Science.gov

Sample records for noncontacting electromechanical devices

  1. Wireless biomedical signal monitoring device on wheelchair using noncontact electro-mechanical film sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Myoung; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The present study purposed to measure the BCG (Ballistocardiogram) of subjects on a wheelchair using a noncontact electro-mechanical film sensor (EMFi sensor) and detect the respiratory rate from BCG in real-time while the subjects are moving. In order to measure wirelessly the BCG of subjects moving on a wheelchair, we made a seat-type noncontact EMFi sensor and developed a transmitter and a receiver using Zigbee wireless RF communication technology. The sensor is embedded with a 3-axis accelerometer to remove the noise of wheelchair vibration from BCG signal. Signal obtained from each sensor goes through the A/D converter and is recorded in the SD (Secure Digital) card in PDA (Personal Digital Assistance) with a receiving part. We also developed a PC (Personal Computer) data analysis program, analyzed data recorded in the SD card using the program, and presented the results in graph. Lastly, this study demonstrated that a warning message can be sent from PDA to the remote server via a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) network in case the person on wheelchair falls in emergency. Our experiment was carried out with healthy male and female adults in their 20s who volunteered to help this research. The results of analyzing collected data will show that the respiratory rate can be measured in real-time on a moving wheelchair. PMID:18002021

  2. A new approach to long-life noncontacting electromechanical devices. [for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devine, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    Brushless dc motors are finding increasing application in space. Likewise, with the advent of the light emitting diode, noncontacting encoders are gradually replacing sliding contact types. The direct drive concept has proved its merit and is now the preferred approach for tape recorders and low to moderate torque instrument drives. The final step in this evolution is the magnetic bearing, which now appears feasible for several applications. Where it can be applied in a totally noncontacting system, life and reliability will be a function of the electronic controls, where redundancy, derating, and quality assurance approaches virtually assure the desired lifetime and failure rate.

  3. Electromechanical Devices. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in electromechanical devices is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored training…

  4. Magnetic field control. [electromechanical torquing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeussermann, W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A torque control for an electromechanical torquing device of a type where a variable clearance occurs between a rotor and field is described. A Hall effect device senses the field present, which would vary as a function of spacing between field and rotor. The output of the Hall effect device controls the power applied to the field so as to provide a well defined field and thus a controlled torque to the rotor which is well defined.

  5. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D. (Inventor); Allen, J. L. (Inventor); Lee, M. C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a noncontact imagine pyrometer system for obtaining the true temperature image of a given substance in a contactless fashion without making assumptions about localized emissivity of the substance or the uniformity of the temperature distribution. Such a contactless temperature imaging system has particular application in the study and production of many materials where the physical contact required to make a conventional temperature measurement drastically effects or contaminates the physical process being observed. Two examples where accurate temperature profiles are of critical interest are: (1) the solid-liquid phase change interface in the production of electronic materials and (2) metastable materials in the undercooling region. The apparent novelty resides in the recognition that an active pyrometer system may be advantageously adapted to perform contactless temperature imaging so that an accurate temperature profile can be obtained.

  6. Electromechanical control of flat optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Tapashree; Zhang, Shuyan; Jung, Il Woong; Capasso, Federico; Lopez, Daniel

    In the recent times flat optical elements, like lenses and beam deflectors, have come to the forefront of scientific research. These devices, also referred to as ``metasurfaces'', use metal or dielectric resonators, arbitrarily spaced with subwavelength resolution on a two dimensional plane, to mimic the phase profile of any conventional bulk optical device and beyond. Such metasurface-based planar devices are compact and lightweight compared to their conventional bulky counterparts. However, most of these nanostructured devices have so far been passive. In this work we introduce an important concept of actively controlling these flat optical devices. A prototype: an electromechanically controlled plasmonic flat lens focusing mid infrared signal in reflection will be presented. The lens is fabricated on a 2.8 micron thin membrane following photolithography processes and integrated with a micro electromechanical system (MEMS) device. When electrostatically actuated, the MEMS platform controls the mechanical tilt angle of the lens along two orthogonal axes by about 16 degrees that in turn controls the scanning of the focal spot. Such actively controlled miniaturized optical devices promise to provide faster, more efficient and often enhanced functionalities.

