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Sample records for noncoding dna elements

  1. De novo DNA demethylation and noncoding transcription define active intergenic regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Felix; Smith, Andrew D; Gingeras, Thomas R; Hannon, Gregory J; Hodges, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Deep sequencing of mammalian DNA methylomes has uncovered a previously unpredicted number of discrete hypomethylated regions in intergenic space (iHMRs). Here, we combined whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data with extensive gene expression and chromatin-state data to define functional classes of iHMRs, and to reconstruct the dynamics of their establishment in a developmental setting. Comparing HMR profiles in embryonic stem and primary blood cells, we show that iHMRs mark an exclusive subset of active DNase hypersensitive sites (DHS), and that both developmentally constitutive and cell-type-specific iHMRs display chromatin states typical of distinct regulatory elements. We also observe that iHMR changes are more predictive of nearby gene activity than the promoter HMR itself, and that expression of noncoding RNAs within the iHMR accompanies full activation and complete demethylation of mature B cell enhancers. Conserved sequence features corresponding to iHMR transcript start sites, including a discernible TATA motif, suggest a conserved, functional role for transcription in these regions. Similarly, we explored both primate-specific and human population variation at iHMRs, finding that while enhancer iHMRs are more variable in sequence and methylation status than any other functional class, conservation of the TATA box is highly predictive of iHMR maintenance, reflecting the impact of sequence plasticity and transcriptional signals on iHMR establishment. Overall, our analysis allowed us to construct a three-step timeline in which (1) intergenic DHS are pre-established in the stem cell, (2) partial demethylation of blood-specific intergenic DHSs occurs in blood progenitors, and (3) complete iHMR formation and transcription coincide with enhancer activation in lymphoid-specified cells. PMID:23811145

  2. De novo DNA demethylation and noncoding transcription define active intergenic regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Felix; Smith, Andrew D.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Hodges, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Deep sequencing of mammalian DNA methylomes has uncovered a previously unpredicted number of discrete hypomethylated regions in intergenic space (iHMRs). Here, we combined whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data with extensive gene expression and chromatin-state data to define functional classes of iHMRs, and to reconstruct the dynamics of their establishment in a developmental setting. Comparing HMR profiles in embryonic stem and primary blood cells, we show that iHMRs mark an exclusive subset of active DNase hypersensitive sites (DHS), and that both developmentally constitutive and cell-type-specific iHMRs display chromatin states typical of distinct regulatory elements. We also observe that iHMR changes are more predictive of nearby gene activity than the promoter HMR itself, and that expression of noncoding RNAs within the iHMR accompanies full activation and complete demethylation of mature B cell enhancers. Conserved sequence features corresponding to iHMR transcript start sites, including a discernible TATA motif, suggest a conserved, functional role for transcription in these regions. Similarly, we explored both primate-specific and human population variation at iHMRs, finding that while enhancer iHMRs are more variable in sequence and methylation status than any other functional class, conservation of the TATA box is highly predictive of iHMR maintenance, reflecting the impact of sequence plasticity and transcriptional signals on iHMR establishment. Overall, our analysis allowed us to construct a three-step timeline in which (1) intergenic DHS are pre-established in the stem cell, (2) partial demethylation of blood-specific intergenic DHSs occurs in blood progenitors, and (3) complete iHMR formation and transcription coincide with enhancer activation in lymphoid-specified cells. PMID:23811145

  3. CRISPR Screens to Discover Functional Noncoding Elements.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jason B; Sanjana, Neville E

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in genomics is to identify functional elements in the noncoding genome. Recently, pooled clustered regularly interspersed palindromic repeat (CRISPR) mutagenesis screens of noncoding regions have emerged as a novel method for finding elements that impact gene expression and phenotype/disease-relevant biological processes. Here we review and compare different approaches for high-throughput dissection of noncoding elements. PMID:27423542

  4. Scaling features of noncoding DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.

    1999-01-01

    We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene, and utilize this fact to build a Coding Sequence Finder Algorithm, which uses statistical ideas to locate the coding regions of an unknown DNA sequence. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work adapting to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function, and reporting that noncoding regions in eukaryotes display a larger redundancy than coding regions. Specifically, we consider the possibility that this result is solely a consequence of nucleotide concentration differences as first noted by Bonhoeffer and his collaborators. We find that cytosine-guanine (CG) concentration does have a strong "background" effect on redundancy. However, we find that for the purine-pyrimidine binary mapping rule, which is not affected by the difference in CG concentration, the Shannon redundancy for the set of analyzed sequences is larger for noncoding regions compared to coding regions.

  5. DNA Damage-Induced Transcription of Transposable Elements and Long Non-coding RNAs in Arabidopsis Is Rare and ATM-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenxing; Schwacke, Rainer; Kunze, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    Induction and mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) following DNA damage or other stresses has been reported in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recently it was discovered that eukaryotic TEs are frequently associated with long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), many of which are also upregulated by stress. Yet, it is unknown whether DNA damage-induced transcriptional activation of TEs and lncRNAs occurs sporadically or is a synchronized, genome-wide response. Here we investigated the transcriptome of Arabidopsis wild-type (WT) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (atm) mutant plants 3 h after induction of DNA damage. In WT, expression of 5.2% of the protein-coding genes is ≥2-fold changed, whereas in atm plants, only 2.6% of these genes are regulated, and the response of genes associated with DNA repair, replication, and cell cycle is largely lost. In contrast, only less than 0.6% of TEs and lncRNAs respond to DNA damage in WT plants, and the regulation of ≥95% of them is ATM-dependent. The ATM-downstream factors BRCA1, DRM1, JMJ30, AGO2, and the ATM-independent AGO4 participate in the regulation of individual TEs and lncRNAs. Remarkably, protein-coding genes located adjacent to DNA damage-responsive TEs and lncRNAs are frequently coexpressed, which is consistent with the hypothesis that TEs and lncRNAs located close to genes commonly function as controlling elements. PMID:27150037

  6. Linguistic features of noncoding DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, R. N.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C.-K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1994-12-01

    We extend the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts to the statistical study of DNA base pair sequences, and find that the noncoding regions are more similar to natural languages than the coding regions. We also adapt the Shannon approach to quantifying the ``redundancy'' of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function, and demonstrate that noncoding regions in eukaryotes display a smaller entropy and larger redundancy B than coding regions, supporting the possibility that noncoding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  7. Transposable Elements and DNA Methylation Create in Embryonic Stem Cells Human-Specific Regulatory Sequences Associated with Distal Enhancers and Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the structural and functional characterization of the human genome, understanding of the mechanisms underlying the genetic basis of human phenotypic uniqueness remains limited. Here, I report that transposable element-derived sequences, most notably LTR7/HERV-H, LTR5_Hs, and L1HS, harbor 99.8% of the candidate human-specific regulatory loci (HSRL) with putative transcription factor-binding sites in the genome of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). A total of 4,094 candidate HSRL display selective and site-specific binding of critical regulators (NANOG [Nanog homeobox], POU5F1 [POU class 5 homeobox 1], CCCTC-binding factor [CTCF], Lamin B1), and are preferentially located within the matrix of transcriptionally active DNA segments that are hypermethylated in hESC. hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites are enriched near the protein-coding genes regulating brain size, pluripotency long noncoding RNAs, hESC enhancers, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-harboring regions immediately adjacent to binding sites. Sequences of only 4.3% of hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites are present in Neanderthals’ genome, suggesting that a majority of these regulatory elements emerged in Modern Humans. Comparisons of estimated creation rates of novel TF-binding sites revealed that there was 49.7-fold acceleration of creation rates of NANOG-binding sites in genomes of Chimpanzees compared with the mouse genomes and further 5.7-fold acceleration in genomes of Modern Humans compared with the Chimpanzees genomes. Preliminary estimates suggest that emergence of one novel NANOG-binding site detectable in hESC required 466 years of evolution. Pathway analysis of coding genes that have hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites within gene bodies or near gene boundaries revealed their association with physiological development and functions of nervous and cardiovascular systems, embryonic development, behavior, as well as development of a diverse spectrum of pathological conditions

  8. Transposable Elements and DNA Methylation Create in Embryonic Stem Cells Human-Specific Regulatory Sequences Associated with Distal Enhancers and Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2015-06-01

    Despite significant progress in the structural and functional characterization of the human genome, understanding of the mechanisms underlying the genetic basis of human phenotypic uniqueness remains limited. Here, I report that transposable element-derived sequences, most notably LTR7/HERV-H, LTR5_Hs, and L1HS, harbor 99.8% of the candidate human-specific regulatory loci (HSRL) with putative transcription factor-binding sites in the genome of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). A total of 4,094 candidate HSRL display selective and site-specific binding of critical regulators (NANOG [Nanog homeobox], POU5F1 [POU class 5 homeobox 1], CCCTC-binding factor [CTCF], Lamin B1), and are preferentially located within the matrix of transcriptionally active DNA segments that are hypermethylated in hESC. hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites are enriched near the protein-coding genes regulating brain size, pluripotency long noncoding RNAs, hESC enhancers, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-harboring regions immediately adjacent to binding sites. Sequences of only 4.3% of hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites are present in Neanderthals' genome, suggesting that a majority of these regulatory elements emerged in Modern Humans. Comparisons of estimated creation rates of novel TF-binding sites revealed that there was 49.7-fold acceleration of creation rates of NANOG-binding sites in genomes of Chimpanzees compared with the mouse genomes and further 5.7-fold acceleration in genomes of Modern Humans compared with the Chimpanzees genomes. Preliminary estimates suggest that emergence of one novel NANOG-binding site detectable in hESC required 466 years of evolution. Pathway analysis of coding genes that have hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites within gene bodies or near gene boundaries revealed their association with physiological development and functions of nervous and cardiovascular systems, embryonic development, behavior, as well as development of a diverse spectrum of pathological conditions

  9. "Reverse Genomics" Predicts Function of Human Conserved Noncoding Elements.

    PubMed

    Marcovitz, Amir; Jia, Robin; Bejerano, Gill

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary changes in cis-regulatory elements are thought to play a key role in morphological and physiological diversity across animals. Many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) function as cis-regulatory elements, controlling gene expression levels in different biological contexts. However, determining specific associations between CNEs and related phenotypes is a challenging task. Here, we present a computational "reverse genomics" approach that predicts the phenotypic functions of human CNEs. We identify thousands of human CNEs that were lost in at least two independent mammalian lineages (IL-CNEs), and match their evolutionary profiles against a diverse set of phenotypes recently annotated across multiple mammalian species. We identify 2,759 compelling associations between human CNEs and a diverse set of mammalian phenotypes. We discuss multiple CNEs, including a predicted ear element near BMP7, a pelvic CNE in FBN1, a brain morphology element in UBE4B, and an aquatic adaptation forelimb CNE near EGR2, and provide a full list of our predictions. As more genomes are sequenced and more traits are annotated across species, we expect our method to facilitate the interpretation of noncoding mutations in human disease and expedite the discovery of individual CNEs that play key roles in human evolution and development. PMID:26744417

  10. Long noncoding RNA, the methylation of genomic elements and their emerging crosstalk in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Sheng-Xian; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Qing-Guo; Yang, Yuan; Zhou, Wei-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The epigenetic mechanism that incorporates DNA methylation alterations, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA expression has been identified as a major characteristic in distinguishing physiological and pathological settings of cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of mortality related cancer. The advance in methylation modification of chromatin elements (for both genomic DNA and histone tails) and the emerging roles of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) have given us a better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying HCC. Recently, methods like genome-wide lncRNA profiling and histone hallmark detection were reported to discover mass tumor-associated lncRNAs epigenetically deregulated by differential chromosome modification, mainly by genomic DNA and histone methylation. Therefore, aberrant methylation modification of certain particular lncRNA genes could be crucial events correlating with unfavorable outcomes in HCC. In addition, amount of lncRNAs could act as a manipulator for DNA methylation or a scaffold for histone modification to affect key signaling pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis. This suggests that methylation modification of chromatin elements may have functional crosstalk with lncRNA. Here, we aim to outline the emerging role of the methylation and lncRNA, and their crosstalk of molecular mechanism. PMID:26282784

  11. Non-coding RNAs in DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunhua; Lu, Xiongbin

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide studies have revealed that human and other mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed and produce thousands of regulatory non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including miRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Emerging evidences suggest that these ncRNAs also play a pivotal role in genome integrity and stability via the regulation of DNA damage response (DDR). In this review, we discuss the recent finding on the interplay of ncRNAs with the canonical DDR signaling pathway, with a particular emphasis on miRNAs and lncRNAs. While the expression of ncRNAs is regulated in the DDR, the DDR is also subjected to regulation by those DNA damage-responsive ncRNAs. In addition, the roles of those Dicer- and Drosha-dependent small RNAs produced in the vicinity of double-strand breaks sites are also described. PMID:23226613

  12. Wood identification with PCR targeting noncoding chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Guangjie; Ping, Liyan

    2011-12-01

    Wood identification is extremely important in the modern forest industry. It also has significant applications in forensics, as well as in archeology and ecological research. In this study, five universal primer pairs amplifying chloroplast noncoding sequences of 300-1,200 bp were designed. Sequencing these amplicons in combination can lead to reliable identification of logs and wood products to cultivar, ecotype, or even the falling population. These primer pairs work on both gymnosperms and angiosperm trees. They also are potentially applicable to accurately identify shrubs and herbaceous species. In addition, a wood DNA purification method is proposed in which N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) is used to increase the quality and quantity of extracted DNA. This method was first validated using air-dried timber disks from three different tree species that were felled 4 years ago. The sapwood and outer heartwood provided the best locations for DNA extraction. The method was also successfully applied to extract DNA from the recalcitrant processed white oak wood, randomly selected staves of wine barrels. The single nucleotide polymorphism detected on the oak DNA sequences showed correlation to their geographical origins. PMID:22038094

  13. Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hui; Vincent, Kimberly; Pichler, Martin; Fodde, Riccardo; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Slack, Frank J.; Calin, George A

    2015-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted much attention due to their large number and biological significance. Many lncRNAs have been identified as mapping to regulatory elements including gene promoters and enhancers, ultraconserved regions, and intergenic regions of protein-coding genes. Yet, the biological function and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA in human diseases in general and cancer in particular remain largely unknown. Data from the literature suggest that lncRNA, often via interaction with proteins, functions in specific genomic loci or use their own transcription loci for regulatory activity. In this review, we summarize recent findings supporting the importance of DNA loci in lncRNA function, and the underlying molecular mechanisms via cis or trans regulation, and discuss their implications in cancer. In addition, we use the 8q24 genomic locus, a region containing interactive SNPs, DNA regulatory elements and lncRNAs, as an example to illustrate how single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within lncRNAs may be functionally associated with the individual’s susceptibility to cancer. PMID:25619839

  14. Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics.

    PubMed

    Ling, H; Vincent, K; Pichler, M; Fodde, R; Berindan-Neagoe, I; Slack, F J; Calin, G A

    2015-09-24

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted much attention due to their large number and biological significance. Many lncRNAs have been identified as mapping to regulatory elements including gene promoters and enhancers, ultraconserved regions and intergenic regions of protein-coding genes. Yet, the biological function and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA in human diseases in general and cancer in particular remain largely unknown. Data from the literature suggest that lncRNA, often via interaction with proteins, functions in specific genomic loci or use their own transcription loci for regulatory activity. In this review, we summarize recent findings supporting the importance of DNA loci in lncRNA function and the underlying molecular mechanisms via cis or trans regulation, and discuss their implications in cancer. In addition, we use the 8q24 genomic locus, a region containing interactive SNPs, DNA regulatory elements and lncRNAs, as an example to illustrate how single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within lncRNAs may be functionally associated with the individual's susceptibility to cancer. PMID:25619839

  15. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    SciTech Connect

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Land, Miriam L.; Woyke, Tanja; Hutchins, David A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Webb, Eric A.

    2015-03-23

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20–25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. In this paper, we use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Finally, our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual “inflation” of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.

  16. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; et al

    2015-03-23

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20–25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. In this paper, we use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% ofmore » the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Finally, our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual “inflation” of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.« less

  17. The most frequent short sequences in non-coding DNA.

    PubMed

    Subirana, Juan A; Messeguer, Xavier

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the most frequent short sequences in non-coding DNA. They may play a role in maintaining the structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes. We present a simple method for the detection and analysis of such sequences in several genomes, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. We also study two chromosomes of man and mouse with a length similar to the whole genomes of the other species. We provide a list of the most common sequences of 9-14 bases in each genome. As expected, they are present in human Alu sequences. Our programs may also give a graph and a list of their position in the genome. Detection of clusters is also possible. In most cases, these sequences contain few alternating regions. Their intrinsic structure and their influence on nucleosome formation are not known. In particular, we have found new features of short sequences in C. elegans, which are distributed in heterogeneous clusters. They appear as punctuation marks in the chromosomes. Such clusters are not found in either A. thaliana or D. melanogaster. We discuss the possibility that they play a role in centromere function and homolog recognition in meiosis. PMID:19966278

  18. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    SciTech Connect

    Walworth, Nathan G.; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L.; Woyke, Tanja; Hutchins, David A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Webb, Eric A.

    2015-04-07

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance due to its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20-25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and non-pathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the non-coding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and two fold higher than that found in the gene dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium ncRNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high fidelity replication allowed the unusual ‘inflation’ of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.

  19. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

  20. Systematic analysis of coding and noncoding DNA sequences using methods of statistical linguistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantegna, R. N.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We compare the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions in eukaryotic and viral DNA sequences by adapting two tests developed for the analysis of natural languages and symbolic sequences. The data set comprises all 30 sequences of length above 50 000 base pairs in GenBank Release No. 81.0, as well as the recently published sequences of C. elegans chromosome III (2.2 Mbp) and yeast chromosome XI (661 Kbp). We find that for the three chromosomes we studied the statistical properties of noncoding regions appear to be closer to those observed in natural languages than those of coding regions. In particular, (i) a n-tuple Zipf analysis of noncoding regions reveals a regime close to power-law behavior while the coding regions show logarithmic behavior over a wide interval, while (ii) an n-gram entropy measurement shows that the noncoding regions have a lower n-gram entropy (and hence a larger "n-gram redundancy") than the coding regions. In contrast to the three chromosomes, we find that for vertebrates such as primates and rodents and for viral DNA, the difference between the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions is not pronounced and therefore the results of the analyses of the investigated sequences are less conclusive. After noting the intrinsic limitations of the n-gram redundancy analysis, we also briefly discuss the failure of the zeroth- and first-order Markovian models or simple nucleotide repeats to account fully for these "linguistic" features of DNA. Finally, we emphasize that our results by no means prove the existence of a "language" in noncoding DNA.

  1. Conserved Noncoding Elements in the Most Distant Genera of Cephalochordates: The Goldilocks Principle.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Kozmikova, Iryna; Ono, Hiroki; Nossa, Carlos W; Kozmik, Zbynek; Putnam, Nicholas H; Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Linda Z

    2016-01-01

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120-160 million years ago. We found 113,070 noncoding elements conserved between the two species, amounting to 3.3% of the genome. The genomic distribution, target gene ontology, and enriched motifs of these CNEs all suggest that many of them are probably cis-regulatory elements. More than 90% of previously verified amphioxus regulatory elements were re-captured in this study. A search of the cephalochordate CNEs around 50 developmental genes in several vertebrate genomes revealed eight CNEs conserved between cephalochordates and vertebrates, indicating sequence conservation over >500 million years of divergence. The function of five CNEs was tested in reporter assays in zebrafish, and one was also tested in amphioxus. All five CNEs proved to be tissue-specific enhancers. Taken together, these findings indicate that even though Branchiostoma and Asymmetron are distantly related, as they are evolving slowly, comparisons between them are likely optimal for identifying most of their tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements laying the foundation for functional characterizations and a better understanding of the evolution of developmental regulation in cephalochordates. PMID:27412606

  2. Conserved Noncoding Elements in the Most Distant Genera of Cephalochordates: The Goldilocks Principle

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Kozmikova, Iryna; Ono, Hiroki; Nossa, Carlos W.; Kozmik, Zbynek; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Linda Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120–160 million years ago. We found 113,070 noncoding elements conserved between the two species, amounting to 3.3% of the genome. The genomic distribution, target gene ontology, and enriched motifs of these CNEs all suggest that many of them are probably cis-regulatory elements. More than 90% of previously verified amphioxus regulatory elements were re-captured in this study. A search of the cephalochordate CNEs around 50 developmental genes in several vertebrate genomes revealed eight CNEs conserved between cephalochordates and vertebrates, indicating sequence conservation over >500 million years of divergence. The function of five CNEs was tested in reporter assays in zebrafish, and one was also tested in amphioxus. All five CNEs proved to be tissue-specific enhancers. Taken together, these findings indicate that even though Branchiostoma and Asymmetron are distantly related, as they are evolving slowly, comparisons between them are likely optimal for identifying most of their tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements laying the foundation for functional characterizations and a better understanding of the evolution of developmental regulation in cephalochordates. PMID:27412606

  3. Elements and machinery of non-coding RNAs: toward their taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Tetsuro; Mishima, Yuichiro; Tomari, Yukihide

    2014-01-01

    Although recent transcriptome analyses have uncovered numerous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), their functions remain largely unknown. ncRNAs assemble with proteins and operate as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) machineries, formation of which is thought to be determined by specific fundamental elements embedded in the primary RNA transcripts. Knowledge about the relationships between RNA elements, RNP machinery, and molecular and physiological functions is critical for understanding the diverse roles of ncRNAs and may eventually allow their systematic classification or “taxonomy.” In this review, we catalog and discuss representative small and long non-coding RNA classes, focusing on their currently known (and unknown) RNA elements and RNP machineries. PMID:24731943

  4. Genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids in eukaryotes by non-coding DNA occurs through CRISPR-like mechanisms in the cytosol and the bodyguard protection in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the protective function of the abundant non-coding DNA in the eukaryotic genome is discussed from the perspective of genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids. Peripheral non-coding DNA has been proposed to act as a bodyguard that protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. In the proposed mechanism of protection, the radicals generated by water radiolysis in the cytosol and IR energy are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin; then, the DNA damage sites in the heterochromatin are removed and expelled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes, most likely through the formation of extrachromosomal circular DNA. To strengthen this hypothesis, this review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the protective function of non-coding DNA against exogenous nucleic acids. Based on these data, I hypothesize herein about the presence of an additional line of defense formed by small RNAs in the cytosol in addition to their bodyguard protection mechanism in the nucleus. Therefore, exogenous nucleic acids may be initially inactivated in the cytosol by small RNAs generated from non-coding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. Exogenous nucleic acids may enter the nucleus, where some are absorbed and/or blocked by heterochromatin and others integrate into chromosomes. The integrated fragments and the sites of DNA damage are removed by repetitive non-coding DNA elements in the heterochromatin and excluded from the nucleus. Therefore, the normal eukaryotic genome and the central protein-coding sequences are triply protected by non-coding DNA against invasion by exogenous nucleic acids. This review provides evidence supporting the protective role of non-coding DNA in genome defense. PMID:27036064

  5. Differentiating the Protein Coding and Noncoding RNA Segments of DNA Using Shannon Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, P.; Shirazi, A. H.; Saeedi, N.; Reza Jafari, G.; Sahimi, Muhammad

    The complexity of DNA sequences is evaluated in order to differentiate between protein-coding and noncoding RNA segments. The method is based on computing the Shannon entropy of the sequences. By comparing the entropy of the original sequence with that of its shuffled one, we identify the source of the difference between the two segments and their relative contributions to the sequence. To demonstrate the method, the DNA sequences of the bacterium Clostridium difficile 630 (G + C = 29.1%) and Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (G + C = 50.6%) are analyzed, which are representatives of bacteria with unbalanced and balanced nucleotide content, respectively. It is shown that in both bacteria, regardless of nucleotide content, ΔrS — the relative difference of the two entropies — is significantly greater in protein-coding regions, when compared with noncoding RNA segments.

  6. Non-coding chloroplast DNA for plant molecular systematics at the infrageneric level.

    PubMed

    Böhle, U R; Hilger, H; Cerff, R; Martin, W F

    1994-01-01

    With primers constructed against highly conserved regions of tRNA genes (trnTUGU, trnLUAA and trnFGAA) in chloroplast DNA, we have amplified two different non-coding spacers and one intron from four species within the genus Echium L. (Boraginaceae) and from two confamilial outgroups. The trnTUGU-trnLUAA intergenic spacer contains a greater number of polymorphic sites than the trnLUAA intron or the trnLUAA-trnFGAA intergenic spacer. We analyzed a total of 11 kb of sequence data from this non-coding DNA. Total nucleotide divergence between Echium species is on the order of 1% for these regions, all of which possess infrageneric length polymorphisms. The latter two regions contain indels which occur only in the 14 Macaronesian Island endemic species of Echium studied and suggest that these may form a monophyletic group. PMID:7994117

  7. Long-range correlation properties of coding and noncoding DNA sequences: GenBank analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Matsa, M. E.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    An open question in computational molecular biology is whether long-range correlations are present in both coding and noncoding DNA or only in the latter. To answer this question, we consider all 33301 coding and all 29453 noncoding eukaryotic sequences--each of length larger than 512 base pairs (bp)--in the present release of the GenBank to dtermine whether there is any statistically significant distinction in their long-range correlation properties. Standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis indicates that coding sequences have practically no correlations in the range from 10 bp to 100 bp (spectral exponent beta=0.00 +/- 0.04, where the uncertainty is two standard deviations). In contrast, for noncoding sequences, the average value of the spectral exponent beta is positive (0.16 +/- 0.05) which unambiguously shows the presence of long-range correlations. We also separately analyze the 874 coding and the 1157 noncoding sequences that have more than 4096 bp and find a larger region of power-law behavior. We calculate the probability that these two data sets (coding and noncoding) were drawn from the same distribution and we find that it is less than 10(-10). We obtain independent confirmation of these findings using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is designed to treat sequences with statistical heterogeneity, such as DNA's known mosaic structure ("patchiness") arising from the nonstationarity of nucleotide concentration. The near-perfect agreement between the two independent analysis methods, FFT and DFA, increases the confidence in the reliability of our conclusion.

  8. Estimation of correlations between copy-number variants in non-coding DNA.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Allelic DNA aberrations across our genome have been associated with normal human genetic heterogeneity as well as with a number of diseases and disorders. When copy-number variations (CNVs) occur in gene-coding regions, known relationships between genes may help us understand correlations between CNVs. However, a large number of these aberrations occur in non-coding, extragenic regions and their correlations may be characterized only quantitatively, e.g., probabilistically, but not functionally. Using a signal processing approach to CNV detection, we identified distributed CNVs in short, non-coding regions across chromosomes and investigated their potential correlations. We estimated predominantly local correlations between CNVs within the same chromosome, and a small number of apparently random long-distance correlations. PMID:22255599

  9. Fractality and entropic scaling in the chromosomal distribution of conserved noncoding elements in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Polychronopoulos, Dimitris; Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Almirantis, Yannis

    2016-06-15

    Conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) are defined using various degrees of sequence identity and thresholds of minimal length. Their conservation frequently exceeds the one observed for protein-coding sequences. We explored the chromosomal distribution of different classes of CNEs in the human genome. We employed two methodologies: the scaling of block entropy and box-counting, with the aim to assess fractal characteristics of different CNE datasets. Both approaches converged to the conclusion that well-developed fractality is characteristic of elements that are either extremely conserved between species or are of ancient origin, i.e. conserved between distant organisms across evolution. Given that CNEs are often clustered around genes, we verified by appropriate gene masking that fractal-like patterns emerge even when elements found in proximity or inside genes are excluded. An evolutionary scenario is proposed, involving genomic events that might account for fractal distribution of CNEs in the human genome as indicated through numerical simulations. PMID:26899868

  10. Non-Coding RNA: Sequence-Specific Guide for Chromatin Modification and DNA Damage Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Francia, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin conformation shapes the environment in which our genome is transcribed into RNA. Transcription is a source of DNA damage, thus it often occurs concomitantly to DNA damage signaling. Growing amounts of evidence suggest that different types of RNAs can, independently from their protein-coding properties, directly affect chromatin conformation, transcription and splicing, as well as promote the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. Therefore, transcription paradoxically functions to both threaten and safeguard genome integrity. On the other hand, DNA damage signaling is known to modulate chromatin to suppress transcription of the surrounding genetic unit. It is thus intriguing to understand how transcription can modulate DDR signaling while, in turn, DDR signaling represses transcription of chromatin around the DNA lesion. An unexpected player in this field is the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, which play roles in transcription, splicing and chromatin modulation in several organisms. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and several protein factors involved in the RNAi pathway are well known master regulators of chromatin while only recent reports show their involvement in DDR. Here, we discuss the experimental evidence supporting the idea that ncRNAs act at the genomic loci from which they are transcribed to modulate chromatin, DDR signaling and DNA repair. PMID:26617633

  11. The tortoise and the hare II: relative utility of 21 noncoding chloroplast DNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joey; Lickey, Edgar B; Beck, John T; Farmer, Susan B; Liu, Wusheng; Miller, Jermey; Siripun, Kunsiri C; Winder, Charles T; Schilling, Edward E; Small, Randall L

    2005-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequences are a primary source of data for plant molecular systematic studies. A few key papers have provided the molecular systematics community with universal primer pairs for noncoding regions that have dominated the field, namely trnL-trnF and trnK/matK. These two regions have provided adequate information to resolve species relationships in some taxa, but often provide little resolution at low taxonomic levels. To obtain better phylogenetic resolution, sequence data from these regions are often coupled with other sequence data. Choosing an appropriate cpDNA region for phylogenetic investigation is difficult because of the scarcity of information about the tempo of evolutionary rates among different noncoding cpDNA regions. The focus of this investigation was to determine whether there is any predictable rate heterogeneity among 21 noncoding cpDNA regions identified as phylogenetically useful at low levels. To test for rate heterogeneity among the different cpDNA regions, we used three species from each of 10 groups representing eight major phylogenetic lineages of phanerogams. The results of this study clearly show that a survey using as few as three representative taxa can be predictive of the amount of phylogenetic information offered by a cpDNA region and that rate heterogeneity exists among noncoding cpDNA regions. PMID:21652394

  12. An Abundant Class of Non-coding DNA Can Prevent Stochastic Gene Silencing in the C. elegans Germline.

    PubMed

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Jain, Nimit; Hansen, Loren; Davis, M Wayne; Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Rebora, Karine; Millet, Jonathan R M; Liu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K; Dupuy, Denis; Jorgensen, Erik M; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-07-14

    Cells benefit from silencing foreign genetic elements but must simultaneously avoid inactivating endogenous genes. Although chromatin modifications and RNAs contribute to maintenance of silenced states, the establishment of silenced regions will inevitably reflect underlying DNA sequence and/or structure. Here, we demonstrate that a pervasive non-coding DNA feature in Caenorhabditis elegans, characterized by 10-base pair periodic An/Tn-clusters (PATCs), can license transgenes for germline expression within repressive chromatin domains. Transgenes containing natural or synthetic PATCs are resistant to position effect variegation and stochastic silencing in the germline. Among endogenous genes, intron length and PATC-character undergo dramatic changes as orthologs move from active to repressive chromatin over evolutionary time, indicating a dynamic character to the An/Tn periodicity. We propose that PATCs form the basis of a cellular immune system, identifying certain endogenous genes in heterochromatic contexts as privileged while foreign DNA can be suppressed with no requirement for a cellular memory of prior exposure. PMID:27374334

  13. MEG3 long noncoding RNA regulates the TGF-β pathway genes through formation of RNA-DNA triplex structures.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Tanmoy; Subhash, Santhilal; Vaid, Roshan; Enroth, Stefan; Uday, Sireesha; Reinius, Björn; Mitra, Sanhita; Mohammed, Arif; James, Alva Rani; Hoberg, Emily; Moustakas, Aristidis; Gyllensten, Ulf; Jones, Steven J M; Gustafsson, Claes M; Sims, Andrew H; Westerlund, Fredrik; Gorab, Eduardo; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression by association with chromatin, but how they target chromatin remains poorly understood. We have used chromatin RNA immunoprecipitation-coupled high-throughput sequencing to identify 276 lncRNAs enriched in repressive chromatin from breast cancer cells. Using one of the chromatin-interacting lncRNAs, MEG3, we explore the mechanisms by which lncRNAs target chromatin. Here we show that MEG3 and EZH2 share common target genes, including the TGF-β pathway genes. Genome-wide mapping of MEG3 binding sites reveals that MEG3 modulates the activity of TGF-β genes by binding to distal regulatory elements. MEG3 binding sites have GA-rich sequences, which guide MEG3 to the chromatin through RNA-DNA triplex formation. We have found that RNA-DNA triplex structures are widespread and are present over the MEG3 binding sites associated with the TGF-β pathway genes. Our findings suggest that RNA-DNA triplex formation could be a general characteristic of target gene recognition by the chromatin-interacting lncRNAs. PMID:26205790

  14. MEG3 long noncoding RNA regulates the TGF-β pathway genes through formation of RNA–DNA triplex structures

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Tanmoy; Subhash, Santhilal; Vaid, Roshan; Enroth, Stefan; Uday, Sireesha; Reinius, Björn; Mitra, Sanhita; Mohammed, Arif; James, Alva Rani; Hoberg, Emily; Moustakas, Aristidis; Gyllensten, Ulf; Jones, Steven J.M.; Gustafsson, Claes M; Sims, Andrew H; Westerlund, Fredrik; Gorab, Eduardo; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression by association with chromatin, but how they target chromatin remains poorly understood. We have used chromatin RNA immunoprecipitation-coupled high-throughput sequencing to identify 276 lncRNAs enriched in repressive chromatin from breast cancer cells. Using one of the chromatin-interacting lncRNAs, MEG3, we explore the mechanisms by which lncRNAs target chromatin. Here we show that MEG3 and EZH2 share common target genes, including the TGF-β pathway genes. Genome-wide mapping of MEG3 binding sites reveals that MEG3 modulates the activity of TGF-β genes by binding to distal regulatory elements. MEG3 binding sites have GA-rich sequences, which guide MEG3 to the chromatin through RNA–DNA triplex formation. We have found that RNA–DNA triplex structures are widespread and are present over the MEG3 binding sites associated with the TGF-β pathway genes. Our findings suggest that RNA–DNA triplex formation could be a general characteristic of target gene recognition by the chromatin-interacting lncRNAs. PMID:26205790

  15. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences through chaos-game representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mayukha; Satish, B.; Srinivas, K.; Rao, P. Madhusudana; Manimaran, P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new approach combining the chaos game representation and the two dimensional multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis methods to examine multifractal behavior in power law cross correlation between any pair of nucleotide sequences of unequal lengths. In this work, we analyzed the characteristic behavior of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of eight prokaryotes. The results show the presence of strong multifractal nature between coding and non-coding sequences of all data sets. We found that this integrative approach helps us to consider complete DNA sequences for characterization, and further it may be useful for classification, clustering, identification of class affiliation of nucleotide sequences etc. with high precision.

