prognosis for DSRCT is extremely poor. Alkylator- and anthracyclines- based regimens are widely used as therapy and an initial response is common. Durable responses are exceptionally rare so further systemic treatment options for these patients represent an unmet medical need. We report two cases of metastatic, pretreated DSRCT patients achieving disease stabilisation with Trabectedin. Methods Retrospective review of 2 patients with progressive DSRCT, treated with Trabectedin. Results Two males aged 19 and 23 years treated with Trabectedin, 1.5 mg/m2 over 24 hours 3 weekly for 6 and 5 cycles respectively. Best responses were stable disease in patient 1 and partial response (RECIST 1.1) in patient 2. Progression free survival was 4 months in both cases. Persistent neutropenia required 4 weekly administration in one patient but no other grade 3-4 toxicities occurred. Conclusions This report supports Trabectedin to be active and safe in pre-treated DSRCT patients. Further prospective and collaborative efforts are desirable to better define its role in the management of this disease.

2014-01-01

364

Unbiased compound screening identifies unexpected drug sensitivities and novel treatment options for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.  

PubMed

Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are caused by oncogenic KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor activation, and the small molecule kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate is an effective first-line therapy for metastatic or unresectable GIST. However, complete remissions are rare and most patients ultimately develop resistance, mostly because of secondary mutations in the driver oncogenic kinase. Hence, there is a need for novel treatment options to delay failure of primary treatment and restore tumor control in patients who progress under therapy with targeted agents. Historic data suggest that GISTs do not respond to classical chemotherapy, but systematic unbiased screening has not been performed. In screening a compound library enriched for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved chemotherapeutic agents (NCI Approved Oncology Drugs Set II), we discovered that GIST cells display high sensitivity to transcriptional inhibitors and topoisomerase II inhibitors. Mechanistically, these compounds exploited the cells' dependency on continuous KIT expression and/or intrinsic DNA damage response defects, explaining their activity in GIST. Mithramycin A, an indirect inhibitor of the SP1 transcription factor, and mitoxantrone, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, exerted significant antitumor effects in mouse xenograft models of human GIST. Moreover, these compounds were active in patient-derived imatinib-resistant primary GIST cells, achieving efficacy at clinically relevant concentrations. Taken together, our findings reveal that GIST cells have an unexpectedly high and specific sensitivity to certain types of FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agents, with immediate implications for encouraging their clinical exploration. PMID:24385214

Boichuk, Sergei; Lee, Derek J; Mehalek, Keith R; Makielski, Kathleen R; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Seneviratne, Danushka S; Korzeniewski, Nina; Cuevas, Rolando; Parry, Joshua A; Brown, Matthew F; Zewe, James; Taguchi, Takahiro; Kuan, Shin-Fan; Schöffski, Patrick; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Duensing, Anette

2014-02-15

365

Thoracic outlet syndrome: a controversial clinical condition. Part 2: non-surgical and surgical management  

PubMed Central

Background Proper management of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) requires an understanding of the underlying causes of the disorder. A comprehensive examination process, as described in Part 1 of this review, can reveal the bony and soft tissue abnormalities and mechanical dysfunctions contributing to an individual’s TOS symptoms. Objective Part 2 of this review focuses on management of TOS. Conclusion The clinician uses clinical examination results to design a rehabilitation program that focuses on correcting specific problems that were previously identified. Disputed neurogenic TOS is best managed with a trial of conservative therapy before surgical treatment options are considered. Cases that are resistant to conservative treatment may require surgical intervention. True neurogenic TOS may require surgical intervention to relieve compression of the neural structures in the thoracic outlet. Surgical management is required for cases of vascular TOS because of the potentially serious complications that may arise from venous or arterial compromise. Post-operative rehabilitation is recommended after surgical decompression to address factors that could lead to a reoccurrence of the patient’s symptoms.

Hooper, Troy L; Denton, Jeff; McGalliard, Michael K; Brismee, Jean-Michel; Sizer, Phillip S

2010-01-01

366

Presenting Treatment Options to Men with Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: The Acceptability of Active Surveillance/Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Presenting treatment options to men with localized prostate cancer is difficult because of the lack of definitive evidence and the range of treatment options available. Active surveillance and monitoring programs are now a recognized treatment option for men with low-risk localized prostate cancer, but many patients are not fully aware of the details of such programs, and most still opt for immediate radical (surgery or radiotherapy) treatment. The provision of high-quality information with decision aids has been shown to increase the acceptability of active surveillance/monitoring programs. This chapter outlines techniques for providing high-quality information about active surveillance/monitoring, based on the findings of a randomized controlled trial of treatments for localized prostate cancer. The ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment) trial has randomized over 1500 men between active monitoring, radical surgery, and radical radiotherapy by ensuring that information was tailored to men’s existing knowledge and views. Care was taken with the content, order, and enthusiasm of the presentation of treatments by recruitment staff, and clinicians and other health professionals were supported to feel comfortable with being open about the uncertainties in the evidence and helped to rephrase terminology likely to be misinterpreted by patients. These techniques of information provision should be added to the use of decision aids to enable patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer in routine practice to reach well-informed and reasoned decisions about their treatment, including full consideration of active surveillance and monitoring programs.

2012-01-01

367

Current and emerging treatment options for the elderly patient with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

The objective of this article is to review the current and emerging treatments of CKD prior to dialysis in the elderly. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of people who are aged over 65 years. In parallel, there are increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in the more advanced stages. The elderly have quite different health care needs related to their associated comorbidity, frailty, social isolation, poor functional status, and cognitive decline. Clinical trials assessing treatments for CKD have usually excluded patients older than 70–75 years; therefore, it is difficult to translate current therapies recommended for younger patients with CKD across to the elderly. Many elderly people with CKD progress to end-stage kidney disease and face the dilemma of whether to undertake dialysis or accept a conservative approach supported by palliative care. This places pressure on the patient, their family, and on health care resources. The clinical trajectory of elderly CKD patients has in the past been unclear, but recent evidence suggests that many patients over 75 years of age with multiple comorbidities have greatly reduced life expectancies and quality of life, even if they choose dialysis treatment. Offering a conservative pathway supported by palliative care is a reasonable option for some patients under these circumstances. The elderly person who chooses to have dialysis will frequently have different requirements than younger patients. Kidney transplantation can still result in improved life expectancy and quality of life in the elderly, in carefully selected people. There is a genuine need for the inclusion of the elderly in CKD clinical trials in the future so we can produce evidence-based therapies for this group. In addition, new therapies to treat and slow CKD progression are needed for all age groups.

