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Sample records for nonaqueous battery system

  1. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, M.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-03

    We will present a novel design lithium-organic non-aqueous redox flow battery based on a TEMPO catholyte. This RFB produced desired electrochemical performance exceeding most of the currently reported nonaqueous RFB systems.

  2. Development and validation of chemistry agnostic flow battery cost performance model and application to nonaqueous electrolyte systems: Chemistry agnostic flow battery cost performance model

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Alasdair; Thomsen, Edwin; Reed, David; Stephenson, David; Sprenkle, Vincent; Liu, Jun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur

    2016-01-01

    A chemistry agnostic cost performance model is described for a nonaqueous flow battery. The model predicts flow battery performance by estimating the active reaction zone thickness at each electrode as a function of current density, state of charge, and flow rate using measured data for electrode kinetics, electrolyte conductivity, and electrode-specific surface area. Validation of the model is conducted using a 4kW stack data at various current densities and flow rates. This model is used to estimate the performance of a nonaqueous flow battery with electrode and electrolyte properties used from the literature. The optimized cost for this system is estimated for various power and energy levels using component costs provided by vendors. The model allows optimization of design parameters such as electrode thickness, area, flow path design, and operating parameters such as power density, flow rate, and operating SOC range for various application duty cycles. A parametric analysis is done to identify components and electrode/electrolyte properties with the highest impact on system cost for various application durations. A pathway to 100$kWh-1 for the storage system is identified.

  3. Lithium oxides precipitation in nonaqueous Li-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junbo; Yang, Min; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2012-10-21

    Lithium-air/oxygen battery is a rising star in the field of electrochemical energy storage as a promising alternative to lithium ion batteries. Nevertheless, this alluring system is still at its infant stage, and the breakthrough of lithium-air batteries into the energy market is currently constrained by a combination of scientific and technical challenges. Targeting at the air electrode in nonaqueous lithium-air batteries, this review attempts to summarize the knowledge about the fundamentals related to lithium oxides precipitation, which has been one of the vital and attractive aspects of the research communities of science and technology. PMID:22968061

  4. Boron compounds as anion binding agents for nonaqueous battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xia-Oing; McBreen, James; Xiang, Caili

    2000-02-08

    Novel fluorinated boron-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boron-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boron-based anion receptors include borane and borate compounds bearing different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  5. Nonaqueous magnesium electrochemistry and its application in secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    Aurbach, Doron; Weissman, Idit; Gofer, Yosef; Levi, Elena

    2003-01-01

    A revolution in modern electronics has led to the miniaturization and evolution of many portable devices, such as cellular telephones and laptop computers, since the 1980s. This has led to an increasing demand for new and compatible energy storage technologies. Furthermore, a growing awareness of pollution issues has provided a strong impetus for the science and technology community to develop alternatives with ever-higher energy densities, with the ultimate goal of being able to propel electric vehicles. Magnesium's thermodynamic properties make this metal a natural candidate for utilization as an anode in high-energy-density, rechargeable battery systems. We report herein on the results of extensive studies on magnesium anodes and magnesium insertion electrodes in nonaqueous electrolyte solutions. Novel, rechargeable nonaqueous magnesium battery systems were developed based on the research. This work had two major challenges: one was to develop electrolyte solutions with especially high anodic stability in which magnesium anodes can function at a high level of cycling efficiency; the other was to develop a cathode that can reversibly intercalate Mg ions in these electrolyte systems. The new magnesium batteries consist of Mg metal anodes, an electrolyte with a general structure of Mg(AlX(3-n)R(n)R')(2) (R',R = alkyl groups, X = halide) in ethereal solutions (e.g., tetrahydrofuran, polyethers of the "glyme" family), and Chevrel phases of MgMo(3)S(4) stoichiometry as highly reversible cathodes. With their practical energy density expected to be >60 Wh/Kg, the battery systems can be cycled thousands of times with almost no capacity fading. The batteries are an environmentally friendly alternative to lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries and are composed of abundant, inexpensive, and nonpoisonous materials. The batteries are expected to provide superior results in large devices that require high-energy density, high cycle life, a high degree of safety, and low

  6. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueousmore » electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.« less

  7. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueous electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.

  8. Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Walter, Eric; Lawrence, Chad; Vijayakumar, M; Henderson, Wesley A; Liu, Tianbiao; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Li, Bin; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-07-20

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries hold the promise of achieving higher energy density because of the broader voltage window than aqueous systems, but their current performance is limited by low redox material concentration, cell efficiency, cycling stability, and current density. We report a new nonaqueous all-organic flow battery based on high concentrations of redox materials, which shows significant, comprehensive improvement in flow battery performance. A mechanistic electron spin resonance study reveals that the choice of supporting electrolytes greatly affects the chemical stability of the charged radical species especially the negative side radical anion, which dominates the cycling stability of these flow cells. This finding not only increases our fundamental understanding of performance degradation in flow batteries using radical-based redox species, but also offers insights toward rational electrolyte optimization for improving the cycling stability of these flow batteries. PMID:25891480

  9. Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James; Sun, Xuehui

    2002-01-01

    Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  10. Organic non-aqueous cation-based redox flow batteries

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, Andrew N.; Vaughey, John T.; Chen, Zonghai; Zhang, Lu; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2016-03-29

    The present invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid negative electrolyte, a positive electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid positive electrolyte, and a cation-permeable separator (e.g., a porous membrane, film, sheet, or panel) between the negative electrolyte from the positive electrolyte. During charging and discharging, the electrolytes are circulated over their respective electrodes. The electrolytes each comprise an electrolyte salt (e.g., a lithium or sodium salt), a transition-metal free redox reactant, and optionally an electrochemically stable organic solvent. Each redox reactant is selected from an organic compound comprising a conjugated unsaturated moiety, a boron cluster compound, and a combination thereof. The organic redox reactant of the positive electrolyte is selected to have a higher redox potential than the redox reactant of the negative electrolyte.

  11. Oxygen electrocatalysts in metal-air batteries: from aqueous to nonaqueous electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Dan; Xu, Ji-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2014-11-21

    With the development of renewable energy and electrified transportation, electrochemical energy storage will be more important in the future than it has ever been in the past. Although lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are traditionally considered to be the most likeliest candidate thanks to their relatively long cycle life and high energy efficiency, their limited energy density as well as cost are still causing a bottleneck for their long-term application. Alternatively, metal-air batteries have been proposed as a very promising large-scale electricity storage technology with the replacement of the intercalation reaction mechanism by the catalytic redox reaction of a light weight metal-oxygen couple. Generally, based on the electrolyte, these metal-air batteries can be divided into aqueous and nonaqueous systems, corresponding to two typical batteries of Zn-air and Li-air, respectively. The prominent feature of both batteries are their extremely high theoretical energy density, especially for nonaqueous Li-air batteries, which far exceeds the best that can be achieved with LIBs. In this review, we focus on the major obstacle of sluggish kinetics of the cathode in both batteries, and summarize the fundamentals and recent advances related to the oxygen catalyst materials. According to the electrolyte, the aqueous and nonaqueous electrocatalytic mechanisms of the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions are discussed. Subsequently, seven groups of oxygen catalysts, which have played catalytic roles in both systems, are selectively reviewed, including transition metal oxides (single-metal oxides and mixed-metal oxides), functional carbon materials (nanostructured carbons and doped carbons), metal oxide-nanocarbon hybrid materials, metal-nitrogen complexes (non-pyrolyzed and pyrolyzed), transition metal nitrides, conductive polymers, and precious metals (alloys). Nonaqueous systems have the advantages of energy density and rechargeability over aqueous systems and have

  12. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  13. Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-02-04

    The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

  14. Nonaqueous battery with organic compound cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaji, A.; Yamaki, J.

    1981-02-17

    A battery embodying this invention comprises: an anode including an anode-active material formed of one metal selected from the Group IA metals or preferably lithium metal; a cathode including a cathode-active material formed of metal or metal-free organic compounds having a phthalocyanine function or organic compounds having a porphin function; and an electrolyte prepared from a material which is chemically stable to the cathode and anode materials and permits the migration of the ion of the anode metal to the cathode for electrochemical reaction with the cathode-active material.

  15. High voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries having a non-aqueous electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E.; Hwang, Jaehee

    2016-03-22

    A rechargable magnesium battery having an non-aqueous electrolyte is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  16. Air Dehydration Membranes for Nonaqueous Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaohong S; Liu, Wei

    2010-06-11

    In this paper, several types of new membranes were innovated and used as an O2-selective and H2O barrier films attached onto the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries for continuous supplying of dry air into the batteries from ambient air. The membranes were prepared by depositing an O2/H2O selective coating layer on the exterior surface of a newly-invented thin porous Ni substrate sheet at thickness of ~50µm. The coatings tried include hydrophobic silicalite type zeolite and Teflon (PTFE) materials. The melted PTFE-membrane on the porous Ni sheet at 360°C enabled the Li-air batteries with Ketjen black carbon air electrodes to operate in ambient air (with 20% RH) for 21 days with a specific capacity of 1022 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 2792 Wh/kg carbon. Its performance is much better than the battery assembled with the same battery material but by use of a commercial, porous PTFE diffusion membranes as the moisture barrier layer on the cathode, which only had a discharge time of five and half days corresponding to a specific capacity of 267 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 704Wh/kg carbon. The Li-air battery with the present selective membrane barrier layer even showed better performance in ambient air operation (20% RH) than the reference battery tested in the dry air box (< 1% RH).

  17. Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2009-07-07

    The selection and optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for ambient operations of lithium/air batteries has been studied. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between lithium anode and water during discharge process. It is critical to make the electrolytes with high polarity so that it can reduce wetting and flooding of carbon based air electrode and lead to improved battery performance. For ambient operations, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, and oxygen solubility of the electrolyte are less important than the polarity of organic solvents once the electrolyte has reasonable viscosity, conductivity, and oxygen solubility. It has been found that PC/EC mixture is the best solvent system and LiTFSI is the most feasible salt for ambient operations of Li/air batteries. Battery performance is not very sensitive to PC/EC ratio or salt concentration.

  18. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium-air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-06-07

    A lithium-air cell includes a negative electrode; an air positive electrode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte which includes an anion receptor that may be represented by one or more of the formulas. ##STR00001##

  19. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in this work. We identified the superoxide radical anion (O2•-) as an intermediate in the ORR process using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap, while no O2•- in OER was detected during the charge process. These findings provide insightful understanding on the fundamental oxygen reaction mechanisms in rechargeable nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

  20. Enhancing electrochemical intermediate solvation through electrolyte anion selection to increase nonaqueous Li-O2 battery capacity.

    PubMed

    Burke, Colin M; Pande, Vikram; Khetan, Abhishek; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-07-28

    Among the "beyond Li-ion" battery chemistries, nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have the highest theoretical specific energy and, as a result, have attracted significant research attention over the past decade. A critical scientific challenge facing nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries is the electronically insulating nature of the primary discharge product, lithium peroxide, which passivates the battery cathode as it is formed, leading to low ultimate cell capacities. Recently, strategies to enhance solubility to circumvent this issue have been reported, but rely upon electrolyte formulations that further decrease the overall electrochemical stability of the system, thereby deleteriously affecting battery rechargeability. In this study, we report that a significant enhancement (greater than fourfold) in Li-O2 cell capacity is possible by appropriately selecting the salt anion in the electrolyte solution. Using (7)Li NMR and modeling, we confirm that this improvement is a result of enhanced Li(+) stability in solution, which, in turn, induces solubility of the intermediate to Li2O2 formation. Using this strategy, the challenging task of identifying an electrolyte solvent that possesses the anticorrelated properties of high intermediate solubility and solvent stability is alleviated, potentially providing a pathway to develop an electrolyte that affords both high capacity and rechargeability. We believe the model and strategy presented here will be generally useful to enhance Coulombic efficiency in many electrochemical systems (e.g., Li-S batteries) where improving intermediate stability in solution could induce desired mechanisms of product formation. PMID:26170330

  1. Enhancing electrochemical intermediate solvation through electrolyte anion selection to increase nonaqueous Li–O2 battery capacity

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Colin M.; Pande, Vikram; Khetan, Abhishek; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; McCloskey, Bryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Among the “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries, nonaqueous Li–O2 batteries have the highest theoretical specific energy and, as a result, have attracted significant research attention over the past decade. A critical scientific challenge facing nonaqueous Li–O2 batteries is the electronically insulating nature of the primary discharge product, lithium peroxide, which passivates the battery cathode as it is formed, leading to low ultimate cell capacities. Recently, strategies to enhance solubility to circumvent this issue have been reported, but rely upon electrolyte formulations that further decrease the overall electrochemical stability of the system, thereby deleteriously affecting battery rechargeability. In this study, we report that a significant enhancement (greater than fourfold) in Li–O2 cell capacity is possible by appropriately selecting the salt anion in the electrolyte solution. Using 7Li NMR and modeling, we confirm that this improvement is a result of enhanced Li+ stability in solution, which, in turn, induces solubility of the intermediate to Li2O2 formation. Using this strategy, the challenging task of identifying an electrolyte solvent that possesses the anticorrelated properties of high intermediate solubility and solvent stability is alleviated, potentially providing a pathway to develop an electrolyte that affords both high capacity and rechargeability. We believe the model and strategy presented here will be generally useful to enhance Coulombic efficiency in many electrochemical systems (e.g., Li–S batteries) where improving intermediate stability in solution could induce desired mechanisms of product formation. PMID:26170330

  2. A novel non-aqueous aluminum sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Gil; Ma, Lin; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-06-01

    An aluminum-sulfur battery comprised of a composite sulfur cathode, aluminum anode and an ionic liquid electrolyte of AlCl3/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride is described. The electrochemical reduction of elemental sulfur has been studied in different molar ratios of the electrolyte, and aluminum tetrachloride ions have been identified at the electroactive ionic species. The Al/S battery exhibits a discharge voltage plateau of 1.1-1.2 V, with extremely high charge storage capacity of more than 1500 mAh g-1, relative to the mass of sulfur in the cathode. The energy density of the Al/S cell is estimated to be 1700 Wh kg-1 sulfur, which is competitive with the most attractive battery chemistries targeted for high-energy electrochemical storage. Characterization by means of SEM, XRD and XPS of the battery components reveal complete dissolution of sulfur-based discharge products to the electrolyte. The low cost, natural abundance and high volumetric energy density of both anode and cathode materials define a research path for new materials and cell designs for next-generation Al/S battery systems.

  3. A symmetric organic-based nonaqueous redox flow battery and its state of charge diagnostics by FTIR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Duan, Wentao; Vemuri, Rama Ses; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Laramie, Sydney; Dmello, Rylan D.; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Dehong; Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; et al

    2016-03-10

    Redox flow batteries have shown outstanding promise for grid-scale energy storage to promote utilization of renewable energy and improve grid stability. Nonaqueous battery systems can potentially achieve high energy density because of their broad voltage window. In this paper, we report a new organic redox-active material for use in a nonaqueous redox flow battery, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) that has high solubility (>2.6 M) in organic solvents. PTIO exhibits electrochemically reversible disproportionation reactions and thus can serve as both anolyte and catholyte redox materials in a symmetric flow cell. The PTIO flow battery has a moderate cell voltage of ~1.7 V andmore » shows good cyclability under both cyclic voltammetry and flow cell conditions. Moreover, we demonstrate that FTIR can offer accurate estimation of the PTIO concentration in electrolytes and determine the state of charge of the PTIO flow cell, which suggests FTIR potentially as a powerful online battery status sensor. In conclusion, this study is expected to inspire more insights in this under-addressed area of state of charge analysis aiming at operational safety and reliability of flow batteries.« less

  4. Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Walter, Eric D.; Lawrence, Chad W.; Vijayakumar, M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Li, Bin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-07-20

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries hold the promise to achieve higher energy density ascribed to the broader voltage window than their aqueous counterparts, but their current performance is limited by low redox material concentration, poor cell efficiency, and inferior cycling stability. We report a new nonaqueous total-organic flow battery based on high concentrations of 9-fluorenone as negative and 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1-methoxy-4-[2’-methoxyethoxy]benzene as positive redox materials. The supporting electrolytes are found to greatly affect the cycling stability of flow cells through varying chemical stabilities of the charged radical species, especially the 9-fluorenone radical anions, as confirmed by electron spin resonance. Such an electrolyte optimization sheds light on mechanistic understandings of capacity fading in flow batteries employing organic radical-based redox materials and demonstrates that rational design of supporting electrolyte is vital for stable cyclability.