  16. Transposable Elements: From DNA Parasites to Architects of Metazoan Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Piskurek, Oliver; Jackson, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most unexpected insights that followed from the completion of the human genome a decade ago was that more than half of our DNA is derived from transposable elements (TEs). Due to advances in high throughput sequencing technologies it is now clear that TEs comprise the largest molecular class within most metazoan genomes. TEs, once categorised as "junk DNA", are now known to influence genomic structure and function by increasing the coding and non-coding genetic repertoire of the host. In this way TEs are key elements that stimulate the evolution of metazoan genomes. This review highlights several lines of TE research including the horizontal transfer of TEs through host-parasite interactions, the vertical maintenance of TEs over long periods of evolutionary time, and the direct role that TEs have played in generating morphological novelty. PMID:24704977

  17. The dark matter of the cancer genome: aberrations in regulatory elements, untranslated regions, splice sites, non-coding RNA and synonymous mutations.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Sven; Bartsch, Lorenz; Berkmann, Julia C; Fröse, Karin; Heitmann, Jana; Hoppe, Caroline; Iggena, Deetje; Jazmati, Danny; Karschnia, Philipp; Linsenmeier, Miriam; Maulhardt, Thomas; Möhrmann, Lino; Morstein, Johannes; Paffenholz, Stella V; Röpenack, Paula; Rückert, Timo; Sandig, Ludger; Schell, Maximilian; Steinmann, Anna; Voss, Gjendine; Wasmuth, Jacqueline; Weinberger, Maria E; Wullenkord, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of the genome caused by oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inhibition. Deep sequencing studies including large consortia such as TCGA and ICGC identified numerous tumor-specific mutations not only in protein-coding sequences but also in non-coding sequences. Although 98% of the genome is not translated into proteins, most studies have neglected the information hidden in this "dark matter" of the genome. Malignancy-driving mutations can occur in all genetic elements outside the coding region, namely in enhancer, silencer, insulator, and promoter as well as in 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR Intron or splice site mutations can alter the splicing pattern. Moreover, cancer genomes contain mutations within non-coding RNA, such as microRNA, lncRNA, and lincRNA A synonymous mutation changes the coding region in the DNA and RNA but not the protein sequence. Importantly, oncogenes such as TERT or miR-21 as well as tumor suppressor genes such as TP53/p53, APC, BRCA1, or RB1 can be affected by these alterations. In summary, coding-independent mutations can affect gene regulation from transcription, splicing, mRNA stability to translation, and hence, this largely neglected area needs functional studies to elucidate the mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. This review will focus on the important role and novel mechanisms of these non-coding or allegedly silent mutations in tumorigenesis. PMID:26992833

  18. Genetic evidence for conserved non-coding element function across species–the ears have it

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Eric E.; Cox, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of genomic sequences from diverse vertebrate species has revealed numerous highly conserved regions that do not appear to encode proteins or functional RNAs. Often these “conserved non-coding elements,” or CNEs, can direct gene expression to specific tissues in transgenic models, demonstrating they have regulatory function. CNEs are frequently found near “developmental” genes, particularly transcription factors, implying that these elements have essential regulatory roles in development. However, actual examples demonstrating CNE regulatory functions across species have been few, and recent loss-of-function studies of several CNEs in mice have shown relatively minor effects. In this Perspectives article, we discuss new findings in “fancy” rats and Highland cattle demonstrating that function of a CNE near the Hmx1 gene is crucial for normal external ear development and when disrupted can mimic loss-of function Hmx1 coding mutations in mice and humans. These findings provide important support for conserved developmental roles of CNEs in divergent species, and reinforce the concept that CNEs should be examined systematically in the ongoing search for genetic causes of human developmental disorders in the era of genome-scale sequencing. PMID:24478720

  19. DNA methylation signatures of long intergenic noncoding RNAs in porcine adipose and muscle tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Li, Aimin; Wang, Li-Gang; Irwin, David M; Liu, Yan-Hu; Xu, Dan; Han, Xu-Man; Wang, Lu; Wu, Shi-Fang; Wang, Li-Xian; Xie, Hai-Bing; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are one of the major unexplored components of genomes. Here we re-analyzed a published methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) dataset to characterize the DNA methylation pattern of pig lincRNA genes in adipose and muscle tissues. Our study showed that the methylation level of lincRNA genes was higher than that of mRNA genes, with similar trends observed in comparisons of the promoter, exon or intron regions. Different methylation pattern were observed across the transcription start sites (TSS) of lincRNA and protein-coding genes. Furthermore, an overlap was observed between many lincRNA genes and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) identified among different breeds of pigs, which show different fat contents, sexes and anatomic locations of tissues. We identify a lincRNA gene, linc-sscg3623, that displayed differential methylation levels in backfat between Min and Large White pigs at 60 and 120 days of age. We found that a demethylation process occurred between days 150 and 180 in the Min and Large White pigs, which was followed by remethylation between days 180 and 210. These results contribute to our understanding of the domestication of domestic animals and identify lincRNA genes involved in adipogenesis and muscle development. PMID:26493951

  20. DNA methylation signatures of long intergenic noncoding RNAs in porcine adipose and muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Li, Aimin; Wang, Li-Gang; Irwin, David M; Liu, Yan-Hu; Xu, Dan; Han, Xu-Man; Wang, Lu; Wu, Shi-Fang; Wang, Li-Xian; Xie, Hai-Bing; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are one of the major unexplored components of genomes. Here we re-analyzed a published methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) dataset to characterize the DNA methylation pattern of pig lincRNA genes in adipose and muscle tissues. Our study showed that the methylation level of lincRNA genes was higher than that of mRNA genes, with similar trends observed in comparisons of the promoter, exon or intron regions. Different methylation pattern were observed across the transcription start sites (TSS) of lincRNA and protein-coding genes. Furthermore, an overlap was observed between many lincRNA genes and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) identified among different breeds of pigs, which show different fat contents, sexes and anatomic locations of tissues. We identify a lincRNA gene, linc-sscg3623, that displayed differential methylation levels in backfat between Min and Large White pigs at 60 and 120 days of age. We found that a demethylation process occurred between days 150 and 180 in the Min and Large White pigs, which was followed by remethylation between days 180 and 210. These results contribute to our understanding of the domestication of domestic animals and identify lincRNA genes involved in adipogenesis and muscle development. PMID:26493951

  1. Transposable Element Insertions in Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Sivakumar; Chernikova, Diana; Rogozin, Igor B.; Poliakov, Eugenia; Managadze, David; Koonin, Eugene V.; Milanesi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are abundant in mammalian genomes and appear to have contributed to the evolution of their hosts by providing novel regulatory or coding sequences. We analyzed different regions of long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) genes in human and mouse genomes to systematically assess the potential contribution of TEs to the evolution of the structure and regulation of expression of lincRNA genes. Introns of lincRNA genes contain the highest percentage of TE-derived sequences (TES), followed by exons and then promoter regions although the density of TEs is not significantly different between exons and promoters. Higher frequencies of ancient TEs in promoters and exons compared to introns implies that many lincRNA genes emerged before the split of primates and rodents. The content of TES in lincRNA genes is substantially higher than that in protein-coding genes, especially in exons and promoter regions. A significant positive correlation was detected between the content of TEs and evolutionary rate of lincRNAs indicating that inserted TEs are preferentially fixed in fast-evolving lincRNA genes. These results are consistent with the repeat insertion domains of LncRNAs hypothesis under which TEs have substantially contributed to the origin, evolution, and, in particular, fast functional diversification, of lincRNA genes. PMID:26106594

  2. Oncogene regulation. An oncogenic super-enhancer formed through somatic mutation of a noncoding intergenic element.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Marc R; Abraham, Brian J; Anders, Lars; Berezovskaya, Alla; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Durbin, Adam D; Etchin, Julia; Lawton, Lee; Sallan, Stephen E; Silverman, Lewis B; Loh, Mignon L; Hunger, Stephen P; Sanda, Takaomi; Young, Richard A; Look, A Thomas

    2014-12-12

    In certain human cancers, the expression of critical oncogenes is driven from large regulatory elements, called super-enhancers, that recruit much of the cell's transcriptional apparatus and are defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac). In a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases, we found that heterozygous somatic mutations are acquired that introduce binding motifs for the MYB transcription factor in a precise noncoding site, which creates a super-enhancer upstream of the TAL1 oncogene. MYB binds to this new site and recruits its H3K27 acetylase-binding partner CBP, as well as core components of a major leukemogenic transcriptional complex that contains RUNX1, GATA-3, and TAL1 itself. Additionally, most endogenous super-enhancers found in T-ALL cells are occupied by MYB and CBP, which suggests a general role for MYB in super-enhancer initiation. Thus, this study identifies a genetic mechanism responsible for the generation of oncogenic super-enhancers in malignant cells. PMID:25394790

  3. SHOX gene and conserved noncoding element deletions/duplications in Colombian patients with idiopathic short stature

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Gloria Tatiana Vinasco; Jaimes, Giovanna Carola; Barrios, Mauricio Coll; Cespedes, Camila; Velasco, Harvy Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    SHOX gene mutations or haploinsufficiency cause a wide range of phenotypes such as Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), Turner syndrome, and disproportionate short stature (DSS). However, this gene has also been found to be mutated in cases of idiopathic short stature (ISS) with a 3–15% frequency. In this study, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was employed to determine the frequency of SHOX gene mutations and their conserved noncoding elements (CNE) in Colombian patients with ISS. Patients were referred from different centers around the county. From a sample of 62 patients, 8.1% deletions and insertions in the intragenic regions and in the CNE were found. This result is similar to others published in other countries. Moreover, an isolated case of CNE 9 duplication and a new intron 6b deletion in another patient, associated with ISS, are described. This is one of the first studies of a Latin American population in which deletions/duplications of the SHOX gene and its CNE are examined in patients with ISS. PMID:24689071

  4. Structure-aided prediction of mammalian transcription factor complexes in conserved non-coding elements.

    PubMed

    Guturu, Harendra; Doxey, Andrew C; Wenger, Aaron M; Bejerano, Gill

    2013-12-19

    Mapping the DNA-binding preferences of transcription factor (TF) complexes is critical for deciphering the functions of cis-regulatory elements. Here, we developed a computational method that compares co-occurring motif spacings in conserved versus unconserved regions of the human genome to detect evolutionarily constrained binding sites of rigid TF complexes. Structural data were used to estimate TF complex physical plausibility, explore overlapping motif arrangements seldom tackled by non-structure-aware methods, and generate and analyse three-dimensional models of the predicted complexes bound to DNA. Using this approach, we predicted 422 physically realistic TF complex motifs at 18% false discovery rate, the majority of which (326, 77%) contain some sequence overlap between binding sites. The set of mostly novel complexes is enriched in known composite motifs, predictive of binding site configurations in TF-TF-DNA crystal structures, and supported by ChIP-seq datasets. Structural modelling revealed three cooperativity mechanisms: direct protein-protein interactions, potentially indirect interactions and 'through-DNA' interactions. Indeed, 38% of the predicted complexes were found to contain four or more bases in which TF pairs appear to synergize through overlapping binding to the same DNA base pairs in opposite grooves or strands. Our TF complex and associated binding site predictions are available as a web resource at http://bejerano.stanford.edu/complex. PMID:24218641

  5. Gammaherpesvirus Small Noncoding RNAs Are Bifunctional Elements That Regulate Infection and Contribute to Virulence In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Diebel, Kevin W.; Oko, Lauren M.; Medina, Eva M.; Niemeyer, Brian F.; Warren, Cody J.; Claypool, David J.; Tibbetts, Scott A.; Cool, Carlyne D.; Clambey, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses express noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The gammaherpesviruses (γHVs), including Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and murine γHV68, each contain multiple ncRNA genes, including microRNAs (miRNAs). While these ncRNAs can regulate multiple host and viral processes in vitro, the genetic contribution of these RNAs to infection and pathogenesis remains largely unknown. To study the functional contribution of these RNAs to γHV infection, we have used γHV68, a small-animal model of γHV pathogenesis. γHV68 encodes eight small hybrid ncRNAs that contain both tRNA-like elements and functional miRNAs. These genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase III and are referred to as the γHV68 TMERs (tRNA-miRNA-encoded RNAs). To determine the total concerted genetic contribution of these ncRNAs to γHV acute infection and pathogenesis, we generated and characterized a recombinant γHV68 strain devoid of all eight TMERs. TMER-deficient γHV68 has wild-type levels of lytic replication in vitro and normal establishment of latency in B cells early following acute infection in vivo. In contrast, during acute infection of immunodeficient mice, TMER-deficient γHV68 has reduced virulence in a model of viral pneumonia, despite having an enhanced frequency of virus-infected cells. Strikingly, expression of a single viral tRNA-like molecule, in the absence of all other virus-encoded TMERs and miRNAs, reverses both attenuation in virulence and enhanced frequency of infected cells. These data show that γHV ncRNAs play critical roles in acute infection and virulence in immunocompromised hosts and identify these RNAs as a new potential target to modulate γHV-induced infection and pathogenesis. PMID:25691585

  6. Expression and functional role of a transcribed noncoding RNA with an ultraconserved element in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Braconi, Chiara; Valeri, Nicola; Kogure, Takayuki; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Huang, Nianyuan; Nuovo, Gerard J; Terracciano, Luigi; Croce, Carlo M; Patel, Tushar

    2011-01-11

    Although expression of non-protein-coding RNA (ncRNA) can be altered in human cancers, their functional relevance is unknown. Ultraconserved regions are noncoding genomic segments that are 100% conserved across humans, mice, and rats. Conservation of gene sequences across species may indicate an essential functional role, and therefore we evaluated the expression of ultraconserved RNAs (ucRNA) in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). The global expression of ucRNAs was analyzed with a custom microarray. Expression was verified in cell lines by real-time PCR or in tissues by in situ hybridization using tissue microarrays. Cellular ucRNA expression was modulated with siRNAs, and the effects on global gene expression and growth of human and murine HCC cells were evaluated. Fifty-six ucRNAs were aberrantly expressed in HepG2 cells compared with nonmalignant hepatocytes. Among these ucRNAs, the greatest change was noted for ultraconserved element 338 (uc.338), which was dramatically increased in human HCC compared with noncancerous adjacent tissues. Although uc.338 is partially located within the poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) gene, the transcribed ncRNA encoding uc.338 is expressed independently of PCBP2 and was cloned as a 590-bp RNA gene, termed TUC338. Functional gene annotation analysis indicated predominant effects on genes involved in cell growth. These effects were experimentally demonstrated in both human and murine cells. siRNA to TUC338 decreased both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells. These studies identify a critical role for TUC338 in regulation of transformed cell growth and of transcribed ultraconserved ncRNA as a unique class of genes involved in the pathobiology of HCC. PMID:21187392

  7. Expression and functional role of a transcribed noncoding RNA with an ultraconserved element in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Braconi, Chiara; Valeri, Nicola; Kogure, Takayuki; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Huang, Nianyuan; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Terracciano, Luigi; Croce, Carlo M.; Patel, Tushar

    2011-01-01

    Although expression of non–protein-coding RNA (ncRNA) can be altered in human cancers, their functional relevance is unknown. Ultraconserved regions are noncoding genomic segments that are 100% conserved across humans, mice, and rats. Conservation of gene sequences across species may indicate an essential functional role, and therefore we evaluated the expression of ultraconserved RNAs (ucRNA) in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). The global expression of ucRNAs was analyzed with a custom microarray. Expression was verified in cell lines by real-time PCR or in tissues by in situ hybridization using tissue microarrays. Cellular ucRNA expression was modulated with siRNAs, and the effects on global gene expression and growth of human and murine HCC cells were evaluated. Fifty-six ucRNAs were aberrantly expressed in HepG2 cells compared with nonmalignant hepatocytes. Among these ucRNAs, the greatest change was noted for ultraconserved element 338 (uc.338), which was dramatically increased in human HCC compared with noncancerous adjacent tissues. Although uc.338 is partially located within the poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) gene, the transcribed ncRNA encoding uc.338 is expressed independently of PCBP2 and was cloned as a 590-bp RNA gene, termed TUC338. Functional gene annotation analysis indicated predominant effects on genes involved in cell growth. These effects were experimentally demonstrated in both human and murine cells. siRNA to TUC338 decreased both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells. These studies identify a critical role for TUC338 in regulation of transformed cell growth and of transcribed ultraconserved ncRNA as a unique class of genes involved in the pathobiology of HCC. PMID:21187392

  8. Segmentation of DNA into Coding and Noncoding Regions Based on Recursive Entropic Segmentation and Stop-Codon Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicorici, Daniel; Astola, Jaakko

    2004-12-01

    Heterogeneous DNA sequences can be partitioned into homogeneous domains that are comprised of the four nucleotides A, C, G, and T and the stop-codons. Recursively, we apply a new entropic segmentation method on DNA sequences using Jensen-Shannon and Jensen-Rényi divergences in order to find the borders between coding and noncoding DNA regions. We have chosen 12- and 18-symbol alphabets that capture (i) the differential nucleotide composition in codons, and (ii) the differential stop-codon composition along all the three phases in both strands of the DNA. The new segmentation method is based on the Jensen-Rényi divergence measure, nucleotide statistics, and stop-codon statistics in both DNA strands. The recursive segmentation process requires no prior training on known datasets. Consequently, for three entire genomes of bacteria, we find that the use of nucleotide composition, stop-codon composition, and Jensen-Rényi divergence improve the accuracy of finding the borders between coding and noncoding regions in DNA sequences.

  9. Defining functional DNA elements in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Kellis, Manolis; Wold, Barbara; Snyder, Michael P.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Kundaje, Anshul; Marinov, Georgi K.; Ward, Lucas D.; Birney, Ewan; Crawford, Gregory E.; Dekker, Job; Dunham, Ian; Elnitski, Laura L.; Farnham, Peggy J.; Feingold, Elise A.; Gerstein, Mark; Giddings, Morgan C.; Gilbert, David M.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Green, Eric D.; Guigo, Roderic; Hubbard, Tim; Kent, Jim; Lieb, Jason D.; Myers, Richard M.; Pazin, Michael J.; Ren, Bing; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Weng, Zhiping; White, Kevin P.; Hardison, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    With the completion of the human genome sequence, attention turned to identifying and annotating its functional DNA elements. As a complement to genetic and comparative genomics approaches, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project was launched to contribute maps of RNA transcripts, transcriptional regulator binding sites, and chromatin states in many cell types. The resulting genome-wide data reveal sites of biochemical activity with high positional resolution and cell type specificity that facilitate studies of gene regulation and interpretation of noncoding variants associated with human disease. However, the biochemically active regions cover a much larger fraction of the genome than do evolutionarily conserved regions, raising the question of whether nonconserved but biochemically active regions are truly functional. Here, we review the strengths and limitations of biochemical, evolutionary, and genetic approaches for defining functional DNA segments, potential sources for the observed differences in estimated genomic coverage, and the biological implications of these discrepancies. We also analyze the relationship between signal intensity, genomic coverage, and evolutionary conservation. Our results reinforce the principle that each approach provides complementary information and that we need to use combinations of all three to elucidate genome function in human biology and disease. PMID:24753594

  10. [Comparison study on the methods for finding borders between coding and non-coding DNA regions in rice].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Gang; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Xue, Qing-Zhong

    2005-07-01

    Entropy-based divergence measures have provided an impelling tool in evaluating sequence complexity, predicting CpG island, and detecting borders between coding and non-coding DNA regions etc. In this paper, two new divergence measures: the alpha-KL divergence and the alpha-Jensen-Shannon divergence were defined and a coarse-graining vector of amino acids- corresponding codons was proposed according to codons GC-content, in order to improve the computational approach to finding borders between coding and non-coding in rice. A comparison of the accuracies gained by different vectors (the Jensen-Shannon divergence, the Jensen-Renyi divergence, the alpha-KL divergence and the alpha-Jensen -Shannon divergence) showed that recognition efficiency based on the new information measures with the vector coarse-graining increase by 4-5 times than that of Bernaola's method in the 'stop codon' of coding regions in rice. PMID:16120591

  11. BioCode: Two biologically compatible Algorithms for embedding data in non-coding and coding regions of DNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent times, the application of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has diversified with the emergence of fields such as DNA computing and DNA data embedding. DNA data embedding, also known as DNA watermarking or DNA steganography, aims to develop robust algorithms for encoding non-genetic information in DNA. Inherently DNA is a digital medium whereby the nucleotide bases act as digital symbols, a fact which underpins all bioinformatics techniques, and which also makes trivial information encoding using DNA straightforward. However, the situation is more complex in methods which aim at embedding information in the genomes of living organisms. DNA is susceptible to mutations, which act as a noisy channel from the point of view of information encoded using DNA. This means that the DNA data embedding field is closely related to digital communications. Moreover it is a particularly unique digital communications area, because important biological constraints must be observed by all methods. Many DNA data embedding algorithms have been presented to date, all of which operate in one of two regions: non-coding DNA (ncDNA) or protein-coding DNA (pcDNA). Results This paper proposes two novel DNA data embedding algorithms jointly called BioCode, which operate in ncDNA and pcDNA, respectively, and which comply fully with stricter biological restrictions. Existing methods comply with some elementary biological constraints, such as preserving protein translation in pcDNA. However there exist further biological restrictions which no DNA data embedding methods to date account for. Observing these constraints is key to increasing the biocompatibility and in turn, the robustness of information encoded in DNA. Conclusion The algorithms encode information in near optimal ways from a coding point of view, as we demonstrate by means of theoretical and empirical (in silico) analyses. Also, they are shown to encode information in a robust way, such that mutations have isolated

  12. DNA sequence variation in a non-coding region of low recombination on the human X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Kaessmann, H; Heissig, F; von Haeseler, A; Pääbo, S

    1999-05-01

    DNA sequence variation has become a major source of insight regarding the origin and history of our species as well as an important tool for the identification of allelic variants associated with disease. Comparative sequencing of DNA has to date focused mainly on mitochondrial (mt) DNA, which due to its apparent lack of recombination and high evolutionary rate lends itself well to the study of human evolution. These advantages also entail limitations. For example, the high mutation rate of mtDNA results in multiple substitutions that make phylogenetic analysis difficult and, because mtDNA is maternally inherited, it reflects only the history of females. For the history of males, the non-recombining part of the paternally inherited Y chromosome can be studied. The extent of variation on the Y chromosome is so low that variation at particular sites known to be polymorphic rather than entire sequences are typically determined. It is currently unclear how some forms of analysis (such as the coalescent) should be applied to such data. Furthermore, the lack of recombination means that selection at any locus affects all 59 Mb of DNA. To gauge the extent and pattern of point substitutional variation in non-coding parts of the human genome, we have sequenced 10 kb of non-coding DNA in a region of low recombination at Xq13.3. Analysis of this sequence in 69 individuals representing all major linguistic groups reveals the highest overall diversity in Africa, whereas deep divergences also exist in Asia. The time elapsed since the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) is 535,000+/-119,000 years. We expect this type of nuclear locus to provide more answers about the genetic origin and history of humans. PMID:10319866

  13. Profiling of conserved non-coding elements upstream of SHOX and functional characterisation of the SHOX cis-regulatory landscape

    PubMed Central

    Verdin, Hannah; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Janssens, Sandra; Callewaert, Bert; Waele, Kathleen De; Schepper, Jean De; François, Inge; Menten, Björn; Heath, Karen E.; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Baere, Elfride De

    2015-01-01

    Genetic defects such as copy number variations (CNVs) in non-coding regions containing conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) outside the transcription unit of their target gene, can underlie genetic disease. An example of this is the short stature homeobox (SHOX) gene, regulated by seven CNEs located downstream and upstream of SHOX, with proven enhancer capacity in chicken limbs. CNVs of the downstream CNEs have been reported in many idiopathic short stature (ISS) cases, however, only recently have a few CNVs of the upstream enhancers been identified. Here, we set out to provide insight into: (i) the cis-regulatory role of these upstream CNEs in human cells, (ii) the prevalence of upstream CNVs in ISS, and (iii) the chromatin architecture of the SHOX cis-regulatory landscape in chicken and human cells. Firstly, luciferase assays in human U2OS cells, and 4C-seq both in chicken limb buds and human U2OS cells, demonstrated cis-regulatory enhancer capacities of the upstream CNEs. Secondly, CNVs of these upstream CNEs were found in three of 501 ISS patients. Finally, our 4C-seq interaction map of the SHOX region reveals a cis-regulatory domain spanning more than 1 Mb and harbouring putative new cis-regulatory elements. PMID:26631348

  14. DNA methylation patterns of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs in males with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, QI; WANG, YUNLIANG; CHENG, JIA; DAI, DONGJUN; ZHOU, XINGYU; ZHANG, YUZHENG; LI, JINFENG; YIN, HONGLEI; GAO, SHUGUI; DUAN, SHIWEI

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is one of the most complex mental illnesses affecting ~1% of the population worldwide. SCZ pathogenesis is considered to be a result of genetic as well as epigenetic alterations. Previous studies have aimed to identify the causative genes of SCZ. However, DNA methylation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in SCZ has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was conducted using samples from two male patients with paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, respectively. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing was used. In the two patients with paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, 1,397 and 1,437 peaks were identified, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that peaks were enriched in protein-coding genes, which exhibited nervous system and brain functions. A number of these peaks in gene promoter regions may affect gene expression and, therefore, influence SCZ-associated pathways. Furthermore, 7 and 20 lncRNAs, respectively, in the Refseq database were hypermethylated. According to the lncRNA dataset in the NONCODE database, ~30% of intergenic peaks overlapped with novel lncRNA loci. The results of the present study demonstrated that aberrant hypermethylation of lncRNA genes may be an important epigenetic factor associated with SCZ. However, further studies using larger sample sizes are required. PMID:26503909

  15. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active-site region of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Ponicsan, Steven L; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M; Ahn, Natalie G; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2013-10-01

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180-nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is an ~500-kDa complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde cross-linking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after cross-linking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active-site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. PMID:23416138

  16. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity. PMID:26472689

  17. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  18. Differential DNA methylation profiles of coding and non-coding genes define hippocampal sclerosis in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Delaney, Suzanne F.C.; Bryan, Kenneth; Das, Sudipto; McKiernan, Ross C.; Bray, Isabella M.; Reynolds, James P.; Gwinn, Ryder; Stallings, Raymond L.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with large-scale, wide-ranging changes in gene expression in the hippocampus. Epigenetic changes to DNA are attractive mechanisms to explain the sustained hyperexcitability of chronic epilepsy. Here, through methylation analysis of all annotated C-phosphate-G islands and promoter regions in the human genome, we report a pilot study of the methylation profiles of temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis. Furthermore, by comparative analysis of expression and promoter methylation, we identify methylation sensitive non-coding RNA in human temporal lobe epilepsy. A total of 146 protein-coding genes exhibited altered DNA methylation in temporal lobe epilepsy hippocampus (n = 9) when compared to control (n = 5), with 81.5% of the promoters of these genes displaying hypermethylation. Unique methylation profiles were evident in temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis, in addition to a common methylation profile regardless of pathology grade. Gene ontology terms associated with development, neuron remodelling and neuron maturation were over-represented in the methylation profile of Watson Grade 1 samples (mild hippocampal sclerosis). In addition to genes associated with neuronal, neurotransmitter/synaptic transmission and cell death functions, differential hypermethylation of genes associated with transcriptional regulation was evident in temporal lobe epilepsy, but overall few genes previously associated with epilepsy were among the differentially methylated. Finally, a panel of 13, methylation-sensitive microRNA were identified in temporal lobe epilepsy including MIR27A, miR-193a-5p (MIR193A) and miR-876-3p (MIR876), and the differential methylation of long non-coding RNA documented for the first time. The present study therefore reports select, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in human temporal lobe epilepsy that may contribute to the molecular architecture of the epileptic brain. PMID

  19. A novel non-coding RNA lncRNA-JADE connects DNA damage signalling to histone H4 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guohui; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yunhua; Han, Cecil; Sood, Anil K; Calin, George A; Zhang, Xinna; Lu, Xiongbin

    2013-01-01

    A prompt and efficient DNA damage response (DDR) eliminates the detrimental effects of DNA lesions in eukaryotic cells. Basic and preclinical studies suggest that the DDR is one of the primary anti-cancer barriers during tumorigenesis. The DDR involves a complex network of processes that detect and repair DNA damage, in which long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new class of regulatory RNAs, may play an important role. In the current study, we identified a novel lncRNA, lncRNA-JADE, that is induced after DNA damage in an ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner. LncRNA-JADE transcriptionally activates Jade1, a key component in the HBO1 (human acetylase binding to ORC1) histone acetylation complex. Consequently, lncRNA-JADE induces histone H4 acetylation in the DDR. Markedly higher levels of lncRNA-JADE were observed in human breast tumours in comparison with normal breast tissues. Knockdown of lncRNA-JADE significantly inhibited breast tumour growth in vivo. On the basis of these results, we propose that lncRNA-JADE is a key functional link that connects the DDR to histone H4 acetylation, and that dysregulation of lncRNA-JADE may contribute to breast tumorigenesis. PMID:24097061

  20. Conformational diversity of single-stranded DNA from bacterial repetitive extragenic palindromes: Implications for the DNA recognition elements of transposases.

    PubMed

    Charnavets, Tatsiana; Nunvar, Jaroslav; Nečasová, Iva; Völker, Jens; Breslauer, Kenneth J; Schneider, Bohdan

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive extragenic palindrome (REP)-associated tyrosine transposase enzymes (RAYTs) bind REP DNA domains and catalyze their cleavage. Genomic sequence analyses identify potential noncoding REP sequences associated with RAYT-encoding genes. To probe the conformational space of potential RAYT DNA binding domains, we report here spectroscopic and calorimetric measurements that detect and partially characterize the solution conformational heterogeneity of REP oligonucleotides from six bacterial species. Our data reveal most of these REP oligonucleotides adopt multiple conformations, suggesting that RAYTs confront a landscape of potential DNA substrates in dynamic equilibrium that could be selected, enriched, and/or induced via differential binding. Thus, the transposase-bound DNA motif may not be the predominant conformation of the isolated REP domain. Intriguingly, for several REPs, the circular dichroism spectra suggest guanine tetraplexes as potential alternative or additional RAYT recognition elements, an observation consistent with these REP domains being highly nonrandom, with tetraplex-favoring 5'-G and 3'-C-rich segments. In fact, the conformational heterogeneity of REP domains detected and reported here, including the formation of noncanonical DNA secondary structures, may reflect a general feature required for recognition by RAYT transposases. Based on our biophysical data, we propose guanine tetraplexes as an additional DNA recognition element for binding by RAYT transposase enzymes. PMID:25951997

  1. A strand-specific switch in noncoding transcription switches the function of a Polycomb/Trithorax response element

    PubMed Central

    Trupke, Johanna; Okulski, Helena; Altmutter, Christina; Ruge, Frank; Boidol, Bernd; Kubicek, Stefan; Schmauss, Gerald; Aumayr, Karin; Ruf, Marius; Pospisilik, Andrew; Dimond, Andrew; Senergin, Hasene Basak; Vargas, Marcus L.; Simon, Jeffrey A.; Ringrose, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb/Trithorax response elements (PRE/TREs) can switch their function reversibly between silencing and activation, by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we show that a switch in forward and reverse noncoding transcription from the Drosophila vestigial (vg) PRE/TRE switches the status of the element between silencing (induced by the forward strand) and activation (induced by the reverse strand). In vitro, both ncRNAs inhibit PRC2 histone methyltransferase activity, but in vivo only the reverse strand binds PRC2. Over-expression of the reverse strand evicts PRC2 from chromatin and inhibits its enzymatic activity. We propose that interactions of RNAs with PRC2 are differentially regulated in vivo, allowing regulated inhibition of local PRC2 activity. Genome-wide analysis shows that strand switching of ncRNAs occurs at several hundred PcG binding sites in fly and vertebrate genomes. This work identifies a novel and potentially widespread class of PRE/TREs that switch function by switching the direction of ncRNA transcription. PMID:25108384

  2. Natural Selection on Coding and Noncoding DNA Sequences Is Associated with Virulence Genes in a Plant Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Gabriel E.; Sanz-Martín, José M.; Anisimova, Maria; Sukno, Serenella A.; Thon, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection leaves imprints on DNA, offering the opportunity to identify functionally important regions of the genome. Identifying the genomic regions affected by natural selection within pathogens can aid in the pursuit of effective strategies to control diseases. In this study, we analyzed genome-wide patterns of selection acting on different classes of sequences in a worldwide sample of eight strains of the model plant-pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. We found evidence of selective sweeps, balancing selection, and positive selection affecting both protein-coding and noncoding DNA of pathogenicity-related sequences. Genes encoding putative effector proteins and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes show evidence of positive selection acting on the coding sequence, consistent with an Arms Race model of evolution. The 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of genes coding for effector proteins and genes upregulated during infection show an excess of high-frequency polymorphisms likely the consequence of balancing selection and consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis of evolution acting on these putative regulatory sequences. Based on the findings of this work, we propose that even though adaptive substitutions on coding sequences are important for proteins that interact directly with the host, polymorphisms in the regulatory sequences may confer flexibility of gene expression in the virulence processes of this important plant pathogen. PMID:25193312

  3. Biological function of Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins and non-coding elements.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) represses host translation machinery, blocks protein secretion, and cleaves cellular proteins associated with signal transduction and the innate immune response to infection. Non-structural proteins (NSPs) and non-coding elements (NCEs) of FMDV play a critical role in these biological processes. The FMDV virion consists of capsid and nucleic acid. The virus genome is a positive single stranded RNA and encodes a single long open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a long structured 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and a short 3'-UTR. The ORF is translated into a polypeptide chain and processed into four structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), 10 NSPs (L(pro), 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B1-3, 3C(pro), and 3D(pol)), and some cleavage intermediates. In the past decade, an increasing number of studies have begun to focus on the molecular pathogenesis of FMDV NSPs and NCEs. This review collected recent research progress on the biological functions of these NSPs and NCEs on the replication and host cellular regulation of FMDV to understand the molecular mechanism of host-FMDV interactions and provide perspectives for antiviral strategy and development of novel vaccines. PMID:27334704

  4. Non-coding RNA generated following lariat-debranching mediates targeting of AID to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Simin; Vuong, Bao Q.; Vaidyanathan, Bharat; Lin, Jia-Yu; Huang, Feng-Ting; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Transcription through immunoglobulin switch (S) regions is essential for class switch recombination (CSR) but no molecular function of the transcripts has been described. Likewise, recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to S regions is critical for CSR; however, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that intronic switch RNA acts in trans to target AID to S region DNA. AID binds directly to switch RNA through G-quadruplexes formed by the RNA molecules. Disruption of this interaction by mutation of a key residue in the putative RNA-binding domain of AID impairs recruitment of AID to S region DNA, thereby abolishing CSR. Additionally, inhibition of RNA lariat processing leads to loss of AID localization to S regions and compromises CSR; both defects can be rescued by exogenous expression of switch transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. These studies uncover an RNA-mediated mechanism of targeting AID to DNA. PMID:25957684

  5. A pathogenic non-coding RNA induces changes in dynamic DNA methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in host plants.

