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Sample records for nonclassical yellow nail

  1. Yellow nails following hemodialysis in chronic renal failure: is it yellow nail syndrome or a variant?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vandana; Vasanth, Vani; Balachandran, C

    2008-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is triad of yellow nails, lymphedema, and respiratory tract involvement. The exact pathogenesis of nail changes in YNS is unknown. We present a case of yellow nails and localized lymphedema secondary to artificial AV fistula in a 55-year-old chronic renal failure patient on hemodialysis for 5 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of yellow nail syndrome reported in association with artificial AV fistula. PMID:19094857

  2. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%). PMID:22048329

  3. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  4. Role of Titanium in the Development of Yellow Nail Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Decker, Ashley; Daly, Deborah; Scher, Richard K

    2015-03-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is characterized by the triad of nail changes, lymphedema and respiratory tract involvement. Several hypotheses have been postulated to explain the findings in YNS including lymphatic drainage abnormalities along with microvasculopathy. The most recent hypothesis, proposed by Berglund and Calmark [Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;143:1-7], suggests a role of titanium dioxide in the development of YNS. This study showed elevated titanium levels (ranging from 1.1 to 170 μg/g of nail plate) in nail clippings or pieces of shed nail from 30 patients with YNS. Titanium was not found in the nails of healthy patients. Complete resolution was seen in 4 patients after removal of their titanium implants. Titanium dioxide is commonly found in cosmetics, sunscreens, medications, confectionaries and joint implants. Exposure to titanium can lead to its ions being released by galvanic action of dental gold or amalgam through the oxidative stress of fluorides. It is hypothesized that this galvanic interaction may lead to the yellow discoloration. At this point, cause and effect is speculative, but titanium may play a role in a subgroup of patients with YNS. PMID:27172293

  5. Yellow Nail Syndrome and Nail Lichen Planus may be Induced by a Common Culprit. Focus on Dental Restorative Substances

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Léon-Robert

    2014-01-01

    Different clinical appearances such as Yellow nail syndrome and Lichen planus or lichenoid reactions can originate from close or identical etiologies. They may result from dental restorative materials or metal allergy. Interestingly, the nail sometimes returns to its normal condition, months after the withdrawal of the offending agents. PMID:25593919

  6. Yellow Nail Syndrome: Report of a Case Successfully Treated with Octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Lotfollahi, Legha; Abedini, Atefeh; Alavi Darazam, Ilad; Fadaii, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is an uncommon condition characterized by a triad of yellow nail coloration, lymphedema and respiratory tract involvement. This syndrome typically affects middle-aged persons. Although several etiologies have been described, to date; the exact etiology remains unclear. Different treatment plans have been suggested, but all data available emphasize the fact that treatment is mainly symptomatic and the underlying disease is not targeted. The most reported treatment protocol is chemical pleurodesis combined with alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Hereby, we describe a case of YNS in a 34 year-old woman with the onset of symptoms in childhood. The symptoms improved dramatically after treatment with octreotide. PMID:26221155

  7. Yellow Nail Syndrome Associated with Pericarditis and Pericardial Effusion: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Teixeira, Christiane Aires; Almeida, Ana Carla Andrade; Santos, Alessandra Maria Rodrigues Oliveira; Brito, Kátia Rejane Marques; Ferreira, Valerio Alves

    2015-12-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is an uncommon condition characterized by nail changes, lymphedema, in addition to pulmonary disorders and pleural effusion. Pericarditis and non-cardiac disorders can evolve with pericardial effusions including autoimmune conditions, hypothyroidism, malignancies, tuberculosis, and uremia. A 72-year-old Brazilian woman under treatment for arterial hypertension and hypothyroidism was admitted with pericarditis and pericardial effusion concomitant with yellow nail syndrome. She denied tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, and similar disorders in her family. Clinical and complementary evaluation ruled out infectious diseases, malignancies, and autoimmune disorders as etiologic factors in this case. Hypothyroidism is a well-known cause of pericardial effusion, the vast majority in the absence of pericarditis, and has been described as an associated condition in some individuals with YNS. Case studies might contribute to better understanding of these causal or casual relationships. PMID:26749238

  8. Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections, most often due to injury, poor skin hygiene, nail biting, finger sucking or frequent exposure to ... are clean, and that the technicians wash their hands between clients. 6 Consumers who get frequent manicures ...

  9. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... nails include systemic amyloidosis , malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, and lichen planus . Skin cancers near the nail and fingertip ... the nail bed. Chemotherapy medicines can affect nail growth. Normal aging affects the growth and development of ...

  10. Your Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the root of the nail grow, the new nail cells push out the old nail cells. These old cells flatten and harden, thanks to keratin, a protein made by these cells. The newly formed nail then slides along the nail bed, the ...

  11. Tips to diagnose uncommon nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Samantha L; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews 6 nail disorders that, although easy to diagnose, are misdiagnosed frequently by dermatologists and general practitioners. Diagnostic clues are emphasized to familiarize readers with features that indicate the correct diagnosis. We focus on two common tumors (onychomatricoma and onychopapilloma), two rare genetic conditions that can be diagnosed owing to nail changes (Darier disease and nail patella syndrome), and two uncommon acquired disorders (the yellow nail syndrome and lichen striatus). PMID:25828712

  12. The nail in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Treating elderly patients has become common in daily clinical practice. Consequently, it is important to focus our interest on a neglected region: the nail area. Anatomy and physiology are indispensable for a good comprehension of some phenomenons. Histopathology of senile changes may explain some pathologic situations and is indispensable for diagnosing uncommon tumors. Chemical composition shows that a normal nail contains 18% water. The rate of linear nail decreases as age advances. Ridging is a normal finding on fingernails, with color varying from shades of yellow to grey. The most common disorders, however, are linked to repeated trauma, with sometimes ingrowing toenails with different appearances. Tumors in the nail area are relatively frequent. Nail fungal infection may be isolated or associated with conditions such as psoriasis and diabetes. The management of the main nail disorders observed in the elderly are presented. PMID:21146733

  13. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  14. Worn down nails after acrylic nail removal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Timothy P; Morrison, Brian W; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Worn-down nail syndrome is a nail disorder characterized by thinning of the distal nail plate caused by repetitive chemical or mechanical trauma. We present a previously undescribed source of worn-down nail syndrome caused by trauma from nail filing after acrylic nail removal. PMID:25612131

  15. Nail injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... may replace it with a special type of material. This will remain on the nail bed as it heals. Your provider may prescribe antibiotics to prevent infection. If you have a broken bone, your provider may need to place a wire ...

  16. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines can treat a fungal nail infection. Oral antifungal medicines help a new nail grow to replace ... infected nail. You might need to take the antifungal medicine for 6 to 12 weeks. It depends ...

  17. Converting Nonclassicality into Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Killoran, N; Steinhoff, F E S; Plenio, M B

    2016-02-26

    Quantum mechanics exhibits a wide range of nonclassical features, of which entanglement in multipartite systems takes a central place. In several specific settings, it is well known that nonclassicality (e.g., squeezing, spin squeezing, coherence) can be converted into entanglement. In this work, we present a general framework, based on superposition, for structurally connecting and converting nonclassicality to entanglement. In addition to capturing the previously known results, this framework also allows us to uncover new entanglement convertibility theorems in two broad scenarios, one which is discrete and one which is continuous. In the discrete setting, the classical states can be any finite linearly independent set. For the continuous setting, the pertinent classical states are "symmetric coherent states," connected with symmetric representations of the group SU(K). These results generalize and link convertibility properties from the resource theory of coherence, spin coherent states, and optical coherent states, while also revealing important connections between local and nonlocal pictures of nonclassicality. PMID:26967398

  18. Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons. PMID:25609938

  19. Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons. PMID:25609938

  20. Median Nail Dystrophy Involving the Thumb Nail

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Rahulkrishna; Pilani, Abhishek; Nair, Pragya Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller is a rare entity characterized by a midline or a paramedian ridge or split and canal formation in nail plate of one or both the thumb nails. It is an acquired condition resulting from a temporary defect in the matrix that interferes with nail formation. Habitual picking of the nail base may be responsible for some cases. Histopathology classically shows parakeratosis, accumulation of melanin within and between the nail bed keratinocytes. Treatment of median nail dystrophy includes injectable triamcinalone acetonide, topical 0.1% tacrolimus, and tazarotene 0.05%, which is many a times challenging for a dermatologist. Psychiatric opinion should be taken when associated with the depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse-control disorder. We report a case of 19-year-old male diagnosed as median nail dystrophy. PMID:26955129

  1. Directly estimating nonclassicality.

    PubMed

    Mari, A; Kieling, K; Nielsen, B Melholt; Polzik, E S; Eisert, J

    2011-01-01

    We establish a method of directly measuring and estimating nonclassicality--operationally defined in terms of the distinguishability of a given state from one with a positive Wigner function. It allows us to certify nonclassicality, based on possibly much fewer measurement settings than necessary for obtaining complete tomographic knowledge, and is at the same time equipped with a full certificate. We find that even from measuring two conjugate variables alone, one may infer the nonclassicality of quantum mechanical modes. This method also provides a practical tool to eventually certify such features in mechanical degrees of freedom in opto-mechanics. The proof of the result is based on Bochner's theorem characterizing classical and quantum characteristic functions and on semidefinite programming. In this joint theoretical-experimental work we present data from experimental optical Fock state preparation. PMID:21231723

  2. Nutrition and nail disease.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Michael W; Sloan, Steven Brett

    2010-01-01

    The nail is a specialized keratinous skin appendage that grows approximately 2 to 3 mm per month, with complete replacement achieved in 6 to 9 months. Although this structure can be easily overlooked, nail disorders comprise approximately 10% of all dermatologic conditions. This contribution first provides an overview on the basic anatomy of the nail that will delineate between the nail unit (eg, hyponychium, nail bed, proximal nail fold, and matrix) and anatomic components not part of the nail unit (eg, lateral nail folds, nail plate, and eponychium). The function of each nail structure will also be presented. The chemical profile of the normal nail plate is reviewed with a discussion of its keratin content (hair type keratin vs epithelial type keratin), sulfur content, and mineral composition, including magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium, and copper. The remainder will focus on nail manifestations seen in states of malnutrition. Virtually every nutritional deficiency can affect the growth of the nail in some manner. Finally, the discussion will include anecdotal use of nutritional and dietary supplements in the setting of brittle nail syndrome as well as a brief overview of biotin and its promising utility in the treatment of nail disorders. PMID:20620759

  3. Nailing Pompeii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Roman hihstorian Pliny the Younger noted that Mount Vesuvius blew its top and destroyed Pompeii in the early afternoon of August 24, 1,918 years ago. Now, a team of scientists, tempted by the certainty of that record, has confirmed the eruption to within 7 years. The team developed and used an improved radioactive argon-argon dating technique, which they say can reliably establish the age of rocks as old as the solar system or as recent as 1,000 years old.“We nailed the date to 5% on our first attempt, so we could probably get the error down to 1% or less,” says Paul Renne, adjunct associate professor of geology and geophysics at the University of California at Berkeley and director of the private Berkeley Geochronology Center. “Dating things that are really young has always been the Holy Grail of potassium-argon [an earlier method] and argonargon dating.”

  4. Brittle nails (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Like the skin, the fingernails are a reflection of a person's state of health. Low levels of zinc and iron as well as thyroid problems can cause brittle nails. However, brittle nails are often a normal ...

  5. Unified nonclassicality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryl, S.; Sperling, J.; Agudelo, E.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.; Vogel, W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we generalize the Bochner criterion addressing the characteristic function, i.e., the Fourier transform, of the Glauber-Sudarshan phase-space function. For this purpose we extend the Bochner theorem by including derivatives of the characteristic function. The resulting necessary and sufficient nonclassicality criteria unify previously known moment-based criteria with those based on the characteristic function. For applications of the generalized nonclassicality probes, we provide direct sampling formulas for balanced homodyne detection. A squeezed vacuum state is experimentally realized and characterized with our method. This complete framework—theoretical unification, sampling approach, and experimental implementation—presents an efficient toolbox to characterize quantum states of light for applications in quantum technology.

  6. Nail care for newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001914.htm Nail care for newborns To use the sharing features on ... finger or toe instead of the nail. Baby's nails grow quickly, so you may have to cut the fingernails at least once a week. You may only need ... SG, Bedwell C, Cork MJ. Neonatal skin care and toxicology. In: Eichenfield LF, Frieden IJ, Mathes ...

  7. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  8. Quantification of nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, C.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

    2012-11-01

    To quantify single-mode nonclassicality, we start from an operational approach. A positive semidefinite observable is introduced to describe a measurement setup. The quantification is based on the negativity of the normally ordered version of this observable. Perfect operational quantumness corresponds to the quantum-noise-free measurement of the chosen observable. Surprisingly, even moderately squeezed states may exhibit perfect quantumness for a properly designed measurement. The quantification is also considered from an axiomatic viewpoint, based on the algebraic structure of the quantum states and the quantum superposition principle. Basic conclusions from both approaches are consistent with this fundamental principle of the quantum world.

  9. Nonclassicality of Temporal Correlations.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Stephen; Kosowski, Adrian; Markiewicz, Marcin; Paterek, Tomasz; Przysiężna, Anna

    2015-09-18

    The results of spacelike separated measurements are independent of distant measurement settings, a property one might call two-way no-signaling. In contrast, timelike separated measurements are only one-way no-signaling since the past is independent of the future but not vice versa. For this reason some temporal correlations that are formally identical to nonclassical spatial correlations can still be modeled classically. We propose a new formulation of Bell's theorem for temporal correlations; namely, we define nonclassical temporal correlations as the ones which cannot be simulated by propagating in time the classical information content of a quantum system given by the Holevo bound. We first show that temporal correlations between results of any projective quantum measurements on a qubit can be simulated classically. Then we present a sequence of general measurements on a single m-level quantum system that cannot be explained by propagating in time an m-level classical system and using classical computers with unlimited memory. PMID:26430975

  10. [Cosmetic nail products].

    PubMed

    Baran, R; Goettmann, S; André, J

    2016-05-01

    Cosmetic embellishment of fingernails involves the use of substance that harden either after the evaporation of solvents (varnishes) or after polymerisation (artificial acrylic nails, gel tips, glue-on artificial nails). Pathological reactions to cosmetics usually occur at a remote site for varnishes, and, most commonly, in situ with polymerising substances. Unvarnished artificial nails do not affect pulse oximetry readings, and in theory, patients are not required to remove them. However, a real problem of contamination via artificial nails exists. Increased carriage of pathological Gram-negative organisms and of Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts has been noted among nursing staff wearing artificial nails, both before and after fingernail cleaning. Fingernail fragility manifests itself through a number of different physical signs such as soft, breaking nails, with longitudinal or transverse fissures, showing distal doubling or friability. In some subjects, excessive manicuring with metal instruments or manicure sticks results in rolled onycholysis, of evocative appearance, or transverse onycholysis. PMID:26988380

  11. Nail Deformities and Injuries.

    PubMed

    Tucker, James Rory J

    2015-12-01

    A variety of nail deformities commonly presents in the primary care office. An understanding of nail anatomy coupled with inspection of the nails at routine office visits can reveal undetected disorders. Some problems are benign, and treatment should be attempted by the primary care provider, such as onychomycosis, paronychia, or ingrown toenails. For conditions such as benign melanonychia, longitudinal ridges, isolated Beau lines, and onycholysis, clinicians may offer reassurance to patients who are concerned about the change in their nails. For deformities such as early pterygium or clubbing, a thorough evaluation and referral to an appropriate specialist may be warranted. PMID:26612379

  12. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the side of the nail Exams and Tests Your health care provider will look at your nails to find ... for toenails; a shorter time for fingernails. Your health care provider will do lab tests to check for liver damage while you are ...

  13. Trimming Your Baby's Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... However, if you're hesitant to try baby nail scissors or clippers and your baby will stay still long enough to cooperate, you can use an emery board to file the nails down without the risk of giving your little ...

  14. Nonclassical light in interferometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, N. A.; Difiore, L.; Romano, R.; Solimeno, S.; Zaccaria, F.; Manko, Margarita A.; Manko, Vladimir I.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the even and odd coherent light and other nonclassical states of light like superposition of coherent states with different phases may replace the squeezed light in an interferometric gravitational wave detector to increase its sensitivity.

  15. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  16. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in people who work in the health care industry. Chronic paronychia is most common in adult women and those who work in places where their hands are kept moist, such as food handlers. Signs and Symptoms Bacterial nail infection most ...

  17. Capillary nail refill test

    MedlinePlus

    ... nail. This should not cause discomfort. Why the Test is Performed Tissues need oxygen to survive. Oxygen is carried to various parts of the body by the blood (vascular) system. This test measures how well the vascular system works in ...

  18. Fungal Nail Infection (Onychomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vinegar, vitamin E oil, Vicks® VapoRub®, or tea tree oil. When to Seek Medical Care Fungal nail ... Trusted Links Related diseases: Psoriasis View all diseases Community: Discussion Forum Skinmatters Blog About Us | Terms of ...

  19. Nail Lifting (Onycholysis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... brush the nail and surrounding tissue with plain soap and water once daily, rinsing carefully, and then ... mild cleanser as an alternative to water and soap. When to Seek Medical Care See your doctor ...

  20. Nail Splitting (Onychoschizia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other skin diseases, such as lichen planus and psoriasis, as well as people taking oral medications made ... nail plate may be seen in people with psoriasis or lichen planus or in people who use ...

  1. Drug-induced nail disorders.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects. PMID:25162091

  2. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-09-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  3. Intramedullary nailing of the femur with an inflatable self-locking nail: comparison with locked nailing.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Luciano; Lepore, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    We report a comparative study between an inflatable expandable nail and a traditional locked intramedullary implant in closed fractures of the femoral shaft. We matched each of 43 patients who had undergone intramedullary fixation with an inflatable expandable nail with a patient of the same sex, age (within 2 years), and fracture who had undergone statically locked intramedullary fixation with traditional nails. The mean duration of surgery was significantly shorter in the patients who were treated with the inflatable expandable nail. There were no differences in average blood loss, transfusion requirements, or hospitalization. Five of the patients who underwent traditional nailing required dynamization to achieve union. The inflatable expandable nail allows effective management of diaphyseal fractures of the femur. Interlocking is not necessary, operative times are reduced, and exposure to ionizing radiation is minimized. At present, however, the inflatable expandable nail used in the this investigation is markedly more expensive than traditional devices. PMID:14648267

  4. What's Wrong with Biting My Nails?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Nails Your Nails Activity: The Nails Taking Care ...

  5. [Therapy of nail mycoses].

    PubMed

    Büchner, S A

    1998-08-01

    Onchomycosis is the most common nail disease, accounting for approximately 30% of all cutaneous fungal infections. The treatment approach needs to take into account the location and extent of onychomycosis, sensitivity of drug to fungal organism, adverse-effects profile, dosage schedule, duration of therapy, concomitant medical conditions, and concurrent medications. To confirm the diagnosis, it is important to correctly select the appropriate site for specimen collection used for both direct microscopy and fungal culture. Topical antifungal agents may be considered for the treatment of early onychomycosis, in the absence of nail matrix involvement. The newer generation of oral antifungal agents for the treatment of onychomycosis are terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole. These drugs used alone, or in combination with topical antifungals, are providing the basis for effective treatment of onychomycosis in a large proportion of patients. PMID:9757817

  6. Burns and beauty nails

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  7. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the ... fever Maps of Yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Yellow fever vaccination Prevention Vaccine ...

  8. YELLOW BERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow berry refers to the non-vitreous form of the wheat kernel. Individual kernels may be vitreous, non-vitreous (yellow berry) or have varying proportions of each (“mottled”). Yellow berry, in and of itself, represents no defect of the kernel. As in maize, rice and other cereals, the non-vitre...

  9. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  10. Scabies of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Oh, Susan; Vandergriff, Travis

    2014-01-01

    Scabies limited to the nail unit is quite unusual, but may persist after treatment of crusted scabies. We present a man with a history of crusted scabies that resolved with treatment, but later the patient reported a chronic problem with crumbly, thickened nails, which were found to be harboring scabies mites. PMID:25526011

  11. Nail as a window of systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Archana; Arora, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Certain nail changes are specific for various dermatological disorders. In addition, examination of nails may also provide an insight into more sinister systemic manifestations in the form of both subtle as well as specific changes. These findings may present as a defect of various anatomical components of the nail unit; nail matrix, nail plate and/or nail bed or vasculature. This article is an attempt to equip the dermatologists with a foresight to suspect and diagnose the unapparent systemic connotations that may be possible by a simple but detailed nail examination. PMID:25821724

  12. Nonclassical depth of a quantum state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching Tsung

    1992-01-01

    A measure is defined for how nonclassical a quantum state is, with values ranging from 0 to 1. When it is applied to the photon-number states, the calculated value is 1, the maximum possible. For squeezed states, it is a monotonically increasing function of the squeeze parameter with values varying from 0 to 1/2. The physical meaning of the nonclassical depth is found to be just the number of thermal photons necessary to ruin the nonclassical nature of the quantum state.

  13. Teleportation of nonclassical wave packets of light.

    PubMed

    Lee, Noriyuki; Benichi, Hugo; Takeno, Yuishi; Takeda, Shuntaro; Webb, James; Huntington, Elanor; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-04-15

    We report on the experimental quantum teleportation of strongly nonclassical wave packets of light. To perform this full quantum operation while preserving and retrieving the fragile nonclassicality of the input state, we have developed a broadband, zero-dispersion teleportation apparatus that works in conjunction with time-resolved state preparation equipment. Our approach brings within experimental reach a whole new set of hybrid protocols involving discrete- and continuous-variable techniques in quantum information processing for optical sciences. PMID:21493853

  14. Non-classical protein secretion in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bendtsen, Jannick D; Kiemer, Lars; Fausbøll, Anders; Brunak, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Background We present an overview of bacterial non-classical secretion and a prediction method for identification of proteins following signal peptide independent secretion pathways. We have compiled a list of proteins found extracellularly despite the absence of a signal peptide. Some of these proteins also have known roles in the cytoplasm, which means they could be so-called "moon-lightning" proteins having more than one function. Results A thorough literature search was conducted to compile a list of currently known bacterial non-classically secreted proteins. Pattern finding methods were applied to the sequences in order to identify putative signal sequences or motifs responsible for their secretion. We have found no signal or motif characteristic to any majority of the proteins in the compiled list of non-classically secreted proteins, and conclude that these proteins, indeed, seem to be secreted in a novel fashion. However, we also show that the apparently non-classically secreted proteins are still distinguished from cellular proteins by properties such as amino acid composition, secondary structure and disordered regions. Specifically, prediction of disorder reveals that bacterial secretory proteins are more structurally disordered than their cytoplasmic counterparts. Finally, artificial neural networks were used to construct protein feature based methods for identification of non-classically secreted proteins in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion We present a publicly available prediction method capable of discriminating between this group of proteins and other proteins, thus allowing for the identification of novel non-classically secreted proteins. We suggest candidates for non-classically secreted proteins in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The prediction method is available online. PMID:16212653

  15. Physics of nail conditions: why do ingrown nails always happen in the big toes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Cyril; Cherkaoui-Rbati, Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    Although surgical treatment of nail conditions can be traced back centuries to the writings of Paul Aegineta (625-690 AC), little is known about the physical laws governing nail growth. Such a poor understanding together with the increasing number of nail salons in the high street should raise legitimate concerns regarding the different procedures applied to nails. An understanding of the physics of nail growth is therefore essential to engage with human medicine and to understand the aetiology of nail conditions. In this context, a theory of nail plate adhesion, including a physical description of nail growth can be used to determine the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the nail plate that are so important in the physical diagnosis of some nail conditions. As a result physics sheds light on: (a) why/how nails/hooves adhere strongly, yet grow smoothly; (b) why hoof/claw/nail growth rates are similar across species; (c) potential nail damage incurred by poor trimming; (d) the connection between three previously unrelated nail conditions, i.e. spoon-shaped, pincer and ingrown nails and; last but not least, (e) why ingrown nails occur preferentially in the big toes.

  16. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

  17. Non-classical divalent lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Nief, François

    2010-08-01

    The synthesis of non-classical divalent lanthanide complexes, i.e. those not containing the classical samarium(II), europium(II) or ytterbium(II), was once thought impossible. Since 1997, when the first stable complex of thulium(II) was discovered, there has been many more examples of stable coordination and organometallic complexes of lanthanum(II), neodymium(II) and dysprosium(II) in addition to thulium(II), and the influence of the ligand system on the stability of the complexes is beginning to be understood. These non-classical divalent compounds show exceptional reactivity as some of them have been shown to activate dinitrogen at room temperature, together with related reduced divalent-like systems, and to undergo spontaneous intramolecular carbon-hydrogen bond activation. Many more examples of non-classical divalent compounds together with new aspects of their exciting reactivity should be discovered in the near future. PMID:20631944

  18. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  19. Enhancing non-classicality in mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Gröblacher, Simon; Paternostro, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    We study the effects of post-selection measurements on both the non-classicality of the state of a mechanical oscillator and the entanglement between two mechanical systems that are part of a distributed optomechanical network. We address the cases of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian measurements, identifying in which cases simple photon counting and Geiger-like measurements are effective in distilling a strongly non-classical mechanical state and enhancing the purely mechanical entanglement between two elements of the network.

  20. Entanglement and nonclassicality: A mutual impression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholipour, H.; Shahandeh, F.

    2016-06-01

    We find a sufficient condition to imprint the single-mode bosonic phase-space nonclassicality onto a bipartite state as modal entanglement and vice versa using an arbitrary beam splitter. Surprisingly, the entanglement produced or detected in this way depends only on the nonclassicality of the marginal input or output states, regardless of their purity and separability. In this way, our result provides a sufficient condition for generating entangled states of arbitrary high temperature and arbitrary large number of particles. We also study the evolution of the entanglement within a lossy Mach-Zehnder interferometer and show that unless both modes are totally lost, the entanglement does not diminish.

  1. Nail Disease for the Primary Care Provider.

    PubMed

    Biesbroeck, Lauren K; Fleckman, Philip

    2015-11-01

    Nail disorders are a common presenting complaint for both the primary care physician and the dermatologist. Nail diagnoses are broad in scope and include infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic conditions. Onychomycosis is an especially common nail condition, and treatment should always be preceded by appropriate fungal studies for confirmation of diagnosis. Inflammatory conditions of the nail unit can mimic onychomycosis, and a dermatologist can assist with diagnosis and treatment recommendations. Likewise, subungual tumors often require biopsy, and should be evaluated by a dermatologist who is experienced in nail evaluation and treatment. PMID:26476249

  2. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo

    2011-12-15

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  3. Nonclassicality thresholds for multiqubit states: Numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gruca, Jacek; Zukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wieslaw; Kiesel, Nikolai; Wieczorek, Witlef; Weinfurter, Harald; Schmid, Christian

    2010-07-15

    States that strongly violate Bell's inequalities are required in many quantum-informational protocols as, for example, in cryptography, secret sharing, and the reduction of communication complexity. We investigate families of such states with a numerical method which allows us to reveal nonclassicality even without direct knowledge of Bell's inequalities for the given problem. An extensive set of numerical results is presented and discussed.

  4. Nail Psoriasis: The Journey So Far

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Alka; Arora, Amanjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Nail involvement is an extremely common feature of psoriasis and affects approximately 10-78% of psoriasis patients with 5-10% of patients having isolated nail psoriasis. However, it is often an overlooked feature in the management of nail psoriasis, despite the significant burden it places on the patients as a result of functional impairment of manual dexterity, pain, and psychological stress. Affected nail plates often thicken and crumble, and because they are very visible, patients tend to avoid normal day-to-day activities and social interactions. Importantly, 70-80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis have nail psoriasis. In this overview, we review the clinical manifestations of psoriasis affecting the nails, the common differential diagnosis of nail psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and the various diagnostic aids for diagnosing nail psoriasis especially, the cases with isolated nail involvement. We have also discussed the available treatment options, including the topical, physical, systemic, and biological modalities, in great detail in order to equip the present day dermatologist in dealing with a big clinical challenge, that is, management of nail psoriasis. PMID:25071247

  5. Life-threatening nail gun injuries.

    PubMed

    Beaver, A C; Cheatham, M L

    1999-12-01

    The use of pneumatic and explosive cartridge-activated nail guns is common in the construction industry. The ease and speed of nailing these tools afford enhance productivity at the cost of increased potential for traumatic injury. Although extremity injuries are most common, life-threatening injuries to the head, neck, chest, or abdomen and pelvis may occur. During a 20-month period, eight potentially life-threatening nail gun injuries were admitted to a Level I trauma center, including injuries to the brain, eye, neck, heart, lung, and femoral artery. Mechanism of injury included nail ricochet, nail gun misuse due to inadequate training, and successful suicide. Nail guns have significant potential for causing severe debilitating injury and death. These findings indicate a need for improved safety features and user education. The various types of nail guns, their ballistic potential, and techniques for operative management are discussed. PMID:10597056

  6. Process output nonclassicality and nonclassicality depth of quantum-optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabapathy, Krishna Kumar

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a quantum-optical notion of nonclassicality that we call the process output nonclassicality for multimode quantum channels. The motivation comes from an information-theoretic point of view and the emphasis is on the output states of a channel. We deem a channel to be "classical" if its outputs are always classical irrespective of the input, i.e., if the channel is nonclassicality breaking, and nonclassical otherwise. Our condition is stronger than the one considered by Rahimi-Keshari et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160401 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.160401 and we compare the two approaches. Using our framework we then quantify the nonclassicality of a quantum process by introducing a noise-robustness type of measure that we call the nonclassicality depth of a channel. It characterizes a certain threshold noise beyond which a given channel outputs only classical states. We achieve this by generalizing a prescription by Lee [Phys. Rev. A 44, R2775 (1991), 10.1103/PhysRevA.44.R2775] to multimode states and then by extension to multimode channels.

  7. [Key messages in nail disease].

    PubMed

    Goettmann, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Nail diseases are varied, and their diagnosis is often difficult. Misdiagnosis can result in failure to recognize a severe disease in urgent need of treatment and in the prescription of treatments that are inappropriate, long, ineffective, and expensive. Acute paronychia must be managed rapidly, treated with antiseptics several times a day, and closely monitored. Nail lichen must be recognized early and treated rapidly and appropriately to prevent permanent scarring. All chronic pain (to shocks or cold) of the tip of a finger or toe should suggest a glomus tumor. Any unexplained persistent single-finger onychopathy should in principle cause the physician to suspect a tumor, carcinoma, or melanoma and to order a histologic examination. An onychopathy must not be treated as an onychomycosis without diagnostic certainty. Repeated microtraumas of the toenails cause injuries that absolutely must be differentiated from onychomycosis. In growth of the big toenail can often be avoided by appropriate cutting of the nails, leaving in place the lateral parts of the nail plate. PMID:25451634

  8. Onycholysis induced by nail hardener.

    PubMed

    Helsing, Per; Austad, Joar; Talberg, Hans Jørgen

    2007-10-01

    Nail hardeners appeared in the market during the 1960s. They were basically solutions of formaldehyde. The first adverse effects were published in 1966 (1). Reactions were onycholysis, chromonychia, subungual haemorrhage, and hyperkeratosis. Onycholysis may be non-inflammatory or inflammatory, and is accompanied by throbbing pain. Inflammatory reactions are followed by paronychia and occasional dermatitis on the digital pulpa. PMID:17868227

  9. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. PMID:23408541

  10. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

  11. Nail-Gun Injuries to the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Pappas-Politis, Effie; Naidu, Deepak K.; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The nail gun is a commonly utilized tool in carpentry and construction. When used properly with appropriate safety precautions, it can facilitate production and boost efficiency; however, this powerful tool also has the potential to cause serious injury. The most common site of nail-gun injuries in both industrial and nonoccupational settings is the hand. Materials and Methods: We report on two patients with nail-gun injuries to the hand. A review of the literature and discussion of clinical evaluation and treatment of nail-gun injuries to the hand are presented. Results: Two patients present with soft tissue injuries to the hand with the nail embedded and intact at the injury site. Operative removal of the nail and wound care resulted in successful treatment in both cases. Nail-gun injuries to the hand vary in severity on the basis of the extent of structural damage. Treatment is based on the severity of injury and the presence and location of barbs on the penetrating nail. Conclusion: Healthcare providers must understand and educate patients on the prevention mechanics of nail-gun injuries. Nail-gun injuries to the hand necessitate appropriate evaluation techniques, understanding of surgical management versus nonsurgical management, and awareness of potential pitfalls in treatment. PMID:19079574

  12. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa ... How can I prevent yellow fever?Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. ... only at designated vaccination centers. After getting the vaccine, you ...

  13. Nonclassical vibrational states in a quantized trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Heping; Lin, Fucheng

    1993-09-01

    The quantized center-of-mass (c.m.) motions of a single two-level atom or ion confined into a one-dimensional harmonic potential and interacting with a single-mode classical traveling-wave laser field are examined. We demonstrate that trap quantum states with remarkable nonclassical properties such as quadrature and amplitude-squared squeezing and sub-Poissonian statistics can be generated in this simple trap model when the c.m. motion is initially in certain coherent trap states. Our analyses also indicate that there exist some time regions where the production of nonclassical vibrational states is possible even if squeezing or sub-Poissonian statistics do not appear.

  14. Non-Classical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Lomelino, Carrie L.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoform-specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamide-based compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to off-target inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamide-based compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also non-classical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of non-classical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoform-specific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828

  15. Nonclassical Paths in Quantum Interference Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

    2014-09-01

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.

  16. Non-Classical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Lomelino, Carrie L; Supuran, Claudiu T; McKenna, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoform-specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamide-based compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to off-target inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamide-based compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also non-classical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of non-classical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoform-specific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828

  17. Intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Kyrö, A; Lamppu, M; Böstman, O

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-four displaced tibial shaft fractures were treated using intramedullary nailing, either primarily or after an attempt at conservative treatment, which consisted of closed reduction under anaesthesia and immobilisation in a long-leg plaster cast. There were 37 closed and 27 open fractures. Three patients had a fracture of both tibiae. The median time period from the intramedullary nailing of the closed solitary fractures to union was about the same after primary nailing as after delayed nailing. Although the fractures were different in these groups, it is possible that the time spent in conservative treatment before intramedullary nailing brings no additional benefits. The incidence of deep infection in open fractures after primary nailing was 1/16. The fractures, in which an acceptable position could not be maintained using conservative methods, were mainly spiral in configuration and located in the distal third or at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the tibia. PMID:7645911

  18. Nail toxicities induced by systemic anticancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Robert, Caroline; Sibaud, Vincent; Mateus, Christina; Verschoore, Michèle; Charles, Cécile; Lanoy, Emilie; Baran, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Patients treated with systemic anticancer drugs often show changes to their nails, which are usually well tolerated and disappear on cessation of treatment. However, some nail toxicities can cause pain and functional impairment and thus substantially affect a patient's quality of life, especially if they are given taxanes or EGFR inhibitors. These nail toxicities can affect both the nail plate and bed, and might present as melanonychia, leukonychia, onycholysis, onychomadesis, Beau's lines, or onychorrhexis, as frequently noted with conventional chemotherapies. Additionally, the periungual area (perionychium) of the nail might be affected by paronychia or pyogenic granuloma, especially in patients treated with drugs targeting EGFR or MEK. We review the nail changes induced by conventional chemotherapies and those associated with the use of targeted anticancer drugs and discuss preventive or curative options. PMID:25846098

  19. New Semi Coherent States: Nonclassical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, A.; Mojaveri, B.

    2015-10-01

    A new family of semi coherent states (semi-CSs), for a charged particle moving in a constant uniform magnetic field have been introduced. We have shown that they can be interpreted as nonlinear coherent states (NLCSs) with a special nonlinearity function. By investigation on some of their nonclassical features, it has bee shown that contrary to the well known semi-CSs, they exhibit second-order squeezing. Finally, we establish relation between them and two mode displaced number coherent states (DNCSs).

  20. Generalized structure of higher order nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

    2010-02-01

    A generalized notion of higher order nonclassicality (in terms of higher order moments) is introduced. Under this generalized framework of higher order nonclassicality, conditions of higher order squeezing and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics are derived. A simpler form of the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing criterion is derived under this framework by using an operator ordering theorem introduced by us in [A. Pathak, J. Phys. A 33 (2000) 5607]. It is also generalized for multi-photon Bose operators of Brandt and Greenberg. Similarly, condition for higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is derived by normal ordering of higher powers of number operator. Further, with the help of simple density matrices, it is shown that the higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are not the manifestation of the same phenomenon and consequently it is incorrect to use the condition of HOA as a test of HOSPS. It is also shown that the HOA and HOSPS may exist even in absence of the corresponding lower order phenomenon. Binomial state, nonlinear first order excited squeezed state (NLESS) and nonlinear vacuum squeezed state (NLVSS) are used as examples of quantum state and it is shown that these states may show higher order nonclassical characteristics. It is observed that the Binomial state which is always antibunched, is not always higher order squeezed and NLVSS which shows higher order squeezing does not show HOSPS and HOA. The opposite is observed in NLESS and consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS are two independent signatures of higher order nonclassicality.

  1. Investigation of Human Nail Microstructure with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeva, A. R.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    Investigation of a human fingernail and the extraction of the data on its microstructure and elastic properties is important in three main aspects. First of all, various diseases of the nail can be differentiated more precisely; second of all, it is possible to non-invasively track during time the effects of a cosmetic product upon the nail; third of all, because various processes in the organism have a strong influence upon the nail plate growth, the monitoring of the nail morphology and its mechanical properties may be used as additional information for the diagnosis of a number of medical disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, chronic hand eczema, anemia etc. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed ultrasound investigation in the high-frequency range (25-50 MHz) of a human nail including micro-anatomical structure imaging and ultrasound velocity evaluation, using B-scans obtained with a scanning acoustic microscope. On the images, exact topology of the nail, nail matrix and the underlying bone have been revealed. Additionally, a certain type of inclined internal layering along the nails of some individuals has been found, which was not reported in previous ultrasonic studies of the nail.

  2. Water diffusivity in human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Gunt, Hemali B; Miller, Matthew A; Kasting, Gerald B

    2007-12-01

    The diffusivity of water in human nail at 32 degrees C was determined for cadaveric, human finger nails having water contents ranging from 0.536 g H(2)O/g dry nail to 0.035 g H(2)O/g dry nail by measuring the desorption of tritiated water from nails suspended in water or in the vapor phase above salt solutions yielding a range of relative humidities (RH). Diffusivity increased with increasing RH from (7.7 +/- 1.3) x 10(-10) cm(2) s(-1) at 15% RH to (3.2 +/- 1.1) x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) in the liquid phase study at 100% RH, a more than 400-fold increase. The diffusivity values, which may be understood in terms of the equilibrium water content of the nail and a free volume theory for diffusion in hydrophilic polymers, were consistent with water diffusivities measured in other keratinized tissues including wool, horn and the corneocyte phase of stratum corneum. Analysis of the tritium desorption data was complicated by a tritium exchange process between (3)H(2)O and nail keratin, the kinetics of which are presented in part. The combination of the concentration-dependent water diffusivity with the natural water activity gradient in nail in vivo leads to the prediction of a nonlinear steady-state water concentration profile in human nail in vivo which, in turn, has implications for ungual drug delivery. PMID:17786922

  3. Double Nail of the Little Toe

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    A rudimentary accessory or double nail of the little toe is not rare, although only described three times before. Most cases are accidentally detected and only few patients seek help because they have discomfort or pain. Some have a positive family history, but most patients cannot give any information concerning heredity. Clinically, the nail of the little toe is abnormally wide and is split or shows a longitudinal depression corresponding to a slight protuberance of the cuticle. Histopathology shows a complete though short nail. The treatment of choice is segmental excision of the entire accessory nail unit with mobilization of the lateral skin and primary suture. PMID:27386457

  4. Angular-momentum nonclassicality by breaking classical bounds on statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Angel

    2011-10-15

    We derive simple practical procedures revealing the quantum behavior of angular momentum variables by the violation of classical upper bounds on the statistics. Data analysis is minimum and definite conclusions are obtained without evaluation of moments, or any other more sophisticated procedures. These nonclassical tests are very general and independent of other typical quantum signatures of nonclassical behavior such as sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing, or oscillatory statistics, being insensitive to the nonclassical behavior displayed by other variables.

  5. Severe Nail Fold Psoriasis Extending from Nail Psoriasis Resolved with Ustekinumab: Suggestion of a Cytokine Overflow Theory in the Nail Unit

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sang Young; Kim, Bo Ri; Choi, Jae Woo

    2016-01-01

    Because nail psoriasis is difficult to treat, therapy with many biological drugs has been attempted. Ustekinumab is approved for chronic plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), with some trials reporting nail improvement using this agent. A 51-year-old man with severe chronic plaque psoriasis had severe involvement of all fingernails and toenails, with accompanying nail fold psoriasis. He also had PsA of the small joints of the fingers. Despite multiple conventional therapies, the nail lesions did not improve, and his nail psoriasis severity index score was 97. After a fourth ustekinumab injection, most of the fingernail psoriasis was resolved, and only hyperkeratosis remained on both large toenails. Because the nail plate, nail fold, and small joints of the fingers are closely apposed structures within a small area, cytokines produced from the nail units overflow to the nail fold and small joints and can induce nail fold psoriasis and PsA. PMID:26848225

  6. Nonclassical light revealed by the joint statistics of simultaneous measurements.

    PubMed

    Luis, Alfredo

    2016-04-15

    Nonclassicality cannot be a single-observable property, since the statistics of any quantum observable is compatible with classical physics. We develop a general procedure to reveal nonclassical behavior of light states from the joint statistics arising in the practical measurement of multiple observables. Beside embracing previous approaches, this protocol can disclose nonclassical features for standard examples of classical-like behavior, such as SU(2) and Glauber coherent states. When combined with other criteria, this would imply that every light state is nonclassical. PMID:27082346

  7. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  8. Correction of pincer nail deformity with dermal flap: a new technique in pincer nail deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Altun, Serdar; Gürger, Murat; Arpacı, Enver; İnözü, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Pincer nail deformity is the extreme, transverse, proximal-to-distal overcurvature of the finger, caused by osteophyte of the distal phalanx, and causing clamp effect on soft tissues and nail ingrowth. We report a new technique consisting of removal of the osteophyte causing clamp effect. Depressed areas of both side of the nail bed (lateral nail fold) were corrected with dermal flaps prepared from the side. Depressed areas were filled by these flaps, creating a smooth surface for the nail bed, and adequate correction was obtained. PMID:27130395

  9. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan A; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  10. Intramedullary locking femoral nails. Experience with the AO nail.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A. B.; Yeates, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The AO interlocking nail was introduced to the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald in 1988 and since then has been used in over 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures. We have reviewed 45 patients with 46 femoral shaft fractures treated between June 1988 and April 1990. These included four compound fractures and 13 comminuted fractures. The results compare favourably with other series. The union rate was 98% and there were no instances of deep infection. The alternative treatment methods available are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. Images Fig 3 Fig 5 PMID:1785145

  11. Genetics Home Reference: nail-patella syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... are usually the most severely affected. In many people with this condition, the areas at the base of the nails (lunulae) are triangular instead of the usual crescent shape. Individuals with nail-patella ... of the patella is common. Some people with this condition may not be able to ...

  12. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  13. Nail Involvement in Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, Melanie; Hohendorf-Ansari, Parinaz; Trüeb, Ralph Michel

    2015-01-01

    A case of frontal fibrosing alopecia with nail involvement is presented. Nail involvement provides evidence for underlying lichen planus, and that the disease represents a rather generalized than localized process. Favorable response of the scalp condition to oral dutasteride points to an inflammatory reaction on the background of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:26180450

  14. Nail Involvement in Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Melanie; Hohendorf-Ansari, Parinaz; Trüeb, Ralph Michel

    2015-01-01

    A case of frontal fibrosing alopecia with nail involvement is presented. Nail involvement provides evidence for underlying lichen planus, and that the disease represents a rather generalized than localized process. Favorable response of the scalp condition to oral dutasteride points to an inflammatory reaction on the background of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:26180450

  15. Onychomatricoma: A Rare Tumor of Nail Matrix.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hong Jin; Kim, Mi Ri; Cho, Baik Kee; Yoo, Gyeol; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor of the nail matrix. Until now, few cases of onychomatricoma have been reported in the literature. Immunohistochemically, CD10, a marker of the onychodermis, is expressed in the stroma of the onychomatricoma. In the present case, a 27-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a yellowish, thickened, and overcurved nail plate of the right index finger, mimicking onychomycosis. She had been treated for 4 years with antifungal agents by general physicians, without improvement. The nail was surgically removed, and the tumor at the nail matrix was excised. The nail plate continued to grow in the 2 months after the excision. This is a case of onychomatricoma in South Korea, which was initially misdiagnosed as onychomycosis. In addition, we present a review of the literature regarding clinical, sonographic, and histological features, differential diagnoses, and treatment of onychomatricoma. PMID:27081273

  16. Onychomatricoma: A Rare Tumor of Nail Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hong Jin; Kim, Mi Ri; Cho, Baik Kee; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor of the nail matrix. Until now, few cases of onychomatricoma have been reported in the literature. Immunohistochemically, CD10, a marker of the onychodermis, is expressed in the stroma of the onychomatricoma. In the present case, a 27-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a yellowish, thickened, and overcurved nail plate of the right index finger, mimicking onychomycosis. She had been treated for 4 years with antifungal agents by general physicians, without improvement. The nail was surgically removed, and the tumor at the nail matrix was excised. The nail plate continued to grow in the 2 months after the excision. This is a case of onychomatricoma in South Korea, which was initially misdiagnosed as onychomycosis. In addition, we present a review of the literature regarding clinical, sonographic, and histological features, differential diagnoses, and treatment of onychomatricoma. PMID:27081273

  17. Quantum communication with macroscopically bright nonclassical states.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Ruppert, Laszlo; Filip, Radim

    2015-11-30

    We analyze homodyne detection of macroscopically bright multimode nonclassical states of light and propose their application in quantum communication. We observe that the homodyne detection is sensitive to a mode-matching of the bright light to the highly intense local oscillator. Unmatched bright modes of light result in additional noise which technically limits detection of Gaussian entanglement at macroscopic level. When the mode-matching is sufficient, we show that multimode quantum key distribution with bright beams is feasible. It finally merges the quantum communication with classical optical technology of visible beams of light. PMID:26698776

  18. Interlocked Intramedullary Nail Without Fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zirkle, Lewis G; Shahab, Faseeh; Shahabuddin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) was founded 15 years ago to create equality of fracture care throughout the world. This is done by education and supply of the appropriate implants and instruments to implement the education. SIGN implants have been used in 150,000 long bone fractures in developing countries. The same implants and instruments are used to provide intramedullary nail interlocking screw fixation in the tibia, femur, and humerus. The design of SIGN implants and the surgical technique are described. PMID:26614921

  19. Nonlinearity as a resource for nonclassicality in anharmonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarelli, Francesco; Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-03-01

    Nonclassicality is a key ingredient for quantum enhanced technologies and experiments involving macroscopic quantum coherence. Considering various exactly solvable quantum-oscillator systems, we address the role played by the anharmonicity of their potential in the establishment of nonclassical features. Specifically, we show that a monotonic relation exists between the entropic nonlinearity of the considered potentials and their ground-state nonclassicality, as quantified by the negativity of the Wigner function. In addition, in order to clarify the role of squeezing, which is not captured by the negativity of the Wigner function, we focus on the Glauber-Sudarshan P function and address the nonclassicality-nonlinearity relation using the entanglement potential. Finally, we consider the case of a generic sixth-order potential confirming the idea that nonlinearity is a resource for the generation of nonclassicality and may serve as a guideline for the engineering of quantum oscillators.