  5. Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E; Hwang, Jaehee

    2015-02-10

    An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  6. New class of nonaqueous electrolytes for long-life and safe lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zonghai; Ren, Yang; Jansen, Andrew N; Lin, Chi-Kai; Weng, Wei; Amine, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Long-life and safe lithium-ion batteries have been long pursued to enable electrification of the transportation system and for grid applications. However, the poor safety characteristics of lithium-ion batteries have been the major bottleneck for the widespread deployment of this promising technology. Here, we report a novel nonaqueous Li(2)B(12)F(12-x)H(x) electrolyte, using lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate as an electrolyte additive, that has superior performance to the conventional LiPF(6)-based electrolyte with regard to cycle life and safety, including tolerance to both overcharge and thermal abuse. Cells tested with the Li(2)B(12)F(9)H(3)-based electrolyte maintained about 70% initial capacity when cycled at 55 °C for 1,200 cycles, and the intrinsic overcharge protection mechanism was active up to 450 overcharge abuse cycles. Results from in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction showed that the thermal decomposition of the delithiated Li(1-x)[Ni(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)](0.9)O(2) cathode was delayed by about 20 °C when using the Li(2)B(12)F(12)-based electrolyte. PMID:23443541

  7. Evolutionary Design of Low Molecular Weight Organic Anolyte Materials for Applications in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sevov, Christo S; Brooner, Rachel E M; Chénard, Etienne; Assary, Rajeev S; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-11-18

    The integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid requires low-cost energy storage systems that mediate the variable and intermittent flux of energy associated with most renewables. Nonaqueous redox-flow batteries have emerged as a promising technology for grid-scale energy storage applications. Because the cost of the system scales with mass, the electroactive materials must have a low equivalent weight (ideally 150 g/(mol·e(-)) or less), and must function with low molecular weight supporting electrolytes such as LiBF4. However, soluble anolyte materials that undergo reversible redox processes in the presence of Li-ion supports are rare. We report the evolutionary design of a series of pyridine-based anolyte materials that exhibit up to two reversible redox couples at low potentials in the presence of Li-ion supporting electrolytes. A combination of cyclic voltammetry of anolyte candidates and independent synthesis of their corresponding charged-states was performed to rapidly screen for the most promising candidates. Results of this workflow provided evidence for possible decomposition pathways of first-generation materials and guided synthetic modifications to improve the stability of anolyte materials under the targeted conditions. This iterative process led to the identification of a promising anolyte material, N-methyl 4-acetylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate. This compound is soluble in nonaqueous solvents, is prepared in a single synthetic step, has a low equivalent weight of 111 g/(mol·e(-)), and undergoes two reversible 1e(-) reductions in the presence of LiBF4 to form reduced products that are stable over days in solution. PMID:26514666

  8. Key scientific challenges in current rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Mahesh Datt; Geaney, Hugh; Nolan, Michael; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2014-06-28

    Rechargeable Li-air (henceforth referred to as Li-O2) batteries provide theoretical capacities that are ten times higher than that of current Li-ion batteries, which could enable the driving range of an electric vehicle to be comparable to that of gasoline vehicles. These high energy densities in Li-O2 batteries result from the atypical battery architecture which consists of an air (O2) cathode and a pure lithium metal anode. However, hurdles to their widespread use abound with issues at the cathode (relating to electrocatalysis and cathode decomposition), lithium metal anode (high reactivity towards moisture) and due to electrolyte decomposition. This review focuses on the key scientific challenges in the development of rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries from both experimental and theoretical findings. This dual approach allows insight into future research directions to be provided and highlights the importance of combining theoretical and experimental approaches in the optimization of Li-O2 battery systems. PMID:24833409

  9. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-01-26

    A substantially non-aqueous electrolyte solution includes an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an organophosphorus compound of Formula IA, IB, or IC: ##STR00001## where R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 are each independently hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, heteroaryl, alkoxy, alkenoxy, alkynoxy, cycloalkoxy, aryloxy, heterocyclyloxy, heteroaryloxy, siloxyl, silyl, or organophosphatyl; R.sup.5 and R.sup.6 are each independently alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, or heteroaryl; R.sup.7 is ##STR00002## and R.sup.8, R.sup.9 and R.sup.10 are each independently alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, or heteroaryl; provided that if the organophosphorus compound is of Formula IB, then at least one of R.sup.5, and R.sup.6 are other than hydrogen, alkyl, or alkenyl; and if the organophosphorus compound is of Formula IC, then the electrolyte solution does not include 4-methylene-1,3-dioxolan-2-one or 4,5-dimethylene-1,3-dioxolan-2-one.

  10. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  11. Through-plane conductivities of membranes for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2015-08-13

    In this study, nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFB) leverage nonaqueous solvents to enable higher operating voltages compared to their aqueous counterparts. Most commercial components for flow batteries, however, are designed for aqueous use. One critical component, the ion-selective membrane, provides ionic conductance between electrodes while preventing crossover of electroactive species. Here we evaluate the area-specific conductances and through-plane conductivities of commercially available microporous separators (Celgard 2400, 2500) and anion exchange membranes (Neosepta AFX, Neosepta AHA, Fumasep FAP-450, Fumasep FAP-PK) soaked in acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, or two imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Fumasep membranes combined with acetonitrile-based electrolyte solutions provided the highest conductance values and conductivities by far. When tested in ionic liquids, all anion exchange membranes displayed conductivities greater than those of the Celgard microporous separators, though the separators’ decreased thickness-enabled conductances on par with the most conductive anion exchange membranes. Ionic conductivity is not the only consideration when choosing an anion exchange membrane; testing of FAP-450 and FAP-PK membranes in a nonaqueous RFB demonstrated that the increased mechanical stability of PEEK-supported FAP-PK minimized swelling, in turn decreasing solvent mediated crossover and enabling greater electrochemical yields (40% vs. 4%) and Coulombic efficiencies (94% vs. 90%) compared to the unsupported, higher conductance FAP-450.

  12. Through-plane conductivities of membranes for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2015-08-13

    In this study, nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFB) leverage nonaqueous solvents to enable higher operating voltages compared to their aqueous counterparts. Most commercial components for flow batteries, however, are designed for aqueous use. One critical component, the ion-selective membrane, provides ionic conductance between electrodes while preventing crossover of electroactive species. Here we evaluate the area-specific conductances and through-plane conductivities of commercially available microporous separators (Celgard 2400, 2500) and anion exchange membranes (Neosepta AFX, Neosepta AHA, Fumasep FAP-450, Fumasep FAP-PK) soaked in acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, or two imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Fumasep membranes combined with acetonitrile-based electrolyte solutions provided the highest conductancemore » values and conductivities by far. When tested in ionic liquids, all anion exchange membranes displayed conductivities greater than those of the Celgard microporous separators, though the separators’ decreased thickness-enabled conductances on par with the most conductive anion exchange membranes. Ionic conductivity is not the only consideration when choosing an anion exchange membrane; testing of FAP-450 and FAP-PK membranes in a nonaqueous RFB demonstrated that the increased mechanical stability of PEEK-supported FAP-PK minimized swelling, in turn decreasing solvent mediated crossover and enabling greater electrochemical yields (40% vs. 4%) and Coulombic efficiencies (94% vs. 90%) compared to the unsupported, higher conductance FAP-450.« less

  13. Catalytic activity trends of oxygen reduction reaction for nonaqueous Li-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Chun; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-11-30

    We report the intrinsic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline palladium, platinum, ruthenium, gold, and glassy carbon surfaces in 0.1 M LiClO(4) 1,2-dimethoxyethane via rotating disk electrode measurements. The nonaqueous Li(+)-ORR activity of these surfaces primarily correlates to oxygen adsorption energy, forming a "volcano-type" trend. The activity trend found on the polycrystalline surfaces was in good agreement with the trend in the discharge voltage of Li-O(2) cells catalyzed by nanoparticle catalysts. Our findings provide insights into Li(+)-ORR mechanisms in nonaqueous media and design of efficient air electrodes for Li-air battery applications. PMID:22044022

  14. Solvents' Critical Role in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, B D; Bethune, D S; Shelby, R M; Girishkumar, G; Luntz, A C

    2011-05-19

    Among the many important challenges facing the development of Li-air batteries, understanding the electrolyte's role in producing the appropriate reversible electrochemistry (i.e., 2Li(+) + O2 + 2e(-) ↔ Li2O2) is critical. Quantitative differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS), coupled with isotopic labeling of oxygen gas, was used to study Li-O2 electrochemistry in various solvents, including carbonates (typical Li ion battery solvents) and dimethoxyethane (DME). In conjunction with the gas-phase DEMS analysis, electrodeposits formed during discharge on Li-O2 cell cathodes were characterized using ex situ analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Carbonate-based solvents were found to irreversibly decompose upon cell discharge. DME-based cells, however, produced mainly lithium peroxide on discharge. Upon cell charge, the lithium peroxide both decomposed to evolve oxygen and oxidized DME at high potentials. Our results lead to two conclusions; (1) coulometry has to be coupled with quantitative gas consumption and evolution data to properly characterize the rechargeability of Li-air batteries, and (2) chemical and electrochemical electrolyte stability in the presence of lithium peroxide and its intermediates is essential to produce a truly reversible Li-O2 electrochemistry. PMID:26295320

  15. Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Xu, Wu; Hu, Jian Z.; Vijayakumar, M.; Feng, Ju; Hu, Mary Y.; Deng, Xuchu; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We will present a novel design lithium-organic non-aqueous redox flow battery based on a modified ferrocene catholyte. This RFB produced desired electrochemical performance exceeding most of the currently reported nonaqueous RFB systems.

  16. Chemical and Electrochemical Differences in Nonaqueous Li-O2 and Na-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Bryan D; Garcia, Jeannette M; Luntz, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    We present a comparative study of nonaqueous Li-O2 and Na-O2 batteries employing an ether-based electrolyte. The most intriguing difference between the two batteries is their respective galvanostatic charging overpotentials: a Na-O2 battery exhibits a low overpotential throughout most of its charge, whereas a Li-O2 battery has a low initial overpotential that continuously increases to very high voltages by the end of charge. However, we find that the inherent kinetic Li and Na-O2 overpotentials, as measured on a flat glassy carbon electrode in a bulk electrolysis cell, are similar. Measurement of each batteries' desired product yield, YNaO2 and YLi2O2, during discharge and rechargeability by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) indicates that less chemical and electrochemical decomposition occurs in a Na-O2 battery during the first Galvanostatic discharge-charge cycle. We therefore postulate that reactivity differences (Li2O2 being more reactive than NaO2) between the major discharge products lead to the observed charge overpotential difference between each battery. PMID:26274476

  17. Discharge product morphology versus operating temperature in non-aqueous lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Shyy, W.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, Z. H.; An, L.

    2015-03-01

    During the discharge process of non-aqueous lithium-air batteries, a solid product, Li2O2, forms in the pores of the porous cathode, and eventually causes the discharge process to cease. During the charge process, solid Li2O2 needs to be electrochemically oxidized. The morphology of the discharge product is, therefore, critically related to the capacity and reversibility of the battery. In this work, we experimentally show that for a given design of the cathode, the shape of the discharge product Li2O2 at a given discharge current density remains almost unchanged with a change in the operating temperature, but the size decreases with an increase in the temperature. We also demonstrate that the product shape varies with the discharge current density at a given temperature. The practical implication of these findings is that the capacity, charge voltage, and cyclability of a given non-aqueous lithium-air battery are affected by the operating temperature.

  18. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Park, Seh Kyu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2012-05-04

    Li-air battery has recently emerged as a potentially transformational energy storage technology for both transportation and stationary energy storage applications due to its very high specific energy. However, its practical application is currently limited by the poor power capability, poor cyclability and low energy efficiency, all of which are largely determined by interfacial reactions on oxygen electrocatalysts in air electrode. In this article, we review the fundamental understanding of oxygen electrocatalysis in nonaqueous electrolytes, the status and challenges of oxygen electrocatalysts, and provide a perspective on new electrocatalysts design and development.

  19. Effects of Nonaqueous Electrolytes on the Performance of Primary Lithium/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

    2009-12-18

    The factors affecting the cell performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in primary Li/air batteries operated in an ambient environment were investigated. Four organic additives or co-solvents were also evaluated in electrolytes for Li/air batteries. It has been found that the polarity of an electrolyte is a critical factor for the performance of Li/air batteries. This factor overweighs the effects from the viscosity, ionic conductivity, and oxygen solubility of the electrolytes. In addition, the volume of electrolyte added to a cell significantly affects the discharge performance of a Li/air battery. The strong Lewis base tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane reduces the discharge capacity of a Li/air battery even though its ability to dissolve a certain amount of lithium oxide was supposed to improve the cell performance of Li/air batteries. Addition of two crown ethers, 12-crown-4 and 15-crown-5, especially the former one, can significantly improve the discharge performance of the Li/air cells with electrolytes containing about 15% by weight of such compounds as co-solvents. However, addition of 18-crown-6 decreases the cell performance. The differences among the three crown ethers were investigated.

  20. Screen printed cathode for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C. Y.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zeng, L.; Wei, Z. H.

    2015-11-01

    An issue with conventional non-aqueous Li-O2 battery cathodes that are formed by spraying/brushing/casting/coating carbon black slurries is a lack of sufficiently large pores, vulnerable to clogging by solid discharge products, and hence resulting in a low capacity. In this work, we report a novel cathode structure formed by screen-printing method. This deposition method allows the creation of evenly distributed large pores (∼10 μm). As compared with the cathode formed by slurry-coating method, the cathode formed by the present method increases the battery's capacity by two times. The cyclability is also seen a significant improvement. The improved performance may be attributed to large pores that give more appropriate distributions of discharge products and hence facilitate the transportation of oxygen during cycling.

  1. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediatemore » ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.« less

  2. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediate ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

  3. Facile in Situ Preparation of Graphitic-C₃N₄@carbon Paper As an Efficient Metal-Free Cathode for Nonaqueous Li-O₂ Battery.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jin; Liao, Kaiming; Zhang, Chaofeng; Zhang, Tao; Li, Fujun; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-05-27

    The rechargeable Li-O2 batteries with high theoretical specific energy are considered to be a promising energy storage system for electric vehicle application. Because of the prohibitive cost, limited supply, and weak durability of precious metals, the developments of novel metal-free catalysts become significant. Herein, the graphitic-carbon nitride@carbon papers have been produced by a facile in situ method and explored as cathodes for Li-O2 batteries, which manifest considerable electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction in nonaqueous electrolytes because of their improved electronic conductivity and high nitrogen content. The assembled Li-O2 batteries using graphitic-carbon nitride@carbon papers as cathodes deliver good rate capability and cycling stability with a capacity retention of more than 100 cycles. PMID:25901759

  4. Computational insights into the effect of carbon structures at the atomic level for non-aqueous sodium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H. R.; Wu, M. C.; Zhou, X. L.; Yan, X. H.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    Carbon materials have been widely used to form air cathodes for non-aqueous sodium-oxygen (Nasbnd O2) batteries due to their large specific surface area, high conductivity and low cost. However, the effect of carbon structures at the atomic level remains poorly understood. In this work, a first-principles study is conducted to investigate how representative carbon structures, including graphite (0001) surface, point defects and fractured edge, influence the discharge and charge processes of non-aqueous Nasbnd O2 batteries. It is found that the single vacancy (SV) defect has the largest adsorption energy (5.81 eV) to NaO2 molecule among the structures studied, even larger than that of the NaO2 molecule on NaO2 crystal (2.81 eV). Such high adsorption energy is attributed to two factors: the dangling atoms in SV defects decrease the distance from NaO2 molecules, and the attachment through oxygen atoms increases the electrons transfer. The findings suggest that SV defects can act as the nucleation sites for NaO2 in the discharge process, and increasing the number of SV defects can facilitate the uniform formation of small-sized particles. The uniformly distributed discharge products lower the possibility for pore clogging, leading to an increased discharge capacity and improved cyclability for non-aqueous Nasbnd O2 batteries.

  5. Performance and cost characteristics of multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange non-aqueous redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laramie, Sydney M.; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Breault, Tanya M.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Thompson, Levi T.

    2016-09-01

    Non-aqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) have recently received considerable attention as promising high energy density, low cost grid-level energy storage technologies. Despite these attractive features, NAqRFBs are still at an early stage of development and innovative design techniques are necessary to improve performance and decrease costs. In this work, we investigate multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange NAqRFBs. Common ion systems decrease the supporting electrolyte requirement, which subsequently improves active material solubility and decreases electrolyte cost. Voltammetric and electrolytic techniques are used to study the electrochemical performance and chemical compatibility of model redox active materials, iron (II) tris(2,2‧-bipyridine) tetrafluoroborate (Fe(bpy)3(BF4)2) and ferrocenylmethyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Fc1N112-BF4). These results help disentangle complex cycling behavior observed in flow cell experiments. Further, a simple techno-economic model demonstrates the cost benefits of employing common ion exchange NAqRFBs, afforded by decreasing the salt and solvent contributions to total chemical cost. This study highlights two new concepts, common ion exchange and multi-electron transfer, for NAqRFBs through a demonstration flow cell employing model active species. In addition, the compatibility analysis developed for asymmetric chemistries can apply to other promising species, including organics, metal coordination complexes (MCCs) and mixed MCC/organic systems, enabling the design of low cost NAqRFBs.

  6. Increasing the energy density of the non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery with the acetonitrile-1,3-dioxolane-dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, T.; Fischer, P.; Tübke, J.; Pinkwart, K.; Elsner, P.