Fassett, Robert G

2014-01-01

368

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections: what are the treatment options?  

PubMed

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli creates a challenge in the treatment of nosocomial infections. While the pharmaceutical pipeline is waning, two revived old antibacterials (colistin and fosfomycin), a newer one (tigecycline) and an 'improved' member of an existing class (doripenem) are the only therapeutic options left. The class of polymyxins, known since 1947 and represented mostly by polymyxin B and polymyxin E (colistin), has recently gained a principal role in the treatment of the most problematic MDR Gram-negative pathogens (such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Future prospective studies are needed to answer important clinical questions, such as the possible benefit of combination with other antimicrobials versus monotherapy, the efficacy of colistin in neutropenic hosts and the role of inhaled colistin. As new pharmacokinetic data emerge, clarification of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile of colistin as well as appropriate dosing seems urgent, while development of resistance must be carefully monitored. Fosfomycin tromethamine, a synthetic salt of fosfomycin discovered in 1969, has regained attention because of its in vitro activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and MDR P. aeruginosa. Although in use for decades in oral and parenteral formulations for a variety of infections without significant toxicity, its clinical utility in MDR infections remains to be explored in future studies. Tigecycline, the first representative of the new class of glycylcyclines, holds promise in infections from MDR K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL-producing strains) and Enterobacteriaceae with various mechanisms of resistance. The in vitro activity of tigecycline against A. baumannii makes it a tempting option, as it is currently the most active compound against MDR strains along with colistin. However, the usual minimum inhibitory concentration values of this pathogen are approximately 2 mg/L and compromise clinical outcomes based on PK/PD issues. Its advantageous penetration into various tissues is useful in infections of the skin and soft tissues as well as intra-abdominal infections (official indications), whereas low serum concentrations compromise its use in bloodstream infections. Therefore, prospective studies with dose escalation are urgently needed, as well as clarification of its role in nosocomial pneumonia, after poor results in the study of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Finally, doripenem, the recently licensed member of the carbapenems (without significant spectrum alterations from the ascendant members) seems to possess a lower potential for resistance selection and a more favourable pharmacokinetic profile when given as an extended infusion. The latter strategy could prove helpful in overcoming low level resistance of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa strains. PMID:19747006

Giamarellou, Helen; Poulakou, Garyphallia

2009-10-01

369

Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

Klem, M.J.

1996-10-23

370

Effects of Alternative Decision Support Technologies on Breast Cancer Patients' Knowledge of Options and Satisfaction With Treatment Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the research are to (1) develop an innovative computer-based decision support system (cDSS) that will enable women with breast cancer to integrate the information available to them, understand diagnoses, treatment options, and risks asso...

D. H. Gustafson

1999-01-01

371

A rapid and non-surgical procedure for jugular catheterization of pigs.  

PubMed

A rapid and non-surgical method for jugular catheterization in pigs was set up in 30 piglets of 6.2 kg, 23 pigs of 46 kg and 84 kg and two lactating multiparous sows. The animal was restrained on a V-shaped table (piglets) or with a rope around the mandible (slaughter pigs and sows). The vein was located with the Vacutainer system and a wire guide was inserted into the Vacutainer needle up to the vein lumen. When the needle was removed, the catheter was inserted over the wire guide and advanced until it penetrated the skin and thereafter, the vein wall. The catheter was fixed outside by a large tape and coiled inside a patch just behind the ears. The technique utilizes readily available material and is no more risky for the animal than a single blood sampling. Moreover, it can be performed within 15 to 20 min (including animal restraint) within pens. This new approach might have important implications not only for research purposes by facilitating repeated blood samplings but also for projects which require a rapid and easy method for testing of any kind of pharmaceutical or other type of products under husbandry conditions. PMID:10780845

Matte, J J

1999-07-01

372

The short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the circulating levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with chronic periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that periodontal infection is a risk factor for a number of systemic diseases and conditions. In addition to the conventional risk factors, chronic infection and the subsequent generation of a systemic inflammatory response may be associated with this increased risk. Aims: This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of chronic periodontitis and subsequent non-surgical periodontal therapy could influence the serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with severe chronic generalized periodontitis. Settings and Design: Participants were selected from subjects who attended the Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantololgy, Government Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram. Materials and Methods: Sera were obtained from 25 patients with periodontitis for baseline examination and reassessment after completion of treatment. As a control, sera were also obtained from 20 subjects without periodontitis. Interleukin-6 was determined by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) was measured using latex turbidometric immunoassay. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 10. Results: The level of interleukin-6 and hsCRP in the sera of periodontitis patients was seen to be higher than those of healthy controls. Interleukin-6 level tended to decrease with improvement of the periodontal condition following treatment and approached that of control subjects, and this decline was statistically significant. The hsCRP levels also showed a decreasing trend following periodontal treatment. Conclusions: In this study, we were able to show that periodontal disease significantly affects the serum levels of systemic inflammatory markers and that non-surgical periodontal therapy could bring about a decrease in the levels of these inflammatory markers.