    PubMed

    Martinez, German; Castellano, Mayte; Tortosa, Maria; Pallas, Vicente; Gomez, Gustavo

    2014-02-01

    Viroids are plant-pathogenic non-coding RNAs able to interfere with as yet poorly known host-regulatory pathways and to cause alterations recognized as diseases. The way in which these RNAs coerce the host to express symptoms remains to be totally deciphered. In recent years, diverse studies have proposed a close interplay between viroid-induced pathogenesis and RNA silencing, supporting the belief that viroid-derived small RNAs mediate the post-transcriptional cleavage of endogenous mRNAs by acting as elicitors of symptoms expression. Although the evidence supporting the role of viroid-derived small RNAs in pathogenesis is robust, the possibility that this phenomenon can be a more complex process, also involving viroid-induced alterations in plant gene expression at transcriptional levels, has been considered. Here we show that plants infected with the 'Hop stunt viroid' accumulate high levels of sRNAs derived from ribosomal transcripts. This effect was correlated with an increase in the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursors during infection. We observed that the transcriptional reactivation of rRNA genes correlates with a modification of DNA methylation in their promoter region and revealed that some rRNA genes are demethylated and transcriptionally reactivated during infection. This study reports a previously unknown mechanism associated with viroid (or any other pathogenic RNA) infection in plants providing new insights into aspects of host alterations induced by the viroid infectious cycle. PMID:24178032

  6. Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA).

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel E; Patel, Zubin H; Lu, Xiaoming; Lynch, Arthur T; Weirauch, Matthew T; Kottyan, Leah C

    2016-01-01

    Population and family-based genetic studies typically result in the identification of genetic variants that are statistically associated with a clinical disease or phenotype. For many diseases and traits, most variants are non-coding, and are thus likely to act by impacting subtle, comparatively hard to predict mechanisms controlling gene expression. Here, we describe a general strategic approach to prioritize non-coding variants, and screen them for their function. This approach involves computational prioritization using functional genomic databases followed by experimental analysis of differential binding of transcription factors (TFs) to risk and non-risk alleles. For both electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNA affinity precipitation assay (DAPA) analysis of genetic variants, a synthetic DNA oligonucleotide (oligo) is used to identify factors in the nuclear lysate of disease or phenotype-relevant cells. For EMSA, the oligonucleotides with or without bound nuclear factors (often TFs) are analyzed by non-denaturing electrophoresis on a tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) polyacrylamide gel. For DAPA, the oligonucleotides are bound to a magnetic column and the nuclear factors that specifically bind the DNA sequence are eluted and analyzed through mass spectrometry or with a reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blot analysis. This general approach can be widely used to study the function of non-coding genetic variants associated with any disease, trait, or phenotype. PMID:27585267

  7. Noncoding RNAs and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Mozhgan Moslemi; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2009-01-01

    The eukaryotic complexity involves the expression and regulation of genes via RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, DNA-protein and RNA-protein interactions. Recently, the role of RNA molecules in the regulation of genes in higher organisms has become more evident, especially with the discovery that about 97% of the transcriptional output in higher organisms are represented as noncoding RNAs: rRNA, snoRNAs, tRNA, transposable elements, 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions, introns, intergenic regions and microRNAs. MicroRNAs function by negatively regulating gene expression via degradation or translational inhibition of their target mRNAs and thus participate in a wide variety of physiological and pathological cellular processes including: development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis pathways. MicroRNA expression profiles in many types of cancers have been identified. Recent reports have revealed that the expression profiles of microRNAs change in various human cancers and appear to function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Abnormal microRNA expression has increasingly become a common feature of human cancers. In this review, we summarize the latest progress on the involvement of microRNAs in different types of cancer and their potential use as potential diagnostic and prognostic tumor biomarkers in the future. PMID:23407615

  8. A genomic screen for long noncoding RNA genes epigenetically silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumegawa, Kohei; Maruyama, Reo; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Ashida, Masami; Kitajima, Hiroshi; Tsuyada, Akihiro; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kai, Masahiro; Yamano, Hiro-O; Sugai, Tamotsu; Tokino, Takashi; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Imai, Kohzoh; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key components in multiple cellular processes, although their physiological and pathological functions are not fully understood. To identify cancer-related lncRNAs, we screened for those that are epigenetically silenced in colorectal cancer (CRC). Through a genome-wide analysis of histone modifications in CRC cells, we found that the transcription start sites (TSSs) of 1,027 lncRNA genes acquired trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) after DNA demethylation. Integrative analysis of chromatin signatures and the DNA methylome revealed that the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of 66 lncRNA genes contained cancer-specific methylation. By validating the expression and methylation of lncRNA genes in CRC cells, we ultimately identified 20 lncRNAs, including ZNF582-AS1, as targets of epigenetic silencing in CRC. ZNF582-AS1 is frequently methylated in CRC cell lines (87.5%), primary CRCs (77.2%), colorectal adenomas (44.7%) and advanced adenomas (87.8%), suggesting that this methylation is an early event during colorectal tumorigenesis. Methylation of ZNF582-AS1 is associated with poor survival of CRC patients, and ectopic expression of ZNF582-AS1 suppressed colony formation by CRC cells. Our findings offer insight into the association between epigenetic alterations and lncRNA dysregulation in cancer and suggest that ZNF582-AS1 may be a novel tumor-suppressive lncRNA. PMID:27215978

  9. A genomic screen for long noncoding RNA genes epigenetically silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumegawa, Kohei; Maruyama, Reo; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Ashida, Masami; Kitajima, Hiroshi; Tsuyada, Akihiro; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kai, Masahiro; Yamano, Hiro-o; Sugai, Tamotsu; Tokino, Takashi; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Imai, Kohzoh; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key components in multiple cellular processes, although their physiological and pathological functions are not fully understood. To identify cancer-related lncRNAs, we screened for those that are epigenetically silenced in colorectal cancer (CRC). Through a genome-wide analysis of histone modifications in CRC cells, we found that the transcription start sites (TSSs) of 1,027 lncRNA genes acquired trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) after DNA demethylation. Integrative analysis of chromatin signatures and the DNA methylome revealed that the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of 66 lncRNA genes contained cancer-specific methylation. By validating the expression and methylation of lncRNA genes in CRC cells, we ultimately identified 20 lncRNAs, including ZNF582-AS1, as targets of epigenetic silencing in CRC. ZNF582-AS1 is frequently methylated in CRC cell lines (87.5%), primary CRCs (77.2%), colorectal adenomas (44.7%) and advanced adenomas (87.8%), suggesting that this methylation is an early event during colorectal tumorigenesis. Methylation of ZNF582-AS1 is associated with poor survival of CRC patients, and ectopic expression of ZNF582-AS1 suppressed colony formation by CRC cells. Our findings offer insight into the association between epigenetic alterations and lncRNA dysregulation in cancer and suggest that ZNF582-AS1 may be a novel tumor-suppressive lncRNA. PMID:27215978

  10. Iron Deprivation in Synechocystis: Inference of Pathways, Non-coding RNAs, and Regulatory Elements from Comprehensive Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A.; Schön, Verena; Georg, Jens; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Futschik, Matthias E.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential cofactor in many metabolic reactions. Mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis need to respond rapidly to changes in extracellular conditions, but they must also keep the concentration of intracellular iron under strict control to avoid the generation of damaging reactive oxygen species. Due to its role as a redox carrier in photosynthesis, the iron quota in cyanobacteria is about 10 times higher than in model enterobacteria. The molecular details of how such a high quota is regulated are obscure. Here we present experiments that shed light on the iron regulatory system in cyanobacteria. We measured time-resolved changes in gene expression after iron depletion in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using a comprehensive microarray platform, monitoring both protein-coding and non-coding transcripts. In total, less than a fifth of all protein-coding genes were differentially expressed during the first 72 hr. Many of these proteins are associated with iron transport, photosynthesis, or ATP synthesis. Comparing our data with three previous studies, we identified a core set of 28 genes involved in iron stress response. Among them were genes important for assimilation of inorganic carbon, suggesting a link between the carbon and iron regulatory networks. Nine of the 28 genes have unknown functions and constitute key targets for further functional analysis. Statistical and clustering analyses identified 10 small RNAs, 62 antisense RNAs, four 5′UTRs, and seven intragenic elements as potential novel components of the iron regulatory network in Synechocystis. Hence, our genome-wide expression profiling indicates an unprecedented complexity in the iron regulatory network of cyanobacteria. PMID:23275872

  11. Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories

    PubMed Central

    Mahy, Nicola L.; Perry, Paul E.; Gilchrist, Susan; Baldock, Richard A.; Bickmore, Wendy A.

    2002-01-01

    The position of genes within the nucleus has been correlated with their transcriptional activity. The interchromosome domain model of nuclear organization suggests that genes preferentially locate at the surface of chromosome territories. Conversely, high resolution analysis of chromatin fibers suggests that chromosome territories do not present accessibility barriers to transcription machinery. To clarify the relationship between the organization of chromosome territories and gene expression, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to analyze the spatial organization of a contiguous ∼1 Mb stretch of the Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation syndrome region of the human genome and the syntenic region in the mouse. These regions contain constitutively expressed genes, genes with tissue-restricted patterns of expression, and substantial regions of intergenic DNA. We find that there is a spatial organization within territories that is conserved between mouse and humans: certain sequences do preferentially locate at the periphery of the chromosome territories in both species. However, we do not detect genes necessarily at the periphery of chromosome territories or at the surface of subchromosomal domains. Intraterritory organization is not different among cell types that express different combinations of the genes under study. Our data demonstrate that transcription of both ubiquitous and tissue-restricted genes is not confined to the periphery of chromosome territories, suggesting that the basal transcription machinery and transcription factors can readily gain access to the chromosome interior. PMID:11994314

  12. Regulation of immunoglobulin class-switch recombination: choreography of noncoding transcription, targeted DNA deamination, and long-range DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Allysia J; Zheng, Simin; DiMenna, Lauren J; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    Upon encountering antigens, mature IgM-positive B lymphocytes undergo class-switch recombination (CSR) wherein exons encoding the default Cμ constant coding gene segment of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain (Igh) locus are excised and replaced with a new constant gene segment (referred to as "Ch genes", e.g., Cγ, Cɛ, or Cα). The B cell thereby changes from expressing IgM to one producing IgG, IgE, or IgA, with each antibody isotype having a different effector function during an immune reaction. CSR is a DNA deletional-recombination reaction that proceeds through the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in repetitive switch (S) sequences preceding each Ch gene and is completed by end-joining between donor Sμ and acceptor S regions. CSR is a multistep reaction requiring transcription through S regions, the DNA cytidine deaminase AID, and the participation of several general DNA repair pathways including base excision repair, mismatch repair, and classical nonhomologous end-joining. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how transcription through S regions generates substrates for AID-mediated deamination and how AID participates not only in the initiation of CSR but also in the conversion of deaminated residues into DSBs. Additionally, we review the multiple processes that regulate AID expression and facilitate its recruitment specifically to the Ig loci, and how deregulation of AID specificity leads to oncogenic translocations. Finally, we summarize recent data on the potential role of AID in the maintenance of the pluripotent stem cell state during epigenetic reprogramming. PMID:24507154

  13. Genome Sequencing of Autism-Affected Families Reveals Disruption of Putative Noncoding Regulatory DNA.

    PubMed

    Turner, Tychele N; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Duyzend, Michael H; McClymont, Sarah A; Hook, Paul W; Iossifov, Ivan; Raja, Archana; Baker, Carl; Hoekzema, Kendra; Stessman, Holly A; Zody, Michael C; Nelson, Bradley J; Huddleston, John; Sandstrom, Richard; Smith, Joshua D; Hanna, David; Swanson, James M; Faustman, Elaine M; Bamshad, Michael J; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Nickerson, Deborah A; McCallion, Andrew S; Darnell, Robert; Eichler, Evan E

    2016-01-01

    We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 208 genomes from 53 families affected by simplex autism. For the majority of these families, no copy-number variant (CNV) or candidate de novo gene-disruptive single-nucleotide variant (SNV) had been detected by microarray or whole-exome sequencing (WES). We integrated multiple CNV and SNV analyses and extensive experimental validation to identify additional candidate mutations in eight families. We report that compared to control individuals, probands showed a significant (p = 0.03) enrichment of de novo and private disruptive mutations within fetal CNS DNase I hypersensitive sites (i.e., putative regulatory regions). This effect was only observed within 50 kb of genes that have been previously associated with autism risk, including genes where dosage sensitivity has already been established by recurrent disruptive de novo protein-coding mutations (ARID1B, SCN2A, NR3C2, PRKCA, and DSCAM). In addition, we provide evidence of gene-disruptive CNVs (in DISC1, WNT7A, RBFOX1, and MBD5), as well as smaller de novo CNVs and exon-specific SNVs missed by exome sequencing in neurodevelopmental genes (e.g., CANX, SAE1, and PIK3CA). Our results suggest that the detection of smaller, often multiple CNVs affecting putative regulatory elements might help explain additional risk of simplex autism. PMID:26749308

  14. Genome Sequencing of Autism-Affected Families Reveals Disruption of Putative Noncoding Regulatory DNA

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Tychele N.; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Duyzend, Michael H.; McClymont, Sarah A.; Hook, Paul W.; Iossifov, Ivan; Raja, Archana; Baker, Carl; Hoekzema, Kendra; Stessman, Holly A.; Zody, Michael C.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Huddleston, John; Sandstrom, Richard; Smith, Joshua D.; Hanna, David; Swanson, James M.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Nickerson, Deborah A.; McCallion, Andrew S.; Darnell, Robert; Eichler, Evan E.

    2016-01-01

    We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 208 genomes from 53 families affected by simplex autism. For the majority of these families, no copy-number variant (CNV) or candidate de novo gene-disruptive single-nucleotide variant (SNV) had been detected by microarray or whole-exome sequencing (WES). We integrated multiple CNV and SNV analyses and extensive experimental validation to identify additional candidate mutations in eight families. We report that compared to control individuals, probands showed a significant (p = 0.03) enrichment of de novo and private disruptive mutations within fetal CNS DNase I hypersensitive sites (i.e., putative regulatory regions). This effect was only observed within 50 kb of genes that have been previously associated with autism risk, including genes where dosage sensitivity has already been established by recurrent disruptive de novo protein-coding mutations (ARID1B, SCN2A, NR3C2, PRKCA, and DSCAM). In addition, we provide evidence of gene-disruptive CNVs (in DISC1, WNT7A, RBFOX1, and MBD5), as well as smaller de novo CNVs and exon-specific SNVs missed by exome sequencing in neurodevelopmental genes (e.g., CANX, SAE1, and PIK3CA). Our results suggest that the detection of smaller, often multiple CNVs affecting putative regulatory elements might help explain additional risk of simplex autism. PMID:26749308

  15. A Two-Locus Global DNA Barcode for Land Plants: The Coding rbcL Gene Complements the Non-Coding trnH-psbA Spacer Region

    PubMed Central

    Kress, W. John; Erickson, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Background A useful DNA barcode requires sufficient sequence variation to distinguish between species and ease of application across a broad range of taxa. Discovery of a DNA barcode for land plants has been limited by intrinsically lower rates of sequence evolution in plant genomes than that observed in animals. This low rate has complicated the trade-off in finding a locus that is universal and readily sequenced and has sufficiently high sequence divergence at the species-level. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, a global plant DNA barcode system is evaluated by comparing universal application and degree of sequence divergence for nine putative barcode loci, including coding and non-coding regions, singly and in pairs across a phylogenetically diverse set of 48 genera (two species per genus). No single locus could discriminate among species in a pair in more than 79% of genera, whereas discrimination increased to nearly 88% when the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer was paired with one of three coding loci, including rbcL. In silico trials were conducted in which DNA sequences from GenBank were used to further evaluate the discriminatory power of a subset of these loci. These trials supported the earlier observation that trnH-psbA coupled with rbcL can correctly identify and discriminate among related species. Conclusions/Significance A combination of the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region and a portion of the coding rbcL gene is recommended as a two-locus global land plant barcode that provides the necessary universality and species discrimination. PMID:17551588

  16. Analysis of Five Gene Sets in Chimpanzees Suggests Decoupling between the Action of Selection on Protein-Coding and on Noncoding Elements

    PubMed Central

    Santpere, Gabriel; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Petit, Natalia; Serra, François; Hvilsom, Christina; Rambla, Jordi; Heredia-Genestar, Jose Maria; Halligan, Daniel L.; Dopazo, Hernan; Navarro, Arcadi; Bosch, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We set out to investigate potential differences and similarities between the selective forces acting upon the coding and noncoding regions of five different sets of genes defined according to functional and evolutionary criteria: 1) two reference gene sets presenting accelerated and slow rates of protein evolution (the Complement and Actin pathways); 2) a set of genes with evidence of accelerated evolution in at least one of their introns; and 3) two gene sets related to neurological function (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases). To that effect, we combine human–chimpanzee divergence patterns with polymorphism data obtained from target resequencing 20 central chimpanzees, our closest relatives with largest long-term effective population size. By using the distribution of fitness effect-alpha extension of the McDonald–Kreitman test, we reproduce inferences of rates of evolution previously based only on divergence data on both coding and intronic sequences and also obtain inferences for other classes of genomic elements (untranslated regions, promoters, and conserved noncoding sequences). Our results suggest that 1) the distribution of fitness effect-alpha method successfully helps distinguishing different scenarios of accelerated divergence (adaptation or relaxed selective constraints) and 2) the adaptive history of coding and noncoding sequences within the gene sets analyzed is decoupled. PMID:25977458

  17. Analysis of Five Gene Sets in Chimpanzees Suggests Decoupling between the Action of Selection on Protein-Coding and on Noncoding Elements.

    PubMed

    Santpere, Gabriel; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Petit, Natalia; Serra, François; Hvilsom, Christina; Rambla, Jordi; Heredia-Genestar, Jose Maria; Halligan, Daniel L; Dopazo, Hernan; Navarro, Arcadi; Bosch, Elena

    2015-06-01

    We set out to investigate potential differences and similarities between the selective forces acting upon the coding and noncoding regions of five different sets of genes defined according to functional and evolutionary criteria: 1) two reference gene sets presenting accelerated and slow rates of protein evolution (the Complement and Actin pathways); 2) a set of genes with evidence of accelerated evolution in at least one of their introns; and 3) two gene sets related to neurological function (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). To that effect, we combine human-chimpanzee divergence patterns with polymorphism data obtained from target resequencing 20 central chimpanzees, our closest relatives with largest long-term effective population size. By using the distribution of fitness effect-alpha extension of the McDonald-Kreitman test, we reproduce inferences of rates of evolution previously based only on divergence data on both coding and intronic sequences and also obtain inferences for other classes of genomic elements (untranslated regions, promoters, and conserved noncoding sequences). Our results suggest that 1) the distribution of fitness effect-alpha method successfully helps distinguishing different scenarios of accelerated divergence (adaptation or relaxed selective constraints) and 2) the adaptive history of coding and noncoding sequences within the gene sets analyzed is decoupled. PMID:25977458

  18. Non-Coding RNAs in Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Chia Ariel; Aravin, Alexei A.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional gene silencing guided by small RNAs is a process conserved from protozoa to mammals. Small RNAs loaded into Argonaute family proteins direct repressive histone modifications or DNA cytosine methylation to homologous regions of the genome. Small RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing is required for many biological processes, including repression of transposable elements, maintaining the genome stability/integrity, and epigenetic inheritance of gene expression. Here we will summarize the current knowledge about small RNA biogenesis and mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in plants, Drosophila, C. elegans and mice. Furthermore, a rapidly growing number long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated as important players in transcription regulation. We will discuss current models for long non-coding RNA-mediated gene regulation. PMID:26120554

  19. Evaluation of IRX Genes and Conserved Noncoding Elements in a Region on 5p13.3 Linked to Families with Familial Idiopathic Scoliosis and Kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Cristina M.; Bishop, Kevin; Carrington, Blake; Mullikin, Jim C.; Swindle, Kandice; Marosy, Beth; Sood, Raman; Miller, Nancy H.; Wilson, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    Because of genetic heterogeneity present in idiopathic scoliosis, we previously defined clinical subsets (a priori) from a sample of families with idiopathic scoliosis to find genes involved with spinal curvature. Previous genome-wide linkage analysis of seven families with at least two individuals with kyphoscoliosis found linkage (P-value = 0.002) in a 3.5-Mb region on 5p13.3 containing only three known genes, IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4. In this study, the exons of IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4, the conserved noncoding elements in the region, and the exons of a nonprotein coding RNA, LOC285577, were sequenced. No functional sequence variants were identified. An intrafamilial test of association found several associated noncoding single nucleotide variants. The strongest association was with rs12517904 (P = 0.00004), located 6.5 kb downstream from IRX1. In one family, the genotypes of nine variants differed from the reference allele in all individuals with kyphoscoliosis, and two of three individuals with scoliosis, but did not differ from the reference allele in all other genotyped individuals. One of these variants, rs117273909, was located in a conserved noncoding region that functions as an enhancer in mice. To test whether the variant allele at rs117273909 had an effect on enhancer activity, zebrafish transgenesis was performed with overlapping fragments of 198 and 687 bp containing either the wild type or the variant allele. Our data suggests that this region acts as a regulatory element; however, its size and target gene(s) need to be identified to determine its role in idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27172222

  20. Evaluation of IRX Genes and Conserved Noncoding Elements in a Region on 5p13.3 Linked to Families with Familial Idiopathic Scoliosis and Kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Justice, Cristina M; Bishop, Kevin; Carrington, Blake; Mullikin, Jim C; Swindle, Kandice; Marosy, Beth; Sood, Raman; Miller, Nancy H; Wilson, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    Because of genetic heterogeneity present in idiopathic scoliosis, we previously defined clinical subsets (a priori) from a sample of families with idiopathic scoliosis to find genes involved with spinal curvature. Previous genome-wide linkage analysis of seven families with at least two individuals with kyphoscoliosis found linkage (P-value = 0.002) in a 3.5-Mb region on 5p13.3 containing only three known genes, IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4 In this study, the exons of IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4, the conserved noncoding elements in the region, and the exons of a nonprotein coding RNA, LOC285577, were sequenced. No functional sequence variants were identified. An intrafamilial test of association found several associated noncoding single nucleotide variants. The strongest association was with rs12517904 (P = 0.00004), located 6.5 kb downstream from IRX1 In one family, the genotypes of nine variants differed from the reference allele in all individuals with kyphoscoliosis, and two of three individuals with scoliosis, but did not differ from the reference allele in all other genotyped individuals. One of these variants, rs117273909, was located in a conserved noncoding region that functions as an enhancer in mice. To test whether the variant allele at rs117273909 had an effect on enhancer activity, zebrafish transgenesis was performed with overlapping fragments of 198 and 687 bp containing either the wild type or the variant allele. Our data suggests that this region acts as a regulatory element; however, its size and target gene(s) need to be identified to determine its role in idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27172222

  1. Salamander Hox clusters contain repetitive DNA and expanded non-coding regions: a typical Hox structure for non-mammalian tetrapod vertebrates?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors that regulate embryonic and post-embryonic developmental processes. The expression of Hox genes is regulated in part by the tight, spatial arrangement of conserved coding and non-coding sequences. The potential for evolutionary changes in Hox cluster structure is thought to be low among vertebrates; however, recent studies of a few non-mammalian taxa suggest greater variation than originally thought. Using next generation sequencing of large genomic fragments (>100 kb) from the red spotted newt (Notophthalamus viridescens), we found that the arrangement of Hox cluster genes was conserved relative to orthologous regions from other vertebrates, but the length of introns and intergenic regions varied. In particular, the distance between hoxd13 and hoxd11 is longer in newt than orthologous regions from vertebrate species with expanded Hox clusters and is predicted to exceed the length of the entire HoxD clusters (hoxd13–hoxd4) of humans, mice, and frogs. Many repetitive DNA sequences were identified for newt Hox clusters, including an enrichment of DNA transposon-like sequences relative to non-coding genomic fragments. Our results suggest that Hox cluster expansion and transposon accumulation are common features of non-mammalian tetrapod vertebrates. PMID:23561734

  2. Characterization of Non-coding DNA Satellites Associated with Sweepoviruses (Genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) - Definition of a Distinct Class of Begomovirus-Associated Satellites.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Gloria; Trenado, Helena P; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Briddon, Rob W; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus-satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus), with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem-loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem-loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed. PMID:26925037

  3. Characterization of Non-coding DNA Satellites Associated with Sweepoviruses (Genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) – Definition of a Distinct Class of Begomovirus-Associated Satellites

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Gloria; Trenado, Helena P.; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Briddon, Rob W.; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus-satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus), with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem–loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem–loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed. PMID:26925037

  4. Nuclear Noncoding RNAs and Genome Stability.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, Jasbeer S; Calvo, Isabel A; Joh, Richard I; Hill, Ian T; Motamedi, Mo

    2016-07-01

    In modern molecular biology, RNA has emerged as a versatile macromolecule capable of mediating an astonishing number of biological functions beyond its role as a transient messenger of genetic information. The recent discovery and functional analyses of new classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have revealed their widespread use in many pathways, including several in the nucleus. This Review focuses on the mechanisms by which nuclear ncRNAs directly contribute to the maintenance of genome stability. We discuss how ncRNAs inhibit spurious recombination among repetitive DNA elements, repress mobilization of transposable elements (TEs), template or bridge DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during repair, and direct developmentally regulated genome rearrangements in some ciliates. These studies reveal an unexpected repertoire of mechanisms by which ncRNAs contribute to genome stability and even potentially fuel evolution by acting as templates for genome modification. PMID:27392145

  5. Sequence Evaluation of FGF and FGFR Gene Conserved Non-Coding Elements in Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate Cases

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Bridget M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (NS CLP) is a complex birth defect resulting from multiple genetic and environmental factors. We have previously reported the sequencing of the coding region of genes in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway, in which missense and non-sense mutations contribute to approximately 5%–6% NS CLP cases. In this article we report the sequencing of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) in and around 11 of the FGF and FGFR genes, which identified 55 novel variants. Seven of variants are highly conserved among ≥8 species and 31 variants alter transcription factor binding sites, 8 of which are important for craniofacial development. Additionally, 15 NS CLP patients had a combination of coding mutations and CNE variants, suggesting that an accumulation of variants in the FGF signaling pathway may contribute to clefting. PMID:17963255

  6. The bacterial DnaA-trio replication origin element specifies single-stranded DNA initiator binding.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Tomas T; Harran, Omar; Murray, Heath

    2016-06-16

    DNA replication is tightly controlled to ensure accurate inheritance of genetic information. In all organisms, initiator proteins possessing AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) domains bind replication origins to license new rounds of DNA synthesis. In bacteria the master initiator protein, DnaA, is highly conserved and has two crucial DNA binding activities. DnaA monomers recognize the replication origin (oriC) by binding double-stranded DNA sequences (DnaA-boxes); subsequently, DnaA filaments assemble and promote duplex unwinding by engaging and stretching a single DNA strand. While the specificity for duplex DnaA-boxes by DnaA has been appreciated for over 30 years, the sequence specificity for single-strand DNA binding has remained unknown. Here we identify a new indispensable bacterial replication origin element composed of a repeating trinucleotide motif that we term the DnaA-trio. We show that the function of the DnaA-trio is to stabilize DnaA filaments on a single DNA strand, thus providing essential precision to this binding mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis detects DnaA-trios in replication origins throughout the bacterial kingdom, indicating that this element is part of the core oriC structure. The discovery and characterization of the novel DnaA-trio extends our fundamental understanding of bacterial DNA replication initiation, and because of the conserved structure of AAA+ initiator proteins these findings raise the possibility of specific recognition motifs within replication origins of higher organisms. PMID:27281207

  7. Human papillomaviruses in Buschke-Löwenstein tumors: physical state of the DNA and identification of a tandem duplication in the noncoding region of a human papillomavirus 6 subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Boshart, M; zur Hausen, H

    1986-01-01

    Six Buschke-Löwenstein tumors, i.e., highly differentiated squamous cell tumors of the genital region, were shown to contain human papillomavirus 6 (HPV 6) or HPV 11 genomes. The viral DNA was found in an episomal state, including a very small fraction of circular oligomers. HPV 6a and HPV 6d genomes were cloned from two of the tumors. Comparison with HPV 6b, cloned from a benign genital wart (E. -M. de Villiers, L. Gissmann, and H. zur Hausen, J. Virol. 40:932-935, 1981) by restriction mapping and partial sequence analysis, revealed a very high degree of homology with the different HPV 6 subtypes. A tandem duplication of 459 base pairs within the noncoding region of the genome was found in the new subtype HPV 6d. This structural rearrangement in a region containing the putative control elements for early gene transcription might influence the biological potential of that virus. No evidence for rearrangement of this region was found in the HPV DNA from the five other tumors. Images PMID:3009899

  8. An intragenic long noncoding RNA interacts epigenetically with the RUNX1 promoter and enhancer chromatin DNA in hematopoietic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Li, Wei; Guo, Rui; Sun, Jingnan; Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Guanjun; Hoffman, Andrew R; Hu, Ji-Fan

    2014-12-15

    RUNX1, a master regulator of hematopoiesis, is the most commonly perturbed target of chromosomal abnormalities in hematopoietic malignancies. The t(8;21) translocation is found in 30-40% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recent whole-exome sequencing also reveals mutations and deletions of RUNX1 in some solid tumors. We describe a RUNX1-intragenic long noncoding RNA RUNXOR that is transcribed as unspliced transcript from an upstream overlapping promoter. RUNXOR was upregulated in AML samples and in response to Ara-C treatment in vitro. RUNXOR utilizes its 3'-terminal fragment to directly interact with the RUNX1 promoter and enhancers and participates in the orchestration of an intrachromosomal loop. The 3' region of RUNXOR also participates in long-range interchromosomal interactions with chromatin regions that are involved in multiple RUNX1 translocations. These data suggest that RUNXOR noncoding RNA may function as a previously unidentified candidate component that is involved in chromosomal translocation in hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:24752773

  9. Stress induced gene expression drives transient DNA methylation changes at adjacent repetitive elements

    PubMed Central

    Secco, David; Wang, Chuang; Shou, Huixia; Schultz, Matthew D; Chiarenza, Serge; Nussaume, Laurent; Ecker, Joseph R; Whelan, James; Lister, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (mC) is a genome modification that can regulate the expression of coding and non-coding genetic elements. However, little is known about the involvement of mC in response to environmental cues. Using whole genome bisulfite sequencing to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of mC in rice grown under phosphate starvation and recovery conditions, we identified widespread phosphate starvation-induced changes in mC, preferentially localized in transposable elements (TEs) close to highly induced genes. These changes in mC occurred after changes in nearby gene transcription, were mostly DCL3a-independent, and could partially be propagated through mitosis, however no evidence of meiotic transmission was observed. Similar analyses performed in Arabidopsis revealed a very limited effect of phosphate starvation on mC, suggesting a species-specific mechanism. Overall, this suggests that TEs in proximity to environmentally induced genes are silenced via hypermethylation, and establishes the temporal hierarchy of transcriptional and epigenomic changes in response to stress. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09343.001 PMID:26196146

  10. Fast turnover of genome transcription across evolutionary time exposes entire non-coding DNA to de novo gene emergence

    PubMed Central

    Neme, Rafik; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing analyses have shown that a large fraction of genomes is transcribed, but the significance of this transcription is much debated. Here, we characterize the phylogenetic turnover of poly-adenylated transcripts in a comprehensive sampling of taxa of the mouse (genus Mus), spanning a phylogenetic distance of 10 Myr. Using deep RNA sequencing we find that at a given sequencing depth transcriptome coverage becomes saturated within a taxon, but keeps extending when compared between taxa, even at this very shallow phylogenetic level. Our data show a high turnover of transcriptional states between taxa and that no major transcript-free islands exist across evolutionary time. This suggests that the entire genome can be transcribed into poly-adenylated RNA when viewed at an evolutionary time scale. We conclude that any part of the non-coding genome can potentially become subject to evolutionary functionalization via de novo gene evolution within relatively short evolutionary time spans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09977.001 PMID:26836309

  11. Putative regulatory elements within the non-coding regions of Chrysomelidae Diapause Associated Transcript-1 (DAT-1) orthologs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a more comprehensive understanding of diapause within Chrysomelidae, we are employing phylogenetic foot-printing to isolate and characterize the regulatory elements associated with the diapause-associated gene, DAT-1. Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle, CPB) DAT-1 has been ...