    2014-11-01

    Different solvent mixtures were investigated for non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate (V(acac)3) redox flow batteries with tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate as the supporting electrolyte. The aim of this study was to increase the energy density of the non-aqueous redox flow battery. A mixture of acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and 1-3-dioxolane nearly doubles the solubility of the active species. The proposed electrolyte system was characterized by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and charge-discharge set-up. Spectroscopic methods were applied to understand the interactions between the solvents used and their impact on the solubility. The potential difference between oxidation and reduction of V(acac)3 measured by cyclic voltammetry was about 2.2 V. Impedance spectroscopy showed an electrolyte resistance of about 2400 Ω cm2. Experiments in a charge-discharge test cell achieved coulombic and energy efficiencies of ∼95% and ∼27% respectively. The highest discharge power density was 0.25 mW cm-2.

  7. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  8. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore » the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  9. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  10. Investigations of oxygen reduction reactions in non-aqueous electrolytes and the lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Laoire, Cormac Micheal

    Unlocking the true energy capabilities of the lithium metal negative electrode in a lithium battery has until now been limited by the low capacity intercalation and conversion reactions at the positive electrodes. This is overcome by removing these electrodes and allowing lithium to react directly with oxygen in the atmosphere forming the Li-air battery. Chapter 2 discusses the intimate role of electrolyte, in particular the role of ion conducting salts on the mechanism and kinetics of oxygen reduction in non-aqueous electrolytes designed for such applications and in determining the reversibility of the electrode reactions. Such fundamental understanding of this high energy density battery is crucial to harnessing its full energy potential. The kinetics and mechanisms of O2 reduction in solutions of hexafluorophosphate salts of the general formula X+ PF6-, where, X = tetra butyl ammonium (TBA), K, Na and Li, in acetonitrile have been studied on glassy carbon electrodes using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. Our results show that cation choice strongly influences the reduction mechanism of O2. Electrochemical data supports the view that alkali metal oxides formed via electrochemical and chemical reactions passivate the electrode surface inhibiting the kinetics and reversibility of the processes. The O2 reduction mechanisms in the presence of the different cations have been supplemented by kinetic parameters determined from detailed analyses of the CV and RDE data. The organic solvent present in the Li+-conducting electrolyte has a major role on the reversibility of each of the O2 reduction products as found from the work discussed in the next chapter. A fundamental study of the influence of solvents on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in a variety of non-aqueous electrolytes was conducted in chapter 4. In this work special attention was paid to elucidate the mechanism of the oxygen electrode processes in the rechargeable Li

  11. Solvating additives drive solution-mediated electrochemistry and enhance toroid growth in non-aqueous Li-O₂ batteries.

    PubMed

    Aetukuri, Nagaphani B; McCloskey, Bryan D; García, Jeannette M; Krupp, Leslie E; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Luntz, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Given their high theoretical specific energy, lithium-oxygen batteries have received enormous attention as possible alternatives to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li-ion batteries. However, the maximum discharge capacity in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries is limited to a small fraction of its theoretical value due to the build-up of insulating lithium peroxide (Li₂O₂), the battery's primary discharge product. The discharge capacity can be increased if Li₂O₂ forms as large toroidal particles rather than as a thin conformal layer. Here, we show that trace amounts of electrolyte additives, such as H₂O, enhance the formation of Li₂O₂ toroids and result in significant improvements in capacity. Our experimental observations and a growth model show that the solvating properties of the additives prompt a solution-based mechanism that is responsible for the growth of Li₂O₂ toroids. We present a general formalism describing an additive's tendency to trigger the solution process, providing a rational design route for electrolytes that afford larger lithium-oxygen battery capacities. PMID:25515890

  12. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as a solvent for the non-aqueous electrolyte of rechargeable Li-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Xie, Kai; Wang, Lingyan; Han, Yu

    2012-12-01

    The instability of solvent molecules toward oxygen reduction species is the main reason for the performance deterioration of rechargeable Li-air batteries. Identifying the appropriate electrolyte solvents is one prerequisite for the application of Li-air batteries. In this article, we study N-methyl-2-pyrrodione (NMP) as a solvent for the non-aqueous electrolyte of Li-air batteries. Oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and oxygen oxidation reactions (OERs) are investigated on Au and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in NMP-based terabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAClO4) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) electrolyte solutions using the cyclic voltammetry method. Raman and X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) are used to detect the species on the electrode surface during cell cycles. The results show that while the one-electron O2/O2- reversible couples are observed in TBAClO4/NMP, in presence of Li ion, the initially formed LiO2 generated by one-electron transfer process decomposes to Li2O2. As the predominant discharge products, Li2O2 decomposes during the recharge processes. The cells using NMP-based electrolytes exhibit good cycle performance, and the first cycle efficiency is approximately 97%. Although the decomposition of NMP occurs on the air electrode surface during the cells recharge, the increased chemical stability against oxygen reduction species offer NMP-based electrolytes as potential candidates for rechargeable Li-air batteries electrolytes.

  13. Solvating additives drive solution-mediated electrochemistry and enhance toroid growth in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aetukuri, Nagaphani B.; McCloskey, Bryan D.; García, Jeannette M.; Krupp, Leslie E.; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Luntz, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Given their high theoretical specific energy, lithium-oxygen batteries have received enormous attention as possible alternatives to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li-ion batteries. However, the maximum discharge capacity in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries is limited to a small fraction of its theoretical value due to the build-up of insulating lithium peroxide (Li2O2), the battery’s primary discharge product. The discharge capacity can be increased if Li2O2 forms as large toroidal particles rather than as a thin conformal layer. Here, we show that trace amounts of electrolyte additives, such as H2O, enhance the formation of Li2O2 toroids and result in significant improvements in capacity. Our experimental observations and a growth model show that the solvating properties of the additives prompt a solution-based mechanism that is responsible for the growth of Li2O2 toroids. We present a general formalism describing an additive’s tendency to trigger the solution process, providing a rational design route for electrolytes that afford larger lithium-oxygen battery capacities.

  14. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  15. Storage battery systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

  16. Vehicle storage battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, B.I.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a vehicle storage battery system. Included in this system is a storage battery which has three separate storage battery portions. The main battery portion has a capacity for starting the vehicle under normal circumstances. The first and second standby portions of the battery when connected in a series have a rated capacity sufficient to transfer enough charge to the main battery portion when in a discharged state to start the engine of the vehicle. Another integral component of the system is a battery control having a circuit for connecting the two standby portions in series for charging the main battery portion when it is in a discharged state. This circuit also includes a means for restricting a charging current flow from the standby portions to the main portion to a predetermined safe level. An analogous circuit connects the standby portions in parallel for recharging from the main battery portion with a means for restricting a recharge current flow to a predetermined safe level. The last component is a switch means to switch between the above circuits.

  17. High-energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage. PMID:26702440

  18. High–energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage. PMID:26702440

  19. Ferrocene and cobaltocene derivatives for non-aqueous redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byunghyun; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ketack

    2015-01-01

    Ferrocene and cobaltocene and their derivatives are studied as new redox materials for redox flow cells. Their high reaction rates and moderate solubility are attractive properties for their use as active materials. The cyclability experiments are carried out in a static cell; the results showed that these materials exhibit stable capacity retention and predictable discharge potentials, which agree with the potential values from the cyclic voltammograms. The diffusion coefficients of these materials are 2 to 7 times higher than those of other non-aqueous materials such as vanadium acetylacetonate, iron tris(2,2'-bipyridine) complexes, and an organic benzene derivative. PMID:25428116

  20. Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

    PubMed

    Aurbach, D; Lu, Z; Schechter, A; Gofer, Y; Gizbar, H; Turgeman, R; Cohen, Y; Moshkovich, M; Levi, E

    2000-10-12

    The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been hindered by two problems. First, owing to the chemical activity of Mg, only solutions that neither donate nor accept protons are suitable as electrolytes; but most of these solutions allow the growth of passivating surface films, which inhibit any electrochemical reaction. Second, the choice of cathode materials has been limited by the difficulty of intercalating Mg ions in many hosts. Following previous studies of the electrochemistry of Mg electrodes in various non-aqueous solutions, and of a variety of intercalation electrodes, we have now developed rechargeable Mg battery systems that show promise for applications. The systems comprise electrolyte solutions based on Mg organohaloaluminate salts, and Mg(x)Mo3S4 cathodes, into which Mg ions can be intercalated reversibly, and with relatively fast kinetics. We expect that further improvements in the energy density will make these batteries a viable alternative to existing systems. PMID:11048714

  1. Novel Flower-like Nickel Sulfide as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Non-aqueous Lithium-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhong; Yuan, Xianxia; Zhang, Zhenlin; Mei, Delong; Li, Lin; Ma, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, metal sulfide materials have been explored for the first time as a new choice of bifunctional cathode electrocatalyst materials for non-aqueous lithium-air batteries (LABs). Nickel sulfides with two different morphologies of flower-like (f-NiS) and rod-like (r-NiS) are successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method with and without the assistance of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. As LAB cathode catalysts, both f-NiS and r-NiS demonstrate excellent catalytic activities towards the formation and decomposition of Li2O2, resulting in improved specific capacity, reduced overpotentials and enhanced cycling performance when compared to those of pure Super P based electrode. Moreover, the morphology of NiS materials can greatly affect LAB performance. Particularly, the f-NiS is more favorable than r-NiS in terms of their application in LABs. When compared to both r-NiS and pure super P materials as LAB cathode materials, this f-NiS catalyst material can give the highest capacity of 6733 mA h g(-1) and the lowest charge voltage of 4.24 V at the current density of 75 mA g(-1) and also exhibit an quite stable cycling performance. PMID:26658833

  2. Novel Flower-like Nickel Sulfide as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Non-aqueous Lithium-Air Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhong; Yuan, Xianxia; Zhang, Zhenlin; Mei, Delong; Li, Lin; Ma, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, metal sulfide materials have been explored for the first time as a new choice of bifunctional cathode electrocatalyst materials for non-aqueous lithium-air batteries (LABs). Nickel sulfides with two different morphologies of flower-like (f-NiS) and rod-like (r-NiS) are successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method with and without the assistance of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. As LAB cathode catalysts, both f-NiS and r-NiS demonstrate excellent catalytic activities towards the formation and decomposition of Li2O2, resulting in improved specific capacity, reduced overpotentials and enhanced cycling performance when compared to those of pure Super P based electrode. Moreover, the morphology of NiS materials can greatly affect LAB performance. Particularly, the f-NiS is more favorable than r-NiS in terms of their application in LABs. When compared to both r-NiS and pure super P materials as LAB cathode materials, this f-NiS catalyst material can give the highest capacity of 6733 mA h g-1 and the lowest charge voltage of 4.24 V at the current density of 75 mA g-1 and also exhibit an quite stable cycling performance.

  3. Communication: The influence of CO2 poisoning on overvoltages and discharge capacity in non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana S.; Knudsen, Kristian B.; Mýrdal, Jon S. G.; Younesi, Reza; Højberg, Jonathan; Hjelm, Johan; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-03-01

    The effects of Li2CO3 like species originating from reactions between CO2 and Li2O2 at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Adsorption energies of CO2 at various nucleation sites on a stepped ({1bar 100}) Li2O2 surface were determined and even a low concentration of CO2 effectively blocks the step nucleation site and alters the Li2O2 shape due to Li2CO3 formation. Nudged elastic band calculations show that once CO2 is adsorbed on a step valley site, it is effectively unable to diffuse and impacts the Li2O2 growth mechanism, capacity, and overvoltages. The charging processes are strongly influenced by CO2 contamination, and exhibit increased overvoltages and increased capacity, as a result of poisoning of nucleation sites: this effect is predicted from DFT calculations and observed experimentally already at 1% CO2. Large capacity losses and overvoltages are seen at higher CO2 concentrations.

  4. Non-aqueous carbon black suspensions for lithium-based redox flow batteries: rheology and simultaneous rheo-electrical behavior.

    PubMed

    Youssry, Mohamed; Madec, Lénaïc; Soudan, Patrick; Cerbelaud, Manuella; Guyomard, Dominique; Lestriez, Bernard

    2013-09-14

    We report on the rheological and electrical properties of non-aqueous carbon black (CB) suspensions at equilibrium and under steady shear flow. The smaller the primary particle size of carbon black is, the higher the magnitude of rheological parameters and the conductivity are. The electrical percolation threshold ranges seem to coincide with the strong gel rather than the weak gel rheological threshold ones. The simultaneous measurements of electrical properties under shear flow reveal the well-known breaking-and-reforming mechanism that characterises such complex fluids. The small shear rate breaks up the network into smaller agglomerates, which in turn transform into anisometric eroded ones at very high shear rates, recovering the network conductivity. The type of carbon black, its concentration range and the flow rate range are now precisely identified for optimizing the performance of a redox flow battery. A preliminary electrochemical study for a composite anolyte (CB/Li4Ti5O12) at different charge-discharge rates and thicknesses is shown. PMID:23892887

  5. Novel Flower-like Nickel Sulfide as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Non-aqueous Lithium-Air Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong; Yuan, Xianxia; Zhang, Zhenlin; Mei, Delong; Li, Lin; Ma, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, metal sulfide materials have been explored for the first time as a new choice of bifunctional cathode electrocatalyst materials for non-aqueous lithium-air batteries (LABs). Nickel sulfides with two different morphologies of flower-like (f-NiS) and rod-like (r-NiS) are successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method with and without the assistance of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. As LAB cathode catalysts, both f-NiS and r-NiS demonstrate excellent catalytic activities towards the formation and decomposition of Li2O2, resulting in improved specific capacity, reduced overpotentials and enhanced cycling performance when compared to those of pure Super P based electrode. Moreover, the morphology of NiS materials can greatly affect LAB performance. Particularly, the f-NiS is more favorable than r-NiS in terms of their application in LABs. When compared to both r-NiS and pure super P materials as LAB cathode materials, this f-NiS catalyst material can give the highest capacity of 6733 mA h g−1 and the lowest charge voltage of 4.24 V at the current density of 75 mA g−1 and also exhibit an quite stable cycling performance. PMID:26658833

  6. PARTITIONING TRACERS FOR IN SITU DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS IN GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of the proposed project is to explore the use of partitioning tracers to characterize dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in aquifer systems. Bulk-phase partitioning tracers will be investigated to detect and determine DNAPL saturation, while interface partit...

  7. Revealing instability and irreversibility in nonaqueous sodium-O2 battery chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Sayed Youssef; Yao, Koffi P C; Kwabi, David G; Batcho, Thomas P; Amanchukwu, Chibueze V; Feng, Shuting; Thompson, Carl V; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-07-26

    Charging kinetics and reversibility of Na-O2 batteries can be influenced greatly by the particle size of NaO2 formed upon discharge, and exposure time (reactivity) of NaO2 to the electrolyte. Micrometer-sized NaO2 cubes formed at high discharge rates were charged at smaller overpotentials compared to nanometer-sized counterparts formed at low rates. PMID:27406258

  8. Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Deyu; Hu, Dehong; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the nature of the limited cycle life and poor energy efficiency associated with the secondary Li-O¬2 batteries the discharge products of primary Li-O2 cells at different depth of discharge (DOD) are systematically analyzed in this work. It is revealed that if discharged to 2.0 V a small amount of Li2O2 coexist with Li2CO3 and RO-(C=O)-OLi) in alkyl carbonate-based electrolyte. Further discharging the air electrodes to below 2.0 V the amount of Li2CO3 and LiRCO3 increases significantly due to the severe electrolyte decomposition. There is no Li2O detected in this alkyl carbonate electrolyte regardless of DOD. It is also found that the alkyl carbonate based electrolyte begins to decompose at 4.0 V during charging under the combined influences from the high surface area carbon, the nickel metal current collector and the oxygen atmosphere. Accordingly the impedance of the Li-O2 cell continues to increase after each discharge and recharge process indicating a repeated plating of insoluble lithium salts on the carbon surface. Therefore the whole carbon electrode becomes completely insulated only after a few cycles and loses the function of providing active tri-phase regions for the Li-oxygen batteries.

  9. Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

  10. Anion exchange membrane prepared from simultaneous polymerization and quaternization of 4-vinyl pyridine for non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Sandip; Shin, Sung-Hee; Sung, Ki-Won; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2014-06-01

    A simple, single step and environmentally friendly process is developed for the synthesis of anion exchange membrane (AEM) by simultaneous polymerization and quaternization, unlike the conventional membrane synthesis which consists of separate polymerization and quaternization step. The membrane synthesis is carried out by dissolving polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in cyclohexanone along with 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) and 1,4-dibromobutane (DBB) in the presence of thermal initiator benzoyl peroxide, followed by film casting to get thin and flexible AEMs. The membrane properties such as ion exchange capacity, ionic conductivity and swelling behaviour are tuned by varying the degree of crosslinking. These AEMs exhibit low vanadium permeability, while retaining good dimensional and chemical stability in an electrolyte solution, making them appropriate candidates for non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate redox flow battery (VRFB) applications. The optimized membrane displays ion exchange capacity and ionic conductivity of 2.0 mequiv g-1 and 0.105 mS cm-1, respectively, whereas the efficiency of 91.7%, 95.7% and 87.7% for coulombic, voltage and energy parameter in non-aqueous VRFB, respectively. This study reveals that the non-aqueous VRFB performance is greatly influenced by membrane properties; therefore the optimal control over the membrane properties is advantageous for the improved performance.