George, Annie Kitty; Janam, Prasanthila

2013-01-01

373

Tapentadol immediate release: a new treatment option for acute pain management  

PubMed Central

The undertreatment of acute pain is common in many health care settings. Insufficient management of acute pain may lead to poor patient outcomes and potentially life-threatening complications. Opioids provide relief of moderate to severe acute pain; however, therapy with pure ?-opioid agonists is often limited by the prevalence of side effects, particularly opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with 2 mechanisms of action, ?-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. The analgesic effects of tapentadol are independent of metabolic activation and tapentadol has no active metabolites; therefore, in theory, tapentadol may be associated with a low potential for interindividual efficacy variations and drug–drug interactions. Previous phase 3 trials in patients with various types of moderate to severe acute pain have shown that tapentadol immediate release (IR; 50 to 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours) provides analgesia comparable to that provided by the pure ?-opioid agonist comparator, oxycodone HCl IR (10 or 15 mg every 4 to 6 hours), with a lower incidence of nausea, vomiting, and constipation. Findings suggest tapentadol may represent an improved treatment option for acute pain.

Afilalo, Marc; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Upmalis, David

2010-01-01

374

Smoking cessation: an overview of treatment options with a focus on varenicline.  

PubMed

Tobacco use claims more than 440,000 lives each year, making it one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States. Although nearly half of all people who smoke die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses, those who quit may be able to reverse many of the adverse effects of tobacco. Approximately 47.5 million adults use tobacco; nearly 70% of them want to quit, and 42.5% attempt to quit each year. The most effective smoking cessation programs involve a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioral and/or cognitive counseling to improve abstinence rates. Approved treatments include nicotine replacement therapies and bupropion, a non nicotine option. Varenicline, the most recent agent approved for tobacco cessation, is the first drug in a new class that binds to the nicotinic receptors to release dopamine and alleviate withdrawal symptoms. It has demonstrated superior efficacy in clinical trials when compared with placebo and bupropion, with minimal adverse effects. It provides smokers and clinicians with an alternative therapy to assist in quitting tobacco. PMID:17963463

Stack, Nicole M

2007-11-01

375

Current treatment options to prevent perinatal transmission of herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes is a potentially devastating consequence of perinatal transmission of the herpes simplex virus (HSV), with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment options are available, but must begin early in disease with manifestations that are often protean. Thus, preventive measures need to be optimised. Antiviral suppression in late pregnancy of women with a history of recurrent genital herpes will decrease symptomatic recurrence at delivery and appears to reduce caesarian section rates. However, primary HSV Type 2 and primary HSV Type 1 episodes have the highest neonatal transmission rates and thus, effective prevention may require the identification and suppression of the discordant partner. Significant experience has been gained with the use of acyclovir in pregnancy and it is recommended for both episodic and suppressive therapy in pregnant women. Its use has been demonstrated to be cost-effective in suppressive therapy, although issues regarding compliance and the potential for neonatal neutropenia need to be addressed. The more conveniently dosed prodrugs valacyclovir and famciclovir are being evaluated for use in pregnancy. PMID:14521490

Leung, Daniel T; Sacks, Stephen L

2003-10-01

376

Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.  

PubMed

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy. PMID:24075771

Weintraub, Howard

2013-10-01

377

When is high-dose intravenous iron repletion needed? Assessing new treatment options  

PubMed Central

High doses of intravenous iron have a role in the treatment of a number of clinical situations associated with iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and blood loss. In the presence of functioning erythropoiesis, iron supplementation alone may be adequate to replenish iron stores and restore blood loss. Where hormone replacement with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent is required, iron adequacy will optimize treatment. Intravenous iron offers a rapid means of iron repletion and is superior to oral iron in many circumstances, especially in the presence of anemia of chronic disease, where it appears to overcome the block to absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and immobilization of stored iron. The clinical situations where high doses of iron are commonly required are reviewed. These include nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, obstetrics, menorrhagia, and anemia associated with cancer and its treatment. The literature indicates that high doses of iron are required, with levels of 1500 mg in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease and up to 3600 mg in inflammatory bowel disease. New formulations of intravenous iron have recently been introduced that allow clinicians to administer high doses of iron in a single administration. Ferumoxytol is available in the US, has a maximum dose of 510 mg iron in a single administration, but is limited to use in chronic kidney disease. Ferric carboxymaltose can be rapidly administered in doses of 15 mg/kg body weight, up to a ceiling dose of 1000 mg. A test dose is not required, and it can be used more widely across a spectrum of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia indications. The latest introduction is iron isomaltoside 1000. Again, a test dose is not required, and it can be delivered rapidly as an infusion (in an hour), allowing even higher doses of iron to be administered in a single infusion, ie, 20 mg/kg body weight with no ceiling. This will allow clinicians to achieve high-dose repletion more frequently as a single administration. Treatment options for iron repletion have taken a major leap forward in the past two years, especially to meet the demand for high doses given as a single administration.

Gozzard, David

2011-01-01

378

A rational approach for evaluation and screening of treatment and disposal options for the solar pond sludges at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect

This document consists of information about the treatment options for the sludge that is located in the evaporation ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant. The sludges are mixed low-level radioactive wastes whose composition and character were variable. Sludges similar to these are typically treated prior to ultimate disposal. Disposal of treated sludges includes both on-site and off-site options. The rational approach described in this paper is useful for technology evaluation and screening because it provides a format for developing objectives, listing alternatives, and weighing the alternatives against the objectives and against each other.

Dickerson, K.S.

1995-12-31

379

Non-surgical closure of post-pneumonectomy empyema with bronchopleural fistula after open window thoracotomy using basic fibroblast growth factor.  

PubMed

Empyema with bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is one of the severest complications following pneumonectomy. Many papers have reported that it is difficult to cure, with a high rate of associated mortality. Closure of the fistula and an appropriate choice of obliteration materials are crucial for successful treatment. However, obliteration is sometimes impractical because of a lack of suitable materials, excessive surgical risk, or lack of patient willingness to undergo the procedure. We report a case of post-pneumonectomy empyema with BPF that was treated by non-surgical closure after open-window thoracotomy (OWT) with the use of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which was sprayed into the unepithelialized empyema cavity transiting from epidermis and surrounding the fistula. After spraying, the orifice of the OWT was covered by a film dressing. This procedure yielded successful results after two months. PMID:19706719

Okuda, Masaya; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Tarumi, Shintaro; Huang, Chen-Long

2009-11-01

380

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor as treatment option in patients with recurrent miscarriage.  