  20. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails

    PubMed Central

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  1. Non-classical types of loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriondo, M. H.; Kröhling, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to describe the sequence of physical and chemical processes resulting in the sediment-type named loess, a fine-grained sediment deposit of universal occurrence. Owing to historical causes, loess has been (and still is) implicitly linked to glacial/periglacial environments among most naturalists. However it is known today that most eolian dust is deflated from tropical deserts. Hence, that sequence of processes is more comprehensive than the former narrow cold scenario. Six examples of different "non-classical" cases (from South America and Europe) that fit well to the loess definition are developed: 1) volcanic loess in Ecuador: pyroclastic eruptions/valley wind/mountain praire/silica structuring; 2) tropical loess in northeastern Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay: deflation of river and fan splays/savanna/iron sesquioxide structuring; 3) gypsum loess in northern Spain: destruction of anhydrite/gypsiferous layers in a dry climate/valley wind/Saharian shrub peridesert/gypsum structuring; 4) trade-wind deposits in Venezuela and Brazil: deflation in tidal flats/trade wind into the continent/savanna/iron hydroxide structuring; 5) anticyclonic gray loess in Argentina: continental anticyclone on plains/anti-clockwise winds and whirls/steppe/carbonate structuring. All these non-classical types conform to the accepted loess definitions and they also share the most important field characteristics of loess such as grain size, friability, vertical or sub-vertical slopes in outcrops, subfusion and others. Other cases can probably be recognized when systematically scrutinized.

  2. Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters to predict drug-nail interactions, which can assist the design of nail medicines.

    PubMed

    Hossin, B; Rizi, K; Murdan, S

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesised that Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) can be used to predict drug-nail affinities. Our aims were to: (i) determine the HSPs (δD, δP, δH) of the nail plate, the hoof membrane (a model for the nail plate), and of the drugs terbinafine HCl, amorolfine HCl, ciclopirox olamine and efinaconazole, by measuring their swelling/solubility in organic liquids, (ii) predict nail-drug interactions by comparing drug and nail HSPs, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of these predictions using literature reports of experimentally-determined affinities of these drugs for keratin, the main constituent of the nail plate and hoof. Many solvents caused no change in the mass of nail plates, a few solvents deswelled the nail, while others swelled the nail to varying extents. Fingernail and toenail HSPs were almost the same, while hoof HSPs were similar, except for a slightly lower δP. High nail-terbinafine HCl, nail-amorolfine HCl and nail-ciclopirox olamine affinities, and low nail-efinaconazole affinities were then predicted, and found to accurately match experimental reports of these drugs' affinities to keratin. We therefore propose that drug and nail Hansen Solubility Parameters may be used to predict drug-nail interactions, and that these results can assist in the design of drugs for the treatment of nail diseases, such as onychomycosis and psoriasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of HSPs in ungual research. PMID:26924329

  3. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P < .05) with a permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative. PMID:22124008

  4. Intra-articular risks of suprapatellar nailing.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Michael J; Collinge, Cory A; Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Masini, Brendan D; Blease, Robert E; Hsu, Joseph R

    2012-12-01

    To determine the risks to local anatomy near the starting point for tibial nailing during suprapatellar nailing, 15 fresh-frozen hemipelvis specimens were nailed using a suprapatellar technique. After nail passage, the menisci and articular surfaces, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion, intermeniscal ligament, and fat pad were assessed for injury. The distance from the entry portal to the menisci, articular surfaces, and ACL insertion was determined. Medial meniscus injury occurred in 1 (6.7%) specimen and medial articular injury in 2 (13%). Nails passed through the fat pad in all specimens; intermeniscal ligament injury occurred in 3 (20%) specimens. The ACL insertion and lateral structures were not injured in any specimen. The distance from the entry portal margin to the lateral and medial menisci was 6.46±2.47 mm and 4.74±3.17 mm, respectively. The distances to the lateral and medial articular margins measured 10.33±3.62 mm and 6.54±3.57 mm, respectively. The distance to the ACL insertion averaged 5.80±3.94 mm. Suprapatellar nailing is associated with a risk of injury to anterior knee structures comparable to other nailing techniques. Additional clinical studies are warranted to further define the role of this technique in the management of tibial fractures. PMID:23550286

  5. Intramedullary nailing and pulmonary embolism: does unreamed nailing prevent embolization? An in vivo study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Heim, D; Regazzoni, P; Tsakiris, D A; Aebi, T; Schlegel, U; Marbet, G A; Perren, S M

    1995-06-01

    Pulmonary embolism in reamed femoral nailing has been reported and discussed over recent years. Does an unreamed nailing technique with a solid nail prevent this rare but serious complication of intramedullary fixation? In an animal model in rabbits, we studied the pathophysiologic impact on pulmonary function and the impact on hemostasis of reamed and unreamed nailing of intact femora and tibiae, and of femoral fracture in relation to intramedullary pressure. No statistical difference of PaO2, PaCO2, and PCO2et was found in the femur whether a reamed or unreamed procedure was performed. Two of six animals with unreamed femoral nailing, one of six animal with reamed femoral nailing, and one of five animals with a femoral fracture fulfilled four of four or three of four criteria for embolization (increase of the difference of PaCO2 and PCO2et, decrease of PaO2, increase of blast cells in central-venous blood and bone marrow/fat in histologic section of the lungs and bone). Tibial nailing did not alter pulmonary function in either group. Intramedullary pressure was increased in all animals with perioperative impairment of pulmonary function (375 to 676 mbar). Analysis of the hemostatic results showed a significant difference of platelet activation in reamed versus unreamed nailing of the femur 1 hour after nailing (p < 0.01) and a significant decrease of fibrinogen and antithrombin III (p < 0.001/p < 0.01) in reamed femoral nailing. We conclude that unreamed nailing of the femur with a solid rod may also cause bone marrow embolization with alteration of pulmonary function as long as an important increase of the intramedullary pressure is generated during the nailing procedure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7602632

  6. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures: surgical hints

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with suprapatellar entry and semi-extended positioning makes it technically easier to nail the proximal and distal fractures. The purpose of this article was to describe a simple method for suprapatellar nailing (SPN). A step-by-step run through of the surgical technique is described, including positioning of the patient. There are as yet only a few clinical studies that illustrate the complications with this method, and there has been no increased frequency of intraarticular damage. Within the body of the manuscript, information is included about intraarticular damage and comments with references about anterior knee pain. PMID:27340503

  7. Intramedullary nailing of pediatric femoral shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Hosalkar, Harish S; Pandya, Nirav K; Cho, Robert H; Glaser, Diana A; Moor, Molly A; Herman, Martin J

    2011-08-01

    Intramedullary nail fixation of pediatric long bone fracture, particularly femoral shaft fracture, has revolutionized the care and outcome of these complex injuries. Nailing is associated with a high rate of union and a low rate of complications. Improved understanding of proximal femoral vascularity has led to changes in nail insertion methodology. Multiple fixation devices are available; selection is based on fracture type, patient age, skeletal maturity, and body mass index. A thorough knowledge of anatomy and biomechanics is required to achieve optimal results without negatively affecting skeletal development. PMID:21807915

  8. Nail Alterations in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: A Case Series and Review of Nail Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Brian E.; Wulkan, Adam; Kerdel, Francisco; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) encompasses a broad range of lymphoproliferative diseases affecting the skin and can be clinically misleading due to its variable presentation. Nail alterations commonly appear in advanced-stage mycosis fungoides and true Sézary syndrome; however, they may be present in any stage of the disease. Although proper recognition of nail involvement in CTCL has both clinical and therapeutic value, specific nail findings have been infrequently described in the current literature. Observations We describe 4 patients with CTCL who presented with clinically significant nail alterations. The most common findings were nail discoloration, thickening, crumbling, onycholysis, and onychomadesis. Other notable findings included splinter hemorrhages, subungual hyperkeratosis, and anonychia. Conclusions and Message The described cases illustrate many of the documented nail findings associated with CTCL and emphasize the variable nature of nail manifestations. The presence of specific nail alterations should increase the clinical suspicion of CTCL – especially in patients with concomitant systemic and/or cutaneous manifestations – and early biopsy specimens should be taken for diagnosis. Nail alterations should also be accurately described and monitored in all patients with biopsy-confirmed CTCL to help identify treatment response and detect disease recurrence. PMID:27170938

  9. Nonclassical Symmetry Analysis of Heated Two-Dimensional Flow Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Imran; Naz, Rehana; Khan, Muhammad Danish

    2015-12-01

    This article analyses the nonclassical symmetries and group invariant solution of boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flows. First, we derive the nonclassical symmetry determining equations with the aid of the computer package SADE. We solve these equations directly to obtain nonclassical symmetries. We follow standard procedure of computing nonclassical symmetries and consider two different scenarios, ξ1≠0 and ξ1=0, ξ2≠0. Several nonclassical symmetries are reported for both scenarios. Furthermore, numerous group invariant solutions for nonclassical symmetries are derived. The similarity variables associated with each nonclassical symmetry are computed. The similarity variables reduce the system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in terms of similarity variables. The reduced system of ODEs are solved to obtain group invariant solution for governing boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flow problems. We successfully formulate a physical problem of heat transfer analysis for fluid flow over a linearly stretching porous plat and, with suitable boundary conditions, we solve this problem.

  10. Phonon-Mediated Nonclassical Interference in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Duncan G.; Fisher, Kent A. G.; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W.; Bustard, Philip J.; Heshami, Khabat; Resch, Kevin J.; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum interference of single photons is a fundamental aspect of many photonic quantum processing and communication protocols. Interference requires that the multiple pathways through an interferometer be temporally indistinguishable to within the coherence time of the photon. In this Letter, we use a diamond quantum memory to demonstrate interference between quantum pathways, initially temporally separated by many multiples of the optical coherence time. The quantum memory can be viewed as a light-matter beam splitter, mapping a THz-bandwidth single photon to a variable superposition of the output optical mode and stored phononic mode. Because the memory acts both as a beam splitter and as a buffer, the relevant coherence time for interference is not that of the photon, but rather that of the memory. We use this mechanism to demonstrate nonclassical single-photon and two-photon interference between quantum pathways initially separated by several picoseconds, even though the duration of the photons themselves is just ˜250 fs .

  11. Testing dimension and nonclassicality in communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Joseph; Brunner, Nicolas; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    We consider networks featuring preparation, transformation, and measurement devices, in which devices exchange communication via mediating physical systems. We investigate the problem of testing the dimension of the mediating systems in the device-independent scenario, that is, based on observable data alone. A general framework for tackling this problem is presented, considering both classical and quantum systems. These methods can then also be used to certify the nonclassicality of the mediating systems, given an upper bound on their dimension. Several case studies are reported, which illustrate the relevance of the framework. These examples also show that, for fixed dimension, quantum systems largely outperform classical ones. Moreover, the use of a transformation device considerably improves noise tolerance when compared to simple prepare-and-measure networks. These results suggest that the classical simulation of quantum systems becomes costly in terms of dimension, even for simple networks.

  12. Multitime correlation functions in nonclassical stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumm, F.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

    2016-06-01

    A general method is introduced for verifying multitime quantum correlations through the characteristic function of the time-dependent P functional that generalizes the Glauber-Sudarshan P function. Quantum correlation criteria are derived which identify quantum effects for an arbitrary number of points in time. The Magnus expansion is used to visualize the impact of the required time ordering, which becomes crucial in situations when the interaction problem is explicitly time dependent. We show that the latter affects the multi-time-characteristic function and, therefore, the temporal evolution of the nonclassicality. As an example, we apply our technique to an optical parametric process with a frequency mismatch. The resulting two-time-characteristic function yields full insight into the two-time quantum correlation properties of such a system.

  13. Nonclassical Patrolling Monocyte Function in the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Graham; Tacke, Robert; Hedrick, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Nonclassical patrolling monocytes are characterized by their unique ability to actively patrol the vascular endothelium under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Patrolling monocyte subsets (CX3CR1highLy6C− in mouse, and CX3CR1highCD14dimCD16+ in humans) are distinct from the classical monocyte subsets (CCR2highLy6C+ in mouse, and CCR2highCD14+CD16− in humans) and exhibit unique functions in the vasculature and inflammatory disease. Patrolling monocytes function in a number of disease settings to remove damaged cells and debris from the vasculature, and have been associated with wound healing and the resolution of inflammation in damaged tissues. This review highlights the unique functions of these patrolling monocytes in the vasculature and during inflammation. PMID:25838429

  14. Nonclassical patrolling monocyte function in the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Graham; Tacke, Robert; Hedrick, Catherine C; Hanna, Richard N

    2015-06-01

    Nonclassical patrolling monocytes are characterized by their unique ability to actively patrol the vascular endothelium under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Patrolling monocyte subsets (CX3CR1(high)Ly6C(-) in mouse and CX3CR1(high)CD14(dim)CD16(+) in humans) are distinct from the classical monocyte subsets (CCR2(high)Ly6C(+) in mouse and CCR2(high)CD14(+)CD16(-) in humans) and exhibit unique functions in the vasculature and inflammatory disease. Patrolling monocytes function in several disease settings to remove damaged cells and debris from the vasculature and have been associated with wound healing and the resolution of inflammation in damaged tissues. This review highlights the unique functions of these patrolling monocytes in the vasculature and during inflammation. PMID:25838429

  15. Nail-gun injuries. Accident, homicide, or suicide?

    PubMed

    McCorkell, S J; Harley, J D; Cummings, D

    1986-09-01

    It may be difficult to distinguish industrial accidents from suicide attempts or even assaults or homicide. Nail guns are relatively new industrial tools that can produce severe or fatal injuries. The configuration of the nail on patients' radiographs after such injuries can be helpful in determining the cause of injury. Steel nails that are bent are due to a ricochet and thus indicate accidental injury. Straight-nail injuries to the co-workers of nail-gun users are most likely due to over-penetration of the substance being nailed or accidental mid-air firing; however, intentional injury cannot be ruled out. Extremity injuries caused by straight steel nails in nail gun users are the result of carelessness or poor technique, but suicide should be considered when straight nails cause wounds to the chest, head, or abdomen. PMID:3788906

  16. Femoral lengthening with a motorized intramedullary nail

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Joachim; Grimsrud, Øyvind; Dagsgard, Anita Hoddevik; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We assessed whether an intramedullary lengthening device would reduce the problems normally associated with the external fixation technique. We also wanted to determine whether it is a reliable construct for limb lengthening and deformity correction in the femur. Patients and methods We conducted a matched-pair comparison of 30 femoral lengthenings, 15 with a motorized intramedullary nail (the nail group) and 15 lengthenings with an external ring fixator (the fixator group). The patients were matched based on age, sex, amount of lengthening, and the etiology of leg length discrepancy. Mean lengthening was 35 (25–55) mm in the nail group and 38 (15–75) mm in the fixator group. Outcome measures were: lengthening and alignment achieved, consolidation index, knee range of motion (ROM), and complications. Results The pairs in this matched-pair study were similar in terms of age, sex, diagnosis, and amount of lengthening. The planned amount of lengthening was achieved in all patients in both groups and axis correction was considered sufficient. The mean radiographic consolidation index in the nail group, at 1.5 (0.9–3.0) months/cm, was better than the mean value for the fixator group (1.9 (0.9–3.4) months/cm) (p = 0.01). Knee ROM was better in the nail group during the lengthening, 6 weeks after lengthening was completed, and 6 months after lengthening was completed (p < 0.001). A larger number of complications were observed in the fixator group than in the nail group. Interpretation A lengthening nail may be superior to external fixation in femoral lengthening, when the anatomical conditions and the complexity of the deformity allow the use of an intramedullary nail. PMID:25191936

  17. Femoral midshaft fractures: expandable versus locked nailing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-Tao; Song, Yu-Chen; Zhou, Xiao-Zhong; Zhou, Hai-Bin; Luo, Zong-Ping; Dong, Qi-Rong

    2015-04-01

    Femoral midshaft fracture is one of the most common clinical injuries and is often caused by high-energy traffic accidents. Intramedullary nailings, plates, and external fixators are all used as treatment alternatives for a variety of patients depending on fracture location, displacement, comminution, soft tissue condition, and local tradition. Locked intramedullary nailing is currently the preferred treatment method for most diaphyseal fractures and has good clinical results. The goal of this study was to compare expandable and locked intramedullary nailing for the treatment of AO type 32A and 32B1 femoral midshaft fractures. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 46 patients (33 men and 13 women; mean age, 32.3 years; range, 22-52 years) with femoral midshaft fractures who were divided into 2 groups-one treated with an expandable intramedullary nailing method and the other with a conventional locked intramedullary nailing. The 2 groups were compared with respect to operation time, fluoroscopic time, amount of estimated blood loss, hospitalization time, healing time, and complications. Patients were followed for at least 1 year. The results of this study showed that all of the patients achieved bone union within 12 to 24 months. Expandable nailing performed better than locked nailing in operation time, fluoroscopic time, amount of estimated blood loss, and healing time (P<.001). There was no difference in hospitalization time and no visible shortening or severe complications were observed in either group. Based on the results of this study, the expandable intramedullary nailing is an easy and effective treatment for AO type 32A and 32B1 diaphyseal femoral fractures. PMID:25901625

  18. Utility of Gel Nails in Improving the Appearance of Cosmetically Disfigured Nails: Experience with 25 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Soni; Grover, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologically negative, consenting patients with various nail plate surface abnormalities like trachyonychia (n =8); superficial pitting (n =6); onychorrhexis (n =4); superficial pitting with onychoschizia (n =3); Beau's lines (n =3) and pterygium (n =1) were included. The patients received gel nail application using Ranara gel nail kit®. Extra care was taken to avoid any damage to cuticle. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken to assess improvement. Patient satisfaction score (1-10); Global assessment score of improvement (no improvement to excellent improvement) and any side effects reported were recorded. Results: The average age of treated patients was 30.44±11.39 years (range 18-60 years). A total of 69 nails were treated (average of 2.76 per patient). Post-procedure, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.08 ± 0.86 (range 7-10). The Global assessment showed excellent improvement (40% cases); good improvement (56% cases) and mild improvement in the single case of pterygium treated. Conclusions: The use of Gel nails in patients with cosmetically disfiguring nail plate surface abnormalities (like trachyonychia, onychoschizia, pitting, etc.) was found to produce good to excellent improvement in most of the cases. The patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as high. This, coupled with absence of side effects, make gel nails a valuable tool in improving cosmesis and satisfaction among patients presenting with nail plate surface abnormalities. Further

  19. Transungual delivery of terbinafine by iontophoresis in onychomycotic nails.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2011-10-01

    Trans-nail permeability is limited due to the innate nature of the nail plate and the recent investigations indicated the potential of iontophoresis in enhancing the transungual drug delivery in normal nails. However, the onychomycotic nails differ from the normal nails with respect to the anatomical and biological features. The current study investigated the effect of iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm(2) for 1 h) on the transungual delivery of terbinafine in onychomycotic finger and toe nails. The presence of fungi in the onychomycotic nails was diagnosed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Passive and iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine across the infected nail was studied in Franz diffusion cell. Further, the release profile of terbinafine from the drug-loaded nails was investigated by agar diffusion method. KOH microscopy confirmed the presence of fungi in all the nails used. The amount of drug permeated across the nail plate was enhanced significantly during iontophoresis over passive delivery, that is, by 21-fold in case of finger and 37-fold in case of toe nails. Further, the total drug load in the onychomycotic nail was enhanced by ~12-fold (in both finger and toe nails) due to iontophoresis. Release of terbinafine from the iontophoresis-loaded nails into agar plates exhibited two phases, a rapid phase followed by a steady release, which extended >2 months. This study concluded that the drug delivery in onychomycotic nails did not differ significantly when compared with normal nails, although the extent of drug permeation and drug load differs between finger and toe nails. PMID:21457120

  20. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation. PMID:24970585

  1. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  2. Deterministic nonclassicality for quantum-mechanical oscillators in thermal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Petr; Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim

    2016-07-01

    Quantum nonclassicality is the basic building stone for the vast majority of quantum information applications and methods of its generation are at the forefront of research. One of the obstacles any method needs to clear is the looming presence of decoherence and noise which act against the nonclassicality and often erase it completely. In this paper we show that nonclassical states of a quantum harmonic oscillator initially in thermal equilibrium states can be deterministically created by coupling it to a single two-level system. This can be achieved even in the absorption regime in which the two-level system is initially in the ground state. The method is resilient to noise and it may actually benefit from it, as witnessed by the systems with higher thermal energy producing more nonclassical states.

  3. Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold to target drugs to the nail matrix.

    PubMed

    Manda, Prashanth; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the plausibility of iontophoretic delivery of drugs to the nail matrix via proximal nail fold. The in vitro drug transport studies were performed in Franz diffusion cells across folded epidermis, which is used as a model for the proximal nail fold. The amount of drug transported into the receiver compartment following iontophoresis for 3 h at 0.5 mA/cm(2) was 150-fold higher than the control (0.008 ± 0.002 μg/cm(2)). The amount of drug present in the skin after iontophoresis (0.45 ± 0.12 μg/mg) was approximately fivefold higher as compared with that of the control (0.08 ± 0.01 μg/mg). Iontophoresis of terbinafine across the proximal nail fold was assessed using excised cadaver toe model as well. A custom-designed foam-pad-type patch system was used for iontophoresis in cadaver toes. The amount of the drug delivered into the nail matrix following iontophoresis for 3 h was significantly higher than the minimum inhibition concentration of terbinafine. However, on the contrary, passive delivery for about 24 h did not result in any detectable drug levels in the nail matrix. Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold could be developed as a potential method to target drugs to nail matrix. PMID:22487899

  4. [A new locking nail for proximal humerus fractures: the Telegraph nail, technique and preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Cuny, C; Pfeffer, F; Irrazi, M; Chammas, M; Empereur, F; Berrichi, A; Metais, P; Beau, P

    2002-02-01

    We present a new nail, the telegraph nail, designed for the treatment of proximal fractures of the humerus. This nail has a new locking system providing a self-stabilization of the cancelous screws inserted in small fragments. We discuss the surgical technique and present preliminary results. The anterolateral approach and nail insertion through the medial and well vascularized part of the cuff is described for simple fractures. With the cup and ball technique, this nail can also be used for complex fractures of the proximal humerus with three or four fragments and major displacement. With this method, the nail is inserted before reduction and locked in the distal humerus before fixation of the head and tuberosities around the head once the targeting device removed. We report results for the first 64 nails inserted in our unit during the first year (1998-1999). Outcome was assessed at 11 months mean follow-up using the Constant score. Outcome was favorable, including in patients with complex fractures involving 3 or 4 separate displaced fragments. Besides providing an anatomically stable reconstruction, the telegraph nail has the advantage of allowing early mobilization of the shoulder joint. This method is a useful alternative to prosthetic reconstruction for traumatic fractures of the proximal humerus. PMID:11973536

  5. [Taking a biopsy, treating ingrown nails. Minor nail surgery in general practice].

    PubMed

    Haneke, E

    2003-09-18

    Prior to any surgical operation on fingernails or toenails a diagnosis, or at least a suspected diagnosis, must be established. Suitable material for histopathology can be obtained by various methods: lateral longitudinal biopsy, matrix biopsy, and nail bed or nail wall biopsy. Of the surgical options, nail extraction is rarely indicated, and if at all, should be only partial. In the presence of trauma, a careful examination should be made for fracture of the terminal phalanx; where necessary, the matrix and bed must be sutured. Advanced onychogryposis is treated by applying carbolic acid to the matrix. In the case of ingrown toenails and, where applicable, "tubular nails", surgical nail paring is indicated whenever conservative measures fail. PMID:14603681

  6. [Anatomy, biology, physiology and basic pathology of the nail organ].

    PubMed

    Haneke, E

    2014-04-01

    The nail is the largest skin appendage. It grows continuously through life in a non-cyclical manner; its growth is not hormone-dependent. The nail of the middle finger of the dominant hand grows fastest with approximately 0.1 mm/day, whereas the big toe nail grows only 0.03-0.05 mm/d. The nails' size and shape vary characteristically from finger to finger and from toe to toe, for which the size and shape of the bone of the terminal phalanx is responsible. The nail apparatus consists of both epithelial and connective tissue components. The matrix epithelium is responsible for the production of the nail plate whereas the nail bed epithelium mediates firm attachment. The hyponychium is a specialized structure sealing the subungual space and allowing the nail plate to physiologically detach from the nail bed. The proximal nail fold covers most of the matrix. Its free end forms the cuticle which seals the nail pocket or cul-de-sac. The dermis of the matrix and nail bed is specialized with a morphogenetic potency. The proximal and lateral nail folds form a frame on three sides giving the nail stability and allowing it to grow out. The nail protects the distal phalanx, is an extremely versatile tool for defense and dexterity and increases the sensitivity of the tip of the finger. Nail apparatus, finger tip, tendons and ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint form a functional unit and cannot be seen independently. The nail organ has only a certain number of reaction patterns that differ in many respects from hairy and palmoplantar skin. PMID:24718505

  7. Routes of drug delivery into the nail apparatus: Implications for the efficacy of topical nail solutions in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

    2016-01-01

    The route of antifungal drug entry into the nail plate and the underlying nail bed plays an important role in determining the efficacy of therapy. Oral antifungal agents reach the nail bed and nail plate by being ingested and achieving antifungal levels in the blood stream that are well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The reticular circulation at the distal end of the digit enables the drug to reach the nail bed, the proximal matrix and the lateral nail folds. The drug then diffuses into the proximal, ventral and lateral nail plate. The primary route of drug delivery for topical lacquers is transungual, with drug applied to the dorsal aspect of the nail plate and penetrating to the underlying nail bed. The new topical agents approved in the US for the treatment of onychomycosis are solutions with lower viscosity and increased nail penetration characteristics; therefore, these agents penetrate through the transungual route, but also through the space between the nail plate and the nail bed. This subungual route is an important method of drug delivery and is able to in part circumvent the thickness of the nail plate. PMID:25983025

  8. 42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN AND TEMPER THE NAILS; WEST TUBES IN FOREGRPUND AND DRAWBACK TUBE IN THE CENTER - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to ... human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes Protect your skin from ...

  10. [Partial onychectomy and plastic surgery as treatment of ingrown nails].

    PubMed

    Briziarelli, P; Moretti, M; Barbetti, G; Pasquini, F

    1982-05-26

    The Authors report on a technique for a preserving treatment of the ingrowing nail, by means of partial onycectomy associated with plastic repair of soft tissues of the surrounding nail bed. PMID:7088382

  11. Nail psoriasis masqueraded by secondary infection with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    PubMed

    Martini, K; Müller, H; Huemer, H P; Höpfl, R

    2013-11-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with whitish nail changes on all fingers as the sole symptom. The condition had developed within a few days and led to dystrophy of the proximal part of the nail plates. As microscopic examination of nail scrapings demonstrated budding hyphae and the patient working as a teacher reported frequent use of a wet sponge, antifungal therapy was initiated. Subsequent cultures and molecular typing identified Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly R. rubra). This environmental yeast was repeatedly isolated despite of therapy with itraconazole. As no improvement was achieved and testing of the biological activity of the fungus revealed only marginal keratolytic activity, it was considered as a coloniser of a destructed nail matrix. Finally, a biopsy of the nail bed confirmed the diagnosis of nail psoriasis, which rapidly responded to treatment with acitretin and topical calcipotriol/betamethasone cream. Fungal growth in destructed nails masqueraded the underlying disease and may have triggered the psoriatic nail reaction. PMID:23691938

  12. Phonon-Mediated Nonclassical Interference in Diamond.

    PubMed

    England, Duncan G; Fisher, Kent A G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Heshami, Khabat; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2016-08-12

    Quantum interference of single photons is a fundamental aspect of many photonic quantum processing and communication protocols. Interference requires that the multiple pathways through an interferometer be temporally indistinguishable to within the coherence time of the photon. In this Letter, we use a diamond quantum memory to demonstrate interference between quantum pathways, initially temporally separated by many multiples of the optical coherence time. The quantum memory can be viewed as a light-matter beam splitter, mapping a THz-bandwidth single photon to a variable superposition of the output optical mode and stored phononic mode. Because the memory acts both as a beam splitter and as a buffer, the relevant coherence time for interference is not that of the photon, but rather that of the memory. We use this mechanism to demonstrate nonclassical single-photon and two-photon interference between quantum pathways initially separated by several picoseconds, even though the duration of the photons themselves is just ∼250  fs. PMID:27563963

  13. Nonclassical correlation in NMR quadrupolar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Auccaise, R.; Azevedo, E. R. de; Bonagamba, T. J.; Celeri, L. C.; Maziero, J.; Serra, R. M.; Fanchini, F. F.

    2010-06-15

    The existence of quantum correlation (as revealed by quantum discord), other than entanglement and its role in quantum-information processing (QIP), is a current subject for discussion. In particular, it has been suggested that this nonclassical correlation may provide computational speedup for some quantum algorithms. In this regard, bulk nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been successfully used as a test bench for many QIP implementations, although it has also been continuously criticized for not presenting entanglement in most of the systems used so far. In this paper, we report a theoretical and experimental study on the dynamics of quantum and classical correlations in an NMR quadrupolar system. We present a method for computing the correlations from experimental NMR deviation-density matrices and show that, given the action of the nuclear-spin environment, the relaxation produces a monotonic time decay in the correlations. Although the experimental realizations were performed in a specific quadrupolar system, the main results presented here can be applied to whichever system uses a deviation-density matrix formalism.

  14. Nonclassical nucleation and growth of inorganic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jisoo; Yang, Jiwoong; Kwon, Soon Gu; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles with particular compositions and structures can lead to nanoparticles with notable physicochemical properties, thus promoting their use in various applications. In this area of nanoscience, the focus is shifting from size- and shape-uniform single-component nanoparticles to multicomponent nanoparticles with enhanced performance and/or multifunctionality. With the increasing complexity of synthetic reactions, an understanding of the formation mechanisms of the nanoparticles is needed to enable a systematic synthetic approach. This Review highlights mechanistic studies underlying the synthesis of nanoparticles, with an emphasis on nucleation and growth behaviours that are not expected from classical theories. We discuss the structural properties of nanoclusters that are of a size that bridges molecules and solids. We then describe the role of nanoclusters in the prenucleation process as well as in nonclassical nucleation models. The growth of nanoparticles via the assembly and merging of primary particles is also overviewed. Finally, we present the heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms behind the synthesis of multicomponent nanoparticles.

  15. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cuhaci, Neslihan; Aydın, Cevdet; Yesilyurt, Ahmet; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH) if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH. PMID:26558116

  16. Clinical and Educational Gaps in Diagnosis of Nail Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hare, Anna Q; Rich, Phoebe

    2016-07-01

    Dermatologists care for skin, hair, and nails, yet many dermatologists find nail disorders challenging. Practice gaps in knowledge, skill, and attitude in clinical practice and resident education are sometimes impediments to timely medical and surgical diagnosis of nail disorders. Limited resident exposure to diagnosis and management of complicated nail disorders and lack of experience performing diagnostic and surgical procedures impairs progress toward surmounting these gaps. PMID:27363883

  17. Subtrochanteric fractures after retrograde femoral nailing.

    PubMed

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Mallu, Sathya; Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil

    2015-10-18

    Secondary fractures around femoral nails placed for the management of hip fractures are well known. We report, two cases of a fracture of the femur at the interlocking screw site in the subtrochanteric area after retrograde femoral nailing of a femoral shaft fracture. Only a few reports in the existing literature have described these fractures. Two young men after sustaining a fall presented to us with pain, swelling and deformity in the upper thigh region. On enquiring, examining and radiographing them, peri-implant fractures of subtrochanteric nature through the distal interlocking screws were revealed in both patients who also had histories of previous falls for which retrograde intramedullary nailing was performed for their respective femora. Both patients were managed with similar surgical routines including removal of the existing hardware, open reduction and ace cephallomedullary antegrade nailing. The second case did show evidence of delayed healing and was additionally stabilized with cerclage wires. Both patients had uneventful postoperative outcomes and union was evident at the end of 6 mo postoperatively with a good range of motion at the hip and knee. Our report suggests that though seldom reported, peri-implant fractures around the subtrochanteric region can occur and pose a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We suggest these be managed, after initial stabilization and resuscitation, by implant removal, open reduction and interlocking intramedullary antegrade nailing. Good results and progression to union can be expected in these patients by adhering to basic principles of osteosynthesis. PMID:26495251

  18. Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended PMID:22675345

  19. Dermatologic Manifestations of the Lower Extremity: Nail Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Nathaniel J; Vélez, Nicole F

    2016-07-01

    Nail surgery is a fundamental component of podiatric surgery. Nail disorders are common and may cause significant morbidity and occasionally mortality. Diagnosis of inflammatory and infectious conditions, and of benign or malignant tumors, often requires a biopsy of the nail unit. Excisional surgery may also be curative for certain tumors. This article reviews key elements of nail anatomy, surgical preparation, local anesthesia, and methods to achieve and maintain a bloodless field. A familiarity with these concepts should allow clinicians to develop a surgical plan and approach when patients present with a nail disorder requiring biopsy or surgical treatment. PMID:27215154

  20. In vitro human nail penetration and kinetics of panthenol.

    PubMed

    Hui, X; Hornby, S B; Wester, R C; Barbadillo, S; Appa, Y; Maibach, H

    2007-08-01

    The in vitro absorption of panthenol into and through the human nail was examined in this study. Panthenol, the alcohol form of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), is believed to act as a humectant and improve the flexibility and strength of nails. A liquid nail treatment formulated with panthenol (2%) was compared to a solution of panthenol (2%) in water. Fingernail specimens were dosed daily for 7 days with either the nail treatment (non-lacquer film forming) formulation or aqueous solution with sampling performed every 24 h. Panthenol concentrations were determined in the dorsal surface, interior (by drilling and removal) and in the supporting bed under the human nail. Panthenol levels in the dorsal nail (R(2) = 0.87; P < 0.001), nail interior (R(2) = 0.94; P < 0.001) and nail supporting bed (R(2) = 0.79; P < 0.003) showed a significant linear increase with each day of dosing. Significantly more panthenol was delivered into the interior nail and supporting bed by a nail treatment formulation than from an aqueous solution. The film acts not only as a reservoir of panthenol, but also acts to increase the hydration of the nail and the thermodynamic activity of panthenol as well, thereby enhancing diffusion. PMID:18489355

  1. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted. PMID:17683257

  2. Onychomycosis: Potential of Nail Lacquers in Transungual Delivery of Antifungals.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nida; Sharma, Hemlata; Pathak, Kamla

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis constitutes the most common fungal infection of the nail (skin beneath the nail bed) that affects the finger as well as toe nails. It is an infection that is initiated by yeasts, dermatophytes, and nondermatophyte molds. Nail lacquers are topical solutions intended only for use on fingernails as well as toenails and have been found to be useful in the treatment of onychomycosis. Thus, in the present review an attempt has been made to focus on the treatment aspects of onychomycosis and the ungual delivery of antifungals via nail lacquer. Several patents issued on nail lacquer till date have also been discussed. Penetration efficiency was assessed by several researchers across the human nail plate to investigate the potentiality of nail lacquer based formulations. Various clinical trials have also been conducted in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nail lacquers in delivering antifungal agents. Thus, it can be concluded that nail lacquer based preparations are efficacious and stable formulations. These possess tremendous potential for clinical topical application to the nail bed in the treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:27123362

  3. Onychomycosis: Potential of Nail Lacquers in Transungual Delivery of Antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hemlata; Pathak, Kamla

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis constitutes the most common fungal infection of the nail (skin beneath the nail bed) that affects the finger as well as toe nails. It is an infection that is initiated by yeasts, dermatophytes, and nondermatophyte molds. Nail lacquers are topical solutions intended only for use on fingernails as well as toenails and have been found to be useful in the treatment of onychomycosis. Thus, in the present review an attempt has been made to focus on the treatment aspects of onychomycosis and the ungual delivery of antifungals via nail lacquer. Several patents issued on nail lacquer till date have also been discussed. Penetration efficiency was assessed by several researchers across the human nail plate to investigate the potentiality of nail lacquer based formulations. Various clinical trials have also been conducted in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nail lacquers in delivering antifungal agents. Thus, it can be concluded that nail lacquer based preparations are efficacious and stable formulations. These possess tremendous potential for clinical topical application to the nail bed in the treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:27123362

  4. Treatment of Nail Psoriasis: Common Concepts and New Trends

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Yasemin; Akkaya, A. Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime incidence of nail involvement in psoriatic patients is estimated to be 80–90%, and the nails can be affected in 10% to 55% of psoriatic patients. Psoriasis may also solely involve the nails, without any other skin findings, in which the treatment can be more challenging. Nail psoriasis may lead to considerable impairment in quality of life due to aesthetic concerns and more importantly limitations in daily activities resulting from the associated pain, which may be overlooked by the physicians. Several topical and systemic treatment modalities, as well as radiation and light systems, have been used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. In the last decade, the introduction of biologic agents and the utilization of laser systems have brought a new insight into the treatment of nail psoriasis. This paper focuses on the recent advances, as well as the conventional methods, in treating nail psoriasis in adults and children, in reference to an extensive literature search. PMID:23762032

  5. Twenty-Nail Dystrophy and Darier's (Darier-White) Disease.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Chaudhuri, Anita; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old married man presented with progressive distortion of all the nails of the hands and toes for the past 30 years. Initially, his parents noticed yellowish discoloration and roughness of the thumb nail at the age of 5 years. Since then, the changes have been insidious to involve the other nails. Currently, the nails are lusterless, rough, ridged, and difficult to trim. In addition, the patient has had dark, dirty-looking raised eruptions over the skin, attended by generalized itching, corresponding to the onset of the nail lesions. His mother experienced similar disease. Examination of the nails was marked by alternating elevation and depression (ridging) and/or pitting, lack of luster, roughening, sandpaper texture, and splitting, along with muddy, grayish white discoloration. Dystrophy of the nails was prominent. The changes were bilateral and symmetrical, affecting all 10 fingers and 10 toes (Figure 1). PMID:26861433

  6. Matrix based system of isotretinoin as nail lacquer to enhance transungal delivery across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Monika; Sharma, Vijay; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-01-15

    The project was aimed at development of isotretinoin nail lacquer and assessment of its penetration efficiency across human nail plate. Preliminary studies (hydration enhancement factor and SEM) aided the selection of thioglycolic acid as permeation and eugenol was selected as local anesthetic in the formulation. The nail lacquer was optimized by 3(2) factorial design and a total of nine formulations were prepared and screened. In vitro adhesion and ex vivo permeation (cumulative drug permeation per unit area (CDP/A) = 6.61 ± 0.57 mg/cm(2)) across bovine hoof guided the selection of F3 as optimized formulation that was improvised. Viscosity adjustments to improve handling characteristics were affected by incorporation of ethyl cellulose (6%; F3M1) that scaled the viscosity to 312.681 cp and insignificantly (p > 0.05) affected CDP/A (6.32 ± 0.45 mg/cm(2)). In comparison to marketed preparation (Retino-A cream) F3M1 afforded two fold increase in CDP/A. The permeation characteristics were defined by Higuchi model (r(2) = 0.964) and flux value of 176 μg/cm(2)/h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, after 72 h of nail lacquer application, revealed extensive distribution of the fluorescent tracer across the human nail plate in comparison to control that was confined to the top layer. Conclusively, an efficacious and stable nail lacquer of isotretinoin was developed for potential clinical topical use to target the drug to nail bed in treatment of nail psoriasis. PMID:25445993

  7. Ultrabroadband direct detection of nonclassical photon statistics at telecom wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Kentaro; Eto, Yujiro; Benichi, Hugo; Izumi, Shuro; Yanagida, Tetsufumi; Ema, Kazuhiro; Numata, Takayuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Broadband light sources play essential roles in diverse fields, such as high-capacity optical communications, optical coherence tomography, optical spectroscopy, and spectrograph calibration. Although a nonclassical state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion may serve as a quantum counterpart, its detection and characterization have been a challenging task. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of photon numbers of an ultrabroadband (110 nm FWHM) squeezed state in the telecom band centred at 1535 nm wavelength, using a superconducting transition-edge sensor. The observed photon-number distributions violate Klyshko's criterion for the nonclassicality. From the observed photon-number distribution, we evaluate the second- and third-order correlation functions, and characterize a multimode structure, which implies that several tens of orthonormal modes of squeezing exist in the single optical pulse. Our results and techniques open up a new possibility to generate and characterize frequency-multiplexed nonclassical light sources for quantum info-communications technology. PMID:24694515

  8. Ultrabroadband direct detection of nonclassical photon statistics at telecom wavelength

    PubMed Central

    Wakui, Kentaro; Eto, Yujiro; Benichi, Hugo; Izumi, Shuro; Yanagida, Tetsufumi; Ema, Kazuhiro; Numata, Takayuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Broadband light sources play essential roles in diverse fields, such as high-capacity optical communications, optical coherence tomography, optical spectroscopy, and spectrograph calibration. Although a nonclassical state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion may serve as a quantum counterpart, its detection and characterization have been a challenging task. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of photon numbers of an ultrabroadband (110 nm FWHM) squeezed state in the telecom band centred at 1535 nm wavelength, using a superconducting transition-edge sensor. The observed photon-number distributions violate Klyshko's criterion for the nonclassicality. From the observed photon-number distribution, we evaluate the second- and third-order correlation functions, and characterize a multimode structure, which implies that several tens of orthonormal modes of squeezing exist in the single optical pulse. Our results and techniques open up a new possibility to generate and characterize frequency-multiplexed nonclassical light sources for quantum info-communications technology. PMID:24694515

  9. Nonclassicality indicator for the real phase-space distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, Parvin; Khademi, Siamak; Nasiri, Sadollah

    2010-07-15

    Benedict et al. and Kenfack et al. advocated nonclassicality indicators based on the measurement of negativity of the Wigner distribution functions. These indicators have some applications in quantum mechanics and quantum optics. In this paper we define a nonclassicality indicator in terms of the interference in phase space, which is applicable to some real distribution functions including those of Wigner. As a special case one may reproduce the previous results using our indicator for the Wigner distribution functions. This indicator is examined for cases of the Schroedinger cat state and the thermal states and the results are compared with those obtained by previous methods. It seems that the physical behavior of nonclassicality indicators originates in the uncertainty principle. This is shown by an onto correspondence between these indicators and the uncertainty principle.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the 'non-classical immune cell'.

    PubMed

    Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can infect 'non-classical immune cells', which comprise a significant constituency of cells that reside outside of those defined as 'classical immune cells' from myeloid or lymphoid origin. Here we address the influence of specific 'non-classical immune cells' in host responses and their effects in controlling mycobacterial growth or enabling an environment conducive for bacilli persistence. The interaction of M. tuberculosis with epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, glia and neurons and downstream cellular responses that often dictate immune regulation and disease outcome are discussed. Functional integration and synergy between 'classical' and 'non-classical immune cells' are highlighted as critical for determining optimal immune outcomes that favour the host. PMID:25801479

  11. Nonclassical T Cells and Their Antigens in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    De Libero, Gennaro; Singhal, Amit; Lepore, Marco; Mori, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    T cells that recognize nonpeptidic antigens, and thereby are identified as nonclassical, represent important yet poorly characterized effectors of the immune response. They are present in large numbers in circulating blood and tissues and are as abundant as T cells recognizing peptide antigens. Nonclassical T cells exert multiple functions including immunoregulation, tumor control, and protection against infections. They recognize complexes of nonpeptidic antigens such as lipid and glycolipid molecules, vitamin B2 precursors, and phosphorylated metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. Each of these antigens is presented by antigen-presenting molecules other than major histocompatibility complex (MHC), including CD1, MHC class I–related molecule 1 (MR1), and butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) molecules. Here, we discuss how nonclassical T cells participate in the recognition of mycobacterial antigens and in the mycobacterial-specific immune response. PMID:25059739

  12. Influence of the intramedullary nail preparation method on nail's mechanical properties and degradation rate.

    PubMed

    Morawska-Chochół, Anna; Chłopek, Jan; Szaraniec, Barbara; Domalik-Pyzik, Patrycja; Balacha, Ewa; Boguń, Maciej; Kucharski, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    When it comes to the treatment of long bone fractures, scientists are still investigating new materials for intramedullary nails and different manufacturing methods. Some of the most promising materials used in the field are resorbable polymers and their composites, especially since there is a wide range of potential manufacturing and processing methods. The aim of this work was to select the best manufacturing method and technological parameters to obtain multiphase, and multifunctional, biodegradable intramedullary nails. All composites were based on a poly(l-lactide) matrix. Either magnesium alloy wires or carbon and alginate fibres were introduced in order to reinforce the nails. The polylactide matrix was also modified with tricalcium phosphate and gentamicin sulfate. The composite nails were manufactured using three different methods: forming from solution, injection moulding and hot pressing. The effect of each method of manufacturing on mechanical properties and degradation rate of the nails was evaluated. The study showed that injection moulding provides higher uniformity and homogeneity of the particle-modified polylactide matrix, whereas hot pressing favours applying higher volume fractions of fibres and their better impregnation with the polymer matrix. Thus, it was concluded that the fabrication method should be individually selected dependently on the nail's desired phase composition. PMID:25842113

  13. Equilibration and nonclassicality of a double-well potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Steve; de Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    A double well loaded with bosonic atoms represents an ideal candidate to simulate some of the most interesting aspects in the phenomenology of thermalisation and equilibration. Here we report an exhaustive analysis of the dynamics and steady state properties of such a system locally in contact with different temperature reservoirs. We show that thermalisation only occurs ‘accidentally’. We further examine the nonclassical features and energy fluxes implied by the dynamics of the double-well system, thus exploring its finite-time thermodynamics in relation to the settlement of nonclassical correlations between the wells.