  11. Charting the known chemical space for non-aqueous lithium-air battery electrolyte solvents.

    PubMed

    Husch, Tamara; Korth, Martin

    2015-09-21

    Li-air batteries are very promising candidates for powering future mobility, but finding a suitable electrolyte solvent for this technology turned out to be a major problem. We present a systematic computational investigation of the known chemical space for possible Li-air electrolyte solvents. It is shown that the problem of finding better Li-air electrolyte solvents is not only - as previously suggested - about maximizing Li(+) and O2(-) solubilities, but also about finding the optimal balance of these solubilities with the viscosity of the solvent. As our results also show that trial-and-error experiments on known chemicals are unlikely to succeed, full chemical sub-spaces for the most promising compound classes are investigated, and suggestions are made for further experiments. The proposed screening approach is transferable and robust and can readily be applied to optimize electrolytes for other electrochemical devices. It goes beyond the current state-of-the-art both in width (considering the number of compounds screened and the way they are selected), as well as depth (considering the number and complexity of properties included). PMID:26256846

  12. Charting the known chemical space for non-aqueous lithium-air battery electrolyte solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husch, Tamara; Korth, Martin

    The Li-Air battery is a very promising candidate for powering future mobility, but finding a suitable electrolyte solvent for this technology turned out to be a major problem. We present a systematic computational investigation of the known chemical space for possible Li-Air electrolyte solvents. It is shown that the problem of finding better Li-Air electrolyte solvents is not only - as previously suggested - about maximizing Li+ and O2- solubilities, but about finding the optimal balance of these solubilities with the viscosity of the solvent. As our results also show that trial-and-error experiments on known chemicals are unlikely to succeed, full chemical sub-spaces for the most promising compound classes are investigated, and suggestions are made for further experiments. The proposed screening approach is transferable and robust and can readily be applied to optimize electrolytes for other electrochemical devices. It goes beyond the current state-of-the-art both in width (considering the number of compounds screened and the way they are selected), as well as depth (considering the number and complexity of properties included).

  13. Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

  14. MnO2-x nanosheets on stainless steel felt as a carbon- and binder-free cathode for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z. H.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhu, X. B.; Tan, P.

    2016-02-01

    Manganese dioxide (MnO2) has been recognized as an effective catalyst for the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. However, a further improvement in battery performance with the MnO2 catalyst is limited by its low electronic conductivity and catalytic activity, which strongly depend on the morphology and composition. In this work, we develop a carbon- and binder-free MnO2-x nanosheets/stainless steel (SS) cathode via a simple and effective electrodeposition-solvothermal route. The created Mn(III) and oxygen vacancy in MnO2-x nanosheets allows an significant increase in the electronic conductivity and catalytic activity. It is experimentally shown that the use of the present nanostructure MnO2-x/SS cathode in a non-aqueous lithium-oxygen battery results in a rechargeable specific capacity of 7300 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1, which is 39% higher than that with the MnO2/SS cathode. In addition, the specific capacities at 400 mA g-1 and 800 mA g-1 reach 5249 mAh g-1 and 2813 mAh g-1, respectively, which are over 30% higher than that with the MnO2/SS cathode. Furthermore, the discharge/charge cycle test shows no degradation for 120 cycles. All the results show that the present nanostructure MnO2-x/SS cathode is a promising candidate for high-performance lithium-oxygen batteries.

  15. Electrochemical stability of non-aqueous electrolytes for sodium-ion batteries and their compatibility with Na(0.7)CoO2.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Amrtha; Hofmann, Jonas; Dürr, Anna Katharina; Janek, Jürgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2014-02-01

    The present study compares the physico-chemical properties of non-aqueous liquid electrolytes based on NaPF6, NaClO4 and NaCF3SO3 salts in the binary mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes is determined as a function of salt concentration and temperature. It is found that the electrolytes containing NaClO4 and NaPF6 exhibit ionic conductivities ranging from 5 mS cm(-1) to 7 mS cm(-1) at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window of the different electrolytes is studied by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements with respect to a variety of working electrodes (WE) such as glassy carbon (GC), graphite and a carbon gas diffusion layer (GDL). Electrolytes containing NaPF6 and NaClO4 are found to be electrochemically stable with respect to GC and GDL electrodes up to 4.5 V vs. Na/Na(+), with some side reactions starting from around 3.0 V for the latter salt. The results further show that aluminium is preferred over different steels as a cathode current collector. Copper is stable up to a potential of 3.5 V vs. Na/Na(+). In view of practical Na-ion battery systems, the electrolytes are electrochemically tested with Na0.7CoO2 as a positive electrode. It is inferred that the electrolyte NaPF6-EC : DMC is favorable for the formation of a stable surface film and the reversibility of the above cathode material. PMID:24336408

  16. Influence of membrane structure on the operating current densities of non-aqueous redox flow batteries: Organic-inorganic composite membranes based on a semi-interpenetrating polymer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Hee; Kim, Yekyung; Yun, Sung-Hyun; Maurya, Sandip; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2015-11-01

    We develop three types of organic-inorganic composite membranes based on a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN) to explore the effects of membrane structure on the possible operating current densities of a non-aqueous redox flow battery (RFB) system. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) is selected as a supporting polymer matrix for improving the chemical and thermal stability of the organic-inorganic composite membranes. We also introduce silica nanoparticles (5 wt% of PVdF) into the membranes to ensure the low crossover of active species. The fabrication of SIPN through the addition of glycidyl methacrylate, 4-vinylpyridine, or N-vinylcarbazole enables control of the membrane structure. Depending on monomer type, the membrane structure is determined to be either aliphatic or aromatic in terms of chemical properties and either dense or porous in terms of physical properties. These chemical and physical structures affect the electrochemical properties that correspond to charge/discharge performance and to the range of possible operating current densities. An important requirement is to examine charge/discharge performance at the possible range of operating current densities by using various membrane structures. This requirement is discussed in relation to a proposed design strategy for non-aqueous RFB membranes.

  17. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; McCall, Kurt E.

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  18. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  19. 4-acetamido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl as a model organic redox active compound for nonaqueous flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Barton, John L.; Darling, Robert M.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2016-09-01

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) that utilize redox active organic molecules are an emerging energy storage concept with the possibility of meeting grid storage requirements. Sporadic and uneven advances in molecular discovery and development, however, have stymied efforts to quantify the performance characteristics of nonaqueous redox electrolytes and flow cells. A need exists for archetypal redox couples, with well-defined electrochemical properties, high solubility in relevant electrolytes, and broad availability, to serve as probe molecules. This work investigates the 4-acetamido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (AcNH-TEMPO) redox pair for such an application. We report the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the reduced and oxidized compounds at dilute concentrations for electroanalysis, as well as moderate-to-high concentrations for RFB applications. Changes in conductivity, viscosity, and UV-vis absorbance as a function of state-of-charge are quantified. Cyclic voltammetry investigates the redox potential, reversibility, and diffusion coefficients of dilute solutions, while symmetric flow cell cycling determines the stability of the AcNH-TEMPO redox pair over long experiment times. Finally, single electrolyte flow cell studies demonstrate the utility of this redox couple as a platform chemistry for benchmarking NAqRFB performance.

  20. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  1. Carbon electrode with NiO and RuO2 nanoparticles improves the cycling life of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Shyy, W.; Wu, M. C.; Huang, Y. Y.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    Carbon has been regarded as one of the most attractive cathode materials for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries due to its excellent conductivity, high specific area, large porosity, and low cost. However, a key disadvantage of carbon electrodes lies in the fact that carbon may react with Li2O2 and electrolyte to form irreversible side products (e.g. Li2CO3) at the active surfaces, leading to a high charge voltage and a short cycling life. In this work, we address this issue by decorating NiO and RuO2 nanoparticles onto carbon surfaces. It is demonstrated that the NiO-RuO2 nanoparticle-decorated carbon electrode not only catalyzes both the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, but also promotes the decomposition of side products. As a result, the battery fitted with the novel carbon cathode delivers a capacity of 3653 mAh g-1 at a current density of 400 mA g-1, with a charge plateau of 4.01 V. This performance is 440 mV lower than that of the battery fitted with a pristine carbon cathode. The present cathode is also able to operate for 50 cycles without capacity decay at a fixed capacity of 1000 mAh g-1, which is more than twice the cycle number of that of the pristine carbon cathode.

  2. Nitrogen-doped graphene-rich catalysts derived from heteroatom polymers for oxygen reduction in nonaqueous lithium-O2 battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Mack, Nathan H; Gao, Wei; Ma, Shuguo; Zhong, Ruiqin; Han, Jiantao; Baldwin, Jon K; Zelenay, Piotr

    2012-11-27

    In this work, we present a synthesis approach for nitrogen-doped graphene-sheet-like nanostructures via the graphitization of a heteroatom polymer, in particular, polyaniline, under the catalysis of a cobalt species using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as a supporting template. The graphene-rich composite catalysts (Co-N-MWNTs) exhibit substantially improved activity for oxygen reduction in nonaqueous lithium-ion electrolyte as compared to those of currently used carbon blacks and Pt/carbon catalysts, evidenced by both rotating disk electrode and Li-O(2) battery experiments. The synthesis-structure-activity correlations for the graphene nanostructures were explored by tuning their synthetic chemistry (support, nitrogen precursor, heating temperature, and transition metal type and content) to investigate how the resulting morphology and nitrogen-doping functionalities (e.g., pyridinic, pyrrolic, and quaternary) influence the catalyst activity. In particular, an optimal temperature for heat treatment during synthesis is critical to creating a high-surface-area catalyst with favorable nitrogen doping. The sole Co phase, Co(9)S(8), was present in the catalyst but plays a negligible role in ORR. Nevertheless, the addition of Co species in the synthesis is indispensable for achieving high activity, due to its effects on the final catalyst morphology and structure, including surface area, nitrogen doping, and graphene formation. This new route for the preparation of a nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite with carbon nanotube offers synthetic control of morphology and nitrogen functionality and shows promise for applications in nonaqueous oxygen reduction electrocatalysis for Li-O(2) battery cathodes. PMID:23036092

  3. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  4. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  5. Reusable reserve battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, W.E.

    1981-09-08

    Control valve actuated pneumatic means is disclosed for evacuating electrolyte from a storage battery cell to an adjacent storage compartment and for returning the electrolyte to the cell when desired, having a storage compartment, a battery cell, pipe means extending to a lower part of the cell, control valve means for regulating the evacuation and thereafter return of the electrolyte to the cell as desired.

  6. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  7. A non-aqueous redox flow battery based on tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of iron(II) and cobalt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xueqi; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2015-10-01

    A novel non-aqueous redox flow battery employing tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of iron(II) and cobalt(II) as active species is proposed and investigated for energy storage application. The [Fe(phen)3]2+/3+ and [Co(phen)3]+/2+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) redox couples are used as the positive and negative active materials, respectively, in an electrolyte consisting of TEAPF6 and acetonitrile. Electrochemical measurements display that the two redox couples possess a superior and stable potential difference (E°) with a value of 2.1 V vs. Ag/Ag+. The charge-discharge characteristics of the cell show that the charging and discharging current densities have important influences on the battery performance. Stable cycling performance is obtained with low charge-discharge current densities with an electrolyte flow rate of 25 mL min-1. The coulomb, voltage and energy efficiencies achieve up to 80%, 40% and 39%, respectively.

  8. Nonaqueous cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnoki-kis, T.

    1981-07-07

    A nonaqueous cell is disclosed that utlizes an active metal anode, such as lithium, a cathode collector and an ionically conductive cathode electrolyte comprising a solute dissolved in a liquid cathode, such as an oxyhalide, and wherein a vinyl polymer is dissolved in the cathode-electrolyte.

  9. Competitive systems - Ambient temperature rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.

    Recent in designs of aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries are presented. Operation principles, performance characteristics, and applications of various types of lead/acid batteries, alkaline electrolyte batteries, flow batteries, and battery/fuel cell hybrids (such as metal/air and hydrogen/metal oxide systems) are discussed. Consideration is given to the relative importance of such battery parameters as deep discharge capability, freedom from maintenance, shelf life, and cost, depending upon the specific application.

  10. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  11. Intelligent battery systems for automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydder, E. L.; Witehira, P.

    A novel 'intelligent' battery has been developed for automotive applications. The product — known as the Powerbeat battery — consists of a dual, 12-V lead/acid arrangement: six cells are used to supply cranking current and six to supply auxiliary current. An innovative control device allows reliable switching between these two modes of operation. Two versions of the control system are presently in use: one is based on a motion sensor, the other on detecting the load change when the vehicle is started. The dual battery can be manufactured, at similar production rates, in conventional plants. Field trials are in progress in both Australia and New Zealand. Compared with traditional technology, the Powerbeat system offers improved and more reliable performance, greater flexibility in the management of vehicle electrical requirements, and reduced battery size and weight.

  12. Formation of Li3O4 nano particles in the discharge products of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries leads to lower charge overvoltage.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Xu, A; Zhao, T S

    2015-11-28

    Density functional theory calculations are made for bulk thermodynamic properties and surface energies of Li2O2, a primary discharge product, and Li3O4, a possible byproduct in the discharge products, of the non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. Results show that the standard formation Gibbs free energy of bulk Li3O4 is marginally higher than that of Li2O2, but the surface energy of Li3O4 is much lower. Low surface energy results in both lowered nucleation energy and formation Gibbs free energy in the nanometer regime, allowing the Li3O4 nano particles to nucleate ahead of Li2O2 during the discharge process and to exist stably when particle sizes are smaller than about 40 nm. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) image of Li3O4 crystals is simulated and compared with the measured STEM image of the discharge product particles. The consistency between the simulated and measured STEM images suggests that the Li3O4 phase can exist stably as a discharge product. The energy profile of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring on the most abundant surfaces of Li3O4 is also calculated. The predicted overpotential for the OER on the {0001} surface (0.30 V) shows a good agreement with experimental data. The presence of more electronically conductive Li3O4 nano particles in the primary discharge product Li2O2 tends to decrease the charge overvoltage of the batteries, explaining why the lower voltage area (<3.5 V) was widely observed during the charging of the batteries. An increase in the oxygen pressure or a decrease in temperature enhances the stability of the Li3O4 phase and increase the proportion of the Li3O4 phase in the discharge products, consequently leading to a lower overall charge overvoltage. PMID:26486991

  13. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  14. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  15. High power battery systems for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, Donald W.

    Pure electric and hybrid vehicles have differing demands on the battery system of a vehicle. This results in correspondingly different demands on the battery management of a hybrid vehicle. Examples show the differing usage patterns. The consequences for the battery cells and the battery management are discussed. The importance of good thermal management is underlined.

  16. Negative electrodes for non-aqueous secondary batteries composed on conjugated polymer and alkali metal alloying or inserting material

    SciTech Connect

    Shacklette, L.W.; Jow, T.R.; Toth, E.; Maxfield, M.

    1987-05-26

    A battery is described comprising: an anode comprising as the anode active materials one or more conjugated backbone polymers and one or more electroactive materials selected from the group consisting of metals which alloy with alkali metals and alkali metal cation inserting materials; an electrolyte comprising an organic solvent and an alkali-metal salt, and a cathode. The alkali-metal cations from the electrolyte are inserted into the anode as a metal alloy or as an inserted ion in the alkali metal cation inserting material during the charging of the battery.

  17. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seungbum; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2015-11-01

    Low-cost energy storage systems are required to support extensive deployment of intermittent renewable energy on the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries have potential advantages to meet the stringent cost target for grid applications as compared to more traditional batteries based on an enclosed architecture. However, the manufacturing process and therefore potential high-volume production price of redox flow batteries is largely unquantified. We present a comprehensive assessment of a prospective production process for aqueous all vanadium flow battery and nonaqueous lithium polysulfide flow battery. The estimated investment and variable costs are translated to fixed expenses, profit, and warranty as a function of production volume. When compared to lithium-ion batteries, redox flow batteries are estimated to exhibit lower costs of manufacture, here calculated as the unit price less materials costs, owing to their simpler reactor (cell) design, lower required area, and thus simpler manufacturing process. Redox flow batteries are also projected to achieve the majority of manufacturing scale benefits at lower production volumes as compared to lithium-ion. However, this advantage is offset due to the dramatically lower present production volume of flow batteries compared to competitive technologies such as lithium-ion.

  18. A non-aqueous all-cobalt redox flow battery using 1,10-phenanthrolinecobalt(II) hexafluorophosphate as active species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xueqi; Zhang, Dapeng; Li, Yongdan

    2015-04-01

    A non-aqueous all-cobalt redox flow battery, with a cobalt complex 1,10-phenanthrolinecobalt(II) hexafluorophosphate ([Co(phen)3](PF6)2) as the active species, acetonitrile as the solvent and tetraethylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TEAPF6) as the supporting electrolyte, has been investigated. The electrochemical behaviour of oxidation and reduction reactions is measured using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The [Co(phen)3]2+ can be oxidized to [Co(phen)3]3+ and reduced to [Co(phen)3]+. A theoretical cell potential of 1.45 V for one-electron disproportionation reaction is obtained. The electrode reactions show quasi-reversible behaviour and are diffusion controlled. The diffusion coefficients of [Co(phen)3] 2+ for oxidation and reduction reactions are calculated to be 1.35-2.34 × 10-6 cm2 s-1 and 2.50-4.35 × 10-6 cm2 s-1, respectively. The effect of the electrode material is also examined by experiments. The CV curves of [Co(phen)3]2+ on the graphite working electrode show superior peak current and diffusivity to those measured on the glassy-carbon electrode. The charge-discharge performance of the battery is accessed with an H-type glass cell. A coulomb efficiency of about 52% is achieved at 50% state-of-charge for an electrolyte containing of 0.01 M [Co(phen)3]2+ and 0.5 M TEAPF6 in acetonitrile.