PubMed

In 1-5% of patients during childbearing years recurrent miscarriages (RM) occur. There are established risk factors like anatomical, endocrine and hemostatic disorders as well as immunological changes in the maternal immune system. Nevertheless, further elucidation of the pathogenesis remains a matter of debate. In addition, there are no standardized immunological treatment strategies. Recent studies indicate possible effects of tumor necrosis factor ? blocker and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) concerning live birth rate (LBR) in RM patients. Therefore, we performed a retrospective cohort study in patients undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART) with known RM analysing the possible benefits of G-CSF application. From January 2002 to December 2010, 127 patients (199 cylces) with RM (at least 2 early miscarriages) 49 (72 cycles) receiving G-CSF and 78 (127 cycles) controls receiving either no medication (subgroup 1) or Cortisone, intravenous immunoglobulins or low molecular weight heparin (subgroup 2) undergoing ART for in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection were analysed. G-CSF was administered weekly once (34 Mill) in 11 patients, 38 patients received 2 × 13 Mill G-CSF per week until the 12th week of gestation. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS for Windows (19.0), p < 0.05 significant. The mean age of the study population was 37.3 ± 4.4 years (mean ± standard deviation) and differed not significantly between patients and subgroups. However, the number of early miscarriages was significantly higher in the G-CSF group as compared to the subgroups (G-CSF 2.67 ± 1.27, subgroup 1 0.85 ± 0.91, subgroup 2 0.64 ± 0.74) and RM patients receiving G-CSF had significantly more often a late embryo transfer (day 5) (G-CSF 36.7%, subgroup 1 12.1%, subgroup 2 8.9%). The LBR of patients and the subgroups differed significantly (G-CSF 32%, subgroup 1 13%, subgroup 2 14%). Side effects were present in less than 10% of patients, consisting of irritation at the injection side, slight leukocytosis, rise of the temperature (<38 °C), mild bone pain and hyperemesis gravidarum. None of the newborn showed any kind of malformations. According to our data, G-CSF seems to be a safe and promising immunological treatment option for RM patients. However, with regard to the retrospective setting and the possible bias of a higher rate of late embryo transfers in the G-CSF group additional studies are needed to further strengthen our results. PMID:23344173

Santjohanser, Claudia; Knieper, Catherine; Franz, Cordula; Hirv, Kaino; Meri, Osama; Schleyer, Manfred; Würfel, Wolfgang; Toth, Bettina

2013-04-01

381

Prevalence of deep vein thrombosis in acutely admitted ambulatory non-surgical intensive care unit patients  

PubMed Central

Background Data on prevalence rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in different patient populations are scarce. Most studies on this topic focus on older patients or patients with malignancies, immobilization or thrombophilia. Less is known about the VTE risk profile of non-surgical patients presenting with a variety of medical diseases of differing severity. Aim of the present study was to investigate VTE prevalence in a pospective cohort study of ambulatory medical intensive care unit patients within 24 h after acute admission. Methods Prospective cohort study of 102 consecutive patients after acute admission to medical intensive care unit. Ultrasound compression sonography, APACHE-II-Scoring and laboratory examination was performed within 24 hours after admission.Possible determinants of a high risk of VTE were examined. In all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DVT or suspicion of PE thoracic computer tomography (CT) was performed. Results VTE was found in 7.8% out of 102 of patients, mean APACHE-II-Score was 14 (mortality risk of about 15%). Thrombus location was femoropopliteal in 5 patients, iliacal in 2 and peroneal in 1 patient. Five VTE patients had concomitant PE (62.5% of VTE, 4.9% of all patients). No predictors of prevalent VTE were identified from univariable regression analysis although relative risk was high in patients with a history of smoking (RR 3.40), immobility (RR 2.50), and elevated D-Dimer levels (RR 3.49). Conclusions Prevalent VTE and concomitant PE were frequent in acutely admitted ICU patients.

2014-01-01

382

Periodontal Treatments and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... Procedures Periodontists are dentistry's e?xperts in treating periodontal disease. They receive up to three additional years of specialized training in periodontal disease treatment in both non-surgical treatments and periodontal ...

383

Treatment options for vertebral fractures an overview of different philosophies and techniques for vertebral augmentation.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: For more than 30 years, minimally invasive surgical procedures have been available to stabilize the fractured vertebrae by cement augmentation leading to significant pain relief, a distinct improvement in quality of life and decreased mortality for patients suffering from osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This overview article is designed to provide information on the wide range of augmentation methods previously tested and clinically applied in surgery in an attempt to compile the clinically relevant information on safety and efficacy in the published literature. METHOD: Based on an extensive literature review on the topic of "vertebral fractures-surgical augmentation techniques" we summarized the results of published clinical trials and experimental testing which address clinically relevant questions. The selection of the publications in reference books and scientific journals covers the time period from the end of the 1970s until the present. RESULTS: The final selection of more than 50 publications with, in the opinion of the authors, clinically relevant data led to the following results, which can be of significance for clinical application. The prerequisites for the success of all augmentation methods include the earliest possible surgical intervention, optimal technical equipment and an experienced, interdisciplinary team, as well as thorough consideration of the situation of the individual patient. The selection of the material for vertebral augmentation depends on the surgical method. The material of choice remains polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and the best record of efficacy and safety is displayed by radiofrequency kyphoplasty with ultrahigh-viscosity cement. Regarding clinical efficacy and safety, there are many convincing documentations showing superiority of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in comparison with conservative therapeutic regimens. Initial results of clinical studies with additional implants indicate a trend toward further improvement in clinical success and suggest possible broader clinical possibilities of application. CONCLUSION: Modern, minimally invasive augmentation techniques represent a real alternative to conservative treatment of patients with vertebral fractures. Further technical and clinical development in this area should aim at optimizing procedural safety while continuing to achieve comparably good results to current methods. Minimizing damage to the remaining trabecular structures as well as to adjacent vertebral disks and vertebrae should be paramount of importance. Options for the treatment of vertebral fractures: Reductions in bone density and pathological changes in bone structure are associated with an elevated risk of fractures, which can lead to decisive functional impairment, pain, and a host of further comorbidities. Vertebral augmentation can be considered as an alternative conservative treatment, in order to achieve immediate and lasting pain relief as well as improvement in functional impairment. To achieve greater safety, instrumentation for transpedicular access and incorporation of radiopacifiers in PMMA for vertebroplasty were developed in mid-eighties. Balloon kyphoplasty was introduced in the end nineties, and results of prospective, randomized clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy; the destruction of the remaining native spongiosa structures during balloon expansion is viewed as a disadvantage of this method. The two step method of cavity creation followed by cement delivery known as kyphoplasty has been further refined and developed by and varied by technology/procedural developments. This includes most the radiofrequency kyphoplasty (DFINE Inc., San Jose, CA, USA), in which ultrahigh-viscosity cement is delivered at a controlled delivery rate, following producing a bone sparing size and side specific cavity which minimizes loss of spongiosa, allowing for mechanical stability upon interdigitation of cement into that remaining trabecular bone. This combination has been shown to preserve vertebral structures and