  12. VEZF1 Elements Mediate Protection from DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Strogantsev, Ruslan; Gaszner, Miklos; Hair, Alan; Felsenfeld, Gary; West, Adam G.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing consensus that genome organization and long-range gene regulation involves partitioning of the genome into domains of distinct epigenetic chromatin states. Chromatin insulator or barrier elements are key components of these processes as they can establish boundaries between chromatin states. The ability of elements such as the paradigm β-globin HS4 insulator to block the range of enhancers or the spread of repressive histone modifications is well established. Here we have addressed the hypothesis that a barrier element in vertebrates should be capable of defending a gene from silencing by DNA methylation. Using an established stable reporter gene system, we find that HS4 acts specifically to protect a gene promoter from de novo DNA methylation. Notably, protection from methylation can occur in the absence of histone acetylation or transcription. There is a division of labor at HS4; the sequences that mediate protection from methylation are separable from those that mediate CTCF-dependent enhancer blocking and USF-dependent histone modification recruitment. The zinc finger protein VEZF1 was purified as the factor that specifically interacts with the methylation protection elements. VEZF1 is a candidate CpG island protection factor as the G-rich sequences bound by VEZF1 are frequently found at CpG island promoters. Indeed, we show that VEZF1 elements are sufficient to mediate demethylation and protection of the APRT CpG island promoter from DNA methylation. We propose that many barrier elements in vertebrates will prevent DNA methylation in addition to blocking the propagation of repressive histone modifications, as either process is sufficient to direct the establishment of an epigenetically stable silent chromatin state. PMID:20062523

  13. Conserved Noncoding Elements Follow Power-Law-Like Distributions in Several Genomes as a Result of Genome Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Polychronopoulos, Dimitris; Sellis, Diamantis; Almirantis, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    Conserved, ultraconserved and other classes of constrained elements (collectively referred as CNEs here), identified by comparative genomics in a wide variety of genomes, are non-randomly distributed across chromosomes. These elements are defined using various degrees of conservation between organisms and several thresholds of minimal length. We here investigate the chromosomal distribution of CNEs by studying the statistical properties of distances between consecutive CNEs. We find widespread power-law-like distributions, i.e. linearity in double logarithmic scale, in the inter-CNE distances, a feature which is connected with fractality and self-similarity. Given that CNEs are often found to be spatially associated with genes, especially with those that regulate developmental processes, we verify by appropriate gene masking that a power-law-like pattern emerges irrespectively of whether elements found close or inside genes are excluded or not. An evolutionary model is put forward for the understanding of these findings that includes segmental or whole genome duplication events and eliminations (loss) of most of the duplicated CNEs. Simulations reproduce the main features of the observed size distributions. Power-law-like patterns in the genomic distributions of CNEs are in accordance with current knowledge about their evolutionary history in several genomes. PMID:24787386

  14. Rheostatic Regulation of the SERCA/Phospholamban Membrane Protein Complex Using Non-Coding RNA and Single-Stranded DNA oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Kailey J.; Verardi, Raffaello; Jing, Meng; Abrol, Neha; Yang, Jing; Walsh, Naomi; Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Robia, Seth L.; Bowser, Michael T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The membrane protein complex between sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and phospholamban (PLN) is a prime therapeutic target for reversing cardiac contractile dysfunctions caused by calcium mishandling. So far, however, efforts to develop drugs specific for this protein complex have failed. Here, we show that non-coding RNAs and single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) interact with and regulate the function of the SERCA/PLN complex in a tunable manner. Both in HEK cells expressing the SERCA/PLN complex, as well as in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum preparations, these short oligonucleotides bind and reverse PLN’s inhibitory effects on SERCA, increasing the ATPase’s apparent Ca2+ affinity. Solid-state NMR experiments revealed that ssDNA interacts with PLN specifically, shifting the conformational equilibrium of the SERCA/PLN complex from an inhibitory to a non-inhibitory state. Importantly, we achieved rheostatic control of SERCA function by modulating the length of ssDNAs. Since restoration of Ca2+ flux to physiological levels represents a viable therapeutic avenue for cardiomyopathies, our results suggest that oligonucleotide-based drugs could be used to fine-tune SERCA function to counterbalance the extent of the pathological insults. PMID:26292938

  15. A user's guide to the encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE).

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome. PMID:21526222

  16. A User's Guide to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome. PMID:21526222

  17. DNA sequence of the maize transposable element Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Döring, H P; Tillmann, E; Starlinger, P

    The DNA sequence of the terminal 4.2 kilobases (kb) of the 30-kb insertion in the endosperm sucrose synthase gene of maize mutant sh-m5933 shows that it comprises two identical 2,040-base pair (bp) segments, one inserted in the reverse direction into the other. We suggest that the 2,040-bp sequence is an example of the transposable element Dissociation described by Barbara McClintock. PMID:6318121

  18. Non-coding genome functions in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cebola, Inês; Pasquali, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the genetic variation associated with diabetes, through genome-wide association studies, does not reside in protein-coding regions, making the identification of functional variants and their eventual translation to the clinic challenging. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing-based methods have enabled genome-scale high-resolution epigenomic profiling in a variety of human tissues, allowing the exploration of the human genome outside of the well-studied coding regions. These experiments unmasked tens of thousands of regulatory elements across several cell types, including diabetes-relevant tissues, providing new insights into their mechanisms of gene regulation. Regulatory landscapes are highly dynamic and cell-type specific and, being sensitive to DNA sequence variation, can vary with individual genomes. The scientific community is now in place to exploit the regulatory maps of tissues central to diabetes etiology, such as pancreatic progenitors and adult islets. This giant leap forward in the understanding of pancreatic gene regulation is revolutionizing our capacity to discriminate between functional and non-functional non-coding variants, opening opportunities to uncover regulatory links between sequence variation and diabetes susceptibility. In this review, we focus on the non-coding regulatory landscape of the pancreatic endocrine cells and provide an overview of the recent developments in this field. PMID:26438568

  19. An Integrated Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure, and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research. PMID:22955616

  20. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research. PMID:22955616

  1. Origin of the human L1 elements: proposed progenitor genes deduced from a consensus DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Scott, A F; Schmeckpeper, B J; Abdelrazik, M; Comey, C T; O'Hara, B; Rossiter, J P; Cooley, T; Heath, P; Smith, K D; Margolet, L

    1987-10-01

    A consensus sequence for the human long interspersed repeated DNA element, L1Hs (LINE or KpnI sequence), is presented. The sequence contains two open reading frames (ORFs) which are homologous to ORFs in corresponding regions of L1 elements in other species. The L1Hs ORFs are separated by a small evolutionarily nonconserved region. The 5' end of the consensus contains frequent terminators in all three reading frames and has a relatively high GC content with numerous stretches of weak homology with AluI repeats. The 5' ORF extends for a minimum of 723 bp (241 codons). The 3' ORF is 3843 bp (1281 codons) and predicts a protein of 149 kD which has regions of weak homology to the polymerase domain of various reverse transcriptases. The 3' end of the consensus has a 208-bp nonconserved region followed by an adenine-rich end. The organization of the L1Hs consensus sequence resembles the structure of eukaryotic mRNAs except for the noncoding region between ORFs. However, due to base substitutions or truncation most elements appear incapable of producing mRNA that can be translated. Our observation that individual elements cluster into subfamilies on the basis of the presence or absence of blocks of sequence, or by the linkage of alternative bases at multiple positions, suggests that most L1 sequences were derived from a small number of structural genes. An estimate of the mammalian L1 substitution rate was derived and used to predict the age of individual human elements. From this it follows that the majority of human L1 sequences have been generated within the last 30 million years. The human elements studied here differ from each other, yet overall the L1Hs sequences demonstrate a pattern of species-specificity when compared to the L1 families of other mammals. Possible mechanisms that may account for the origin and evolution of the L1 family are discussed. These include pseudogene formation (retroposition), transposition, gene conversion, and RNA recombination. PMID

  2. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in LSH mutant reveals de-repression of repeat elements and redundant epigenetic silencing pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weishi; McIntosh, Carl; Lister, Ryan; Zhu, Iris; Han, Yixing; Ren, Jianke; Landsman, David; Lee, Eunice; Briones, Victorino; Terashima, Minoru; Leighty, Robert; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is critical in mammalian development and plays a role in diverse biologic processes such as genomic imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, and silencing of repeat elements. Several factors regulate DNA methylation in early embryogenesis, but their precise role in the establishment of DNA methylation at a given site remains unclear. We have generated a comprehensive methylation map in fibroblasts derived from the murine DNA methylation mutant Hells−/− (helicase, lymphoid specific, also known as LSH). It has been previously shown that HELLS can influence de novo methylation of retroviral sequences and endogenous genes. Here, we describe that HELLS controls cytosine methylation in a nuclear compartment that is in part defined by lamin B1 attachment regions. Despite widespread loss of cytosine methylation at regulatory sequences, including promoter regions of protein-coding genes and noncoding RNA genes, overall relative transcript abundance levels in the absence of HELLS are similar to those in wild-type cells. A subset of promoter regions shows increases of the histone modification H3K27me3, suggesting redundancy of epigenetic silencing mechanisms. Furthermore, HELLS modulates CG methylation at all classes of repeat elements and is critical for repression of a subset of repeat elements. Overall, we provide a detailed analysis of gene expression changes in relation to DNA methylation alterations, which contributes to our understanding of the biological role of cytosine methylation. PMID:25170028

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in noncoding regions of Rad51C do not change the risk of unselected breast cancer but they modulate the level of oxidative stress and the DNA damage characteristics: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Stepnik, Maciej; Zambrano Quispe, Oscar; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious and missense mutations of RAD51C have recently been suggested to modulate the individual susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and unselected ovarian cancer, but not unselected breast cancer (BrC). We enrolled 132 unselected BrC females and 189 cancer-free female subjects to investigate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-coding regions of RAD51C modulate the risk of BrC, and whether they affect the level of oxidative stress and the extent/characteristics of DNA damage. Neither SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes were found to significantly affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p<0.05). Furthermore, these carriers showed significantly decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA) in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage) and DNA strand breakage was found (p<0.0005 for the difference). Such effects were found among both the BrC cases and healthy subjects, indicating that they cannot be assumed as causal factors contributing to BrC development. PMID:25343521

  4. Molecular cloning of amyloid cDNA derived from mRNA of the Alzheimer disease brain: coding and noncoding regions of the fetal precursor mRNA are expressed in the cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Zain, S.B.; Salim, M.; Chou, W.G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E.M.; Majocha, R.E.; Marotta, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    To gain insight into factors associated with the excessive accumulation of ..beta..-amyloid in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain, the present studies were initiated to distinguish between a unique primary structure of the AD-specific amyloid precursor mRNA vis a vis other determinants that may affect amyloid levels. Previous molecular cloning experiments focused on amyloid derived from sources other than AD cases. In the present work, the authors cloned and characterized amyloid cDNA derived directly from AD brain mRNA. Poly(A)/sup +/ RNA from AD cortices was used for the preparation of lambdagt11 recombinant cDNA libraries. An insert of 1564 nucleotides was isolated that included the ..beta..-amyloid domain and corresponded to 75% of the coding region and approx. = 70% of the 3'-noncoding region of the fetal precursor amyloid cDNA reported by others. On RNA blots, the AD amyloid mRNA consisted of a doublet of 3.2 and 3.4 kilobases. In control and AD cases, the amyloid mRNA levels were nonuniform and were independent of glial-specific mRNA levels. Based on the sequence analysis data, they conclude that a segment of the amyloid gene is expressed in the AD cortex as a high molecular weight precursor mRNA with major coding and 3'-noncoding regions that are identical to the fetal brain gene product.

  5. SERE, a widely dispersed bacterial repetitive DNA element.

    PubMed

    Rajashekara, G; Koeuth, T; Nevile, S; Back, A; Nagaraja, K V; Lupski, J R; Kapur, V

    1998-06-01

    The presence of a Salmonella serotype Enteritidis repeat element (SERE) located within the upstream regulatory region of the sefABCD operon encoding fimbrial proteins is reported. DNA dot-blot hybridisation analyses and computerised searches of genetic databases indicate that SERE is well conserved and widely distributed throughout the bacterial and archaeal kingdoms. A SERE-based polymerase chain reaction (SERE-PCR) assay was developed to fingerprint 54 isolates of Enteritidis representing nine distinct phage types and 54 isolates of other Salmonella serotypes. SERE-PCR identified five distinct fingerprint profiles among the 54 Enteritidis isolates; no correlation between phage types and SERE-PCR fingerprint patterns was noticed. SERE-PCR was reproducible, rapid and easy to perform. The results of this investigation suggest that the limited heterogeneity of SERE-PCR fingerprint patterns can be utilised to develop serotype- and serogroup-specific fingerprint patterns for isolates of Enteritidis. PMID:9879967

  6. The dichotomy of p53 regulation by noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qipan; Becker, Lindsey; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhong, Xiaoming; Young, Ken; Ramos, Kenneth; Li, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer. Significant progress has been made to discern the importance of p53 in coordinating cellular responses to DNA damage, oncogene activation, and other stresses. Noncoding RNAs are RNA molecules functioning without being translated into proteins. In this work, we discuss the dichotomy of p53 regulation by noncoding RNAs with four unconventional questions. First, is overexpression of microRNAs responsible for p53 inactivation in the absence of p53 mutation? Second, are there somatic mutations in the noncoding regions of the p53 gene? Third, is there a germline mutant in the noncoding regions of the p53 gene that predisposes carriers to cancer? Fourth, can p53 activation mediated by a noncoding RNA mutation cause cancer? This work highlights the prominence of noncoding RNAs in p53 dysregulation and tumorigenesis. PMID:24706938

  7. A Transposable Element within the Non-canonical Telomerase RNA of Arabidopsis thaliana Modulates Telomerase in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengyi; Nelson, Andrew D. L.; Shippen, Dorothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical factors in many biological processes, but little is known about how their regulatory functions evolved. One of the best-studied lncRNAs is TER, the essential RNA template for telomerase reverse transcriptase. We previously showed that Arabidopsis thaliana harbors three TER isoforms: TER1, TER2 and TER2S. TER1 serves as a canonical telomere template, while TER2 is a novel negative regulator of telomerase activity, induced in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs). TER2 contains a 529 nt intervening sequence that is removed along with 36 nt at the RNA 3’ terminus to generate TER2S, an RNA of unknown function. Here we investigate how A. thaliana TER2 acquired its regulatory function. Using data from the 1,001 Arabidopsis genomes project, we report that the intervening sequence within TER2 is derived from a transposable element termed DSB responsive element (DRE). DRE is found in the TER2 loci of most but not all A. thaliana accessions. By analyzing accessions with (TER2) and without DRE (TER2Δ) we demonstrate that this element is responsible for many of the unique properties of TER2, including its enhanced binding to TERT and telomerase inhibitory function. We show that DRE destabilizes TER2, and further that TER2 induction by DNA damage reflects increased RNA stability and not increased transcription. DRE-mediated changes in TER2 stability thus provide a rapid and sensitive switch to fine-tune telomerase enzyme activity. Altogether, our data shows that invasion of the TER2 locus by a small transposon converted this lncRNA into a DNA damage sensor that modulates telomerase enzyme activity in response to genome assault. PMID:26075395

  8. Viral noncoding RNAs: more surprises

    PubMed Central

    Tycowski, Kazimierz T.; Guo, Yang Eric; Lee, Nara; Moss, Walter N.; Vallery, Tenaya K.; Xie, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells produce several classes of long and small noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Many DNA and RNA viruses synthesize their own ncRNAs. Like their host counterparts, viral ncRNAs associate with proteins that are essential for their stability, function, or both. Diverse biological roles—including the regulation of viral replication, viral persistence, host immune evasion, and cellular transformation—have been ascribed to viral ncRNAs. In this review, we focus on the multitude of functions played by ncRNAs produced by animal viruses. We also discuss their biogenesis and mechanisms of action. PMID:25792595

  9. Long Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Pathways.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Adam M; Chang, Howard Y

    2016-04-11

    Genome-wide cancer mutation analyses are revealing an extensive landscape of functional mutations within the noncoding genome, with profound effects on the expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). While the exquisite regulation of lncRNA transcription can provide signals of malignant transformation, we now understand that lncRNAs drive many important cancer phenotypes through their interactions with other cellular macromolecules including DNA, protein, and RNA. Recent advancements in surveying lncRNA molecular mechanisms are now providing the tools to functionally annotate these cancer-associated transcripts, making these molecules attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in the fight against cancer. PMID:27070700

  10. Movable genetic elements: detection of changes in maize DNA at the Shrunken locus due to the intervention of Ds elements

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.A.

    1980-05-28

    This report describes our initial attempts at the molecular characterization of a maize controlling element. We have prepared a cDNA probe and used it to detect changes at a locus where Ds elements are found. Evidence of their presence are indicated by changes in the restriction patterns, but there is as yet no information on the physical nature of the controlling elements nor on the kinds of rearrangements they cause.

  11. Movable Genetic Elements: Detection of Changes in Maize DNA at the Shrunken Locus Due to the Intervention of Ds Elements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.A.

    1980-05-28

    This report describes our initial attempts at the molecular characterization of a maize controlling element. We have prepared a cDNA probe and used it to detect changes at a locus where Ds elements are found. Evidence of their presence are indicated by changes in the restriction patterns, but there is as yet no information on the physical nature of the controlling elements nor on the kinds of rearrangements they cause.

  12. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements.

    PubMed

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Pathak, Rupak; Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R; Allen, Antiño R; Raber, Jacob; Tackett, Alan J; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A; Koturbash, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5'-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. PMID:27419368

  13. In Vivo Enhancer Analysis Chromosome 16 Conserved NoncodingSequences

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Ahituv, Nadav; Moses, Alan M.; Nobrega,Marcelo; Prabhakar, Shyam; Shoukry, Malak; Minovitsky, Simon; Visel,Axel; Dubchak, Inna; Holt, Amy; Lewis, Keith D.; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Akiyama, Jennifer; De Val, Sarah; Afzal, Veena; Black, Brian L.; Couronne, Olivier; Eisen, Michael B.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2006-02-01

    The identification of enhancers with predicted specificitiesin vertebrate genomes remains a significant challenge that is hampered bya lack of experimentally validated training sets. In this study, weleveraged extreme evolutionary sequence conservation as a filter toidentify putative gene regulatory elements and characterized the in vivoenhancer activity of human-fish conserved and ultraconserved1 noncodingelements on human chromosome 16 as well as such elements from elsewherein the genome. We initially tested 165 of these extremely conservedsequences in a transgenic mouse enhancer assay and observed that 48percent (79/165) functioned reproducibly as tissue-specific enhancers ofgene expression at embryonic day 11.5. While driving expression in abroad range of anatomical structures in the embryo, the majority of the79 enhancers drove expression in various regions of the developingnervous system. Studying a set of DNA elements that specifically droveforebrain expression, we identified DNA signatures specifically enrichedin these elements and used these parameters to rank all ~;3,400human-fugu conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. The testingof the top predictions in transgenic mice resulted in a three-foldenrichment for sequences with forebrain enhancer activity. These datadramatically expand the catalogue of in vivo-characterized human geneenhancers and illustrate the future utility of such training sets for avariety of iological applications including decoding the regulatoryvocabulary of the human genome.

  14. Variation in conserved non-coding sequences on chromosome 5q andsusceptibility to asthma and atopy

    SciTech Connect

    Donfack, Joseph; Schneider, Daniel H.; Tan, Zheng; Kurz,Thorsten; Dubchak, Inna; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ober, Carole

    2005-09-10

    Background: Evolutionarily conserved sequences likely havebiological function. Methods: To determine whether variation in conservedsequences in non-coding DNA contributes to risk for human disease, westudied six conserved non-coding elements in the Th2 cytokine cluster onhuman chromosome 5q31 in a large Hutterite pedigree and in samples ofoutbred European American and African American asthma cases and controls.Results: Among six conserved non-coding elements (>100 bp,>70percent identity; human-mouse comparison), we identified one singlenucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in each of two conserved elements and sixSNPs in the flanking regions of three conserved elements. We genotypedour samples for four of these SNPs and an additional three SNPs each inthe IL13 and IL4 genes. While there was only modest evidence forassociation with single SNPs in the Hutterite and European Americansamples (P<0.05), there were highly significant associations inEuropean Americans between asthma and haplotypes comprised of SNPs in theIL4 gene (P<0.001), including a SNP in a conserved non-codingelement. Furthermore, variation in the IL13 gene was strongly associatedwith total IgE (P = 0.00022) and allergic sensitization to mold allergens(P = 0.00076) in the Hutterites, and more modestly associated withsensitization to molds in the European Americans and African Americans (P<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that there is overalllittle variation in the conserved non-coding elements on 5q31, butvariation in IL4 and IL13, including possibly one SNP in a conservedelement, influence asthma and atopic phenotypes in diversepopulations.

  15. Non-coding RNA repertoires in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Leah; Finn, Stephen P; Cuffe, Sinead; Gray, Steven G

    2015-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy, with extremely poor survival rates. There are limited treatment options, with no second line standard of care for those who fail first line chemotherapy. Recent advances have been made to characterise the underlying molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma, in the hope of providing new targets for therapy. With the discovery that non-coding regions of our DNA are more than mere junk, the field of research into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has exploded in recent years. Non-coding RNAs have diverse and important roles in a variety of cellular processes, but are also implicated in malignancy. In the following review, we discuss two types of non-coding RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs, in terms of their role in the pathogenesis of MPM and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26791801

  16. Characterization of human glucocorticoid receptor complexes formed with DNA fragments containing or lacking glucocorticoid response elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, D.B.; Cidlowski, J.A. )

    1989-03-07

    Sucrose density gradient shift assays were used to study the interactions of human glucocorticoid receptors (GR) with small DNA fragments either containing or lacking glucocorticoid response element (GRE) DNA consensus sequences. When crude cytoplasmic extracts containing ({sup 3}H)triamcinolone acetonide (({sup 3}H)TA) labeled GR were incubated with unlabeled DNA under conditions of DNA excess, a GRE-containing DNA fragment obtained from the 5' long terminal repeat of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV LTR) formed a stable 12-16S complex with activated, but not nonactivated, ({sup 3}H)TA receptor. By contrast, if the cytosols were treated with calf thymus DNA-cellulose to deplete non-GR-DNA-binding proteins prior to heat activation, a smaller 7-10S complex was formed with the MMTV LTR DNA fragment. Activated ({sup 3}H)TA receptor from DNA-cellulose pretreated cytosols also interacted with two similarly sized fragments from pBR322 DNA. Stability of the complexes formed between GR and these three DNA fragments was strongly affected by even moderate alterations in either the salt concentration or the pH of the gradient buffer. Under all conditions tested, the complex formed with the MMTV LTR DNA fragment was more stable than the complexes formed with either of the pBR322 DNA fragments. Together these observations indicate that the formation of stable complexes between activated GR and isolated DNA fragments requires the presence of GRE consensus sequences in the DNA.

  17. Transcription regulatory elements are punctuation marks for DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, Ekaterina V; Castro Roa, Daniel; Nudler, Evgeny; Mirkin, Sergei M

    2006-05-01

    Collisions between DNA replication and transcription significantly affect genome organization, regulation, and stability. Previous studies have described collisions between replication forks and elongating RNA polymerases. Although replication collisions with the transcription-initiation or -termination complexes are potentially even more important because most genes are not actively transcribed during DNA replication, their existence and mechanisms remained unproven. To address this matter, we have designed a bacterial promoter that binds RNA polymerase and maintains it in the initiating mode by precluding the transition into the elongation mode. By using electrophoretic analysis of replication intermediates, we have found that this steadfast transcription-initiation complex inhibits replication fork progression in an orientation-dependent manner during head-on collisions. Transcription terminators also appeared to attenuate DNA replication, but in the opposite, codirectional orientation. Thus, transcription regulatory signals may serve as "punctuation marks" for DNA replication in vivo. PMID:16670199

  18. cis-active elements from mouse chromosomal DNA suppress simian virus 40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, M; Willnow, T; Fanning, E

    1990-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40)-containing DNA was rescued after the fusion of SV40-transformed VLM cells with permissive COS1 monkey cells and cloned, and prototype plasmid clones were characterized. A 2-kilobase mouse DNA fragment fused with the rescued SV40 DNA, and derived from mouse DNA flanking the single insert of SV40 DNA in VLM cells, was sequenced. Insertion of the intact rescued mouse sequence, or two nonoverlapping fragments of it, into wild-type SV40 plasmid DNA suppressed replication of the plasmid in TC7 monkey cells, although the plasmids expressed replication-competent T antigen. Rat cells were transformed with linearized wild-type SV40 plasmid DNA with or without fragments of the mouse DNA in cis. Although all of the rat cell lines expressed approximately equal amounts of T antigen and p53, transformants carrying SV40 DNA linked to either of the same two replication suppressor fragments produced significantly less free SV40 DNA after fusion with permissive cells than those transformed by SV40 DNA without a cellular insert or with a cellular insert lacking suppressor activity. The results suggest that two independent segments of cellular DNA act in cis to suppress SV40 replication in vivo, either as a plasmid or integrated in chromosomal DNA. Images PMID:2159549

  19. Palindromic repetitive DNA elements with coding potential in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Mikita; Lathe, Warren C; Bork, Peer

    2005-10-10

    We have identified 141 novel palindromic repetitive elements in the genome of euryarchaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. The total length of these elements is 14.3kb, which corresponds to 0.9% of the total genomic sequence and 6.3% of all extragenic regions. The elements can be divided into three groups (MJRE1-3) based on the sequence similarity. The low sequence identity within each of the groups suggests rather old origin of these elements in M. jannaschii. Three MJRE2 elements were located within the protein coding regions without disrupting the coding potential of the host genes, indicating that insertion of repeats might be a widespread mechanism to enhance sequence diversity in coding regions. PMID:16182294

  20. The Drosophila P-element KP repressor protein dimerizes and interacts with multiple sites on P-element DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C C; Mul, Y M; Rio, D C

    1996-01-01

    Drosophila P elements are mobile DNA elements that encode an 87-kDa transposase enzyme and transpositional repressor proteins. One of these repressor proteins is the 207-amino-acid KP protein which is encoded by a naturally occurring P element with an internal deletion. To study the molecular mechanisms by which KP represses transposition, the protein was expressed, purified, and characterized. We show that the KP protein binds to multiple sites on the ends of P-element DNA, unlike the full-length transposase protein. These sites include the high-affinity transposase binding site, an 11-bp transpositional enhancer, and, at the highest concentrations tested, the terminal 31-hp inverted repeats. The DNA binding domain was localized to the N-terminal 98 amino acids and contains a CCHC sequence, a potential metal binding motif. We also demonstrate that the KP repressor protein can dimerize and contains two protein-protein interaction regions and that this dimerization is essential for high-affinity DNA binding. PMID:8816474

  1. The Drosophila P-element KP repressor protein dimerizes and interacts with multiple sites on P-element DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Mul, Y M; Rio, D C

    1996-10-01

    Drosophila P elements are mobile DNA elements that encode an 87-kDa transposase enzyme and transpositional repressor proteins. One of these repressor proteins is the 207-amino-acid KP protein which is encoded by a naturally occurring P element with an internal deletion. To study the molecular mechanisms by which KP represses transposition, the protein was expressed, purified, and characterized. We show that the KP protein binds to multiple sites on the ends of P-element DNA, unlike the full-length transposase protein. These sites include the high-affinity transposase binding site, an 11-bp transpositional enhancer, and, at the highest concentrations tested, the terminal 31-hp inverted repeats. The DNA binding domain was localized to the N-terminal 98 amino acids and contains a CCHC sequence, a potential metal binding motif. We also demonstrate that the KP repressor protein can dimerize and contains two protein-protein interaction regions and that this dimerization is essential for high-affinity DNA binding. PMID:8816474

  2. Short palindromic repetitive DNA elements in enterobacteria: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bachellier, S; Clément, J M; Hofnung, M

    1999-01-01

    We present a survey of short palindromic repetitive elements in enterobacteria. Seven families are presented. Five were already known (RSA, IRU, 29-bp repeats, BIMEs and boxC), and their properties are updated; in particular, a new composite element is shown to include the formerly identified boxC repeats. Two repetitions, YPAL1 and YPAL2, found primarily in Yersinia, are described here for the first time. PMID:10673002

  3. Post-GWAS methodologies for localisation of functional non-coding variants: ANGPTL3

    PubMed Central

    Oldoni, Federico; Palmen, Jutta; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Howard, Philip; Drenos, Fotios; Plagnol, Vincent; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Smith, Andrew J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the involvement of non-coding angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) gene variants with coronary artery disease, levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and ANGPTL3 mRNA transcript. Extensive linkage disequilibrium at the locus, however, has hindered efforts to identify the potential functional variants. Using regulatory annotations from ENCODE, combined with functional in vivo assays such as allele-specific formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements, statistical approaches including eQTL/lipid colocalisation, and traditional in vitro methodologies including electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assays, variants affecting the ANGPTL3 regulome were examined. From 253 variants associated with ANGPTL3 mRNA expression, and/or lipid traits, 46 were located within liver regulatory elements and potentially functional. One variant, rs10889352, demonstrated allele-specific effects on DNA-protein interactions, reporter gene expression and chromatin accessibility, in line with effects on LDL-C levels and expression of ANGPTL3 mRNA. The ANGPTL3 gene lies within DOCK7, although the variant is within non-coding regions outside of ANGPTL3, within DOCK7, suggesting complex long-range regulatory effects on gene expression. This study illustrates the power of combining multiple genome-wide datasets with laboratory data to localise functional non-coding variation and provides a model for analysis of regulatory variants from GWAS. PMID:26800306

  4. Post-GWAS methodologies for localisation of functional non-coding variants: ANGPTL3.

    PubMed

    Oldoni, Federico; Palmen, Jutta; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Howard, Philip; Drenos, Fotios; Plagnol, Vincent; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Smith, Andrew J P

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the involvement of non-coding angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) gene variants with coronary artery disease, levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and ANGPTL3 mRNA transcript. Extensive linkage disequilibrium at the locus, however, has hindered efforts to identify the potential functional variants. Using regulatory annotations from ENCODE, combined with functional in vivo assays such as allele-specific formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements, statistical approaches including eQTL/lipid colocalisation, and traditional in vitro methodologies including electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assays, variants affecting the ANGPTL3 regulome were examined. From 253 variants associated with ANGPTL3 mRNA expression, and/or lipid traits, 46 were located within liver regulatory elements and potentially functional. One variant, rs10889352, demonstrated allele-specific effects on DNA-protein interactions, reporter gene expression and chromatin accessibility, in line with effects on LDL-C levels and expression of ANGPTL3 mRNA. The ANGPTL3 gene lies within DOCK7, although the variant is within non-coding regions outside of ANGPTL3, within DOCK7, suggesting complex long-range regulatory effects on gene expression. This study illustrates the power of combining multiple genome-wide datasets with laboratory data to localise functional non-coding variation and provides a model for analysis of regulatory variants from GWAS. PMID:26800306

  5. Structure of a Thyroid Hormone Receptor DNA-Binding Domain Homodimer Bound to an Inverted Palindrome DNA Response Element

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Young, Matthew A.

    2010-10-22

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), as a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, can recognize and bind different classes of DNA response element targets as either a monomer, a homooligomer, or a heterooligomer. We report here the first crystal structure of a homodimer TR DNA-binding domain (DBD) in complex with an inverted repeat class of thyroid response element (TRE). The structure shows a nearly symmetric structure of the TR DBD assembled on the F2 TRE where the base recognition contacts in the homodimer DNA complex are conserved relative to the previously published structure of a TR-9-cis-retinoic acid receptor heterodimer DNA complex. The new structure also reveals that the T-box region of the DBD can function as a structural hinge that enables a large degree of flexibility in the position of the C-terminal extension helix that connects the DBD to the ligand-binding domain. Although the isolated TR DBDs exist as monomers in solution, we have measured highly cooperative binding of the two TR DBD subunits onto the inverted repeat DNA sequence. This suggests that elements of the DBD can influence the specific TR oligomerization at target genes, and it is not just interactions between the ligand-binding domains that are responsible for TR oligomerization at target genes. Mutational analysis shows that intersubunit contacts at the DBD C terminus account for some, but not all, of the cooperative homodimer TR binding to the inverted repeat class TRE.

  6. Capture of flanking DNA by a P element in Drosophila melanogaster: Creation of a transposable element

    SciTech Connect

    Tsubota, Stuart, I.; Huong Dangvu )

    1991-02-01

    A 6.1-kilobase nsertion into the rudimentary (r) gene was cloned and partially sequenced. The insertion consists of a 703-base-pair (bp) P element next to a 5.4-kilobase single-copy sequence. The normal positon of the single-copy sequence is near the tip of the X chromosome. Upon insertion into the r gene, this chimeric element generated an 8-bp target-site duplication, characteristic of P elements. At the non-P-element end of the insertion, the first 8 bp are identical to the first 8 bp of the inverted terminal repeats of the P element. Thus, this element has inverted terminal repeats of 8 bp. This large element can excise from the r gene under conditions of hybrid dysgenesis, which indicates that it behaves like a normal P element. These data support the conclusion that a normally stable single-copy sequence has now become unstable and duplicated within the genome.