  19. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013,...

  20. Proper battery system design for GAS experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogero, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the GAS experimenter to design a battery system that meets mission success requirements while at the same time reducing the hazards associated with the battery system. Lead-acid, silver-zinc and alkaline chemistry batteries will be discussed. Lithium batteries will be briefly discussed with emphasis on back-up power supply capabilities. The hazards associated with different battery configurations will be discussed along with the controls necessary to make the battery system two-fault tolerant.

  1. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  2. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  3. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  4. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  5. Basics and advances in battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.P.; Bolin, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    One of the most common components in both the utility and industrial/commercial power system is the station battery. In many cases, the original design is marginal or inadequate; the maintenance and testing is practically nonexistent; but the system is called upon during emergency conditions and is expected to perform flawlessly. This paper will begin with the basic battery theory starting with the electrochemical cell. A working knowledge of the battery cell is important to understand typical problems such as hydrogen production, sulfating, and battery charging. The paper will then lead into a discussion of some of the common batteries and battery chargers. While this paper will concentrate primarily on the lead acid type of battery, the theory can be utilized on other types such as the Nickel-Cadmium. A reference will be made to industry standards and codes which are used for the design, installation, and maintenance of battery systems. Along with these standards will be a discussion of the design considerations, maintenance and testing, and, finally, some advanced battery system topics such as individual battery cell voltage equalizers and battery pulsing units. The goal of this paper is to provide the reader with a basic working understanding of a battery system. Only with that knowledge can a person be expected to design and/or properly maintain a battery system which may be called upon during an emergency to minimize the effects of a normal power outage, to minimize personnel hazards and to reduce property damage.

  6. Activation of Immobilized Lipase in Non-Aqueous Systems by Hydrophobic Poly-DL-Tryptophan Tethers

    PubMed Central

    Schilke, Karl F.; Kelly, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Many industrially important reactions use immobilized enzymes in non-aqueous, organic systems, particularly for the production of chiral compounds such as pharmaceutical precursors. The addition of a spacer molecule (“tether”) between a supporting surface and enzyme often substantially improves the activity and stability of enzymes in aqueous solution. Most “long” linkers (e.g. polyethylene oxide derivatives) are relatively hydrophilic, improving the solubility of the linker-enzyme conjugate in polar environments, but this provides little benefit in non-polar environments such as organic solvents. We present a novel method for the covalent immobilization of enzymes on solid surfaces using a long, hydrophobic polytryptophan tether. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was covalently immobilized on non-porous, functionalized 1-μm silica microspheres, with and without an intervening hydrophobic poly-DL-tryptophan tether (n ≈ 78). The polytryptophan-tethered enzyme exhibited 35 times greater esterification of n-propanol with lauric acid in the organic phase and five times the hydrolytic activity against pnitrophenol palmitate, compared to the activity of the same enzyme immobilized without tethers. In addition, the hydrophobic tethers caused the silica microspheres to disperse more readily in the organic phase, while the surface-immobilized control treatment was less lipophilic and quickly settled out of the organic phase when the suspensions were not vigorously mixed. PMID:18393315

  7. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Butler, Paul C.; Corey, Garth P.; Symons, Philip C.

    2002-01-01

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  8. Synthesis and studies of boron based anion receptors and their use in non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.; Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; McBreen, J.; Choi, L.S.

    1998-12-31

    A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes and can greatly increase solubility and ionic conductivities of various lithium salts, such as LiF, LiCl, CF{sub 3}COOLi and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi, in DME solutions. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions of LiCl are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions. The electrochemical stability of lithium salts and one of the boron compounds in deferent solvents was studied. For the first time, LiF has been successfully used as conducting salt in a novel electrolyte with this boron compound as an additive in DME. A rechargeable Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell using this electrolyte was successfully cycled 51 times. However, the capacity fades with cycling due to decomposition of the solvent. The cycling performance of the battery was greatly improved by replacing DME with PC-EC-DMC as the solvent.

  9. Testing batteries for photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verardo, A. E.; Butler, P. C.; Bush, D. M.; Miller, D. W.

    A battery evaluation laboratory was established to investigate the application of various battery technologies for energy storage in a photovoltaic power system. The evaluation laboratory provides a controlled test environment in which batteries can be exposed to any one or all of the following: (1) long term performance testing; (2) accelerated life testing; (3) simulated photovoltaic power system operational testing. Several battery systems are being tested. A description is presented of the laboratory and the tests currently being conducted and a brief description of the battery systems under test.

  10. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  11. Stability of superoxide radicals in glyme solvents for non-aqueous Li-O2 battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, K Uta; Meini, Stefano; Wu, Xiaohan; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Piana, Michele

    2013-07-28

    Glyme-based electrolytes were studied for the use in lithium-air batteries because of their greater stability towards oxygen reduction reaction intermediates (e.g., superoxide anion radicals (O2˙(-))) produced upon discharge at the cathode compared to previously employed carbonate-based electrolytes. However, contradictory results of glyme stability tests employing KO2 as an O2˙(-) source were reported in the literature. For clarification, we investigated the reaction of KO2 with glymes of various chain lengths qualitatively using (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy as well as more quantitatively using UV-Vis spectroscopy. During our experiments we found a huge impact of small quantities of impurities on the stability of the solvents. Therefore, we studied further the influence of impurities in the glymes on the cycling behavior of Li-O2 cells, demonstrating the large effect of electrolyte impurities on Li-O2 cell performance. PMID:23760527

  12. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li-air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2- produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. The reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1 and 0.67 s-1 M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  13. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li–air batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants aremore » 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.« less

  14. Real-Time XRD Studies of Li-O2 Electrochemical Reaction in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyunseob; Yilmaz, Eda; Byon, Hye Ryung

    2012-11-01

    Understanding of electrochemical process in rechargeable Li-O2 battery has suffered from lack of proper analytical tool, especially related to the identification of chemical species and number of electrons involved in the discharge/recharge process. Here we present a simple and straightforward analytical method for simultaneously attaining chemical and quantified information of Li2O2 (discharge product) and byproducts using in situ XRD measurement. By real-time monitoring of solid-state Li2O2 peak area, the accurate efficiency of Li2O2 formation and the number of electrons can be evaluated during full discharge. Furthermore, by observation of sequential area change of Li2O2 peak during recharge, we found nonlinearity of Li2O2 decomposition rate for the first time in ether-based electrolyte. PMID:26296031

  15. Battery system with temperature sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  16. Method and system for polishing materials using a nonaqueous magnetorheological fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Ehrmann, Paul Richard

    2014-09-09

    A nonaqueous magnetorheological fluid includes a primarily organic carrier liquid and magnetizable particles. The magnetorheological fluid also includes a buffer, a stabilizer, and water. A pH of the magnetorheological fluid is between 6.5 and 9.0.

  17. Space Station battery system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, R. J.; Chawathe, A. K.; Van Ommering, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station Electric Power System will rely on nickel-hydrogen batteries in its photovoltaic power subsystem for energy storage to support eclipse and contingency operations. These 81-Ah batteries will be designed for a 5-year life capability and are configured as orbital replaceable units (ORUs), permitting replacement of worn-out batteries over the anticipated 30-year Station life. This paper describes the baseline design and the development plans for the battery assemblies, the battery ORUs and the battery system. Key elements reviewed are the cells, mechanical and thermal design of the assembly, the ORU approach and interfaces, and the electrical design of the battery system. The anticipated operational approach is discussed, covering expected performance as well as the processor-controlled charge management and discharge load allocation techniques. Development plans cover verification of materials, cells, assemblies and ORUs, as well as system-level test and analyses.

  18. Non-aqueous electrodeposition of porous tin-based film as an anode for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C. D.; Mai, Y. J.; Zhou, J. P.; You, Y. H.; Tu, J. P.

    2012-09-01

    Porous tin-based films are electrodeposited on copper foils from a choline chloride/ethylene glycol based electrolyte containing SnCl2·2H2O without any complexing agent or additive. Increasing the deposition time and voltage produces thicker films. The initially deposited Sn grains are relatively uniform with an average size of 200-300 nm and a kind of self-assembly distribution constructing an open and bicontinuous porous network. The architecture of these films possesses a double-layer structure, i.e. SnO2 (superficial layer)/Sn-Cu alloy (bottom layer), which is revealed by X-ray diffractometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of the porous tin-based films as anode for lithium-ion batteries is measured. Although the capacity fades gradually with repeated cycling, a reversible capacity of 300-350 mAh g-1 is maintained for more than 50 cycles, which suggests that the in situ formed Sn--Cu alloy could provide an interlocking interface between active materials and current collector. Therefore, the tin's shedding from the current collector can be restrained. Moreover, the inactive materials, such as the oxide in the superficial layer and the Cu in the bottom layer, could also act as buffers to relieve the induced volume expansion of Sn during the repeated lithiathion/delithiation process, thus giving the good cycle performances.

  19. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li–air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  20. Mechanistic Evaluation of LixOy Formation on δ-MnO2 in Nonaqueous Li-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiao; De Jesus, Luis R; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2016-09-01

    Transition metal oxides are usually used as catalysts in the air cathode of lithium-air (Li-air) batteries. This study elucidates the mechanistic origin of the oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by δ-MnO2 monolayers and maps the conditions for Li2O2 growth using a combination of first-principles calculations and mesoscale modeling. The MnO2 monolayer, in the absence of an applied potential, preferentially reacts with a Li atom instead of an O2 molecule to initiate the formation of LiO2. The oxygen reduction products (LiO2, Li2O2, and Li2O molecules) strongly interact with the MnO2 monolayer via the stabilization of Li-O chemical bonds with lattice oxygen atoms. As compared to the disproportionation reaction, direct lithiation reactions are the primary contributors to the stabilization of Li2O2 on the MnO2 monolayer. The energy profiles of (Li2O2)2 and (Li2O)2 nucleation on δ-MnO2 monolayer during the discharge process demonstrate that Li2O2 is the predominant discharge product and that further reduction to Li2O is inhibited by the high overpotential of 1.21 V. Interface structures have been examined to study the interaction between the Li2O2 and MnO2 layers. This study demonstrates that a Li2O2 film can be homogeneously deposited onto δ-MnO2 and that the Li2O2/MnO2 interface acts as an electrical conductor. A mesoscale model, developed based on findings from the first-principles calculations, further shows that Li2O2 is the primary product of electrochemical reactions when the applied potential is smaller than 2.4 V. PMID:27532334

  1. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  2. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the seventh meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  3. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  4. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Brad

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  5. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  6. Na3V2O2(PO4)2F-MWCNT nanocomposites as a stable and high rate cathode for aqueous and non-aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. Ramesh; Jung, Young Hwa; Wang, Ji Eun; Kim, Do Kyung

    2016-08-01

    NASICON-type structured Na3V2O2(PO4)2F nanocubes with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite has been synthesized by ethylene glycol-assisted hydrothermal reaction and used as a rechargeable non-aqueous and aqueous sodium-ion battery cathode material. As a cathode material for non-aqueous sodium-ion batteries, as-synthesized Na3V2O2(PO4)2F-MWCNT composite shows stable capacity of 98 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C for 120 cycles and 60 mAh g-1 at 2 C for 1800 cycles in half-cell and full-cell configurations, respectively. In aqueous electrolytes, Na3V2O2(PO4)2F-MWCNT composite delivers discharge capacity of 35 mAh g-1 at 1 C rate in half-cell and 42 mAh g-1 at 1 C rate in full-cell with NaTi2(PO4)3-MWCNT as an anode. Stable cyclability and high rate performance of Na3V2O2(PO4)2F-MWCNT nanocomposite can be attributed to the very short sodium ion diffusion length in nano cube morphology of Na3V2O2(PO4)2F as well as the carbon nanotubes matrix which endows the unbreakable conductive networks for electrons and Na+ ions.

  7. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  8. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  9. The electrochemical fluorination of polymeric materials for high energy density aqueous and non-aqueous battery and fuel cell separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized system was established and the electrochemical fluorination of trichloroethylene, polyacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride was attempted. Both solid substrates as well as membranes were used. Some difficulties were found in handling and analyzing the solid substrates and membranes. Further studies are needed in this area. A microprocessor aided electrochemical fluorination system capable of obtaining highly reproducible experimental results was established.

  10. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  11. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; O'Donnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high-performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  12. NASA aerospace flight battery systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  13. Controlled fabrication of SrMoO{sub 4} hierarchical nanosheets in a surfactant-assisted nonaqueous system

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Shuijin; Peng, Xiaomin; Li, Xiuping; Liang, Zhihong; Yang, Yi; Cheng, Baochang; Xiao, Yanhe; Zhou, Lang

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} An imitated nonaqueous microemulsion system was developed. {yields} Various hierarchical architectures of SrMoO{sub 4} nanosheets were fabricated. {yields} The solvent, surfactant, reaction temperature and reaction time were important. {yields} The products emit a strong blue (474 nm) and weak green (573 nm) luminescence. -- Abstract: Various hierarchical architectures of SrMoO{sub 4} nanosheets (thickness of 8-9 nm) have been successfully prepared in nonaqueous system by a surfactant-assisted solvothermal method. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to study the crystal structure and morphologies of the products. Experiments showed that the solvent, surfactant, reaction temperature and reaction time were crucial for the oriented aggregation of the SrMoO{sub 4} nanosheets. Morphological control of these parameters resulted in platelet, column, interlaced multilayer and nest of nanosheets. A possible growth mechanism for these hierarchical architectures has also been proposed according to the morphological evolution with the reaction time. The optical properties of the products were also examined by means of photoluminescence and excitation spectroscopy. Photoluminescence studies revealed that these SrMoO{sub 4} nanocrystals exhibited a greatly strong blue emission under 325-nm excitation with different intensities but centered at the same position of 474 nm.

  14. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 90. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Binary and Ternary Systems. Part II. Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Hydroxybenzoates, and Hydroxybenzoic Acid Salts in Nonaqueous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Salomon, Mark; Goto, Rensuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Königsberger, Erich; Königsberger, Lan-Chi; Scharlin, Pirketta

    2011-06-01

    The solid-liquid solubility data for well defined nonaqueous binary and ternary systems are reviewed. One component includes hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxybenzoate, and hydroxybenzoic acid salt, and another component includes a variety of organic compounds (hydrocarbons, alcohols, halogenated hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, et al.) and carbon dioxide. The ternary systems include mixtures of organic substances of various classes and carbon dioxide. The total number of compilation sheets is 270 for six types of system. Almost all data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration. Critical evaluation was carried out for the binary nonaqueous systems of 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxybenzoates (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben) in alcohols, 1-heptane, and benzene.

  15. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  16. Microprocessor controlled advanced battery management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The advanced battery management system described uses the capabilities of an on-board microprocessor to: (1) monitor the state of the battery on a cell by cell basis; (2) compute the state of charge of each cell; (3) protect each cell from reversal; (4) prevent overcharge on each individual cell; and (5) control dual rate reconditioning to zero volts per cell.

  17. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  18. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  19. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  20. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  1. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  2. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  3. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cells are currently being manufactured on a semi-experimental basis. Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This has been stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  4. Na3V2O2(PO4)2F-MWCNT nanocomposites as a stable and high rate cathode for aqueous and non-aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. Ramesh; Jung, Young Hwa; Wang, Ji Eun; Kim, Do Kyung

    2016-08-01

    NASICON-type structured Na3V2O2(PO4)2F nanocubes with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite has been synthesized by ethylene glycol-assisted hydrothermal reaction and used as a rechargeable non-aqueous and aqueous sodium-ion battery cathode material. As a cathode material for non-aqueous sodium-ion batteries, as-synthesized Na3V2O2(PO4)2F-MWCNT composite shows stable capacity of 98 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C for 120 cycles and 60 mAh g-1 at 2 C for 1800 cycles in half-cell and full-cell configurations, respectively. In aqueous electrolytes, Na3V2O2(PO4)2F-MWCNT composite delivers discharge capacity of 35 mAh g-1 at 1 C rate in half-cell and 42 mAh g-1 at 1 C rate in full-cell with NaTi2(PO4)3-MWCNT as an anode. Stable cyclability and high rate performance of Na3V2O2(PO4)2F-MWCNT nanocomposite can be attributed to the very short sodium ion diffusion length in nano cube morphology of Na3V2O2(PO4)2F as well as the carbon nanotubes matrix which endows the unbreakable conductive networks for electrons and Na+ ions.