Bornemann, R; Koch, E M W; Wollny, M; Pflugmacher, R

2013-06-16

384

Hypertriglyceridemia: a review of clinical relevance and treatment options: focus on cerivastatin.  

PubMed

The triglyceride (TG) level is one of several lipid parameters that can aid prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. An elevated plasma TG level is strongly associated with an increased risk of CHD. Hypertriglyceridemia, the second most common dyslipidemic abnormality in hypertensive subjects after increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is defined by the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) as a fasting TG level of > 2.26 mmol/l (> 200 mg/dl) and is recognised as a primary indicator for treatment in type IIb dyslipidemia. Raised TG levels can be present in individuals at risk for CHD when the total cholesterol is normal. However, not all individuals with raised TG levels have increased risk of CHD. Factors such as: diet, age, lifestyle, and a range of medical conditions, drug therapy and metabolic disorders, can all affect the TG level. In some of these circumstances, other factors protect against the risk of CHD, and can minimise or negate the effect of the risk factors present. Although TG reducing therapy has been shown to be associated with an improved clinical outcome, more research is needed to determine whether this is an independent effect of TG reduction or an effect of normalising the overall lipid profile in hypertriglyceridemic patients. Further trials are required to quantify the clinical benefits of lowering TG to 'target' levels and to confirm targets defined by NCEP-II (shown in Table 1). The role of TG in CHD pathogenesis is thought to involve several direct and indirect mechanisms, such as effects on the metabolism of other lipoproteins, transport proteins, enzymes, and on coagulation and endothelial dysfunction. More research is required to fully elucidate the role of TG, the ways in which it can influence other risk factors and the mechanism of its own more direct role in the atherogenic process. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia have been shown to respond well to dietary control and to the use of lipid lowering drugs such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (known as statins), fibrates and nicotinic acids. However, recent retrospective real-life clinical studies show that only 38% of patients receiving some form of lipid-lowering therapy achieved NCEP-defined LDL-C target levels, demonstrating the need for the use of more aggressive treatment. In hypertriglyceridemic patients, the newer statins, cerivastatin and atorvastatin, have shown comparable efficacy in reducing TG compared with the older statins. Achieving NCEP target lipid levels has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in dyslipidemic individuals, including high-risk patient groups such as those with additional risk factors, existing heart disease, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Although the latest clinical studies investigating combination therapies, i.e. dual therapy with both a statin and a fibrate, have demonstrated them to be effective for overall control of lipid parameters and reducing coronary events, it is not yet clear whether this offers any significant advantage over monotherapy. Results from ongoing longer-term end-point clinical studies may provide further information in this area and consequent reviews of primary care management policies for dyslipidemia. Statin monotherapy may be a reliable option for primary care treatment of dyslipidemia (including hypertriglyceridemia). PMID:11464448

Breuer, H W

2001-01-01

385

40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Additional Filtration Toolbox Options (9) Bag or cartridge filters (individual filters) Up to 2-log credit based on the removal...criteria are in § 141.719(a). (10) Bag or cartridge filters (in series) Up to 2.5-log...

2013-07-01

386

The Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Importance Chronic periodontitis, a destructive inflammatory disorder of the supporting structures of the teeth, is prevalent in patients with diabetes. Limited evidence suggests that periodontal therapy may improve glycemic control. Objective To determine if non-surgical periodontal treatment reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in persons with type 2 diabetes (DM) and moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. Design, Setting and Participants The Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT) is a 6-month, single-masked, randomized, multi-center clinical trial. Participants had DM, were taking stable doses of medications, had HbA1c ?7% and <9%, and untreated periodontitis. Five hundred fourteen participants were enrolled between November 2009 and March 2012 from diabetes and dental clinics and communities affiliated with five academic medical centers. Intervention The treatment group (n=257) received scaling and root planing plus chlorhexidine oral rinse at baseline, and supportive periodontal therapy at three and six months. The control group (n=257) received no treatment for six months. Main Outcome Measure Difference in HbA1c change from baseline between groups at six months. Secondary outcomes included changes in probing pocket depths, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, gingival index, fasting glucose, and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2). Results Enrollment was stopped early due to futility. At 6 months, the periodontal therapy group increased HbA1c 0.17% (1.0) (mean (SD)) compared to 0.11% (1.0) in the control group, with no significant difference between groups based on a linear regression model adjusting for clinical site (mean difference = -0.05%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.23%, 0.12%; p=0.55). Probing depth, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing and gingival index measures improved in the treatment group compared to the control group at six months with adjusted between-group differences of 0.33mm (95% CI: 0.26, 0.39), 0.31mm (95% CI: 0.23, 0.39), 16.5% (95% CI: 12.9, 20.0) and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.35), respectively; all p values <0.0001). Conclusions and Relevance Non-surgical periodontal therapy did not improve glycemic control in patients with DM and moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. These findings do not support the use of nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with diabetes for the purpose of lowering HbA1c.