  14. Equilibration and nonclassicality of a double-well potential.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Steve; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    A double well loaded with bosonic atoms represents an ideal candidate to simulate some of the most interesting aspects in the phenomenology of thermalisation and equilibration. Here we report an exhaustive analysis of the dynamics and steady state properties of such a system locally in contact with different temperature reservoirs. We show that thermalisation only occurs 'accidentally'. We further examine the nonclassical features and energy fluxes implied by the dynamics of the double-well system, thus exploring its finite-time thermodynamics in relation to the settlement of nonclassical correlations between the wells. PMID:26823097

  15. Equilibration and nonclassicality of a double-well potential

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Steve; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    A double well loaded with bosonic atoms represents an ideal candidate to simulate some of the most interesting aspects in the phenomenology of thermalisation and equilibration. Here we report an exhaustive analysis of the dynamics and steady state properties of such a system locally in contact with different temperature reservoirs. We show that thermalisation only occurs ‘accidentally’. We further examine the nonclassical features and energy fluxes implied by the dynamics of the double-well system, thus exploring its finite-time thermodynamics in relation to the settlement of nonclassical correlations between the wells. PMID:26823097

  16. Nonclassicality Invariant of General Two-Mode Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina, Jan, Jr.; Svozilík, Jiří; Miranowicz, Adam

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new quantity for describing nonclassicality of an arbitrary optical two-mode Gaussian state which remains invariant under any global photon-number preserving unitary transformation of the covariance matrix of the state. The invariant naturally splits into an entanglement monotone and local-nonclassicality quantifiers applied to the reduced states. This shows how entanglement can be converted into local squeezing and vice versa. Twin beams and their transformations at a beam splitter are analyzed as an example providing squeezed light. An extension of this approach to pure three-mode Gaussian states is given.

  17. Nonclassicality Invariant of General Two-Mode Gaussian States.

    PubMed

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I; Peřina, Jan; Svozilík, Jiří; Miranowicz, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new quantity for describing nonclassicality of an arbitrary optical two-mode Gaussian state which remains invariant under any global photon-number preserving unitary transformation of the covariance matrix of the state. The invariant naturally splits into an entanglement monotone and local-nonclassicality quantifiers applied to the reduced states. This shows how entanglement can be converted into local squeezing and vice versa. Twin beams and their transformations at a beam splitter are analyzed as an example providing squeezed light. An extension of this approach to pure three-mode Gaussian states is given. PMID:27210547

  18. Sampling of quasidistributions, nonclassical behavior and negative probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, J.; Křepelka, J.

    2016-05-01

    We perform a sampling of the quasidistribution for the process of optical down-conversion in nonclassical regime, in which negative values of the quasidistribution are exhibited, using the Shannon-Kotelnikov sampling formula. We show that negative values of the quasidistribution do not directly represent probabilities, however, negative terms in the sampling formula related to the nonclassical behavior can be interpreted as positive probabilities in the negative orthogonal sinc-basis, whereas positive probabilities in the positive sinc-basis describe classical cases.

  19. Nonclassicality Invariant of General Two-Mode Gaussian States

    PubMed Central

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina Jr., Jan; Svozilík, Jiří; Miranowicz, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new quantity for describing nonclassicality of an arbitrary optical two-mode Gaussian state which remains invariant under any global photon-number preserving unitary transformation of the covariance matrix of the state. The invariant naturally splits into an entanglement monotone and local-nonclassicality quantifiers applied to the reduced states. This shows how entanglement can be converted into local squeezing and vice versa. Twin beams and their transformations at a beam splitter are analyzed as an example providing squeezed light. An extension of this approach to pure three-mode Gaussian states is given. PMID:27210547

  20. Short-term isotretinoin-induced elkonyxis and median nail dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Alli, Nuran; Dogan, Sibel

    2016-03-01

    Elkonyxis and median nail distrophy are very rare nail fold disorders due to the damage in nail matrix and proximal nail fold. Herein, we report a patient with both elkonyxis and median nail distrophy occured two months into a treatment course of isotretinoin that is to our knowledge for the first time. PMID:25799213

  1. Bifunctional ectodermal stem cells around the nail display dual fate homeostasis and adaptive wounding response toward nail regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Yvonne; Kandyba, Eve; Chen, Yi-Bu; Ruffins, Seth; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of adult stem cells (SCs) is fundamental for organ maintenance and tissue regeneration. On the body surface, different ectodermal organs exhibit distinctive modes of regeneration and the dynamics of their SC homeostasis remain to be unraveled. A slow cycling characteristic has been used to identify SCs in hair follicles and sweat glands; however, whether a quiescent population exists in continuously growing nails remains unknown. Using an in vivo label retaining cells (LRCs) system, we detected an unreported population of quiescent cells within the basal layer of the nail proximal fold, organized in a ring-like configuration around the nail root. These nail LRCs express the hair stem cell marker, keratin 15 (K15), and lineage tracing show that these K15-derived cells can contribute to both the nail structure and peri-nail epidermis, and more toward the latter. Thus, this stem cell population is bifunctional. Upon nail plucking injury, the homeostasis is tilted with these SCs dominantly delivering progeny to the nail matrix and differentiated nail plate, demonstrating their plasticity to adapt to wounding stimuli. Moreover, in vivo engraftment experiments established that transplanted nail LRCs can actively participate in functional nail regeneration. Transcriptional profiling of isolated nail LRCs revealed bone morphogenetic protein signaling favors nail differentiation over epidermal fate. Taken together, we have found a previously unidentified ring-configured population of bifunctional SCs, located at the interface between the nail appendage organ and adjacent epidermis, which physiologically display coordinated homeostatic dynamics but are capable of rediverting stem cell flow in response to injury. PMID:25277970

  2. Ability of hydroxypropyl chitosan nail lacquer to protect against dermatophyte nail infection.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, M A; Long, L; Isham, N; Bulgheroni, A; Setaro, M; Caserini, M; Palmieri, R; Mailland, F

    2015-04-01

    The development of a topical agent that would strengthen the nail, improve the natural barrier, and provide better drug penetration to the nail bed is needed. In this study, we examined the effects of a hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based nail solution using a bovine hoof model. Following application of the nail solution, changes in the hardness of the hoof samples were measured using the Vickers method. Tensile and flexural strengths were tested by stretching or punching the samples, respectively. The ultrastructure was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and samples stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain were used to determine the fungal penetration depth. The comparators included 40% urea and 70% isopropyl alcohol solutions. The HPCH nail solution increased hoof sample hardness in comparison to the untreated control sample (mean, 22.3 versus 19.4 Vickers pyramid number [HV]). Similarly, the HPCH solution increased the tensile strength (mean, 33.07 versus 28.42 MPa) and flexural strength (mean, 183.79 versus 181.20 MPa) compared to the untreated control. In contrast, the comparators had adverse effects on hardness and strength. SEM showed that the HPCH solution reduced the area of sample crumbling following abrasion compared to the untreated control (7,418 versus 17,843 pixels), and the PAS-stained images showed that the HPCH solution reduced penetration of the dermatophyte hyphae (e.g., penetration by Trichophyton mentagrophytes was <25 μm at day 9 versus 275 μm in the untreated control). Unlike chemicals normally used in cosmetic treatments, repeated application of the HPCH nail solution may help prevent the establishment of new or recurring fungal nail infection. PMID:25547349

  3. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder. PMID:24891708

  4. Pullback attractors for nonclassical diffusion equations with delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kaixuan; Sun, Chunyou

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of pullback attractors in C H0 1 ( Ω ) for a nonclassical diffusion equation with delay term g(t, ut) which contains some hereditary characteristics. We consider two types of nonlinearity f: one is the case of critical growth and the other one is the polynomial growth of arbitrary order p - 1(p ≥ 2).

  5. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most widespread and economically important virus disease of cereals. The viruses causing BYD were initially grouped based on common biological properties, including persistent and often strain-specific transmission by aphids and induction of yellowing symptoms. The...

  6. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges.

    PubMed

    Albers, Brittany K; Sluzevich, Jason C; Garner, Hillary W

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. PMID:26768259

  7. Nail Gun Induced Open Head Injury: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Ho; Kim, Young; Park, Sung Choon; Ha, Young Soo; Lee, Kyu Chang

    2014-10-01

    Increasing use of the nail gun has led to higher injury rates from the use of tools with sequential actuation. Nail gun injury can occur to various parts of the body. Very deep penetration in the brain can have fatal results. A 46-year-old male fired shots from a nail gun into his brain in a suicide attempt. This case demonstrated successful surgical management of the resultant open head injury. PMID:27169051

  8. Canine nail bed keratoacanthoma diagnosed by immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Chang-Bum; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, A-Jin; Suh, Hyun-Jung; Yoo, Saejong; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Eom, Ki Dong

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old, Shih Tzu dog was presented with an enlarged, curled 2nd nail in the left forelimb. Digital amputation was performed and the mass was diagnosed as a nail bed keratoacanthoma (infundibular keratinizing acanthoma) histopathologically. There was no recurrence postoperatively. This is the first case report of a canine nail bed keratoacanthoma diagnosed by histologic and immunohistochemical examination including Ki-67 and p53 expression. PMID:26538676

  9. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy dos

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants. PMID:27004183

  10. Insights into drug delivery across the nail plate barrier.

    PubMed

    Saner, Manish V; Kulkarni, Abhijeet D; Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V

    2014-11-01

    Topical therapy is at the forefront in treating nail ailments (especially onychomycosis and nail psoriasis) due to its local effects, which circumvents systemic adverse events, improves patient compliance and reduces treatment cost. However, the success of topical therapy has been hindered due to poor penetration of topical therapeutics across densely keratinized nail plate barrier. For effective topical therapy across nail plate, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. Present review is designed to provide an insight into prime aspects of transungual drug delivery viz. nail structure and physiology, various onychopathies, techniques of nail permeation enhancement and in vitro models for trans-nail drug permeation studies. Updated list of drug molecules studied across the nail plate and key commercial products have been furnished with sufficient depth. Patents pertinent to, and current clinical status of transungual drug delivery have also been comprehensively reviewed. This is the first systematic critique encompassing the detailed aspects of transungual drug delivery. In our opinion, transungual drug delivery is a promising avenue for researchers to develop novel formulations, augmenting pharmaceutical industries to commercialize the products for nail disorders. PMID:24964054

  11. Biomechanical performance of retrograde nail for supracondylar fractures stabilization.

    PubMed

    Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Siribodhi, Pongwit

    2016-06-01

    The study compared the biomechanical performance of retrograde nail used to stabilize supracondylar fracture (three different levels) by means of finite element analysis. Three different nail lengths (200, 260, and 300 mm) of stainless steel and titanium nails were under consideration. Intact femur model was reconstructed from Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images of Thai cadaveric femur scanned by computed tomography spiral scanner, whereas geometry of retrograde nail was reconstructed with the data obtained from three-dimensional laser scanner. The retrograde nail was virtually attached to the femur before nodes and elements were generated for finite element model. The finite element models were analyzed in two stages, the early stage of fracture healing and the stage after fracture healing. The finding indicated that purchasing proximal locking screw in the bowing region of the femur may be at risk due to the high stresses at the implant and bone. There were no differences in stress level, elastic strain at a fracture gap, and bone stress between stainless steel and titanium implant. Since the intramedullary canal requires reaming to accommodate the retrograde nail, the length of retrograde nail should be as long as necessary. However, in case that the retrograde nail can be accommodated into the intramedullary canal without reaming, the longer retrograde nail can be used. PMID:27032932

  12. Fetal phenytoin exposure, hypoplastic nails, and jitteriness.

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, S W; Robertson, I G; Donnai, D; Mawer, G

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study infants born to mothers with epilepsy (n = 61) were found to have an unexpectedly high incidence of congenital anomalies (26/61, 43%) and neonatal conditions (26/61, 43%) compared with controls (0/62, and 6/62, 10%, respectively). There were two neonatal deaths in the study group but none among the controls. Hypoplasia of the finger or toenails was a common congenital anomaly in those infants whose mothers had received phenytoin alone or in combination with other anticonvulsant drugs (11 of 40, 28%). The mean serum phenytoin concentration was higher among mothers of infants with hypoplastic nails than among those with normal nails. Jitteriness was a common neonatal condition affecting infants of epileptic mothers (11 of 61, 18%) but not controls The mean cord serum phenytoin concentrations were similar among jittery and non-jittery infants. At follow up (after excluding one infant with Down's syndrome from the study group) the infants seemed to have developed normally, though one had serious learning difficulties at school. We suggest that hypoplasia of the nails is related to high maternal serum concentrations of phenytoin, and though 18% of infants born to epileptic mothers were jittery compared with no control infants this may not be the result of withdrawal of the drug in all cases. PMID:2025009

  13. New Technique for Removal of the Ulnar Intramedullary Nail Failed to Remove: Broken Assembly Piece in the Nail

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jin Woong; Kim, Sang-Bum; Heo, Youn Moo; Kim, Tae Gyun; Kim, Doo Hyun; Jung, You Sun

    2016-01-01

    Methods about removal of intramedullary nail in complicated cases were reported in some literatures but there are no reports about nail removal in the ulna. The authors would like to report such a case and the technique. We removed bone of the inlet site and created another bony window using an osteotome to expose the interlocking screw holes. Only a bony window the size of 2 inter-interlocking holes at the most proximal part of the nail can be used to remove the nail with minimal damage of the triceps brachii tendon and soft tissue. PMID:27247748

  14. Nonclassicality phase-space functions: more insight with fewer detectors.

    PubMed

    Luis, Alfredo; Sperling, Jan; Vogel, Werner

    2015-03-13

    Systems of on-off detectors are well established for measuring radiation fields in the regime of small photon numbers. We propose to combine these detector systems with unbalanced homodyning with a weak local oscillator. This approach yields phase-space functions, which represent the click counterpart of the s parametrized quasiprobabilities of standard photoelectric detection theory. This introduced class of distributions can be directly sampled from the measured click-counting statistics. Therefore, our technique visualizes nonclassical effects without further data processing. Surprisingly, a small number of on-off diodes can yield more insight than perfect photon number resolution. Quantum signatures in the particle and wave domain of the quantized radiation field, as shown by photon number and squeezed states, respectively, will be uncovered in terms of negativities of the sampled phase-space functions. Application in the vast fields of quantum optics and quantum technology will benefit from our efficient nonclassicality characterization approach. PMID:25815932

  15. Nonclassicality tests and entanglement witnesses for macroscopic mechanical superposition states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittsovich, Oleg; Moroder, Tobias; Asadian, Ali; Gühne, Otfried; Rabl, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We describe a set of measurement protocols for performing nonclassicality tests and the verification of entangled superposition states of macroscopic continuous variable systems, such as nanomechanical resonators. Following earlier works, we first consider a setup where a two-level system is used to indirectly probe the motion of the mechanical system via Ramsey measurements and discuss the application of this method for detecting nonclassical mechanical states. We then show that the generalization of this technique to multiple resonator modes allows the conditioned preparation and the detection of entangled mechanical superposition states. The proposed measurement protocols can be implemented in various qubit-resonator systems that are currently under experimental investigation and find applications in future tests of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic scale.

  16. Simulation of non-classical diffusion in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmers, Jana; Bargmann, Swantje

    2014-05-01

    The present contribution is concerned with the computational modelling of non-classical diffusion in amorphous polymers. Special attention is paid to the limiting case of Case II diffusion. Application of the dual-phase-lag concept to Fick's first law leads to a description of Case II behaviour. The change in material properties during the glass transition is explicitly accounted for by a concentration dependent formulation of the material parameters. The proposed model is well suited for modelling the sharp diffusion front and linear uptake kinetics associated with Case II diffusion. Application of a concentration dependent diffusion coefficient reduces the concentration gradient behind the front to a minimum. For the solution procedure, a finite element scheme in space and a finite difference method in time are applied. Three-dimensional numerical results are presented for classical Fickian and non-classical Case II diffusion. This paper adds to the basic understanding of the computational modelling of the Case II diffusion phenomenon.

  17. The Essence of Nonclassicality: Non-Vanishing Signal Deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nonclassical properties of correlations- like unpredictability, no-cloning and uncertainty- are known to follow from two assumptions: nonlocality and no-signaling. For two-input-two-output correlations, we derive these properties from a single, unified assumption: namely, the excess of the communication cost over the signaling in the correlation. This is relevant to quantum temporal correlations, resources to simulate quantum correlations and extensions of quantum mechanics. We generalize in the context of such correlations the nonclassicality result for nonlocal-nonsignaling correlations (Masanes et al., Phys. Rev. A 73, 012112 (2006)) and the uncertainty bound on nonlocality (Oppenheim and Wehner, Science 330(6007), 1072 (2010)), when the no-signaling condition is relaxed.

  18. Evolution of nonclassical MHC-dependent invariant T cells

    PubMed Central

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    TCR-mediated specific recognition of antigenic peptides in the context of classical MHC molecules is a cornerstone of adaptive immunity of jawed vertebrate. Ancillary to these interactions, the T cell repertoire also includes unconventional T cells that recognize endogenous and/or exogenous antigens in a classical MHC-unrestricted manner. Among these, the mammalian nonclassical MHC class I-restricted invariant T cell (iT) subsets, such as iNKT and MAIT cells, are now believed to be integral to immune response initiation as well as in orchestrating subsequent adaptive immunity. Until recently the evolutionary origins of these cells were unknown. Here we review our current understanding of a nonclassical MHC class I-restricted iT cell population in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Parallels with the mammalian iNKT and MAIT cells underline the crucial biological roles of these evolutionarily ancient immune subsets. PMID:25117267

  19. Superconductivity in nonclassical superconductors as a periodical (oscillating) redox reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kostikova, G.P.; Korol`kov, D.V.; Kostikov, Yu.P.

    1995-10-20

    Comparison of the properties of high-temperature superconductors with those of chemical systems where a periodical (oscillating) redox reaction is realized suggests that the high-temperature superconducting of nonclassical superconductors (in particular, ternary oxides) results from activation of a periodical redox reaction within a single compounds containing heterovalent forms of each of two dissimilar elements. In this redox reaction, reversible converison of the corresponding heterovalent forms occur. 37 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Beyond iron: non-classical biological functions of bacterial siderophores.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2015-04-14

    Bacteria secrete small molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from their surroundings. For over 60 years, investigations into the bioinorganic chemistry of these molecules, including fundamental coordination chemistry studies, have provided insight into the crucial role that siderophores play in bacterial iron homeostasis. The importance of understanding the fundamental chemistry underlying bacterial life has been highlighted evermore in recent years because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the need to prevent the global rise of these superbugs. Increasing reports of siderophores functioning in capacities other than iron transport have appeared recently, but reports of "non-classical" siderophore functions have long paralleled those of iron transport. One particular non-classical function of these iron chelators, namely antibiotic activity, was documented before the role of siderophores in iron transport was established. In this Perspective, we present an exposition of past and current work into non-classical functions of siderophores and highlight the directions in which we anticipate that this research is headed. Examples include the ability of siderophores to function as zincophores, chalkophores, and metallophores for a variety of other metals, sequester heavy metal toxins, transport boron, act as signalling molecules, regulate oxidative stress, and provide antibacterial activity. PMID:25764171

  1. Maximal non-classicality in multi-setting Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Zohren, Stefan; Pawlowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    The discrepancy between maximally entangled states and maximally non-classical quantum correlations is well-known but still not well understood. We aim to investigate the relation between quantum correlations and entanglement in a family of Bell inequalities with N-settings and d outcomes. Using analytical as well as numerical techniques, we derive both maximal quantum violations and violations obtained from maximally entangled states. Furthermore, we study the most non-classical quantum states in terms of their entanglement entropy for large values of d and many measurement settings. Interestingly, we find that the entanglement entropy behaves very differently depending on whether N = 2 or N\\gt 2: when N = 2 the entanglement entropy is a monotone function of d and the most non-classical state is far from maximally entangled, whereas when N\\gt 2 the entanglement entropy is a non-monotone function of d and converges to that of the maximally entangled state in the limit of large d.

  2. Distal Femoral Complications Following Antegrade Intramedullary Nail Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fantry, Amanda J.; Elia, Gregory; Vopat, Bryan G.; Daniels, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    While antegrade nailing for proximal and diaphyseal femur fractures is a commonly utilized fixation method with benefits including early mobilization and high rates of fracture union, both intraoperative and postoperative complications may occur. Intraoperative errors include leg length discrepancy, anterior cortical perforation, malreduction of the fracture, and neurovascular injury, and postoperative complications include nonunion, malunion, infection, and hardware failure. This case series reviews complications affecting the distal femur after intramedullary nailing including fracture surrounding a distal femoral interlocking screw (Case #1), nonunion after dynamization with nail penetration into the knee joint (Case #2), and anterior cortical perforation (Case #3). Prevention of intraoperative and postoperative complications surrounding intramedullary nailing requires careful study of the femoral anatomy and nail design specifications (radius of curvature), consideration of the necessity of distal interlocking screws, the need for close radiographic follow-up after nail placement with X-rays of the entire length of the nail, and awareness of possible nail penetration into the knee joint after dynamization. PMID:25874066

  3. Iontophoretically enhanced ciclopirox delivery into and across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jinsong; Smith, Kelly A; Li, S Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Transungual delivery of antifungal drugs is hindered by the low permeability of human nail plates, and as such, repeated dosing over a long period of time is necessary for effective treatment. The objectives of this study were to explore the possibilities of (a) enhancing the delivery of ciclopirox (CIC) across human nail plates and (b) sustaining CIC delivery from the larger resultant drug depot in the nail plates with constant voltage iontophoresis. In vitro passive and 9 V cathodal iontophoretic transport experiments of CIC across human nails were performed. Transungual CIC delivery with Penlac was the control. The amounts of CIC released from and deposited in the nails were determined in drug release and extraction experiments, respectively. Iontophoresis increased the flux of CIC permeated across the nail approximately 10 times compared to passive delivery from the same formulation or from Penlac. A significant amount of CIC was loaded into and released from the nails; the CIC concentrations were estimated to be above the minimum inhibitory concentrations of CIC for dermatophytic molds. The apparent transport lag time decreased in iontophoretic transport. The results demonstrate that iontophoresis was able to deliver an effective amount of CIC into and across the nails, and this suggests the feasibility of a constant voltage battery-powered transungual iontophoretic device. PMID:19117048

  4. Staying Out of Trouble Performing Intramedullary Nailing of Forearm Fractures.

    PubMed

    Wall, Lindley B

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures occur commonly and often require reduction with stabilization. Intramedullary flexible nails provide an effective method for stabilizing and maintaining reduction of these fractures. There are a few specific technical pearls that can be implemented to improve efficiency of nail placement and minimize postoperative complications, such as painful hardware and compartment syndrome. PMID:27078233

  5. TOXIC TRACE METALS IN MAMMALIAN HAIR AND NAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data have been compiled from the available world literature on the accumulation and bioconcentration of selected toxic trace metals in human hair and nails and other mammalian hair, fur, nails, claws, and hoofs. The toxic trace metals and metalloids include antimony, arsenic, bor...

  6. Evaluating a county-based Healthy nail Salon Recognition Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine whether nail solons that participate in the SF recognition program have reduced measured levels of toluene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)as compared to nail salons that do not participate. We also evaluated changes in worker ...

  7. Yellow fever: an update.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  8. Interplay of nonclassicality and entanglement of two-mode Gaussian fields generated in optical parametric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina, Jan; Peřina, Jan; Miranowicz, Adam

    2016-07-01

    The behavior of general nonclassical two-mode Gaussian states at a beam splitter is investigated. Single-mode nonclassicality as well as two-mode entanglement of both input and output states are analyzed suggesting their suitable quantifiers. These quantifiers are derived from local and global invariants of linear unitary two-mode transformations such that the sum of input (or output) local nonclassicality measures and entanglement measure gives a global invariant. This invariant quantifies the global nonclassicality resource. Mutual transformations of local nonclassicalities and entanglement induced by the beam splitter are analyzed considering incident noisy twin beams, single-mode noisy squeezed vacuum states, and states encompassing both squeezed states and twin beams. A rich tapestry of interesting nonclassical output states is predicted.

  9. Ten self-inflicted intracranial penetrating nail gun injuries

    PubMed Central

    Yuh, Sung-Joo; Alaqeel, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating craniocerebral injuries from nail gun use are rare. We describe a case of 10 self-inflicted nail gun injuries with intracranial penetrations. We also review the literature and discuss management strategies of such craniocerebral trauma. A 33-year-old male with a long-standing history of severe depression took a nail gun and sustained 10 penetrating intracranial injuries. Initial neuroimaging revealed 10 penetrating nails, all sparing the major cerebral vasculature. Immediate surgical removal was undertaken in the surgical suite using a combination of craniotomies, craniectomies, and blind removal. Intracranial injuries from self-inflicted nail gun misuse is becoming increasingly more frequent. Initial appropriate clinical decision-making are critical in preventing further cortical or vascular damage. PMID:26166596

  10. A chemical mixer with dark-green nails.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lawrence K; Harding, John

    2015-01-01

    Nails are integral extensions of the skin and they together form the largest organ of the human body. Changes in nail appearance can be due to external insults or internal pathologies, and nail signs have to be interpreted in light of a good history. We present an interesting case of a man who developed dark-green discolouration of his nails over a short period of time. His work as a chemical mixer rendered him susceptible to hazardous chemical exposure. A notification was filed and the local Occupational Health Department discovered insufficient protective gear and lack of protocols regarding hazards of isocyanate-based resin. The patient also reported washing utensils with bare hands. Based on the meniscal demarcation borders between the discoloured and normal areas, plus a positive bacterial culture from nail clippings, the final diagnosis of isocyanate-resin-induced onycholysis with secondary Pseudomonas infection remained as the most likely clinical diagnosis. PMID:26040827

  11. Distribution of Luliconazole in Nail Plate by In Vitro Permeation and Efficacy by Zone of Inhibition Test after Treatment of Luliconazole Nail Solution.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Miyamae, Akiko; Arai, Masakazu; Minemura, Aya; Nozawa, Akira; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the character of luliconazole nail solution we have developed, we investigated luliconazole distribution and antifungal activity in nail plate. An in vitro permeation study which measured luliconazole concentration of sliced nail in the transverse direction after treatment of luliconazole nail solution was conducted to investigate for concentration dependency and the influences of nail thickness and treatment duration. When 0.2, 1, 3, 5, and 7.5% luliconazole nail solutions were used, luliconazole was detected in the all the layers of nail and there was a concentration gradient from the dorsal side to deep nail layers. The luliconazole concentration was almost same after 14-day treatment with 5% luliconazole nail solution when using nails of different thicknesses. And we confirmed that concentration of luliconazole into the nail was increased depending on the treatment duration. In zone of inhibition test after 14-day treatment, 5% luliconazole nail solution showed statistically high formation rate of zones of inhibition compared to 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer. Above all, these data suggested that 5% luliconazole nail solution has the potential to show high therapeutic effect for onychomycosis. PMID:26936348

  12. Dosimetry during intramedullary nailing of the tibia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intramedullary nailing under fluoroscopic guidance is a common operation. We studied the intraoperative radiation dose received by both the patient and the personnel. Patients and methods 25 intramedullary nailing procedures of the tibia were studied. All patients suffered from tibial fractures and were treated using the Grosse-Kempf intramedullary nail, with free-hand technique for fixation of the distal screws, under fluoroscopic guidance. The exposure, at selected positions, was recorded using an ion chamber, while the dose area product (DAP) was measured with a DAP meter, attached to the tube head. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to derive the occupational dose to the personnel, and also to monitor the surface dose on the gonads of some of the patients. Results The mean operation time was 101 (48–240) min, with a mean fluoroscopic time of 72 seconds and a mean DAP value of 75 cGy·cm2. The surface dose to the gonads of the patients was less than 8.8 mGy during any procedure, and thus cannot be considered to be a contraindication for the use of this technique. Occupational dose differed substantially between members of the operating personnel, the maximum dose recorded being to the operator of the fluoroscopic equipment (0.11 mSv). Interpretation Our findings underscore the care required by the primary operator not to exceed the dose constraint of 10 mSv per year. The rest of the operating personnel, although they do not receive very high doses, should focus on the dose optimization of the technique. PMID:19916691

  13. Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

  14. Nonclassical light from a large number of independent single-photon emitters

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Nonclassical quantum effects gradually reach domains of physics of large systems previously considered as purely classical. We derive a hierarchy of operational criteria suitable for a reliable detection of nonclassicality of light from an arbitrarily large ensemble of independent single-photon emitters. We show, that such large ensemble can always emit nonclassical light without any phase reference and under realistic experimental conditions including incoherent background noise. The nonclassical light from the large ensemble of the emitters can be witnessed much better than light coming from a single or a few emitters. PMID:26813774

  15. Nonclassical light from a large number of independent single-photon emitters.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Nonclassical quantum effects gradually reach domains of physics of large systems previously considered as purely classical. We derive a hierarchy of operational criteria suitable for a reliable detection of nonclassicality of light from an arbitrarily large ensemble of independent single-photon emitters. We show, that such large ensemble can always emit nonclassical light without any phase reference and under realistic experimental conditions including incoherent background noise. The nonclassical light from the large ensemble of the emitters can be witnessed much better than light coming from a single or a few emitters. PMID:26813774

  16. Is there a bone-nail specific entry point? Automated fit quantification of tibial nail designs during the insertion for six different nail entry points.

    PubMed

    Amarathunga, J P; Schuetz, M A; Yarlagadda, K V D; Schmutz, B

    2015-04-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard fixation method for displaced diaphyseal fractures of tibia. Selection of the correct nail insertion point is important for axial alignment of bone fragments and to avoid iatrogenic fractures. However, the standard entry point (SEP) may not always optimise the bone-nail fit due to geometric variations of bones. This study aimed to investigate the optimal entry for a given bone-nail pair using the fit quantification software tool previously developed by the authors. The misfit was quantified for 20 bones with two nail designs (ETN and ETN-Proximal Bend) related to the SEP and 5 entry points which were 5 mm and 10 mm away from the SEP. The SEP was the optimal entry point for 50% of the bones used. For the remaining bones, the optimal entry point was located 5 mm away from the SEP, which improved the overall fit by 40% on average. However, entry points 10 mm away from the SEP doubled the misfit. The optimised bone-nail fit can be achieved through the SEP and within the range of a 5 mm radius, except posteriorly. The study results suggest that the optimal entry point should be selected by considering the fit during insertion and not only at the final position. PMID:25666401

  17. Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Nail biting (NB) is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols. PMID:23358880

  18. Enhancing the nail permeability of topically applied drugs.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2008-11-01

    The topical therapy of nail diseases, especially of onychomycosis, and to a smaller extent, of nail psoriasis, is desirable to avoid the side effects associated with their systemic therapy, to increase patient compliance and reduce the cost of treatment. Systemic therapy is however the mainstay of treatment due to the poor permeability of the nail plate to topically applied drugs. For effective topical therapy, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. This can be achieved by disrupting the nail plate using physical techniques or chemical agents. Alternatively, drug permeation into the intact nail plate may be encouraged, for example, by iontophoresis or by formulating the drug within a vehicle which enables high drug partition out of the vehicle and into the nail plate. The physical techniques (manual and electrical nail abrasion, acid etching, ablation by lasers, microporation, application of low-frequency ultrasound and electric currents) and chemicals (thiols, sulphites, hydrogen peroxide, urea, water, enzymes) that have shown ungual enhancer activity are discussed in this review. Optimal drug formulation, while crucial to ungual drug delivery, is only briefly reviewed due to the limited literature. PMID:18976136

  19. Finger Tendon Travel Associated with Sequential Trigger Nail Gun Use

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen; Krieg, Edward

    2015-01-01

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT Background Pneumatic nail guns used in wood framing are equipped with one of two triggering mechanisms. Sequential actuation triggers have been shown to be a safer alternative to contact actuation triggers because they reduce traumatic injury risk. However, the sequential actuation trigger must be depressed for each individual nail fired as opposed to the contact actuation trigger, which allows the trigger to be held depressed as nails are fired repeatedly by bumping the safety tip against the workpiece. As such, concerns have been raised about risks for cumulative trauma injury, and reduced productivity, due to repetitive finger motion with the sequential actuation trigger. Purpose This study developed a method to predict cumulative finger flexor tendon travel associated with the sequential actuation trigger nail gun from finger joint kinematics measured in the trigger actuation and productivity standards for wood-frame construction tasks. Methods Finger motions were measured from six users wearing an instrumented electrogoniometer glove in a simulation of two common framing tasks–wall building and flat nailing of material. Flexor tendon travel was calculated from the ensemble average kinematics for an individual nail fired. Results Finger flexor tendon travel was attributable mostly to proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint motion. Tendon travel per nail fired appeared to be slightly greater for a wall-building task than a flat nailing task. The present study data, in combination with construction industry productivity standards, suggest that a high-production workday would be associated with less than 60 m/day cumulative tendon travel per worker (based on 1700 trigger presses/day). Conclusion and Applications These results suggest that exposure to finger tendon travel from sequential actuation trigger nail gun use may be below levels that have been previously associated with high musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID

  20. Fungal infections of the skin and nail: new treatment options.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Matthew L; Chambers, Cindy J; Sharon, Victoria R; Thompson, George R

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of the currently available antifungal agents, along with clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic methods, can help the medical professional optimally manage skin and nail fungal infections. With regards to treatment of fungal disease of the skin or nail, there are a variety of systemic antifungal agents, including several newer agents that have different formulations, tolerability, adverse effect profiles and spectrum of activity. This review will highlight the clinically important fungal infections of the skin and nail and describe the activity and role of antifungal treatment. PMID:25241767

  1. Quantum teleportation of nonclassical wave packets: An effective multimode theory

    SciTech Connect

    Benichi, Hugo; Takeda, Shuntaro; Lee, Noriyuki; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-07-15

    We develop a simple and efficient theoretical model to understand the quantum properties of broadband continuous variable quantum teleportation. We show that, if stated properly, the problem of multimode teleportation can be simplified to teleportation of a single effective mode that describes the input state temporal characteristic. Using that model, we show how the finite bandwidth of squeezing and external noise in the classical channel affect the output teleported quantum field. We choose an approach that is especially relevant for the case of non-Gaussian nonclassical quantum states and we finally back-test our model with recent experimental results.

  2. Nonclassical degrees of freedom in the Riemann Hamiltonian.

    PubMed

    Srednicki, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The Hilbert-Pólya conjecture states that the imaginary parts of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function are eigenvalues of a quantum Hamiltonian. If so, conjectures by Katz and Sarnak put this Hamiltonian in the Altland-Zirnbauer universality class C. This implies that the system must have a nonclassical two-valued degree of freedom. In such a system, the dominant primitive periodic orbits contribute to the density of states with a phase factor of -1. This resolves a previously mysterious sign problem with the oscillatory contributions to the density of the Riemann zeros. PMID:21981482

  3. Observation of Nonclassical Radiation Pressure Forces on a Mechanical Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jeremy; Lecocq, Florent; Simmonds, Raymond; Aumentado, Jose; Teufel, John

    Squeezed states of light are known to be useful for enhancing mechanical displacement sensing since they can be tailored to reduce the ``photon counting noise'' that limits the measurement's noise floor. On the other hand, recent experiments in cavity optomechanics have reached measurement regimes where an interrogating light field exerts radiation pressure noise on a mechanical oscillator. One outstanding challenge has been to explore the intersection between such experiments. I will present data obtained using a superconducting cavity optomechanical system wherein a mechanical oscillator is driven by nonclassical radiation pressure imparted by squeezed microwave fields. JBC acknowledges the NRC for financial support.

  4. Nonclassical nucleation and growth of cohesive tensile cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, J. B.; Klein, W.

    1989-07-10

    We analyze the nucleation and growth of cohesive tensile cracks using a field-theoretic formulation in which the free energy is written as a functional of the crack separation (offset field). Our results indicate that for certain materials, crack nucleation and growth proceed through the formation and extension of a diffuse ''halo'' surrounding the classical portion of the crack. This is similar to nonclassical nucleation in magnetic systems. Theoretical considerations and numerical calculations strongly suggest that the diffuse halo can be identified with the fracture ''process zone'' seen in laboratory studies of advancing cracks.

  5. Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

    2014-02-01

    One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

  6. Antifungal activity, experimental infections and nail permeation of an innovative ciclopirox nail lacquer based on a water-soluble biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico

    2010-05-01

    P-3051 is an innovative 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, based on hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) as a film-forming agent. The authors' aim was to investigate P-3051's in vitro antifungal activity, as well as its in vitro and in vivo nail permeation. The dilution susceptibility tests performed for Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of P-3051, as percent of ciclopirox, was for both fungi < or = 0.0015% (equivalent to a concentration of 15.6 mg/ ml). In the biological assay of in vitro nail permeation and fungal inhibition, the authors observed that P-3051 permeated well through bovine hoof membranes and produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on dermatophyte, yeast and mold strains. Moreover, the inhibition effects were higher than those obtained by equal amounts of the ciclopirox reference nail lacquer. P-3051 and the reference showed the same protective activity in experimental infections with strains of dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples. The amount of ciclopirox remained in cut fingernails washed six hours after in vivo application of P-3051 ranged between 18 and 35% of the applied dose. After in vitro application to cut human nails, 40-50% of the applied ciclopirox penetrated during the first six hours, independent of nails being infected or uninfected, intact or filed. In both experiments, the concentration of ciclopirox is largely higher (three to four orders of magnitude) than the MICs for nail pathogens. PMID:20480796

  7. 10 CFR 429.38 - Non-class A external power supplies. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Non-class A external power supplies. 429.38 Section 429.38 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.38 Non-class A external power supplies....

  8. 10 CFR 429.38 - Non-class A external power supplies. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Non-class A external power supplies. 429.38 Section 429.38 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.38 Non-class A external power supplies....

  9. 10 CFR 429.38 - Non-class A external power supplies. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Non-class A external power supplies. 429.38 Section 429.38 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.38 Non-class A external power supplies....

  10. Barley Yellow Dwarf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf is the most economically important virus disease affecting most cereal crops world wide. This manuscript summarizes the current knowledge of the disease etiology, epidemiology and management. This information is incorporated into the latest revision of the American Phytopathologi...

  11. Yellow leaf blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow leaf blotch occurs worldwide in temperate climates. The disease is reported from countries in Asia, Australasia, Oceania, Europe, North America, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. In the northern Great Plains of North America, it is often the major leaf disease on alfalfa....

  12. The uncertainty principle enables non-classical dynamics in an interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsten, Oscar C. O.; Garner, Andrew J. P.; Vedral, Vlatko

    2014-08-01

    The quantum uncertainty principle stipulates that when one observable is predictable there must be some other observables that are unpredictable. The principle is viewed as holding the key to many quantum phenomena and understanding it deeper is of great interest in the study of the foundations of quantum theory. Here we show that apart from being restrictive, the principle also plays a positive role as the enabler of non-classical dynamics in an interferometer. First we note that instantaneous action at a distance should not be possible. We show that for general probabilistic theories this heavily curtails the non-classical dynamics. We prove that there is a trade-off with the uncertainty principle that allows theories to evade this restriction. On one extreme, non-classical theories with maximal certainty have their non-classical dynamics absolutely restricted to only the identity operation. On the other extreme, quantum theory minimizes certainty in return for maximal non-classical dynamics.

  13. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  14. Penetrating Cardiac Nail Gun Injury in a Child.

    PubMed

    Kulaylat, Afif N; Chesnut, Charles H; Patel, Sunil; Rocourt, Dorothy V; Clark, Joseph B

    2016-08-01

    Nail gun injuries primarily occur in the extremities of adult males as a consequence of accidental occupational trauma. Such injury involving the thorax is much less common, and penetrating cardiac injury secondary to pneumatic nail gun discharge is rare. Although potentially lethal, most cases with cardiac trauma are survivable with expedient surgical intervention. Despite improvements in engineered safety mechanisms, the incidence of nail gun injuries has risen as use of the devices has increased. The widespread availability of these tools to nonprofessional consumers exposes a broader population to the potential hazards associated with these devices. We describe the presentation and successful management of the first reported case of penetrating cardiac nail gun injury in a young child. PMID:27018525

  15. Fossilized Nail Plate after Remote Trauma: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dehdashtian, Amir; Amirlak, Bardia

    2016-02-01

    The authors describe a case of retained sterile matrix in a 38-year-old Hispanic man with a history of remote trauma and soft-tissue coverage with a groin flap 13 years before presentation. The patient presented with a slowly enlarging, vertically growing dorsal thumb mass with occasional drainage. The patient had minimal functional impairment, and radiographic imaging showed a radiolucent mass projecting dorsally over the distal phalanx. Surgical exploration revealed an approximately 2 × 2 cm keratinized mass attached to a retained nail bed. The keratinized nail plate was removed, along with an ellipse of soft tissue around the draining tract. To the authors' knowledge, this case is the largest reported vertically growing, retained, and cornified nail bed with an unusual size and shape. Physicians should consider the possibility of retained nail plates in patients who present with unusual large growths after trauma or surgery. PMID:27014549

  16. Allergies Less Common in Kids Who Suck Thumb, Bite Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Suck Thumb, Bite Nails Findings boost 'hygiene hypothesis,' study authors suggest To use the sharing features ... to Hancox, it all relates to the "hygiene hypothesis." The theory is that exposure to bacteria and ...

  17. Retrograde nailing for distal femur fractures in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Giddie, Jasdeep; Sawalha, Seif; Parker, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We report the results of treating a series of 56 fractures in 54 elderly patients with a distal femur fracture with a retrograde femoral nail. Methods: Fifty-four of the nails were inserted percutaneously with a closed reduction. After surgery all patients were allowed to weight bear as tolerated. Four fractures were supported in a temporary external splint. Results: The mean age of patients was 80.6 years (range 51–103 years), 52/54 (96%) were females. There were no cases of nail related complications and no re-operations were required. One patient was lost to follow up. The 30-day mortality was 5/54 (9.3%) and the one year mortality was 17/54 (31.5%). Conclusions: Distal femoral nail fixation provides a good method of fixation allowing immediate mobilisation for this group of patients. PMID:27163086

  18. 14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and glass display cases now located in the second floor meeting room; looking southeast. - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  19. Beyond Iron: Non-Classical Biological Functions of Bacterial Siderophores

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria secrete small molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from their surroundings. For over 60 years, investigations into the bioinorganic chemistry of these molecules, including fundamental coordination chemistry studies, have provided insight into the crucial role that siderophores play in bacterial iron homeostasis. The importance of understanding the fundamental chemistry underlying bacterial life has been highlighted evermore in recent years because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the need to prevent the global rise of these superbugs. Increasing reports of siderophores functioning in capacities other than iron transport have appeared recently, but reports of “non-classical” siderophore functions have long paralleled those of iron transport. One particular non-classical function of these iron chelators, namely antibiotic activity, was even documented before the role of siderophores in iron transport was established. In this Perspective, we present an exposition of past and current work into non-classical functions of siderophores and highlight the directions in which we anticipate that this research is headed. Examples include the ability of siderophores to function as zincophores, chalkophores, and metallophores for a variety of other metals, sequester heavy metal toxins, transport boron, act as signalling molecules, regulate oxidative stress, and provide antibacterial activity. PMID:25764171

  20. Photon-subtracted squeezed thermal state: Nonclassicality and decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Liyun; Xu Xuexiang; Wang Zisheng; Xu Xuefen

    2010-10-15

    We investigate nonclassical properties of the field states generated by subtracting any number of photons from the squeezed thermal state (STS). It is found that the normalization factor of photon-subtracted STS (PSSTS) is a Legendre polynomial of squeezing parameter r and average photon number n-bar of the thermal state. Expressions of several quasiprobability distributions of PSSTS are derived analytically. Furthermore, the nonclassicality is discussed in terms of the negativity of the Wigner function (WF). It is shown that the WF of single PSSTS always has negative values if n-bar

  1. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration. PMID:26837377

  2. The Stainless Steel Wire-based Method of Sogawa Effectively Corrects Severe Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Koichiro; Sogawa, Hideo; Ogawa, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Ingrown nails are defined as inflammation of the lateral nail fold that is caused by penetration by the nail plate and associates with pain and/or infection. The pain associated with ingrown nail hampers walking, raises the risk of falls, and decreases the quality of life. The Sogawa method is a novel conservative medical treatment for ingrown nails that is based on stainless steel wire. It was first reported in 2012 by Sogawa, and we have found that it is very effective for ingrown nails, especially in difficult cases. Here, we show the beneficial effects of the Sogawa method in 2 extremely difficult cases where ingrown nails had recurred after partial nail ablation. We found the Sogawa method to be a quick and easy technique that rapidly improves the pain associated with ingrown nails and later produces properly configured nails. Our experience suggests that it is suitable for severe ingrown nails, such as too short ingrown nails and ingrown nails that have strong inflammation and granulation tissue formation. This is significant because it is difficult to treat such cases with conventional conservative methods, which means that the only remaining therapeutic option is surgery. Thus, the Sogawa method is a novel and highly effective ingrown nail treatment that obviates the need for invasive surgical treatment. PMID:27622114

  3. Intramedullary fixation of forearm fractures with new locked nail

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Himanshu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of availability of interlocked nails made plate osteosynthesis the first choice of treatment of forearm fractures inspite of more surgical exposure, periosteal stripping and big skin incision subsequent scar along with higher risk of refracture on implant removal. We hereby report the first 12 cases with 19 forearm bone fractures internally fixed by indegenous interlocked nail. Materials and Methods: Existing square nails were modified to have a broad proximal end of 5.5 mm with a hole for locking screw of 2.5 mm. The nail has a distal hole of 1/1.2/1.5 mm in 2.5/3/3.5 mm diameter nail, respectively. A new method of distal locking with a clip made of k wire is designed. The clip after insertion into the bone and hole in nail and opposite cortex snuggly fits the bone providing a secure locking system. Twelve skeletally mature patients, mean age 32 years (range 24-45 years) with 19 diaphyseal fractures of the forearm were treated with this indigenously made new nail. The patient were evaluated for fracture union, functional recovery and complications. The functional outcome was assessed by disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH score). Results: Time to radiographic union ranged between 12 and 28 weeks, with a 100% union rate. Complications were minimal, with mild infection in open fracture (n=1) and delayed union (n=1) in patient with comminuted fracture of the ulna only. The clinical results were excellent. The DASH score ranged between 0 and 36 points. Conclusion: This new interlocking nail may be considered as an alternative to plate osteosynthesis for fractures of the forearm in adults. The advantages are benefit of closed reduction, smaller residual scar, reduced cost and early union with allowance of immediate movements. PMID:21886921

  4. Nail surgery: best way to obtain effective anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Nathaniel J; Vélez, Nicole F

    2015-04-01

    Nail procedures require an effective and reliable approach to anesthesia of the distal digit. Several techniques have been described in the literature. Herein, the relevant anatomy of the nail unit, pain pathways, anesthetic options, and several injection approaches to achieve complete anesthesia are reviewed. Also considered are the potential pitfalls and complications and their management. Ultimately, the physician's approach must be individualized to the patient, procedure, and setting. PMID:25828716

  5. Dermoscopy and Onychomycosis: guided nail abrasion for mycological samples*

    PubMed Central

    Bet, Diego Leonardo; dos Reis, Ana Lucia; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Belda Junior, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mycological examination is still the cornerstone for the diagnosis of onychomycosis for many dermatologists, but sampling technique interferes on its sensitivity and specificity. Nail abrasion may be used to reach the most proximal part of the lesion and can be easily accomplished with an electric abrasor. We suggest nail plate dermoscopy to identify the best location for localized abrasion to obtain adequate samples for mycological examination. PMID:26734877

  6. Dermoscopy and Onychomycosis: guided nail abrasion for mycological samples.

    PubMed

    Bet, Diego Leonardo; Reis, Ana Lucia dos; Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Belda Junior, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mycological examination is still the cornerstone for the diagnosis of onychomycosis for many dermatologists, but sampling technique interferes on its sensitivity and specificity. Nail abrasion may be used to reach the most proximal part of the lesion and can be easily accomplished with an electric abrasor. We suggest nail plate dermoscopy to identify the best location for localized abrasion to obtain adequate samples for mycological examination. PMID:26734877

  7. A fatal nail gun injury--an unusual ricochet?

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-old construction worker suddenly collapsed while handling a power-actuated nail gun and died shortly after. A neat, almost circular puncture wound was found on the front of his left chest. No fire-arm residues were detected on the surrounding skin. The police stated that it was an accidental injury, at a construction site, where a nail fired from a nail gun by the deceased had deflected off the wall and struck him on the front of the chest. Since the entry wound appeared to be a neat hole, and that too on the front of the left chest overlying the heart area, there was reluctance on the part of the pathologist to accept it as an accidental injury due to a ricochet. A visit to the scene, interrogation of witnesses, examination of the alleged tool and post-mortem X-ray of the deceased were undertaken prior to autopsy. A bent nail was found in the heart. The scene visit and the subsequent autopsy revealed that the nail took a roughly circular flightpath after it had struck the wall, all the while travelling with its pointed end directed forward. Within the body too, the nail maintained the same path. Various medicolegal issues are discussed pertaining to nail-gun injuries. The importance of a visit to the scene, examination of the alleged tool, interrogation of witnesses and the X-ray of the body, all prior to autopsy, are emphasized. The conclusion was: accidental death due to the unusual ricochet of a nail. PMID:10689867

  8. Intramedullary nailing: evolutions of femoral intramedullary nailing: first to fourth generations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary femoral nailing is the gold standard for femoral shaft fixation but only in the past 27 years. This rapid replacement of closed traction and cast techniques in North America was a controversial and contentious evolution in surgery. As we enter the fourth generation of implant design, capabilities, and surgical technique, it is important to understand the driving forces for this technology. These forces included changes in radiographic imaging capabilities, biomaterial design and computer-assisted manufacturing, and the recognition of the importance of mobilization of the trauma patient to avoid systemic complications and optimize functional recovery. PMID:22089849

  9. Nonclassical properties and quantum resources of hierarchical photonic superposition states

    SciTech Connect

    Volkoff, T. J.