  5. Advanced U. S. military aircraft battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Flake, R.A.; Eskra, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    While most USAF aircraft currently use vented Ni-Cd for dc electrical power and emergency power, as well as the powering of lights and instruments prior to engine starting, these batteries have high maintenance requirements, low reliability, and no built-in testing capability with which to check battery health prior to flight. The USAF Wright R D Center accordingly initiated its Advanced Maintenance-Free NiCd Battery System development program in 1986, in order to develop a sealed Ni-Cd battery which would remain maintenance-free over a period of three years. Attention is being given to a high power bipolar battery design in which there are no individual cell cases or cell interconnects.

  6. NASA aerospace battery system program initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight and flight battery system problems in flight programs at NASA created high-level concern and interest in the current battery technology status. As a result, NASA conducted an in-house review of problems experienced both internally and by other government users. The derived issues which encompassed the programmatic scope from cell manufacturing to in-flight operations of the system are discussed. From the identified deficiencies, a modestly scaled battery program was established to alleviate or minimize the risks of future occurrences.

  7. A high reliability battery management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Over a period of some 5 years Canadian Astronautics Limited (CAL) has developed a system to autonomously manage, and thus prolong the life of, secondary storage batteries. During the development, the system was aimed at the space vehicle application using nickel cadmium batteries, but is expected to be able to enhance the life and performance of any rechargeable electrochemical couple. The system handles the cells of a battery individually and thus avoids the problems of over, and under, drive that inevitably occur in a battery of cells managed by an averaging system. This individual handling also allow cells to be totally bypassed in the event of failure, thus avoiding the losses associated with low capacity, partial short circuit, and the catastrophe of open circuit. The system has an optional capability of managing redundant batteries simultaneously, adding the advantage of on line reconditioning of one battery, while the other maintains the energy storage capability of the overall system. As developed, the system contains a dedicated, redundant, microprocessor, but the capability exists to have this computing capability time shared, or remote, and operating through a data link. As adjuncts to the basic management system CAL has developed high efficiency, polyphase, power regulators for charge and discharge power conditioning.

  8. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  9. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  10. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-06-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  11. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOEpatents

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  12. Orbiting astronomical observatory battery and power system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.

    1977-01-01

    The battery design of OAO-C (OAO-3) is given and consists of three-20 ampere hour 22 series connected cells in the battery. There are three batteries per spacecraft. The packaging configuration is described. The charging-discharging operations and the voltage potential of the battery system are discussed. Graphs are presented for the voltage limits (battery voltage versus temperature) and end of dark voltages (battery voltage versus ampere-hours discharged) of the battery system used on OAO-3. Data tables are also presented which give a summary of the battery performance and a comparison of OAO-3 with OAO A-2.

  13. Complexity in battery systems: Thermal runaway in VRLA batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherino, Henry A.

    During battery discharge, the heat generated is the sum of the Joule (resistive) and enthalpic (chemical) heating effects. Conversely, during battery charging, the heat generated is the Joule minus the enthalpic heating. If the conditions are carefully selected, one can observe a net battery cooling during charging. However, an interesting phenomenon takes place during overcharge. Those cells designed as sealed recombinant systems develop significant heating. Flooded designs do not exhibit this effect. The applied electric power generates energetic reaction products as a consequence of the electrochemical reactions. This is an energy absorbing process. The gasses are then vented into the environment. Since the sealed cells undergo a closed recombination cycle, i.e., no material is exchanged with the environment, the rate of heat generated is proportional to the power input to the cell. Essentially, the cell is behaving in the manner of a resistor. In this connection, the thermal runaway phenomenon that has been often observed in starved electrolyte cell designs raises a potential problem in battery applications. It is not efficient to design around the worst case scenario, i.e., anticipating the thermal runaway effect. It is wiser to detect its onset and shut down the charging process. An alternative approach is to develop an understanding of the thermal runaway process and, perhaps, develop a method for eliminating or effectively controlling it. A study was performed in an attempt to model the thermal runaway effect. In short, the effect appears to be related to the electrolyte distribution in the separator. This suggests that modification of the AGM separator properties could provide a means for better controlling the thermal runaway failure mode.

  14. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  15. Monitoring the battery status for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myungsoo; Hwang, Euijin

    Photovoltaic power systems in Korea have been installed in remote islands where it is difficult to connect the utilities. Lead/acid batteries are used as an energy storage device for the stand-alone photovoltaic system. Hence, monitoring the battery status of photovoltaic systems is quite important to extend the total system service life. To monitor the state-of-charge of batteries, we adopted a current interrupt technique to measure the internal resistance of the battery. The internal resistance increases at the end of charge/discharge steps and also with cycles. The specific gravity of the electrolyte was measured in relation to the state-of-charge. A home-made optical hydrometer was utilized for automatic monitoring of the specific gravity. It is shown that the specific gravity and stratification increase with cycle number. One of the photovoltaic systems in a remote island, Ho-do, which has 90 kW peak power was checked for actual operational conditions such as solar generation, load, and battery status.

  16. Testing of Candidate Batteries for Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. A.; Debold, F. C.; Bis, R. F.; Buchholz, S.; Davis, P.; Kowalchik, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Three lithium batteries proposed as candidates for use in the Global Positioning System are studied. The batteries are discharged at several rates and temperatures both before and after environmental testing. Batteries are heated inside a closed chamber until they vent. Samples of the vented gases are analyzed for components which might be toxic. The test results raise concerns about each of the proposed batteries.

  17. Alternative battery systems for transportation uses

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Thackeray

    2013-06-05

    Argonne Distinguished Fellow Michael Thackeray highlights the need for alternative battery systems for transportation uses. Such systems will not only need to be smaller, lighter and more energy dense, but also able to make electric vehicles more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles.

  18. Alternative battery systems for transportation uses

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Thackeray

    2012-07-25

    Argonne Distinguished Fellow Michael Thackeray highlights the need for alternative battery systems for transportation uses. Such systems will not only need to be smaller, lighter and more energy dense, but also able to make electric vehicles more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles.

  19. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  20. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  1. Galileo probe battery system -- An update

    SciTech Connect

    Dagarin, B.P.; Taenaka, R.K.; Stofel, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    NASA`s Galileo 6-year trip to Jupiter is in its final phase. The mission consists of a Jovian Orbiter and an atmospheric entry Probe. The Probe is designed to coast autonomously for up to 190 days and turn itself on 6 hours prior to entry. It will then descend through the upper atmosphere for 50 to 75 minutes with the aid of an 8-foot parachute. This paper discusses sources of electrical power for the Probe and battery testing at the systems level. Described are the final production phase, qualification, and systems testing prior to and following launch, as well as decisions made regarding the Probe separation Li/SO{sub 2} battery configuration. In addition, the paper briefly describes the thermal battery verification program. The main power source comprises three Li/SO{sub 2} battery modules containing 13 D-sized cell strings per module. These modules are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years and support a 150-day clock, ending with a 7-hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 A to 9.5 A during the last 30 minutes. The main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO{sub 4}-Ca), which will be used for firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric entry.

  2. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  3. Fault-tolerant battery system employing intra-battery network architecture

    DOEpatents

    Hagen, Ronald A.; Chen, Kenneth W.; Comte, Christophe; Knudson, Orlin B.; Rouillard, Jean

    2000-01-01

    A distributed energy storing system employing a communications network is disclosed. A distributed battery system includes a number of energy storing modules, each of which includes a processor and communications interface. In a network mode of operation, a battery computer communicates with each of the module processors over an intra-battery network and cooperates with individual module processors to coordinate module monitoring and control operations. The battery computer monitors a number of battery and module conditions, including the potential and current state of the battery and individual modules, and the conditions of the battery's thermal management system. An over-discharge protection system, equalization adjustment system, and communications system are also controlled by the battery computer. The battery computer logs and reports various status data on battery level conditions which may be reported to a separate system platform computer. A module transitions to a stand-alone mode of operation if the module detects an absence of communication connectivity with the battery computer. A module which operates in a stand-alone mode performs various monitoring and control functions locally within the module to ensure safe and continued operation.

  4. Use of metal complexation in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis systems for the separation and improved detection of tetracyclines.

    PubMed

    Tjørnelund, J; Hansen, S H

    1997-08-29

    Metal complexation in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis systems was evaluated for the separation and improved detection of tetracycline antibiotics using laser-induced fluorescence detection. It was found that three factors were important for the choice of complexing agent: (i) it should be soluble in the organic solvent used for the separation, (ii) it should have a sufficient fast complexing rate so as not to invalidate the electrophoretic separation and, (iii) it should give a large increase in the fluorescence intensity. Mg2+ ions were found to be the most suitable ions for the separation of the tetracyclines as the acetate salt of magnesium is very soluble in organic solvents and only a relatively low current was generated during electrophoresis making it possible to use high concentrations of the complexing metal ion. Metal complexation strongly intensified the fluorescence of tetracyclines and all organic solvents investigated further intensified the fluorescence, e.g. dimethylformamide improved the fluorescence of the oxytetracycline metal complex by a factor of 34 compared to water. However, magnesium acetate was not sufficiently soluble in dimethylformamide and therefore N-methylformamide, improving the fluorescence intensity by only a factor of 9, was used. It was demonstrated that the method can be used for the detection of tetracyclines at the ppb level in milk and plasma. PMID:9335125

  5. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  6. Progress in electrochemical storage for battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.; Hennigan, T. J.; Palandati, C. F.; Cohn, E.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to improve electrochemical systems for space use relate to: (1) improvement of conventional systems; (2) development of fuel cells to practical power systems; and (3) a search for new systems that provide gains in energy density but offer comparable life and performance as conventional systems. Improvements in sealed conventional systems resulted in the areas of materials, charge control methods, cell operations and battery control, and specific process controls required during cell manufacture. Fuel-cell systems have been developed for spacecraft but the use of these power plants is limited. For present and planned flights, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, and silver-cadmium systems will be used. Improvements in nickel-cadmium batteries have been applied in medical and commercial areas.

  7. Test requirements for 42 V battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weighall, M. J.

    The introduction of the 42 V PowerNet imposes new performance requirements on the battery. The required performance parameters will vary dependent on the application and to what extent the power train is hybridised, with additional features such as start-stop, launch assist etc. This makes it more difficult to specify relevant laboratory test procedures. This paper reviews the vehicle electrical system developments and the impact these developments will have on the battery performance and testing requirements. Suitable test equipment from Digatron/Firing Circuits is discussed and reviewed.

  8. Batteries for autonomous renewable energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Norman R.

    Now that the Coconut Island plant has been running successfully for three years, it is appropriate to review the design decisions that were made with regard to the battery and to consider how these might be changed for future systems. The following aspects are discussed: type, package, energy storage, voltage, parallel operation, installation, charging, watering, life and quality assurance.

  9. Battery test facility hardware, software, and system operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, G. P.

    1991-09-01

    Division 2525 Battery Test Laboratory is a fully automated battery testing facility used in evaluating various battery technologies. The results of these tests are used to verify developers' claims, characterize prototypes, and assist in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each technology. The test facility consists of a central computer and nine remote computer controlled battery test systems. Data acquired during the battery testing process is sent to the central computer system. The test data is then stored in a large database for future analysis. The central computer system is also used in configuring battery tests. These test configurations are then sent to their appropriate remote battery test sites. The battery test facility can perform a variety of battery tests, which include the following: life cycle testing; parametric testing at various temperature levels, cutoff parameters, charge rates, and discharge rates; constant power testing at various power levels; peak power testing at various state-of-charge levels; simplified federal urban driving schedule tests (SFUDS79). The battery test facility is capable of charging a battery either by constant current, constant voltage, step current levels, or any combination of them. Discharge cycles can be by constant current, constant resistance, constant power, step current levels, or also any combination of them. The battery test facility has been configured to provide the flexibility to evaluate a large variety of battery technologies. These technologies include lead-acid, sodium/sulfur, zinc/bromine, nickel/hydrogen, aluminum/air, and nickel/cadmium batteries.

  10. Battery test facility hardware, software, and system operation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    Division 2525 Battery Test Laboratory is a fully automated battery testing facility used in evaluating various battery technologies. The results of these tests are used to verify developers' claims, characterize prototypes, and assist in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each technology. The Test Facility consists of a central computer and nine remote computer controlled battery test systems. Data acquired during the battery testing process is sent to the central computer system. The test data is then stored in a large database for future analysis. The central computer system is also used in configuring battery tests. These test configurations are then sent to their appropriate remote battery test sites. The Battery Test Facility can perform a variety of battery tests, which include the following: Life Cycle Testing; Parametric Testing at various temperature levels, cutoff parameters, charge rates, and discharge rates; Constant Power Testing at various power levels; Peak Power Testing at various State-of-Charge levels; Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule Tests (SFUDS79). The Battery Test Facility is capable of charging a battery either by constant current, constant voltage, step current levels, or any combination of them. Discharge cycles can be by constant current, constant resistance, constant power, step current levels, or also any combination of them. The Battery Test Facility has been configured to provide the flexibility to evaluate a large variety of battery technologies. These technologies include Lead-Acid, Sodium/Sulfur, Zinc/Bromine, Nickel/Hydrogen, Aluminum/Air, and Nickel/Cadmium batteries.

  11. Battery test facility hardware, software, and system operation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    Division 2525 Battery Test Laboratory is a fully automated battery testing facility used in evaluating various battery technologies. The results of these tests are used to verify developers` claims, characterize prototypes, and assist in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each technology. The Test Facility consists of a central computer and nine remote computer controlled battery test systems. Data acquired during the battery testing process is sent to the central computer system. The test data is then stored in a large database for future analysis. The central computer system is also used in configuring battery tests. These test configurations are then sent to their appropriate remote battery test sites. The Battery Test Facility can perform a variety of battery tests, which include the following: Life Cycle Testing; Parametric Testing at various temperature levels, cutoff parameters, charge rates, and discharge rates; Constant Power Testing at various power levels; Peak Power Testing at various State-of-Charge levels; Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule Tests (SFUDS79). The Battery Test Facility is capable of charging a battery either by constant current, constant voltage, step current levels, or any combination of them. Discharge cycles can be by constant current, constant resistance, constant power, step current levels, or also any combination of them. The Battery Test Facility has been configured to provide the flexibility to evaluate a large variety of battery technologies. These technologies include Lead-Acid, Sodium/Sulfur, Zinc/Bromine, Nickel/Hydrogen, Aluminum/Air, and Nickel/Cadmium batteries.

  12. Review on mechanisms and continuum models of multi-phase transport phenomena in porous structures of non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinliang; Yu, Jong-Sung; Sundén, Bengt

    2015-03-01

    During recent years intensive research activities involving both experimental and modeling approaches have appeared for different aspects of Lithium-air (Li-air) battery. Multi-phase transport phenomena including dissolved oxygen and lithium ions (Li+) in the liquid electrolyte, as well as electrons in the solid materials, are strongly coupled with the porous structures and various reactions, particularly the solid product grown in the porous cathode during battery discharge. Understanding the mechanisms of transport phenomena and accurate evaluation of effective transport properties are significant for improving the battery capacities and design, especially at high rate conditions. In this paper, the transport governing equations commonly used for macroscopic continuum models at porous-average level are outlined and highlighted, with a purpose to provide a general overview of the validity and the limitation of these approaches. The most often used models in the open literature are reviewed and discussed focusing on the effective properties involving tortuosity factors, solid product morphologies, as well as effects on the void space clogging, surface area reduction and passivation. Comments and suggestions are also provided for better understanding of multi-phase transport phenomena and implementation of the detailed models for solid product generation and morphology growth in Li-air battery cathodes.

  13. Generator and rechargeable battery system for pedal powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D.

    1985-11-26

    A generator and rechargeable battery system for use with pedal powered vehicles, such as bicycles, and where either the generator or battery can intermittently power a load such as a lighting system of the vehicle in one mode of operation, and in which the generator can recharge the battery in another mode of operation. A simple selection switch which is manually operable by the operator of the vehicle enables selection between powering of the load or recharging of the battery.

  14. Analysis of spacecraft battery charger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong J.; Cho, Bo H.

    In spacecraft battery charger systems, switching regulators are widely used for bus voltage regulation, charge current regulation, and peak power tracking. Small-signal dynamic characteristics of the battery charging subsystem of direct energy transfer (DET) and peak power tracking (PPT) systems are analyzed to facilitate design of the control loop for optimum performance and stability. Control loop designs of the charger in various modes of operation are discussed. Analyses are verified through simulations. It is shown that when the charger operates in the bus voltage regulation mode, the control-to-voltage transfer function has a negative DC gain and two LHP zeros in both the DET and PPT systems. The control-to-inductor current transfer function also has a negative DC gain and a RHP zero. Thus, in the current-mode control, the current loop can no longer be used to stabilize the system. When the system operates in the charge current regulation mode, the charger operates with a fixed duty cycle which is determined by the regulated bus voltage and the battery voltage. Without an input filter, the converter becomes a first-order system. When the peak power tracker is inactive, the operating point of the solar array output moves to the voltage source region. Thus, the solar array behaves as a stiff voltage source to a constant power load.