Engebretson, Steven P.; Hyman, Leslie G.; Michalowicz, Bryan S.; Schoenfeld, Elinor R.; Gelato, Marie C.; Hou, Wei; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.; Reddy, Michael S.; Lewis, Cora E.; Oates, Thomas W.; Tripathy, Devjit; Katancik, James A.; Orlander, Philip R.; Paquette, David W.; Hanson, Naomi Q.; Tsai, Michael Y.

2014-01-01

387

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies  

MedlinePLUS

... after treatment with certain anticancer drugs and/or radiation therapy. Cancer treatment with radiation therapy and/or certain ... Approved for Acute Myeloid Leukemia for more information. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses ...

388

A single group follow-up study of non-surgical patients seen by physiotherapists working in expanded roles in orthopaedic departments: recall of recommendations, change in exercise and self-efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background Specially trained physiotherapists (advanced practice physiotherapists (APP)) are working in orthopaedic clinics to improve access to orthopaedic services and support chronic disease management. Little attention has been paid to the impact APPs may have on non-surgical patients. In non-surgical patients with hip or knee arthritis consulting an APP in an orthopaedic clinic, the objectives were to: 1) describe patients’ recall of APP recommendations, use of self-management strategies, and barriers to management six weeks following consultation; and, 2) compare exercise behaviour and self-efficacy at baseline and six weeks. Findings This was a single group pre-and post-intervention study of patients who saw an APP when consulting the orthopaedic departments of two hospitals. At baseline and six weeks participants completed the adapted Stanford Exercise Behaviour Scale (response options: none, < 60 minutes/week, 1–3 hours/week or?>?3 hours/week), and the Chronic Disease Self-efficacy Scale (range 1–10; higher scores indicate higher self-efficacy). At follow-up participants completed questions on recall of APP recommendations, use of self-management strategies and barriers to management. Seventy three non-surgical patients with hip or knee arthritis participated, a response rate of 89% at follow-up. Seventy one percent of patients reported that the APP recommended exercise, of whom 83% reported exercising to manage their arthritis since the visit. Almost 50% reported an increase in time spent stretching; over 40% reported an increase in time spent walking or doing strengthening exercises at follow-up. Common barriers to arthritis management were time, cost and other health problems. Mean chronic disease self-efficacy scores significantly improved from 6.3 to 7.2 (p?non-surgical patients referred for orthopaedic consultation showed promising results, particularly for enhancing use of conservative management strategies such as exercise.

2012-01-01

389

Discussing treatment options with a minor: the conflicts related to autonomy, beneficence, and paternalism.  

PubMed

A seventeen-year-old male, high-school football player presents to an orthopaedic surgeon because of recurrent right knee pain after having undergone an arthroscopic meniscal repair one year previously. The patient did well initially but now has recurrent medial joint-line pain in the knee, which developed when he planted the right leg to throw a pass during summer training camp. He was evaluated by the team's athletic trainer and by an orthopaedic surgeon, both of whom, on the basis of their physical examination of the boy, believe that he may have sustained a recurrent meniscal tear. A magnetic resonance arthrogram is acquired, which confirms the presence of a large longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus in the "red-red" zone, with no signs of degenerative change, articular cartilage damage, or other ligamentous pathology. The patient had just started summer training camp before his senior year of high-school football, and he is considered to be a potential high-level candidate for a Division-I football scholarship.The orthopaedic surgeon presents the patient and his mother with three treatment options: nonoperative management, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, and arthroscopic meniscal repair. He also presents the relevant risks and benefits of each choice, including, for meniscectomy, the risk of the future development of osteoarthritis if a large portion of the meniscus were to be excised and, for meniscal repair, the need for an extended (four to six-month) rehabilitation period. Both the patient and his mother are apprised of the limitations of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining if a meniscal tear can be repaired1-3. The patient states that, on the basis of his symptoms of pain, intermittent locking, and swelling, he does not believe that he would be able to play football if nonoperative management was chosen. He voices a strong preference for meniscectomy, as this would allow him the most rapid return to play. He states that he is not concerned with the future risk of osteoarthritis but is fearful that missing his senior football season will place his scholarship in jeopardy. His mother states that her son would likely not attend college without a scholarship, considering the family's financial situation. The patient states that he therefore wishes to have a meniscectomy, given the likely quicker recovery and faster return to play.The patient's mother was initially in favor of a meniscal repair, if possible. However, over the course of the patient's visit with the surgeon, she is persuaded by her son to favor a meniscectomy. The surgeon again discusses in detail the risks involved with meniscectomy in an adolescent-primarily the higher risk of future knee osteoarthritis. The patient remains persistent in his choice, mainly due to his desire to avoid the prolonged postoperative course of limited weight-bearing and physical therapy and thus the loss of his final high-school season. The mother, who is the patient's legal guardian for consent, ultimately follows her son's wishes and elects to consent to only an arthroscopic meniscectomy. PMID:22218389

Ross, James R; Capozzi, James D; Matava, Matthew J

2012-01-01

390

Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Still a Valid Treatment Option, or is the Game Over?  