    2015-11-15

    We motivate and introduce a class of “hierarchical” quantum superposition states of N coupled quantum oscillators. Unlike other well-known multimode photonic Schrödinger-cat states such as entangled coherent states, the hierarchical superposition states are characterized as two-branch superpositions of tensor products of single-mode Schrödinger-cat states. In addition to analyzing the photon statistics and quasiprobability distributions of prominent examples of these nonclassical states, we consider their usefulness for highprecision quantum metrology of nonlinear optical Hamiltonians and quantify their mode entanglement. We propose two methods for generating hierarchical superpositions in N = 2 coupled microwave cavities, exploiting currently existing quantum optical technology for generating entanglement between spatially separated electromagnetic field modes.

  10. Testing Nonclassical Theories of Electromagnetism with Ion Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Neyenhuis, B.; Christensen, D.; Durfee, D. S.

    2007-11-16

    We discuss using a tabletop ion interferometer to search for deviations from Coulomb's inverse-square law. Such deviations would result from nonclassical effects such as a nonzero photon rest mass. We discuss the theory behind the proposed measurement, explain which fundamental, experimentally controllable parameters are the relevant figures of merit, and calculate the expected performance of such a device in terms of these parameters. The sensitivity to deviations in the exponent of the inverse-square law is predicted to be a few times 10{sup -22}, an improvement by 5 orders of magnitude over current experiments. It could measure a nonzero photon rest mass smaller than 9x10{sup -50} grams, nearly 100 times smaller than current laboratory experiments.

  11. Propagation of nonclassical correlations across a quantum spin chain

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Di Franco, C.; Banchi, L.; Cuccoli, A.; Vaia, R.; Plastina, F.; Paternostro, M.

    2011-11-15

    We study the transport of quantum correlations across a chain of interacting spin-1/2 particles. As a quantitative figure of merit, we choose a symmetric version of quantum discord and compare it with the transported entanglement, addressing various operating regimes of the spin medium. Discord turns out to be better transported for a wide range of working points and initial conditions of the system. We relate this behavior to the efficiency of propagation of a single excitation across the spin chain. Moreover, we point out the role played by a magnetic field in the dynamics of discord in the effective channel embodied by the chain. Our analysis can be interestingly extended to transport processes in more complex networks and the study of nonclassical correlations under general quantum channels.

  12. Testing Nonclassical Theories of Electromagnetism with Ion Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyenhuis, B.; Christensen, D.; Durfee, D. S.

    2007-11-01

    We discuss using a tabletop ion interferometer to search for deviations from Coulomb’s inverse-square law. Such deviations would result from nonclassical effects such as a nonzero photon rest mass. We discuss the theory behind the proposed measurement, explain which fundamental, experimentally controllable parameters are the relevant figures of merit, and calculate the expected performance of such a device in terms of these parameters. The sensitivity to deviations in the exponent of the inverse-square law is predicted to be a few times 10-22, an improvement by 5 orders of magnitude over current experiments. It could measure a nonzero photon rest mass smaller than 9×10-50grams, nearly 100 times smaller than current laboratory experiments.

  13. Nonclassical polarization dynamics in classical-like states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, Alfredo; Sanz, Ángel S.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum polarization is investigated by means of a trajectory picture based on the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. Relevant examples of classical-like two-mode field states are thus examined, namely, Glauber and SU(2) coherent states. Although these states are often regarded as classical, the analysis here shows that the corresponding electric-field polarization trajectories display topologies very different from those expected from classical electrodynamics. Rather than incompatibility with the usual classical model, this result demonstrates the dynamical richness of quantum motions, determined by local variations of the system quantum phase in the corresponding (polarization) configuration space, absent in classical-like models. These variations can be related to the evolution in time of the phase, but also to its dependence on configurational coordinates, which is the crucial factor to generate motion in the case of stationary states like those considered here. In this regard, for completeness these results are compared with those obtained from nonclassical NOON states.

  14. Nonclassical Nucleation and Growth of Cohesive Tensile Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, Joseph; Rundle, John; Klein, William

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the nucleation and growth of cohesive tensile cracks using a Hamiltonian which is written as a functional of the crack separation (offset field). We simulate the nucleation events on a square lattice using a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. Several modes of crack propagation are seen in the simulations. Our results indicate that for certain materials, crack nucleation and growth proceed through the formation and extension of a diffuse ``halo'' surrounding the classical portion of the crack. This is similar to nonclassical nucleation near the spinodal in magnetic systems. Theoretical considerations and numerical calculations strongly suggest that the diffuse halo can be identified with the fracture ``process zone'' seen in laboratory studies of advancing cracks. We are investigating scaling exponents associated with this apparent phase transition.

  15. A broadband tapered nanocavity for efficient nonclassical light emission.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Niels; McCutcheon, Dara P S; Mørk, Jesper; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien

    2016-09-01

    We present the design of a tapered nanocavity, obtained by sandwiching a photonic wire section between a planar gold reflector and a few-period Bragg mirror integrated into the tapered wire. Thanks to its ultrasmall mode volume (0.71 λ3/n3), this hybrid nanocavity largely enhances the spontaneous emission rate of an embedded quantum dot (Purcell factor: 6), while offering a wide operation bandwidth (full-width half-maximum: 20 nm). In addition, the top tapered section shapes the cavity far-field emission into a very directive output beam, with a Gaussian spatial profile. For realistic taper dimensions, a total outcoupling efficiency to a Gaussian beam of 0.8 is predicted. Envisioned applications include bright sources of non-classical states of light, such as widely tunable sources of indistinguishable single photons and polarization-entangled photon pairs. PMID:27607694

  16. Nonclassically paired photons from sources based on cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głódź, Małgorzata; Janowicz, Maciej; Kowalski, Krzysztof; Szonert, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    In this short review some essentials concerning creation and testing of nonclassically correlated photons (biphotons) are given. In the introduction we remind the role which the experimentally produced entangled states have been playing for the foundations of the quantum physics, by witnessing against the model of local hidden variables. The well established sources of biphotons are based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in nonlinear crystals. A popular source with two BBO crystals is described, which generates pairs of photons nearly maximally entangled in polarization. Crystalbased sources rely on intrinsically broadband transitions, therefore thus produced biphotons are also broadband. Additional efforts (like applying optical cavities) are needed to reach narrowband biphotons which would comply with the requirements of some implementations in the quantum communication science. The topical issue of our article is a review of another, more recent approaches based on narrowband transitions between levels in cold atoms. Such method provides naturally narrowband biphotons. First, the principles are given of an atomic source of nonclassically paired photons, which is operated in a pulsed write-read mode. Such source is based on two separated in time Raman transitions triggered successively in two Λ-schemes. Next, cw-mode sources based (mainly) on spontaneous four wave mixing process (SFWM) are presented in a generic four-level scheme. Some underlying physics is sketched and profiles of biphoton correlation functions in the time domain are explained. Among other presented SFWM sources, one proves in testing high degree entanglement of generated biphotons, both in time-frequency and polarization (hyperentanglement).

  17. Nonclassical renin-angiotensin system and renal function.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark C

    2012-10-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) constitutes one of the most important hormonal systems in the physiological regulation of blood pressure through renal and nonrenal mechanisms. Indeed, dysregulation of the RAS is considered a major factor in the development of cardiovascular pathologies, including kidney injury, and blockade of this system by the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or blockade of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) by selective antagonists constitutes an effective therapeutic regimen. It is now apparent with the identification of multiple components of the RAS within the kidney and other tissues that the system is actually composed of different angiotensin peptides with diverse biological actions mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. The classic RAS can be defined as the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis that promotes vasoconstriction, water intake, sodium retention, and other mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, as well as increase oxidative stress, fibrosis, cellular growth, and inflammation in pathological conditions. In contrast, the nonclassical RAS composed primarily of the AngII/Ang III-AT2R pathway and the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-AT7R axis generally opposes the actions of a stimulated Ang II-AT1R axis through an increase in nitric oxide and prostaglandins and mediates vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and reduced oxidative stress. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that these non-classical RAS components contribute to the therapeutic blockade of the classical system to reduce blood pressure and attenuate various indices of renal injury, as well as contribute to normal renal function. PMID:23720263

  18. Non-classical nonlinear feature extraction from standard resonance vibration data for damage detection.

    PubMed

    Eiras, J N; Monzó, J; Payá, J; Kundu, T; Popovics, J S

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic non-classical nonlinear analyses show promise for improved damage diagnostics in materials that exhibit such structure at the mesoscale, such as concrete. In this study, nonlinear non-classical dynamic material behavior from standard vibration test data, using pristine and frost damaged cement mortar bar samples, is extracted and quantified. The procedure is robust and easy to apply. The results demonstrate that the extracted nonlinear non-classical parameters show expected sensitivity to internal damage and are more sensitive to changes owing to internal damage levels than standard linear vibration parameters. PMID:25234919

  19. Computed modeling of humeral mid-shaft fracture treated by bundle nailing.

    PubMed

    Obruba, Petr; Capek, Lukas; Henys, Petr; Kopp, Lubomir

    2016-10-01

    Elastic bundle nailing is a method for simple humeral mid-shaft fracture osteosynthesis. The aim of our subsequent numerical simulations was to find out torsional and bending stiffness of an elastic bundle nailed humerus. Parametrical 3D numerical model was developed. The diameter of nails was the varying parameter of 1.8, 2.5, 3 and 4 mm. From our results can be seen that the bending stiffness in bundle nailing technique does not depend on nail diameter. On the contrary the torsional stiffness does highly depend on nail diameter. The dependency of the maximal stress on a nail diameter during bending and torsion of the humerus is non-linear. It can be seen that the higher diameter is used the higher stress occurs. Achieved results allow us for the recommendation of optimal nail diameter for this method, which lies between 2 and 3 mm. PMID:26828368

  20. Enhancing transungual delivery and spreading of efinaconazole under the nail plate through a unique formulation approach.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycosis is a very common nail disorder seen in dermatological practice. It is difficult to treat successfully for a multitude of reasons, and although topical antifungal therapy might be considered ideal for mild to moderate onychomycosis, efficacy has been limited by poor nail penetration of active ingredient through the nail plate into the nail bed and nail matrix to the site of infection. The intrinsic properties of an antifungal and its vehicle formulation are both considered important contributors to effective treatment. Here we review the formulation approach to efinaconazole topical solution, 10% an effective and well-tolerated treatment for onychomycosis. We demonstrate that the low surface tension formulation affords better penetration of efinaconazole through the nail plate, and also to the site of infection by spreading into the space between the nail and nail bed. PMID:25607788

  1. Unlocked and locked elastic stable intramedullary nailing in an ovine tibia fracture model: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Berger, Leopold; Fischerauer, Stefan; Weiß, Barbara; Celarek, Anna; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina; Tschegg, Elmar

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, four different systems of elastic stable intramedullary nails (unlocked, Ender stainless steel nails locked with 3-mm screws, titanium nails locked with end caps, titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws) were implanted in cadaveric ovine tibiae. Fractures were simulated by a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy. The specimens were subjected to simultaneous axial and torsional fatigue loading of 5000 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The unlocked systems failed at an axial load of 200 N peak amplitude. End caps systems withstood axial loads up to 800 N for 1000 cycles, and ender nails and plugs lasted up to 1000 N for 1000 cycles. All systems showed a decrease of axial stiffness with higher loads and endured cycles. Ender nails and nails locked with plugs failed by penetration of the distal epiphysis rather than by loosening of the interlocking system. Overall, the titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws exhibited superior test results. PMID:24857493

  2. Antifungal Activity of Luliconazole Nail Solution on in vitro and in vivo Onychomycosis Model.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Nami; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated luliconazole nail solution, originally generated formulation, for the topical treatment of onychomycosis by two infection models. First, a suspension of Trichophyton mentagrophytes was dropped onto the ventral layer of human nail plate and these nails were set in Franz diffusion cells. After 9-day culture, luliconazole nail solutions (1, 3, and 5%) were applied to the dorsal surface of the nails once a day for 7 days. After application, fungal viability was assessed by measuring the ATP contents of the samples. The dose-dependent efficacy was confirmed, with 3% and 5% luliconazole nail solutions producing significantly lower ATP levels at 7-day treatment. When 3% and 5% luliconazole nail solutions were evaluated in a rabbit model of onychomycosis, both concentrations completely inhibited the recovery of fungi on culture after 4-week treatment. We therefore think these results indicate that 5% luliconazole nail solution is sufficiently potent for treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:26936347

  3. Photobiological safety evaluation of UV nail lamps.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, John C; Sayre, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated six UV nail lamps representative of major US manufacturers to evaluate radiant hazards as defined in ANSI/IESNA RP-27 Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety. Lamps were evaluated at three positions, 1 cm above the inner surface approximating exposure to the hand and the 20 cm RP-27 non-general light source distance, oriented normal and 45° to the opening. Hazard to skin at intended use distance classified these devices into Risk Group 1 or 2 (Low to Moderate) with S(λ) weighted Actinic UV ranging 1.2-1.7 μW cm(-2) and 29.8-276.25 min permissible daily exposure. At 20 cm on center and 45° UV risk to skin and eyes were all within Exempt classification. Actinic UV ranged 0.001-0.078 μW cm(-2) and unweighted near UV (320-400 nm) ranged 0.001-0.483 mW cm(-2). Likewise the retinal photochemical blue light hazard and retinal thermal and cornea/lens IR were also Exempt. One device had aphakic eye hazard slightly rising into Risk Group 1 (Low). There were no other photobiological risks to normal individuals. Total exposure following programmed times and steps accumulate to only a small fraction of RP-27 permissible daily occupational exposure. These risks are further mitigated in realistic nonoccupational use scenarios as it is unlikely to be a daily occurrence. PMID:23550905

  4. Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

  5. Diffusion of uncharged solutes through human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-01-01

    Passive diffusion data for uncharged solutes in hydrated human nail plate are collected and compared to the predictions of two theories for diffusion of uncharged solutes in dense keratin matrices. Quantitative agreement between the experimental data and the theories examined is poor. Concerns with both the experiments and the theories are identified and discussed. It is evident from the analysis that magnitude of the experimental nail permeability data may be questioned, as may the extrapolation procedures used to estimate the properties of dense fiber arrays from more dilute systems. Despite these caveats, it can be inferred that the microstructure of the nail plate is more complex than that assumed in the described models. The influence of residual lipids is implicated. More rigorous experiments and theoretical analysis of mass transport in the nail plate system are warranted. Successful completion of these tasks could lead not only to better predictions of transungual drug delivery, but also to better models of skin permeability, if hydrated nail plate can indeed serve as a model for the corneocyte phase of (partially hydrated) stratum corneum. PMID:25518727

  6. Intramedullary nailing of the proximal humerus: evolution, technique, and results.

    PubMed

    Dilisio, Matthew F; Nowinski, Robert J; Hatzidakis, Armodios M; Fehringer, Edward V

    2016-05-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are the third most common fracture in the elderly. Although most fractures can be treated conservatively with acceptable outcomes, certain fracture patterns are at high risk for progression to humeral malunions, nonunions, stiffness, and post-traumatic arthrosis. The goal of antegrade humeral nailing of proximal humerus fractures is to provide stability to a reduced fracture that allows early motion to optimize patient outcomes. Certain technical pearls are pivotal in managing these difficult fractures with nails; these include rotator cuff management, respect of the soft tissues, anatomic tuberosity position, blood supply maintenance, knowledge of the deforming forces on the proximal humerus, fracture reduction, and rehabilitation strategies. Modern proximal humeral nail designs and techniques assist the surgeon in adhering to these principles and have demonstrated promising outcomes. Humeral nail designs have undergone significant innovation during the past 40 years and now can provide stable fixation in the humeral shaft distally as well as improved stability in the head and tuberosity fragments, which were the common site of fixation failure with earlier generation implants. Compared with other fixation strategies, such as locking plate fixation, no compelling evidence exists to suggest one technique over another. The purpose of this review is to describe the history, results, new designs, and techniques that make modern intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures a viable treatment option. PMID:26895601

  7. Barley yellow dwarf viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, W A; Rasochová, L

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses represent one of the most economically important and ubiquitous groups of plant viruses. This review focuses primarily on four research areas in which progress has been most rapid. These include (a) evidence supporting reclassification of BYDVs into two genera; (b) elucidation of gene function and novel mechanisms controlling gene expression; (c) initial forays into understanding the complex interactions between BYDV virions and their aphid vectors; and (d) replication of a BYDV satellite RNA. Economic losses, symptomatology, and means of control of BYD are also discussed. PMID:15012520

  8. Protein-Phospholipid Interactions in Nonclassical Protein Secretion: Problem and Methods of Study

    PubMed Central

    Prudovsky, Igor; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh; Sterling, Sarah; Neivandt, David

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular proteins devoid of signal peptides use nonclassical secretion mechanisms for their export. These mechanisms are independent of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Some nonclassically released proteins, particularly fibroblast growth factors (FGF) 1 and 2, are exported as a result of their direct translocation through the cell membrane. This process requires specific interactions of released proteins with membrane phospholipids. In this review written by a cell biologist, a structural biologist and two membrane engineers, we discuss the following subjects: (i) Phenomenon of nonclassical protein release and its biological significance; (ii) Composition of the FGF1 multiprotein release complex (MRC); (iii) The relationship between FGF1 export and acidic phospholipid externalization; (iv) Interactions of FGF1 MRC components with acidic phospholipids; (v) Methods to study the transmembrane translocation of proteins; (vi) Membrane models to study nonclassical protein release. PMID:23396106

  9. Nonclassical-state generation in macroscopic systems via hybrid discrete-continuous quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milburn, T. J.; Kim, M. S.; Vanner, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Nonclassical-state generation is an important component throughout experimental quantum science for quantum information applications and probing the fundamentals of physics. Here, we investigate permutations of quantum nondemolition quadrature measurements and single quanta addition or subtraction to prepare quantum superposition states in bosonic systems. The performance of each permutation is quantified and compared using several different nonclassicality criteria including Wigner negativity, nonclassical depth, and optimal fidelity with a coherent-state superposition. We also compare the performance of our protocol using squeezing instead of a quadrature measurement and find that the purification provided by the quadrature measurement can significantly increase the nonclassicality generated. Our approach is ideally suited for implementation in light-matter systems such as quantum optomechanics and atomic spin ensembles, and offers considerable robustness to initial thermal occupation.

  10. Molecular and antimicrobial analyses of non-classical Bordetella isolated from a laboratory mouse

    PubMed Central

    LOONG, Shih Keng; MAHFODZ, Nur Hidayana; WALI, Haryanti Azura Mohamad; TALIB, Siti Aisyah A.; NASRAH, Siti Noraisah Ahmad; WONG, Pooi Fong; ABUBAKAR, Sazaly

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification and separation of non-classical Bordetella species is very difficult. These species have been implicated in animal infections. B. hinzii, a non-classical Bordetella, has been isolated from mice in experimental facilities recently. We isolated and characterized one non-classical Bordetella isolate from the trachea and lung of an ICR mouse. Isolate BH370 was initially identified as B. hinzii by 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA sequencing. Additionally, isolate BH370 also displayed antimicrobial sensitivity profiles similar to B. hinzii. However, analyses of nrdA sequences determined its identity as Bordetella genogroup 16. The isolation of BH370 from a healthy mouse suggests the possibility of it being a commensal. The nrdA gene was demonstrated to possess greater phylogenetic resolution as compared with 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA for the discrimination of non-classical Bordetella species. PMID:26782013

  11. Molecular and antimicrobial analyses of non-classical Bordetella isolated from a laboratory mouse.

    PubMed

    Loong, Shih Keng; Mahfodz, Nur Hidayana; Wali, Haryanti Azura Mohamad; Talib, Siti Aisyah A; Nasrah, Siti Noraisah Ahmad; Wong, Pooi Fong; Abubakar, Sazaly

    2016-05-01

    Accurate identification and separation of non-classical Bordetella species is very difficult. These species have been implicated in animal infections. B. hinzii, a non-classical Bordetella, has been isolated from mice in experimental facilities recently. We isolated and characterized one non-classical Bordetella isolate from the trachea and lung of an ICR mouse. Isolate BH370 was initially identified as B. hinzii by 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA sequencing. Additionally, isolate BH370 also displayed antimicrobial sensitivity profiles similar to B. hinzii. However, analyses of nrdA sequences determined its identity as Bordetella genogroup 16. The isolation of BH370 from a healthy mouse suggests the possibility of it being a commensal. The nrdA gene was demonstrated to possess greater phylogenetic resolution as compared with 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA for the discrimination of non-classical Bordetella species. PMID:26782013

  12. Sudden vanishing and reappearance of nonclassical effects: General occurrence of finite-time decays and periodic vanishings of nonclassicality and entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Bartkowiak, Monika; Miranowicz, Adam; Wang Xiaoguang; Liu Yuxi; Leonski, Wieslaw; Nori, Franco

    2011-05-15

    Analyses of phenomena exhibiting finite-time decay of quantum entanglement have recently attracted considerable attention. Such decay is often referred to as sudden vanishing (or sudden death) of entanglement, which can be followed by its sudden reappearance (or sudden rebirth). We analyze various finite-time decays (for dissipative systems) and analogous periodic vanishings (for unitary systems) of nonclassical correlations as described by violations of classical inequalities and the corresponding nonclassicality witnesses (or quantumness witnesses), which are not necessarily entanglement witnesses. We show that these sudden vanishings are universal phenomena and can be observed: (i) not only for two- or multimode but also for single-mode nonclassical fields, (ii) not solely for dissipative systems, and (iii) at evolution times which are usually different from those of sudden vanishings and reappearances of quantum entanglement.

  13. Comment on "Nonclassicality indicator for the real phase-space distribution functions"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenfack, Anatole

    2016-03-01

    We show in this Comment that the nonclassicality indicator proposed in Sadeghi et al. [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012102 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.012102] is controversial. Defined in terms of the interferences displayed by the quasidistribution function of at least two superposition states, this indicator may logically lead to zero for any single quantum state irrespective to its nonclassicality, in contradiction with their results.

  14. J(Si,H) Coupling Constants in Nonclassical Transition-Metal Silane Complexes.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Wolfgang; Meixner, Petra; Batke, Kilian; Barquera-Lozada, José E; Ruhland, Klaus; Fischer, Andreas; Eickerling, Georg; Eichele, Klaus

    2016-09-12

    We will outline that the sign and magnitude of J(Si,H) coupling constants provide a highly sensitive tool to measure the extent of Si-H bond activation in nonclassical silane complexes. Up to now, this structure-property relationship was obscured by erroneous J(Si,H) sign determinations in the literature. These new findings also help to identify the salient control parameters of the Si-H bond activation process in nonclassical silane complexes. PMID:27503583

  15. Testing nonclassicality in multimode fields: A unified derivation of classical inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Miranowicz, Adam; Bartkowiak, Monika; Wang Xiaoguang; Liu Yuxi; Nori, Franco

    2010-07-15

    We consider a way to generate operational inequalities to test nonclassicality (or quantumness) of multimode bosonic fields (or multiparty bosonic systems) that unifies the derivation of many known inequalities and allows to propose new ones. The nonclassicality criteria are based on Vogel's criterion corresponding to analyzing the positivity of multimode P functions or, equivalently, the positivity of matrices of expectation values of, e.g., creation and annihilation operators. We analyze not only monomials but also polynomial functions of such moments, which can sometimes enable simpler derivations of physically relevant inequalities. As an example, we derive various classical inequalities which can be violated only by nonclassical fields. In particular, we show how the criteria introduced here easily reduce to the well-known inequalities describing (a) multimode quadrature squeezing and its generalizations, including sum, difference, and principal squeezing; (b) two-mode one-time photon-number correlations, including sub-Poisson photon-number correlations and effects corresponding to violations of the Cauchy-Schwarz and Muirhead inequalities; (c) two-time single-mode photon-number correlations, including photon antibunching and hyperbunching; and (d) two- and three-mode quantum entanglement. Other simple inequalities for testing nonclassicality are also proposed. We have found some general relations between the nonclassicality and entanglement criteria, in particular those resulting from the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. It is shown that some known entanglement inequalities can be derived as nonclassicality inequalities within our formalism, while some other known entanglement inequalities can be seen as sums of more than one inequality derived from the nonclassicality criterion. This approach enables a deeper analysis of the entanglement for a given nonclassicality.

  16. The Chinese Nail Murders: forensic medicine in Imperial China.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    Robert van Gulik was a respected Dutch sinologist and author who first translated a collection of traditional Chinese detective stories into English and then created additional fictional stories based on the same characters and setting in the Tang dynasty. One of these stories, The Chinese Nail Murders, draws on van Gulik's professional interest in law and his knowledge of early Chinese works on forensic medicine. This novel develops a common theme in Chinese detective fiction, murder by a nail wound to the head. The difficulty in detection of this mode of violence posed a particular problem for the examining magistrate because postmortem examination was mostly limited to external observations. This essay compares the development of Chinese and Western forensic medicine in the context of the nail murder motif. PMID:11138936

  17. The physical basis of cosmetic defects of the nail plate.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2002-01-01

    Cosmetic defects of the nail cover a range of changes. Some are variants of normal which are considered unattractive, others are part of the normal ageing process and some changes are manifestations of local or systemic disease. Interpretation of these changes relies on recognition of the specific characteristics in question and an understanding of the anatomy and biology of nails. In many instances, therapies are limited and explanation of the changes represents one of the most useful contributions the professional can make to the affected individual. This article covers some of the most common cosmetic defects of nail involving colour, surface, brittleness and behaviour of surrounding tissues. Understanding of the physical basis of these defects is limited in many cases, but current thinking is recorded. PMID:17134450

  18. Distal Humeral Fixation of an Intramedullary Nail Periprosthetic Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Divecha, Hiren M.; Marynissen, Hans A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Distal humeral periprosthetic fractures below intramedullary nail devices are complex and challenging to treat, in particular due to the osteopenic/porotic nature of bone found in these patients. Fixation is often difficult to satisfactorily achieve around the intramedullary device, whilst minimising soft tissue disruption. Descriptions of such cases in the current literature are very rare. We present the case of a midshaft humeral fracture treated with a locking compression plate that developed a nonunion, in a 60-year old female. This went on to successful union after exchange for an intramedullary humeral nail. Unfortunately, the patient developed a distal 1/5th humeral periprosthetic fracture, which was then successfully addressed with a single-contoured, extra-articular, distal humeral locking compression plate (Synthes) with unicortical locking screws and cerclage cables proximally around the distal nail tip region. An excellent postoperative range of motion was achieved. PMID:23662231

  19. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  20. Trace Elements in Nails as Biomarkers in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of trace elements in relation to human health has been increasingly recognized. Accurate and adequate quantification of trace elements are crucial in clinical research. Design This review was to discuss the rationale of using nail trace elements as biomarkers in clinical studies. Results For most trace elements, dietary instruments can not appropriately capture the intakes because of the minimal amounts and wide variations in the same foods grown in different area as well as the non-dietary exposures. Therefore, biomarkers may be essential in studying trace elements. Although there are notable differences among trace elements in the availability of biomarkers, increasing evidence supports that nail particularly toenail concentrations of most trace elements are useful biomarkers of exposure in which a single sample is assumed to represent long-term exposure. Conclusions As compared to other potential biomarkers of trace elements, nail measurement has certain advantages in clinical research. PMID:20813017

  1. Quantitative characterization of non-classic polarization of cations on clay aggregate stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10-5 to 10-1 mol L-1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation-surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability. PMID:25874864

  2. About the nonclassicality of states defined by nonpositivity of the P-quasiprobability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsche, Alfred

    2004-02-01

    The definition of nonclassical states in quantum optics by the nonpositivity of their Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability P(\\alpha,\\alpha^*)\\leftrightarrow P(q,p) is investigated and it is shown that it hides some serious problems. It leads to a subdivision of squeezed thermal states into classical and nonclassical states which is difficult to interpret physically by some qualitatively different behaviour of the states. Nonclassical states are found in arbitrarily small neighbourhoods of every classical state that is illustrated by a very artificial modified thermal state. The observability of the criterion in comparison to that for nonclassicality of states determined by the nearest Hilbert-Schmidt distance to a class of reference states is discussed. The behaviour of the nonclassicality of states in models of phase-insensitive processes of damping and amplification is investigated and it is found that every nonclassical state eventually makes a transition to a classical state. However, this is not specific for the negativities or singularities of the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability and is found in similar form for other quasiprobabilities, for example, for the Wigner quasiprobability. We discuss in quite general form some defects of the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability if compared with classical distribution functions over the phase space, in particular the failure of an earlier advertised superposition formula.

  3. Quantitative Characterization of Non-Classic Polarization of Cations on Clay Aggregate Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10−5 to 10−1 mol L−1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation–surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability. PMID:25874864

  4. The human nail--barrier characterisation and permeation enhancement.

    PubMed

    Walters, Kenneth A; Abdalghafor, Haydar M; Lane, Majella E

    2012-10-01

    The human nail remains one of the most challenging membranes for formulation scientists to target and for clinicians to heal. Its formidable barrier properties are the primary reason that oral therapy remains the primary approach to manage ungual infections. This article considers the major structural properties underlying the excellent barrier function of the nail, with particular emphasis on the role of biophysical methods in advancing our knowledge of this appendage. Formulations currently available for management of ungual disease are discussed and their therapeutic efficacy is assessed. Finally, experimental strategies to enhance ungual permeation are reviewed and prospects for future developments in the field are considered. PMID:22521879

  5. A case of nail-patella syndrome associated with thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Haras, B; Vulpoi, F; Onose, Gh

    2012-02-22

    Nail-patella syndrome, also known as hereditary onycho-osteodystrophy, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with pleiotropic phenotypic expression.The present report is of a nail-patella syndrome patient, a 26-year-old female, admitted to our NeuroMuscular Rehabilitation Clinic Division for neurological symptoms, secondary to a severe spondylolysthesis with bilateral L5 pedicle fracture. During hospitalization, she was also diagnosed with mild thyrotoxicosis, but interestingly enough, the bone mineral density, assessed at multiple sites, was quasi-normal. PMID:22574102

  6. Complications of sodium hydroxide chemical matrixectomy: nail dystrophy, allodynia, hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bostancı, Seher; Koçyiğit, Pelin; Güngör, Hilayda Karakök; Parlak, Nehir

    2014-11-01

    Ingrown toenails are seen most commonly in young adults, and they can seriously affect daily life. Partial nail avulsion with chemical matrixectomy, generally by using either sodium hydroxide or phenol, is one of the most effective treatment methods. Known complications of phenol matrixectomy are unpredictable tissue damage, prolonged postoperative drainage, increased secondary infection rates, periostitis, and poor cosmetic results. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the complications related to sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. Herein, we describe three patients who developed nail dystrophy, allodynia, and hyperalgesia after sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. PMID:25514278

  7. Jumbo Cutter for Removal of A Bent Femoral Interlocking Nail: A Cost Effective Method.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Manjeet Singh; Madan, Harnam Singh; Sharma, Sansar C; Ali, Nadeem; Bhat, Abedullah

    2015-06-01

    Closed diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures can be treated with multiple surgical options. It is more challenging to remove a bent nail than a broken one because it is difficult to retrieve the bent nail through the intramedullary canal. Various authors have published their techniques for removal of bent femoral interlocking nail. This article describes a simple technique using Jumbo cutter for sectioning and removal of bent interlocking nail. This technique will help orthopaedic surgeons to remove bent nail without using any specialised metal cutting instruments. PMID:26266173

  8. Jumbo Cutter for Removal of A Bent Femoral Interlocking Nail: A Cost Effective Method

    PubMed Central

    Dhanda, Manjeet Singh; Sharma, Sansar C; Ali, Nadeem; Bhat, Abedullah

    2015-01-01

    Closed diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures can be treated with multiple surgical options. It is more challenging to remove a bent nail than a broken one because it is difficult to retrieve the bent nail through the intramedullary canal. Various authors have published their techniques for removal of bent femoral interlocking nail. This article describes a simple technique using Jumbo cutter for sectioning and removal of bent interlocking nail. This technique will help orthopaedic surgeons to remove bent nail without using any specialised metal cutting instruments. PMID:26266173

  9. Yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200 000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10–14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2–8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO. PMID

  10. Distal humeral plating of an intramedullary nail periprosthetic fracture using a miss-a-nail technique: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravi; Corbett, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of distal humeral periprosthetic fractures is not widely described in the literature. We present a difficult clinical scenario of a 72-year-old man who sustained a displaced distal humeral periprosthetic fracture about a Polarus Plus intramedullary nail. In this case, stable fixation was achieved using bicondylar Acumed Mayo congruent Plates using a miss-a-nail technique. Four months following the post operative period, the patient regained satisfactory range of movement with full function and no further complications up to 18 months post fixation. Treatment of such complex periprosthetic fractures is technically achievable and with potentially good results. PMID:19829846

  11. Non-classical export of an adenovirus structural protein.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Lloyd C; Achermann, Dominik P; Keller, Stephan; Straub, Monika; Greber, Urs F

    2003-06-01

    The icosahedral capsids of Adenoviruses (Ads) consist of the hexon and stabilizing proteins building the facettes, and of the vertex protein penton base (Pb) anchoring the protruding fibers. The fibers bind to the Coxsackie virus B Ad cell surface receptor (CAR) and Pb to integrins. Here we describe a novel property of the Ad2 Pb. Pb was found to leave the infected cell and, upon exit, it attached to the surrounding noninfected cells forming a radial gradient with highest Pb levels on cells adjacent to the infected cell. The producer cells remained intact until at least 30 h post infection. At this point, Pb was not recovered from the extracellular medium, suggesting that its cell-cell spread might not involve free Pb. When viral particles were released at late stages of infection, soluble Pb was found in the extracellular medium and it randomly bound to noninfected cells. Nonlytic export of Pb occurred upon transient transfection with plasmid DNA, but plasmid-encoded fiber was not exported, indicating that cell-cell spread of Pb is autonomous of infection. Pb export was not affected by Brefeldin A-induced disruption of the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that it occurred via a nonclassical mechanism. Interestingly, the coexpression of Pb and fiber leads to both Pb and fiber export, termed 'protein abduction'. We suggest that fiber abduction might support viral dissemination in infected tissues by interfering with tissue integrity. PMID:12753648

  12. Superbunching and Nonclassicality as new Hallmarks of Superradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Daniel; von Zanthier, Joachim; Agarwal, Girish S.

    2015-12-01

    Superradiance, i.e., spontaneous emission of coherent radiation by an ensemble of two-level atoms in collective states introduced by Dicke in 1954, is one of the enigmatic problems of quantum optics. The startling gist is that even though the atoms have no dipole moment they radiate with increased intensity in particular directions. Following the advances in our understanding of superradiant emission by atoms in entangled W-states we examine the quantum statistical properties of superradiance. Such investigations require the system to have at least two excitations in order to explore the photon-photon correlations of the radiation emitted by such states. We present specifically results for the spatially resolved photon-photon correlations of systems prepared in doubly excited W-states and give conditions when the atomic system emits nonclassial light. Equally, we derive the conditions for the occurrence of bunching and even of superbunching, a rare phenomenon otherwise known only from nonclassical states of light like the squeezed vacuum. We finally investigate the photon-photon cross correlations of the spontaneously scattered light and highlight the nonclassicalty of such correlations. The theoretical findings can be implemented with current technology, e.g., using ions in a linear rf-trap, atoms in an optical lattice or quantum dots in a cavity.

  13. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vineet V.; Pritti, Kumari; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH. PMID:26751945

  14. Superbunching and Nonclassicality as new Hallmarks of Superradiance.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Daniel; von Zanthier, Joachim; Agarwal, Girish S

    2015-01-01

    Superradiance, i.e., spontaneous emission of coherent radiation by an ensemble of two-level atoms in collective states introduced by Dicke in 1954, is one of the enigmatic problems of quantum optics. The startling gist is that even though the atoms have no dipole moment they radiate with increased intensity in particular directions. Following the advances in our understanding of superradiant emission by atoms in entangled W-states we examine the quantum statistical properties of superradiance. Such investigations require the system to have at least two excitations in order to explore the photon-photon correlations of the radiation emitted by such states. We present specifically results for the spatially resolved photon-photon correlations of systems prepared in doubly excited W-states and give conditions when the atomic system emits nonclassial light. Equally, we derive the conditions for the occurrence of bunching and even of superbunching, a rare phenomenon otherwise known only from nonclassical states of light like the squeezed vacuum. We finally investigate the photon-photon cross correlations of the spontaneously scattered light and highlight the nonclassicalty of such correlations. The theoretical findings can be implemented with current technology, e.g., using ions in a linear rf-trap, atoms in an optical lattice or quantum dots in a cavity. PMID:26632212

  15. Characterizing a nonclassical carbene with coupled cluster methods: cyclobutylidene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Agarwal, Jay; Schaefer Iii, Henry F

    2016-09-21

    Carbenes represent a special class of reactive compounds that possess a lone pair of electrons on a carbon atom. Among the myriad examples of carbenes in the literature, cyclobutylidene stands out as a unique nonclassical compound that includes transannular interaction between opposing C1 and C3 carbon atoms within a four-membered ring. On its lowest potential energy surface (X[combining tilde](1)A'), cyclobutylidene quickly rearranges, following three reaction paths: (i) 1,2-H migration; (ii) 1,2-C migration; and, (iii) 1,3-H migration. Herein, this reactivity is examined with high-level coupled-cluster methods [up to CCSDT(Q)]. At this level of theory, combined with extrapolation techniques to obtain energies at the complete basis set (CBS) limit, the long-standing disparity between theoretical and experimental results is resolved. Specifically, cyclobutylidene is predicted to prefer 1,2-C migration rather than 1,2-H migration. Rate constants for the three reaction paths are obtained from canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) and yield reasonable agreement with existing experimental results. Further characterization of cyclobutylidene is also reported: the singlet-triplet gap (ΔES-T) is found to be -9.3 kcal mol(-1) at the CCSDT(Q)/CBS level of theory, and anharmonic vibrational frequencies are determined with second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2). PMID:27539444

  16. Superbunching and Nonclassicality as new Hallmarks of Superradiance

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Daniel; von Zanthier, Joachim; Agarwal, Girish S.

    2015-01-01

    Superradiance, i.e., spontaneous emission of coherent radiation by an ensemble of two-level atoms in collective states introduced by Dicke in 1954, is one of the enigmatic problems of quantum optics. The startling gist is that even though the atoms have no dipole moment they radiate with increased intensity in particular directions. Following the advances in our understanding of superradiant emission by atoms in entangled W-states we examine the quantum statistical properties of superradiance. Such investigations require the system to have at least two excitations in order to explore the photon-photon correlations of the radiation emitted by such states. We present specifically results for the spatially resolved photon-photon correlations of systems prepared in doubly excited W-states and give conditions when the atomic system emits nonclassial light. Equally, we derive the conditions for the occurrence of bunching and even of superbunching, a rare phenomenon otherwise known only from nonclassical states of light like the squeezed vacuum. We finally investigate the photon-photon cross correlations of the spontaneously scattered light and highlight the nonclassicalty of such correlations. The theoretical findings can be implemented with current technology, e.g., using ions in a linear rf-trap, atoms in an optical lattice or quantum dots in a cavity. PMID:26632212

  17. Multi-crack imaging using nonclassical nonlinear acoustic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lue; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2014-10-01

    Solid materials with cracks exhibit the nonclassical nonlinear acoustical behavior. The micro-defects in solid materials can be detected by nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) method with a time-reversal (TR) mirror. While defects lie in viscoelastic solid material with different distances from one another, the nonlinear and hysteretic stress—strain relation is established with Preisach—Mayergoyz (PM) model in crack zone. Pulse inversion (PI) and TR methods are used in numerical simulation and defect locations can be determined from images obtained by the maximum value. Since false-positive defects might appear and degrade the imaging when the defects are located quite closely, the maximum value imaging with a time window is introduced to analyze how defects affect each other and how the fake one occurs. Furthermore, NEWS-TR-NEWS method is put forward to improve NEWS-TR scheme, with another forward propagation (NEWS) added to the existing phases (NEWS and TR). In the added phase, scanner locations are determined by locations of all defects imaged in previous phases, so that whether an imaged defect is real can be deduced. NEWS-TR-NEWS method is proved to be effective to distinguish real defects from the false-positive ones. Moreover, it is also helpful to detect the crack that is weaker than others during imaging procedure.