  15. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is an agency-wide effort aimed at ensuring the quality, safety, reliability and performance of flight battery systems for NASA applications. The program provides for the validation of primary and secondary cell and battery level technology advances to ensure their availability and readiness for use in NASA missions. It serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization and incorporation of these advances into mission applications. The program is led by the Glenn Research Center and involves funded task activities at each of the NASA mission centers and JPL. The overall products are safe, reliable, high quality batteries for mission applications. The products are defined along three product lines: 1. Battery Systems Technology - Elements of this task area cover the systems aspects of battery operation and generally apply across chemistries. This includes the development of guidelines documents, the establishment and maintenance of a central battery database that serves a central repository for battery characterization and verification test data from tests performed under the support of this program, the NASA Battery Workshop, and general test facility support. 2. Secondary Battery Technology - l h s task area focuses on the validation of battery technology for nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion secondary battery systems. Standardized test regimes are used to validate the quality of a cell lot or cell design for flight applications. In this area, efforts are now concentrated on the validation and verification of lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. 3. Primary Battery Technology - The safety and reliability aspects for primary lithium battery systems that are used in manned operations on the Shuttle and International Space Station are addressed in the primary battery technology task area. An overview of the task areas

  16. Trade-Offs in Capacity and Rechargeability in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries: Solution-Driven Growth versus Nucleophilic Stability.

    PubMed

    Khetan, Abhishek; Luntz, Alan; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian

    2015-04-01

    The development of high-capacity rechargeable Li-O2 batteries requires the identification of stable solvents that can promote a solution-based discharge mechanism, which has been shown to result in higher discharge capacities. Solution-driven discharge product growth requires dissolution of the adsorbed intermediate LiO2*, thus generating solvated Li+ and O2(-) ions. Such a mechanism is possible in solvents with high Gutmann donor or acceptor numbers. However, O2(-) is a strong nucleophile and is known to attack solvents via proton/hydrogen abstraction or substitution. This kind of a parasitic process is extremely detrimental to the battery's rechargeability. In this work, we develop a thermodynamic model to describe these two effects and demonstrate an anticorrelation between solvents’ stability and their ability to enhance capacity via solution-mediated discharge product growth. We analyze the commonly used solvents in the same framework and describe why solvents that can promote higher discharge capacity are also prone to degradation. Solvating additives for practical Li-O2 batteries will have to be outliers to this observed anticorrelation. PMID:26262983

  17. Nonaqueous primary cell

    SciTech Connect

    James, S.D.; Smith, P.H.; O'Neill, K.M.; Wilson, M.H.

    1986-05-29

    This patent application relates to electrochemical cells and especially to high-energy, liquid cathode, nonaqueous lithium electrochemical cells free from highly toxic materials. A nonaqueous lithium electrochemical cell is described that includes a halocarbon cathode depolarizer which is 1,2-dichloroethane, 1.1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane or mixtures thereof and a cathode catalyst which is copper, rhodium, palladium, cobalt phthalocyanine, nickel phthalocyanine, iron phthalocyanine, a cobalt tetraaza-(14)-annulene, a nickel tetraaza-(14)-annulene, a iron tetraaza-(14)-annulene, a cobalt porphyrin, a nickel porphyrin, a iron porphyrin, or a mixture thereof.

  18. 76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise...

  19. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  20. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice...

  1. Anion receptor compounds for non-aqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    2000-09-19

    A new family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  2. Zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method

    DOEpatents

    Whittlesey, Curtis C.; Mashikian, Matthew S.

    1981-01-01

    A zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method of redirecting the electrical current around a failed battery module. The battery plant includes a power conditioning unit, a plurality of battery modules connected electrically in series to form battery strings, a plurality of battery strings electrically connected in parallel to the power conditioning unit, and a bypass switch for each battery module in the battery plant. The bypass switch includes a normally open main contact across the power terminals of the battery module, and a set of normally closed auxiliary contacts for controlling the supply of reactants electrochemically transformed in the cells of the battery module. Upon the determination of a failure condition, the bypass switch for the failed battery module is energized to close the main contact and open the auxiliary contacts. Within a short time, the electrical current through the battery module will substantially decrease due to the cutoff of the supply of reactants, and the electrical current flow through the battery string will be redirected through the main contact of the bypass switch.

  3. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  4. Nonaqueous polypyrrole colloids

    DOEpatents

    Armes, Steven P.; Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1991-01-01

    Processable conductive polymers including an oxidized, polymerized aromatic heterocyclic monomer, e.g., pyrrole, an stabilizing effective amount of a poly(vinyl acetate) and dopant anions, and a process of preparing said processable conductive polymers directly in a nonaqueous medium such as methyl acetate, methyl formate, ethyl formate, and propyl formate are disclosed.

  5. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  6. Effective catalytic media using graphitic nitrogen-doped site in graphene for a non-aqueous Li-O2 battery: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Han; Hwang, Yubin; Chung, Yong-Chae

    2015-03-01

    The cell performance of lithium-oxygen batteries using nitrogen doped graphene as a catalytic cathode has been validated in recent research, but the cathode reaction mechanism of lithium and oxygen still remains unclear. Since the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) mechanism by ionic lithium and catalytic surface is predicted to be distinct for different defective sites such as graphitic, pyridinic, and pyrrolic, it is necessary to observe the behavior of ionic lithium and oxygen gas at each defective site in nitrogen doped graphene. In this study, density functional theory (DFT) calculations are adopted to analyze at an atomic scale how effectively each defective site acts as a catalytic cathode. Interestingly, unlike pyridinic or pyrrolic N is known to be the most effective catalytic site for ORR in fuel cells. Among the other defective sites, it is found that the graphitic N site is the most effective catalytic media activating ORR by ionic lithium in lithium-oxygen batteries due to the electron accepting the reaction of Li-O formation by the graphitic N site.

  7. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power.

  8. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOEpatents

    King, R.D.; DeDoncker, R.W.A.A.

    1998-01-20

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power. 8 figs.

  9. A smart control system for electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Arikara, M.P.; Dickinson, B.E.; Branum, B.

    1993-12-31

    A smart control system for electric vehicle (EV) batteries was designed and its performance was evaluated. The hardware for the system was based on the Motorola MC68HC11ENB micro controller. A zinc bromide (Zn/Br{sub 2}) battery was chosen since it is a good candidate as an EV battery and has a large number of user variable parameters that affect its performance. The flexibility of the system arises from the fact that the system can be programmed to do a wide variety of jobs. The use of real time interrupts and other features makes the system safe for use along with the battery systems. Test data indicates that real time control of the different parameters can increase the performance of the battery by 15%. In addition to optimizing the performance of the battery the control system incorporates essential safety features.

  10. Grid-tied PV battery systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-09-01

    Grid tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (ALABC Advanced) proved to cycle well at a Partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  11. VRLA automotive batteries for stop&go and dual battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, G. J.; Calasanzio, D.; Aliberti, R.

    The electrical power requirements for vehicles are continuing to increase and evolve. A substantial amount of effort has been directed towards the development of 36/42 V systems as a route to higher power with reduced current levels but high implementation costs have resulted in the introduction of these systems becoming deferred. In the interim, however, alternator power outputs at 14 V are being increased substantially and at the same time the requirements for batteries are becoming more intensive. In particular, stop&go systems and wire-based vehicle systems are resulting in new demands. For stop&go, the engine is stopped each time the vehicle comes to rest and is restarted when the accelerator is pressed again. This results in an onerous duty cycle with many shallow discharge cycles. Flooded lead-acid batteries cannot meet this duty cycle and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are needed to meet the demands that are applied. For wire-based systems, such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire, electrical power has become more critical and although the alternator and battery provide double redundancy, triple redundancy with a small reserve battery is specified. In this case, a small VRLA battery can be used and is optimised for standby service rather than for repeated discharges. The background to these applications is considered and test results under simulated operating conditions are discussed. Good performance can be obtained in batteries adapted for both applications. Battery management is also critical for both applications: in stop&go service, the state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) need to be monitored to ensure that the vehicle can be restarted; for reserve or back-up batteries, the SOC and SOH are monitored to verify that the battery is always capable of carrying out the duty cycle if required. Practical methods of battery condition monitoring will be described.

  12. Development of battery management system for nickel-metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Do Yang; Lee, Baek Haeng; Kim, Sun Wook

    Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of charge and discharge of the batteries as well as monitoring the battery status. In this study, a BMS has been developed for maximizing the use of Ni-MH batteries in electric vehicles. This system performs several tasks: the control of charging and discharging, overcharge and over-discharge protection, the calculation and display of state-of-charge (SOC), safety, and thermal management. The BMS is installed in and tested in a DEV5-5 electric vehicle developed by Daewoo Motor Co. and the Institute for Advanced Engineering in Korea. Eighteen modules of a Panasonic nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, 12 V, 95 A h, are used in the DEV5-5. High accuracy within a range of 3% and good reliability are obtained. The BMS can also improve the performance and cycle-life of the Ni-MH battery peak, as well as the reliability and the safety of the electric vehicles.

  13. Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Battery Management System (BMS) for Grid-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lawder, M. T.; Suthar, B.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Hoff, C. M.; Leitermann, O.; Crow, M. L.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Subramanian, V. R.

    2014-05-07

    The current electric grid is an inefficient system that wastes significant amounts of the electricity it produces because there is a disconnect between the amount of energy consumers require and the amount of energy produced from generation sources. Power plants typically produce more power than necessary to ensure adequate power quality. By taking advantage of energy storage within the grid, many of these inefficiencies can be removed. Advanced modeling is required when using battery energy storage systems (BESS) for grid storage in order to accurately monitor and control the storage system. Battery management systems (BMS) control how the storage system will be used and a BMS that utilizes advanced physics-based models will offer for much more robust operation of the storage system. The paper outlines the current state of the art for modeling in BMS and the advanced models required to fully utilize BMS for both lithium-ion batteries and vanadium redox-flow batteries. In addition, system architecture and how it can be useful in monitoring and control is discussed. A pathway for advancing BMS to better utilize BESS for grid-scale applications is outlined.

  14. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  15. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. Fifty-five battery experts from government, industry and universities participated in the survey by providing their opinions on the use of several battery types for six space missions, and their predictions of likely technological advances that would impact the development of these batteries. The results of the survey predict that only four battery types are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the safety and reliability requirements for space applications within the next 15 years.

  16. Fail-safe designs for large capacity battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2016-05-17

    Fail-safe systems and design methodologies for large capacity battery systems are disclosed. The disclosed systems and methodologies serve to locate a faulty cell in a large capacity battery, such as a cell having an internal short circuit, determine whether the fault is evolving, and electrically isolate the faulty cell from the rest of the battery, preventing further electrical energy from feeding into the fault.

  17. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  18. Recent advances in the development of Li-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capsoni, Doretta; Bini, Marcella; Ferrari, Stefania; Quartarone, Eliana; Mustarelli, Piercarlo

    2012-12-01

    The global energy demand calls for more efficient storage systems. In this review, the state of the art of Li/air and Li/O2 batteries is discussed with particular attention on the more recent findings regarding all the battery compartments. Both aqueous and non-aqueous systems are considered, and the most critical issues for better battery design are addressed. Whereas the predicted charge/discharge values for these devices do justify the intense research efforts performed nowadays, great problems are still present which must be overcome in order to make Li/air and Li/O2 a reality for future large-scale applications.

  19. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  20. Mathematical modelling and expert system for battery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscher, Jacques; Marrot, Pascal; Bouridah, Karim

    1989-08-01

    The GIBUS expert system, designed to improve management of batteries on board satellites by test center operators, is described. The long term prospects of the project are the development of an operators support system at ground based control centers managing on-satellite storage batteries. An on-board self-management system is suggested as a possible extension of the program.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope nickel hydrogen battery system briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawrocki, David; Saldana, David; Rao, Gopal

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Mission; system constraints; battery specification; battery module; simplified block diagram; cell design summary; present status; voltage decay; system depth of discharge; pressure since launch; system capacity; eclipse time vs. trickle charge; capacity test objectives; and capacity during tests.

  2. Studies of Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Electrochemical Interface for Applications in Microelectronic and Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianping

    Various electrochemical techniques were utilized to study a wide range of electrochemical systems in this dissertation. Mainly they are grouped in three sections: 1) the conventional metal-aqueous systems for new applications in modern microelectronic devices, 2) unconventional ceramic-organic systems for applications in Li-ion batteries and 3) novel systems composed of ionic liquids and carbon series electrodes. The objects are to probe the electrochemical/chemical reactions and interfacial structures, which are the common features of the aforementioned systems. This dissertation mainly focuses on experimental aspects, however, some theories and new models used to elucidate the experiment data have also been developed and presented. Some new experimental techniques have been explored and their limitations and validity have also been discussed. Oxalic acid (OA)-based nonalkaline solutions with H2O 2 are found to support chemically mediated removal of Ta-oxide surface films on Ta. The associated surface reactions are critical for chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of Ta barrier. In chapter 4, a Ta coupon electrode is used as a model system in abrasive-free solutions of OA and H2O 2, where the chemical component of CMP is selectively examined. In chapter 5, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to study the competitive reactions of surface corrosion and passivating film formation on a Cu-rotating disc electrode (RDE) in pH-adjusted solutions of H2O2, acetic acid (HAc) and ammonium dodecyl sulfate (ADS). Micrometric LiMn2O4 particles are mechano-chemically modified by ball-milling to obtain a mixture of nano- and micro-scale particles. In chapter 6, this mixture is tested as a potential active cathode material for rapid-charge Li ion batteries, and also as a model system for studying the detailed kinetics of Li intercalation/de-intercalation in such electrodes. In chapter 7, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and EIS are compared as techniques for

  3. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  4. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  5. Non-aqueous silicone elastomer gels as a vaginal microbicide delivery system for the HIV-1 entry inhibitor maraviroc

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Claire J.; Lowry, Deborah; Geer, Leslie; Veazey, Ronald S.; Shattock, Robin J.; Klasse, Per Johan; Mitchnick, Mark; Goldman, Laurie; Doyle, Lara A.; Muldoon, Brendan C.O.; Woolfson, A. David; Moore, John P.; Malcolm, R. Karl

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous semi-solid polymeric gels, such as those based on hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and polyacrylic acid (e.g. Carbopol®), have a long history of use in vaginal drug delivery. However, despite their ubiquity, they often provide sub-optimal clinical performance, due to poor mucosal retention and limited solubility for poorly water-soluble actives. These issues are particularly pertinent for vaginal HIV microbicides, since many lead candidates are poorly water-soluble and where a major goal is the development of a coitally independent, once daily gel product. In this study, we report the use of a non-aqueous silicone elastomer gel for vaginal delivery of the HIV-1 entry inhibitor maraviroc. In vitro rheological, syringeability and retention studies demonstrated enhanced performance for silicone gels compared with a conventional aqueous HEC gel, while testing of the gels in the slug model confirmed a lack of mucosal irritancy. Pharmacokinetic studies following single dose vaginal administration of a maraviroc silicone gel in rhesus macaques showed higher and sustained MVC levels in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue and plasma compared with a HEC gel containing the same maraviroc loading. The results demonstrate that non-aqueous silicone gels have potential as a formulation platform for coitally independent vaginal HIV microbicides. PMID:21864598

  6. Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Outlook for lead, zinc and cadmium in India; Future for lead production and recycling - a British view; AKERLOW lead recovery plant; Expanded lead battery grids; Resume of first solder seminar in India; Automatic paste soldering adds sparks to zinc-carbon batteries; 122-ton lead battery used for testing BEST facility; Press release on Pb 80; Research and development; Second International Symposium on Industrial and Oriented Basic Electrochemistry; Industry news; Book review and new publications; Battery abstracts.

  7. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  8. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance, and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program was initiated in 1985 to address battery problems experienced by NASA and other space battery users over the previous ten years. The original program plan was approved in May 1986 and modified in 1990 to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. The NASA Battery Workshop is supported by the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program. The main objective of the discussions is to aid in defining the direction which the agency should head with respect to aerospace battery issues. Presently, primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to issues revolving around the future availability of nickel-cadmium batteries as a result of the proposed OSHA standards with respect to allowable cadmium levels in the workplace. The decision of whether or not to pursue the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs hinges on the impact of the OSHA ruling. As part of a unified Battery Program, the evaluation of a nickel-hydrogen cell design options and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  9. Multikilowatt hydrogen-nickel oxide battery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlop, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of the H2-NiO battery for terrestrial applications was assessed. A multicell design approach that differs significantly from the aerospace individual pressure vessel was used. A number of experimental 100-Ah cells were built to evaluate the new design concepts and components. The experimental cells provided the input needed for a multicell battery design. It is found that new multicell H2-NiO battery has a number of potential advantages for aerospace applications such as the manned space station. The advantages are discussed, and a design concept is presented for a multikilowatt battery in a lightweight pressure vessel.