PubMed Central

Chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) has been established as the current standard of care for young and fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In the early nineties of the last century, long before the advent of fludarabine or antibody-based strategies, there was realistic hope that myeloablative therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) might be an effective and potentially curative front-line treatment option for suitable patients with CLL. Since then, several prospective trials have disenthralled this hope: although autoSCT can prolong event and progression-free survival if used as part of early front-line treatment, it does not improve overall survival, while it is associated with an increased risk of late adverse events such as secondary malignancies. In addition, autoSCT lacks the potential to overcome the negative impact of biomarkers that confer resistance to chemotherapy or early relapse. The role of autoSCT has also been explored in the context of FCR, and it was demonstrated that its effect is inferior to the currently established optimal treatment regimen. In view of ongoing attempts to improve on FCR, promising clinical activity of new substances even in relapsed/ refractory CLL patients, exciting novel cell therapy approaches and advantages in the understanding of the disease and detection of Minimal Residual Disease (MRD), autoSCT has lost its place as a standard treatment option for CLL.

McClanahan, Fabienne; Dreger, Peter

2012-01-01

391

Cost-effectiveness of available treatment options for patients suffering from severe COPD in the UK: a fully incremental analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Frequent exacerbations which are both costly and potentially life-threatening are a major concern to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite the availability of several treatment options. This study aimed to assess the lifetime costs and outcomes associated with alternative treatment regimens for patients with severe COPD in the UK setting. Patients and methods A Markov cohort model was developed to predict lifetime costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of various combinations of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), a long-acting beta agonist (LABA), an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), and roflumilast in a fully incremental analysis. Patients willing and able to take ICS, and those refusing or intolerant to ICS were analyzed separately. Efficacy was expressed as relative rate ratios of COPD exacerbation associated with alternative treatment regimens, taken from a mixed treatment comparison. The analysis was conducted from the UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Parameter uncertainty was explored using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results Based on the results of the fully incremental analysis a cost-effectiveness frontier was determined, indicating those treatment regimens which represent the most cost-effective use of NHS resources. For ICS-tolerant patients the cost-effectiveness frontier suggested LAMA as initial treatment. Where patients continue to exacerbate and additional therapy is required, LAMA + LABA/ICS can be a cost-effective option, followed by LAMA + LABA/ICS + roflumilast (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] versus LAMA + LABA/ICS: £16,566 per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained). The ICER in ICS-intolerant patients, comparing LAMA + LABA + roflumilast versus LAMA + LABA, was £13,764/QALY gained. The relative rate ratio of exacerbations was identified as the primary driver of cost-effectiveness. Conclusion The treatment algorithm recommended in UK clinical practice represents a costeffective approach for the management of COPD. The addition of roflumilast to the standard of care regimens is a clinical and cost-effective treatment option for patients with severe COPD, who continue to exacerbate despite existing bronchodilator therapy.

Hertel, Nadine; Kotchie, Robert W; Samyshkin, Yevgeniy; Radford, Matthew; Humphreys, Samantha; Jameson, Kevin

2012-01-01

392

Stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR): a new option in the treatment of obstructive defecation syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Rectocele and distal intussusception are organic causes of outlet obstruction. A new surgical option called the stapled transanal\\u000a rectal resection (STARR) is described within a prospective study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Fourteen patients with symptomatic rectocele (four females), rectocele with coexistent intussusception (eight females), and\\u000a intussusception (two males) underwent STARR procedure. The symptoms were measured by means of a defecation score (0–20

A. Ommer; K. Albrecht; F. Wenger; M. K. Walz

2006-01-01

393

Transcatheter embolisation of type 1 endoleaks after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with Onyx: when no other treatment option is feasible.  

PubMed

Type 1 endoleaks following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair are associated with poor outcomes and re-intervention is recommended as soon as possible after diagnosis. When standard endovascular or surgical treatment options are unsuitable due to severe co-morbidity or adverse anatomic factors, patients can be treated by transcatheter embolisation of the endoleak itself. We describe six such patients with proximal and distal type 1 endoleaks, who have been successfully treated by transcatheter embolisation with Onyx. The embolisation technique, advantages of using this relatively novel liquid embolic agent and potential pitfalls are discussed. PMID:23276679

Chun, J-Y; Morgan, R

2013-02-01

394

Osteoradionecrosis of the jaws—a current overview—part 2: dental management and therapeutic options for treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this paper is to explore the current theories about pretreatment assessment and dental management of patients receiving\\u000a head and neck radiotherapy, and the therapeutic options to treat osteoradionecrosis of the jaws, based on the literature review.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  Osteoradionecrosis is one of the most serious oral complications of head and neck cancer treatment. Osteoradionecrosis is\\u000a a severe delayed radiation-induced

Bruno Ramos Chrcanovic; Peter Reher; Alexandre Andrade Sousa; Malcolm Harris

2010-01-01

395

Opioids in the treatment of postoperative pain: old drugs with new options?  

PubMed

New approved options with opioids in the postoperative setting may include new ways of administration, new combinations with other drugs and new opioid drugs. Newly approved devices for administration include sublingual sufentanil dispenser and transdermal iontophoretic fentanyl, with the purpose of almost mimicking the rapid and reliable onset of intravenous (IV) administration, without the problems of an ongoing IV cannula and cumbersome equipment. Still, potential problems of overdosing and misuse must be in focus when these devices come into use. Tapentadol is a new partial µ-receptor opioid agonist with a combined action on norepinephrine-induced analgesia, representing a promising drug in terms of less side effects at equianalgesic doses compared with pure agonists. The mixture of different opioids given together, such as oxycodone and morphine, for oral use may also have some analgesic synergy with an improved side-effect profile, although more studies are needed. Oral oxycodone is a reliable oral opioid option, but when combined with paracetamol in the same tablet or mixture, care should also be taken to avoid serious side effects from inadvertent paracetamol overdose. PMID:24437530

Raeder, Johan

2014-03-01

396

What's a man to do? Treatment options for localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe treatments for localized prostate cancer: surgery, external radiation therapy, and brachytherapy; watchful waiting might also be appropriate. Patients trying to decide about treatment ask family physicians for advice. This article sets out a framework to aid patients (and physicians) in the decision. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Only two randomized studies comparing different treatments were identified. Because of the paucity of level I or II evidence, suggestions in this review are largely based on expert opinion and consensus statements. MAIN MESSAGE Risk-grouping and nomograms are useful for assessing treatments and estimating outcomes of treatment. Where treatments are equivalent, decisions can be based on perception of toxicity and convenience. Effects on patients'lives and on sexual, urinary, and bowel function vary by treatment modality. CONCLUSION: Men with low-risk prostate cancer should decide on treatment based on their perception of how treatment will affect their lives. Men with higher-risk cancers might accept adverse effects on their quality of life in return for longer survival.