  18. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vineet V; Pritti, Kumari; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH. PMID:26751945

  19. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary. PMID:19162371

  20. Psoriatic nail involvement and its relationship with distal interphalangeal joint disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, T L; Pang, H T; Cheuk, Y Y; Yip, M L

    2016-08-01

    Psoriatic nail disease and distal interphalangeal (DIP) arthritis both are common manifestations of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Several clinical characteristics are allegedly associated with DIP joint damage, particularly nail psoriasis. However, there is little evidence to substantiate this phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between DIP involvement, nail psoriasis and other parameters. A cross-sectional study involved 45 patients from local rheumatology clinic. Four hundred fifty psoriatic fingernails scored, and the radiographs of all these fingers were reviewed to define PsA DIP arthritic changes. 64.4 % patients had nail psoriasis and 35.6 % had DIP arthritis. Univariate analysis identified that swollen joint-count, digits with chronic dactylitis, HLA-B27 status and nail psoriasis were associated with DIP arthritis. Regression model supported that nail disease was the most significant associated factor of DIP arthritis (OR 9.7, p = 0.05). Nail psoriasis was identified in 40.2 % of digits. Pitting (29.6 %), onycholysis (15.1 %), crumbling (8.2 %), nail bed hyperkeratosis (2.0 %) were noted with the mean modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index of 0.95 +/-1.68. Among all digits, 57 had DIP arthritis while 393 did not. Within DIP joints with PsA radiological change, 59.6 % had nail disease. Chi-square test with the Bonferroni correction further supported an association between nail psoriasis and DIP involvement with p value of 0.001. Two specific nail subtypes-crumbling and onycholysis-were found to be significantly associated with DIP disease. A significant proportion of PsA patients had nail involvement and DIP arthritis. PsA patients with nail changes may be more susceptible to DIP disease. PMID:27251673

  1. The SIGN nail for knee fusion: technique and clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Duane Ray; Anderson, Lucas Aaron; Haller, Justin M.; Feyissa, Abebe Chala

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy of using the SIGN nail for instrumented knee fusion. Methods: Six consecutive patients (seven knees, three males) with an average age of 30.5 years (range, 18–50 years) underwent a knee arthrodesis with SIGN nail (mean follow-up 10.7 months; range, 8–14 months). Diagnoses included tuberculosis (two knees), congenital knee dislocation in two knees (one patient), bacterial septic arthritis (one knee), malunited spontaneous fusion (one knee), and severe gout with 90° flexion contracture (one knee). The nail was inserted through an anteromedial entry point on the femur and full weightbearing was permitted immediately. Results: All knees had clinical and radiographic evidence of fusion at final follow-up and none required further surgery. Four of six patients ambulated without assistive device, and all patients reported improved overall physical function. There were no post-operative complications. Conclusion: The technique described utilizing the SIGN nail is both safe and effective for knee arthrodesis and useful for austere environments with limited fluoroscopy and implant options. PMID:27163095

  2. 78 FR 78382 - Steel Nails From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2013 (78 FR 40172) and determined on October 21, 2013 that it would conduct an expedited review (78 FR 68472, November 14, 2013). The Commission completed... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  3. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  4. Detection of Drugs in Nails: Three Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Shu, Irene; Jones, Joseph; Jones, Mary; Lewis, Douglas; Negrusz, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Nails (fingernails and toenails) are made of keratin. As the nail grows, substances incorporate into the keratin fibers where they can be detected 3-6 months after use. Samples are collected by clipping of 2-3 mm of nail from all fingers (100 mg). We present drug testing results from 10,349 nail samples collected from high-risk cases during a 3-year period of time. Samples were analyzed by validated analytical methods. The initial testing was performed mostly using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) as well. Presumptive positive samples were subjected to confirmatory testing with sample preparation procedures including washing, pulverizing, digestion and extraction optimized for each drug class. The total of 7,799 samples was analyzed for amphetamines. The concentrations ranged from 40 to 572,865 pg/mg (median, 100-3,687) for all amphetamine analytes. Amphetamine and methamphetamine were present in 14% of the samples, 22 samples were positive for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (0.3%), 7 for methylenedioxyamphetamine (0.09%) and 4 for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (0.05%). Cocaine and related analytes were found in 5% samples (7,787 total), and the concentration range was 20-265,063 pg/mg (median 84-1,768). Opioids overall ranged from 40 to 118,229 pg/mg (median 123-830). The most prevalent opioid was oxycodone (15.1%) and hydrocodone (11.4%) compared with 1.0-3.6% for the others, including morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and oxymorphone. Carboxy-Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol positivity rate was 18.1% (0.04-262 pg/mg, median 6.41). Out of 3,039 samples, 756 were positive (24.9%) for ethyl glucuronide (20-3,754 pg/mg, median 88). Other drugs found in nails included barbiturates, benzodiazepines, ketamine, meperidine, tramadol, zolpidem, propoxyphene, naltrexone and buprenorphine. Nail analyses have become a reliable way of determining

  5. Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ≤4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

  6. The uncertainty principle enables non-classical dynamics in an interferometer.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Garner, Andrew J P; Vedral, Vlatko

    2014-01-01

    The quantum uncertainty principle stipulates that when one observable is predictable there must be some other observables that are unpredictable. The principle is viewed as holding the key to many quantum phenomena and understanding it deeper is of great interest in the study of the foundations of quantum theory. Here we show that apart from being restrictive, the principle also plays a positive role as the enabler of non-classical dynamics in an interferometer. First we note that instantaneous action at a distance should not be possible. We show that for general probabilistic theories this heavily curtails the non-classical dynamics. We prove that there is a trade-off with the uncertainty principle that allows theories to evade this restriction. On one extreme, non-classical theories with maximal certainty have their non-classical dynamics absolutely restricted to only the identity operation. On the other extreme, quantum theory minimizes certainty in return for maximal non-classical dynamics. PMID:25105741

  7. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  8. Yellow Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

  9. Time-Dependent Electrical Properties of Human Nail Upon Hydration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    HAO, JINSONG; SMITH, KELLY A.; LI, S. KEVIN

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of hydration and solution ion concentration on the electrical properties of human nail in vivo and compare these in vivo results with those in vitro. In vivo electrical resistance measurements on the nail were conducted with a three-electrode system in phosphate buffered saline of 0.01–0.6 M. The effect of electric current on nail resistance and possible adverse effects were studied under 1.5- and 9-V iontophoresis in vivo. The electrical resistance of the nail plate was measured in vitro in side-by-side diffusion cells under the same conditions and compared with those in vivo. The in vivo electrical resistance decreased significantly upon 2-h nail hydration and then slowly decreased to a constant value, showing the same pattern as that in vitro. No significant effect of the applied voltage upon the nail electrical resistance was observed. Higher current densities caused moderate sensation and slight changes in nail appearance after iontophoresis. The observed decrease in nail resistance demonstrates the significance of nail hydration in transungual iontophoresis. The in vitro and in vivo correlation suggests that the in vitro nail plate can be a model in the research and development of transungual iontophoretic delivery. PMID:19462425

  10. An investigation of how fungal infection influences drug penetration through onychomycosis patient’s nail plates

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, W.J.; Jones, S.A.; Traynor, M.J.; Guesné, S.; Murdan, S.; Brown, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis remains problematic even though there are several potent antifungal agents available for patient use. The aim of this investigation was to understand whether the structural modifications that arise when a patient’s nail become infected plates influences the permeation of drugs into the nail following topical application. It was hoped that through improving understanding of the nail barrier in the diseased state, the development of more effective topical treatments for onychomycosis could be facilitated. The permeation of three compounds with differing hydrophobicities, caffeine, terbinafine and amorolfine (clog D at pH 7.4 of −0.55, 3.72 and 4.49 respectively), was assessed across both healthy and onychomycosis infected, full thickness, human nail plate sections. Transonychial water loss (TOWL) measurements performed on the healthy and diseased nails supported previous observations that the nail behaves like a porous barrier given the lack of correlation between TOWL values with the thicker, diseased nails. The flux of the more hydrophilic caffeine was twofold greater across diseased in comparison with the healthy nails, whilst the hydrophobic molecules terbinafine and amorolfine showed no statistically significant change in their nail penetration rates. Caffeine flux across the nail was found to correlate with the TOWL measurements, though no correlation existed for the more hydrophobic drugs. These data supported the notion that the nail pores, opened up by the infection, facilitated the passage of hydrophilic molecules, whilst the keratin binding of hydrophobic molecules meant that their transport through the nail plate was unchanged. Therefore, in order to exploit the structural changes induced by nail fungal infection it would be beneficial to develop a small molecular weight, hydrophilic antifungal agent, which exhibits low levels of keratin binding. PMID:26969264

  11. An investigation of how fungal infection influences drug penetration through onychomycosis patient's nail plates.

    PubMed

    McAuley, W J; Jones, S A; Traynor, M J; Guesné, S; Murdan, S; Brown, M B

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis remains problematic even though there are several potent antifungal agents available for patient use. The aim of this investigation was to understand whether the structural modifications that arise when a patient's nail become infected plates influences the permeation of drugs into the nail following topical application. It was hoped that through improving understanding of the nail barrier in the diseased state, the development of more effective topical treatments for onychomycosis could be facilitated. The permeation of three compounds with differing hydrophobicities, caffeine, terbinafine and amorolfine (clogD at pH 7.4 of -0.55, 3.72 and 4.49 respectively), was assessed across both healthy and onychomycosis infected, full thickness, human nail plate sections. Transonychial water loss (TOWL) measurements performed on the healthy and diseased nails supported previous observations that the nail behaves like a porous barrier given the lack of correlation between TOWL values with the thicker, diseased nails. The flux of the more hydrophilic caffeine was twofold greater across diseased in comparison with the healthy nails, whilst the hydrophobic molecules terbinafine and amorolfine showed no statistically significant change in their nail penetration rates. Caffeine flux across the nail was found to correlate with the TOWL measurements, though no correlation existed for the more hydrophobic drugs. These data supported the notion that the nail pores, opened up by the infection, facilitated the passage of hydrophilic molecules, whilst the keratin binding of hydrophobic molecules meant that their transport through the nail plate was unchanged. Therefore, in order to exploit the structural changes induced by nail fungal infection it would be beneficial to develop a small molecular weight, hydrophilic antifungal agent, which exhibits low levels of keratin binding. PMID:26969264

  12. Behavior of nonclassical recurrence amplitudes near closed-orbit bifurcations in atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Keeler, M.L.; Flores-Rueda, Heric; Morgan, T. J.; Shaw, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report an experimental and computational study of the energy dependence of nonclassical paths in atoms near bifurcations. The experiment employs scaled energy spectroscopy to measure the amplitudes of nonclassical orbits in helium singlet and triplet Stark Rydberg states (20nonclassical paths have been studied and, in the case of helium but not hydrogen, the effect of interference between real and ghost orbits is found to produce oscillations in the exponential decay with closed orbit type. In the case of hydrogen, the n dependence of the decay exponent has been investigated and a linear relationship is found.

  13. Information-theoretic metric as a tool to investigate nonclassical correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study an application of an information-theoretic distance between two measurements to investigate nonclassical correlations. We postulate the triangle principle, which states that any information-theoretic distance is valid for any sets of measurements, regardless if they can be jointly measured or not. As a consequence, the triangle inequality for this distance is obeyed for any three measurements. This simple principle is valid in any classical realistic theory, however, it may not hold in quantum theory. It leads to the derivation of certain inequalities whose violations are an indicator of nonclassicality. Some of these inequalities formally look the same as those found in the literature on local realism and noncontextuality, but we also derive completely different inequalities. We also show that our geometrical approach naturally implies monogamy of nonclassical correlations.

  14. Coherent Generation of Nonclassical Light on Chip via Detuned Photon Blockade.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kai; Rundquist, Armand; Fischer, Kevin A; Sarmiento, Tomas; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Kelaita, Yousif A; Sánchez Muñoz, Carlos; del Valle, Elena; Laussy, Fabrice P; Vučković, Jelena

    2015-06-12

    The on-chip generation of nonclassical states of light is a key requirement for future optical quantum hardware. In solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics, such nonclassical light can be generated from self-assembled quantum dots strongly coupled to photonic crystal cavities. Their anharmonic strong light-matter interaction results in large optical nonlinearities at the single photon level, where the admission of a single photon into the cavity may enhance (photon tunneling) or diminish (photon blockade) the probability for a second photon to enter the cavity. Here, we demonstrate that detuning the cavity and quantum-dot resonances enables the generation of high-purity nonclassical light from strongly coupled systems. For specific detunings we show that not only the purity but also the efficiency of single-photon generation increases significantly, making high-quality single-photon generation by photon blockade possible with current state-of-the-art samples. PMID:26196801

  15. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of

  16. Identifying Health and Safety Concerns in Southeast Asian Immigrant Nail Salon Workers.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah; Khan, Khalid; Lau, Christine; Leung, Holden; Montgomery, Dede; Rohlman, Diane S

    2015-01-01

    Nail salon workers are exposed to a variety of toxic chemicals at levels that remain unreported and have undetermined health consequences. The objective of the study was to gather information about the hazards in nail salons along with safety practices and health concerns of nail salon workers. A survey was conducted on 65 nail salon workers who were immigrants from Southeast Asia in Oregon, USA. More than 20% of the participants reported nose irritation and allergies as the most common health problems. Rare and no use of gloves and mask were reported among 72% and 32% of the participants, respectively. A significantly higher number of participants with "fair" or "poor" self-reported general health condition was found among the workers who applied acrylic nails compared with those who were not involved in this application. Findings of the study emphasize the need for more research to determine the relationship between chemical exposures in nail salons and health outcomes. PMID:25965322

  17. Perception of brittle nails in dermatologic patients: a cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Gequelim, Giulio Cesar; Kubota, Cynthia Yone; Sanches, Sarah; Dranka, Daniela; Mejia, Marcelo Murilo; Sumiya, Fernando Mitsuo; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

    2013-01-01

    Brittle Nails Syndrome is characterized by fragility of the nail plate, affecting 27% of women. We evaluated dermatology patients in a cross-sectional study about perception of nail fragility. One hundred and thirtyeight women were included, with median age of 36.5 years. Nail examination showed changes in 57% and 49% reported nail fragility. The first three fingernails were the most affected. Onychoschizia was related to onychophagia (OR = 3.29), housework (OR = 2.95) and water contact (OR = 2.44). Onychorrhexis had the strongest association with nail fragility perception (OR = 17.89). The fragility was more perceived by those who were black, of mixed race and atopic, and was associated with depressed mood. PMID:24474124

  18. Management of a Low-Energy Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Nail

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, G. B.; Vitorino-Araujo, J. L.; Badke, G. L.; Veiga, J. C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy penetrating nail injury to the brain is an extremely rare neurosurgical emergency. The most common cause of nail gun injury is work related accidents; other causes result from accidental firing of a nail gun, suicide attempts by firing nail guns into the brain, and bomb blasts containing pieces of nails. Neurosurgical treatment performed by craniotomy still seems to be the safest one; there are reports of complications such as subdural hematoma and intraparenchymal hemorrhages following the blind removal of foreign bodies leading to suggestions that all penetrating foreign bodies should be removed under direct vision. We report a rarely described neurosurgical approach for removal of a penetrating nail from the brain and skull without evidence of associated hematoma and other brain lesions. PMID:27429815

  19. Full thickness burns caused by cyanoacrylate nail glue: A case series.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Noemi; Karagergou, Eleni; Jones, Sarah L; Morritt, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Artificial (acrylic) nails are popular cosmetic enhancements that provide the user with the appearance of manicured nails, do not chip or crack, and are generally considered very safe to apply. We report three cases where full thickness thermal burns were sustained from nail glue adhesive (cyanoacrylate) during the application of artificial nails. All three cases underwent surgical debridement and split skin graft reconstruction. We carried out an experiment to characterize the exothermic reaction between nail glue and cotton leggings. The average high temperature produced was 68°C which was sustained for 12.2s which is more than sufficient to cause full thickness burns on skin. We report these cases to increase both professional and public awareness of this serious potential complication associated with the application of artificial nails. PMID:26777605

  20. Management of a Low-Energy Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Nail.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, V R; Aguiar, G B; Vitorino-Araujo, J L; Badke, G L; Veiga, J C E

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy penetrating nail injury to the brain is an extremely rare neurosurgical emergency. The most common cause of nail gun injury is work related accidents; other causes result from accidental firing of a nail gun, suicide attempts by firing nail guns into the brain, and bomb blasts containing pieces of nails. Neurosurgical treatment performed by craniotomy still seems to be the safest one; there are reports of complications such as subdural hematoma and intraparenchymal hemorrhages following the blind removal of foreign bodies leading to suggestions that all penetrating foreign bodies should be removed under direct vision. We report a rarely described neurosurgical approach for removal of a penetrating nail from the brain and skull without evidence of associated hematoma and other brain lesions. PMID:27429815

  1. Comparison of clozapine in nail and hair of psychiatric patients determined with LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping; Sun, Qi-Ran; Shen, Min

    2012-09-01

    As a keratinized material, nail recently has attracting researchers' attention in the pharmaceuticals analysis. There are comparatively limited studies concerning nail's xenobiotic determination and its mechanism. This article reported the development of a sensitive, specific and reproducible LC-MS/MS method, which could be as a foundation of other studies on drug determination in nail. It can also be regarded as the first report on organic drug in mainland China. Sixteen nail samples from volunteers, who were ingested clozapine for more than nine months, are confirmed positive after being analyzed by the method. It is found that contents of clozapine in the patients' nails are above the nanogram level. Besides, a comparative study of clozapine concentration in nails and hair was made, with a result that there exists a correlation between the two materials in terms of clozapine concentration. PMID:23227550

  2. Increasing relative nonclassicality quantified by standard entanglement potentials by dissipation and unbalanced beam splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranowicz, Adam; Bartkiewicz, Karol; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Nori, Franco

    2015-12-01

    If a single-mode nonclassical light is combined with the vacuum on a beam splitter, then the output state is entangled. As proposed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173602 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.173602], by measuring this output-state entanglement for a balanced lossless beam splitter, one can quantify the input-state nonclassicality. These measures of nonclassicality (referred to as entanglement potentials) can be based, in principle, on various entanglement measures, leading to the negativity (NP) and concurrence (CP) potentials, and the potential for the relative entropy of entanglement (REEP). We search for the maximal relative nonclassicality, which can be achieved by comparing two entanglement measures for (i) arbitrary two-qubit states and (ii) those which can be generated from a photon-number qubit via a balanced lossless beam splitter, where the qubit basis states are the vacuum and single-photon states. Surprisingly, we find that the maximal relative nonclassicality, measured by the REEP for a given value of the NP, can be increased (if NP <0.527 ) by using either a tunable beam splitter or by amplitude damping of the output state of the balanced beam splitter. We also show that the maximal relative nonclassicality, measured by the NP for a given value of the REEP, can be increased by phase damping (dephasing). Note that the entanglement itself is not increased by these losses (since they act locally), but the possible ratios of different measures are affected. Moreover, we show that partially dephased states can be more nonclassical than both pure states and completely dephased states, by comparing the NP for a given value of the REEP. Thus, one can conclude that not all standard entanglement measures can be used as entanglement potentials. Alternatively, one can infer that a single balanced lossless beam splitter is not always transferring the whole nonclassicality of its input state into the entanglement of its output modes. The application of a lossy

  3. Non-classical symmetries and invariant solutions of non-linear Dirac equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, P. M. M.; Khanna, F. C.; Rocha Filho, T. M.; Santana, A. E.

    2015-09-01

    We apply Lie and non-classical symmetry methods to partial differential equations in order to derive solutions of the non-linear Dirac equation corresponding to the Gross-Neveu model in d = (1 + 1) and d = (2 + 1) space-time dimensions. For each d, we first identify sub-algebras of the Poincaré-Lie algebra and for each such sub-algebra, we calculate the invariant solution. Non-classical symmetries are also determined and used to derive new solutions for the Gross-Neveu model.

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of nonclassical ions and their complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Boo, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes an infrared spectroscopic study on the structures and dynamics of the nonclassical ions and their complexes, using ion trap vibrational predissociation spectroscopy. Chapter One provides an introduction to the experimental apparatus used in this work. Chapter Two describes the previous theoretical and experimental works on the carbonium ion CH{sub 5}{sup +} and infrared spectroscopic and theoretical works on CH{sub 5}{sup +}. CH{sub 5}{sup +} was predicted to scramble constantly without possessing a stable structure. In Chapter Three, the infrared spectroscopy for the molecular hydrogen solvated carbonium ions CH{sub 5}{sup +}(H{sub 2}){sub n} (n=1-6) in the frequency region of 2700-4200 cm{sup {minus}1} are presented and compared with the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on CH{sub 5}{sup +}(H{sub 2}){sub n} (n=0-3). The results suggested that the scrambling of CH{sub 5}{sup +} slowed down considerably by the stabilization effects of the solvent H{sub 2} molecules, and it was completely frozen out when the first three H{sub 2} molecules were bound to the core CH{sub 5}{sup +}. Chapter Four presents the complete infrared spectra for the solvated carbonium ions, CH{sub 5}{sup +}(A){sub x}(B){sub y} (A,B=H{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4};x,y=0-5) in the frequency region of 2500-3200 cm{sup {minus}1}. As the binding affinities of the solvent molecules and the number of the solvent molecules in the clusters increased, the scrambling of CH{sub 5}{sup +} slowed down substantially. The structures of the solvated carbonium ions and the evidence for rapid proton transfer in CH{sub 5}{sup +}(CH{sub 4}) were also presented. Chapter Five presents the vib-rotational spectrum for the H-H stretching mode of the silanium ion SiH{sub 5}{sup +}. The results suggested that SiH{sub 5}{sup +} can be described as a complex of SiH{sub 3}{sup +} and a freely internally rotating H{sub 2}, analogous to, but distinct from CH{sub 5}{sup +}.

  5. Fractal Aircraft Trajectories, Scaling Stratification, Nonclassical Turbulent Exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Tuck, A.

    2004-05-01

    The dimension (D) of aircraft trajectories is fundamental in interpretating airborne data. To estimate D, we studied data from 18 trajectories of stratospheric aircraft flights 1600km long taken during a "Mach cruise" (near constant Mach number) autopilot flight mode. Mach cruise implies correlated temperature and wind fluctuations so that ?Z??xHz where Z is the (fluctuating) vertical and x the horizontal coordinate of the aircraft. Over the range ? 3 to 300km, we found Hz? 0.58±0.02 close to the theoretical 5/9=0.56 and implying D=1+Hz = 14/9 i.e. the trajectories are fractal. For distances <3km aircraft inertia smooths the trajectories, for distances > 300km, D=1 again because of a rise of 1m/km due to fuel consumption. In the fractal regime, the horizontal velocity and temperature exponents are close to the nonclassical fractal value HF=1/2 (rather than the Kolmogorov value HK=1/3). Taking into account (multifractal) intermittency corrections, this implies the corresponding spectral slopes =1.9. We also discuss ESS and cross-ESS estaimtes of multfractal exponents. We show that there exists a critical average trajectory slope s=(?x/ls)Hz-1; when the aircraft exceeds this, the velocity, temperature fluctuations are dominated by the vertical rather than horizontal statistics; ls is the scale where average horizontal and vertical temperature and velocity fluctuations are equal, we find it to be ?4cm (although it fluctuates depending on energy and buoyancy force variance fluxes). At this scale, even even small deviations from perfectly flat horizontal trajectories (of the order of 1m/km) will lead to Bolgiano-Obhukov (HBO=3/5)) rather than HF= or HK. We show that this can explain recently published data from MOZAIC; we also review over a dozen other aircraft and radiosonde experiments showing that they are all compatible with the 23/9 dimensional unified scaling model. Finally we compare this with some direct estimates of Hz from passive scalar surrogates (lidar

  6. Rigid Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures for Patients Age 12 and Younger: Indications and Technique.

    PubMed

    Martus, Jeffrey E

    2016-06-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are common injuries in the pediatric and adolescent age groups. Rigid intramedullary nailing is an excellent treatment option for older children and adolescents, particularly for length-unstable fractures and larger patients (>49 kg). Appropriate indications, contraindications, and preoperative assessment are described. The rigid nailing surgical technique is detailed including positioning, operative steps, pearls, and pitfalls. Complications and the reported outcomes of lateral trochanteric entry nailing are reviewed from the published series. PMID:27100036

  7. A New Technique for Removal of an Incarcerated Expandable Femoral Nail

    PubMed Central

    Krettek, Christian; Kenawey, Mohamed; Hankemeier, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Removal of intramedullary nails often is relegated to younger surgeons but may be difficult and challenging. We describe difficulties with removal of an incarcerated expandable femoral nail and a new technique for retrograde mobilization of an intramedullary nail through a small infrapatellar incision. No special device was necessary for successful implant removal. Level of Evidence: Level V, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19655211

  8. Nail Sarcoidosis with and without Systemic Involvement: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro; Criado, Paulo; Gabbi, Tatiana; Avancini, João; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2015-09-01

    The most commonly seen nail change in sarcoidosis, often associated with chronic systemic disease, is onychodystrophy. Imaging of hands, feet and chest is of paramount importance when nail sarcoidosis is suspected, for evaluation of bone cysts and pulmonary involvement, respectively. We report 2 cases of sarcoidosis that developed nail involvement - one with pulmonary disease, and the other without any evidence of systemic involvement, which is very rare. PMID:27170939

  9. Nail Sarcoidosis with and without Systemic Involvement: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro; Criado, Paulo; Gabbi, Tatiana; Avancini, João; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly seen nail change in sarcoidosis, often associated with chronic systemic disease, is onychodystrophy. Imaging of hands, feet and chest is of paramount importance when nail sarcoidosis is suspected, for evaluation of bone cysts and pulmonary involvement, respectively. We report 2 cases of sarcoidosis that developed nail involvement – one with pulmonary disease, and the other without any evidence of systemic involvement, which is very rare. PMID:27170939

  10. When all you have is a dermatoscope— start looking at the nails

    PubMed Central

    Haenssle, Holger A.; Blum, Andreas; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Kreusch, Juergen; Stolz, Wilhelm; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Brehmer, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented and non-pigmented nail alterations are a frequent challenge for dermatologists. A profound knowledge of clinical and dermatoscopic features of nail disorders is crucial because a range of differential diagnoses and even potentially life-threatening diseases are possible underlying causes. Nail matrix melanocytes of unaffected individuals are in a dormant state, and, therefore, fingernails and toenails physiologically are non-pigmented. The formation of continuous, longitudinal pigmented streaks (longitudinal melanonychia) may either be caused by a benign activation of matrix melanocytes (e.g., as a result of trauma, inflammation, or adverse drug reactions) or by a true melanocytic proliferation (e.g., in a nevus or melanoma). In general, non-continuous nail alterations, affecting only limited parts of the nail apparatus, are most frequently of non-melanocytic origin. Important and common differential diagnoses in these cases are subungual hemorrhage or onychomycosis. In addition, foreign bodies, bacterial infections, traumatic injuries, or artificial discolorations of the nail unit may less frequently cause non-continuous nail alterations. Many systemic diseases that may also show involvement of the nails (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, alopecia areata) tend to induce alterations in numerous if not all nails of the hands and feet. A similar extensive and generalized alteration of nails has been reported after treatment with a number of systemic drugs, especially antibiotics and cytostatics. Benign or malignant neoplasms that may also affect the nail unit include glomus tumor, Bowen’s disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and rare collision tumors. This review aims to assist clinicians in correctly evaluating and diagnosing nail disorders with the help of dermatoscopy. PMID:25396079

  11. Venting during prophylactic nailing for femoral metastases: current orthopedic practice

    PubMed Central

    Dalgorf, Dustin; Borkhoff, Cornelia M.; Stephen, David J.G.; Finkelstein, Joel; Kreder, Hans J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Reamed intramedullary nailing, recommended for impending fracture of a femur weakened by bone metastases, causes a rise in intramedullary pressure and increases the risk of a fat embolism syndrome. The pressure can be equalized by the technique of venting — drilling a hole into the distal cortex of the femur. Our objective was to study the current practice of orthopedic surgeons in Ontario with respect to venting during prophylactic intramedullary nailing for an impending femoral fracture due to bone metastases. Methods We mailed a questionnaire to all orthopedic surgeons from the Province of Ontario listed in the 1999 Canadian Medical Directory or on the Canadian Orthopaedic Association membership list, asking if they vent when prophylactically nailing an impending pathologic femoral fracture. The responses were modelled as a function of surgeon volume and year of graduation. Results Of the 415 surveys mailed, 223 (54%) surgeons responded. Of these, 81% reported having prophylactically treated a femoral metastatic lesion during the previous year; 67% treated 1 to 3 metastatic lesions and 14% treated more than 3; 19% did not treat a metastatic femoral lesion prophylactically. Over two-thirds of surgeons had never considered venting, whereas one-third always or sometimes vented the femoral canal. More recent graduates were 3 times more likely to vent than earlier (before 1980) graduates (odds ratio [OR] = 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–6.5) as were those who treat a greater number of impending fractures (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.7). Conclusions Although there is a theoretical rationale for routine venting, there is disagreement among Ontario orthopedic surgeons regarding the use of this technique during prophylactic nailing for femoral metastatic lesions. Prospective evidence will be required to warrant a change in the standard of care. PMID:14680349

  12. Corrective Tibial Osteotomy in Young Adults Using an Intramedullary Nail

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang-Il; Thaller, Peter H.; Ramteke, Alankar; Lee, Seung-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document results of a less invasive technique of open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) for the varus knee in young adults using an intramedullary tibial nail. Materials and Methods We prospectively studied 24 knees in 16 young patients with varus knee deformity. The mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 36 to 107 months) and the mean age of patients at the time of operation was 25.8 years (range, 18 to 40 years). The open wedge PTO was performed below tibial tuberosity using a percutaneous multiple drill-hole technique. Conventional intramedullary tibial nail was used for fixation without bone graft. Radiographic evaluations were made using mechanical alignment (MA), posterior tibial slope angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio. Union time, loss of correction, implant failure, and associated complications were also investigated. Results The mean MA was significantly changed from -9.7° preoperatively to 1.1° at the final follow-up (p<0.001). There was no significant change in the proximal tibial anatomy and patellar height. All patients achieved radiographic bony union at an average of 3.1 months without loss of correction. The only complication was knee pain due to nail prominence in 3 patients. Conclusions Radiographic evaluation indicated that PTO using an intramedullary tibial nail leads to significant improvement in radiographic parameters without changes in posterior tibial slope or patellar height. We found that this technique could be a less invasive and effective alternative for correction of the varus knee in young adults. PMID:24944974

  13. PIXE analysis of elemental concentrations in human hair and nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschoa, A. S.; Baptista, G. B.; Mauricio, G. M.; Leite, C. V. Barros; Lerner, Y. B.; Issler, P. F.

    1984-04-01

    The PIXE technique was applied to examine the elemental concentrations in scalp hair and nails collected over several months from three subjects living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results were then compared with data taken from the literature, and with the range and average elemental concentrations obtained by analyzing, using the same technique and laboratory conditions, samples of scalp hair taken from 51 men and 50 women living in another region of Latin America.

  14. The management of pigmented lesions of the nail bed.

    PubMed

    Glat, P M; Spector, J A; Roses, D F; Shapiro, R A; Harris, M N; Beasley, R W; Grossman, J A

    1996-08-01

    Pigmented lesions of the nail bed, especially without a history of trauma, represent a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. These lesions are often categorized as melanonychia striata (MS), which refers to any linear tan-brown-black pigmentation of the nail bed. The differential diagnosis of MS includes subungual hematomas, onchomycosis nigricans, junctional nevi, melanoma in situ (MIS), and malignant melanoma (MM). Our algorithm at the New York University (NYU) Medical Center for the treatment of pigmented lesions of the nail bed is presented. A histopathologic diagnosis with any evidence of melanocytic atypia, however subtle, requires absolute confirmation by complete excision. The absence of a clear margin or recurrence requires total nail bed excision and reconstruction using a full-thickness graft. The diagnosis of MIS is similarly treated. The surgical management of subungual MM is discussed. All cases of MM of the hand treated at NYU were reviewed. In all, 30 patients were treated from 1982 to 1995. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 13 years. In our series, there were 8 cutaneous and 22 subungual melanomas. There was a marked delay in treatment of both groups, with subungual melanomas more often erroneously treated as other pathology prior to correct diagnosis. The 5-year survival rate was 100% for patients with cutaneous lesions, but only 80% for those with the subungual variety. There was a statistical difference in the depths of the lesions (subungual, 3.68 mm; cutaneous, 1.36 mm) with a p-value of 0.008. The role of elective lymph node dissection in the absence of clinical metastases as well as intraoperative sentinel lymphatic mapping remains controversial and is discussed. PMID:8863970

  15. Primary Retrograde Tibiotalocalcaneal Nailing For Fragility Ankle Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Benjamin C.; Hansen, Dane C.; Harrison, Ryan; Lucas, Douglas E; Degenova, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Ankle fragility fractures are difficult to treat due to poor bone quality and soft tissues as well as the near ubiquitous presence of comorbidities including diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Conventional open reduction and internal fixation in this population has been shown to lead to a significant rate of complications. Given the high rate of complications with contemporary fixation methods, the present study aims to critically evaluate the use of acute hindfoot nailing as a percutaneous fixation technique for high-risk ankle fragility fractures. Methods In this study, we retrospectively evaluated 31 patients treated with primary retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal nail without joint preparation for a mean of 13.6 months postoperatively from an urban Level I trauma center during the years 2006-2012. Results Overall, there were two superficial infections (6.5%) and three deep infections (9.7%) in the series. There were 28 (90.3%) patients that went on to radiographic union at a mean of 22.2 weeks with maintenance of foot and ankle alignment. There were three cases of asymptomatic screw breakage observed at a mean of 18.3 months postoperatively, which were all treated conservatively.. Conclusions This study shows that retrograde hindfoot nailing is an acceptable treatment option for treatment of ankle fragility fractures. Hindfoot nailing allows early weightbearing, limited soft tissue injury, and a relatively low rate of complications, all of which are advantages to conventional open reduction internal fixation techniques. Given these findings, larger prospective randomized trials comparing this treatment with conventional open reduction internal fixation techniques are warranted. PMID:27528840

  16. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  17. Effects of organic solvents on the barrier properties of human nail.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly A; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S Kevin

    2011-10-01

    The effects of organic solvent systems on nail hydration and permeability have not been well studied. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of binary aqueous organic solvent systems of ethanol (EtOH), propylene glycol (PPG), and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) on the barrier properties of nail plates. (3) H-water, (14) C-urea, and (14) C-tetraethylammonium ions were the probes in the nail uptake and transport experiments to study the effect(s) of organic solvents on nail hydration and permeability. Gravimetric studies were also performed as a secondary method to study nail hydration and the reversibility of the nail after organic solvent treatments. Both ungual uptake and transport were directly related to the concentration of the organic solvent in the binary systems. Partitioning of the probes into and transport across the nail decreased with an increase in the organic solvent concentration. These changes corresponded to the changes in solution viscosity and the barrier properties of the nail. In general, the effects for PPG and PEG were more pronounced than those for EtOH. Practically, these results suggest that organic solvents in formulations can increase nail barrier resistivity. PMID:21607952

  18. Effects of Organic Solvents on the Barrier Properties of Human Nail

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kelly A.; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The effects of organic solvent systems on nail hydration and permeability have not been well studied. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of binary aqueous organic solvent systems of ethanol (EtOH), propylene glycol (PPG), and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) on the barrier properties of nail plates. 3H–water, 14C–urea, and 14C–tetraethylammonium ions were the probes in the nail uptake and transport experiments to study the effect(s) of organic solvents on nail hydration and permeability. Gravimetric studies were also performed as a secondary method to study nail hydration and the reversibility of the nail after organic solvent treatments. Both ungual uptake and transport were directly related to the concentration of the organic solvent in the binary systems. Partitioning of the probes into and transport across the nail decreased with an increase in the organic solvent concentration. These changes corresponded to the changes in solution viscosity and the barrier properties of the nail. In general, the effects for PPG and PEG were more pronounced than those for EtOH. Practically, these results suggest that organic solvents in formulations can increase nail barrier resistivity. PMID:21607952

  19. Lengthening over nails using the double plate system ONAS-DPS

    PubMed Central

    Antolič, Vane

    2016-01-01

    Stable insertion of large Schanz screws behind an intramedullary (IM) nail when lengthening over nails (LON) may be difficult due to the limited bone stock. Additionally, the highly probable contact between the screws and IM nail (which is difficult to avoid) increases the likelihood of infection spreading from the skin via Schanz screws directly to the IM nail. A new device for LON has been developed. Instead of inserting Schanz screws from the external fixator beside the IM nail (as in standard LON), a system of two overlaying plates was constructed. Schanz screws can be fixed to the plates without entering the bone. The plates are fixed to the bone using four angle stability screws. The holes in the plates offer stabile fixation for a chosen angle under which the screw is positioned through the cortical bone. Using the new system there is no need to place Schanz screws behind the IM nail. Instead, Schanz screws pass to the plate and not through the bone. The new system for elongation over IM nail is called “Over Nail Angle Stability-Double Plate System” (ONAS-DPS) [Antolič V (2013) Modular side device with an intramedullary nail for guiding a bone during its lengthening. World Intellectual Property Organization. International Publication number: WO 2013/176632 A1]. PMID:27163094

  20. Massive fat emboli syndrome after unsuccessful unreamed nailing of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Rommens, P M; Claes, P

    1997-01-01

    A patient is presented in whom massive fat emboli syndrome (FES) developed after the unsuccessful treatment of a solitary tibial fracture with an unreamed tibial nail. Ultimately, a reamed tibial nail was inserted. Several risk factors for the development of FES were identified retrospectively in this particular case: a very small medullary canal, a large-diameter unreamed tibial nail, reaming of a small medullary canal and insertion of a thick reamed tibial nail. Even in the presence of patients with solitary lesions and without obvious risks for FES, one should always take this dangerous complication into account. PMID:9061176

  1. Insertion of intramedullary nails from the suprapatellar pouch for proximal tibial shaft fractures. A technical note.

    PubMed

    Jakma, Tijs; Reynders-Frederix, Peter; Rajmohan, Rai

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing of proximal tibial fractures can be difficult when using the standard entry portal. We evaluated the suprapatellar portal, using a midline quadriceps tendon incision, to perform intramedullary nailing of the tibia. Seven patients were treated with this adaptation of the standard intramedullary nailing procedure. An arthroscopy was done before and after the nailing procedure. No special equipment was used to perform the intramedullary nailing. We evaluated the handling and necessary modifications of the standard intramedullary technique to introduce the locked tibial nail through the suprapatellar approach. We found this technique not necessarily more difficult than the standard intramedullary nailing of the tibia through the infrapatellar entry portal. Although the patients did not complain of patellofemoral discomfort after the suprapatellar nailing, definitive scuffing of the cartilage in the lower part of the femoral trochlea was visible. Introduction of a locked tibial nail via the suprapatellar approach was found to be possible and even advantageous for some complex upper tibial shaft fractures in compromised limbs. Some possible downsides of this approach need to be taken into account but, in some cases, they can be outweighed by the benefits. PMID:22308632

  2. Lengthening over nails using the double plate system ONAS-DPS.

    PubMed

    Antolič, Vane

    2016-01-01

    Stable insertion of large Schanz screws behind an intramedullary (IM) nail when lengthening over nails (LON) may be difficult due to the limited bone stock. Additionally, the highly probable contact between the screws and IM nail (which is difficult to avoid) increases the likelihood of infection spreading from the skin via Schanz screws directly to the IM nail. A new device for LON has been developed. Instead of inserting Schanz screws from the external fixator beside the IM nail (as in standard LON), a system of two overlaying plates was constructed. Schanz screws can be fixed to the plates without entering the bone. The plates are fixed to the bone using four angle stability screws. The holes in the plates offer stabile fixation for a chosen angle under which the screw is positioned through the cortical bone. Using the new system there is no need to place Schanz screws behind the IM nail. Instead, Schanz screws pass to the plate and not through the bone. The new system for elongation over IM nail is called "Over Nail Angle Stability-Double Plate System" (ONAS-DPS) [Antolič V (2013) Modular side device with an intramedullary nail for guiding a bone during its lengthening. World Intellectual Property Organization. International Publication number: WO 2013/176632 A1]. PMID:27163094

  3. Distal Locking Screws for Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Agathangelidis, Filon; Petsatodis, Georgios; Kirkos, John; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Karataglis, Dimitrios; Christodoulou, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Recently introduced tibial intramedullary nails allow a number of distal screws to be used to reduce the incidence of malalignment and loss of fixation of distal metaphyseal fractures. However, the number of screws and the type of screw configuration to be used remains obscure. This biomechanical study was performed to address this question. Thirty-six Expert tibial nails (Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland) were introduced in composite bone models. The models were divided into 4 groups with different distal locking configurations ranging from 2 to 4 screws. A 7-mm gap osteotomy was performed 72 mm from the tibial plafond to simulate a 42-C3 unstable distal tibial fracture. Each group was divided in 3 subgroups and underwent nondestructive biomechanical testing in axial compression, coronal bending, and axial torsion. The passive construct stiffness was measured and statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Although some differences were noted between the stiffness of each group, these were not statistically significant in compression (P=.105), bending (P=.801), external rotation (P=.246), and internal rotation (P=.370). This in vitro study showed that, when using the Expert tibial nail for unstable distal tibial fractures, the classic configuration of 2 parallel distal screws could provide the necessary stability under partial weight-bearing conditions. PMID:26840700

  4. Treatment of peritrochanteric fractures by the use of gamma nail.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Zdenko; Moro, Goran; Kvesić, Ante; Roth, Sandor; Bekavac, Josip; Manojlović, Slavko

    2010-03-01

    The Gamma nail was designed to treat unstable intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. In this study we analysed a total of 60 patients (44 men and 16 women), who were surgically treated for the peritrochanteric fracture in period 2006-2007 at the University Hospital Mostar. After the surgical treatment good bone healing was achieved in 50 patients (83.3%). A total of five patients had delayed healing or protrusion of the cervical screw, and in two patients nails were not appropriately distally locked. During the follow-up period a total of 7 patients died. The average operation time was 40 minutes, and the average blood loss was 400 mL, which is a comparable result with the previously published studies. In conclusion, although most of the peritrochanteric fractures treated at the University Hospital Mostar were fixated by gamma nail, the final decision regarding the operational technique should be left to surgeon's judgment, since the efficacy of the treatment plan is highly dependent on experience of the operational team and surgeon's operational technique. PMID:20402327

  5. Alteration of the diffusional barrier property of the nail leads to greater terbinafine drug loading and permeation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Kim, Hyun D; Chakraborty, Bireswar; Friden, Phillip M; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2009-06-22

    The diffusional barrier property of biological systems varies with ultrastructural organization of the tissues and/or cells, and often plays an important role in drug delivery. The nail plate is a thick, hard and impermeable membrane which makes topical nail drug delivery challenging. The current study investigated the effect of physical and chemical alteration of the nail on the trans-ungual drug delivery of terbinafine hydrochloride (TH) under both passive and iontophoretic conditions. Physical alterations were carried out by dorsal or ventral nail layer abrasion, while chemical alterations were performed by defatting or keratolysis or ionto-keratolysis of the nails. Terbinafine permeation into and across the nail plate following various nail treatments showed similar trends in both passive and iontophoretic delivery, although the extent of drug delivery varied with treatment. Application of iontophoresis to the abraded nails significantly improved (P<0.05) TH permeation and loading compared to abraded nails without iontophoresis or normal nails with iontophoresis. Drug permeation was not enhanced when the nail plate was defatted. Keratolysis moderately enhanced the permeation but not the drug load. Ionto-keratolysis enhanced TH permeation and drug load significantly (P<0.05) during passive and iontophoretic delivery as compared to untreated nails. Ionto-keratolysis may be more efficient in permeabilization of nail plates than long term exposure to keratolysing agents. PMID:19481686

  6. [Nailing of inter- and subtrochanteric fractures - operative technique].

    PubMed

    Douša, P; Skála-Rosenbaum, J

    2013-10-01

    Intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures are a quite heterogeneous and imprecisely defined group of fractures. These fractures can be essentially divided into two basic groups. The first one belongs to trochanteric fractures. In the AO/ASIF classification; these fractures are called intertrochanteric (31A3). In the second group, the term subtrochanteric fracture is used by most authors for fractures about 5 cm distally from lesser trochanter. In both intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures, the proximal fragment is formed by femoral head, neck and greater trochanter including its base with vastus ridge (tuberculum vastoadductorium or innominate tubercle). On this tubercle, the gluteus medius muscle (proximally) and the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle (distally) are attached. Tension of these muscles may cause dislocation of the proximal fragment. For this reason, reduction of the fracture can be troublesome and it is more difficult than in pertrochanteric fractures It seems that intramedullary nailing will remain the favorite technique of most of the surgeons dealing with intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. We use short reconstruction nail in intertrochanteric fractures. It is useful to use long reconstruction nail in subtrochanteric fractures. Distal locking of the nail is necessary. Dynamic distal locking is preferred because the two main fragments are compressed along the axis of the nail. The number of complications was largely related to technical errors, such as insufficient reduction or an incorrectly inserted implant. No implant can compensate for errors due to surgery. Serious complications can be reduced by the correct assessment of fracture type, the use of an appropriate operative technique and early treatment of potential complications. The necessity of restoring continuity in the medial cortex of the femoral neck (Adams arch) is the requirement that should be observed. Pseudoarthrosis or varus malalignment in a healed

  7. Elementary test for nonclassicality based on measurements of position and momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fresta, Luca; Borregaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2015-12-01

    We generalize a nonclassicality test described by Kot et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.233601], which can be used to rule out any classical description of a physical system. The test is based on measurements of quadrature operators and works by proving a contradiction with the classical description in terms of a probability distribution in phase space. As opposed to the previous work, we generalize the test to include states without rotational symmetry in phase space. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the nonclassicality test with classical tomography methods based on the inverse Radon transform, which can also be used to establish the quantum nature of a physical system. In particular, we consider a nonclassicality test based on the so-called filtered back-projection formula. We show that the general nonclassicality test is conceptually simpler, requires less assumptions on the system, and is statistically more reliable than the tests based on the filtered back-projection formula. As a specific example, we derive the optimal test for quadrature squeezed single-photon states and show that the efficiency of the test does not change with the degree of squeezing.

  8. Mixing nonclassical pure states in a linear-optical network almost always generates modal entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhang; Lang, Mattihas; Caves, Carlton; CenterQuantum Information and Control Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    In quantum optics a pure state is considered classical, relative to the statistics of photodetection, if and only if it is a coherent state. A different and newer notion of nonclassicality is based on modal entanglement. One example that relates these two notions is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, where modal entanglement is generated by a beamsplitter from the nonclassical photon-number state | 1 > ⊗ | 1 > . This suggests the beamsplitter or, more generally, linear-optical networks as a mediator of the two notions of nonclassicality. We show the following: Given a nonclassical pure product state input to an N-port linear-optical network, the output is almost always mode entangled; the only exception is a product of squeezed states, all with the same squeezing strength, input to a network that does not mix the squeezed and anti-squeezed quadratures. Our work thus gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear network to generate modal entanglement from pure product inputs, a result that is of immediate relevance to the boson sampling problem.

  9. Mixing nonclassical pure states in a linear-optical network almost always generates modal entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhang; Lang, Matthias D.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2013-10-01

    In quantum optics a pure state is considered classical, relative to the statistics of photodetection, if and only if it is a coherent state. A different and newer notion of nonclassicality is based on modal entanglement. One example that relates these two notions is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, where modal entanglement is generated by a beamsplitter from the nonclassical photon-number state |1>⊗|1>. This suggests that beamsplitters or, more generally, linear-optical networks are mediators of the two notions of nonclassicality. In this Brief Report, we show the following: Given a nonclassical pure-product-state input to an N-port linear-optical network, the output is almost always mode entangled; the only exception is a product of squeezed states, all with the same squeezing strength, input to a network that does not mix the squeezed and antisqueezed quadratures. Our work thus gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear network to generate modal entanglement from pure-product inputs, a result that is of immediate relevance to the boson-sampling problem.

  10. On the nonclassical character of the phase-space representations of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, W.

    1985-02-01

    The quasiclassical representations of quantum theory, generalizing the concept of a phase-space representation of quantum mechanics, are studied with particular emphasis on some questions connected with the Jordan structure of the classical and quantum algebras of observables. A generalized version of the theorem of Gleason, Kahane, and Zelazko is used to establish some nonclassical features of these representations.

  11. Influences on the Talent Development Process of Non-Classical Musicians: Psychological, Social and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Sara; Richards, Hugh; Collins, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Twelve professional, non-classical musicians were interviewed about the impact of internal and external factors on their development as musicians. The data were qualitatively analyzed, and observations concerning psychological characteristics of developing excellence (PCDEs), social and environmental influences are reported. The insights of the…

  12. Nonclassical states of the second optical harmonic in the presence of self-action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirkin, A. S.; Korolkova, N. V.

    1993-01-01

    The quantum theory of coherent radiation frequency doubling in crystals with quadratic and cubic optical nonlinearities is developed. The possibility of producing the quadrature-squeezed state of the second harmonic (SH) field is shown. The nonclassical SH states arise due to self-action effect.