  10. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  11. Anthraquinone-Based Polymer as Cathode in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Bitenc, Jan; Pirnat, Klemen; Bančič, Tanja; Gaberšček, Miran; Genorio, Boštjan; Randon-Vitanova, Anna; Dominko, Robert

    2015-12-21

    Mg batteries are a promising battery technology that could lead to safer and significantly less expensive non-aqueous batteries with energy densities comparable or even better than state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. Although the first prototype Mg battery using stable Mo6S8 as cathode was introduced over fifteen years ago, major challenges remain to be solved. In particular, the design of high energy cathode materials and the development of non-corrosive electrolytes with high oxidative stability are issues that need to be tackled. Herein, we present a new, general, and robust approach towards achieving stable cycling of Mg batteries. The core of our approach is the use of stable polymer cathode and Mg powder anode coupled with non-nucleophilic electrolytes. Our systems exhibit an excellent rate capability and significant improvement in electrochemical stability. PMID:26610185

  12. Battery energy-storage systems — an emerging market for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. F.

    Although the concept of using batteries for lead levelling and peak shaving has been known for decades, only recently have these systems become commercially viable. Changes in the structure of the electric power supply industry have required these companies to seek more cost-effective ways of meeting the needs of their customers. Through experience gained, primarily in the USA, batteries have been shown to provide multiple benefits to electric utilities. Also, lower maintenance batteries, more reliable electrical systems, and the availability of methods to predict costs and benefits have made battery energy-storage systems more attractive. Technology-transfer efforts in the USA have resulted in a willingness of electric utilities to install a number of these systems for a variety of tasks, including load levelling, peak shaving, frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Additional systems are being planned for several additional locations for similar applications, plus transmission and distribution deferral and enhanced power quality. In the absence of US champions such as the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, ILZRO is attempting to mount a technology-transfer programme to bring the benefits of battery energy-storage to European power suppliers. As a result of these efforts, a study group on battery energy-storage systems has been established with membership primarily in Germany and Austria. Also, a two-day workshop, prepared by the Electric Power Research Institute was held in Dublin. Participants included representatives of several European power suppliers. As a result, ESB National Grid of Ireland has embarked upon a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of a battery energy-storage system in their network. Plans for the future include continuation of this technology-transfer effort, assistance in the Irish effort, and a possible approach to the European Commission for funding.

  13. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOEpatents

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Beaty, Kevin D.; Zou, Zhanijang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  14. Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, P.; Jungst, R.G., Ingersoll, D.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

    1998-11-30

    We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system and the rechargeable battery are modeled deterministically, imd an artificial neural network is incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate dartage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework and a fwst passage problem is solved to assess system reliability.

  15. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  16. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  17. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  18. Development Status of 3 Battery Systems for the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the development status of three battery systems for the X-38 crew return vehicle. Details are given on the design features, the lithium battery module, PCM composite heat sinks, carbon fibercore blocks for Qual battery, battery module base housing, heat sink characteristics, and battery qualifications.

  19. Performance requirements of automotive batteries for future car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Richter, G.

    The further increase in the number of power-consuming functions which has been announced for future vehicle electrical systems, and in particular the effects of new starting systems on battery performance, requires a further optimization of the lead acid system coupled with effective energy management, and enhanced battery operating conditions. In the face of these increased requirements, there are proven benefits to splitting the functions of a single SLI battery between two separate, special-purpose batteries, each of which are optimized, for high power output and for high energy throughput, respectively. This will bring about a marked improvement in weight, reliability, and state of charge (SOC). The development of special design starter and service batteries is almost completed and will lead to new products with a high standard of reliability. The design of the power-optimized lead acid accumulator is particularly suitable for further development as the battery for a 42/36 V electrical system. This is intended to improve the efficiency of the generator and the various power-consuming functions and to improve start/stop operation thereby bringing about a marked reduction in the fuel consumption of passenger cars. This improvement can also be assisted by a charge management system used in conjunction with battery status monitoring.

  20. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed. PMID:26265165

  1. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  2. Method and system for constructing a rechargeable battery and battery structures formed with the method

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Snyder, Jr., William B.

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for manufacturing a thin-film battery and a battery structure formed with the method utilizes a plurality of deposition stations at which thin battery component films are built up in sequence upon a web-like substrate as the substrate is automatically moved through the stations. At an initial station, cathode and anode current collector film sections are deposited upon the substrate, and at another station, a thin cathode film is deposited upon the substrate so to overlie part of the cathode current collector section. At another station, a thin electrolyte film is deposited upon so as to overlie the cathode film and part of the anode current collector film, at yet another station, a thin lithium film is deposited upon so as to overlie the electrolyte film and an additional part of the anode current collector film. Such a method accommodates the winding of a layup of battery components into a spiral configuration to provide a thin-film, high capacity battery and also accommodates the build up of thin film battery components onto a substrate surface having any of a number of shapes.

  3. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, V.W.; Steklenski, D.J.

    1989-02-14

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising a lithium anode, a cathode and an electrolyte having a conductivity, and reciprocal ohms per cm, of at least 3.5 in, comprising a lithium salt, propylene carbonate and 1,2-dimethoxypropane.

  4. Requirements specification for nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The requirements for performance, design, test, and qualification of a computer program identified as NICBES, Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System, is established. The specific spacecraft power system configuration selected was the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Electrical Power System (EPS) Testbed. Power for the HST comes from a system of 13 Solar Panel Arrays (SPAs) linked to 6 Nickel Cadmium Batteries which are connected to 3 Busses. An expert system, NICBES, will be developed at Martin Marietta Aerospace to recognize a testbed anomaly, identify the malfunctioning component and recommend a course of action. Besides fault diagnosis, NICBES will be able to evaluate battery status, give advice on battery status and provide decision support for the operator. These requirements are detailed.

  5. Analysis of batteries for use in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Podder, A; Kapner, M

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation of 11 types of secondary batteries for energy storage in photovoltaic electric power systems is given. The evaluation was based on six specific application scenarios which were selected to represent the diverse requirements of various photovoltaic systems. Electrical load characteristics and solar insulation data were first obtained for each application scenario. A computer-based simulation program, SOLSIM, was then developed to determine optimal sizes for battery, solar array, and power conditioning systems. Projected service lives and battery costs were used to estimate life-cycle costs for each candidate battery type. The evaluation considered battery life-cycle cost, safety and health effects associated with battery operation, and reliability/maintainability. The 11 battery types were: lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, lithium-iron sulfide, calcium-iron sulfide, sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, Redox, and zinc-ferricyanide. The six application scenarios were: (1) a single-family house in Denver, Colorado (photovoltaic system connected to the utility line); (2) a remote village in equatorial Africa (stand-alone power system); (3) a dairy farm in Howard County, Maryland (onsite generator for backup power); (4) a 50,000 square foot office building in Washington, DC (onsite generator backup); (5) a community in central Arizona with a population of 10,000 (battery to be used for dedicated energy storage for a utility grid-connected photovoltaic power plant); and (6) a military field telephone office with a constant 300 W load (trailer-mounted auxiliary generator backup). Recommendations for a research and development program on battery energy storage for photovoltaic applications are given, and a discussion of electrical interfacing problems for utility line-connected photovoltaic power systems is included. (WHK)

  6. Remote monitoring of VRLA batteries for telecommunications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujikawa, Tomonobu; Matsushima, Toshio

    This paper describes a remote monitoring system that can be set up in an operating center to monitor the state of valve regulated lead acid batteries (VRLA) used as a backup power supply for telecommunications. This system has a battery voltage monitoring function, a lifetime prediction function based on ambient temperature, and a discharge circuit diagnosis function. In addition, the system can be equipped with an internal resistance measurement function and an electrolyte leakage detection function to further insure power-supply reliability. Various states of batteries observed with the system are transmitted to the remote operating center by a remote monitoring function. This function enables obtaining immediate information about the condition of batteries and helps to avoid unexpected failures.

  7. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  8. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  9. Dynamic analysis of a photovoltaic power system with battery storage capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.; Blaha, R. J.; Pickrell, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A photovolataic power system with a battery storage capability is analyzed. A dual battery current control concept is proposed, which enables the battery to either supply or accept power depending upon system environment and load conditions. A simulation of the power system, including the battery current control, is developed and evaluated. The evaulation demonstrate the visbility of the battery control concept of switch the battery from a charge to discharge mode and back as required by load and environmental conditions. An acceptable system operation is demonstrated over the entire insolation range. Additionally, system sensitivity, bandwidth, and damping characteristics of the battery control are shown to be acceptable for a projected hardware implementation.

  10. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  11. The MOLICEL(R) rechargeable lithium system: Multicell battery aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouchard, D.; Taylor, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    MOLICEL rechargeable lithium cells were cycled in batteries using series, parallel, and series/parallel connections. The individual cell voltages and branch currents were measured to understand the cell interactions. The observations were interpreted in terms of the inherent characteristics of the Li/MoS2 system and in terms of a singular cell failure mode. The results confirm that correctly configured multicell batteries using MOLICELs have performance characteristics comparable to those of single cells.

  12. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  13. Development of a multiplexed bypass control system for aerospace batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    A breadboard bypass control system was developed to control a battery comprised of 26 JPL-developed negative limited Ni-Cd cells. The system was designed to automatically remove cells from the circuit when their voltages exceeded a fixed limit on charge and fell below a fixed limit on discharge. Major components of the system consisted of a cell voltage monitor, a multiplexing circuit, and individual electromechanical relays for each cell. The system was found to function well in controlling the battery during a simulated 10-month MM-71 mission and a 2-month simulated low earth orbit cycling mission. A flight version of the bypass system was estimated to have a total parts count of 150 and total weight of 1.63 kg. When fully developed, the system shows promise for improving life and reliability of spacecraft batteries.

  14. Space Vehicle Power System Comprised of Battery/Capacitor Combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarotte, C.; Lancaster, G. S.; Eichenberg, D.; Butler, S. M.; Miller, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent improvements in energy densities of batteries open the possibility of using electric rather that hydraulic actuators in space vehicle systems. However, the systems usually require short-duration, high-power pulses. This power profile requires the battery system to be sized to meet the power requirements rather than stored energy requirements, often resulting in a large and inefficient energy storage system. Similar transient power applications have used a combination of two or more disparate energy storage technologies. For instance, placing a capacitor and a battery side-by-side combines the high energy density of a battery with the high power performance of a capacitor and thus can create a lighter and more compact system. A parametric study was performed to identify favorable scenarios for using capacitors. System designs were then carried out using equivalent circuit models developed for five commercial electrochemical capacitor products. Capacitors were sized to satisfy peak power levels and consequently "leveled" the power requirement of the battery, which can then be sized to meet system energy requirements. Simulation results clearly differentiate the performance offered by available capacitor products for the space vehicle applications.

  15. Self-compensating heating system for a reserve electrolyte battery

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, K.

    1987-03-17

    A self-compensating heating system is described for a reserve electrolyte battery comprising, a storage tank for electrolyte to be supplied to the battery, and means defining a flow path from the storage tank to the battery including a laminar flow device having flow passages sufficiently small to establish viscosity-sensitive flow impedance to assure that the rate of electrolyte flow is dependent on the viscosity of the electrolyte and a heat exchanger downstream of the laminar flow device. It also includes a solid propellant gas generator having a gas outlet connected to the heat exchanger for burning a solid propellant with a burn rate which increases with the temperature at which the solid propellant is stored whereby there is a relation between the electrolyte flow and heat generated to have longer exposure of the electrolyte to gas in the heat exchanger when the battery is stored at low temperature.

  16. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof; Barbotin, Jean-Loup

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  17. Coupled MEMS Nuclear Battery and FEEP Thruster System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillmer, Andrew J.; Santarius, John F.; Blanchard, James P.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes research on combining a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) nuclear battery with a field-emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thruster, thereby providing potentially attractive solutions to precise satellite stationkeeping and propulsion requirements. The MEMS nuclear battery, under development at the University of Wisconsin, consists of multiple layers of a radioisotope source alternating with pn junction semiconductor energy converters. Many radioisotopes were assessed for this purpose, typically with average beta-particle energies of 50-250 eV, and the beta-emitter Cs-137 tentatively has been identified as most suitable. A slit-style, cesium-propellant FEEP thruster was chosen for the present study because it is a relatively mature technology. For use with a FEEP thruster, many modular MEMS nuclear batteries must be arrayed in series in order to achieve a sufficiently high voltage (~10 kV). Critical issues include achieving an attractively high MEMS nuclear battery efficiency, maximizing the battery's lifetime against radiation damage, producing the relatively high voltage (~10 kV) required for a FEEP thruster, and providing an effective interface between the MEMS nuclear battery modules and the FEEP thruster.

  18. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  19. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  20. Improving the Performance of Perovskite in Nonaqueous Oxygen Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meihua; Xu, Chaohe; Zhan, Yi; Lee, Jim Yang

    2016-04-20

    Nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of lanthanum cobalt oxide perovskite (LCO) were compounded with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and used as the cathode catalyst for nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries (LOBs). The LCO NP aggregates were completely surrounded by rGO nanosheets in the composite with 10.5 wt % of rGO (LCO-rGO-10.5) but were partially exposed in the composite with 7.5 wt % of rGO (LCO-rGO-7.5). Both composites performed better than pristine LCO NPs and rGO nanosheets in nonaqueous oxygen electrocatalysis. The LCO-rGO-7.5 composite excelled at capacity and rate performance, while the LCO-rGO-10.5 composite was better at cycle stability. The good performance of the LCO-rGO composites was due to the synergy of functions of LCO and rGO. PMID:26663461

  1. Development of advanced battery systems for vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrodnik, J.P.; Eskra, M.D.; Andrew, M.G.; Gentry, W.O.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Battery Business Unit (ABBU) of Johnson Controls, Inc. is developing several promising advanced battery technologies including flow-through lead-acid, zinc/bromine, and nickel hydrogen. The flow-through lead-acid technology, which is being developed under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, is progressing towards the fabrication of a 39 kWh battery system. Recent efforts have focused on achieving the aggressive specific energy goal of 56 Wh/kg in 12 volt module form. Recent DOE sponsored work in the zinc/bromine program has focused on the development of a proof-of concept 50 kWh electric vehicle system for a light van application. Efforts in the nickel hydrogen program have focused on reducing system cost in order to make the life-time premium market and EV market possible targets. The status and future direction of each of these programs are summarized.

  2. Ion transport properties of magnesium bromide/dimethyl sulfoxide non-aqueous liquid electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Sheha, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nonaqueous liquid electrolyte system based dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO and magnesium bromide (MgBr2) is synthesized via ‘Solvent-in-Salt’ method for the application in magnesium battery. Optimized composition of MgBr2/DMSO electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity of 10−2 S/cm at ambient temperature. This study discusses different concentrations from 0 to 5.4 M of magnesium salt, representing low, intermediate and high concentrations of magnesium salt which are examined in frequency dependence conductivity studies. The temperature dependent conductivity measurements have also been carried out to compute activation energy (Ea) by least square linear fitting of Arrhenius plot: ‘log σ − 1/T. The transport number of Mg2+ ion determined by means of a combination of d.c. and a.c. techniques is ∼0.7. A prototype cell was constructed using nonaqueous liquid electrolyte with Mg anode and graphite cathode. The Mg/graphite cell shows promising cycling. PMID:26843967

  3. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of a pilot cell battery protection system for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.; Thomas, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    An energy storage method for the 3.5 kW battery power system was investigated. The Pilot Cell Battery Protection System was tested for use in photovoltaic power systems and results show that this is a viable method of storage battery control. The method of limiting battery depth of discharge has the following advantages: (1) temperature sensitivity; (2) rate sensitivity; and (3) state of charge indication. The pilot cell concept is of interest in remote stand alone photovoltaic power systems. The battery can be protected from damaging overdischarge by using the proper ratio of pilot cell capacities to main battery capacity.

  5. SUNRAYCE 1995: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  6. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  7. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1992-12-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  8. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  9. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, B K

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  10. NICBES2 - NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERY EXPERT SYSTEM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Y. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2 (NICBES2) is a prototype diagnostic expert system for Nickel Cadmium Battery Health Management. NICBES2 is intended to support evaluation of the performance of Hubble Space Telescope spacecraft batteries, and to alert personnel to possible malfunctions. To achieve this, NICBES2 provides a reasoning system supported by appropriate battery domain knowledge. NICBES2 oversees the status of the batteries by evaluating data gathered in orbit packets, and when the status so merits, raises an alarm and provides fault diagnosis as well as advice on the actions to be taken to remedy the particular alarm. In addition to diagnosis and advice, it provides status history of the batteries' health, and a graphical display capability to help in assimilation of the information by the operator. NICBES2 is composed of three cooperating processes driven by a program written in SunOS C. A serial port process gathers incoming data from an RS-232 connection and places it into a raw data pipe. The data handler processes read this information from the raw data pipe and perform statistical data reduction to generate a set of reduced data files per orbit. The expert system process starts the Quintus Prolog interpreter and the expert system and then uses the reduced data files for the generation of status and advice information. The expert system presents the user with an interface window composed of six subwindows: Battery Status, Advice Selection, Support, Battery Selection, Graphics, and Actions. The Battery status subwindow can provide a display of the current status of a battery. Similarly, advice on battery reconditioning, charging, and workload can be obtained from the Advice Selection subwindow. A display of trends for the last orbit and over a sequence of the last twelve orbits is available in the Graph subwindow. A WHY button is available to give the user an explanation of the rules that the expert system used in determining the current