  7. Novel DNA-binding element within the C-terminal extension of the nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Jakób, Michał; Kołodziejczyk, Robert; Orłowski, Marek; Krzywda, Szymon; Kowalska, Agnieszka; Dutko-Gwóźdź, Joanna; Gwóźdź, Tomasz; Kochman, Marian; Jaskólski, Mariusz; Ożyhar, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The heterodimer of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (Usp), members of the nuclear receptors superfamily, is considered as the functional receptor for ecdysteroids initiating molting and metamorphosis in insects. Here we report the 1.95 Å structure of the complex formed by the DNA-binding domains (DBDs) the EcR and the Usp, bound to the natural pseudopalindromic response element. Comparison of the structure with that obtained previously, using an idealized response element, shows how the EcRDBD, which has been previously reported to possess extraordinary flexibility, accommodates DNA-induced structural changes. Part of the C-terminal extension (CTE) of the EcRDBD folds into an α-helix whose location in the minor groove does not match any of the locations previously observed for nuclear receptors. Mutational analyses suggest that the α-helix is a component of EcR-box, a novel element indispensable for DNA-binding and located within the nuclear receptor CTE. This element seems to be a general feature of all known EcRs. PMID:17426125

  8. Conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Freeling, Michael; Subramaniam, Shabarinath

    2009-04-01

    Plant conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs)--a specific category of phylogenetic footprint--have been shown experimentally to function. No plant CNS is conserved to the extent that ultraconserved noncoding sequences are conserved in vertebrates. Plant CNSs are enriched in known transcription factor or other cis-acting binding sites, and are usually clustered around genes. Genes that encode transcription factors and/or those that respond to stimuli are particularly CNS-rich. Only rarely could this function involve small RNA binding. Some transcribed CNSs encode short translation products as a form of negative control. Approximately 4% of Arabidopsis gene content is estimated to be both CNS-rich and occupies a relatively long stretch of chromosome: Bigfoot genes (long phylogenetic footprints). We discuss a 'DNA-templated protein assembly' idea that might help explain Bigfoot gene CNSs. PMID:19249238

  9. Surveying DNA Elements within Functional Genes of Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Jason A.; Meeks, John C.; Zehr, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Some cyanobacteria are capable of differentiating a variety of cell types in response to environmental factors. For instance, in low nitrogen conditions, some cyanobacteria form heterocysts, which are specialized for N2 fixation. Many heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria have DNA elements interrupting key N2 fixation genes, elements that are excised during heterocyst differentiation. While the mechanism for the excision of the element has been well-studied, many questions remain regarding the introduction of the elements into the cyanobacterial lineage and whether they have been retained ever since or have been lost and reintroduced. To examine the evolutionary relationships and possible function of DNA sequences that interrupt genes of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, we identified and compared 101 interruption element sequences within genes from 38 heterocyst-forming cyanobacterial genomes. The interruption element lengths ranged from about 1 kb (the minimum able to encode the recombinase responsible for element excision), up to nearly 1 Mb. The recombinase gene sequences served as genetic markers that were common across the interruption elements and were used to track element evolution. Elements were found that interrupted 22 different orthologs, only five of which had been previously observed to be interrupted by an element. Most of the newly identified interrupted orthologs encode proteins that have been shown to have heterocyst-specific activity. However, the presence of interruption elements within genes with no known role in N2 fixation, as well as in three non-heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, indicates that the processes that trigger the excision of elements may not be limited to heterocyst development or that the elements move randomly within genomes. This comprehensive analysis provides the framework to study the history and behavior of these unique sequences, and offers new insight regarding the frequency and persistence of interruption elements in

  10. TFIIIC Bound DNA Elements in Nuclear Organization and Insulation

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Jacob G.; Raab, Jesse R.

    2012-01-01

    tRNA genes (tDNAs) have been known to have barrier insulator function in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for over a decade. tDNAs also play a role in genome organization by clustering at sites in the nucleus and both of these functions are dependent on the transcription factor TFIIIC. More recently TFIIIC bound sites devoid of pol III, termed Extra-TFIIIC sites (ETC) have been identified in budding yeast and these sites also function as insulators and affect genome organization. Subsequent studies in Schizosaccharomyces pombe showed that TFIIIC bound sites were insulators and also functioned as Chromosome Organization Clamps (COC); tethering the sites to the nuclear periphery. Very recently studies have moved to mammalian systems where pol III genes and their associated factors have been investigated in both mouse and human cells. Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) that bind TFIIIC, function as insulator elements and tDNAs can also function as both enhancer -blocking and barrier insulators in these organisms. It was also recently shown that tDNAs cluster with other tDNAs and with ETCs but not with pol II transcribed genes. Intriguingly, TFIIIC is often found near pol II transcription start sites and it remains unclear what the consequences of TFIIIC based genomic organization are and what influence pol III factors have on pol II transcribed genes and vise versa. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the known data on pol III factors in insulation and genome organization and identify the many open questions that require further investigation. \\ PMID:23000638

  11. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element Specific for Bromacil

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ryan M.; Kulick, Amanda R.; Yedlapalli, Srilakshmi; Battistella, Louisa; Hajiran, Cyrus J.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2014-01-01

    Bromacil is a widely used herbicide that is known to contaminate environmental systems. Due to the hazards it presents and inefficient detection methods, it is necessary to create a rapid and efficient sensing device. Towards this end, we have utilized a stringent in vitro selection method to identify single-stranded DNA molecular recognition elements (MRE) specific for bromacil. We have identified one MRE with high affinity (Kd = 9.6 nM) and specificity for bromacil compared to negative targets of selection and other pesticides. The selected ssDNA MRE will be useful as the sensing element in a field-deployable bromacil detection device. PMID:25400940

  12. DNA capture elements for rapid detection and identification of biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Parker, Jill E.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Vivekananda, Jeeva

    2004-08-01

    DNA capture elements (DCEs; aptamers) are artificial DNA sequences, from a random pool of sequences, selected for their specific binding to potential biological warfare agents. These sequences were selected by an affinity method using filters to which the target agent was attached and the DNA isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an iterative, increasingly stringent, process. Reporter molecules were attached to the finished sequences. To date, we have made DCEs to Bacillus anthracis spores, Shiga toxin, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and Francisella tularensis. These DCEs have demonstrated specificity and sensitivity equal to or better than antibody.

  13. Radiation-induced changes in DNA methylation of repetitive elements in the mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Skinner, Charles M; Melnyk, Stepan B; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism, needed for proper control over the expression of genetic information and silencing of repetitive elements. Exposure to ionizing radiation, aside from its strong genotoxic potential, may also affect the methylation of DNA, within the repetitive elements, in particular. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6J male mice to low absorbed mean doses of two types of space radiation-proton (0.1 Gy, 150 MeV, dose rate 0.53 ± 0.08 Gy/min), and heavy iron ions ((56)Fe) (0.5 Gy, 600 MeV/n, dose rate 0.38 ± 0.06 Gy/min). Radiation-induced changes in cardiac DNA methylation associated with repetitive elements were detected. Specifically, modest hypomethylation of retrotransposon LINE-1 was observed at day 7 after irradiation with either protons or (56)Fe. This was followed by LINE-1, and other retrotransposons, ERV2 and SINE B1, as well as major satellite DNA hypermethylation at day 90 after irradiation with (56)Fe. These changes in DNA methylation were accompanied by alterations in the expression of DNA methylation machinery and affected the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Furthermore, loss of transposable elements expression was detected in the cardiac tissue at the 90-day time-point, paralleled by substantial accumulation of mRNA transcripts, associated with major satellites. Given that the one-carbon metabolism pathway can be modulated by dietary modifications, these findings suggest a potential strategy for the mitigation and, possibly, prevention of the negative effects exerted by ionizing radiation on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, we show that the methylation status and expression of repetitive elements may serve as early biomarkers of exposure to space radiation. PMID:26963372

  14. Non-coding RNAs in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ricciuti, Biagio; Mecca, Carmen; Crinò, Lucio; Baglivo, Sara; Cenci, Matteo; Metro, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that protein-coding genes represent less than 2% of all human genome, and the evidence that more than 90% of it is actively transcribed, changed the classical point of view of the central dogma of molecular biology, which was always based on the assumption that RNA functions mainly as an intermediate bridge between DNA sequences and protein synthesis machinery. Accumulating data indicates that non-coding RNAs are involved in different physiological processes, providing for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. They are important regulators of gene expression, cellular differentiation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stem cell maintenance. Alterations and disruptions of their expression or activity have increasingly been associated with pathological changes of cancer cells, this evidence and the prospect of using these molecules as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets, make currently non-coding RNAs among the most relevant molecules in cancer research. In this paper we will provide an overview of non-coding RNA function and disruption in lung cancer biology, also focusing on their potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. PMID:25593996

  15. Functional roles of non-coding Y RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Madzia P.; Krude, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs are involved in a multitude of cellular processes but the biochemical function of many small non-coding RNAs remains unclear. The family of small non-coding Y RNAs is conserved in vertebrates and related RNAs are present in some prokaryotic species. Y RNAs are also homologous to the newly identified family of non-coding stem-bulge RNAs (sbRNAs) in nematodes, for which potential physiological functions are only now emerging. Y RNAs are essential for the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in vertebrates and, when bound to the Ro60 protein, they are involved in RNA stability and cellular responses to stress in several eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. Additionally, short fragments of Y RNAs have recently been identified as abundant components in the blood and tissues of humans and other mammals, with potential diagnostic value. While the number of functional roles of Y RNAs is growing, it is becoming increasingly clear that the conserved structural domains of Y RNAs are essential for distinct cellular functions. Here, we review the biochemical functions associated with these structural RNA domains, as well as the functional conservation of Y RNAs in different species. The existing biochemical and structural evidence supports a domain model for these small non-coding RNAs that has direct implications for the modular evolution of functional non-coding RNAs. PMID:26159929

  16. Nonconsensus Protein Binding to Repetitive DNA Sequence Elements Significantly Affects Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Gordân, Raluca; Lukatsky, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome-wide experiments in different eukaryotic genomes provide an unprecedented view of transcription factor (TF) binding locations and of nucleosome occupancy. These experiments revealed that a large fraction of TF binding events occur in regions where only a small number of specific TF binding sites (TFBSs) have been detected. Furthermore, in vitro protein-DNA binding measurements performed for hundreds of TFs indicate that TFs are bound with wide range of affinities to different DNA sequences that lack known consensus motifs. These observations have thus challenged the classical picture of specific protein-DNA binding and strongly suggest the existence of additional recognition mechanisms that affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We have previously demonstrated that repetitive DNA sequence elements characterized by certain symmetries statistically affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We call this binding mechanism nonconsensus protein-DNA binding in order to emphasize the point that specific consensus TFBSs do not contribute to this effect. In this paper, using the simple statistical mechanics model developed previously, we calculate the nonconsensus protein-DNA binding free energy for the entire C. elegans and D. melanogaster genomes. Using the available chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) results on TF-DNA binding preferences for ~100 TFs, we show that DNA sequences characterized by low predicted free energy of nonconsensus binding have statistically higher experimental TF occupancy and lower nucleosome occupancy than sequences characterized by high free energy of nonconsensus binding. This is in agreement with our previous analysis performed for the yeast genome. We suggest therefore that nonconsensus protein-DNA binding assists the formation of nucleosome-free regions, as TFs outcompete nucleosomes at genomic locations with enhanced nonconsensus binding. In addition, here we perform a new, large-scale analysis using

  17. Sequence analysis of Vicia faba repeated DNA, the FokI repeat element.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, A; Yakura, K; Tanifuji, S

    1984-01-01

    A type of highly repeated DNA sequences present in the genome of Vicia faba was detected by digestion its nuclear DNA with FokI endonuclease and fractionating the digests on polyacrylamide gels. Four fragments of 59, 108, 177 and 246 bp of the FokI repeated sequences were collected from the gels and their primary structures were determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. These repeated DNA sequences were shown to be a multiple tandem array of a 59 bp sequence element. And its nucleotide sequence was almost completely conserved among all the sequence members of each the size class and also among these classes. This sequence element consists of a duplet of an about the duplet has an incomplete dyad symmetrical structure. Images PMID:6089113

  18. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH) ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Results We assessed the phylogenetic footprints of the HH ribozyme within the pDo500 sequences from 38 different populations representing 12 species of Dolichopoda. The HH region was significantly more conserved than the non-hammerhead (NHH) region of the pDo500 repeat. In addition, stems were more conserved than loops. In stems, several compensatory mutations were detected that maintain base pairing. The core region of the HH ribozyme was affected by very few nucleotide substitutions and the cleavage position was altered only once among 198 sequences. RNA folding of the HH sequences revealed that a potentially active HH ribozyme can be found in most of the Dolichopoda populations and species. Conclusions The phylogenetic footprints suggest that the HH region of the pDo500 sequence family is selected for function in Dolichopoda cave crickets. However, the functional role of HH ribozymes in eukaryotic organisms is unclear. The possible functions have been related to trans cleavage of an RNA target by a ribonucleoprotein and regulation of gene expression. Whether the HH ribozyme in Dolichopoda is involved in similar functions remains to be investigated. Future studies need to demonstrate how the observed nucleotide changes and evolutionary constraint have affected the catalytic efficiency of the hammerhead. PMID:20047671

  19. Satellite DNA-like elements associated with genes within euchromatin of the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Brajković, Josip; Feliciello, Isidoro; Bruvo-Mađarić, Branka; Ugarković, Durđica

    2012-08-01

    In the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum the major TCAST satellite DNA accounts for 35% of the genome and encompasses the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes. Because of the presence of transcriptional regulatory elements and transcriptional activity in these sequences, TCAST satellite DNAs also have been proposed to be modulators of gene expression within euchromatin. Here, we analyze the distribution of TCAST homologous repeats in T. castaneum euchromatin and study their association with genes as well as their potential gene regulatory role. We identified 68 arrays composed of TCAST-like elements distributed on all chromosomes. Based on sequence characteristics the arrays were composed of two types of TCAST-like elements. The first type consists of TCAST satellite-like elements in the form of partial monomers or tandemly arranged monomers, up to tetramers, whereas the second type consists of TCAST-like elements embedded with a complex unit that resembles a DNA transposon. TCAST-like elements were also found in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the CR1-3_TCa retrotransposon, and therefore retrotransposition may have contributed to their dispersion throughout the genome. No significant difference in the homogenization of dispersed TCAST-like elements was found either at the level of local arrays or chromosomes nor among different chromosomes. Of 68 TCAST-like elements, 29 were located within introns, with the remaining elements flanked by genes within a 262 to 404,270 nt range. TCAST-like elements are statistically overrepresented near genes with immunoglobulin-like domains attesting to their nonrandom distribution and a possible gene regulatory role. PMID:22908042

  20. Hypoxic regulation of the noncoding genome and NEAT1.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Hani; Mole, David R

    2016-05-01

    Activation of hypoxia pathways is both associated with and contributes to an aggressive phenotype across multiple types of solid cancers. The regulation of gene transcription by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a key element in this response. HIF directly upregulates the expression of many hundreds of protein-coding genes, which act to both improve oxygen delivery and to reduce oxygen demand. However, it is now becoming apparent that many classes of noncoding RNAs are also regulated by hypoxia, with several (e.g. micro RNAs, long noncoding RNAs and antisense RNAs) under direct transcriptional regulation by HIF. These hypoxia-regulated, noncoding RNAs may act as effectors of the indirect response to HIF by acting on specific coding transcripts or by affecting generic RNA-processing pathways. In addition, noncoding RNAs may also act as modulators of the HIF pathway, either by integrating other physiological responses or, in the case of HIF-regulated, noncoding RNAs, by providing negative or positive feedback and feedforward loops that affect upstream or downstream components of the HIF cascade. These hypoxia-regulated, noncoding transcripts play important roles in the aggressive hypoxic phenotype observed in cancer. PMID:26590207

  1. Hypoxic regulation of the noncoding genome and NEAT1

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Activation of hypoxia pathways is both associated with and contributes to an aggressive phenotype across multiple types of solid cancers. The regulation of gene transcription by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a key element in this response. HIF directly upregulates the expression of many hundreds of protein-coding genes, which act to both improve oxygen delivery and to reduce oxygen demand. However, it is now becoming apparent that many classes of noncoding RNAs are also regulated by hypoxia, with several (e.g. micro RNAs, long noncoding RNAs and antisense RNAs) under direct transcriptional regulation by HIF. These hypoxia-regulated, noncoding RNAs may act as effectors of the indirect response to HIF by acting on specific coding transcripts or by affecting generic RNA-processing pathways. In addition, noncoding RNAs may also act as modulators of the HIF pathway, either by integrating other physiological responses or, in the case of HIF-regulated, noncoding RNAs, by providing negative or positive feedback and feedforward loops that affect upstream or downstream components of the HIF cascade. These hypoxia-regulated, noncoding transcripts play important roles in the aggressive hypoxic phenotype observed in cancer. PMID:26590207

  2. Whole Genome Duplications and a ‘Function’ for Junk DNA? Facts and Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Veitia, Reiner A.; Bottani, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Background The lack of correlation between genome size and organismal complexity is understood in terms of the massive presence of repetitive and non-coding DNA. This non-coding subgenome has long been called “junk” DNA. However, it might have important functions. Generation of junk DNA depends on proliferation of selfish DNA elements and on local or global DNA duplication followed by genic non-fonctionalization. Methodology/Principal Findings Evidence from genomic analyses and experimental data indicates that Whole Genome Duplications (WGD) are often followed by a return to the diploid state, through DNA deletions and intra/interchromosomal rearrangements. We use simple theoretical models and simulations to explore how a WGD accompanied by sequence deletions might affect the dosage balance often required among several gene products involved in regulatory processes. We find that potential genomic deletions leading to changes in nuclear and cell volume might potentially perturb gene dosage balance. Conclusions/Significance The potentially negative impact of DNA deletions can be buffered if deleted genic DNA is, at least temporarily, replaced by repetitive DNA so that the nuclear/cell volume remains compatible with normal living. Thus, we speculate that retention of non-functionalized non-coding DNA, and replacement of deleted DNA through proliferation of selfish elements, might help avoid dosage imbalances in cycles of polyploidization and diploidization, which are particularly frequent in plants. PMID:20011530

  3. A Land Plant-Specific Transcription Factor Directly Enhances Transcription of a Pathogenic Noncoding RNA Template by DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jie; Ji, Shaoyi; Wallace, Andrew J.; Wu, Jian; Li, Yi; Gopalan, Venkat; Ding, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Some DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs) possess RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, as was first discovered in the replication of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Recent studies revealed that this activity in bacteria and mammals is important for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Here, we used PSTVd as a model to uncover auxiliary factors essential for RNA-templated transcription by DdRP. PSTVd replication in the nucleoplasm generates (−)-PSTVd intermediates and (+)-PSTVd copies. We found that the Nicotiana benthamiana canonical 9-zinc finger (ZF) Transcription Factor IIIA (TFIIIA-9ZF) as well as its variant TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (+)-PSTVd, but only TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (−)-PSTVd. Suppression of TFIIIA-7ZF reduced PSTVd replication, and overexpression of TFIIIA-7ZF enhanced PSTVd replication in planta. Consistent with the locale of PSTVd replication, TFIIIA-7ZF was found in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, in contrast to the strictly nucleolar localization of TFIIIA-9ZF. Footprinting assays revealed that only TFIIIA-7ZF bound to a region of PSTVd critical for initiating transcription. Furthermore, TFIIIA-7ZF strongly enhanced the in vitro transcription of circular (+)-PSTVd by partially purified Pol II. Together, our results identify TFIIIA-7ZF as a dedicated cellular transcription factor that acts in DdRP-catalyzed RNA-templated transcription, highlighting both the extraordinary evolutionary adaptation of viroids and the potential of DdRPs for a broader role in cellular processes. PMID:27113774

  4. A Land Plant-Specific Transcription Factor Directly Enhances Transcription of a Pathogenic Noncoding RNA Template by DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Qu, Jie; Ji, Shaoyi; Wallace, Andrew J; Wu, Jian; Li, Yi; Gopalan, Venkat; Ding, Biao

    2016-05-01

    Some DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs) possess RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, as was first discovered in the replication of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Recent studies revealed that this activity in bacteria and mammals is important for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Here, we used PSTVd as a model to uncover auxiliary factors essential for RNA-templated transcription by DdRP PSTVd replication in the nucleoplasm generates (-)-PSTVd intermediates and (+)-PSTVd copies. We found that the Nicotiana benthamiana canonical 9-zinc finger (ZF) Transcription Factor IIIA (TFIIIA-9ZF) as well as its variant TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (+)-PSTVd, but only TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (-)-PSTVd. Suppression of TFIIIA-7ZF reduced PSTVd replication, and overexpression of TFIIIA-7ZF enhanced PSTVd replication in planta. Consistent with the locale of PSTVd replication, TFIIIA-7ZF was found in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, in contrast to the strictly nucleolar localization of TFIIIA-9ZF. Footprinting assays revealed that only TFIIIA-7ZF bound to a region of PSTVd critical for initiating transcription. Furthermore, TFIIIA-7ZF strongly enhanced the in vitro transcription of circular (+)-PSTVd by partially purified Pol II. Together, our results identify TFIIIA-7ZF as a dedicated cellular transcription factor that acts in DdRP-catalyzed RNA-templated transcription, highlighting both the extraordinary evolutionary adaptation of viroids and the potential of DdRPs for a broader role in cellular processes. PMID:27113774

  5. DNA Elements Reducing Transcriptional Gene Silencing Revealed by a Novel Screening Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Keiichiro; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS)–a phenomenon observed in endogenous genes/transgenes in eukaryotes–is a huge hindrance to transgenic technology and occurs mainly when the genes involved share sequence homology in their promoter regions. TGS depends on chromosomal position, suggesting the existence of genomic elements that suppress TGS. However, no systematic approach to identify such DNA elements has yet been reported. Here, we developed a successful novel screening strategy to identify such elements (anti-silencing regions–ASRs), based on their ability to protect a flanked transgene from TGS. A silenced transgenic tobacco plant in which a subsequently introduced transgene undergoes obligatory promoter-homology dependent TGS in trans allowed the ability of DNA elements to prevent TGS to be used as the screening criterion. We also identified ASRs in a genomic library from a different plant species (Lotus japonicus: a perennial legume); the ASRs include portions of Ty1/copia retrotransposon-like and pararetrovirus-like sequences; the retrotransposon-like sequences also showed interspecies anti-TGS activity in a TGS-induction system in Arabidopsis. Anti-TGS elements could provide effective tools to reduce TGS and ensure proper regulation of transgene expression. Furthermore, the screening strategy described here will also facilitate the efficient identification of new classes of anti-TGS elements. PMID:23382937

  6. Chilean Pitavia more closely related to Oceania and Old World Rutaceae than to Neotropical groups: evidence from two cpDNA non-coding regions, with a new subfamilial classification of the family

    PubMed Central

    Groppo, Milton; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Pirani, José Rubens; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The position of the plant genus Pitavia within an infrafamilial phylogeny of Rutaceae (rue, or orange family) was investigated with the use of two non-coding regions from cpDNA, the trnL-trnF region and the rps16 intron. The only species of the genus, Pitavia punctata Molina, is restricted to the temperate forests of the Coastal Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile and threatened by loss of habitat. The genus traditionally has been treated as part of tribe Zanthoxyleae (subfamily Rutoideae) where it constitutes the monogeneric tribe Pitaviinae. This tribe and genus are characterized by fruits of 1 to 4 fleshy drupelets, unlike the dehiscent fruits typical of the subfamily. Fifty-five taxa of Rutaceae, representing 53 genera (nearly one-third of those in the family) and all subfamilies, tribes, and almost all subtribes of the family were included. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny; six taxa of Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae, all members of Sapindales, were also used as out-groups. Results from both analyses were congruent and showed Pitavia as sister to Flindersia and Lunasia, both genera with species scattered through Australia, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea and the Malayan region, and phylogenetically far from other Neotropical Rutaceae, such as the Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutoideae) and Pteleinae (Toddalieae, former Toddalioideae). Additionally, a new circumscription of the subfamilies of Rutaceae is presented and discussed. Only two subfamilies (both monophyletic) are recognized: Cneoroideae (including Dictyolomatoideae, Spathelioideae, Cneoraceae, and Ptaeroxylaceae) and Rutoideae (including not only traditional Rutoideae but also Aurantioideae, Flindersioideae, and Toddalioideae). As a consequence, Aurantioideae (Citrus and allies) is reduced to tribal rank as Aurantieae. PMID:23717188

  7. Mavericks, a novel class of giant transposable elements widespread in eukaryotes and related to DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Pritham, Ellen J; Putliwala, Tasneem; Feschotte, Cédric

    2007-04-01

    We previously identified a group of atypical mobile elements designated Mavericks from the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae and the zebrafish Danio rerio. Here we present the results of comprehensive database searches of the genome sequences available, which reveal that Mavericks are widespread in invertebrates and non-mammalian vertebrates but show a patchy distribution in non-animal species, being present in the fungi Glomus intraradices and Phakopsora pachyrhizi and in several single-celled eukaryotes such as the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, the stramenopile Phytophthora infestans and the trichomonad Trichomonas vaginalis, but not detectable in plants. This distribution, together with comparative and phylogenetic analyses of Maverick-encoded proteins, is suggestive of an ancient origin of these elements in eukaryotes followed by lineage-specific losses and/or recurrent episodes of horizontal transmission. In addition, we report that Maverick elements have amplified recently to high copy numbers in T. vaginalis where they now occupy as much as 30% of the genome. Sequence analysis confirms that most Mavericks encode a retroviral-like integrase, but lack other open reading frames typically found in retroelements. Nevertheless, the length and conservation of the target site duplication created upon Maverick insertion (5- or 6-bp) is consistent with a role of the integrase-like protein in the integration of a double-stranded DNA transposition intermediate. Mavericks also display long terminal-inverted repeats but do not contain ORFs similar to proteins encoded by DNA transposons. Instead, Mavericks encode a conserved set of 5 to 9 genes (in addition to the integrase) that are predicted to encode proteins with homology to replication and packaging proteins of some bacteriophages and diverse eukaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses, including a DNA polymerase B homolog and putative capsid proteins. Based on these and other structural similarities, we

  8. Polymorphism of t-specific DNA elements of the proximal part of Mus mouse chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    Shustrova, I.V.; Tokarskaya, O.N.; Chekunova, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    To study structural organization and polymorphism of the proximal part of chromosome 17, a hybridization analysis of DNA from mice of different origin was carried out using four t-specific probes. Results of the analysis allow us to conclude that the DNA element copy number is quantitatively unstable and differs in distribution in both newly formed recombinant haplotypes and in wild-type chromosome 17. Probe Tu66 was used to study D17Leh66-element organization of Mus abbotti and Mus hortulanus mice. Three types of D17Leh66-elements were identified in the genomes of these species. The copy number of each type of DNA element varied in the genome of each of four studied species. Homologs to t-specific Tu66 and Tu119 probes were found in the genome of Rattus norvegicus rat. The data obtained are discussed with respect to the evolution of the proximal part of Mus mouse chromosome 17. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Long noncoding RNAs in hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Hu, Wenqian

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian development is under tight control to ensure precise gene expression. Recent studies reveal a new layer of regulation of gene expression mediated by long noncoding RNAs. These transcripts are longer than 200nt that do not have functional protein coding capacity. Interestingly, many of these long noncoding RNAs are expressed with high specificity in different types of cells, tissues, and developmental stages in mammals, suggesting that they may have functional roles in diverse biological processes. Here, we summarize recent findings of long noncoding RNAs in hematopoiesis, which is one of the best-characterized mammalian cell differentiation processes. Then we provide our own perspectives on future studies of long noncoding RNAs in this field. PMID:27508063

  10. Progress and prospects of long noncoding RNAs in lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel group of universally present, non-coding RNAs (>200 nt) that are increasingly recognized as key regulators of many physiological and pathological processes. Scope of review Recent publications have shown that lncRNAs influence lipid homeostasis by controlling lipid metabolism in the liver and by regulating adipogenesis. lncRNAs control lipid metabolism-related gene expression by either base-pairing with RNA and DNA or by binding to proteins. Major conclusions The recent advances and future prospects in understanding the roles of lncRNAs in lipid homeostasis are discussed. PMID:26977388

  11. Non-coding RNA in neural function, disease, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Kirk; Abraham, Karan J.; Mekhail, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Declining brain and neurobiological function is arguably one of the most common features of human aging. The study of conserved aging processes as well as the characterization of various neurodegenerative diseases using different genetic models such as yeast, fly, mouse, and human systems is uncovering links to non-coding RNAs. These links implicate a variety of RNA-regulatory processes, including microRNA function, paraspeckle formation, RNA–DNA hybrid regulation, nucleolar RNAs and toxic RNA clearance, amongst others. Here we highlight these connections and reveal over-arching themes or questions related to recently appreciated roles of non-coding RNA in neural function and dysfunction across lifespan. PMID:25806046

  12. EBV Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, Rebecca L; Cullen, Bryan R

    2015-01-01

    EBV expresses a number of viral noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) during latent infection, many of which have known regulatory functions and can post-transcriptionally regulate viral and/or cellular gene expression. With recent advances in RNA sequencing technologies, the list of identified EBV ncRNAs continues to grow. EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) , the BamHI-A rightward transcripts (BARTs) , a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) , and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) are all expressed during EBV infection in a variety of cell types and tumors. Recently, additional novel EBV ncRNAs have been identified. Viral miRNAs, in particular, have been under extensive investigation since their initial identification over ten years ago. High-throughput studies to capture miRNA targets have revealed a number of miRNA-regulated viral and cellular transcripts that tie into important biological networks. Functions for many EBV ncRNAs are still unknown; however, roles for many EBV miRNAs in latency and in tumorigenesis have begun to emerge. Ongoing mechanistic studies to elucidate the functions of EBV ncRNAs should unravel additional roles for ncRNAs in the viral life cycle. In this chapter, we will discuss our current knowledge of the types of ncRNAs expressed by EBV, their potential roles in viral latency, and their potential involvement in viral pathogenesis. PMID:26428375

  13. Modular sequence elements associated with origin regions in eukaryotic chromosomal DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, D L; Shaiu, W L; Benbow, R M

    1994-01-01

    We have postulated that chromosomal replication origin regions in eukaryotes have in common clusters of certain modular sequence elements (Benbow, Zhao, and Larson, BioEssays 14, 661-670, 1992). In this study, computer analyses of DNA sequences from six origin regions showed that each contained one or more potential initiation regions consisting of a putative DUE (DNA unwinding element) aligned with clusters of SAR (scaffold associated region), and ARS (autonomously replicating sequence) consensus sequences, and pyrimidine tracts. The replication origins analyzed were from the following loci: Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear rDNA gene, Chinese hamster ovary dihydrofolate reductase amplicon, human c-myc proto-oncogene, chicken histone H5 gene, Drosophila melanogaster chorion gene cluster on the third chromosome, and Chinese hamster ovary rhodopsin gene. The locations of putative initiation regions identified by the computer analyses were compared with published data obtained using diverse methods to map initiation sites. For at least four loci, the potential initiation regions identified by sequence analysis aligned with previously mapped initiation events. A consensus DNA sequence, WAWTTDDWWWDHWGWHMAWTT, was found within the potential initiation regions in every case. An additional 35 kb of combined flanking sequences from the six loci were also analyzed, but no additional copies of this consensus sequence were found. Images PMID:8041609

  14. The fission yeast CENP-B protein Abp1 prevents pervasive transcription of repetitive DNA elements.

    PubMed

    Daulny, Anne; Mejía-Ramírez, Eva; Reina, Oscar; Rosado-Lugo, Jesus; Aguilar-Arnal, Lorena; Auer, Herbert; Zaratiegui, Mikel; Azorin, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed producing cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs). However, the mechanisms regulating pervasive transcription are not well understood. Here, we report that the fission yeast CENP-B homolog Abp1 plays an important role in preventing pervasive transcription. We show that loss of abp1 results in the accumulation of CUTs, which are targeted for degradation by the exosome pathway. These CUTs originate from different types of genomic features, but the highest increase corresponds to Tf2 retrotransposons and rDNA repeats, where they map along the entire elements. In the absence of abp1, increased RNAPII-Ser5P occupancy is observed throughout the Tf2 coding region and, unexpectedly, RNAPII-Ser5P is enriched at rDNA repeats. Loss of abp1 also results in Tf2 derepression and increased nucleolus size. Altogether these results suggest that Abp1 prevents pervasive RNAPII transcription of repetitive DNA elements (i.e., Tf2 and rDNA repeats) from internal cryptic sites. PMID:27345571

  15. Effect of oxidative DNA damage in promoter elements on transcription factor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, R; Mitchell, D L

    1999-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species produced by endogenous metabolic activity and exposure to a multitude of exogenous agents impact cells in a variety of ways. The DNA base damage 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is a prominent indicator of oxidative stress and has been well-characterized as a premutagenic lesion in mammalian cells and putative initiator of the carcinogenic process. Commensurate with the recent interest in epigenetic pathways of cancer causation we investigated how 8-oxodG alters the interaction between cis elements located on gene promoters and sequence-specific DNA binding proteins associated with these promoters. Consensus binding sequences for the transcription factors AP-1, NF-kappaB and Sp1 were modified site-specifically at guanine residues and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed to assess DNA-protein interactions. Our results indicate that whereas a single 8-oxodG was sufficient to inhibit transcription factor binding to AP-1 and Sp1 sequences it had no effect on binding to NF-kappaB, regardless of its position. We conclude from these data that minor alterations in base composition at a crucial position within some, but not all, promoter elements have the ability to disrupt transcription factor binding. The lack of inhibition by damaged NF-kappaB sequences suggests that DNA-protein contact sites may not be as determinative for stable p50 binding to this promoter as other, as yet undefined, structural parameters. PMID:10454620

  16. Nanoparticle-labeled DNA capture elements for detection and identification of biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Parker, Jill E.; Vivekananda, Jeevalatha; Franz, Veronica

    2004-12-01

    Aptamers, synthetic DNA capture elements (DCEs), can be made chemically or in genetically engineered bacteria. DNA capture elements are artificial DNA sequences, from a random pool of sequences, selected for their specific binding to potential biological warfare or terrorism agents. These sequences were selected by an affinity method using filters to which the target agent was attached and the DNA isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an iterative, increasingly stringent, process. The probes can then be conjugated to Quantum Dots and super paramagnetic nanoparticles. The former provide intense, bleach-resistant fluorescent detection of bioagent and the latter provide a means to collect the bioagents with a magnet. The fluorescence can be detected in a flow cytometer, in a fluorescence plate reader, or with a fluorescence microscope. To date, we have made DCEs to Bacillus anthracis spores, Shiga toxin, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and Francisella tularensis. DCEs can easily distinguish Bacillus anthracis from its nearest relatives, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Development of a high through-put process is currently being investigated.