  13. Penetration of ((14)C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Joshua A; Stein Gold, Linda; Korotzer, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors' nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors' findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

  14. Penetration of (14C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Linda Stein; Korotzer, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors’ nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors’ findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

  15. Iontophoresis for drug delivery into the nail apparatus: exploring hyponychium as the site of delivery.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Avadhesh; Shivakumar, H N; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2016-10-01

    In present studies, a hyponychium pathway (from ventral side of the nail plate) was investigated as a potential route of drug delivery into the nail apparatus using iontophoresis as an active physical method. In vitro transport studies were performed across the human nail plate using sodium fluorescein as a marker substrate for 24 h. After transport studies, the amount of sodium fluorescein extracted from an active diffusion area of the nail plate in case of iontophoresis was found to be ∼54-folds more to that of passive. The amount of sodium fluorescein retained in the peripheral area of the nail plate after application of iontophoresis was found to be ∼30-folds more relative to passive. Ex vivo transport studies were performed on excised human cadaver toe using terbinafine hydrochloride as a model drug for three days (8 h/day). The amount of terbinafine retained in the nail plate after application of iontophoresis (3.43 ± 1.34 µg/mg) was ∼20-folds more when compared with passive (0.17 ± 0.10 µg/mg). The amount of drug extracted from the nail bed and nail matrix was 1.73 ± 0.12 µg/mg and 0.55 ± 0.22 µg/mg, respectively. On the other hand, there was no detectable amount of terbinafine found in the nail bed and nail matrix in case of control (passive delivery). These studies show that the iontophoretic drug delivery through hyponychium region to other parts of the nail apparatus could be a potential way of onychomycosis treatment. PMID:26981643

  16. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  17. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus disease has emerged in the Midsouth and Southeastern United States and was named blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). Originally, it was thought the disease was caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) as the virus was found in many diseased plants and symptoms were very similar to thos...

  18. Penetrating intracranial nail-gun injury to the middle cerebral artery: A successful primary repair

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Albert M.; Yuh, Sung-Joo; Hurlbert, R. John; Mitha, Alim P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Penetrating nail-gun injuries to the head are rare, however, the incidence has been gradually rising over the last decade. While there is a large volume of case reports in the literature, there are only a few incidences of cerebrovascular injury. We present a case of a patient with a nail-gun injury to the brain, which compromised the cerebral vasculature. In this article, we present the case, incidence, pathology, and a brief literature review of penetrating nail-gun injuries to highlight the principles of management pertaining to penetration of cerebrovascular structures. Case Description: A 26-year-old male presented with a penetrating nail-gun injury to his head. There were no neurological deficits. Initial imaging revealed that the nail had penetrated the cranium and suggested the vasculature to be intact. However, due to the proximity of the nail to the circle of Willis the operative approach was tailored in anticipation of a vascular injury. Intraoperatively removal of the foreign body demonstrated a laceration to the M1 branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), which was successfully repaired. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a vascular arterial injury to the MCA from a nail-gun injury. It is imperative to have a high clinical suspicion for cerebrovascular compromise in penetrating nail-gun injuries even when conventional imaging suggests otherwise. PMID:26500798

  19. Size and Charge Dependence of Ion Transport in Human Nail Plate.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; LaCount, Terri D; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-03-01

    The electrical properties of human nail plate are poorly characterized yet are a key determinate of the potential to treat nail diseases, such as onychomycosis, using iontophoresis. To address this deficiency, molar conductivities of 17 electrolytes comprising 12 ionic species were determined in hydrated human nail plate in vitro. Cation transport numbers across the nail for 11 of these electrolytes were determined by the electromotive force method. Effective ionic mobilities and diffusivities at infinite dilution for all ionic species were determined by regression analysis. The ratios of diffusivities in nail to those in solution were found to correlate inversely with the hydrodynamic radii of the ions according to a power law relationship having an exponent of -1.75 ± 0.27, a substantially steeper size dependence than observed for similar experiments in skin. Effective diffusivities of cations in nail were 3-fold higher than those of comparably sized anions. These results reflect the strong size and charge selectivity of the nail plate for ionic conduction and diffusion. The analysis implies that efficient transungual iontophoretic delivery of ionized drugs having radii upward of 5 Å (molecular weight, ca. ≥ 340 Da) will require chemical or mechanical alteration of the nail plate. PMID:26886342

  20. 77 FR 27080 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72438). The... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1... certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55, 7317.00.65, and 7317.00.75 of the...

  1. 76 FR 29266 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 6, 2011 (76 FR 19124). The conference... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1... imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55,...

  2. An open comparative study of nail drilling as adjunctive treatment for toenail onychomycosis (.).

    PubMed

    Shemer, A; Gupta, A K; Amichai, B; Farhi, R; Baran, R; Daniel, C R; Daigle, D; Foley, K A

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Novel treatment regimens are being developed to improve drug penetration through the nail plate. This study investigated the efficacy of nail drilling regimens for the treatment of onychomycosis. Methods Participants were assigned to holes with combination (oral plus topical terbinafine) therapy (Group 1), holes with topical terbinafine (Group 2) or topical terbinafine only (Group 3). Measurement of clear nail and mycology was performed at baseline and at weeks 4, 10, 16, 22 and 28. Mixed linear models were used to compare mean percent clear nail. Mycological cure rates were also tabulated for each group. Tolerability and adverse events were documented. Results Ninety-eight participants were enrolled (106 nails). Both groups with holes had significantly higher percentage of clear nail compared with topical terbinafine alone. Although no significant difference between the two groups where holes were drilled in the nail plate, Group 1 demonstrated improvement over Group 3 earlier than Group 2 (visit 2 versus visit 4). Group 1 also had the highest mycological cure rates. Conclusion Treatment with holes plus topical terbinafine produces significantly greater improvement in toenails' appearance and higher mycological cure rates compared to treating the dorsal aspect of the nail plate with topical terbinafine alone. PMID:27032812

  3. 76 FR 56147 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting an administrative review and new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty Order \\1\\ on certain steel nails (``nails'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010, and August 1, 2009, through August 5, 2010, respectively. The Department has preliminarily......

  4. Deformation monitoring of long GFRP bar soil nails using distributed optical fiber sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Cheng-Yu; Yin, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a new measurement technology characterized by the use of distributed optical fiber sensor (OFSs) for monitoring the strain and temperature distribution of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bar soil nails. Laboratory tension tests were used to verify the performance of the OFSs for strain and elongation monitoring of GFRP bars. The measured strain data from the OFSs agree fairly well with the data from strain gauges in calibration tests. In field monitoring tests, two GFRP bar soil nails were installed with OFSs and pure strain data were used to evaluate the performance of GFRP bar soil nails after installation in a practical slope. Both the strain and temperature distributions measured by the OFSs show symmetric features. A Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) measurement unit was used to collect temperature and strain data from the OFSs. The monitoring data show that the accumulative elongations of the soil nails present a continuous but limited increase with time in the field. The achieved maximum elongations of soil nails were less than 0.4 mm. The measured axial elongations of the soil nails were also validated using corresponding data predicted by a theoretical model. The test results from the present study prove that BOTDA based sensors are useful for the investigation of the average strain distributions (or elongation) of long soil nails and these data are useful for the estimation of the potential sliding surface of the entire soil nailing system.

  5. A blocking-wire technique for removal of a broken hollow intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuan-Lin; Park, Young-Chang; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Seok, Sang-Ok; Yoon, Yeo-Kwon; Yang, Kyu-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    We present a simple method to remove the distal portion of the broken nail just using the bulb-tipped guide pin and a blocking Kirschner wire. At first, we removed the proximal part of the broken nail and all interlocking screws. Next, we introduced the bulb-tipped guide wire into the distal part of the nail with fluoroscopic guidance until it passed the interlocking hole that would be used. After snugly fitting the blocking Kirschner wire into the interlocking hole of the nail, the bulb-tipped guide wire is then pulled to engage the blocking wire complex in the interlocking hole. The bulb-tipped guide wire and broken nail are removed by sequential stroke using a ram. PMID:27170540

  6. Psoriasis of the nail: anatomy, pathology, clinical presentation, and a review of the literature on therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiaravuthisan, Michael M; Sasseville, Denis; Vender, Ronald B; Murphy, Francis; Muhn, Channy Y

    2007-07-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that affects millions of people throughout the world. Even though cutaneous signs and symptoms are the most common clinical manifestations, the nails can be involved in up to 50% of cases, and their involvement remains an important yet often overlooked aspect of the disease. There is a broad spectrum of nail dystrophies associated with psoriasis, ranging from the common pitting and loosening of the nail plate to the less frequent discoloration and splinter hemorrhages seen in the nail bed. This article discusses the normal anatomy and embryology of the nail unit as well as the current understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. It also provides an extensive review of the existing literature with respect to psoriatic nail therapy. Although there have been many recent advances in the treatment of the cutaneous form of the disease-most notably in the field of immunotherapies-the options for nail psoriasis are far more limited. While a number of treatment alternatives currently exist for nail disease, the general paucity of clear evidence regarding these choices often makes it difficult to select the most efficient, safe, and optimal treatment for the patient. Even though the current literature has shown some support for the use of topical, intralesional, radiation, systemic, and combination therapies for nail psoriasis, the available studies lack sufficient power to extrapolate a standardized therapeutic regimen. Therefore, until better-documented evidence validating the treatment options emerges within the literature, clinicians and patients are left with a vague and relatively unproven approach to psoriatic nail disease. PMID:17572277

  7. Contaminants in human nail dust: an occupational hazard in podiatry?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been limited literature indicating that podiatrists’ health may be at risk from exposure to human nail dust. Previous studies carried out in the UK have shown that large amounts of dust become airborne during the human nail drilling procedure and are present in the air up to 10 hours after a clinical session. This increases the risk of Respiratory Tract (RT) infection for the practitioner. Methods This study used a nasal swabbing technique and fungal culture to determine whether podiatrists (n = 50) had the same microbes present in their nasal cavities as non-podiatry health professional control group (n = 45). All swabs were cultured, counted and identified for each subject. Survey data of use and type of nail drill, type of mask used and frequency of change over a two week period. Results The results showed podiatrists had a greater range of microbes in their nasal cavities although the controls had greater overall numbers of organisms. The known pathogen and common mould, Aspergillus fumigatus was ost commonly found fungus within the podiatric group with 44% of the group having the fungus present. All nail drills used by the podiatrists had some form of dust extraction (except one). Of concern was 17% (n = 8) of the podiatrists did not use a mask at all whilst drilling and seemed unaware of any infection control issues. Simple disposable masks were the most frequently worn with only half being changed after each patient further increasing the cross infection risk Conclusion The high levels of Aspergilus contamination is a significant finding in the podiatry group as this fungus is small enough to enter the tissue of the nasal cavity and as a small particle will stay airborne in the room for up to 16 hours. Aspergilus has been shown to cause brain and soft tissue tumours in extreme cases. The high levels of upper respiratory track problems reported in the literature may well be caused by this fungal agent. The non use and use of

  8. Nail-like targets for laser plasma interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, J; Wei, M; Shipton, E; Chen, S; Ma, T; Beg, F N; Alexander, N; Stephens, R B; MacPhee, A G; Hey, D; Pape, S L; Patel, P; Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Offermann, D; Link, A; Chowdhury, E; Van-Woerkom, L D; Freeman, R R

    2007-12-18

    The interaction of ultra-high power picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is of interest both for benchmarking the results of hybrid particle in cell (PIC) codes and also for applications to re-entrant cone guided fast ignition. We describe the construction of novel targets in which copper/titanium wires are formed into 'nail-like' objects by a process of melting and micromachining, so that energy can be reliably coupled to a 24 {micro}m diameter wire. An extreme-ultraviolet image of the interaction of the Titan laser with such a target is shown.

  9. Remote nailing of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures of the femur.

    PubMed

    Waddell, J P

    1983-01-01

    Remote nailing of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures of the femur is a definite addition to the armamentarium in the management of these injuries. The advantages of the technique are too great to ignore. The surgeon should not be misled, however, into thinking that this is an easy operation or that it represents a panacea for difficult fracture situations. Considerable time must be spent learning the operative technique, its pitfalls and complications, and the postoperative management of patients. After the operation we allow our patients early weight bearing in the knee-extended position, this being maintained by the use of a Jones bandage. We believe that the prevention of knee flexion minimizes stresses across the fracture site and prevents the tendency toward external rotation. Early external rotation deformity in the patient lying in bed may cause concern, but this tendency toward external rotation disappears as soon as the patient begins to walk and bear weight. In the patient with the fracture anatomically reduced and fixed a significant external rotation will not be a problem. The use of remote nailing does not eliminate complications in the surgical treatment of intertrochanteric fractures but merely replaces one set of complications for another. It is our belief that the complications arising from remote nailing in intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures are of less severity to the patient and more easily managed by the surgeon than the more traditional complications occurring as a result of direct attack on the fracture site with the implantation of various nail plate devices. Lower blood loss, shorter operating time, decreased incidence of infection, earlier walking, extremely high rate of union, and extremely low rate of implant failure are sufficient returns for occasional shortening and occasional external rotation deformity, the two complications most frequently mentioned in the literature. Excessive deformity, failure of

  10. High-visibility nonclassical interference between intrinsically pure heralded single photons and photons from a weak coherent field

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Ruibo; Zhang Jun; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi; Shimizu, Ryosuke

    2011-03-15

    We present an experiment of nonclassical interference between an intrinsically pure heralded single-photon state and a weak coherent state. Our experiment demonstrates that, without the use of bandpass filters, spectrally pure single photons can have high-visibility (89.4{+-}0.5%) interference with photons from a weak coherent field. Our scheme lays the groundwork for future experiments requiring quantum interference between photons in nonclassical states and those in coherent states.

  11. Non-classical Signature of Parametric Fluorescence and its Application in Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamar, M.; Michálek, V.; Pathak, A.

    2014-08-01

    The article provides a short theoretical background of what the non-classical light means. We applied the criterion for the existence of non-classical effects derived by C.T. Lee on parametric fluorescence. The criterion was originally derived for the study of two light beams with one mode per beam. We checked if the criterion is still working for two multimode beams of parametric down-conversion through numerical simulations. The theoretical results were tested by measurement of photon number statistics of twin beams emitted by nonlinear BBO crystal pumped by intense femtoseconds UV pulse. We used ICCD camera as the detector of photons in both beams. It appears that the criterion can be used for the measurement of the quantum efficiencies of the ICCD cameras.

  12. Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. C.; Sussman, B. J.; Sprague, M. R.; Michelberger, P.; Reim, K. F.; Nunn, J.; Langford, N. K.; Bustard, P. J.; Jaksch, D.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the transition between the familiar classical, macroscopic world and the quantum, microscopic one continues to be poorly understood. Expanding the regime of observable quantum behaviour to large-scale objects is therefore an exciting open problem. In macroscopic systems of interacting particles, rapid thermalization usually destroys any quantum coherence before it can be measured or used at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate quantum processing in the vibrational modes of a macroscopic diamond sample under ambient conditions. Using ultrafast Raman scattering, we create an extended, highly non-classical state in the optical phonon modes of bulk diamond. Direct measurement of phonon coherence and correlations establishes the non-classical nature of the crystal dynamics. These results show that optical phonons in diamond provide a unique opportunity for the study of large-scale quantum behaviour, and highlight the potential for diamond as a micro-photonic quantum processor capable of operating at terahertz rates.

  13. Generalized su(2) coherent states for the Landau levels and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Alireza; Mojaveri, Bashir

    2013-12-01

    Following the lines of the recent papers [J. Phys. A 44, 495201 (2012); B. Mojaveri, A. Dehghani, Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 179 (2013)], we construct here a new class of generalized coherent states related to the Landau levels, which can be used as the finite Fock subspaces for the representation of the su(2) Lie algebra. We establish the relationship between them and the deformed truncated coherent states. We have, also, shown that they satisfy the resolution of the identity property through a positive definite measures on the complex plane. Their nonclassical and quantum statistical properties such as quadrature squeezing, higher order ` su(2)' squeezing, anti-bunching and anti-correlation effects are studied in details. Particularly, the influence of the generalization on the nonclassical properties of two modes is clarified.

  14. Generation of entangled coherent-squeezed states: their entanglement and nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, A.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, after a brief review on the coherent states and squeezed states, we introduce two classes of entangled coherent-squeezed states. Next, in order to generate the introduced entangled states, we present a theoretical scheme based on the resonant atom-field interaction. In the proposed model, a \\varLambda -type three-level atom interacts with a two-mode quantized field in the presence of two strong classical fields. Then, we study the amount of entanglement of the generated entangled states using the concurrence and linear entropy. Moreover, we evaluate a few of their nonclassical properties such as photon statistics, second-order correlation function, and quadrature squeezing and establish their nonclassicality features.

  15. Probing the Upper Limit of Nonclassical Rotational Inertia in Solid Helium 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Ann Sophie C.; Reppy, John D.

    2008-10-01

    We study the effect of confinement on solid He4’s nonclassical rotational inertia fraction (NCRIF) in a torsional oscillator by constraining it to narrow annular cells of various widths. The NCRIF exhibits an observed maximum value of 20% for annuli of ˜100μm width. Samples constrained to porous media or to larger geometries both have smaller NCRIF, mostly below ˜1%. In addition, we extend the blocked-annulus experiment of Kim and Chan to solid samples with large supersolid fractions. Blocking the annulus suppresses the nonclassical decoupling from 17.1% to below the limit of our detection of 0.8%. This result demonstrates the nonlocal nature of the supersolid phenomena. At 20 mK, NCRIF depends on velocity history showing a closed hysteresis loop in different thin annular cells.

  16. Analysis of human nails by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2011-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to analyze human fingernails using nanosecond laser pulses. Measurements on 45 nail samples are carried out and 14 key species are identified. The elements detected with the present system are: Al, C, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mg, N, Na, O, Si, Sr, Ti as well as CN molecule. Sixty three emission lines have been identified in the spectrum that are dominated by calcium lines. A discriminant function analysis is used to discriminate among different genders and age groups. This analysis demonstrates efficient discrimination among these groups. The mean concentration of each element is compared between different groups. Correlation between concentrations of elements in fingernails is calculated. A strong correlation is found between sodium and potassium while calcium and magnesium levels are inversely correlated. A case report on high levels of sodium and potassium in patients with hyperthyroidism is presented. It is shown that LIBS could be a promising technique for the analysis of nails and therefore identification of health problems.

  17. A swallowed metal nail entrapped in the right psoas muscle.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, İhsan; Koca, Yavuz Savaş; Barut, İbrahim

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body ingestion can be caused by many factors, including hallucination in patients with mental retardation. Most ingested foreign bodies are naturally discharged, though surgical intervention is necessary in some cases. Endoscopic intervention often leads to successful outcome, though open surgery may be required in certain instances. A 29-year-old mentally retarded woman presented to emergency services with a 2-day history of right lumbar pain that increased with movement. Physical examination revealed no specific sign beyond palpable tenderness in the right lumbar region. Radiological examination revealed a metal nail in the upper right quadrant, stretching obliquely toward the retroperitoneum. Endoscopy failed, and the nail was extracted via laparotomy. Foreign body ingestion may occur in patients of any age, but is more common in the pediatric population and in patients with mental retardation. Commonly ingested foreign bodies include daily objects, toys, and dentures, though they may differ in patients with mental retardation. The treatment of such cases requires a diversity of methods and experience. Foreign body ingestion should be kept in mind when a patient presents with pain in the right lumbar region, particularly in patients with mental retardation. PMID:27598616

  18. Indoor air quality survey of nail salons in Boston.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Laura J; Ansher, Liza; Berlin, Ariana; Cheng, Jenny; Kanopkin, Deena; Khazan, Anna; Kisivuli, Meda; Lortie, Molly; Bunker Peterson, Emily; Pohl, Laura; Porter, Sam; Zeng, Vivian; Skogstrom, Tiffany; Fragala, Matt A; Myatt, Theodore A; Stewart, James H; Allen, Joseph G

    2014-06-01

    Employees in nail salons, largely Vietnamese immigrant women in Boston, are exposed to a range of volatile organic chemicals from the products used in salons, including solvents, glues and polishes. Some of these chemicals have the potential to cause short and long-term adverse health effects. Only limited research has been performed on assessing occupational exposures. This project aimed to characterize total volatile organic compound (TVOC) and PM2.5 concentrations in nail salons as a function of ventilation, building characteristics, customer and employee occupancy, and type of services being performed. Students conducted sampling in 21 salons in Boston, MA from September to December, 2011. Study visits included: indoor environmental quality measurements (TVOCs, PM2.5 and carbon dioxide), site observations, and an interview. CO2 levels in 15 of 21 salons exceeded 800 ppm, suggesting that these salons may have insufficient ventilation. Higher TVOC and PM2.5 levels were found in salons with less ventilation (as estimated using CO2 concentrations). Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, average levels of TVOCs, CO2 and PM2.5 were consistent throughout salons, indicating that exposures may not be restricted to areas in the salon where work is being performed (e.g., at the manicure table). Higher TVOC concentrations were observed when tasks were being performed, yet were not dependent upon the number of tasks being performed. Improving ventilation conditions in salons to meet minimum outdoor air delivery requirements can reduce exposures to TVOCs. PMID:23765035

  19. Linkage analysis of the Nail-patella syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, E.; Watkins, D.; Rouleau, G.A.; Babul, R.; Der Kaloustian, V.M.; Buchanan, J.A.; Meschino, W.

    1995-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysplasia of nails and patella, decreased mobility of the elbow, iliac horns, and, in some cases, nephropathy. The disorder has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9, but the precise localization and identity of the NPS gene are unknown. Linkage analysis in three NPS families, using highly informative dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms on 9q33-q34, confirmed linkage of NPS to this chromosome. Recombinations were detected, by two-point linkage analysis, between NPS and the centromeric markers D9S60 and the gelsolin gene and the telomeric markers D9S64 and D9S66, in one of the families. Haplotype analysis suggested an additional recombination between NPS and the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene. These results localize the NPS gene to an interval on 9q34.1, distal to D9S60 an proximal to ASS, comprising a genetic distance of {approximately}9 cM. This represents a significant refinement in the localization of the NPS gene. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Zn-K edge EXAFS study of human nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsikini, M.; Mavromati, E.; Pinakidou, F.; Paloura, E. C.; Gioulekas, D.

    2009-11-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Zn - K edge is applied for the study of the bonding geometry of Zn in human nails. The studied nail clippings belong to healthy donors and donors who suffer from lung diseases. Fitting of the first nearest neighboring shell of Zn reveals that it is bonded with N and S, at distances that take values in the ranges 2.00-2.04 Å and 2.23-2.28Å, respectively. Zn is four - fold coordinated and the ratio of the number of sulfur and nitrogen atoms (NS/NN) in the first coordination shell ranges from 0.52 to 1. The sample that belongs to the donor who suffers from lung fibrosis, a condition that is related to keratinization of the lung tissue, is characterized by the highest number of NS/NN. Simulation, using the FEFF8 code, of the Zn - K edge EXAFS spectra with models of tetrahedrally coordinated Zn with 1 (or 2) cysteine and 3 (or 2) histidines is satisfactory.

  1. Consequences of nonclassical measurement for the algorithmic description of continuous dynamical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Chris

    1989-01-01

    Continuous dynamical systems intuitively seem capable of more complex behavior than discrete systems. If analyzed in the framework of the traditional theory of computation, a continuous dynamical system with countably many quasistable states has at least the computational power of a universal Turing machine. Such an analysis assumes, however, the classical notion of measurement. If measurement is viewed nonclassically, a continuous dynamical system cannot, even in principle, exhibit behavior that cannot be simulated by a universal Turing machine.

  2. Characterisation of non-classical MHC class I genes in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2014-12-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial that is under threat of extinction due to an unusual transmissible disease called Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD). Previous studies on the classical MHC genes have provided important insights into immune responses in this endangered species; however, so far, very little is known about the non-classical MHC genes of this species, which can also play significant roles in the immune system. Here, we report characterisation of five non-classical class I genes in the Tasmanian devil, including Saha-UD, -UK, -UM, -MR1 and -CD1. Saha-UD has been isolated previously and is known to have low genetic polymorphism, though its categorisation as classical or non-classical gene has remained undetermined. In this study, we observed tissue-specific expression of Saha-UD, suggesting that it is more characteristic of a non-classical gene. Restricted tissue expression patterns were also observed for other genes, with an exception of Saha-MR1 being ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues. Saha-UK, -UM and -MR1 were found to be genetically monomorphic, while four alleles were found at Saha-CD1 with signs of positive selection detected within the α1 domain. Among the four Saha-CD1 alleles, one predominant allele (Saha-CD1*01) showed a high allele frequency of 0.906 in the Tasmanian devil population, resulting in a low heterozygosity (0.188) at this locus. Alternative splicing takes place in Saha-CD1, giving rise to a full-length transcript and a splice variant lacking intact antigen-binding, β2m-binding, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. PMID:25267059

  3. In Vitro penetration of a novel oxaborole antifungal (AN2690) into the human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaoying; Baker, Stephen J; Wester, Ronald C; Barbadillo, Sherry; Cashmore, Anne K; Sanders, Virginia; Hold, Karin M; Akama, Tsutomu; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Plattner, Jacob J; Maibach, Howard I

    2007-10-01

    Onychomycosis is a challenging fungal infection to treat topically, likely due to the unique properties of the nail plate. This seemingly impenetrable barrier has high resistance to the passage of antifungal drugs in sufficient concentrations to kill the causative fungi deep in the nail bed. Recently, a new class of antifungal agent was described, termed oxaboroles, which have broad-spectrum activity. These oxaboroles were designed with properties believed to be required to allow for easier transit through the nail plate. Herein, we report (i) the nail penetration results of four oxaboroles that led to the selection of AN2690, (ii) the results of the nail penetration of AN2690 from four vehicles, and (iii) the nail penetration of AN2690 in its chosen vehicle compared to a commercial control, ciclopirox. AN2690 has superior penetration compared to ciclopirox, and achieves levels within and under the nail plate that suggest it has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis. PMID:17621679

  4. Onychopharmacokinetics of terbinafine hydrochloride penetration from a novel topical formulation into the human nail in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaoying; Lindahl, Åke; Lamel, Sonia; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-09-01

    This study determined the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, distribution, and penetration of [¹⁴C]-terbinafine HCl in a new topical formulation into/through the human finger nail using the in vitro finite dose model. This study determined the penetration rate of terbinafine HCl from multiple doses of topical formulation applied daily for 14 days. Results showed that the total dose recovery (mass balance) was almost 100%. The concentration of terbinafine HCl in the deeper nail plate (ventral/intermediate layers) and the cotton-pad nail bed samples after the 14-day treatment were 613 ± 145 and (±S.D.) and 27 ± 1.2 µg/cm³ (or 1.9 ± 0.6 µg/cm³ daily) on average, respectively. In comparison with nail concentration data from the literature for other topical terbinatine formulations, our results show that higher amounts of terbinafine HCl reached the deep nail plate and/or the nail bed after a 14-day topical treatment with this topical formulation in vitro. PMID:22873754

  5. Hydration of nail plate: a novel screening model for transungual drug permeation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, P; Saini, T R

    2012-10-15

    Drug delivery by topical route for the treatment of onychomycosis, a nail fungal infection, is challenging due to the unique barrier properties of the nail plate which imparts high resistance to the passage of antifungal drugs. Permeation enhancers are used in transungual formulations to improve the drug flux across the nail plate. Selection of the effective permeation enhancer among the available large pool of permeation enhancers is a difficult task. Screening the large number of permeation enhancers using conventional Franz diffusion cells is laborious and expensive. The objective of present study was to evolve a simple, accurate and rapid method for screening of transungual drug permeation enhancers based on the principle of hydration of nail plate. The permeation enhancer which affects the structural or physicochemical properties of nail plate would also affect their hydration capacity. Two screening procedures namely primary and secondary screenings were evolved wherein hydration and uptake of ciclopirox olamine by nail plates were measured. Hydration enhancement factor, HEF(24) and drug uptake enhancement factor, UEF(24) were determined for screening of 23 typical permeation enhancers. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between HEF(24) and UEF(24) was determined. A good agreement between the HEF(24) and UEF(24) data proved the validity of the proposed nail plate hydration model as a screening technique for permeation enhancers. PMID:22705091

  6. A Novel Vehicle for Enhanced Drug Delivery Across the Human Nail for the Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rob; Weaver, Sean; Caserta, Francesco; Brown, Marc B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use in vitro nail models to investigate the potential of a novel base formulation (Recura) containing either fluconazole or miconazole for the treatment of onychomycosis in comparison to two commercial comparators (Jublia and a Penlac generic). Initially, a modified Franz cell was used, where sections of human nail served as the barrier through which drug penetrated into an agar-filled chamber infected with dermatophytes. A second study was performed using a novel infected nail model where dermatophytes grew into human nail and adenosine triphosphate levels were used as biological marker for antimicrobial activity. The novel enhancing system Recura increased the permeation of both existing drugs through human nail sections mounted in a modified Franz cell. Furthermore, the infected nail model also confirmed that the system also enhanced the permeation through infected nail resulting in a decrease in adenosine triphosphate levels superior (P ≤ 0.05) to Penlac generic and equivalent (P > 0.05) to the commercial comparator Jublia. This study demonstrated that with the use of a novel permeation-enhancing formulation base, Recura enhances delivery of miconazole and fluconazole when applied ungually such that the efficacy was equivalent or superior to commercial comparators. Such a topically applied system has the possibility of overcoming the systemic side effects of antifungals when taken orally. PMID:27125057

  7. Comparing the Intramedullary Nailing Method Versus Dynamic Hip Screw in Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, Ali; Taghavi, Roozbeh; Moghtadaei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Hip Screw fixation is currently considered as a standard treatment for pre-trochanteric fractures; however, due to the long-term hospitalization and some other complications, some researchers have proposed intramedullary nailing as the alternative surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to compare and examine the consequences of the using intramedullary nailing method versus Dynamic Hip Screw. Methods: In this study 114 patients with unstable Intertrochanteric fracture refer to Rasoul Akram hospital during 2011 to 2013 has been selected. After reduction, fixation surgery with PFN nail (60 patients) and Dynamic Hip Screw (54 patients) has been performed. All patients were screen during surgery and six months after surgery and some parameters like, bleeding, union, as well as complications such as collapse, varus and medialization of the distal fragment were record and patients. Results: About some parameters like cutting length, surgery duration, bleeding there were significant differences between two groups. In six months follow up period 2 patinas from nail and 8 patients from DHS group had non-union. Also from the point of radiologic and clinical parameters, like anterior thigh pain, cut out, medialization of the distal fragment, collapse of the neck, walking recovery and daily activities were significant between two groups. Conclusion: Due to the reduced hospital stay in intramedullary nailing method and the necessity of doing repeated surgery and applying intramedullary nailing when the patients are not treated with external fixation, the researchers recommend intramedullary nailing as the first option in treating such patients. PMID:26980933

  8. Lgr6 marks nail stem cells and is required for digit tip regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lehoczky, Jessica A.; Tabin, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    The tips of the digits of some mammals, including human infants and mice, are capable of complete regeneration after injury. This process is reliant on the presence of the overlaying nail organ and is mediated by a proliferative blastema. Epithelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to be necessary for mouse digit tip regeneration. Here, we report on Lgr5 and Lgr6 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 and 6), two important agonists of the Wnt pathway that are known to be markers of several epithelial stem cell populations. We find that Lgr5 is expressed in a dermal population of cells adjacent to the specialized epithelia surrounding the keratinized nail plate. Moreover, Lgr5-expressing cells contribute to this dermis, but not the blastema, during digit tip regeneration. In contrast, we find that Lgr6 is expressed within cells of the nail matrix portion of the nail epithelium, as well as in a subset of cells in the bone and eccrine sweat glands. Genetic lineage analysis reveals that Lgr6-expressing cells give rise to the nail during homeostatic growth, demonstrating that Lgr6 is a marker of nail stem cells. Moreover, Lgr6-expressing cells contribute to the blastema, suggesting a potential direct role for Lgr6-expressing cells during digit tip regeneration. This role is confirmed by analysis of Lgr6-deficient mice, which have both a nail and bone regeneration defect. PMID:26460010

  9. Is a Sliding Hip Screw or IM Nail the Preferred Implant for Intertrochanteric Fracture Fixation?

    PubMed Central

    Aros, Brian; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine whether patients who sustain an intertrochanteric fracture have better outcomes when stabilized using a sliding hip screw or an intramedullary nail. A 20% sample of Part A and B entitled Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older was used to generate a cohort of patients who sustained intertrochanteric femur fractures between 1999 and 2001. Two fracture implant groups, intramedullary nail and sliding hip screw, were identified using Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. The cohort consisted of 43,659 patients. Patients treated with an intramedullary nail had higher rates of revision surgery during the first year than those treated with a sliding hip screw (7.2% intramedullary nail versus 5.5% sliding hip screw). Mortality rates at 30 days (14.2% intramedullary nail versus 15.8% sliding hip screw) and 1 year (30.7% intramedullary nail versus 32.5% sliding hip screw) were similar. Adjusted secondary outcome measures showed significant increases in the intramedullary nail group relative to the sliding hip screw group for index hospital length of stay, days of rehabilitation services in the first 6 months after discharge, and total expenditures for doctor and hospital services. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18465180

  10. [Infection following centro-medullary nailing of diaphyseal femoral and tibial fractures].

    PubMed

    Lortat-Jacob, A; Sutour, J M; Beaufils, P

    1986-01-01

    The authors have treated 51 cases of infection arising after intramedullary nailing of the femur or tibia. In 3 cases amputation was required, 48 united, but 10 were still draining. The final result was obtained after an average of 15 months. An average of four procedures per patient were needed. All the cases were septic non-unions at the onset of treatment, except 18 cases which had already united. In these cases, simple removal of the femoral nail led to rapid healing. In contrast, healing was less easy to obtain in the tibia. In 33 septic non-unions, 12 femoral and 21 tibial, the best results at the femoral level were obtained by retaining the nail in situ. At the tibial level, retention of the nail was rarely followed by bony union. Removal of the nail and the use of external fixation gave good results for the infection, but rarely resulted in bony union (1 case out of 14). The failures were treated by further operation of bone resection and grafting. The authors recommend, in cases of tibial septic non-union after nailing that primary removal of the nail should be associated with bony resection and external fixation, followed by reconstructive grafting, either by open cancellous grafting extending to the fibula or conventional tibio fibular grafting. In 8 cases, 7 in the femur and 1 in the tibia, the infection extended throughout the entire diaphysis and in 3 of these cases, a large diaphyseal resection was required. PMID:3823510

  11. Lgr6 marks nail stem cells and is required for digit tip regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, Jessica A; Tabin, Clifford J

    2015-10-27

    The tips of the digits of some mammals, including human infants and mice, are capable of complete regeneration after injury. This process is reliant on the presence of the overlaying nail organ and is mediated by a proliferative blastema. Epithelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to be necessary for mouse digit tip regeneration. Here, we report on Lgr5 and Lgr6 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 and 6), two important agonists of the Wnt pathway that are known to be markers of several epithelial stem cell populations. We find that Lgr5 is expressed in a dermal population of cells adjacent to the specialized epithelia surrounding the keratinized nail plate. Moreover, Lgr5-expressing cells contribute to this dermis, but not the blastema, during digit tip regeneration. In contrast, we find that Lgr6 is expressed within cells of the nail matrix portion of the nail epithelium, as well as in a subset of cells in the bone and eccrine sweat glands. Genetic lineage analysis reveals that Lgr6-expressing cells give rise to the nail during homeostatic growth, demonstrating that Lgr6 is a marker of nail stem cells. Moreover, Lgr6-expressing cells contribute to the blastema, suggesting a potential direct role for Lgr6-expressing cells during digit tip regeneration. This role is confirmed by analysis of Lgr6-deficient mice, which have both a nail and bone regeneration defect. PMID:26460010

  12. Management of Infection After Intramedullary Nailing of Long Bone Fractures: Treatment Protocols and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Makridis, Kostas G; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Implant related sepsis is a relatively unusual complication of intra-medullary nail fixation of long bone fractures. Depending on the extent of infection, timing of diagnosis and progress of fracture union, different treatment strategies have been developed. The aim of this review article is to collect and analyze the existing evidence about the incidence and management of infection following IM nailing of long bone fractures and to recommend treatment algorithms that could be valuable in everyday clinical practice. After searching the P u b M e d /Medline databases, 1270 articles were found related to the topic during the last 20 years. The final review included 28 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only a few prospective studies exist to report on the management of infection following IM nailing of long-bone fractures. In general, stage I (early) infections only require antibiotic administration with/without debridement. Stage II (delayed) infections can be successfully treated with debridement, IM reaming, antibiotic nails, and administration of antibiotics. Infected non-unions are best treated with exchange nailing, antibiotic administration and when infection has been eradicated with graft implantation if it is needed. Debridement, exchange nailing and systemic administration of antibiotics is the best indication for stage III (late) infections, while stage III infected non-unions can successfully be treated with nail removal and Ilizarov frame, especially when large bone defects exist. PMID:23919097

  13. In Vitro Nail Penetration and Antifungal Activity of Tavaborole, a Boron-Based Pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Dina; Merchant, Tejal; Chanda, Sanjay; Zane, Lee T

    2015-06-01

    An effective topical antifungal medication must penetrate through the nail plate at sufficient concentrations to eradicate the fungal infection. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% is a novel boron-based pharmaceutical approved for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum or T mentagrophytes. Four in vitro studies assessed the antifungal activity and nail penetration of tavaborole. In Study 1, tavaborole demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25-2 μg/mL against all fungi tested; addition of 5% keratin powder did not affect the MIC against T rubrum. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values for tavaborole against T rubrum and T mentagrophytes were 8 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. In Study 2, tavaborole effectively penetrated through the nail plate; mean concentrations in the ventral/intermediate nail layer were significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 3, mean cumulative tavaborole penetration through ex vivo human nails was significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 4, tavaborole demonstrated superior nail penetration and fungicidal activity, as measured by zones of inhibition. These studies demonstrated the superior penetration of tavaborole through the nail plate vs ciclopirox. Tavaborole demonstrated robust antifungal activity, with low MIC and MFC values, even in the presence of keratin. PMID:26091387

  14. Nail Psoriasis in Children: Common or Uncommon? Results from a 10-Year Double-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Prevezas, Christos; Starace, Michela; Neri, Iria; Patrizi, Annalisa; Caserini, Maurizio; Palmieri, Renata; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study Our aim was to perform an extensive search of the literature on the prevalence of nail psoriasis in the pediatric population and to estimate it on our own database. Procedures Searching the most important databases yielded results of 16 papers published in a 40-year period which reported the prevalence of nail psoriasis in children. Furthermore, data gathered between 2004 and 2013 at two centers specialized in nail disorders were analyzed. Results The selected papers encompassed a total of 4,853 psoriatic children, of whom 762 (15.7%) had nail involvement. Concerning our data, a total of 68,839 children were seen in pediatric skin consultation in both clinics over a period of 10 years, 0.11% of which had nail involvement. The rate of psoriatic children presenting nail alterations was 19.4% in the Greek and 15.5% in the Italian patient groups. Conclusions and Message This is the retrospective study including the largest number of cases of nail psoriasis in the pediatric population. Our data are in line with the incidence estimation of the rest of Europe. PMID:27172521

  15. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 is secreted via non-classical pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhenwang; Xia, Chenglai; Huang, Renbin; Li, Xiaoning; Wang, Wan-Chun; Guo, Wangyuan; Duan, Lili; Luo, Weihao; Cao, Deliang; Luo, Di-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Mouse aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 (AKR1B8) has the highest similarity to human aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10), a secretory protein through lysosomes-mediated non-classical secretory pathway. To identify whether AKR1B8 is secreted through the same pathway, we carried out this study. Self-developed sandwich ELISA and western blot were used to detect AKR1B8 in cells and culture medium of CT-26 murine colon carcinoma cells. AKR1B8 releases in an independent manner to Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of ER-to-Golgi classical secretion pathway. Several factors, which are involved in the non-classical secretion pathway, such as temperature, ATP and calcium ion, regulated AKR1B8 secretion from mouse colorectal cancer cells CT-26. Lysosomotropic NH4Cl increased AKR1B8 secretion, and AKR1B8 was located in isolated lysosomes. Therefore, AKR1B8 is a new secretory protein through the lysosomes-mediated non-classical pathway. PMID:25120755

  16. Study of higher order non-classical properties of squeezed Kerr state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Devendra Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Recently, Prakash and Mishra [J. Phys. B: at. Mol. Opt. Phys., 39, 2291(2006); 40, 2531(2007)] have studied higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistic conditions for non-classicality in the form of general inequalities for expectation values of products of arbitrary powers of photon number and of photon-number fluctuation. It is, therefore, vital to study the generation of these higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics (phase-insensitive behavior) in a physically realizable medium and their relations to higher order squeezing (phase-sensitive behavior). In the present paper, we study higher order non-classical properties, such as Hong and Mandel squeezing, amplitude-squared squeezing and higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics, of squeezed Kerr state which is generated by squeezing the output of a Kerr medium whose input is coherent light. Such states can be realized if laser light is sent through an optical fiber and then into a degenerate parametric amplifier. It is established that the squeezed Kerr state can exhibit higher order non-classical properties.

  17. Molecular characterization of classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes from the golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q-Q; Zhong, G-H; He, K; Sun, D-D; Wan, Q-H

    2016-02-01

    Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allelic polymorphism is essential for competent antigen presentation. To improve the genotyping efforts in the golden pheasant, it is necessary to differentiate more accurately between classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In our study, all MHC class I genes were isolated from one golden pheasant based on two overlapping PCR amplifications. In total, six full-length class I nucleotide sequences (A-F) were identified, and four were novel. Two (A and C) belonged to the IA1 gene, two (B and D) were alleles derived from the IA2 gene through transgene amplification, and two (E and F) comprised a third novel locus, IA3 that was excluded from the core region of the golden pheasant MHC-B. IA1 and IA2 exhibited the broad expression profiles characteristic of classical loci, while IA3 showed no expression in multiple tissues and was therefore defined as a nonclassical gene. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three IA genes in the golden pheasant share a much closer evolutionary relationship than the corresponding sequences in other galliform species. This observation was consistent with high sequence similarity among them, which likely arises from the homogenizing effect of recombination. Our careful distinction between the classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes in the golden pheasant lays the foundation for developing locus-specific genotyping and establishing a good molecular marker system of classical MHC I loci. PMID:26700854

  18. Permeation studies of novel terbinafine formulations containing hydrophobins through human nails in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vejnovic, Ivana; Huonder, Cornelia; Betz, Gabriele

    2010-09-15

    Existing treatments of onychomycosis are not satisfactory. Oral therapies have many side effects and topical formulations are not able to penetrate into the human nail plate and deliver therapeutical concentrations of active agent in situ. The purpose of the present study was to determine the amount of terbinafine, which permeates through the human nail plate, from liquid formulations containing enhancers, namely hydrophobins A-C in the concentration of 0.1% (w/v). The used reference solution contained 10% (w/v) of terbinafine in 60% (v/v) ethanol/water without enhancer. Permeability studies have been performed on cadaver nails using Franz diffusion cells modified to mount nail plates and filled with 60% (v/v) ethanol/water in the acceptor chamber. Terbinafine was quantitatively determined by HPLC. The amount of terbinafine remaining in the nail was extracted by 96% ethanol from pulverized nail material after permeation experiment and presented as percentage of the dry nail weight before the milling test. Permeability coefficient (PC) of terbinafine from reference solution was determined to be 1.52E-10 cm/s. Addition of hydrophobins improved PC in the range of 3E-10 to 2E-9 cm/s. Remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail from reference solution was 0.83% (n=2). An increase of remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail was observed in two out of three tested formulations containing hydrophobins compared to the reference. In all cases, known minimum inhibitory concentration of terbinafine for dermatophytes (0.003 microg/ml) has been exceeded in the acceptor chamber of the diffusion cells. All tested proteins (hydrophobins) facilitated terbinafine permeation after 10 days of permeation experiment, however one of them achieved an outstanding enhancement factor of 13.05 compared to the reference. Therefore, hydrophobins can be included in the list of potential enhancers for treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:20620203

  19. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Steven K; Archdeacon, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. PMID:27298944

  20. Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wing Sin; Belsey, Natalie A.; Garrett, Natalie L.; Moger, Julian; Delgado-Charro, M. Begoña; Guy, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    The effective treatment of diseases of the nail remains an important unmet medical need, primarily because of poor drug delivery. To address this challenge, the diffusion, in real time, of topically applied chemicals into the human nail has been visualized and characterized using stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. Deuterated water (D2O), propylene glycol (PG-d8), and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO-d6) were separately applied to the dorsal surface of human nail samples. SRS microscopy was used to image D2O, PG-d8/DMSO-d6, and the nail through the O-D, -CD2, and -CH2 bond stretching Raman signals, respectively. Signal intensities obtained were measured as functions of time and of depth into the nail. It was observed that the diffusion of D2O was more than an order of magnitude faster than that of PG-d8 and DMSO-d6. Normalization of the Raman signals, to correct in part for scattering and absorption, permitted semiquantitative analysis of the permeation profiles and strongly suggested that solvent diffusion diverged from classical behavior and that derived diffusivities may be concentration dependent. It appeared that the uptake of solvent progressively undermined the integrity of the nail. This previously unreported application of SRS has permitted, therefore, direct visualization and semiquantitation of solvent penetration into the human nail. The kinetics of uptake of the three chemicals studied demonstrated that each altered its own diffusion in the nail in an apparently concentration-dependent fashion. The scale of the unexpected behavior observed may prove beneficial in the design and optimization of drug formulations to treat recalcitrant nail disease. PMID:26056283

  1. Glycated nail proteins as a new biomarker in management of the South Kivu Congolese diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Katchunga, Philippe B.; Mirindi, Patrick N.; Kishabongo, Antoine S.; Cikomola, Justin C.; Bwanamdogo, Socrate; Philippé, Jan; Speeckaert, Marijn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa, based on blood analyses, are hampered by infrastructural and cultural reasons. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of glycated nail proteins for diabetes mellitus. The second aim was to compare the course of short- and long-term glycemic biomarkers after 6 months of antidiabetic treatment. These objectives should support our hypothesis that glycated nail proteins could be used as an alternative glycemic biomarker. Materials and methods This case-control study consisted of 163 black diabetics and 67 non-diabetics of the South Kivu (Democratic Republic of Congo). Diagnostic accuracy of glycated nail proteins was evaluated using ROC curve analysis. At the start of the study, glycated nail protein concentrations were compared between diabetics and non-diabetics, using a nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) colorimetric method. In a subgroup of 30 diabetics, concentrations of glycated nail proteins, fasting glucose (Accu-Chek® Aviva), serum fructosamine (NBT) and HbA1c (DCA-2000+®) were measured at start and after 6 months. Results ROC analysis yielded an AUC of 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.76) and a cut-off point of 3.83 μmol/g nail. Concentration of glycated nail proteins was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in diabetics in comparison with non-diabetics. After 6 months of antidiabetic treatment, a significant drop in the fasting glucose concentration (P = 0.017) and concentration of glycated nail proteins (P = 0.008) was observed in contrast to serum fructosamine and HbA1c. Conclusions Measurement of glycated nail proteins could be used to diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26526975

  2. Diagnosis and misdiagnosis of poisoning with the cyanide precursor acetonitrile: nail polish remover or nail glue remover?