Pickles, Tom

2004-01-01

397

K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE`s commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path.

Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-01-01

398

Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE`s investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4).

Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

1994-11-01

399

Multikinase inhibitors: a new option for the treatment of thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid cancer typically has a good outcome following standard treatments, which include surgery, radioactive iodine ablation and treatment with TSH-suppressive levothyroxine. Thyroid cancers that persist or recur following these therapies have a poorer prognosis. Activation of mitogenic and angiogenic signaling pathways occurs in these cancers, and preclinical models have shown that inhibition of key kinase steps in these pathways can

Matti L. Gild; Martyn Bullock; Bruce G. Robinson; Roderick Clifton-Bligh

2011-01-01

400

Options and Limitations of the Cognitive Psychological Approach to the Treatment of Dyslexia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes how cognitive psychology defines and treats dyslexia. Shows how behaviorism and connectionism can function as supplements in areas in which cognitive psychology has displayed weaknesses and limitations. Characteristics of cognitive psychology, cognitive treatment, and behavioristic and connectionistic treatment are discussed. (CR)

Tonnessen, Finn Egil

1999-01-01

401

Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

2008-01-01

402

LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

BYRNES ME

2008-06-05

403

Atypical Antipsychotics and Other Therapeutic Options for Treatment of Resistant Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Antidepressant therapies, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are current first-line treatments for Major Depressive Disorder. However, over 50% of treated patients show an inadequate response to initial antidepressant therapy. If the therapeutic outcomes from two antidepressant therapies are suboptimal, potentially resulting in Treatment Resistant Depression, subsequent strategies include switching to another antidepressant or augmenting treatment by combining with other agents. When combined with SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics have supplementary action on dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems. Studies on combined treatment with atypical antipsychotics have shown significantly increased remission rates, shortened response times, and favorable side effects. Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics is now an acceptable treatment strategy which leads to increased remission rates and better outcomes for patients.

Seo, Rubo J.; MacPherson, Holly; Young, Allan H.

2010-01-01

404

Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Medullary Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Metastatic and unresectable medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is often difficult to treat as it is relatively unresponsive to radiation and conventional chemotherapy. This emphasizes the importance of the development of targeted therapies for advanced MTC. Vandetanib was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of symptomatic or progressive MTC in patients with advanced disease in April 2011. This therapy proved to be a breakthrough in the management of MTC. We review the efficacy and safety of this novel treatment and other treatments that are being evaluated in this disease.

Deshpande, H. A.; Sheth, K.; Sosa, J. A.; Roman, S.

2012-01-01

405

Treatment Options for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Expand and Evolve  

MedlinePLUS

... adjuvant trastuzumab, Dr. Pivot said. Several other international clinical trials are testing shorter durations of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment in women with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. — Carmen Phillips Further reading: “ For Some Breast Cancers, ...

406

40 CFR 141.715 - Microbial toolbox options for meeting Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...as equivalent to conventional treatment. Specific...be unconsolidated sand containing at... (6) Combined filter performance 0...coagulation prior to first filter. Specific criteria...c) (13) Slow sand filters 2.5-log...

2010-07-01

407

Managing Behçet's disease: An update on current and emerging treatment options.  

PubMed

Behçet's disease is an autoinflammatory vasculitis of unknown origin characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis and skin lesions. Additionally, involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and large vessels may occur. The disease is prevalent in countries along the ancient Silk Road from Eastern Asia to the Mediterranean Basin. Many treatment modalities are currently available. The choice of treatment depends on organ involvement and severity of disease. Topical treatment with corticosteroids is often sufficient for mucocutaneous involvement, however for more severe disease with vasculitis or neurological involvement a more aggressive approach is warranted. Newer drugs (biologicals) influencing cytokines and thereby T-cell function are promising with an acceptable side effect profile. Unfortunately, reimbursement of the costs of biologicals for rare disease is still a problem in various countries. In this report we discuss the current treatment modalities for Behçet's disease. PMID:19536320

van Daele, P La; Kappen, J H; van Hagen, P M; van Laar, J Am

2009-04-01

408

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor)  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer cells there. This is called intrathecal chemotherapy . Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy ... them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the ...

409

An overview of conservative treatment options for diabetic Charcot foot neuroarthropathy  

PubMed Central

Conservative management of Charcot foot neuroarthropathy remains efficacious for certain clinical scenarios. Treatment of the patient should take into account the stage of the Charcot neuroarthopathy, site(s) of involvement, presence or absence of ulceration, presence or absence of infection, overall medical status, and level of compliance. The authors present an overview of evidence-based non-operative treatment for diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy with an emphasis on the most recent developments in therapy.

Ramanujam, Crystal L.; Facaros, Zacharia

2011-01-01

410

Should medical treatment options be exhausted before splenectomy is performed in adult ITP patients? A debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) may require treatment to reduce the risk of serious bleeding if platelets\\u000a remain consistently below 30?×?109\\/L. While approximately 70–80% of patients respond to an initial course of corticosteroids, relapse is common. For steroid-refractory\\u000a patients, there is a choice between surgical splenectomy and further medical treatments, based on many factors including the\\u000a patient’s bleeding history,

Roberto Stasi; Adrian Newland; Patrick Thornton; Ingrid Pabinger

2010-01-01

411

Effect of osteosynthesis, primary hemiarthroplasty, and non-surgical management for displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly: a multi-centre, randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Fractures of the proximal humerus are common injuries and account for 4–5 percent of all fractures, second only to hip and wrist fractures. The incidence is positively cor