  17. The Contribution of Alu Elements to Mutagenic DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Streva, Vincent A.; DeFreece, Cecily B.; Hedges, Dale J.; Deininger, Prescott L.

    2015-01-01

    Alu elements make up the largest family of human mobile elements, numbering 1.1 million copies and comprising 11% of the human genome. As a consequence of evolution and genetic drift, Alu elements of various sequence divergence exist throughout the human genome. Alu/Alu recombination has been shown to cause approximately 0.5% of new human genetic diseases and contribute to extensive genomic structural variation. To begin understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to these rearrangements in mammalian cells, we constructed Alu/Alu recombination reporter cell lines containing Alu elements ranging in sequence divergence from 0%-30% that allow detection of both Alu/Alu recombination and large non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) deletions that range from 1.0 to 1.9 kb in size. Introduction of as little as 0.7% sequence divergence between Alu elements resulted in a significant reduction in recombination, which indicates even small degrees of sequence divergence reduce the efficiency of homology-directed DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Further reduction in recombination was observed in a sequence divergence-dependent manner for diverged Alu/Alu recombination constructs with up to 10% sequence divergence. With greater levels of sequence divergence (15%-30%), we observed a significant increase in DSB repair due to a shift from Alu/Alu recombination to variable-length NHEJ which removes sequence between the two Alu elements. This increase in NHEJ deletions depends on the presence of Alu sequence homeology (similar but not identical sequences). Analysis of recombination products revealed that Alu/Alu recombination junctions occur more frequently in the first 100 bp of the Alu element within our reporter assay, just as they do in genomic Alu/Alu recombination events. This is the first extensive study characterizing the influence of Alu element sequence divergence on DNA repair, which will inform predictions regarding the effect of Alu element sequence divergence on both

  18. Four major sequence elements of simian virus 40 large T antigen coordinate its specific and nonspecific DNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, D T; Loeber, G; Tegtmeyer, P

    1990-01-01

    By mutational analysis, we have identified a motif critical to the proper recognition and binding of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T antigen) to virus DNA sequences at the origin of DNA replication. This motif is tripartite and consists of two elements (termed A1 and B2) that are necessary for sequence-specific binding of the origin and a central element (B1) which is required for nonspecific DNA-binding activity. Certain amino acids in elements A1 (residues 152 to 155) and B2 (203 to 207) may make direct contact with the GAGGC pentanucleotide sequences in binding sites I and II on the DNA. Alternatively, these two elements could determine the proper structure of the DNA-binding domain, although for a number of reasons we favor the first possibility. In contrast, element B1 (183 to 187) is most likely important for recognizing a general structural feature of DNA. Elements A1 and B2 are nearly identical in all known papovavirus T antigens, whereas B1 is identical only in the closely related papovaviruses simian virus 40, BK virus, and JC virus. In addition to these three elements, a fourth (B3; residues 215 to 219) is necessary for the binding of T antigen to site II but not to site I. We propose that additional contact sites on T antigen are involved in the interaction with site II to initiate the replication of the viral DNA. PMID:2157865

  19. Long non-coding RNA PVT1 and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming; You, Lei; Ren, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenjing; Liao, Quan; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-02-26

    Genome-wide sequencing technologies have led to the identification of many non-coding RNAs and revealed an important role for these molecules in cancer. Although there have been many studies on the role of short non-coding RNAs in cancer, much work remains to characterize the functions of long non-coding RNAs. PVT1, a long non-coding RNA encoded by the human PVT1 gene, is located in the well-known cancer-related region 8q24, also known as the 8q24 'gene desert.' PVT1 has three main molecular mechanisms of action: participating in DNA rearrangements, encoding microRNAs, and interacting with MYC. Studies on the association between PVT1 and cancer have shown that PVT1 is a potential oncogene in a variety of cancer types. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PVT1 in cancer remain unknown. Further studies of PVT1 will be required to test the utility of this molecule as a target for cancer diagnosis and therapy, and they should also increase our understanding of the role of long non-coding RNAs in tumorigenesis. PMID:26850852

  20. Accelerated Evolution of Conserved Noncoding Sequences in theHuman Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Prambhakar, Shyam; Noonan, James P.; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, EdwardM.

    2006-07-06

    Genomic comparisons between human and distant, non-primatemammals are commonly used to identify cis-regulatory elements based onconstrained sequence evolution. However, these methods fail to detect"cryptic" functional elements, which are too weakly conserved amongmammals to distinguish from nonfunctional DNA. To address this problem,we explored the potential of deep intra-primate sequence comparisons. Wesequenced the orthologs of 558 kb of human genomic sequence, coveringmultiple loci involved in cholesterol homeostasis, in 6 nonhumanprimates. Our analysis identified 6 noncoding DNA elements displayingsignificant conservation among primates, but undetectable in more distantcomparisons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that at least three ofthese 6 elements have regulatory function. Notably, the mouse orthologsof these three functional human sequences had regulatory activity despitetheir lack of significant sequence conservation, indicating that they arecryptic ancestral cis-regulatory elements. These regulatory elementscould still be detected in a smaller set of three primate speciesincluding human, rhesus and marmoset. Since the human and rhesus genomesequences are already available, and the marmoset genome is activelybeing sequenced, the primate-specific conservation analysis describedhere can be applied in the near future on a whole-genome scale, tocomplement the annotation provided by more distant speciescomparisons.

  1. A Long Noncoding RNA Regulates Sister Chromatid Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Francesco P; Grossi, Elena; Marín-Béjar, Oskar; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Raimondi, Ivan; González, Jovanna; Martínez-Herrera, Dannys Jorge; Athie, Alejandro; Amadoz, Alicia; Brosh, Robert M; Huarte, Maite

    2016-08-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in diverse cellular processes through multiple mechanisms. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized human lncRNA, CONCR (cohesion regulator noncoding RNA), that is transcriptionally activated by MYC and is upregulated in multiple cancer types. The expression of CONCR is cell cycle regulated, and it is required for cell-cycle progression and DNA replication. Moreover, cells depleted of CONCR show severe defects in sister chromatid cohesion, suggesting an essential role for CONCR in cohesion establishment during cell division. CONCR interacts with and regulates the activity of DDX11, a DNA-dependent ATPase and helicase involved in DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion. These findings unveil a direct role for an lncRNA in the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion by modulating DDX11 enzymatic activity. PMID:27477908

  2. Effects of trace elements and pesticides on dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA added to soils

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberger, W.T. Jr.; Johanson, J.B.; Lund L.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of 14 trace elements, 12 herbicides, and two fungicides on dephosphorylation of yeast ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) added to soils (Xerollic Calciorthids and Typic Haploxeralfs). The cumulative amount of ortho phosphate (Pi) released from nucleic acids increased linearly with time of incubation (up to 72 h), decreased with profile depth, and was highly influenced by soil pH. When trace elements were applied and compared by using 2.5 mmol kg/sup -1/ of soil, the average inhibition in dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA in two soils ranged from 17% with Co(II) to 52% with Cu(II). The most effective inhibitors of nucleic acid dephosphorylation were Ag(I), Cu(I), Cd(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) (avg inhibition greater than or equal to 35%). Other elements that inhibited dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA added to soils included Ba(II), Co(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), Ti(IV), V(IV), and W(VI). When the pesticides were compared by using 5 mg of active ingredient kg/sup -1/ of soil, the average inhibition in nucleic acid dephosphorylation ranged from 14% with butylate to 39% with chloramben. The most effective inhibitors (> 25%) were atrazine, naptalam, chloramben, dicamba, trifluralin, and maneb. Other pesticides that inhibited RNA and DNA dephosphorylation in soils included cyanazine, 2,4-D, dinitroamine, EPTC plus R-25788, alachlor, paraquat, butylate, and captan.

  3. Noncoding DNA, Zipf's law, and language.

    PubMed

    Konopka, A K; Martindale, C

    1995-05-12

    In the report "Continent-ocean chemical heterogeneity in the mantle based on seismic tomography" by Alessandro M. Forte et al. (21 Apr., p. 386), note 14 (p. 388) should have included the following sentence at the end. "We note, however, that this classical measure of significance does not take into account the red spectrum of the observed nonhydrostatic geoid, whose harmonic coefficients cannot be properly regarded as a random distribution; therefore, the statistical significance of the measured correlation coefficient is possibly less than 99%. PMID:7754361

  4. Cotyledon nuclear proteins bind to DNA fragments harboring regulatory elements of phytohemagglutinin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, C D; Voelker, T A; Chrispeels, M J

    1989-01-01

    The effects of deleting DNA sequences upstream from the phytohemagglutinin-L gene of Phaseolus vulgaris have been examined with respect to the level of gene product produced in the seeds of transgenic tobacco. Our studies indicate that several upstream regions quantitatively modulate expression. Between -1000 and -675, a negative regulatory element reduces expression approximately threefold relative to shorter deletion mutants that do not contain this region. Positive regulatory elements lie between -550 and -125 and, compared with constructs containing only 125 base pairs of upstream sequences (-125), the presence of these two regions can be correlated with a 25-fold and a 200-fold enhancement of phytohemagglutinin-L levels. These experiments were complemented by gel retardation assays, which demonstrated that two of the three regions bind cotyledon nuclear proteins from mid-mature seeds. One of the binding sites maps near a DNA sequence that is highly homologous to protein binding domains located upstream from the soybean seed lectin and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor genes. Competition experiments demonstrated that the upstream regions of a bean beta-phaseolin gene, the soybean seed lectin gene, and an oligonucleotide from the upstream region of the trypsin inhibitor gene can compete differentially for factor binding. We suggest that these legume genes may be regulated in part by evolutionarily conserved protein/DNA interactions. PMID:2535513

  5. Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Immunology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunology is the study of interaction between cancer cells and immune system by the application of immunology principle and theory. With the recent approval of several new drugs targeting immune checkpoints in cancer, cancer immunology has become a very attractive field of research and is thought to be the new hope to conquer cancer. This chapter introduces the aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, in tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and their significance in tumor immunity. It also illustrates how noncoding RNAs are shuttled between tumor cells and immune cells in tumor microenvironments via exosomes or other microvesicles to modulate tumor immunity. PMID:27376738

  6. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element against Atrazine

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ryan M.; Crihfield, Cassandra L.; Gattu, Srikanth; Holland, Lisa A.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine, has led to serious environmental and human health consequences. Current methods of detecting atrazine contamination are neither rapid nor cost-effective. In this work, atrazine-specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecular recognition elements (MRE) were isolated. We utilized a stringent Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) methodology that placed the greatest emphasis on what the MRE should not bind to. After twelve rounds of SELEX, an atrazine-specific MRE with high affinity was obtained. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the ssDNA sequence is 0.62 ± 0.21 nM. It also has significant selectivity for atrazine over atrazine metabolites and other pesticides found in environmentally similar locations and concentrations. Furthermore, we have detected environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations in river water using this MRE. The strong affinity and selectivity of the selected atrazine-specific ssDNA validated the stringent SELEX methodology and identified a MRE that will be useful for rapid atrazine detection in environmental samples. PMID:25196435

  7. DANIO-CODE: Toward an Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish has emerged as a model organism for genomics studies. The symposium “Toward an encyclopedia of DNA elements in zebrafish” held in London in December 2014, was coorganized by Ferenc Müller and Fiona Wardle. This meeting is a follow-up of a similar previous workshop held 2 years earlier and represents a push toward the formalization of a community effort to annotate functional elements in the zebrafish genome. The meeting brought together zebrafish researchers, bioinformaticians, as well as members of established consortia, to exchange scientific findings and experience, as well as to discuss the initial steps toward the formation of a DANIO-CODE consortium. In this study, we provide the latest updates on the current progress of the consortium's efforts, opening up a broad invitation to researchers to join in and contribute to DANIO-CODE. PMID:26671609

  8. Retrotransposon-associated long non-coding RNAs in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Sravya; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Over a half of mammalian genomes is occupied by repetitive elements whose ability to provide functional sequences, move into new locations, and recombine underlies the so-called genome plasticity. At the same time, mobile elements exemplify selfish DNA, which is expanding in the genome at the expense of the host. The selfish generosity of mobile genetic elements is in the center of research interest as it offers insights into mechanisms underlying evolution and emergence of new genes. In terms of numbers, with over 20,000 in count, protein-coding genes make an outstanding >2 % minority. This number is exceeded by an ever-growing list of genes producing long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which do not encode for proteins. LncRNAs are a dynamically evolving population of genes. While it is not yet clear what fraction of lncRNAs represents functionally important ones, their features imply that many lncRNAs emerge at random as new non-functional elements whose functionality is acquired through natural selection. Here, we explore the intersection of worlds of mobile genetic elements (particularly retrotransposons) and lncRNAs. In addition to summarizing essential features of mobile elements and lncRNAs, we focus on how retrotransposons contribute to lncRNA evolution, structure, and function in mammals. PMID:27044413

  9. Regulation of Transcription by Long Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Bonasio, Roberto; Shiekhattar, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a greater understanding of genomic complexity in eukaryotes ushered in by the immense technological advances in high-throughput sequencing of DNA and its corresponding RNA transcripts. This has resulted in the realization that beyond protein-coding genes, there are a large number of transcripts that do not encode for proteins and, therefore, may perform their function through RNA sequences and/or through secondary and tertiary structural determinants. This review is focused on the latest findings on a class of noncoding RNAs that are relatively large (>200 nucleotides), display nuclear localization, and use different strategies to regulate transcription. These are exciting times for discovering the biological scope and the mechanism of action for these RNA molecules, which have roles in dosage compensation, imprinting, enhancer function, and transcriptional regulation, with a great impact on development and disease. PMID:25251851

  10. Long noncoding RNAs in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in immune cell development and immune responses through different mechanisms, such as dosage compensation, imprinting, enhancer function, and transcriptional regulation. Although the functions of most lncRNAs are unclear, some lncRNAs have been found to control transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses via new methods of protein–protein interactions or pairing with DNA and RNA. Interestingly, increasing evidence has elucidated the importance of lncRNAs in the interaction between hosts and pathogens. In this review, an overview of the lncRNAs modes of action, as well as the important and diversified roles of lncRNAs in immunity, are provided, and an emerging paradigm of lncRNAs in regulating innate immune responses is highlighted. PMID:26277893

  11. Noncoding RNAs in Endocrine Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kentwell, Jessica; Gundara, Justin S.

    2014-01-01

    Only recently has it been uncovered that the mammalian transcriptome includes a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. Among numerous kinds of ncRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs, have been extensively investigated with regard to their biogenesis, function, and importance in carcinogenesis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have only recently been implicated in playing a key regulatory role in cancer biology. The deregulation of ncRNAs has been demonstrated to have important roles in the regulation and progression of cancer development. In this review, we describe the roles of both short noncoding RNAs (including microRNAs, small nuclear RNAs, and piwi-interacting RNAs) and lncRNAs in carcinogenesis and outline the possible underlying genetic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on clinical applications. The focus of our review includes studies from the literature on ncRNAs in traditional endocrine-related cancers, including thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine malignancies. The current and potential future applications of ncRNAs in clinical cancer research is also discussed, with emphasis on diagnosis and future treatment. PMID:24718512

  12. Conserved Noncoding Sequences Highlight Shared Components of Regulatory Networks in Dicotyledonous Plants[W

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Laura; Jironkin, Aleksey; Hickman, Richard; Moore, Jay; Barrington, Christopher; Krusche, Peter; Dyer, Nigel P.; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Tiskin, Alexander; Beynon, Jim; Denby, Katherine; Ott, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) in DNA are reliable pointers to regulatory elements controlling gene expression. Using a comparative genomics approach with four dicotyledonous plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, papaya [Carica papaya], poplar [Populus trichocarpa], and grape [Vitis vinifera]), we detected hundreds of CNSs upstream of Arabidopsis genes. Distinct positioning, length, and enrichment for transcription factor binding sites suggest these CNSs play a functional role in transcriptional regulation. The enrichment of transcription factors within the set of genes associated with CNS is consistent with the hypothesis that together they form part of a conserved transcriptional network whose function is to regulate other transcription factors and control development. We identified a set of promoters where regulatory mechanisms are likely to be shared between the model organism Arabidopsis and other dicots, providing areas of focus for further research. PMID:23110901

  13. Transcription factor interactions: Selectors of positive or negative regulation from a single DNA element

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, M.I.; Miner, J.N.; Yoshinaga, S.K.; Yamamoto, K.R. )

    1990-09-14

    The mechanism by which a single factor evokes opposite regulatory effects from a specific DNA sequence is not well understood. In this study, a 25-base pair element that resides upstream of the mouse proliferin gene was examined; it conferred on linked promoters either positive or negative glucocorticoid regulation, depending upon physiological context. This sequence, denoted a composite glucocorticoid response element (GRE), was bound selective in vitro both by the glucocorticoid receptor and by c-Jun and c-Fos, components of the phorbol ester-activated AP-1 transcription factor. Indeed, c-Jun and c-Fos served as selectors of hormone responsiveness: the composite GRE was inactive in the absence of c-Jun, whereas it conferred a positive glucocorticoid effect in the presence of c-Jun, and a negative glucocorticoid effect in the presence of c-Jun and relatively high levels of c-Fos. The receptor also interacted selectively with c-Jun in vitro. A general model for composite GRE action is proposed that invokes both DNA binding and protein-protein interactions by receptor and nonreceptor factors.

  14. Chemical Elemental Distribution and Soil DNA Fingerprints Provide the Critical Evidence in Murder Case Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Concheri, Giuseppe; Bertoldi, Daniela; Polone, Elisa; Otto, Stefan; Larcher, Roberto; Squartini, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background The scientific contribution to the solution of crime cases, or throughout the consequent forensic trials, is a crucial aspect of the justice system. The possibility to extract meaningful information from trace amounts of samples, and to match and validate evidences with robust and unambiguous statistical tests, are the key points of such process. The present report is the authorized disclosure of an investigation, carried out by Attorney General appointment, on a murder case in northern Italy, which yielded the critical supporting evidence for the judicial trial. Methodology/Principal Findings The proportional distribution of 54 chemical elements and the bacterial community DNA fingerprints were used as signature markers to prove the similarity of two soil samples. The first soil was collected on the crime scene, along a corn field, while the second was found in trace amounts on the carpet of a car impounded from the main suspect in a distant location. The matching similarity of the two soils was proven by crossing the results of two independent techniques: a) elemental analysis via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) approaches, and b) amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis by gel electrophoresis (ARDRA). Conclusions Besides introducing the novel application of these methods to forensic disciplines, the highly accurate level of resolution observed, opens new possibilities also in the fields of soil typing and tracking, historical analyses, geochemical surveys and global land mapping. PMID:21674041

  15. An ARS element inhibits DNA replication through a SIR2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Amber; Chang, FuJung; Pappas, Donald L; Frisch, Ryan L; Weinreich, Michael

    2008-04-25

    During G1 phase, a prereplicative complex (pre-RC) that determines where DNA synthesis initiates forms at origins. The Sir2p histone deacetylase inhibits pre-RC assembly at a subset of origins, suggesting that Sir2p inhibits DNA replication through a unique aspect of origin structure. Here, we identified five SIR2-sensitive origins on chromosomes III and VI. Linker scan analysis of two origins indicated that they share a common organization, including an inhibitory sequence positioned 3' to the sites of origin recognition complex (ORC) binding and pre-RC assembly. This inhibitory sequence (I(S)) required SIR2 for its activity, suggesting that SIR2 inhibits origins through this sequence. Furthermore, I(S) elements occurred within positioned nucleosomes, and Abf1p-mediated exclusion of nucleosomes from the origin abrogated the inhibition. These data suggest that Sir2p and I(S) elements inhibit origin activity by promoting an unfavorable chromatin structure for pre-RC assembly. PMID:18439895

  16. Altered Response Hierarchy and Increased T-Cell Breadth upon HIV-1 Conserved Element DNA Vaccination in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Viraj; Valentin, Antonio; Rosati, Margherita; Alicea, Candido; Singh, Ashish K.; Jalah, Rashmi; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Mothe, Beatriz; Brander, Christian; Rolland, Morgane; Mullins, James I.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.

    2014-01-01

    HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24gag elements (CE) induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals, targeting fewer CE per animal. Importantly, boosting CE-primed macaques with DNA expressing full-length p55gag increased both magnitude of CE responses and breadth of Gag immunity, demonstrating alteration of the hierarchy of epitope recognition in the presence of pre-existing CE-specific responses. Inclusion of a conserved element immunogen provides a novel and effective strategy to broaden responses against highly diverse pathogens by avoiding decoy epitopes, while focusing responses to critical viral elements for which few escape pathways exist. PMID:24465991

  17. Altered response hierarchy and increased T-cell breadth upon HIV-1 conserved element DNA vaccination in macaques.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Viraj; Valentin, Antonio; Rosati, Margherita; Alicea, Candido; Singh, Ashish K; Jalah, Rashmi; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Le Gall, Sylvie; Mothe, Beatriz; Brander, Christian; Rolland, Morgane; Mullins, James I; Pavlakis, George N; Felber, Barbara K

    2014-01-01

    HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24(gag) elements (CE) induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals, targeting fewer CE per animal. Importantly, boosting CE-primed macaques with DNA expressing full-length p55(gag) increased both magnitude of CE responses and breadth of Gag immunity, demonstrating alteration of the hierarchy of epitope recognition in the presence of pre-existing CE-specific responses. Inclusion of a conserved element immunogen provides a novel and effective strategy to broaden responses against highly diverse pathogens by avoiding decoy epitopes, while focusing responses to critical viral elements for which few escape pathways exist. PMID:24465991

  18. Noncoding RNA Gas5 Is a Growth Arrest and Starvation-Associated Repressor of the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Tomoshige; Hurt, Darrell E.; Ichijo, Takamasa; Nader, Nancy; Chrousos, George P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of nutrients influences cellular growth and survival by affecting gene transcription. Glucocorticoids also influence gene transcription and have diverse activities on cell growth, energy expenditure, and survival. We found that the growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5) noncoding RNA, which is abundant in cells whose growth has been arrested due to lack of nutrients or growth factors, sensitized cells to apoptosis by suppressing glucocorticoid-mediated induction of several responsive genes, including the one encoding cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2. Gas5 bound to the DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) by acting as a decoy “glucocorticoid response element (GRE)”, thus, competing with DNA GREs for binding to the GR. We conclude that Gas5 is a ribo-repressor of the GR, influencing cell survival and metabolic activities during starvation by modulating the transcriptional activity of the GR. PMID:20124551

  19. GAGA factor binding to DNA via a single trinucleotide sequence element.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, R C; Lis, J T

    1998-01-01

    GAGA transcription factor (GAF) is an essential protein in Drosophila , important for the transcriptional regulation of numerous genes. GAF binds to GA repeats in the promoters of these genes via a DNA-binding domain containing a single zinc finger. While GAF binding sites are typically composed of 3.5 GA repeats, the Drosophila hsp70 gene contains much smaller elements, some of which are as little as three bases (GAG) in length. Interestingly, the binding of GAF to more distant trinucleotide elements is relatively strong and not appreciably affected by the removal of larger GA arrays in the promoter. Moreover, a simple synthetic GAG sequence is sufficient to bind GAF in vitro . Here we directly compare the affinity of GAF for different sequence elements by immunoprecipitation and gel mobility shift analysis. Furthermore, our measures of the concentration of GAF in vivo indicate that it is a highly abundant nuclear protein, prevalent enough to occupy a sizable fraction of correspondingly abundant trinucleotide sites. PMID:9592153

  20. The 3' noncoding region of beta-globin mRNA is not essential for in vitro translation.

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, M N; Roberts, B E; Efstratiadis, A

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit beta globin DNA sequence, excised from plasmid pbetaG1, directs in vitro synthesis of beta-globin in a transcription-translation cell-free system, even after specific elimination of the entire 3'-noncoding region. A DNA restriction fragment carrying this 3' noncoding region and hybridized to globin mRNA cannot arrest the cell-free translation of beta-globin mRNA. Images PMID:424286

  1. A Collection of Conserved Noncoding Sequences to Study Gene Regulation in Flowering Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding cis-regulatory elements, of which the identification remains an ongoing challenge owing to the prevalence of large numbers of nonfunctional TF binding sites. Powerful comparative genomics methods, such as phylogenetic footprinting, can be used for the detection of conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs), which are functionally constrained and can greatly help in reducing the number of false-positive elements. In this study, we applied a phylogenetic footprinting approach for the identification of CNSs in 10 dicot plants, yielding 1,032,291 CNSs associated with 243,187 genes. To annotate CNSs with TF binding sites, we made use of binding site information for 642 TFs originating from 35 TF families in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In three species, the identified CNSs were evaluated using TF chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data, resulting in significant overlap for the majority of data sets. To identify ultraconserved CNSs, we included genomes of additional plant families and identified 715 binding sites for 501 genes conserved in dicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. Additionally, we found that genes that are part of conserved mini-regulons have a higher coherence in their expression profile than other divergent gene pairs. All identified CNSs were integrated in the PLAZA 3.0 Dicots comparative genomics platform (http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/versions/plaza_v3_dicots/) together with new functionalities facilitating the exploration of conserved cis-regulatory elements and their associated genes. The availability of this data set in a user-friendly platform enables the exploration of functional noncoding DNA to study gene regulation in a variety of plant species, including crops. PMID:27261064

  2. A Collection of Conserved Noncoding Sequences to Study Gene Regulation in Flowering Plants.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Jan; Van Bel, Michiel; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Vandepoele, Klaas

    2016-08-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding cis-regulatory elements, of which the identification remains an ongoing challenge owing to the prevalence of large numbers of nonfunctional TF binding sites. Powerful comparative genomics methods, such as phylogenetic footprinting, can be used for the detection of conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs), which are functionally constrained and can greatly help in reducing the number of false-positive elements. In this study, we applied a phylogenetic footprinting approach for the identification of CNSs in 10 dicot plants, yielding 1,032,291 CNSs associated with 243,187 genes. To annotate CNSs with TF binding sites, we made use of binding site information for 642 TFs originating from 35 TF families in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In three species, the identified CNSs were evaluated using TF chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data, resulting in significant overlap for the majority of data sets. To identify ultraconserved CNSs, we included genomes of additional plant families and identified 715 binding sites for 501 genes conserved in dicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. Additionally, we found that genes that are part of conserved mini-regulons have a higher coherence in their expression profile than other divergent gene pairs. All identified CNSs were integrated in the PLAZA 3.0 Dicots comparative genomics platform (http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/versions/plaza_v3_dicots/) together with new functionalities facilitating the exploration of conserved cis-regulatory elements and their associated genes. The availability of this data set in a user-friendly platform enables the exploration of functional noncoding DNA to study gene regulation in a variety of plant species, including crops. PMID:27261064

  3. Noncoding RNAs in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Wolfson, Benjamin; Zhou, Xipeng; Duru, Nadire; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Zhou, Qun

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian transcriptome has recently been revealed to encompass a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the best studied of the short noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), have been extensively characterized with regard to their biogenesis, function and importance in tumorigenesis. Another class of sncRNAs called piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) has also gained attention recently in cancer research owing to their critical role in stem cell regulation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of >200 nucleotides in length have recently emerged as key regulators of developmental processes, including mammary gland development. lncRNA dysregulation has also been implicated in the development of various cancers, including breast cancer. In this review, we describe and discuss the roles of sncRNAs (including miRNAs and piRNAs) and lncRNAs in the initiation and progression of breast tumorigenesis, with a focus on outlining the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic and tumor-suppressor ncRNAs. Moreover, the current and potential future applications of ncRNAs to clinical breast cancer research are also discussed, with an emphasis on ncRNA-based diagnosis, prognosis and future therapeutics. PMID:26685283

  4. Close sequence comparisons are sufficient to identify human cis-regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Shyam; Poulin, Francis; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A

    2006-07-01

    Cross-species DNA sequence comparison is the primary method used to identify functional noncoding elements in human and other large genomes. However, little is known about the relative merits of evolutionarily close and distant sequence comparisons. To address this problem, we identified evolutionarily conserved noncoding regions in primate, mammalian, and more distant comparisons using a uniform approach (Gumby) that facilitates unbiased assessment of the impact of evolutionary distance on predictive power. We benchmarked computational predictions against previously identified cis-regulatory elements at diverse genomic loci and also tested numerous extremely conserved human-rodent sequences for transcriptional enhancer activity using an in vivo enhancer assay in transgenic mice. Human regulatory elements were identified with acceptable sensitivity (53%-80%) and true-positive rate (27%-67%) by comparison with one to five other eutherian mammals or six other simian primates. More distant comparisons (marsupial, avian, amphibian, and fish) failed to identify many of the empirically defined functional noncoding elements. Our results highlight the practical utility of close sequence comparisons, and the loss of sensitivity entailed by more distant comparisons. We derived an intuitive relationship between ancient and recent noncoding sequence conservation from whole-genome comparative analysis that explains most of the observations from empirical benchmarking. Lastly, we determined that, in addition to strength of conservation, genomic location and/or density of surrounding conserved elements must also be considered in selecting candidate enhancers for in vivo testing at embryonic time points. PMID:16769978

  5. A novel transcriptional element in circular DNA monomers of the duck hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Beckel-Mitchener, A; Summers, J

    1997-10-01

    We report the presence of two elements, pet and net, that are required for proper transcription of the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). These regions were previously identified by using plasmid clones of the virus in transient expression assays (M. Huang and J. Summers, J. Virol. 68:1564-1572, 1994). In this study, we further analyzed these regions by using in vitro-synthesized circular DHBV DNA monomers to mimic the authentic transcriptional template. We observed that pet was required for pregenome transcription from circular viral monomers, and in the absence of pet-dependent transcription, expression of the viral envelope genes was increased. We found that deletion of net in circularized DNA monomers led to the production of abnormally long transcripts due to a failure to form 3' ends during transcription. In addition, we report the presence of a net-like region in the mammalian hepadnavirus woodchuck hepatitis virus. These results are consistent with a model that net is a region involved in transcription termination and that in DHBV, pet is required for transcription complexes to read through this region during the first pass through net. PMID:9311882

  6. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that the 180-bp satellite repeat is the key functional DNA element of Arabidopsis thaliana centromeres.

    PubMed Central

    Nagaki, Kiyotaka; Talbert, Paul B; Zhong, Cathy Xiaoyan; Dawe, R Kelly; Henikoff, Steven; Jiang, Jiming

    2003-01-01

    The centromeres of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosomes contain megabases of complex DNA consisting of numerous types of repetitive DNA elements. We developed a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique using an antibody against the centromeric H3 histone, HTR12, in Arabidopsis. ChIP assays showed that the 180-bp centromeric satellite repeat was precipitated with the antibody, suggesting that this repeat is the key component of the centromere/kinetochore complex in Arabidopsis. PMID:12663558

  7. Sequence, Genomic Distribution and DNA Modification of a Mu1 Element from Non-Mutator Maize Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, V. L.; Talbert, L. E.; Raymond, F.

    1988-01-01

    The increased mutation rate of Mutator stocks of maize has been shown to be the result of transposition of Mu elements. One element, Mu1, is present in 10-60 copies in Mutator stocks and approximately 0-3 copies in non-Mutator stocks. The sequence, structure and genomic distribution of an intact Mu1 element cloned from the non-Mutator inbred line B37 has been determined. The sequence of this element, termed Mu1.4-B37, is identical to Mu1 and it is flanked by 9-bp direct repeats indicative of a target site duplication. Mu1.4-B37 is not in the same genomic location in all stocks, which further suggests that it transposed into its genomic location in B37. We previously reported that in genomic DNA this element is modified such that certain methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes will not cut sites within the element. This is similar to that observed for Mu elements in Mutator stocks that have lost activity. We report herein that the Mu1.4-B37 element loses its modification and becomes accessible to digestion when placed in an active Mutator stock by genetic crosses. This suggests that factors conditioning unmodified elements are dominant in the initial cross between Mutator and non-Mutator stocks. In F(2) individuals that have subsequently lost Mutator activity the Mu1.4-B37 element again becomes modified as do most of the Mu elements in the stock. Thus, the modification state of the Mu1.4-B37 element and the other Mu1-like elements correlates with Mutator activity. We hypothesize that factor(s) within an active Mutator stock may inhibit the modification of Mu elements, and that this activity is missing in non-Mutator stocks and may become limiting in certain Mutator stocks resulting in DNA modification. PMID:2842229

  8. Turnover of R1 (Type I) and R2 (Type Ii) Retrotransposable Elements in the Ribosomal DNA of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczak, J. L.; Zenni, M. K.; Woodruff, R. C.; Eickbush, T. H.