    PubMed

    Rainey, P M; Roberts, W L

    1993-03-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acetonitrile ingestion is critical to management. Often this involves differentiating nail polish remover (acetone) from nail glue remover (acetonitrile). Initial symptoms of acetonitrile ingestion are indistinguishable from those of acetone and common alcohols. However, acetonitrile is metabolized to cyanide, producing severe delayed toxicity. Acetonitrile produced increased serum osmolality and osmolal gap, but these findings are non-specific and normal values cannot rule out potentially fatal exposure. Acetone, but not acetonitrile, was detectable in urine or serum with Acetest tablets; both were unreactive with a ketone dipstick. Acetone and acetonitrile could be detected with routine gas chromatography methods for alcohols. Both substances had identical retention times on the widely used stationary phase, 5% Carbowax 20M on graphitized carbon, and with GasChrom 254. Three other systems afforded unique retention times, but acetonitrile was easily mistaken for ethanol in two. Physicians and laboratories must take care to avoid misdiagnosis of acetonitrile ingestion as exposure to acetone, ethanol or another alcohol. PMID:8476448

  3. Median Canaliform Dystrophy of Heller occurring on thumb and great toe nails.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    Median Canaliform Dystrophy of Heller is a rare but morphologically striking habit tic deformity of thumb nails characterized by midline longitudinal furrow with multiple transverse parallel lines. The proposed etiopathogenesis is repetitive trauma to the nail plate and cuticle, however some case reports have suggested familial occurrence and use of oral retinoids in its causation. Treatment is often prolonged and unsatisfactory, though some topical agents have been used successfully. We report a case of a young male patient presenting with Median Dystrophy of Heller affecting both Great thumb and toe nails simultaneously. PMID:27257330

  4. Self-administered behavior modification to reduce nail biting: incorporating simple technology to ensure treatment integrity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Habitual behaviors, such as problematic nail biting, are a common target for self-managed behavior-modification programs. The current self-experiment used self-monitoring in conjunction with a self-managed differential-reinforcement procedure for the treatment of problematic nail biting. A simple picture-comparison procedure allowed an independent observer to assist in monitoring treatment progress and outcomes and to ensure treatment integrity. Results provide support that the overall treatment package was successful in decreasing the occurrence of nail biting. Moreover, the treatment-integrity procedure enabled full-day monitoring to take place with limited requirement of a secondary observer. PMID:22532892

  5. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with nail changes and multisystem disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Jesus Semblano Bittencourt, Maraya; Moraes Dias, Carolina; Lima Lage, Thaiane; Magno Parijós, Amanda; Brito Mesquita, Letícia; Haber Carvalho, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Nail involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is uncommon and is said to indicate a poor prognosis. We describe a 2-year-old boy with onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis, and hemorrhages on his fingernails. He also had hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary involvement. The diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was made by histopathologic examination of skin and liver.The role of nail involvement as an unfavorable prognostic sign is still unclear and this paper concludes that nail involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a possible sign of multisystemic involvement. PMID:27617727

  6. Randomized Trial of Reamed and Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background: There remains a compelling biological rationale for both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Previous small trials have left the evidence for either approach inconclusive. We compared reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing with regard to the rates of reoperations and complications in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, blinded randomized trial of 1319 adults in whom a tibial shaft fracture was treated with either reamed or unreamed intramedullary nailing. Perioperative care was standardized, and reoperations for nonunion before six months were disallowed. The primary composite outcome measured at twelve months postoperatively included bone-grafting, implant exchange, and dynamization in patients with a fracture gap of <1 cm. Infection and fasciotomy were considered as part of the composite outcome, irrespective of the postoperative gap. Results: One thousand two hundred and twenty-six participants (93%) completed one year of follow-up. Of these, 622 patients were randomized to reamed nailing and 604 patients were randomized to unreamed nailing. Among all patients, fifty-seven (4.6%) required implant exchange or bone-grafting because of nonunion. Among all patients, 105 in the reamed nailing group and 114 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary outcome event (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.15). In patients with closed fractures, forty-five (11%) of 416 in the reamed nailing group and sixty-eight (17%) of 410 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.96; p = 0.03). This difference was largely due to differences in dynamization. In patients with open fractures, sixty of 206 in the reamed nailing group and forty-six of 194 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.78; p = 0

  7. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  8. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  9. Nailing Jell-O to a wall: regulating Internet pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Jeremy W

    2004-01-01

    The growth of the Internet pharmacy industry is challenging the ethical and regulatory systems that govern the sale and distribution of prescription drugs. New forms of regulation are necessary to prevent abuse and minimize mistakes by consumers, doctors, and pharmaceutical companies. Unfortunately, the mercurial nature of the Internet makes trying to regulate it "like trying to nail Jell-O to a wall." Effective regulation will require greater coordination among state, national, and international regulatory bodies. In addition, consumereducation programs are necessary to inform the public of the problems that are caused by the impersonal and commercial nature of marketing drugs over the Internet. At a minimum, the author suggests that states should uniformly adopt laws that prohibit a physician from prescribing drugs without any face-to-face communication between the physician and the patient, and the United States should work to make this a uniform international standard. PMID:15648537

  10. Human nail thermal diffusivity obtained using the open photoacoustic cell technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, D. T.; Nuglish, L. E. R.; Sehn, E.; Baesso, M. L.; Medina, A. N.; Bento, A. C.

    2005-06-01

    In this work the open photoacoustic cell technique (OPC) is applied for measuring the thermal diffusivity (α) of human nail tips. Human nails are natural polymers that receive less attention in clinical analysis than other human body parts, although they are very interesting in giving information about some external diseases like dystrophies. Diagnosis and therapy with topic application of anti-fungal creams could be monitored since thermal properties are known. The OPC experiments in the low frequency range were done and through photoacoustic signal decay, the OPC model were used for fitting data in order to obtain the thermal diffusivity of the human nail in vitro. The average value for the nail tips used was found to be α ˜ (8.9 ± 1.3) × 10-4 cm^2/s, when different light source is used for photothermal heating. This average is of the order of that evaluated for the human skin.

  11. Effect of proximal and distal venting during intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Martin, R; Leighton, R K; Petrie, D; Ikejiani, C; Smyth, B

    1996-11-01

    During intramedullary manipulation, 2 main phenomena occur. A dramatic rise in intramedullary pressure occurs followed by intravasation of damaged marrow tissue. There are concerns about the development of increased interosseous pressure during reaming and the potential for this to contribute to fat embolism syndrome. The intramedullary pressures generated with various intramedullary devices was determined and the effects of a fracture, with and without proximal and distal venting on these pressures were studied. Pressures generated in 78 embalmed anatomic specimen femurs and tibias were studied, leaving all soft tissues intact. Pressures were recorded for awl, guide rod, reamer, and nail insertion. Venting was done by creating a 4.5-mm hole in the cortex directly opposite the transducer. Proximal venting reduced proximal pressures to 80 mm Hg in the tibia (90% reduction) and 460 mm Hg in the femur (70% reduction). Distal venting reduced distal pressures to 65 mm and 30 mm in the tibias and femurs, respectively (90% reduction in pressures). Intramedullary pressures generated during nail or alignment rod insertion in anatomic specimen bone greatly exceeds the critical thresholds (150 mm Hg) thought to be responsible for fat emboli to the lung in the dogs. The introduction of a vent may reduce the chance of fat embolism. Despite the high association of raised intramedullary pressures and fat emboli in animal studies, there is no known critical threshold for humans. Therefore, although venting seems effective in reducing the intramedullary pressure in anatomic specimen bones, its efficacy in the patient with trauma remains to be determined. PMID:8913148

  12. Candida Parapsilosis and Candida Guillermondii: Emerging Pathogens in Nail Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fich, Felix; Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Pérez, Mario; Nauhm, Yalile; León, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails). Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%). Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%). While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%), those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%), those of spp. were 20 (4.3%) and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%). Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1%) were men and 331 (70,9%) were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of the

  13. Incidence, clinical manifestations and clipping of nail psoriasis in the dermatology center of the Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba*

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, Luiz Eduardo Fabricio de Melo; Slongo, Helena; Fabricio, Lincoln Helder Zambaldi; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Bonalumi Filho, Aguinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that often progresses with nail alterations. It is suspected that there is a correlation between nail psoriasis and enthesitis of the distal interphalangeal joint, seeming to serve as a predictor. Objectives To analyze the profile of patients with nail psoriasis and correlate the presence of nail alterations with psoriatic arthritis, quality of life, extent of psoriasis and the histopathology of the nail. Methods An observational cross-sectional study with 40 patients with a diagnosis of psoriasis and without systemic treatment. The patient profile was researched, including quality of life and evaluated for the presence of psoriatic arthritis. The severity of the skin psoriasis and the presence of nail lesions were evaluated. Nail fragments were collected and analyzed through clipping. It obtained 100% of positivity for psoriasis in the histopathology exam of the nail plate. Results Of the 40 patients, 65% were diagnosed with nail psoriasis. Suggestive findings of psoriatic arthritis in hands were present in 33%, being more frequent in those with nail alteration (p = 0.01). In 92.3% of patients diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis in the hands there was some nail injury. The most frequent injuries were pitting and onycholysis. Conclusions Patients with nail psoriasis are usually men, with worse quality of life and higher chance of psoriatic arthritis. The correlation between the nail involvement of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in hands confirms the association between these two forms. The clinical diagnosis of nail psoriasis did not correlate with the histological diagnosis.

  14. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  15. A Biomechanical Assessment of Hand/Arm Force with Pneumatic Nail Gun Actuation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian D.; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    A biomechanical model is presented, and combined with measurements of tip press force, to estimate total user hand force associated with two pneumatic nail gun trigger systems. The contact actuation trigger (CAT) can fire a nail when the user holds the trigger depressed first and then “bumps” the nail gun tip against the workpiece. With a full sequential actuation trigger (SAT) the user must press the tip against the workpiece prior to activating the trigger. The SAT is demonstrably safer in reducing traumatic injury risk, but increases the duration (and magnitude) of tip force exertion. Time integrated (cumulative) hand force was calculated for a single user from measurements of the tip contact force with the workpiece and transfer time between nails as inputs to a static model of the nail gun and workpiece in two nailing task orientations. The model shows the hand force dependence upon the orientation of the workpiece in addition to the trigger system. Based on standard time allowances from work measurement systems (i.e. Methods-Time Measurement - 1) it is proposed that efficient application of hand force with the SAT in maintaining tip contact can reduce force exertion attributable to the sequential actuation trigger to 2–8% (horizontal nailing) and 9–20% (vertical nailing) of the total hand/arm force. The present model is useful for considering differences in cumulative hand/arm force exposure between the SAT and CAT systems and may explain the appeal of the CAT trigger in reducing the user’s perception of muscular effort. PMID:26321780

  16. Successful intervention in a child with toxic methemoglobinemia due to nail polish remover poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Soumya; Sikka, Gurleen; Khaowas, Ajoy Kumar; Kumar, Virender

    2011-01-01

    Children are most susceptible to accidental exposure of common household substances and one of the common household substances is nail polish remover. We are presenting a case of accidental ingestion of nail polish remover with lethal methemoglobinemia (serum methemoglobin level-72%). This patient was treated successfully with injection methylene blue. However, even small amounts can be dangerous to children, so it is important to keep this and all household chemicals in a safe place PMID:22412293

  17. Successful intervention in a child with toxic methemoglobinemia due to nail polish remover poisoning.

    PubMed

    Patra, Soumya; Sikka, Gurleen; Khaowas, Ajoy Kumar; Kumar, Virender

    2011-09-01

    Children are most susceptible to accidental exposure of common household substances and one of the common household substances is nail polish remover. We are presenting a case of accidental ingestion of nail polish remover with lethal methemoglobinemia (serum methemoglobin level-72%). This patient was treated successfully with injection methylene blue. However, even small amounts can be dangerous to children, so it is important to keep this and all household chemicals in a safe place. PMID:22412293

  18. Permanent antibiotic impregnated intramedullary nail in diabetic limb salvage: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jason B.; Lowery, Nicholas J.; Burns, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    Managing complications after attempted hind foot and ankle arthrodesis with intramedullary nail fixation is a challenge. This situation becomes more problematic in the patient with diabetes mellitus and multiple comorbidities. Infection and subsequent osteomyelitis can be a devastating, limb threatening complication associated with these procedures. The surgeon must manage both the infectious process and the skeletal instability concurrently. This article provides a literature review and detailed management strategies for a modified technique of employing antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate-coated intramedullary nailing. PMID:22396833

  19. Investigation of different formulations for drug delivery through the nail plate.

    PubMed

    Vejnovic, Ivana; Simmler, Linda; Betz, Gabriele

    2010-02-15

    Topical therapies for nail diseases are limited by keratinized cells in the human nail plate. An optimal permeation enhancer would not only improve drug delivery through the nail plate, but would also open new possibilities for treating neighboring target sites if systemic circulation is reached. The aim of the present work was to identify permeation enhancers and to improve the understanding of physicochemical parameters that influence drug permeation. Caffeine served as the model drug, and formulations were prepared in water and 20% (v/v) ethanol/water solutions. Tested enhancers were urea, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), docusate sodium salt (DSS), boric acid, and fungal proteins, such as hydrophobins. Permeability studies employed cadaver nails in modified Franz-type diffusion cells. The permeability coefficient of caffeine in ethanol/water was determined to be 1.56 E-08 cm/s and was improved to 2.27 E-08 cm/s by the addition of NAC. Formulations containing either methanol or DMSO showed the highest permeability coefficients in the range of 5-7.5 E-08 cm/s. Enhancers could be classified according to their permeation enhancement: methanol>class II hydrophobins>DMSO>followed by class I hydrophobins and urea. Ethanol at a concentration of 20% (v/v) in water did not influence swelling of nail samples. Hydrophobins are suggested to be efficient in drug delivery through the nail plate. PMID:19941943

  20. Defining the role of intramedullary nailing for fractures of the distal radius: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jordan, R W; Saithna, A

    2015-10-01

    This article is a systematic review of the published literature about the biomechanics, functional outcome and complications of intramedullary nailing of fractures of the distal radius. We searched the Medline and EMBASE databases and included all studies which reported the outcome of intramedullary (IM) nailing of fractures of the distal radius. Data about functional outcome, range of movement (ROM), strength and complications, were extracted. The studies included were appraised independently by both authors using a validated quality assessment scale for non-controlled studies and the CONSORT statement for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The search strategy revealed 785 studies, of which 16 were included for full paper review. These included three biomechanical studies, eight case series and five randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The biomechanical studies concluded that IM nails were at least as strong as locking plates. The clinical studies reported that IM nailing gave a comparable ROM, functional outcome and grip strength to other fixation techniques. However, the mean complication rate of intramedullary nailing was 17.6% (0% to 50%). This is higher than the rates reported in contemporary studies for volar plating. It raises concerns about the role of intramedullary nailing, particularly when comparative studies have failed to show that it has any major advantage over other techniques. Further adequately powered RCTs comparing the technique to both volar plating and percutaneous wire fixation are needed. PMID:26430012

  1. Nail-gun injuries treated in emergency departments--United States, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    2007-04-13

    Speed, ease of use, and ready availability have made pneumatic nail guns a common tool used in work settings such as residential construction and wood-product fabrication. In addition, the tools are now readily available to consumers, extending to the public what had been primarily a potential work-related hazard. To characterize nail-gun injuries in work and nonwork settings, patients with nail-gun injuries treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments (EDs) were studied by using the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC's) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) and the NEISS occupational injury supplement (NEISS-Work) maintained by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that during the 5-year period 2001-2005, an average of approximately 37,000 patients with injuries related to nail-gun use were treated annually in EDs, with 40% of injuries (14,800) occurring among consumers. In addition, data on ED-treated injuries indicated that, in 2005, nail-gun injuries among consumers were approximately three times higher than in 1991 (4,200). Additional measures are needed to prevent nail-gun injuries among both workers and consumers. PMID:17431377

  2. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing for the treatment of complicated juvenile bone cysts of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Knorr, P; Schmittenbecher, P P; Dietz, H-G

    2003-02-01

    Juvenile bone cysts usually are asymptomatic and may manifest as pathological fractures. Since the new method of flexible intramedullary nailing (" Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing" - ESIN or " Embrochage Centro- Médullaire Elastique Stable" - ECMES) has demonstrated superb results in the treatment of non-pathologic fractures of the long bones in childhood, this method is rapidly gaining popularity for the treatment of spontaneous or pathological fractures. Given the self-limiting natural history of juvenile bone cysts with eventual spontaneous healing, our goal is to stabilise the pathological fracture and the biomechanically weakened humerus. We treated 15 patients with 16 pathological fractures (one re-fracture) due to juvenile bone cysts of the proximal humerus. All fractures healed completely without pseudarthrosis. Complications were a secondary fracture in otherwise correctly positioned nails. Five of the 15 implants remain in situ, in 6 cases a repeat osteosynthesis was necessary, in one case the nails had to be changed because of the re-fracture. Ten of the 15 juvenile bone cysts healed over a period of 3 years, the nails were removed and so far there have been no further fractures in this group. In the other 5 cases, the juvenile bone cysts have progressively filled with sclerotic bone, and the nails remain in situ. PMID:12664415

  3. A calibration method for proposed XRF measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings.

    PubMed

    Gherase, Mihai R; Fleming, David E B

    2011-10-21

    A calibration method for proposed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings is demonstrated. Phantom nail clippings were produced from a whole nail phantom (0.7 mm thickness, 25 × 25 mm(2) area) and contained equal concentrations of arsenic and selenium ranging from 0 to 20 µg g(-1) in increments of 5 µg g(-1). The phantom nail clippings were then grouped in samples of five different masses: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg for each concentration. Experimental x-ray spectra were acquired for each of the sample masses using a portable x-ray tube and a detector unit. Calibration lines (XRF signal in a number of counts versus stoichiometric elemental concentration) were produced for each of the two elements. A semi-empirical relationship between the mass of the nail phantoms (m) and the slope of the calibration line (s) was determined separately for arsenic and selenium. Using this calibration method, one can estimate elemental concentrations and their uncertainties from the XRF spectra of human nail clippings. PMID:21937772

  4. A calibration method for proposed XRF measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherase, Mihai R.; Fleming, David E. B.

    2011-10-01

    A calibration method for proposed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings is demonstrated. Phantom nail clippings were produced from a whole nail phantom (0.7 mm thickness, 25 × 25 mm2 area) and contained equal concentrations of arsenic and selenium ranging from 0 to 20 µg g-1 in increments of 5 µg g-1. The phantom nail clippings were then grouped in samples of five different masses: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg for each concentration. Experimental x-ray spectra were acquired for each of the sample masses using a portable x-ray tube and a detector unit. Calibration lines (XRF signal in a number of counts versus stoichiometric elemental concentration) were produced for each of the two elements. A semi-empirical relationship between the mass of the nail phantoms (m) and the slope of the calibration line (s) was determined separately for arsenic and selenium. Using this calibration method, one can estimate elemental concentrations and their uncertainties from the XRF spectra of human nail clippings.

  5. Non-classical nuclei and growth kinetics of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys during ageing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xin

    2014-01-10

    In this manuscript, we quantitatively calculated the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys. The concentration profiles of the critical nuclei and nucleation energy barriers were predicted by the constrained shrinking dimer dynamics (CSDD) method. It is found that Cr concentration distribution in the critical nuclei strongly depend on the overall Cr concentration as well as temperature. The critical nuclei are non-classical because the concentration in the nuclei is smaller than the thermodynamic equilibrium value. These results are in agreement with atomic probe observation. The growth kinetics of both classical and non-classical nuclei was investigated by the phase field approach. The simulations of critical nucleus evolution showed a number of interesting phenomena: 1) a critical classical nucleus first shrinks toward its non-classical nucleus and then grows; 2) a non-classical nucleus has much slower growth kinetics at its earlier growth stage compared to the diffusion-controlled growth kinetics. 3) a critical classical nucleus grows faster at the earlier growth stage than the non-classical nucleus. All of these results demonstrate that it is critical to introduce the correct critical nuclei in order to correctly capture the kinetics of precipitation.

  6. Non-classical nuclei and growth kinetics of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys during ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xin

    2014-03-01

    In this manuscript, we have quantitatively calculated the thermodynamic properties of the critical nuclei of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys. The concentration profiles of the critical nuclei and nucleation energy barriers were predicted by the constrained shrinking dimer dynamics method. It is found that Cr concentration distribution in the critical nuclei strongly depends on the overall Cr concentration as well as on the temperature. The critical nuclei are non-classical because the concentration in the nuclei is smaller than the thermodynamic equilibrium value. These results are in agreement with atomic probe observation. The growth kinetics of both classical and non-classical nuclei was investigated by the phase-field approach. The simulations of critical nucleus evolution showed a number of interesting phenomena: (1) a critical classical nucleus first shrinks toward its non-classical nucleus and then grows; (2) a non-classical nucleus has much slower growth kinetics at its earlier growth stage compared to the diffusion-controlled growth kinetics and (3) a critical classical nucleus grows faster at the earlier growth stage than does a non-classical nucleus. All of these results demonstrate that it is critical to introduce the correct critical nuclei in order to correctly capture the kinetics of precipitation.

  7. Control strategies for yellow nutsedge and nightshade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge is a perennial weed that is difficult to control in several crops once established. It is particularly problematic in onion production. Yellow nutsedge reproduces and is dispersed primarily by tubers that are formed at the apical ends of underground rhizomes. Tubers may remain viable...

  8. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. PMID:15498174

  9. History of Epidemiological Aspects of Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Wilbur G.

    1982-01-01

    This review attempts to follow the trail of the development of epidemiological aspects and concepts of yellow fever and yellow fever transmission (vectors, vertebrate hosts, spacing of epidemic outbreaks) with less emphasis on well-documented early history and more emphasis on epidemiological problems still remaining, plus discussion of possible means of resolving certain of these problems. PMID:6758368

  10. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  11. PROSPECTIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR YELLOW STARTHISTLE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle is an important alien weed that has invaded 20 million acres in the western U.S. Yellow starthistle is spiny plant that interferes with grazing livestock and outdoors recreation, it is fatally poisonous to horses, and it outcompetes desirable vegetation. Previously released agen...

  12. Low-Velocity Nail-Gun Injuries to the Interventricular Septum: Report of Two Cases, One in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Michalsen, Kara L.; Iguidbashian, John P.; Kyser, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Nail-gun injury to the heart is rare. Nail-gun injury to the interventricular septum is rarer: we could find only 5 reported cases, and none involving a child. We report 2 additional cases, in which nails penetrated the interventricular septum without causing acute pericardial tamponade, heart block, or shunt across the septum. Transesophageal echocardiography provides a dynamic way to evaluate the patient preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. In the cases reported here, both the adult with multiple interventricular nails and the child with a single nail underwent foreign-object removal via median sternotomy. The child needed cardiopulmonary bypass for removal of the nail. There were no short-term or long-term sequelae from these interventricular septal injuries. PMID:26413027

  13. Retrograde Intramedullary Nailing with a Blocking Pin Technique for Reduction of Periprosthetic Supracondylar Femoral Fracture after Total Knee Arthroplasty: Technical Note with a Compatibility Chart of the Nail to Femoral Component

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Daisuke; Takasago, Tomoya; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) present a clear management challenge, and retrograde intramedullary nails have recently gained widespread acceptance in treatment of these fractures. In two cases, we found a blocking screw technique, first reported by Krettek et al., was useful in the reduction of the fractures. Both patients attained preinjury mobility after intramedullary nailing. Moreover, we present a chart summarizing the notch designs of various femoral components because some prosthetic knee designs are not amenable to retrograde nailing. We hope this will be helpful in determining indications for retrograde nailing in periprosthetic fractures after TKA. PMID:25574411

  14. Nonclassical properties of coherent light in a pair of coupled anharmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Nasir; Mandal, Swapan

    2016-01-01

    The Hamiltonian and hence the equations of motion involving the field operators of two anharmonic oscillators coupled through a linear one is framed. It is found that these equations of motion involving the non-commuting field operators are nonlinear and are coupled to each other and hence pose a great problem for getting the solutions. In order to investigate the dynamics and hence the nonclassical properties of the radiation fields, we obtain approximate analytical solutions of these coupled nonlinear differential equations involving the non-commuting field operators up to the second orders in anharmonic and coupling constants. These solutions are found useful for investigating the squeezing of pure and mixed modes, amplitude squared squeezing, principal squeezing, and the photon antibunching of the input coherent radiation field. With the suitable choice of the parameters (photon number in various field modes, anharmonic, and coupling constants, etc.), we calculate the second order variances of field quadratures of various modes and hence the squeezing, amplitude squared, and mixed mode squeezing of the input coherent light. In the absence of anharmonicities, it is found that these nonlinear nonclassical phenomena (squeezing of pure and mixed modes, amplitude squared squeezing and photon antibunching) are completely absent. The percentage of squeezing, mixed mode squeezing, amplitude squared squeezing increase with the increase of photon number and the dimensionless interaction time. The collapse and revival phenomena in squeezing, mixed mode squeezing and amplitude squared squeezing are exhibited. With the increase of the interaction time, the monotonic increasing nature of the squeezing effects reveal the presence of unwanted secular terms. It is established that the mere coupling of two oscillators through a third one does not produces the squeezing effects of input coherent light. However, the pure nonclassical phenomena of antibunching of photons in vacuum

  15. Regulation of Sertoli-Germ Cell Adhesion and Sperm Release by FSH and Nonclassical Testosterone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shupe, John; Cheng, Jing; Puri, Pawan; Kostereva, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and FSH act in synergy to produce the factors required to maximize the production of spermatozoa and male fertility. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these hormones support spermatogenesis are not well established. Recently, we identified a nonclassical mechanism of testosterone signaling in cultured rat Sertoli cells. We found that testosterone binding to the androgen receptor recruits and activates Src tyrosine kinase. Src then causes the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, which results in the phosphorylation and activation of the ERK MAPK and the cAMP response element-binding protein transcription factor. In this report, we find that FSH inhibits testosterone-mediated activation of ERK and the MAPK pathway in Sertoli cells via the protein kinase A-mediated inhibition of Raf kinase. In addition, FSH, as well as inhibitors of Src and ERK kinase activity, reduced germ cell attachment to Sertoli cells in culture. Using pathway-specific androgen receptor mutants we found that the nonclassical pathway is required for testosterone-mediated increases in germ cell attachment to Sertoli cells. Studies of seminiferous tubule explants determined that Src kinase, but not ERK kinase, activity is required for the release of sperm from seminiferous tubule explants. These findings suggest the nonclassical testosterone-signaling pathway acts via Src and ERK kinases to facilitate the adhesion of immature germ cells to Sertoli cells and through Src to permit the release of mature spermatozoa. In contrast, FSH acts to limit testosterone-mediated ERK kinase activity and germ cell attachment. PMID:21177760

  16. Programs for computing abscissas and weights for classical and nonclassical Gaussian quadrature formulas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs for computing Gaussian quadrature abscissas and weights are described. For the classical case the programs use Laguerre iteration to compute abscissas as zeros of orthogonal polynomials. The polynomials are evaluated from known recursion coefficients. The nonclassical case is handled similarly except that the recursion coefficients are computed by numerical integration. A sample problem, with input and output, is presented to illustrate the use of the programs. It computes the quadrature abscissas and weights associated with the weight function over the interval (0,1) for quadrature orders from 16 to 96 in increments of 8.

  17. Classical and non-classical proangiogenic factors as a target of antiangiogenic therapy in tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Marech, Ilaria; Leporini, Christian; Ammendola, Michele; Porcelli, Mariangela; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2016-09-28

    Angiogenesis is sustained by classical and non-classical proangiogenic factors (PFs) acting in tumor microenvironment and these factors are also potential targets of antiangiogenic therapies. All PFs induce the overexpression of several signaling pathways that lead to migration and proliferation of endothelial cells contributing to tumor angiogenesis and survival of cancer cells. In this review, we have analyzed each PF with its specific receptor/s and we have summarized the available antiangiogenic drugs (e.g. monoclonal antibodies) targeting these PFs, some of these agents have already been approved, others are currently in development for the treatment of several human malignancies. PMID:26238184

  18. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Nonclassical State of a Massive Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, F.; Clark, J. B.; Simmonds, R. W.; Aumentado, J.; Teufel, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    By coupling a macroscopic mechanical oscillator to two microwave cavities, we simultaneously prepare and monitor a nonclassical steady state of mechanical motion. In each cavity, correlated radiation pressure forces induced by two coherent drives engineer the coupling between the quadratures of light and motion. We, first, demonstrate the ability to perform a continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of a single mechanical quadrature at a rate that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rate, while avoiding measurement backaction by more than 13 dB. Second, we apply this measurement technique to independently verify the preparation of a squeezed state in the mechanical oscillator, resolving quadrature fluctuations 20% below the quantum noise.

  19. Magnetic flux in a mesoscopic SQUID controlled by nonclassical electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajka, Jerzy; Łuczka, Jerzy

    2009-11-01

    We analyze SQUID coupled to a nonclassical electromagnetic field (NEM) and show that properties of the SQUID can be manipulated by a choice of a state of NEM. In particular, energy or fluctuations of magnetic flux threading the loop of the SQUID can be resolved into separate lines for each photon number state of one-mode NEM. The impact of two-mode NEM prepared in entangled Bell states is discussed. The findings suggest an experimental method of detection of photon states: the SQUID response is dependent on the number of photons in one-mode NEM and on the Bell states of a two-mode NEM.

  20. Superposition of two nonlinear coherent states {π}/{2} out of phase and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, O.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2009-09-01

    Considering the concept of " nonlinear coherent states", we will study the interference effects by introducing the " superposition of two classes of nonlinear coherent states" which are {π}/{2} out of phase. The formalism has then been applied to a few physical systems as "harmonious states", " SU(1,1) coherent states" and "the center of mass motion of trapped ion". Finally, the nonclassical properties such as sub-Poissonian statistics, quadrature squeezing, amplitude-squared squeezing and Wigner distribution function of the superposed states have been investigated, numerically. Especially, as we will observe the Wigner functions of the superposed states take negative values in phase space, while their original components do not.

  1. C{sub 62}: Theoretical evidence for a nonclassical fullerene with a heptagonal ring

    SciTech Connect

    Ayuela, A.; Schmidt, R.; Seifert, G.; Fowler, P.W.; Mitchell, D.; Zerbetto, F.

    1996-09-26

    Six different levels of theory agree in predicting a C{sub 62} cage with one heptagonal, 13 pentagonal, and 19 hexagonal rings to be of lower total energy than all 2385 `classical` 12-pentagon fullerene isomers. At the LDA level of density functional theory the nonclassical structure, which uniquely has three pentagon-pentagon and five pentagon-heptagon edges, is more stable than its nearest fullerene rival by 36 kJ mol{sup -1}. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Nonclassical State of a Massive Object

    PubMed Central

    Lecocq, F.; Clark, J. B.; Simmonds, R.W.; Aumentado, J.; Teufel, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    By coupling a macroscopic mechanical oscillator to two microwave cavities, we simultaneously prepare and monitor a nonclassical steady state of mechanical motion. In each cavity, correlated radiation pressure forces induced by two coherent drives engineer the coupling between the quadratures of light and motion. We, first, demonstrate the ability to perform a continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of a single mechanical quadrature at a rate that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rate, while avoiding measurement backaction by more than 13 dB. Second, we apply this measurement technique to independently verify the preparation of a squeezed state in the mechanical oscillator, resolving quadrature fluctuations 20% below the quantum noise. PMID:27057422

  3. Heat control in opto-mechanical system using quantum non-classicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sushamana; Senwar, Subash

    2016-05-01

    Cooling of matter to the quantum ground state is a primary directive of quantum control. In other words, to extract entropy from a quantum system, efficient indirect quantum measurements may be implemented. The main objective is the cooling of the oscillator either to its motional ground state or to non-classical states, such as low-number Fock states, squeezed states or entangled states. It is shown that the use of quantum control procedure is better choice for even experimental realizations because it leads to a squeezed steady state with less than one phonon on average. The steady state of system corresponds to cooling of the system.

  4. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  5. Experimental therapies for yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Julander, Justin G

    2013-02-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  6. Mammalian non-classical major histocompatibility complex I and its receptors: Important contexts of gene, evolution, and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Pratheek, B. M.; Nayak, Tapas K.; Sahoo, Subhransu S.; Mohanty, Prafulla K.; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chakraborty, Ntiya G.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary conserved, less-polymorphic, nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules: Qa-1 and its human homologue human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) along with HLA-F, G and H cross-talk with the T-cell receptors and also interact with natural killer T-cells and other lymphocytes. Moreover, these nonclassical MHC molecules are known to interact with CD94/NKG2 heterodimeric receptors to induce immune responses and immune regulations. This dual role of Qa-1/HLA-E in terms of innate and adaptive immunity makes them more interesting. This review highlights the new updates of the mammalian nonclassical MHC-I molecules in terms of their gene organization, evolutionary perspective and their role in immunity. PMID:25400340

  7. Preparation of Entangled Coherent States and Correspondence Between Entanglement and Non-Classical Properties in Circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Juju; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the controllable generation of entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED). In our scheme, the easy integration of solid-state quantum circuit is exploited. In particular, through manipulating the external capacitor or external classical microwave impulse, the coupling between superconducting qubits and cavity can be manipulated, the entanglement effect between qubit and field modes can be enhanced and the decoherence effect can be effectively suppressed. We further discuss the correspondence between quantum entanglement and some non-classical effects such as the squeezing of entangled coherent state field, the anti-buching effect. The results show that the time evolution of the quantum entanglement between field modes is always accompanied by the synchronous changes of certain non-classical effect. When the quantum entanglement reaches maximum, the anti-bunching (or compression effect) almost reaches maximum synchronously. Once entanglement sudden death occurs, the non-classical effects disappear.

  8. Expression of bovine non-classical major histocompatibility complex class 1 proteins in mouse P815 and human K562 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins can be expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins. To investigate whether bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins are expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins, and to assess the reactivity pattern of monoclonal antibodies with non-class...

  9. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Moeller, Steffen; Suganthan, P.N.; Martinetz, Thomas

    2010-01-15

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  10. A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever*

    PubMed Central

    Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4538039

  11. Drug-induced skin, nail and hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; Sassolas, Bruno; Roujeau, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Drug eruptions are among the most common adverse drug reactions, affecting approximately 3% of hospitalised patients. Although the rate of severe cutaneous adverse reactions to medications is low, these reactions can affect anyone who takes medication, and can result in death or disability. Two general patterns can be distinguished, depending on the type of onset of these cutaneous adverse drug reactions: acute or chronic. Acute-onset events are usually rather specific cutaneous 'syndromes' that constitute emergencies and should therefore be promptly recognised and treated, while chronic-onset events often present as dermatological diseases. The challenge is therefore to recognise the drug aetiology in front of a 'classical' dermatosis such as acne, lichen or pemphigus. Therefore, clinicians should carefully evaluate the signs or symptoms of all adverse reactions thought to be drug related, and discontinue the offending agent when feasible. Erythematous drug eruptions are the most frequent and less severe acute immune drug-induced rashes, and are sometimes difficult to differentiate from viral eruptions. On the other hand, acute urticaria and angioedema are sometimes life-threatening eruptions for which a drug aetiology must be investigated. Photosensitivity, vasculitis and skin necrosis belong to the acute onset reactions, which are not always drug-induced, in contrast to fixed drug eruptions. The early recognition of acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis, DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are of high importance because of the specific mechanisms involved and the different prognosis of each of these diseases. Chronic onset drug-induced disorders include pigmentary changes, drug-induced autoimmune bullous diseases, lupus, pseudo lymphoma and acneiform eruptions; these are discussed, along with specific data on drug-induced hair and nail disorders. As the disorders are

  12. An Effective Approach for Optimization of a Composite Intramedullary Nail for Treating Femoral Shaft Fractures.

    PubMed

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    The high stiffness of conventional intramedullary (IM) nails may result in stress shielding and subsequent bone loss following healing in long bone fractures. It can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. This paper introduces a new approach for the optimization of a fiber-reinforced composite nail made of carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy based on a combination of the classical laminate theory, beam theory, finite-element (FE) method, and bone remodeling model using irreversible thermodynamics. The optimization began by altering the composite stacking sequence and thickness to minimize axial stiffness, while maximizing torsional stiffness for a given range of bending stiffnesses. The selected candidates for the seven intervals of bending stiffness were then examined in an experimentally validated FE model to evaluate their mechanical performance in transverse and oblique femoral shaft fractures. It was found that the composite nail having an axial stiffness of 3.70 MN and bending and torsional stiffnesses of 70.3 and 70.9 N⋅m², respectively, showed an overall superiority compared to the other configurations. It increased compression at the fracture site by 344.9 N (31%) on average, while maintaining fracture stability through an average increase of only 0.6 mm (49%) in fracture shear movement in transverse and oblique fractures when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. The long-term results obtained from the bone remodeling model suggest that the proposed composite IM nail reduces bone loss in the femoral shaft from 7.9% to 3.5% when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. This study proposes a number of practical guidelines for the design of composite IM nails. PMID:26458035

  13. Nail involvement in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis: prevalence and clinical features*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of worldwide distribution with a prevalence of 1 to 3%. Nail psoriasis is estimated in 50% of patients with psoriasis, and in the presence of joint involvement, it can reach 80%. OBJECTIVE: To study the nail changes - and their clinical implications - presented by patients with psoriasis vulgaris under surveillance in a university hospital from the south of Brazil. METHODS: his cross-sectional study evaluated 65 adult patients from January 2012 to March 2013. Cutaneous severity was assessed according to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). The Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) was used to evaluate patient's nails. The diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis was established according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR). RESULTS: The prevalence of NP was 46.1%. These patients had a median [interquartilic range (IQR)] NAPSI of 1 (0-15). A total of 63.3% of patients reported aesthetic discomfort or functional impairment related to their nails. Onycholysis was the most common feature (80%). When compared with patients without nail involvement, patients with NP had lower mean age at psoriasis onset [21 (18-41) vs. 43 (30-56) years, p=0,001]; longer disease duration [15.5 (10-24) vs. 6 (2-12) years, p=0.001]; higher PASI [9.2 (5-17) vs. 3.7 (2-10), p=0.044], higher frequency of psoriatic arthritis (43.3 vs. 3.7, p = 0.002) and more often reported family history of psoriasis (40% vs. 7.4%, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Onycholysis was the most frequent finding and most patients feel uncomfortable with the psoriatic nail changes that they experience. PMID:26131859

  14. Use of Protective Gloves in Nail Salons in Manhattan, New York City

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Nail salon owners in New York City (NYC) are required to provide their workers with gloves and it is their responsibility to maintain healthy, safe working spaces for their employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which nail salon workers wear protective gloves. Methods: A Freedom of Information Law request was submitted to New York Department of State’s Division of Licensing Services for a full list of nail salons in Manhattan, NYC. A sample population of 800 nail salons was identified and a simple random sample (without replacement) of 30% (n=240) was selected using a random number generator. Researchers visited each nail salon from October to December of 2015, posing as a potential customer to determine if nail salon workers were wearing gloves. Results: Among the 169 salons in which one or more workers was observed providing services, a total of 562 workers were observed. For 149 salons, in which one or more worker was observed providing services, none of the workers were wearing gloves. In contrast, in six of the salons observed, in which one or more workers was providing services, all of the workers (1 in 2 sites, 2 in 1 site, 3 in 2 sites, and 4 in 1 site) were wearing gloves. Almost three-quarters of the total number of workers observed (n=415, 73.8%) were not wearing gloves. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that, despite recent media attention and legislation, the majority of nail salon workers we observed were not wearing protective gloves when providing services. PMID:27499167

  15. Advanced interlocking systems to improve heavy-load-bearing characteristics of flexible intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Berger, Leopold; Eichler, Johannes; Ryll, E Jonathan S; Fischerauer, Stefan; Raschke, Michael J; Kolbitsch, Andreas; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2016-11-01

    Flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) is a minimally invasive and widespread standard method for osteosynthesis of pediatric long bone fractures. In the case of unstable fractures of the lower extremity, interlocking systems need to be used to prevent axial shortening and subsequent perforation of the nail at its insertion site. In the present study, four different screw-fixed interlocking systems for FINs (Hofer TwinPlug with two 3-mm titanium interlocking screws, Hofer FixPlug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw, Hofer Plug with 3.5-mm titanium interlocking screw, and Hofer Plug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw) in comparison with the commonly used Ender stainless steel nails (locked with 3.5-mm screw) were experimentally investigated in cadaveric lamb tibiae, regarding their load characteristics and failure modes in the case of heavy loading. The specimens were subjected to sequential axial cyclic loading of 5000cycles with stepwise increase of the load amplitude until failure. Migration of locking screws and internal damage of bone tissue was quantified by micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. Ender nails failed on average at a peak load of 800 N, TwinPlugs at 1367 N, FixPlugs at 1222 N, Plugs 3.5mm at 1225 N and Plugs 3.0mm at 971 N. TwinPlugs, FixPlugs, and Plugs 3.5mm failed in a slow manner over several hundred loading cycles, whereas Ender nails and Plugs 3.0mm exhibited abrupt failure without any prior indication. Our results confirm that axial stability of FIN can be further improved by screw-fixed plugs by simultaneously avoiding shortcomings of an eye-locked system, which the Ender nails are. Considering biomechanical results, plug interlocking systems with 3.5-mm screws should be favored over conventional Ender nails and plugs with 3-mm screws. PMID:27524031

  16. Effect of angular stability and other locking parameters on the mechanical performance of intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Stefanie; Gerber, Claus; von Oldenburg, Geert; Kessler, Manuel; Stephan, Daniel; Augat, Peter

    2015-04-01

    To extend the indications of intramedullary nails for distal or proximal fractures, nails with angle stable locking options have been developed. Studies on the mechanical efficacy of these systems have been inconsistent likely due to confounding variables such as number, geometry, or orientation of the screws, as well as differences in the loading mode. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of angular stability on the mechanical performance of intramedullary nails. The results could then be compared with the effects of various locking screw parameters and loading modes. A generic model was developed consisting of artificial bone material and titanium intramedullary nail that provided the option to systematically modify the locking screw configuration. Using a base configuration, the following parameters were varied: number of screws, distance and orientation between screws, blocking of screws, and simulation of freehand locking. Tension/compression, torsional, and bending loads were applied. Stiffness and clearance around the zero loading point were determined. Angular stability had no effect on stiffness but completely blocked axial clearance (p=0.003). Simulation of freehand locking reduced clearance for all loading modes by at least 70% (p<0.003). The greatest increases in torsional and bending stiffness were obtained by increasing the number of locking screws (up to 80%, p<0.001) and by increasing the distance between them (up to 70%, p<0.001). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the mechanical performance of IM nailing can be affected by various locking parameters of which angular stability is only one. While angular stability clearly reduces clearance of the screw within the nail, mechanical stiffness depends more on the number of screws and their relative distance. Thus, optimal mechanical performance in IM nailing could potentially be obtained by combining angular stability with optimal arrangement of locking screws. PMID

  17. The use of immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of the nail matrix in biopsies of ingrown toenails.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, A; Martínez-Nova, A

    2013-01-01

    The success of surgical approaches to ingrown toenails depends on the extraction (either partial or total) of the nail matrix. The identification of the nail matrix in specimens taken from ingrown toenails is not always easy because of the fragmentation of the biopsies, difficulties in matrix orientations and the heavy inflammatory infiltrate. In biopsies taken from polydactyly surgeries, the matrix shows a peculiar pattern of expression of the CD10 and CD34 markers that differs from the one shown by the lateral nail fold. We investigated whether such a pattern was also found in biopsies from ingrown toenails, which can be greatly distorted through inflammation and fibrosis. We examined 15 biopsies from cases of ingrown toenails at different clinical stages. We performed routine Hematoxylin-Eosin studies, as well as immunohistochemical studies with CD10, CD34, HMB-45 and Melan-A. The morphologic changes in all cases were typical of those found in ingrown toenails and their intensities correlated with the clinical stages. Matrical keratinization was identified in all of the biopsies. Morphologic features that are compatible with the lateral nail fold were also seen in seven of the 15 biopsies. In five cases, an intermediate area of transition between matrix and lateral nail folds was heavily distorted by inflammatory changes. Melanocytic markers showed scattered intra-epidermal cells in all but one case. HMB-45 and Melan-A were equally good in demonstrating the melanocytic population. We concluded that the expression of CD10 and CD34 in cases of ingrown toenails is preserved and it follows the pattern described in nails from polydactyly. Therefore, both markers can be useful in fragmented specimens taken from surgeries for ingrown toenails, in order to confirm the removal of the nail matrix. PMID:23771067

  18. Development of an interlocked nail for segmental defects in the rabbit tibia.

    PubMed

    LeCronier, David J; Papakonstantinou, John S; Gheevarughese, Vineetha; Beran, Casey D; Walter, Norman E; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2012-04-01

    Previous animal models have been developed to study intramedullary nailing for challenging segmental defects in the tibia. In large animals, interlocked nail fixation created a stable environment suitable to study new bone growth technologies placed in the defect. To our knowledge, there are no comparable interlocked tibial defect models for the rabbit in which new technologies could be evaluated. Such a model would be helpful since the rabbit is a popular initial model for orthopedic research studies owing to its wide availability and low cost. While numerous studies have nailed the rabbit tibia, all were non-locked implants that allowed some degree of instability between the fracture fragments. In addition, the non-locked nails were constructed of stainless steel, whereas human nails are increasingly made from titanium alloy. In the current study, an interlocked titanium nail was developed for the rabbit tibia. It was implanted in cadaver tibiae and subjected to fatigue cycling in combined compression and bending at physiologic levels to 21,061 cycles. This duration is estimated to represent 12 weeks of gait by the animal. Before and after fatigue cycling, monotonic testing was performed in compression and bending at physiologic levels. The intact contralateral limbs served as controls. All limbs completed the cycling; the instrumented limbs exhibited interfragmentary cyclic strain amplitudes during fatigue (616 +/- 139 micro-strain), which was significantly greater than the control limbs (136 +/- 35 microstrain). Monotonic strain amplitudes for the test limbs in bending and compression were 4839 +/- 1028 and 542 +/- 122 microstrain, respectively; corresponding values for the control bones were 407 +/- 118 and 95 +/- 38 microstrain, respectively. These data are similar to those presented in prior studies in larger bone models. The current study presents one method for interlocked nail fixation for this complex tibial shaft fracture in a small animal. PMID

  19. Structure and function of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex molecule MR1.

    PubMed

    Krovi, S Harsha; Gapin, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the vertebrate adaptive immune system. By presenting short peptides derived from pathogen-derived proteins, these "classical" MHC molecules can alert the T cell branch of the immune system of infected cells and clear the pathogen. There exist other "non-classical" MHC molecules, which while similar in structure to classical MHC proteins, are contrasted by their limited polymorphism. While the functions of many class Ib MHC molecules have still to be elucidated, the nature and diversity of antigens (if any) that some of them might present to the immune system is expected to be more restricted and might function as another approach to distinguish self from non-self. The MHC-related 1 (MR1) molecule is a member of this family of non-classical MHC proteins. It was recently shown to present unique antigens in the form of vitamin metabolites found in certain microbes. MR1 is strongly conserved genetically, structurally, and functionally through mammalian evolution, indicating its necessity in ensuring an effective immune system for members of this class. Although MR1 will be celebrating 21 years this year since its discovery, most of our understanding of how this molecule functions has only been uncovered in the past decade. Herein, we discuss where MR1 is expressed, how it selectively is able to bind to its appropriate antigens and how it, then, is able to specifically activate a distinct population of T cells. PMID:27448212

  20. Immunomodulation of classical and non-classical HLA molecules by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2016-05-01

    Radiotherapy has been employed for the treatment of oncological patients for nearly a century, and together with surgery and chemotherapy, radiation oncology constitutes one of the three pillars of cancer therapy. Ionizing radiation has complex effects on neoplastic cells and on tumor microenvironment: beyond its action as a direct cytotoxic agent, tumor irradiation triggers a series of alterations in tumoral cells, which includes the de novo synthesis of particular proteins and the up/down-regulation of cell surface molecules. Additionally, ionizing radiation may induce the release of "danger signals" which may, in turn lead to cellular and molecular responses by the immune system. This immunomodulatory action of ionizing radiation highlights the importance of the combined use (radiotherapy plus immunotherapy) for cancer healing. Major histocompatibility complex antigens (also called Human Leukocyte Antigens, HLA in humans) are one of those molecules whose expression is modulated after irradiation. This review summarizes the modulatory properties of ionizing radiation on the expression of HLA class I (classical and non-classical) and class II molecules, with special emphasis in non-classical HLA-I molecules. PMID:27113815

  1. Non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons from a mechanical oscillator.

    PubMed

    Riedinger, Ralf; Hong, Sungkun; Norte, Richard A; Slater, Joshua A; Shang, Juying; Krause, Alexander G; Anant, Vikas; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Gröblacher, Simon

    2016-02-18

    Interfacing a single photon with another quantum system is a key capability in modern quantum information science. It allows quantum states of matter, such as spin states of atoms, atomic ensembles or solids, to be prepared and manipulated by photon counting and, in particular, to be distributed over long distances. Such light-matter interfaces have become crucial to fundamental tests of quantum physics and realizations of quantum networks. Here we report non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons--the quanta of mechanical motion--from a nanomechanical resonator. We implement a full quantum protocol involving initialization of the resonator in its quantum ground state of motion and subsequent generation and read-out of correlated photon-phonon pairs. The observed violation of a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is clear evidence for the non-classical nature of the mechanical state generated. Our results demonstrate the availability of on-chip solid-state mechanical resonators as light-matter quantum interfaces. The performance we achieved will enable studies of macroscopic quantum phenomena as well as applications in quantum communication, as quantum memories and as quantum transducers. PMID:26779950

  2. Non-classical amine recognition evolved in a large clade of olfactory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Tachie-Baffour, Yaw; Liu, Zhikai; Baldwin, Maude W; Kruse, Andrew C; Liberles, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic amines are important signaling molecules, and the structural basis for their recognition by G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) is well understood. Amines are also potent odors, with some activating olfactory trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Here, we report that teleost TAARs evolved a new way to recognize amines in a non-classical orientation. Chemical screens de-orphaned eleven zebrafish TAARs, with agonists including serotonin, histamine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, and agmatine. Receptors from different clades contact ligands through aspartates on transmembrane α-helices III (canonical Asp3.32) or V (non-canonical Asp5.42), and diamine receptors contain both aspartates. Non-classical monoamine recognition evolved in two steps: an ancestral TAAR acquired Asp5.42, gaining diamine sensitivity, and subsequently lost Asp3.32. Through this transformation, the fish olfactory system dramatically expanded its capacity to detect amines, ecologically significant aquatic odors. The evolution of a second, alternative solution for amine detection by olfactory receptors highlights the tremendous structural versatility intrinsic to GPCRs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10441.001 PMID:26519734

  3. Non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons from a mechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedinger, Ralf; Hong, Sungkun; Norte, Richard A.; Slater, Joshua A.; Shang, Juying; Krause, Alexander G.; Anant, Vikas; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Gröblacher, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Interfacing a single photon with another quantum system is a key capability in modern quantum information science. It allows quantum states of matter, such as spin states of atoms, atomic ensembles or solids, to be prepared and manipulated by photon counting and, in particular, to be distributed over long distances. Such light-matter interfaces have become crucial to fundamental tests of quantum physics and realizations of quantum networks. Here we report non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons—the quanta of mechanical motion—from a nanomechanical resonator. We implement a full quantum protocol involving initialization of the resonator in its quantum ground state of motion and subsequent generation and read-out of correlated photon-phonon pairs. The observed violation of a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is clear evidence for the non-classical nature of the mechanical state generated. Our results demonstrate the availability of on-chip solid-state mechanical resonators as light-matter quantum interfaces. The performance we achieved will enable studies of macroscopic quantum phenomena as well as applications in quantum communication, as quantum memories and as quantum transducers.

  4. Nonclassical light from an incoherently pumped quantum dot in a microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, L.; Grünwald, P.; Vogel, W.

    2015-11-01

    Semiconductor microcavities with artificial single-photon emitters have become one of the backbones of semiconductor quantum optics. In many cases, however, technical and physical issues limit the study of optical fields to incoherently excited systems. We analyze the model of an incoherently driven two-level system in a single-mode cavity. The specific structure of the applied master equation yields a recurrence relation for the steady-state values of correlations of the intracavity field and the emitter. We provide boundary conditions that permit a systematic solution which is numerically less demanding than standard methods. The method allows us to directly infer reasonable cutoff conditions from the system parameters. Different cavity systems from previous experiments are analyzed in terms of field correlation functions which can be measured via homodyne correlation measurements. We find that nonclassical correlations occur in systems of moderate quantum-dot-cavity coupling rather than strong coupling. Our boundary conditions also allow us to derive analytical results for the overall quantum state and its higher-order moments. We obtain very good approximations for the full quantum state of the field in terms of the characteristic functions. It turns out that for every physically reasonable set of system parameters, the state of the intracavity field is nonclassical.

  5. ERAAP Shapes the Peptidome Associated with Classical and Nonclassical MHC Class I Molecules.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Niranjana A; de Verteuil, Danielle A; Sriranganadane, Dev; Yahyaoui, Wafaa; Thibault, Pierre; Perreault, Claude; Shastri, Nilabh

    2016-08-15

    The peptide repertoire presented by classical as well as nonclassical MHC class I (MHC I) molecules is altered in the absence of the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase associated with Ag processing (ERAAP). To characterize the extent of these changes, peptides from cells lacking ERAAP were eluted from the cell surface and analyzed by high-throughput mass spectrometry. We found that most peptides found in wild-type (WT) cells were retained in the absence of ERAAP. In contrast, a subset of "ERAAP-edited" peptides was lost in WT cells, and ERAAP-deficient cells presented a unique "unedited" repertoire. A substantial fraction of MHC-associated peptides from ERAAP-deficient cells contained N-terminal extensions and had a different molecular composition than did those from WT cells. We found that the number and immunogenicity of peptides associated with nonclassical MHC I was increased in the absence of ERAAP. Conversely, only peptides presented by classical MHC I were immunogenic in ERAAP-sufficient cells. Finally, MHC I peptides were also derived from different intracellular sources in ERAAP-deficient cells. PMID:27371725

  6. "Nonclassical" secretion of annexin A2 to the lumenal side of the enterocyte brush border membrane.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; van Deurs, Bo; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-12-16

    Annexin A2 is a member of the annexin family of Ca(2+)-dependent lipid binding proteins and believed to be engaged in membrane transport processes in a number of cell types. In small intestinal enterocytes, we localized annexin A2 to the brush border region, where it was found mainly on the lumenal side of the microvilli, showing an apical secretion by a "nonclassical" mechanism. In addition, annexin A2 was associated with surface-connected, deep apical tubules in the apical terminal web region and with an underlying pleiomorphic, tubulo-vesicular compartment (subapical compartment/multivesicular bodies). By subcellular fractionation, the 36 kDa full-length form of annexin A2 was approximately equally distributed between the Mg(2+)-precipitated fraction (containing intracellular and basolateral membranes) and the microvillar membrane fraction. In addition, a 33 kDa molecular form of annexin A2 was seen in the latter fraction that could be generated from the full-length annexin A2 by digestion with trypsin. Taken together, the results suggest that annexin A2 acts in exocytic apical membrane trafficking and is proteolytically cleaved in situ by pancreatic proteinases once it has become externalized to the lumenal side of the brush border membrane. On the basis of its well-known membrane fusogenic properties, we propose a model for the nonclassical membrane translocation of annexin A2. PMID:14661980

  7. New fundamental evidence of non-classical structure in the combination of natural concepts.

    PubMed

    Aerts, D; Sozzo, S; Veloz, T

    2016-01-13

    We recently performed cognitive experiments on conjunctions and negations of two concepts with the aim of investigating the combination problem of concepts. Our experiments confirmed the deviations (conceptual vagueness, underextension, overextension etc.) from the rules of classical (fuzzy) logic and probability theory observed by several scholars in concept theory, while our data were successfully modelled in a quantum-theoretic framework developed by ourselves. In this paper, we isolate a new, very stable and systematic pattern of violation of classicality that occurs in concept combinations. In addition, the strength and regularity of this non-classical effect leads us to believe that it occurs at a more fundamental level than the deviations observed up to now. It is our opinion that we have identified a deep non-classical mechanism determining not only how concepts are combined but, rather, how they are formed. We show that this effect can be faithfully modelled in a two-sector Fock space structure, and that it can be exactly explained by assuming that human thought is the superposition of two processes, a 'logical reasoning', guided by 'logic', and a 'conceptual reasoning', guided by 'emergence', and that the latter generally prevails over the former. All these findings provide new fundamental support to our quantum-theoretic approach to human cognition. PMID:26621983

  8. Discriminating strength: a bona fide measure of non-classical correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Rigovacca, L.; Giovannetti, V.

    2014-07-01

    A new measure of non-classical correlations is introduced and characterized. It tests the ability of using a state ρ of a composite system AB as a probe for a quantum illumination task (e.g. see Lloyd 2008 Science 321 1463), in which one is asked to remotely discriminate between the two following scenarios: (i) either nothing happens to the probe, or (ii) the subsystem A is transformed via a local unitary {{R}_{A}} whose properties are partially unspecified when producing ρ. This new measure can be seen as the discrete version of the recently introduced interferometric power measure (Girolami et al 2013 e-print arXiv:1309.1472) and, at least for the case in which A is a qubit, it is shown to coincide (up to an irrelevant scaling factor) with the local quantum uncertainty measure of Girolami, Tufarelli and Adesso (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 240402). Analytical expressions are derived which allow us to formally prove that, within the set of separable configurations, the maximum value of our non-classicality measure is achieved over the set of quantum-classical states (i.e. states ρ which admit a statistical unravelling where each element of the associated ensemble is distinguishable via local measures on B).

  9. On the non-classicality features of new classes of nonlinear coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassoly, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, using an exponential function of intensity of radiation field, two new classes of nonlinear coherent states will be constructed. For the first class, we choose the nonlinearity function as fβ( n) = exp( βn), where β characterizes the strength of the nonlinearity of the quantum system. We show that, the corresponding β-states possess a collection of non-classicality features, only for the particular values of β and z. But, interestingly there exists finite (threshold) values of β, for which all of the non-classicality signs will disappear, in appropriate regions around the origin of the complex plane ( z < | Z|). It is then illustrated that, using this threshold (or greater) value of β, the corresponding β-states behave very similar to canonical coherent states, as the most classical quantum states, in approximately whole of the space. In the continuation, we motivate to find another class of nonlinear coherent states, limited to a unit disk centered at the origin, looking like the canonical coherent states in behavior, in exactly the whole range of | z| < 1. This purpose also will be achieved by considering the nonlinearity function as f(n)=exp(λ/n)/√{n}, where λ is a tunable nonlinearity parameter. The canonical coherent state's aspects of the corresponding λ-states will be refreshed, in particular cases, working with a threshold (or greater) value of λ.

  10. Non-classical amine recognition evolved in a large clade of olfactory receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Tachie-Baffour, Yaw; Liu, Zhikai; Baldwin, Maude W; Kruse, Andrew C; Liberles, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic amines are important signaling molecules, and the structural basis for their recognition by G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) is well understood. Amines are also potent odors, with some activating olfactory trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Here, we report that teleost TAARs evolved a new way to recognize amines in a non-classical orientation. Chemical screens de-orphaned eleven zebrafish TAARs, with agonists including serotonin, histamine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, and agmatine. Receptors from different clades contact ligands through aspartates on transmembrane α-helices III (canonical Asp(3.32)) or V (non-canonical Asp(5.42)), and diamine receptors contain both aspartates. Non-classical monoamine recognition evolved in two steps: an ancestral TAAR acquired Asp(5.42), gaining diamine sensitivity, and subsequently lost Asp(3.32). Through this transformation, the fish olfactory system dramatically expanded its capacity to detect amines, ecologically significant aquatic odors. The evolution of a second, alternative solution for amine detection by olfactory receptors highlights the tremendous structural versatility intrinsic to GPCRs. PMID:26519734

  11. HNRNPR Regulates the Expression of Classical and Nonclassical MHC Class I Proteins.

    PubMed

    Reches, Adi; Nachmani, Daphna; Berhani, Orit; Duev-Cohen, Alexandra; Shreibman, Dorin; Ophir, Yael; Seliger, Barbara; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2016-06-15

    MHC class I molecules, in addition to their role in specific activation of the CTL of adaptive immune system, function also as the main ligands for NK cell inhibitory receptors, which prevent NK cells from killing normal, healthy cells. MHC class I proteins are divided into classical and nonclassical proteins. The former group consists of hundreds of HLA-A, B, and C alleles, which are universally expressed, whereas several alleles of the latter group, such as HLA-G, manifest a restricted expression pattern. Despite the important role played by these molecules in innate and adaptive immune responses, their complex expression regulation is not fully known. In our study, we investigated the regulation processes controlling the expression of MHC class I molecules, with a particular focus on their 3' untranslated regions. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (HNRNPR) as an important positive regulator of classical and nonclassical MHC class I molecules. HNRNPR is a RNA-binding protein belonging to the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family, which has a known role in processing of precursor mRNA. We demonstrated that HNRNPR binds MHC class I mRNAs in their 3' untranslated regions and enhances their stability and consequently their expression. Furthermore, regulation by HNRNPR modulates the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. In conclusion, we show that HNRNPR acts as a general positive regulator of MHC class I expression. PMID:27194785

  12. Application of cosmetic nail varnish does not affect the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in the treatment of distal subungual toenail onychomycosis: results of a randomised active-controlled study and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Sigurgeirsson, B; Ghannoum, M A; Osman-Ponchet, H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F

    2016-05-01

    As onychomycosis is unsightly, this study clinically evaluated whether the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer (NL) was affected by a masking, natural-coloured, cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later; in vitro investigations were also performed. Subjects with mild-to-moderate distal subungual toenail onychomycosis were randomised to receive amorolfine 5% NL once weekly with or without cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later. After 12-week treatment, antifungal activity of affected toenail clippings was assessed by measurement of zones of inhibition (ZOIs) on Trichophyton mentagrophytes seeded agar plates. Mean diameters were 53.5 mm for the amorolfine 5% NL-alone group (n = 23) and 53.6 mm for amorolfine 5% NL plus cosmetic nail varnish group (n = 25). Also, mycological cultures of subungual debris at week 12 were negative for all subjects in both groups. Most subjects (88%) reported that cosmetic nail varnish masked their infected toenails. Additionally, cadaver human nails coated in vitro with or without cosmetic nail varnish 10 min or 24 h post amorolfine NL application all gave ZOIs on Trichophyton rubrum agar plates representing potent antifungal activity. In conclusion, cosmetic nail varnish applied post amorolfine had no effect on the subungual antifungal activity of amorolfine 5% NL or its penetration through toenails. PMID:26867498

  13. Nonclassical acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kentzer, C. P.

    1976-01-01

    A statistical approach to sound propagation is considered in situations where, due to the presence of large gradients of properties of the medium, the classical (deterministic) treatment of wave motion is inadequate. Mathematical methods for wave motions not restricted to small wavelengths (analogous to known methods of quantum mechanics) are used to formulate a wave theory of sound in nonuniform flows. Nonlinear transport equations for field probabilities are derived for the limiting case of noninteracting sound waves and it is postulated that such transport equations, appropriately generalized, may be used to predict the statistical behavior of sound in arbitrary flows.

  14. Overcoming the nail barrier: A systematic investigation of ungual chemical penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Brown, M B; Khengar, R H; Turner, R B; Forbes, B; Traynor, M J; Evans, C R G; Jones, S A

    2009-03-31

    This study investigated the in vitro nail permeability of penetrants of varying lipophilicity-caffeine (CF, logP -0.07), methylparaben (MP, logP 1.96) and terbinafine (TBF, logP 3.3) and the effect of 2 novel penetration enhancers (PEs), thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) on their permeation. Studies were conducted using full thickness human nail clippings and ChubTur((R)) diffusion cells and penetrants were applied as saturated solutions. The rank order of steady-state penetrant flux through nails without PE application (MP>CF>TBF) suggested a greater sensitivity to penetrant molecular weight rather than logP. TA increased the flux of CF and MP approximately 4- and approximately 2-fold, respectively, whilst urea H(2)O(2) proved ineffective at enhancing permeability. The sequential application of TA followed by urea H(2)O(2) increased TBF and CF flux ( approximately 19- and approximately 4-fold, respectively) but reversing the application order of the PEs was only mildly effective at increasing just MP flux ( approximately 2-fold). Both nail PEs are likely to function via disruption of keratin disulphide bonds and the associated formation of pores that provide more 'open' drug transport channels. Effects of the PEs were penetrant specific, but the use of a reducing agent (TA) followed by an oxidising agent (urea H(2)O(2)) dramatically improved human nail penetration. PMID:19071202

  15. Prebending of a titanium elastic intramedullary nail in the treatment of distal radius fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Cai, Haoqi; Wang, Zhigang; Cai, Haiqing

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce a method to treat distal radius diaphyseal metaphyseal junction fractures by prebending an elastic intramedullary nail and to evaluate the factors influencing fracture apposition. Fifty-two consecutive patients (4 to 15 years old) with a distal radius diaphyseal metaphyseal junction fracture were included. The nail was inserted and advanced into the proximal radial fragment as normal. After bending the nail distally about 90° at the site predetermined to lie at the distal segment, the elastic intramedullary nail was advanced until the prebent part completely entered the marrow cavity. The fracture angular deformity was fully corrected in anterior-posterior and lateral views. The apposition rate was 90% to 100% in lateral view, >50% in anterior-posterior view. The operation time was 16.73 ± 6.253 minutes. The average time of fracture healing was 5 months (range, 4-7 months). During 12 to 19 months of follow-up, firm fracture healing and good remodeling were observed, and there was no impaired forearm rotation function or secondary fracture. Our study showed the treatment of distal radius diaphyseal metaphyseal junction fractures by prebent intramedullary nail could make up for the deficiency of Kirschner wires and steel plates and keep the fracture stable. Fracture type and the anatomical features of the distal radius were associated with fracture apposition. PMID:24833151

  16. Hair and nail adverse events during treatment with targeted therapies for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dika, Emi; Patrizi, Annalisa; Ribero, Simone; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Starace, Michela; Melotti, Barbara; Sperandi, Francesca; Piraccini, Bianca Maria

    2016-06-01

    Targeted therapies for melanoma have shown clinical benefit in increasing the survival of metastatic patients. Cutaneous adverse events have been reported, but hair and nail data have been rarely detailed. Patients treated with BRAF and MEK inhibitors for metastatic melanoma underwent dermatological evaluation before the start of each treatment and after every four weeks. Pull test, global photography, dermoscopy/trichoscopy and scalp biopsy were performed. Appendages adverse events were graded using the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria. Of the 24 patients included, 14 underwent treatment with a selective BRAF inhibitor; 10 received a combined treatment (dabrafenib/trametinib). Adnexal adverse events were common in the group of patients receiving vemurafenib, and included hair kinking, acute hair loss, and hair colour changes, often present in association, classified as G2 in three patients and G1 in eight. Dabrafenib alone induced hair kinking and colour changes in 60% of the patients. Combined treatment with dabrafenib/trametinib did not induce hair changes. Onycholysis was the most common nail side effect, and the unique side effect of dabrafenib (alone or in combination). Vemurafenib also induced acute paronychia and brittle nails. All nail side effects were graded as G1. Hair and nail side effects during targeted therapy for melanoma are not rare. The early recognition and cure of such side effects by dermatologists is of benefit to ensure the need for dose reduction or drug discontinuation. PMID:27019511

  17. UPPER LIMB TRACTION DEVICE FOR ANTEROGRADE INTRAMEDULLARY LOCKED NAIL OF HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Mário Chaves; Gomes, Felipe Antônio; Linhares, Daniel Campos; Gonçalves, Lucas Braga Jacques; Vilela, José Carlos Souza; de Andrade, Ronaldo Percopi

    2015-01-01

    Diaphyseal fractures of the femur and tibia in adults are mostly treated surgically, usually by means of intramedullary locked-nail osteosynthesis. Some comminuted and/or highly deviated shaft fractures may present a veritable technical challenge. Fracture (or orthopedic) tables, which enable vertical, horizontal and rotational instrumental stabilization of the limb, greatly facilitate reduction and implant placement maneuvers and are widely used by orthopedic surgeons. Humeral shaft fractures are mostly treated nonsurgically. However, some cases with indications that are well defined in the literature require surgical treatment. They can be fixed by means of plates or intramedullary nails, using anterograde or retrograde routes. In the humerus, fracture reduction and limb stabilization maneuvers for implantation of intramedullary nails are done manually, usually by two assistants. Because muscle fatigue may occur, this option may be less efficient. The aim of this paper is to present an external upper-limb traction device for use in anterograde intramedullary locked-nail osteosynthesis of humeral shaft fractures that enables vertical, horizontal and rotational stabilization of the upper limb, in a manner similar to the device used for the lower limbs. The device is portable, of simple construction, and can be installed on any operating table equipped with side rails. It was used for surgical treatment of 29 humeral shaft fractures using an anterograde locked intramedullary nail. Our experience was extremely positive. We did not have any complications relating to its use and we believe that it notably facilitated the surgical procedures. PMID:27022560

  18. Stress relaxation of grouted entirely large diameter B-GFRP soil nail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo-wei; Ni, Chun; Pei, Hua-fu; Ge, Wan-ming; Ng, Charles Wang Wai

    2013-08-01

    One of the potential solutions to steel-corrosion-related problems is the usage of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) as a replacement of steel bars. In the past few decades, researchers have conducted a large number of experimental and theoretical studies on the behavior of small size glass fiber reinforce polymer (GFRP) bars (diameter smaller than 20 mm). However, the behavior of large size GFRP bar is still not well understood. Particularly, few studies were conducted on the stress relaxation of grouted entirely large diameter GFRP soil nail. This paper investigates the effect of stress levels on the relaxation behavior of GFRP soil nail under sustained deformation ranging from 30% to 60% of its ultimate strain. In order to study the behavior of stress relaxation, two B-GFRP soil nail element specimens were developed and instrumented with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors which were used to measure strains along the B-GFRP bars. The test results reveal that the behavior of stress relaxation of B-GFRP soil nail element subjected to pre-stress is significantly related to the elapsed time and the initial stress of relaxation procedure. The newly proposed model for evaluating stress relaxation ratio can substantially reflect the influences of the nature of B-GFRP bar and the property of grip body. The strain on the nail body can be redistributed automatically. Modulus reduction is not the single reason for the stress degradation.

  19. Five-hour diagnosis of dermatophyte nail infections with specific detection of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Saunte, Ditte Marie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2007-04-01

    A rapid two-step DNA extraction method and a multiplex PCR for the detection of dermatophytes in general and Trichophyton rubrum specifically were developed and evaluated with DNA extracted from pure cultures and from clinically diseased nails. DNA from the following dermatophytes was used: Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton verrucosum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Human DNA and DNA from the following nondermatophyte fungi were included as controls: Alternaria, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Malassezia furfur, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total of 118 nail samples received for routine microscopy and culture for dermatophytes were subsequently tested by the two PCRs separately and in a multiplex format. Using DNA extracted from pure cultures and the pan-dermatophyte PCR, the T. rubrum-specific PCR sequentially and in a multiplex format correctly detected all dermatophytes and additionally correctly identified T. rubrum. Comparison of the traditional diagnostic evaluation (microscopy and culture) of nail samples with PCR on DNA directly extracted from the nails showed excellent agreement between PCR and microscopy, but the number of samples with dermatophyte species identification was increased considerably from 22.9% to 41.5%, mainly due to the identification of T. rubrum by PCR in microscopy-positive but culture-negative samples. In conclusion, this 5-hour diagnostic test was shown to increase not only the speed but also the sensitivity of investigation for nail dermatophytosis. PMID:17267633

  20. [Treatment of pathological fractures of long tubular bones in childhood using elastic stable intramedullary nailing].

    PubMed

    Knorr, P; Schmittenbecher, P P; Dietz, H G

    1996-06-01

    Pathological or spontaneous fractures in childhood are rare and are mostly caused by benign bone diseases; the fractures must be treated on an individual basis, as there are no constant rules. Since the new method of osteosynthesis called "elastic stable intramedullary nailing" (ESIN) or "embrochage centro-medullaire elastique stable" (ECMES) has demonstrated the best results in the treatment of normal fractures in childhood, this method is rapidly being used in the treatment of spontaneous or pathological fractures. We report our experience in the treatment of spontaneous fractures in childhood with "elastic stable intramedullary nailing", in nine patients with ten fractures. The pathological diagnosis was in 5 cases a juvenile bone cyst; in addition, there were cases of histiocytosis X, lymphangiomatosis, hemangiomatosis and osteoporosis (one each). The location was the femur (two cases) and humerus (seven cases). All fractures healed completely without pseudarthrosis; as complications we saw one incidence of osteomyelitis, one of a second fracture after "elastic stable intramedullary nailing" and one coxa vara in a child with histiocytosis X of the proximal femur. In the 5 children with juvenile bone cysts the nails are still in situ; in two cases the nails had to be changed. PMID:8767136

  1. Effects of Ionic Strength on Passive and Iontophoretic Transport of Cationic Permeant Across Human Nail

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kelly A.; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S. Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Transport across the human nail under hydration can be modeled as hindered transport across aqueous pore pathways. As such, nail permselectivity to charged species can be manipulated by changing the ionic strength of the system in transungual delivery to treat nail diseases. The present study investigated the effects of ionic strength upon transungual passive and iontophoretic transport. Methods Transungual passive and anodal iontophoretic transport experiments of tetraethylammonium ion (TEA) were conducted under symmetric conditions in which the donor and receiver had the same ionic strength in vitro. Experiments under asymmetric conditions were performed to mimic the in vivo conditions. Prior to the transport studies, TEA uptake studies were performed to assess the partitioning of TEA into the nail. Results Permselectivity towards TEA was inversely related to ionic strength in both passive and iontophoretic transport. The permeability and transference number of TEA were higher at lower ionic strengths under the symmetric conditions due to increased partitioning of TEA into the nail. Transference numbers were smaller under the asymmetric conditions compared with their symmetric counterparts. Conclusions The results demonstrate significant ionic strength effects upon the partitioning and transport of a cationic permeant in transungual transport, which may be instrumental in the development of transungual delivery systems. PMID:19267187

  2. Expert tibia nail for subtrochanteric femoral fracture to prevent thermal injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jae; Min, Byung-Woo; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Min-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Subtrochanteric femoral fractures are relatively uncommon, accounting for 7–15% of all hip fractures and treatment of these fractures are considered challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Although several treatment options are reported with up to 90% of satisfactory results, the choice of the appropriate implant is still a matter of debate. Some authors reported thermal injury after reaming for intramedullary nail fixation in patients with narrow medullary canal. Presentation of case A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital because of right subtrochanteric femoral fracture. The narrowest diameter of medullary canal of her femur was about 7 mm but she refused open reduction and internal fixation with plate due to large scar formation. We used expert tibia nail instead of femoral intramedullary nail to prevent thermal injury. Discussion Subtrochanteric femoral fractures are difficult to treat because of their biomechanical and anatomical characteristics. Although several implants are reported for the surgical treatment of these fractures, intramedullary nails have been advocated due to their biological and biomechanical advantages. However, under certain circumstances with associated injury or anatomic difference we might consider another treatment options. Conclusion Expert tibia nail may be considered one of the treatment options for subtrochanteric femoral fracture with narrow medullary canal. We also emphasize the importance of preoperative evaluation of the medullary canal size for these risky fractures. PMID:25839435

  3. A Clinical Trial to Investigate the Effect of Cynatine HNS on Hair and Nail Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Veghte, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n = 25) received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500 mg) plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n = 25) received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. Results. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Conclusion. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22. PMID:25386609

  4. UNSTABLE FEMORAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH TITANIUM ELASTIC INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS, IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jamil Faissal; Schelle, Gisele; Valenza, Weverley; Pavelec, Anna Carolina; Souza, Camila Deneka Arantes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the indications, epidemiology, associated lesions, complications and prognosis among children with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who were treated with titanium elastic intramedullary nails. Method: This was a retrospective analysis on 24 patients aged 5-12 years with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who underwent surgical treatment with elastic titanium intramedullary nails at the Cajuru University Hospital, Curitiba-PR, between April 2002 and March 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. The epidemiological data, angular deviations, leg shortening and bone consolidation were evaluated. Results: The medical files of 113 cases operated between April 2002 and March 2008 were reassessed. From these, 24 cases of unstable femoral diaphysis fractures treated with elastic titanium intramedullary nails with retrograde insertion were included in the study. There were two bilateral fractures and two exposed fractures. Seven patients were female and 17 were male, and the mean age was 8.3 years. The following were presented at the end of the study: shortening, varus or valgus displacement, final retrocurvatum or antecurvatum of zero, and absence of delayed consolidation or pseudarthrosis. Conclusions: The elastic titanium intramedullary nails were easily placed and removed. We believe that using elastic titanium intramedullary nails is a good option for fixation of unstable femoral fractures in children. PMID:27047868

  5. Development of a one-handed nail clipper for stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Carhart, Christopher; Ciechowski, Rafal; Groat, Doug; Stevans, Alyson

    2008-01-01

    Due to the physical effects of stroke, many stroke survivors experience difficulty clipping their nails. Much of this difficulty is due to weakness in the upper extremities, loss of dexterity, spasticity, and vision problems. Our goal was to design a device that would help stroke survivors shorten their finger nails, providing increased independence, convenience, comfort, and safety compared to their current method of cutting nails. From user interviews and observations, we developed several prototypes to solve this problem. The final design, the Step 'n Snip, consists of a finger nail clipper mounted on an inclined, rotatable metal rod. The clipper is attached to a foot pedal with a long steel bike brake cable, which the pedal then uses to actuate the clipper. The pedal is mounted on a base that is shaped such that it provides a nesting space for the clipper frame during storage; the two parts are kept together by a swiveling clip. The clipper itself is at a convenient height for users and is fitted with a nail clippings collection system. PMID:18430684

  6. Dielectric phenomena associated with the keratin-glucose interactions of nail plate.

    PubMed

    Marzec, E; Wierzbicki, K; Olszewski, J; Samborski, W; Skorupska, E; Bahloul, K; Krzywicka, A; Krauss, H

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effect of water and frequency on the dielectric properties of the nail plate in healthy individuals and in diabetic patients. The temperature dependencies of the loss tangent for both healthy and diabetic nail represent the relation between the electrical energy lost and stored in keratin-glucose-water complexes of this tissue. The differences between these materials concern the temperature ranges in which there appears the decomposition of loosely bound water. The effect of glycation on the loss tangent of the wet and the dry nail is supported by higher values of this parameter than in those describing the healthy samples in the whole temperature range and above 100°C, respectively. In addition, glycation lead to distinct increase in the dielectric relaxation decrement in permittivity and dielectric loss between the frequency of 500 Hz and 100 kHz for the wet and the dry nail. The results of this study indicate that the dielectric spectroscopy may be useful in observing the decomposition of water in the diabetic nail plate. PMID:23632462

  7. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  8. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  9. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  10. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  11. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  12. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  13. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  14. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  15. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  16. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  17. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  18. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  19. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  20. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  1. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  2. 35. Ca. 1930 historic view facing northeast, showing Yellow Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Ca. 1930 historic view facing northeast, showing Yellow Mill Bridge and inset showing former ca. 1901 Yellow Mill Bridge. Photo located at the Bridgeport Public Library, Bridgeport, CT. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  3. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Yellow-flowering Magnolias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of yellow-flowering magnolias were evaluated for flower color, bloom duration and growth rate in USDA Hardiness Zone 6b. All selections were reported to have yellow blooms; however, tepal color in this test ranged from light pink with some yellow coloration to dark yellow. The darkest...

  4. Is the Yellow Light Long Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salow, Robert; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity to determine whether the length of the yellow (warning) signal of a traffic light provides adequate time to stop or pass through the intersection. Discusses the necessary equations, mathematics, and subsequent graphs. (MVL)

  5. Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response

    PubMed Central

    Runge, John S.

    2013-01-01

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care. PMID:24348220

  6. Teachable Fiction Comes to Yellow Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietz, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that teachable fiction is efficient, strategically sound, and very visual. Analyzes Stephen Crane's "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" to show it fulfills these three characteristics. Suggests the story should be taught later in the semester. (PM)

  7. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  8. 75 FR 29601 - In the Matter of the Designation of Taleb Nail; Also Known as Djaafar Abou Mohamed; Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Matter of the Designation of Taleb Nail; Also Known as Djaafar Abou Mohamed; Also Known as Abou Mouhadji; Also Known as Mohamed Ould Ahmed Ould Ali; Also Known as Tayeb Nail as a Specially Designated Global... as Mohamed Ould Ahmed Ould Ali, also known as Tayeb Nail committed, or poses a significant risk...

  9. 76 FR 16379 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...On September 15, 2010, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published the Preliminary Results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``steel nails'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results. Based upon our analysis of the comments and information......

  10. A nanofiber assembly directed by the non-classical antiparallel β-structure from 4S-(OH) proline polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Nitin D; Sonar, Mahesh V; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2016-04-01

    The antiparallel arrangement of two strands of the non-classical β-structure, formed exclusively via cis-4S-(OH) prolyl polypeptide as established by FRET, propagates into self-assembled nanofibers upon conjugation with C12/C14/C16 hydrocarbon chains. PMID:26961970

  11. Dynamics and nonclassical properties of an opto-mechanical system prepared in four-headed cat state and number state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li-ying; Guo, Qin; Xu, Xue-xiang; Cai, Ming; Yuan, Wen; Duan, Zheng-lu

    2016-06-01

    The nonlinear interaction between an optical field and a mechanical resonator of an opto-mechanical system plays an important role in quantum optics and quantum information. This work applies the nonlinearity of opto-mechanical system to generate a nonclassical state for an initial state composed of four-headed cat state of photonic mode and number state of mechanical mode. It is interesting to find that the Wigner function of a mechanical mode is composed of finite Wigner functions of time-dependent displaced number states, which is very useful in quantum information process. Furthermore, nonclassical properties of the photonic and mechanical modes are investigated by using Wigner function. An interesting result is that the negative volume of Wigner function for the photonic (or mechanical) mode increases with parameter α (or k), which means that the larger initial value of photonic (or mechanical) mode will improve the nonclassicality of the photonic (or mechanical) mode. We also investigate the influence of different initial photonic states on the nonclassicality of mechanical and photonic modes.

  12. The SIGN Nail: Factors in a Successful Device for Low-Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Haonga, Billy Thomson; Zirkle, Lewis G

    2015-10-01

    Surgeons in low-resource settings manage an increasing number of patients presenting with high-energy fractures. The number of surgeons and the operating time available are frequently not adequate to treat these fractures in a timely manner. A common cause of delay in treating fractures is waiting for the patient to accumulate sufficient funding to pay for the surgery, including the surgical implant. The donation of the SIGN intramedullary nail interlocking screw system obviates a major delay in timing of surgery. The SIGN intramedullary nail has been designed to be used in low-resource settings as it can be placed without fluoroscopy or electricity. The SIGN-trained surgeons are very skillful in hand reaming the canal, placing the nail, and interlocking screws without fluoroscopy. As more is learned about fracture healing, the SIGN system continues to evolve. The SIGN system is expanding to include deformity correction and soft tissue coverage. PMID:26356214

  13. Fine mapping of the nail-patella syndrome locus at 9q34.

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, I; Clough, M V; Schäffer, A A; Puffenberger, E G; Horton, V K; Peters, K; Abbott, M H; Roig, C M; Cutone, S; Ozelius, L; Kwiatkowski, D J; Pyeritz, R E; Brown, L J; Pauli, R M; McCormick, M K; Francomano, C A

    1997-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome (NPS), or onychoosteodysplasia, is an autosomal dominant, pleiotropic disorder characterized by nail dysplasia, absent or hypoplastic patellae, iliac horns, and nephropathy. Previous studies have demonstrated linkage of the nail-patella locus to the ABO and adenylate kinase loci on human chromosome 9q34. As a first step toward isolating the NPS gene, we present linkage analysis with 13 polymorphic markers in five families with a total of 69 affected persons. Two-point linkage analysis with the program MLINK showed tight linkage of NPS and the anonymous markers D9S112 (LOD = 27.0; theta = .00) and D9S315 (LOD = 22.0; theta = .00). Informative recombination events place the NPS locus within a 1-2-cM interval between D9S60 and the adenylate kinase gene (AK1). PMID:8981956

  14. A novel surgical technique for transverse sternal bone defects using flexible intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Böcker, W; Euler, E; Schieker, M; Kettler, M; Mutschler, W

    2006-12-01

    Transverse sternal bone defects as a result of surgery or trauma remain an important clinical condition with serious sequelae. Patients sometimes complain of local pain during movement and breathing. Usually, defects are filled with prosthetic materials which remain permanently IN SITU. Small defects can be treated with autogenous bone grafts, whereas large defects are difficult to stabilize with common osteosynthetic techniques. Here, we report a new surgical technique using flexible intramedullary nailing ("Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing"--ESIN or "Embrochage Centro-Medullaire Elastique Stable"--ECMES) to stabilize a sternal defect after surgical removal of an osteochondral lesion. The defect was bridged by two elastic titanium nails and an autogenous corticocancellous bone graft. This new surgical technique showed a good clinical and functional outcome. PMID:17151979

  15. Combined External-Endoscopic Endonasal Assisted Removal of a Nail Gun.

    PubMed

    Dehgani Mobaraki, Puya; Longari, Fabrizio; Lapenna, Ruggero; Ricci, Giampietro

    2016-06-01

    Management of penetrating trauma to the paranasal sinuses with retained foreign bodies represents a challenge due to the proximity to vital neurovascular structures. The authors report the successful treatment of a patient with a work-related nail gun injury, carried out by means of a combined endoscopic endonasal external assisted procedure.A transnasal endoscopic approach was planned to minimize inadvertent movements of the nail during surgery and in case necessary to repair the orbit or skull base. No major bleeding or neurovascular complication was observed after surgery and a computed tomography scan was performed after surgery confirming the complete removal of the nail and with no damage of the orbit nor the skull base. PMID:27192640

  16. Characterization of natural and irradiated nails by means of the depolarization metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenkov, Sergey; Priezzhev, Alexander; Oberemok, Yevgen; Sholom, Sergey; Kolomiets, Ivan; Chunikhina, Kateryna

    2016-07-01

    Mueller polarimetry is applied to study the samples of nails: natural (or reference) and irradiated to 2 Gy ionizing radiation dose. We measure the whole Mueller matrices of the samples as a function of the scattering angle at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. We apply depolarization analysis to measured Mueller matrices by calculating the depolarization metrics [depolarization index, Q(M)-metric, first and second Lorenz indices, Cloude and Lorenz entropy] to quantify separability of the different samples of nails under study based on differences in their Mueller matrix. The results show that nail samples strongly depolarize the output light in backscattering, and irradiation in all cases results in increasing of depolarization. Most sensitive among depolarization metrics are the Lorenz entropy and Q(M)-metric.

  17. Density determination of nail polishes and paint chips using magnetic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peggy P.

    Trace evidence is often small, easily overlooked, and difficult to analyze. This study describes a nondestructive method to separate and accurately determine the density of trace evidence samples, specifically nail polish and paint chip using magnetic levitation (MagLev). By determining the levitation height of each sample in the MagLev device, the density of the sample is back extrapolated using a standard density bead linear regression line. The results show that MagLev distinguishes among eight clear nail polishes, including samples from the same manufacturer; separates select colored nail polishes from the same manufacturer; can determine the density range of household paint chips; and shows limited levitation for unknown paint chips. MagLev provides a simple, affordable, and nondestructive means of determining density. The addition of co-solutes to the paramagnetic solution to expand the density range may result in greater discriminatory power and separation and lead to further applications of this technique.

  18. Characterization of natural and irradiated nails by means of the depolarization metrics.

    PubMed

    Savenkov, Sergey; Priezzhev, Alexander; Oberemok, Yevgen; Sholom, Sergey; Kolomiets, Ivan; Chunikhina, Kateryna

    2016-07-01

    Mueller polarimetry is applied to study the samples of nails: natural (or reference) and irradiated to 2 Gy ionizing radiation dose. We measure the whole Mueller matrices of the samples as a function of the scattering angle at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. We apply depolarization analysis to measured Mueller matrices by calculating the depolarization metrics [depolarization index, Q(M)-metric, first and second Lorenz indices, Cloude and Lorenz entropy] to quantify separability of the different samples of nails under study based on differences in their Mueller matrix. The results show that nail samples strongly depolarize the output light in backscattering, and irradiation in all cases results in increasing of depolarization. Most sensitive among depolarization metrics are the Lorenz entropy and Q(M)-metric. PMID:26927390

  19. Nail projectiles propelled by a mason's lacing cord: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Grossjohann, Rico; Schikorr, Wolfgang; Tesch, Ralf; Lange, Jörn; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Langner, Sönke; Bockholdt, Britta; Tost, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The recent clinical observation of two unintentional penetrating ocular and cerebral injuries due to 90-mm construction nails gave occasion to an experimental study to check the alleged trauma mechanism for plausibility. Both casualties reported that they had attached a mason's lacing cord to the masonry using a nail as anchoring when suddenly the nail was yanked from its moorings and propelled like a missile by the overstretched lacing cord. As to the best of the authors' knowledge, this mechanism of injury has not yet been reported in any of the literature; it was the aim to find an experimental approach to review the plausibility of the alleged sequence of events leading to the accidents. The tensile strength at break and strain at break of different mason's lacing cords (diameter of 1 and 2 mm) were measured according to DIN EN ISO 2062 by using a tensile testing machine. Based on the maximum spring energy of the lacing cords, which was determined 174.9 J for the 1-mm cord (length 10 m) and 747.4 J for the 2-mm cord (length 10 m), the maximum possible velocity of the nails as projectiles was calculated to be 243.5 m/s for the 1-mm cord and 503.4 m/s for the 2-mm cord. The critical elongation a cord of a certain length has to be stretched to deliver enough kinetic energy to a 90-mm nail to surpass the threshold velocity for skin penetration, which was investigated by Sellier (1977) to be approximately 18 m/s, was also calculated. To conclude, the energy delivered by the cords is high enough to surpass the rather low threshold velocity of nails. The details of how these accidents occurred, which seemed questionable at first, can be reasonably explained by trauma biomechanics. PMID:22562442

  20. Locked META intramedullary nailing fixation for tibial fractures via a suprapatellar approach

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Beigang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intramedullary nailing is an effective approach for treatment of diaphyseal tibial fractures. However, infrapatellar intramedullary nailing can easily cause angulation and rotation displacement at the fracture ends and increase risk of postoperative infection. Intramedullary nailing via the suprapatellar approach was proved with good reduction and fixation. We used locked intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial fractures via a suprapatellar approach in this study. Materials and Methods: 23 patients undergoing tibial fractures fixation by locked META intramedullary nailing via a suprapatellar approach were enrolled between June 2012 and October 2013. There were 18 males and 5 females. The average age was 35.5 years (range 18-60 years). The intraoperative data including operative time and blood loss and postoperative data consisting of hospital stays, fluoroscopy time, fracture healing time and complications were all recorded. Results: The average operative time, blood loss, fluoroscopy time and hospital stay were 78.2 ± 9.1 min, 90.4 ± 23.4 mL, 38.5 ± 6.5 s and 11 ± 3.4 days respectively. The mean followup period in all the patients was 15.5 months. Callus appeared in the patients at average 8 weeks after surgery. The mean knee and ankle range of motion were significantly improved at the last followup (P < 0.05). The average Hospital for Special Surgery and Olerud–Molander scores was 92 ± 4.3 points and 93.6 ± 3.9 points, respectively. No complications were observed. Conclusion: Locked META intramedullary nail fixation via a suprapatellar approach is safe and effective for patients suffering from tibial fractures and earlier functional recovery. PMID:27293289