    1992-01-01

    R1 and R2 are distantly related non-long terminal repeat retrotransposable elements each of which inserts into a specific site in the 28S rRNA genes of most insects. We have analyzed aspects of R1 and R2 abundance and sequence variation in 27 geographical isolates of Drosophila melanogaster. The fraction of 28S rRNA genes containing these elements varied greatly between strains, 17-67% for R1 elements and 2-28% for R2 elements. The total percentage of the rDNA repeats inserted ranged from 32 to 77%. The fraction of the rDNA repeats that contained both of these elements suggested that R1 and R2 exhibit neither an inhibition of nor preference for insertion into a 28S gene already containing the other type of element. Based on the conservation of restriction sites in the elements of all strains, and sequence analysis of individual elements from three strains, nucleotide divergence is very low for R1 and R2 elements within or between strains (<0.6%). This sequence uniformity is the expected result of the forces of concerted evolution (unequal crossovers and gene conversion) which act on the rRNA genes themselves. Evidence for the role of retrotransposition in the turnover of R1 and R2 was obtained by using naturally occurring 5' length polymorphisms of the elements as markers for independent transposition events. The pattern of these different length 5' truncations of R1 and R2 was found to be diverse and unique to most strains analyzed. Because recombination can only, with time, amplify or eliminate those length variants already present, the diversity found in each strain suggests that retrotransposition has played a critical role in maintaining these elements in the rDNA repeats of D. melanogaster. PMID:1317313

  9. Noncoding origins of anthropoid traits and a new null model of transposon functionalization

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario, Ricardo C.H.; Rayan, Nirmala Arul

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about novel genetic elements that drove the emergence of anthropoid primates. We exploited the sequencing of the marmoset genome to identify 23,849 anthropoid-specific constrained (ASC) regions and confirmed their robust functional signatures. Of the ASC base pairs, 99.7% were noncoding, suggesting that novel anthropoid functional elements were overwhelmingly cis-regulatory. ASCs were highly enriched in loci associated with fetal brain development, motor coordination, neurotransmission, and vision, thus providing a large set of candidate elements for exploring the molecular basis of hallmark primate traits. We validated ASC192 as a primate-specific enhancer in proliferative zones of the developing brain. Unexpectedly, transposable elements (TEs) contributed to >56% of ASCs, and almost all TE families showed functional potential similar to that of nonrepetitive DNA. Three L1PA repeat-derived ASCs displayed coherent eye-enhancer function, thus demonstrating that the “gene-battery” model of TE functionalization applies to enhancers in vivo. Our study provides fundamental insights into genome evolution and the origins of anthropoid phenotypes and supports an elegantly simple new null model of TE exaptation. PMID:25043600

  10. Noncoding origins of anthropoid traits and a new null model of transposon functionalization.

    PubMed

    del Rosario, Ricardo C H; Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about novel genetic elements that drove the emergence of anthropoid primates. We exploited the sequencing of the marmoset genome to identify 23,849 anthropoid-specific constrained (ASC) regions and confirmed their robust functional signatures. Of the ASC base pairs, 99.7% were noncoding, suggesting that novel anthropoid functional elements were overwhelmingly cis-regulatory. ASCs were highly enriched in loci associated with fetal brain development, motor coordination, neurotransmission, and vision, thus providing a large set of candidate elements for exploring the molecular basis of hallmark primate traits. We validated ASC192 as a primate-specific enhancer in proliferative zones of the developing brain. Unexpectedly, transposable elements (TEs) contributed to >56% of ASCs, and almost all TE families showed functional potential similar to that of nonrepetitive DNA. Three L1PA repeat-derived ASCs displayed coherent eye-enhancer function, thus demonstrating that the "gene-battery" model of TE functionalization applies to enhancers in vivo. Our study provides fundamental insights into genome evolution and the origins of anthropoid phenotypes and supports an elegantly simple new null model of TE exaptation. PMID:25043600

  11. A Molecular Chipper technology for CRISPR sgRNA library generation and functional mapping of noncoding regions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jijun; Roden, Christine A.; Pan, Wen; Zhu, Shu; Baccei, Anna; Pan, Xinghua; Jiang, Tingting; Kluger, Yuval; Weissman, Sherman M.; Guo, Shangqin; Flavell, Richard A.; Ding, Ye; Lu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Clustered regularly-interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genetic screens using single-guide-RNA (sgRNA) libraries have proven powerful to identify genetic regulators. Applying CRISPR screens to interrogate functional elements in noncoding regions requires generating sgRNA libraries that are densely covering, and ideally inexpensive, easy to implement and flexible for customization. Here we present a Molecular Chipper technology for generating dense sgRNA libraries for genomic regions of interest, and a proof-of-principle screen that identifies novel cis-regulatory domains for miR-142 biogenesis. The Molecular Chipper approach utilizes a combination of random fragmentation and a type III restriction enzyme to derive a densely covering sgRNA library from input DNA. Applying this approach to 17 microRNAs and their flanking regions and with a reporter for miR-142 activity, we identify both the pre-miR-142 region and two previously unrecognized cis-domains important for miR-142 biogenesis, with the latter regulating miR-142 processing. This strategy will be useful for identifying functional noncoding elements in mammalian genomes. PMID:27025950

  12. sup 1 H NMR studies of DNA recognition by the glucocorticoid receptor: Complex of the DNA binding domain with a half-site response element

    SciTech Connect

    Remerowski, M.L.; Kellenbach, E.; Boelens, R.; Kaptein, R. ); van der Marel, G.A.; van Boom, J.H. ); Maler, B.A.; Yamamoto, K.R. )

    1991-12-17

    The complex of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA binding domain (DBD) and half-site sequence of the consensus glucocorticoid response element (GRE) has been studied by two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The DNA fragment is a 10 base-pair oligonucleotide, 5{prime}d(GCTGTTCTGC)3{prime}{center dot}5{prime}d-(GCAGAACAGC)3{prime}, containing the stronger binding GRE half-site hexamer, with GC base pairs at each end. The 93-residue GR-DBD contains an 86-residue segment corresponding to residues 440-525 of the rat GR. Eleven NOE cross peaks between the protein and DNA have been identified, and changes in the chemical shift of the DNA protons upon complex formation have been analyzed. Using these protein-DNA contact points, it can be concluded that (1) the 'recognition helix' formed by residues C460-E469 lies in the major groove of the DNA; (2) the GR-DBD is oriented on the GRE half-site such that residues A477-D481, forming the so-called D-loop, are available for protein-protein interaction in the GR-DBD dimer on the intact consensus GRE; and (3) the 5-methyl of the second thymine in the half-site and valine 462 interact, confirming indirect evidence that both play an important role in GR-DBD DNA binding.

  13. Identification and analysis of mouse non-coding RNA using transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhui; Liu, Wanfei; Zeng, Jingyao; Liu, Shoucheng; Tan, Xinyu; Aljohi, Hasanawad; Hu, Songnian

    2016-06-01

    Transcripts are expressed spatially and temporally and they are very complicated, precise and specific; however, most studies are focused on protein-coding related genes. Recently, massively parallel cDNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged to be a new and promising tool for transcriptome research, and numbers of non-coding RNAs, especially lincRNAs, have been widely identified and well characterized as important regulators of diverse biological processes. In this study, we used ultra-deep RNA-seq data from 15 mouse tissues to study the diversity and dynamic of non-coding RNAs in mouse. Using our own criteria, we identified totally 16,249 non-coding genes (21,569 non-coding RNAs) in mouse. We annotated these non-coding RNAs by diverse properties and found non-coding RNAs are generally shorter, have fewer exons, express in lower level and are more strikingly tissue-specific compared with protein-coding genes. Moreover, these non-coding RNAs show significant enrichment with transcriptional initiation and elongation signals including histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3), RNAPII binding sites and CAGE tags. The gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) result revealed several sets of lincRNAs associated with diverse biological processes such as immune effector process, muscle development and sexual reproduction. Taken together, this study provides a more comprehensive annotation of mouse non-coding RNAs and gives an opportunity for future functional and evolutionary study of mouse non-coding RNAs. PMID:26944582

  14. RNA exosome regulated long non-coding RNA transcription controls super-enhancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Pefanis, Evangelos; Wang, Jiguang; Rothschild, Gerson; Lim, Junghyun; Kazadi, David; Sun, Jianbo; Federation, Alexander; Chao, Jaime; Elliott, Oliver; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Economides, Aris N.; Bradner, James E.; Rabadan, Raul; Basu, Uttiya

    2015-01-01

    We have ablated the cellular RNA degradation machinery in differentiated B cells and pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells by conditional mutagenesis of core (Exosc3) and nuclear RNase (Exosc10) components of RNA exosome and identified a vast number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) with emergent functionality. Unexpectedly, eRNA-expressing regions accumulate R-loop structures upon RNA exosome ablation, thus demonstrating the role of RNA exosome in resolving deleterious DNA/RNA hybrids arising from active enhancers. We have uncovered a distal divergent eRNA-expressing element (lncRNA-CSR) engaged in long-range DNA interactions and regulating IgH 3’ regulatory region super-enhancer function. CRISPRCas9 mediated ablation of lncRNA-CSR transcription decreases its chromosomal looping-mediated association with the IgH 3’regulatory region super-enhancer and leads to decreased class switch recombination efficiency. We propose that the RNA exosome protects divergently transcribed lncRNA expressing enhancers, by resolving deleterious transcription-coupled secondary DNA structures, while also regulating long-range super-enhancer chromosomal interactions important for cellular function. PMID:25957685

  15. RNA exosome-regulated long non-coding RNA transcription controls super-enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Pefanis, Evangelos; Wang, Jiguang; Rothschild, Gerson; Lim, Junghyun; Kazadi, David; Sun, Jianbo; Federation, Alexander; Chao, Jaime; Elliott, Oliver; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Economides, Aris N; Bradner, James E; Rabadan, Raul; Basu, Uttiya

    2015-05-01

    We have ablated the cellular RNA degradation machinery in differentiated B cells and pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by conditional mutagenesis of core (Exosc3) and nuclear RNase (Exosc10) components of RNA exosome and identified a vast number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) with emergent functionality. Unexpectedly, eRNA-expressing regions accumulate R-loop structures upon RNA exosome ablation, thus demonstrating the role of RNA exosome in resolving deleterious DNA/RNA hybrids arising from active enhancers. We have uncovered a distal divergent eRNA-expressing element (lncRNA-CSR) engaged in long-range DNA interactions and regulating IgH 3' regulatory region super-enhancer function. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated ablation of lncRNA-CSR transcription decreases its chromosomal looping-mediated association with the IgH 3' regulatory region super-enhancer and leads to decreased class switch recombination efficiency. We propose that the RNA exosome protects divergently transcribed lncRNA expressing enhancers by resolving deleterious transcription-coupled secondary DNA structures, while also regulating long-range super-enhancer chromosomal interactions important for cellular function. PMID:25957685

  16. Retrotransposable elements R1 and R2 in the rDNA units of Drosophila mercatorum: abnormal abdomen revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, H S; Eickbush, T H

    1999-01-01

    R1 and R2 retrotransposable elements are stable components of the 28S rRNA genes of arthropods. While each retrotransposition event leads to incremental losses of rDNA unit expression, little is known about the selective consequences of these elements on the host genome. Previous reports suggested that in the abnormal abdomen (aa) phenotype of Drosophila mercatorum, high levels of rDNA insertions (R1) in conjunction with the under-replication locus (ur), enable the utilization of different ecological conditions via a population level shift to younger age. We have sequenced the R1 and R2 elements of D. mercatorum and show that the levels of R1- and R2-inserted rDNA units were inaccurately scored in the original studies of aa, leading to several misinterpretations. In particular, contrary to earlier reports, aa flies differentially underreplicate R1- and R2-inserted rDNA units, like other species of Drosophila. However, aa flies do not undergo the lower level of underreplication of their functional rDNA units (general underreplication) that is seen in wild-type strains. The lack of general underreplication is expected to confer a selective advantage and, thus, can be interpreted as an adaptation to overcome high levels of R1 and R2 insertions. These results allow us to reconcile some of the apparently contradictory effects of aa and the bobbed phenotype found in other species of Drosophila. PMID:9927458

  17. Dynamics of R1 and R2 elements in the rDNA locus of Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, C E; Eickbush, T H

    2001-01-01

    The mobile elements R1 and R2 insert specifically into the rRNA gene locus (rDNA locus) of arthropods, a locus known to undergo concerted evolution, the recombinational processes that preserve the sequence homogeneity of all repeats. To monitor how rapidly individual R1 and R2 insertions are turned over in the rDNA locus by these processes, we have taken advantage of the many 5' truncation variants that are generated during the target-primed reverse transcription mechanism used by these non-LTR retrotransposons for their integration. A simple PCR assay was designed to reveal the pattern of the 5' variants present in the rDNA loci of individual X chromosomes in a population of Drosophila simulans. Each rDNA locus in this population was found to have a large, unique collection of 5' variants. Each variant was present at low copy number, usually one copy per chromosome, and was seldom distributed to other chromosomes in the population. The failure of these variants to spread to other units in the same rDNA locus suggests a strong recombinational bias against R1 and R2 that results in the individual copies of these elements being rapidly lost from the rDNA locus. This bias suggests a significantly higher frequency of R1 and R2 retrotransposition than we have previously suggested. PMID:11514447

  18. HIV-1 p24(gag) derived conserved element DNA vaccine increases the breadth of immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Viraj; Rosati, Margherita; Valentin, Antonio; Ganneru, Brunda; Singh, Ashish K; Yan, Jian; Rolland, Morgane; Alicea, Candido; Beach, Rachel Kelly; Zhang, Gen-Mu; Le Gall, Sylvie; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Heckerman, David; Mothe, Beatriz; Brander, Christian; Weiner, David B; Mullins, James I; Pavlakis, George N; Felber, Barbara K

    2013-01-01

    Viral diversity is considered a major impediment to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Despite this diversity, certain protein segments are nearly invariant across the known HIV-1 Group M sequences. We developed immunogens based on the highly conserved elements from the p24(gag) region according to two principles: the immunogen must (i) include strictly conserved elements of the virus that cannot mutate readily, and (ii) exclude both HIV regions capable of mutating without limiting virus viability, and also immunodominant epitopes located in variable regions. We engineered two HIV-1 p24(gag) DNA immunogens that express 7 highly Conserved Elements (CE) of 12-24 amino acids in length and differ by only 1 amino acid in each CE ('toggle site'), together covering >99% of the HIV-1 Group M sequences. Altering intracellular trafficking of the immunogens changed protein localization, stability, and also the nature of elicited immune responses. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with p55(gag) DNA induced poor, CD4(+) mediated cellular responses, to only 2 of the 7 CE; in contrast, vaccination with p24CE DNA induced cross-clade reactive, robust T cell responses to 4 of the 7 CE. The responses were multifunctional and composed of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with mature cytotoxic phenotype. These findings provide a method to increase immune response to universally conserved Gag epitopes, using the p24CE immunogen. p24CE DNA vaccination induced humoral immune responses similar in magnitude to those induced by p55(gag), which recognize the virus encoded p24(gag) protein. The inclusion of DNA immunogens composed of conserved elements is a promising vaccine strategy to induce broader immunity by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to additional regions of Gag compared to vaccination with p55(gag) DNA, achieving maximal cross-clade reactive cellular and humoral responses. PMID:23555935

  19. Alteration of C-MYB DNA binding to cognate responsive elements in HL-60 variant cells

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, C; Le Rouzic, E; Créminon, C; Perbal, B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To establish whether the MYB protein expressed in HL-60 variant cells, which are cells resistant to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced differentiation, is able to bind MYB recognition elements (MREs) involved in the transcriptional regulation of myb target genes. In addition, to determine whether alterations in the binding of the MYB protein to MREs affects HL-60 cell proliferation and differentiation. Methods: Nuclear extracts of HL-60 variant cells exhibiting different degrees of resistance to TPA induced monocytic differentiation were used in electrophoretic mobility shift experiments (EMSAs), bandshift experiments performed with labelled oliogonucleotides containing the MYB consensus binding sequences. Results: The MYB protein contained in nuclear extracts from HL-60 variant cells did not bind efficiently to the MYB recognition elements identified in the mim-1 and PR264 promoters. Molecular cloning of the myb gene and analysis of the MYB protein expressed in the HL-60 variant cells established that the lack of binding did not result from a structural alteration of MYB in these cells. The lack of MRE binding did not abrogate the ability of variant HL-60s to proliferate and to undergo differentiation. Furthermore, the expression of the PR264/SC35 splicing factor was not affected as a result of the altered MYB DNA binding activity. Conclusions: Because the MYB protein expressed in HL-60 variant cells did not appear to be structurally different from the MYB protein expressed in parental HL-60 cells, it is possible that the HL-60 variant cells contain a MYB binding inhibitory factor (MBIF) that interferes with MYB binding on MREs. The increased proliferation rate of HL-60 variant cells and their reduced serum requirement argues against the need for direct MYB binding in the regulation of cell growth. PMID:12354938

  20. Efficient inversions and duplications of mammalian regulatory DNA elements and gene clusters by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhuan; Shou, Jia; Guo, Ya; Tang, Yuanxiao; Wu, Yonghu; Jia, Zhilian; Zhai, Yanan; Chen, Zhifeng; Xu, Quan; Wu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The human genome contains millions of DNA regulatory elements and a large number of gene clusters, most of which have not been tested experimentally. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) programed with a synthetic single-guide RNA (sgRNA) emerges as a method for genome editing in virtually any organisms. Here we report that targeted DNA fragment inversions and duplications could easily be achieved in human and mouse genomes by CRISPR with two sgRNAs. Specifically, we found that, in cultured human cells and mice, efficient precise inversions of DNA fragments ranging in size from a few tens of bp to hundreds of kb could be generated. In addition, DNA fragment duplications and deletions could also be generated by CRISPR through trans-allelic recombination between the Cas9-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) on two homologous chromosomes (chromatids). Moreover, junctions of combinatorial inversions and duplications of the protocadherin (Pcdh) gene clusters induced by Cas9 with four sgRNAs could be detected. In mice, we obtained founders with alleles of precise inversions, duplications, and deletions of DNA fragments of variable sizes by CRISPR. Interestingly, we found that very efficient inversions were mediated by microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) through short inverted repeats. We showed for the first time that DNA fragment inversions could be transmitted through germlines in mice. Finally, we applied this CRISPR method to a regulatory element of the Pcdhα cluster and found a new role in the regulation of members of the Pcdhγ cluster. This simple and efficient method should be useful in manipulating mammalian genomes to study millions of regulatory DNA elements as well as vast numbers of gene clusters. PMID:25757625

  1. Efficient inversions and duplications of mammalian regulatory DNA elements and gene clusters by CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhuan; Shou, Jia; Guo, Ya; Tang, Yuanxiao; Wu, Yonghu; Jia, Zhilian; Zhai, Yanan; Chen, Zhifeng; Xu, Quan; Wu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The human genome contains millions of DNA regulatory elements and a large number of gene clusters, most of which have not been tested experimentally. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) programed with a synthetic single-guide RNA (sgRNA) emerges as a method for genome editing in virtually any organisms. Here we report that targeted DNA fragment inversions and duplications could easily be achieved in human and mouse genomes by CRISPR with two sgRNAs. Specifically, we found that, in cultured human cells and mice, efficient precise inversions of DNA fragments ranging in size from a few tens of bp to hundreds of kb could be generated. In addition, DNA fragment duplications and deletions could also be generated by CRISPR through trans-allelic recombination between the Cas9-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) on two homologous chromosomes (chromatids). Moreover, junctions of combinatorial inversions and duplications of the protocadherin (Pcdh) gene clusters induced by Cas9 with four sgRNAs could be detected. In mice, we obtained founders with alleles of precise inversions, duplications, and deletions of DNA fragments of variable sizes by CRISPR. Interestingly, we found that very efficient inversions were mediated by microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) through short inverted repeats. We showed for the first time that DNA fragment inversions could be transmitted through germlines in mice. Finally, we applied this CRISPR method to a regulatory element of the Pcdhα cluster and found a new role in the regulation of members of the Pcdhγ cluster. This simple and efficient method should be useful in manipulating mammalian genomes to study millions of regulatory DNA elements as well as vast numbers of gene clusters. PMID:25757625

  2. Retroposons do jump: a B2 element recently integrated in an 18S rDNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Oberbäumer, I

    1992-01-01

    Several cDNA clones were isolated from cDNA libraries constructed with mRNA longer than 28S RNA from the murine cell line PYS-2/12. The plasmids have inserts containing 1-1.2 kb of the ribosomal 5' external transcribed spacer followed by nearly 700 nt of sequence for 18S rRNA and ending with a B2 element (retroposon). The cloned sequence differed in a few positions from published ribosomal sequences. The 3' adjacent genomic sequence was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and showed that the B2 element has a poly(A) tail of about 50 nt and is surrounded by perfect direct repeats of 15 nt. Analysis of genomic DNA from several murine cell lines revealed that PYS cells contain at least one copy of 18S RNA with the B2 element which is not present in the genome of other murine cell lines derived from the same teratocarcinoma. Similarly, rRNA transcripts containing the B2 element were only detected in PYS cells. According to the publication dates of the different cell lines, the B2 element must have been integrated into an rRNA transcription unit during the years 1970 through 1974 thus proving that retroposons (SINEs) can still be inserted into the genome in our times. Images PMID:1311830

  3. A novel cis-acting element required for DNA damage-inducible expression of yeast DIN7

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitani, Ayako; Yoshida, Minoru; Ling Feng

    2008-01-04

    Din7 is a DNA damage-inducible mitochondrial nuclease that modulates the stability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. How DIN7 gene expression is regulated, however, has remained largely unclear. Using promoter sequence alignment, we found a highly conserved 19-bp sequence in the promoter regions of DIN7 and NTG1, which encodes an oxidative stress-inducible base-excision-repair enzyme. Deletion of the 19-bp sequence markedly reduced the hydroxyurea (HU)-enhanced DIN7 promoter activity. In addition, nuclear fractions prepared from HU-treated cells were used in in vitro band shift assays to reveal the presence of currently unidentified trans-acting factor(s) that preferentially bound to the 19-bp region. These results suggest that the 19-bp sequence is a novel cis-acting element that is required for the regulation of DIN7 expression in response to HU-induced DNA damage.

  4. An active DNA transposon nDart causing leaf variegation and mutable dwarfism and its related elements in rice.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Kazuo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Takagi, Kyoko; Takahara, Hiroyuki; Qian, Qian; Eun, Chang-Ho; Iida, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    While characterized mutable alleles caused by DNA transposons have been abundant in maize since the discovery of Dissociation conferring variegation by Barbara McClintock, only a few mutable alleles have been described in rice even though the rice genome contains various transposons. Here, we show that a spontaneous mutable virescent allele, pyl-v, is caused by the disruption of the nuclear-coded essential chloroplast protease gene, OsClpP5, due to insertion of a 607-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, non-autonomous DNA-based active rice transposon one (nDart1), belonging to the hAT superfamily. The transposition of nDart1 can be induced by crossing with a line containing an autonomous element, aDart, and stabilized by segregating out of aDart. We also identified a novel mutable dwarf allele thl-m caused by an insertion of nDart1. The japonica cultivar Nipponbare carries no aDart, although it contains epigenetically silenced Dart element(s), which can be activated by 5-azacytidine. Nipponbare bears four subgroups of about 3.6-kb Dart-like sequences, three of which contain potential transposase genes, and around 3.6-kb elements without an apparent transposase gene, as well as three subgroups of about 0.6-kb nDart1-related elements that are all internal deletions of the Dart-like sequences. Both nDart1 and 3.6-kb Dart-like elements were also present in indica varieties 93-11 and Kasalath. nDart1 appears to be the most active mutagen among nDart1-related elements contributing to generating natural variations. A candidate for an autonomous element, aDart, and a possible application of nDart1 for transposon tagging are discussed. PMID:16367953

  5. Identification and characterization of DNA sequences that prevent glucocorticoid receptor binding to nearby response elements.

    PubMed

    Telorac, Jonas; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Schöne, Stefanie; Meierhofer, David; Sauer, Sascha; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2016-07-27

    Out of the myriad of potential DNA binding sites of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) found in the human genome, only a cell-type specific minority is actually bound, indicating that the presence of a recognition sequence alone is insufficient to specify where GR binds. Cooperative interactions with other transcription factors (TFs) are known to contribute to binding specificity. Here, we reasoned that sequence signals preventing GR recruitment to certain loci provide an alternative means to confer specificity. Motif analyses uncovered candidate Negative Regulatory Sequences (NRSs) that interfere with genomic GR binding. Subsequent functional analyses demonstrated that NRSs indeed prevent GR binding to nearby response elements. We show that NRS activity is conserved across species, found in most tissues and that they also interfere with the genomic binding of other TFs. Interestingly, the effects of NRSs appear not to be a simple consequence of changes in chromatin accessibility. Instead, we find that NRSs interact with proteins found at sub-nuclear structures called paraspeckles and that these proteins might mediate the repressive effects of NRSs. Together, our studies suggest that the joint influence of positive and negative sequence signals partition the genome into regions where GR can bind and those where it cannot. PMID:27016732

  6. Development of two highly sensitive forensic sex determination assays based on human DYZ1 and Alu repetitive DNA elements.

    PubMed

    Fazi, Amanda; Gobeski, Brianne; Foran, David

    2014-11-01

    Sex determination is a critical component of forensic identification, the standard genetic method for which is detection of the single copy amelogenin gene that has differing homologues on the X and Y chromosomes. However, this assay may not be sensitive enough when DNA samples are minute or highly compromised, thus other strategies for sex determination are needed. In the current research, two ultrasensitive sexing assays, based on real-time PCR and pyrosequencing, were developed targeting the highly repetitive elements DYZ1 on the Y chromosome and Alu on the autosomes. The DYZ1/Alu strategy was compared to amelogenin for overall sensitivity based on high molecular weight and degraded DNA, followed by assaying the sex of 34 touch DNA samples and DNA from 30 hair shafts. The real-time DYZ1/Alu assay proved to be approximately 1500 times more sensitive than its amelogenin counterpart based on high molecular weight DNA, and even more sensitive when sexing degraded DNA. The pyrosequencing DYZ1/Alu assay correctly sexed 26 of the touch DNAs, compared to six using amelogenin. Hair shaft DNAs showed equally improved sexing results using the DYZ1/Alu assays. Overall, both DYZ1/Alu assays were far more sensitive and accurate than was the amelogenin assay, and thus show great utility for sexing poor quality and low quantity DNA evidence. PMID:25168471

  7. Lead Exposure during Early Human Development and DNA Methylation of Imprinted Gene Regulatory Elements in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Xie, Changchun; Murphy, Susan K.; Skaar, David; Nye, Monica; Vidal, Adriana C.; Cecil, Kim M.; Dietrich, Kim N.; Puga, Alvaro; Jirtle, Randy L.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    30 to 78 months. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that early childhood lead exposure results in sex-dependent and gene-specific DNA methylation differences in the DMRs of PEG3, IGF2/H19, and PLAGL1/HYMAI in adulthood. Citation: Li Y, Xie C, Murphy SK, Skaar D, Nye M, Vidal AC, Cecil KM, Dietrich KN, Puga A, Jirtle RL, Hoyo C. 2016. Lead exposure during early human development and DNA methylation of imprinted gene regulatory elements in adulthood. Environ Health Perspect 124:666–673; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408577 PMID:26115033

  8. Generalized Levy-walk model for DNA nucleotide sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a generalized Levy walk to model fractal landscapes observed in noncoding DNA sequences. We find that this model provides a very close approximation to the empirical data and explains a number of statistical properties of genomic DNA sequences such as the distribution of strand-biased regions (those with an excess of one type of nucleotide) as well as local changes in the slope of the correlation exponent alpha. The generalized Levy-walk model simultaneously accounts for the long-range correlations in noncoding DNA sequences and for the apparently paradoxical finding of long subregions of biased random walks (length lj) within these correlated sequences. In the generalized Levy-walk model, the lj are chosen from a power-law distribution P(lj) varies as lj(-mu). The correlation exponent alpha is related to mu through alpha = 2-mu/2 if 2 < mu < 3. The model is consistent with the finding of "repetitive elements" of variable length interspersed within noncoding DNA.

  9. Close Sequence Comparisons are Sufficient to Identify Humancis-Regulatory Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakar, Shyam; Poulin, Francis; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2005-12-01

    Cross-species DNA sequence comparison is the primary method used to identify functional noncoding elements in human and other large genomes. However, little is known about the relative merits of evolutionarily close and distant sequence comparisons, due to the lack of a universal metric for sequence conservation, and also the paucity of empirically defined benchmark sets of cis-regulatory elements. To address this problem, we developed a general-purpose algorithm (Gumby) that detects slowly-evolving regions in primate, mammalian and more distant comparisons without requiring adjustment of parameters, and ranks conserved elements by P-value using Karlin-Altschul statistics. We benchmarked Gumby predictions against previously identified cis-regulatory elements at diverse genomic loci, and also tested numerous extremely conserved human-rodent sequences for transcriptional enhancer activity using reporter-gene assays in transgenic mice. Human regulatory elements were identified with acceptable sensitivity and specificity by comparison with 1-5 other eutherian mammals or 6 other simian primates. More distant comparisons (marsupial, avian, amphibian and fish) failed to identify many of the empirically defined functional noncoding elements. We derived an intuitive relationship between ancient and recent noncoding sequence conservation from whole genome comparative analysis, which explains some of these findings. Lastly, we determined that, in addition to strength of conservation, genomic location and/or density of surrounding conserved elements must also be considered in selecting candidate enhancers for testing at embryonic time points.

  10. Genetic variation in regulatory DNA elements: the case of OCA2 transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Visser, Mijke; Kayser, Manfred; Grosveld, Frank; Palstra, Robert-Jan

    2014-03-01

    Mutations within the OCA2 gene or the complete absence of the OCA2 protein leads to oculocutaneous albinism type 2. The OCA2 protein plays a central role in melanosome biogenesis, and it is a strong determinant of the eumelanin content in melanocytes. Transcript levels of the OCA2 gene are strongly correlated with pigmentation intensities. Recent studies demonstrated that the transcriptional level of OCA2 is to a large extent determined by the noncoding SNP rs12913832 located 21.5 kb upstream of the OCA2 gene promoter. In this review, we discuss current hypotheses and the available data on the mechanism of OCA2 transcriptional regulation and how this is influenced by genetic variation. Finally, we will explore how future epigenetic studies can be used to advance our insight into the functional biology that connects genetic variation to human pigmentation. PMID:24387780

  11. Noncoding Regulatory RNAs in Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, M; Goodell, M A

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a dynamic process in which blood cells are continuously generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The regulatory mechanisms controlling HSC fate have been studied extensively over the past several decades. Although many protein-coding genes have been shown to regulate hematopoietic differentiation, additional levels of HSC regulation are not well studied. Advances in deep sequencing have revealed many new classes of regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as enhancer RNAs and antisense ncRNAs. Functional analysis of some of these ncRNAs has provided insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate hematopoietic development and disease. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of functional regulatory ncRNAs associated with hematopoietic self-renewal and differentiation, as well as those dysregulated ncRNAs involved in hematologic malignancies. PMID:27137659

  12. Noncoding RNPs of viral origin.

    PubMed

    Steitz, Joan; Borah, Sumit; Cazalla, Demian; Fok, Victor; Lytle, Robin; Mitton-Fry, Rachel; Riley, Kasandra; Samji, Tasleem

    2011-03-01

    Like their host cells, many viruses produce noncoding (nc)RNAs. These show diversity with respect to time of expression during viral infection, length and structure, protein-binding partners and relative abundance compared with their host-cell counterparts. Viruses, with their limited genomic capacity, presumably evolve or acquire ncRNAs only if they selectively enhance the viral life cycle or assist the virus in combating the host's response to infection. Despite much effort, identifying the functions of viral ncRNAs has been extremely challenging. Recent technical advances and enhanced understanding of host-cell ncRNAs promise accelerated insights into the RNA warfare mounted by this fascinating class of RNPs. PMID:20719877

  13. Noncoding RNPs of Viral Origin

    PubMed Central

    Steitz, Joan; Borah, Sumit; Cazalla, Demian; Fok, Victor; Lytle, Robin; Mitton-Fry, Rachel; Riley, Kasandra; Samji, Tasleem

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Like their host cells, many viruses produce noncoding (nc)RNAs. These show diversity with respect to time of expression during viral infection, length and structure, protein-binding partners and relative abundance compared with their host-cell counterparts. Viruses, with their limited genomic capacity, presumably evolve or acquire ncRNAs only if they selectively enhance the viral life cycle or assist the virus in combating the host’s response to infection. Despite much effort, identifying the functions of viral ncRNAs has been extremely challenging. Recent technical advances and enhanced understanding of host-cell ncRNAs promise accelerated insights into the RNA warfare mounted by this fascinating class of RNPs. PMID:20719877

  14. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAH, a small noncoding RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yutaka Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-04

    4.5S RNAH is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAH is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAHin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAH recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAH was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus.

  15. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAh, a small noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yutaka; Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    4.5S RNAh is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAh is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAh-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAhin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAh-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAh recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAh was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. PMID:17971306

  16. Conserved Non-Coding Sequences are Associated with Rates of mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Jacob B.; Feltus, Frank Alex

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state mRNA levels are tightly regulated through a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. The discovery of cis-acting DNA elements that encode these control mechanisms is of high importance. We have investigated the influence of conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs), DNA patterns retained after an ancient whole genome duplication event, on the breadth of gene expression and the rates of mRNA decay in Arabidopsis thaliana. The absence of CNSs near α duplicate genes was associated with a decrease in breadth of gene expression and slower mRNA decay rates while the presence CNSs near α duplicates was associated with an increase in breadth of gene expression and faster mRNA decay rates. The observed difference in mRNA decay rate was fastest in genes with CNSs in both non-transcribed and transcribed regions, albeit through an unknown mechanism. This study supports the notion that some Arabidopsis CNSs regulate the steady-state mRNA levels through post-transcriptional control mechanisms and that CNSs also play a role in controlling the breadth of gene expression. PMID:23675377

  17. Interpreting noncoding genetic variation in complex traits and human disease.

    PubMed

    Ward, Lucas D; Kellis, Manolis

    2012-11-01

    Association studies provide genome-wide information about the genetic basis of complex disease, but medical research has focused primarily on protein-coding variants, owing to the difficulty of interpreting noncoding mutations. This picture has changed with advances in the systematic annotation of functional noncoding elements. Evolutionary conservation, functional genomics, chromatin state, sequence motifs and molecular quantitative trait loci all provide complementary information about the function of noncoding sequences. These functional maps can help with prioritizing variants on risk haplotypes, filtering mutations encountered in the clinic and performing systems-level analyses to reveal processes underlying disease associations. Advances in predictive modeling can enable data-set integration to reveal pathways shared across loci and alleles, and richer regulatory models can guide the search for epistatic interactions. Lastly, new massively parallel reporter experiments can systematically validate regulatory predictions. Ultimately, advances in regulatory and systems genomics can help unleash the value of whole-genome sequencing for personalized genomic risk assessment, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23138309

  18. Analysis of Usp DNA binding domain targeting reveals critical determinants of the ecdysone receptor complex interaction with the response element.

    PubMed

    Grad, I; Niedziela-Majka, A; Kochman, M; Ozyhar, A

    2001-07-01

    The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), directs Drosophila metamorphosis via a heterodimeric receptor formed by two members of the nuclear hormone receptors superfamily, the product of the EcR (EcR) and of the ultraspiracle (Usp) genes. Our previous study [Niedziela-Majka, A., Kochman, M., Ozyhar, A. (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267, 507-519] on EcR and Usp DNA-binding domains (EcRDBD and UspDBD, respectively) suggested that UspDBD may act as a specific anchor that preferentially binds the 5' half-site of the pseudo-palindromic response element from the hsp27 gene promoter and thus locates the heterocomplex in the defined orientation. Here, we analyzed in detail the determinants of the UspDBD interaction with the hsp27 element. The roles of individual amino acids in the putative DNA recognition alpha helix and the roles of the base pairs of the UspDBD target sequence have been probed by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show how the hsp27 element specifies UspDBD binding and thus the polar assembly of the UspDBD/EcRDBD heterocomplex. It is suggested how possible nucleotide deviations within the 5' half-site of the element may be used for the fine-tuning of the 20E-response element specificity and consequently the physiological response. PMID:11432742

  19. Long noncoding RNAs are rarely translated in two human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bánfai, Balázs; Jia, Hui; Khatun, Jainab; Wood, Emily; Risk, Brian; Gundling, William E; Kundaje, Anshul; Gunawardena, Harsha P; Yu, Yanbao; Xie, Ling; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D; Chen, Xian; Bickel, Peter; Giddings, Morgan C; Brown, James B; Lipovich, Leonard

    2012-09-01

    Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project show over 9640 human genome loci classified as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), yet only ~100 have been deeply characterized to determine their role in the cell. To measure the protein-coding output from these RNAs, we jointly analyzed two recent data sets produced in the ENCODE project: tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data mapping expressed peptides to their encoding genomic loci, and RNA-seq data generated by ENCODE in long polyA+ and polyA- fractions in the cell lines K562 and GM12878. We used the machine-learning algorithm RuleFit3 to regress the peptide data against RNA expression data. The most important covariate for predicting translation was, surprisingly, the Cytosol polyA- fraction in both cell lines. LncRNAs are ~13-fold less likely to produce detectable peptides than similar mRNAs, indicating that ~92% of GENCODE v7 lncRNAs are not translated in these two ENCODE cell lines. Intersecting 9640 lncRNA loci with 79,333 peptides yielded 85 unique peptides matching 69 lncRNAs. Most cases were due to a coding transcript misannotated as lncRNA. Two exceptions were an unprocessed pseudogene and a bona fide lncRNA gene, both with open reading frames (ORFs) compromised by upstream stop codons. All potentially translatable lncRNA ORFs had only a single peptide match, indicating low protein abundance and/or false-positive peptide matches. We conclude that with very few exceptions, ribosomes are able to distinguish coding from noncoding transcripts and, hence, that ectopic translation and cryptic mRNAs are rare in the human lncRNAome. PMID:22955977

  20. A conserved MCM single-stranded DNA binding element is essential for replication initiation

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Clifford A; Kang, Sukhyun; Epling, Leslie B; Bell, Stephen P; Enemark, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    The ring-shaped MCM helicase is essential to all phases of DNA replication. The complex loads at replication origins as an inactive double-hexamer encircling duplex DNA. Helicase activation converts this species to two active single hexamers that encircle single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The molecular details of MCM DNA interactions during these events are unknown. We determined the crystal structure of the Pyrococcus furiosus MCM N-terminal domain hexamer bound to ssDNA and define a conserved MCM-ssDNA binding motif (MSSB). Intriguingly, ssDNA binds the MCM ring interior perpendicular to the central channel with defined polarity. In eukaryotes, the MSSB is conserved in several Mcm2-7 subunits, and MSSB mutant combinations in S. cerevisiae Mcm2-7 are not viable. Mutant Mcm2-7 complexes assemble and are recruited to replication origins, but are defective in helicase loading and activation. Our findings identify an important MCM-ssDNA interaction and suggest it functions during helicase activation to select the strand for translocation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01993.001 PMID:24692448

  1. Noncoding RNAs: Emerging Players in Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fascinating world of noncoding RNAs has recently come to light, thanks to the development of powerful sequencing technologies, revealing a variety of RNA molecules playing important regulatory functions in most, if not all, cellular processes. Many noncoding RNAs have been implicated in regulatory networks that are determinant for skeletal muscle differentiation and disease. In this review, we outline the noncoding RNAs involved in physiological mechanisms of myogenesis and those that appear dysregulated in muscle dystrophies, also discussing their potential use as disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:24729974

  2. Hormone stimulation of androgen receptor mediates dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns at regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Vineet K.; Attwood, Kristopher; Campbell, Moray J.; Smiraglia, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to stable gene silencing by interfering with the ability of transcriptional regulators to bind to DNA. Recent findings have revealed that hormone stimulation of certain nuclear receptors induces rapid, dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns alongside transcriptional responses at a subset of target loci, over time. However, the ability of androgen receptor (AR) to dynamically regulate gene transcription is relatively under-studied and its role in the regulation of DNA methylation patterns remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate in normal prostate cells that hormone stimulated AR activity results in dynamic changes in the transcription rate and DNA methylation patterns at the AR target genes, TIPARP and SGK1. Time-resolved chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on the SGK1 locus reveals dynamic recruitment of AR and RNA Polymerase II, as well as the recruitment of proteins involved in the DNA demethylation process, TET1 and TDG. Furthermore, the presence of DNA methylation at dynamic regions inhibits protein binding and transcriptional activity of SGK1. These findings establish AR activity as a contributing factor to the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation patterns at target genes in prostate biology and infer further complexity involved in nuclear receptor mediation of transcriptional regulation. PMID:26646795

  3. NONCODE 2016: an informative and valuable data source of long non-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Li, Hui; Fang, Shuangsang; Kang, Yue; wu, Wei; Hao, Yajing; Li, Ziyang; Bu, Dechao; Sun, Ninghui; Zhang, Michael Q.; Chen, Runsheng

    2016-01-01

    NONCODE (http://www.bioinfo.org/noncode/) is an interactive database that aims to present the most complete collection and annotation of non-coding RNAs, especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The recently reduced cost of RNA sequencing has produced an explosion of newly identified data. Revolutionary third-generation sequencing methods have also contributed to more accurate annotations. Accumulative experimental data also provides more comprehensive knowledge of lncRNA functions. In this update, NONCODE has added six new species, bringing the total to 16 species altogether. The lncRNAs in NONCODE have increased from 210 831 to 527,336. For human and mouse, the lncRNA numbers are 167,150 and 130,558, respectively. NONCODE 2016 has also introduced three important new features: (i) conservation annotation; (ii) the relationships between lncRNAs and diseases; and (iii) an interface to choose high-quality datasets through predicted scores, literature support and long-read sequencing method support. NONCODE is also accessible through http://www.noncode.org/. PMID:26586799

  4. LARVA: an integrative framework for large-scale analysis of recurrent variants in noncoding annotations

    PubMed Central

    Lochovsky, Lucas; Zhang, Jing; Fu, Yao; Khurana, Ekta; Gerstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In cancer research, background models for mutation rates have been extensively calibrated in coding regions, leading to the identification of many driver genes, recurrently mutated more than expected. Noncoding regions are also associated with disease; however, background models for them have not been investigated in as much detail. This is partially due to limited noncoding functional annotation. Also, great mutation heterogeneity and potential correlations between neighboring sites give rise to substantial overdispersion in mutation count, resulting in problematic background rate estimation. Here, we address these issues with a new computational framework called LARVA. It integrates variants with a comprehensive set of noncoding functional elements, modeling the mutation counts of the elements with a β-binomial distribution to handle overdispersion. LARVA, moreover, uses regional genomic features such as replication timing to better estimate local mutation rates and mutational hotspots. We demonstrate LARVA's effectiveness on 760 whole-genome tumor sequences, showing that it identifies well-known noncoding drivers, such as mutations in the TERT promoter. Furthermore, LARVA highlights several novel highly mutated regulatory sites that could potentially be noncoding drivers. We make LARVA available as a software tool and release our highly mutated annotations as an online resource (larva.gersteinlab.org). PMID:26304545

  5. Noncoding RNAs and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan-Fei; Zhuang, Yan-Yan; Huang, Feng-Ting; Zhang, Shi-Neng

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that typically do not code for proteins. Emerging data suggest that ncRNAs play an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as cancer. The best-characterized ncRNAs are the microRNAs (miRNAs), which are short, approximately 22-nucleotide sequences of RNA of approximately 22-nucleotide in length that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, through transcript degradation or translational repression. MiRNAs can function as master gene regulators, impacting a variety of cellular pathways important to normal cellular functions as well as cancer development and progression. In addition to miRNAs, long ncRNAs, which are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, have recently emerged as novel drivers of tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of their regulation and function, and the significance of other ncRNAs such as piwi-interacting RNAs in pancreas carcinogenesis are largely unknown. This review summarizes the growing body of evidence supporting the vital roles of ncRNAs in pancreatic cancer, focusing on their dysregulation through both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and highlighting the promise of ncRNAs in diagnostic and therapeutic applications of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26811626

  6. Long noncoding RNAs and neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Gaurav Kumar; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a disease that affects infants and despite intense multimodal therapy, high-risk patients have low survival rates (<50%). In recent years long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have become the cutting edge of cancer research with inroads made in understanding their roles in multiple cancer types, including prostate and breast cancers. The roles of lncRNAs in neuroblastoma have just begun to be elucidated. This review summarises where we are with regards to lncRNAs in neuroblastoma. The known mechanistic roles of lncRNAs during neuroblastoma pathogenesis are discussed, as well as the relationship between lncRNA expression and the differentiation capacity of neuroblastoma cells. We speculate about the use of some of these lncRNAs, such as those mapping to the 6p22 hotspot, as biomarkers for neuroblastoma prognosis and treatment. This novel way of thinking about both neuroblastoma and lncRNAs brings a new perspective to the prognosis and treatment of high-risk patients. PMID:26087192

  7. A new large-DNA-fragment delivery system based on integrase activity from an integrative and conjugative element.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Ryo; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2013-07-01

    During the past few decades, numerous plasmid vectors have been developed for cloning, gene expression analysis, and genetic engineering. Cloning procedures typically rely on PCR amplification, DNA fragment restriction digestion, recovery, and ligation, but increasingly, procedures are being developed to assemble large synthetic DNAs. In this study, we developed a new gene delivery system using the integrase activity of an integrative and conjugative element (ICE). The advantage of the integrase-based delivery is that it can stably introduce a large DNA fragment (at least 75 kb) into one or more specific sites (the gene for glycine-accepting tRNA) on a target chromosome. Integrase recombination activity in Escherichia coli is kept low by using a synthetic hybrid promoter, which, however, is unleashed in the final target host, forcing the integration of the construct. Upon integration, the system is again silenced. Two variants with different genetic features were produced, one in the form of a cloning vector in E. coli and the other as a mini-transposable element by which large DNA constructs assembled in E. coli can be tagged with the integrase gene. We confirmed that the system could successfully introduce cosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) DNAs from E. coli into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida in a site-specific manner. The integrase delivery system works in concert with existing vector systems and could thus be a powerful tool for synthetic constructions of new metabolic pathways in a variety of host bacteria. PMID:23686268

  8. High Throughput Analyses of Budding Yeast ARSs Reveal New DNA Elements Capable of Conferring Centromere-Independent Plasmid Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Hoggard, Timothy; Liachko, Ivan; Burt, Cassaundra; Meikle, Troy; Jiang, Katherine; Craciun, Gheorghe; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Fox, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of plasmids to propagate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental in defining eukaryotic chromosomal control elements. Stable propagation demands both plasmid replication, which requires a chromosomal replication origin (i.e., an ARS), and plasmid distribution to dividing cells, which requires either a chromosomal centromere for segregation or a plasmid-partitioning element. While our knowledge of yeast ARSs and centromeres is relatively advanced, we know less about chromosomal regions that can function as plasmid partitioning elements. The Rap1 protein-binding site (RAP1) present in transcriptional silencers and telomeres of budding yeast is a known plasmid-partitioning element that functions to anchor a plasmid to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which in turn facilitates plasmid distribution to daughter cells. This Rap1-dependent INM-anchoring also has an important chromosomal role in higher-order chromosomal structures that enhance transcriptional silencing and telomere stability. Thus, plasmid partitioning can reflect fundamental features of chromosome structure and biology, yet a systematic screen for plasmid partitioning elements has not been reported. Here, we couple deep sequencing with competitive growth experiments of a plasmid library containing thousands of short ARS fragments to identify new plasmid partitioning elements. Competitive growth experiments were performed with libraries that differed only in terms of the presence or absence of a centromere. Comparisons of the behavior of ARS fragments in the two experiments allowed us to identify sequences that were likely to drive plasmid partitioning. In addition to the silencer RAP1 site, we identified 74 new putative plasmid-partitioning motifs predicted to act as binding sites for DNA binding proteins enriched for roles in negative regulation of gene expression and G2/M-phase associated biology. These data expand our knowledge of chromosomal elements that may function in plasmid

  9. High Throughput Analyses of Budding Yeast ARSs Reveal New DNA Elements Capable of Conferring Centromere-Independent Plasmid Propagation.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Timothy; Liachko, Ivan; Burt, Cassaundra; Meikle, Troy; Jiang, Katherine; Craciun, Gheorghe; Dunham, Maitreya J; Fox, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of plasmids to propagate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental in defining eukaryotic chromosomal control elements. Stable propagation demands both plasmid replication, which requires a chromosomal replication origin (i.e., an ARS), and plasmid distribution to dividing cells, which requires either a chromosomal centromere for segregation or a plasmid-partitioning element. While our knowledge of yeast ARSs and centromeres is relatively advanced, we know less about chromosomal regions that can function as plasmid partitioning elements. The Rap1 protein-binding site (RAP1) present in transcriptional silencers and telomeres of budding yeast is a known plasmid-partitioning element that functions to anchor a plasmid to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which in turn facilitates plasmid distribution to daughter cells. This Rap1-dependent INM-anchoring also has an important chromosomal role in higher-order chromosomal structures that enhance transcriptional silencing and telomere stability. Thus, plasmid partitioning can reflect fundamental features of chromosome structure and biology, yet a systematic screen for plasmid partitioning elements has not been reported. Here, we couple deep sequencing with competitive growth experiments of a plasmid library containing thousands of short ARS fragments to identify new plasmid partitioning elements. Competitive growth experiments were performed with libraries that differed only in terms of the presence or absence of a centromere. Comparisons of the behavior of ARS fragments in the two experiments allowed us to identify sequences that were likely to drive plasmid partitioning. In addition to the silencer RAP1 site, we identified 74 new putative plasmid-partitioning motifs predicted to act as binding sites for DNA binding proteins enriched for roles in negative regulation of gene expression and G2/M-phase associated biology. These data expand our knowledge of chromosomal elements that may function in plasmid

  10. [The influence of transposable elements on genome size].

    PubMed

    Biémont, Christian; Vieira, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    Genome size displays an important variability between species without any direct link to complexity. This paradox, so-called "C value paradox", now becomes understood as resulting from a differential abundance of numerous repeated sequences, among which transposable elements. Genomes indeed contain a important proportion of such sequences (95 % of DNA in man, about 45 % of which are transposable elements, up to 99 % of DNA in some plants). While most investigations until now are focalized on genes or coding sequences, which thus represent a small part of the genome, more attention now is dedicated on so-called non-coding sequences. Transposable elements, which are capable of moving around in genomes, inducing mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, gene expression regulations, thus appear as major actors in diversity and evolution. We present here a brief review of the most prominent acquisition in this expanding domain. PMID:15969348

  11. HDA6 Directly Interacts with DNA Methyltransferase MET1 and Maintains Transposable Element Silencing in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuncheng; Yu, Chun-Wei; Duan, Jun; Luo, Ming; Wang, Koching; Tian, Gang; Cui, Yuhai; Wu, Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of how the histone deacetylase HDA6 participates in maintaining transposable element (TE) silencing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is not yet defined. In this study, we show that a subset of TEs was transcriptionally reactivated and that TE reactivation was associated with elevated histone H3 and H4 acetylation as well as increased H3K4Me3 and H3K4Me2 in hda6 mutants. Decreased DNA methylation of the TEs was also detected in hda6 mutants, suggesting that HDA6 silences the TEs by regulating histone acetylation and methylation as well as the DNA methylation status of the TEs. Similarly, transcripts of some of these TEs were also increased in the methyltransferase1 (met1) mutant, with decreased DNA methylation. Furthermore, H4 acetylation, H3K4Me3, H3K4Me2, and H3K36Me2 were enriched at the coregulated TEs in the met1 and hda6 met1 mutants. Protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that HDA6 physically interacts with MET1 in vitro and in vivo, and further deletion analysis demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal region of HDA6 and the bromo-adjacent homology domain of MET1 were responsible for the interaction. These results suggested that HDA6 and MET1 interact directly and act together to silence TEs by modulating DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and histone methylation status. PMID:21994348

  12. Identification and characterization of methylation-dependent/independent DNA regulatory elements in the human SLC9B1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priya L.; James, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    The human NHEDC1 (hNHEDC1) protein is thought to be essential for sperm motility and fertility however the mechanisms regulating its gene expression are largely unknown. In this study we have identified multiple DNA regulatory elements in the 5′ end of the gene encoding hNHEDC1 (SLC9B1) and have explored the role that DNA methylation at these elements plays in the regulation of its expression. We first show that the full-length hNHEDC1 protein is testis-specific for the tissues that we tested and that it localizes to the cells of the seminiferous tubules. In silico analysis of the SLC9B1 gene locus identified two putative promoters (P1 and P2) and two CpG islands - CpGI (overlapping with P1) and CpGII (intragenic) - at the 5′ end of the gene. By deletion analysis of P1, we show that the region from −23bp to +200bp relative to the transcription start site (TSS) is sufficient for optimal promoter activity in a germ cell line. Additionally, in vitro methylation of the P1 (the −500bp to +200bp region relative to the TSS) abolishes its activity in germ cells and somatic cells strongly suggesting that DNA methylation at this promoter could regulate SLC9B1 expression. Furthermore, bisulfite-sequencing analysis of the P1/CpGI uncovered reduced methylation in the testis vs. lung whereas CpGII displayed no differences in methylation between these two tissues. Additionally, treatment of HEK 293 cells with 5-Aza2-Deoxycytidine led to upregulation of NHEDC1 transcript and reduced methylation in the promoter CpGI. Finally, we have uncovered both enhancer and silencer functions of the intragenic SLC9B1 CpGII. In all, our data suggests that SLC9B1 gene expression could be regulated via a concerted action of DNA methylation-dependent and independent mechanisms mediated by these multiple DNA regulatory elements. PMID:25701605

  13. Noncoding RNAs in Beta Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Ruth A.; Arnes, Luis; Sussel, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review The identification and characterization of essential islet transcription factors have improved our understanding of β cell development, provided insights into many of the cellular dysfunctions related to diabetes, and facilitated the successful generation of β cells from alternative cell sources. Recently, noncoding RNAs have emerged as a novel set of molecules that may represent missing components of the known islet regulatory pathways. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies that have implicated noncoding RNAs as important regulators of pancreas cell development and β cell function. Recent Findings Disruption of essential components of the microRNA processing machinery, in addition to misregulation of individual miRNAs, has revealed the importance of microRNAs in pancreas development and β cell function. Furthermore, over 1000 islet-specific long noncoding RNAs have been identified in mouse and human islets, suggesting that this class of noncoding molecules will also play important functional roles in the β cell. Summary The analysis of noncoding RNAs in the pancreas will provide important new insights into pancreatic regulatory processes that will improve our ability to understand and treat diabetes and may facilitate the generation of replacement β cells from alternative cell sources. PMID:25692923

  14. Exploration of noncoding sequences in metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Tobar-Tosse, Fabián; Rodríguez, Adrián C; Vélez, Patricia E; Zambrano, María M; Moreno, Pedro A

    2013-01-01

    Environment-dependent genomic features have been defined for different metagenomes, whose genes and their associated processes are related to specific environments. Identification of ORFs and their functional categories are the most common methods for association between functional and environmental features. However, this analysis based on finding ORFs misses noncoding sequences and, therefore, some metagenome regulatory or structural information could be discarded. In this work we analyzed 23 whole metagenomes, including coding and noncoding sequences using the following sequence patterns: (G+C) content, Codon Usage (Cd), Trinucleotide Usage (Tn), and functional assignments for ORF prediction. Herein, we present evidence of a high proportion of noncoding sequences discarded in common similarity-based methods in metagenomics, and the kind of relevant information present in those. We found a high density of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TRS) in noncoding sequences, with a regulatory and adaptive function for metagenome communities. We present associations between trinucleotide values and gene function, where metagenome clustering correlate with microorganism adaptations and kinds of metagenomes. We propose here that noncoding sequences have relevant information to describe metagenomes that could be considered in a whole metagenome analysis in order to improve their organization, classification protocols, and their relation with the environment. PMID:23536879

  15. Exploration of Noncoding Sequences in Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Tobar-Tosse, Fabián; Rodríguez, Adrián C.; Vélez, Patricia E.; Zambrano, María M.; Moreno, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    Environment-dependent genomic features have been defined for different metagenomes, whose genes and their associated processes are related to specific environments. Identification of ORFs and their functional categories are the most common methods for association between functional and environmental features. However, this analysis based on finding ORFs misses noncoding sequences and, therefore, some metagenome regulatory or structural information could be discarded. In this work we analyzed 23 whole metagenomes, including coding and noncoding sequences using the following sequence patterns: (G+C) content, Codon Usage (Cd), Trinucleotide Usage (Tn), and functional assignments for ORF prediction. Herein, we present evidence of a high proportion of noncoding sequences discarded in common similarity-based methods in metagenomics, and the kind of relevant information present in those. We found a high density of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TRS) in noncoding sequences, with a regulatory and adaptive function for metagenome communities. We present associations between trinucleotide values and gene function, where metagenome clustering correlate with microorganism adaptations and kinds of metagenomes. We propose here that noncoding sequences have relevant information to describe metagenomes that could be considered in a whole metagenome analysis in order to improve their organization, classification protocols, and their relation with the environment. PMID:23536879

  16. Epigenetic conservation at gene regulatory elements revealed by non-methylated DNA profiling in seven vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Long, Hannah K; Sims, David; Heger, Andreas; Blackledge, Neil P; Kutter, Claudia; Wright, Megan L; Grützner, Frank; Odom, Duncan T; Patient, Roger; Ponting, Chris P; Klose, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Two-thirds of gene promoters in mammals are associated with regions of non-methylated DNA, called CpG islands (CGIs), which counteract the repressive effects of DNA methylation on chromatin. In cold-blooded vertebrates, computational CGI predictions often reside away from gene promoters, suggesting a major divergence in gene promoter architecture across vertebrates. By experimentally identifying non-methylated DNA in the genomes of seven diverse vertebrates, we instead reveal that non-methylated islands (NMIs) of DNA are a central feature of vertebrate gene promoters. Furthermore, NMIs are present at orthologous genes across vast evolutionary distances, revealing a surprising level of conservation in this epigenetic feature. By profiling NMIs in different tissues and developmental stages we uncover a unifying set of features that are central to the function of NMIs in vertebrates. Together these findings demonstrate an ancient logic for NMI usage at gene promoters and reveal an unprecedented level of epigenetic conservation across vertebrate evolution. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00348.001. PMID:23467541

  17. Molecular Cloning and Analysis of a DNA Repetitive Element from the Mouse Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Adriana; Cossio, Gabriela; Wettstein, Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    We report the development of a 3-week laboratory activity for an undergraduate molecular biology course. This activity introduces students to the practice of basic molecular techniques such as restriction enzyme digestion, agarose gel electrophoresis, cloning, plasmid DNA purification, Southern blotting, and sequencing. Students learn how to carry…

  18. Statistical properties of DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing non-coding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, nucleotides thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationarity" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and non-coding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to every DNA sequence (33301 coding and 29453 non-coding) in the entire GenBank database. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the non-coding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural and artificial languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts. These statistical properties of non-coding sequences support the possibility that non-coding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  19. Statistical properties of DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-02-01

    We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genese containing non-coding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range - indeed, nucleotides thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the “non-stationarity” feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and non-coding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to every DNA sequence (33 301 coding and 29 453 non-coding) in the entire GenBank database. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the non-coding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural and artificial languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts. These statistical properties of non-coding sequences support the possibility that non-coding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  20. Ubiquitous and neuronal DNA-binding proteins interact with a negative regulatory element of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Limas, D E; Amaya-Manzanares, F; Niño-Rosales, M L; Yu, Y; Yang, T P; Patel, P I

    1995-01-01

    The hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in all tissues but at higher levels in the brain; the significance and mechanism of this differential expression are unknown. We previously identified a 182-bp element (hHPRT-NE) within the 5'-flanking region of the human HPRT (hHPRT) gene, which is involved not only in conferring neuronal specificity but also in repressing gene expression in nonneuronal tissues. Here we report that this element interacts with different nuclear proteins, some of which are present specifically in neuronal cells (complex I) and others of which are present in cells showing constitutive expression of the gene (complex II). In addition, we found that complex I factors are expressed in human NT2/D1 cells following induction of neuronal differentiation by retinoic acid. This finding correlates with an increase of HPRT gene transcription following neuronal differentiation. We also mapped the binding sites for both complexes to a 60-bp region (Ff; positions -510 to -451) which, when analyzed in transfection assays, functioned as a repressor element analogous to the full-length hHPRT-NE sequence. Methylation interference footprintings revealed a minimal unique DNA motif, 5'-GGAAGCC-3', as the binding site for nuclear proteins from both neuronal and nonneuronal sources. However, site-directed mutagenesis of the footprinted region indicated that different nucleotides are essential for the associations of these two complexes. Moreover, UV cross-linking experiments showed that both complexes are formed by the association of several different proteins. Taken together, these data suggest that differential interaction of DNA-binding factors with this regulatory element plays a crucial role in the brain-preferential expression of the gene, and they should lead to the isolation of transcriptional regulators important in neuronal expression of the HPRT gene. PMID:8524221

  1. Survey of chimeric IStron elements in bacterial genomes: multiple molecular symbioses between group I intron ribozymes and DNA transposons

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J.; Stabell, Fredrik B.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2014-01-01

    IStrons are chimeric genetic elements composed of a group I intron associated with an insertion sequence (IS). The group I intron is a catalytic RNA providing the IStron with self-splicing ability, which renders IStron insertions harmless to the host genome. The IS element is a DNA transposon conferring mobility, and thus allowing the IStron to spread in genomes. IStrons are therefore a striking example of a molecular symbiosis between unrelated genetic elements endowed with different functions. In this study, we have conducted the first comprehensive survey of IStrons in sequenced genomes that provides insights into the distribution, diversity, origin and evolution of IStrons. We show that IStrons have a restricted phylogenetic distribution limited to two bacterial phyla, the Firmicutes and the Fusobacteria. Nevertheless, diverse IStrons representing two major groups targeting different insertion site motifs were identified. This taken with the finding that while the intron components of all IStrons belong to the same structural class, they are fused to different IS families, indicates that multiple intron–IS symbioses have occurred during evolution. In addition, introns and IS elements related to those that were at the origin of IStrons were also identified. PMID:25324310

  2. Effect of Environmental Chemical Stress on Nuclear Noncoding RNA Involved in Epigenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Patrizio; Pulliero, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade the role of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) emerges not only as key elements of posttranscriptional gene silencing, but also as important players of epigenetic regulation. New kind and new functions of ncRNAs are continuously discovered and one of their most important roles is the mediation of environmental signals, both physical and chemical. The activity of cytoplasmic short ncRNA is extensively studied, in spite of the fact that their function and role in the nuclear compartment are not yet completely unraveled. Cellular nucleus contains a multiplicity of long and short ncRNAs controlling at different levels transcriptional and epigenetic processes. In addition, some ncRNAs are involved in RNA editing and quality control. In this paper we review the existing knowledge dealing with how chemical stressors can influence the functionality of short nuclear ncRNAs. Furthermore, we perform bioinformatics analyses indicating that chemical environmental stressors not only induce DNA damage but also influence the mechanism of ncRNAs production and control. PMID:26339639

  3. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  4. Non-coding RNAs: the architects of eukaryotic complexity.

    PubMed

    Mattick, J S

    2001-11-01

    Around 98% of all transcriptional output in humans is non-coding RNA. RNA-mediated gene regulation is widespread in higher eukaryotes and complex genetic phenomena like RNA interference, co-suppression, transgene silencing, imprinting, methylation, and possibly position-effect variegation and transvection, all involve intersecting pathways based on or connected to RNA signaling. I suggest that the central dogma is incomplete, and that intronic and other non-coding RNAs have evolved to comprise a second tier of gene expression in eukaryotes, which enables the integration and networking of complex suites of gene activity. Although proteins are the fundamental effectors of cellular function, the basis of eukaryotic complexity and phenotypic variation may lie primarily in a control architecture composed of a highly parallel system of trans-acting RNAs that relay state information required for the coordination and modulation of gene expression, via chromatin remodeling, RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions. This system has interesting and perhaps informative analogies with small world networks and dataflow computing. PMID:11713189

  5. Non-coding RNAs: Classification, Biology and Functioning.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Sonja; Kretz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing principles of molecular biology is that DNA acts as a template for transcription of messenger RNAs, which serve as blueprints for protein translation. A rapidly growing number of exceptions to this rule have been reported over the past decades: they include long known classes of RNAs involved in translation such as transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs, small nuclear RNAs involved in splicing events, and small nucleolar RNAs mainly involved in the modification of other small RNAs, such as ribosomal RNAs and transfer RNAs. More recently, several classes of short regulatory non-coding RNAs, including piwi-associated RNAs, endogenous short-interfering RNAs and microRNAs have been discovered in mammals, which act as key regulators of gene expression in many different cellular pathways and systems. Additionally, the human genome encodes several thousand long non-protein coding RNAs >200 nucleotides in length, some of which play crucial roles in a variety of biological processes such as epigenetic control of chromatin, promoter-specific gene regulation, mRNA stability, X-chromosome inactivation and imprinting. In this chapter, we will introduce several classes of short and long non-coding RNAs, describe their diverse roles in mammalian gene regulation and give examples for known modes of action. PMID:27573892

  6. DNA sequences of Alu elements indicate a recent replacement of the human autosomal genetic complement

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, A.; Deininger, P.L.; Batzer, M.A.

    1996-04-30

    DNA sequences of neutral nuclear autosomal loci, compared across diverse human populations, provide a previously untapped perspective into the mode and tempo of the emergence of modern humans and a critical comparison with published clonally inherited mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome measurements of human diversity. We obtained over 55 kilobases of sequence from three autosomal loci encompassing Alu repeats for representatives of diverse human populations as well as orthologous sequences for other hominoid species at one of these loci. Nucleotide diversity was exceedingly low. Most individuals and populations were identical. Only a single nucleotide difference distinguished presumed ancestral alleles from descendants. These results differ from those expected if alleles from divergent archaic populations were maintained through multiregional continuity. The observed virtual lack of sequence polymorphism is the signature of a recent single origin for modern humans, with general replacement of archaic populations. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. DNA sequences of Alu elements indicate a recent replacement of the human autosomal genetic complement.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, A; Batzer, M A; Stoneking, M; Tiwari, H K; Scheer, W D; Herrera, R J; Deininger, P L

    1996-01-01

    DNA sequences of neutral nuclear autosomal loci, compared across diverse human populations, provide a previously untapped perspective into the mode and tempo of the emergence of modern humans and a critical comparison with published clonally inherited mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome measurements of human diversity. We obtained over 55 kilobases of sequence from three autosomal loci encompassing Alu repeats for representatives of diverse human populations as well as orthologous sequences for other hominoid species at one of these loci. Nucleotide diversity was exceedingly low. Most individuals and populations were identical. Only a single nucleotide difference distinguished presumed ancestral alleles from descendants. These results differ from those expected if alleles from divergent archaic populations were maintained through multiregional continuity. The observed virtual lack of sequence polymorphism is the signature of a recent single origin for modern humans, with general replacement of archaic populations. PMID:8633071

  8. Survey sequencing reveals elevated DNA transposon activity, novel elements, and variation in repetitive landscapes among vesper bats.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Heidi J T; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2012-01-01

    The repetitive landscapes of mammalian genomes typically display high Class I (retrotransposon) transposable element (TE) content, which usually comprises around half of the genome. In contrast, the Class II (DNA transposon) contribution is typically small (<3% in model mammals). Most mammalian genomes exhibit a precipitous decline in Class II activity beginning roughly 40 Ma. The first signs of more recently active mammalian Class II TEs were obtained from the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and are reflected by higher genome content (~5%). To aid in determining taxonomic limits and potential impacts of this elevated Class II activity, we performed 454 survey sequencing of a second Myotis species as well as four additional taxa within the family Vespertilionidae and an outgroup species from Phyllostomidae. Graph-based clustering methods were used to reconstruct the major repeat families present in each species and novel elements were identified in several taxa. Retrotransposons remained the dominant group with regard to overall genome mass. Elevated Class II TE composition (3-4%) was observed in all five vesper bats, while less than 0.5% of the phyllostomid reads were identified as Class II derived. Differences in satellite DNA and Class I TE content are also described among vespertilionid taxa. These analyses present the first cohesive description of TE evolution across closely related mammalian species, revealing genome-scale differences in TE content within a single family. PMID:22491057

  9. Long Noncoding RNA: Recent Updates in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Zhu, Hongming; Ge, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs belong to a class of noncoding RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides with the epigenetic regulation potential. As a novel molecular regulator, lncRNAs are often dysregulated in various pathological conditions and display multiple functions in a wide range of biological processes. Given that recent studies have indicated that lncRNAs are involved in atherosclerosis-related smooth muscle cell, endothelial cell, macrophage and lipid metabolism regulation, it is pertinent to understand the potential function of lncRNAs in atherosclerosis development. This review will highlight the recent updates of lncRNAs in atherogenesis and also discuss their potential roles as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27314829

  10. Viral Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Fu, Shujun; Sun, Lun-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Over 12 % of all human cancers are caused by oncoviruses, primarily including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). In addition to viral oncoproteins, a variety of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) produced by oncoviruses have been recognized as important cofactors that contribute to the oncogenic events. In this chapter, we will focus on the recent understanding of the long and short noncoding RNAs, as well as microRNAs of the viruses, and discuss their roles in the biology of multistep oncogenesis mediated by established human oncoviruses. PMID:27376743