  7. Electromechanical Properties of Single Molecule Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruot, Christopher

    Understanding the interplay between the electrical and mechanical properties of single molecules is of fundamental importance for molecular electronics. The sensitivity of charge transport to mechanical fluctuations is a key problem in developing long lasting molecular devices. Furthermore, harnessing this response to mechanical perturbation, molecular devices which can be mechanically gated can be developed. This thesis demonstrates three examples of the unique electromechanical properties of single molecules. First, the electromechanical properties of 1,4-benzenedithiol molecular junctions are investigate. Counterintuitively, the conductance of this molecule is found to increase by more than an order of magnitude when stretched. This conductance increase is found to be reversible when the molecular junction is compressed. The current-voltage, conductance-voltage and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy characteristics are used to attribute the conductance increase to a strain-induced shift in the frontier molecular orbital relative to the electrode Fermi level, leading to resonant enhancement in the conductance. Next, the effect of stretching-induced structural changes on charge transport in DNA molecules is studied. The conductance of single DNA molecules with lengths varying from 6 to 26 base pairs is measured and found to follow a hopping transport mechanism. The conductance of DNA molecules is highly sensitive to mechanical stretching, showing an abrupt decrease in conductance at surprisingly short stretching distances, with weak dependence on DNA length. This abrupt conductance decrease is attributed to force-induced breaking of hydrogen bonds in the base pairs at the end of the DNA sequence. Finally, the effect of small mechanical modulation of the base separation on DNA conductance is investigated. The sensitivity of conductance to mechanical modulation is studied for molecules of different sequence and length. Sequences with purine-purine stacking

  8. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E.; Peskin, U.

    2015-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  9. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E.; Peskin, U.

    2015-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, "ON" and "OFF" states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  10. Electromechanical delay of the hamstrings during eccentric muscle actions in males and females: Implications for non-contact ACL injuries.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, Mark B A; ElNagar, Youssif O; Iga, John; James, David; Ayala, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Sex differences in neuromuscular functioning has been proposed as one of the factors behind an increased relative risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in females. The aim of this study was to explore sex differences in electromechanical delay (EMD) of the hamstring muscles during eccentric muscle actions and during a range of movement velocities. This study recruited 110 participants (55 males, 55 females) and electromyography of the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris was determined during eccentric actions at 60, 120 and 240°/s. No significant sex differences were observed irrespective of muscle examined or movement velocity. Irrespective of sex EMD significantly increased with increasing movement velocity (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the EMD of the 3 muscles examined. Our findings suggest that during eccentric actions of the hamstrings that there are no sex differences, irrespective of movement velocity. This would suggest that other factors are probably responsible for the increased relative risk of non-contact ACL injury in females compared to males. PMID:26522999

  11. Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Based Microfluidic Devices for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Muhammad Waseem; Tayyaba, Shahzadi; Afzulpurkar, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) based microfluidic devices have gained popularity in biomedicine field over the last few years. In this paper, a comprehensive overview of microfluidic devices such as micropumps and microneedles has been presented for biomedical applications. The aim of this paper is to present the major features and issues related to micropumps and microneedles, e.g., working principles, actuation methods, fabrication techniques, construction, performance parameters, failure analysis, testing, safety issues, applications, commercialization issues and future prospects. Based on the actuation mechanisms, the micropumps are classified into two main types, i.e., mechanical and non-mechanical micropumps. Microneedles can be categorized according to their structure, fabrication process, material, overall shape, tip shape, size, array density and application. The presented literature review on micropumps and microneedles will provide comprehensive information for researchers working on design and development of microfluidic devices for biomedical applications. PMID:21747700

  12. Atomistic and model description of nanotube electromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotkin, Slava V.

    2003-03-01

    Nanotubes (NTs), which are natural objects on the size scale compatible with nanodevices and bio-molecules, exhibit several unique properties by themselves and in specific environments such as electronic, bio-chemical or electromechanical nanodevices. A compact continuum model has been developed [1] for the multi-scale calculation of NT behavior in various devices, ranging from Nano-Electromechanical Systems (NEMS)[2] to Light-Controlled Molecular Switches [3]. The continuum model parameterization is based on Molecular Dynamics and microscopic modeling. For example, elements of quantum mechanical consideration were introduced through the calculation of the nanotube polarizability, atomistic capacitance [4], and van der Waals interaction [5]. Quantum-chemistry approach was used for computation of an equilibrium structure of chemically modified NTs. An analytical expression will be discussed for quantum capacitance of metallic NTs with arbitrary lateral deformation. Compact model and a quantum mechanical simulation will be compared for the NT charge density calculation. A scattering probability for a potential of charged impurity and ballistic conductance of NT channel have been computed for a light controlled electronic NT switch. Analytical expression for the pull-in voltage for NT NEMS will be presented with quantum corrections and van der Waals interactions taken into account. This calculation will demonstrate that a principal physical limit exists for fabricating NEMS [6]. 1. N.R.Aluru, et.al., in Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering and Technology, Eds: W.Goddard, et.al.; CRC Press, 2002 2. M.Dequesnes, S.V.Rotkin, N.R.Aluru, Nanotechnology 13, 2002 3. S.V.Rotkin, I.Zharov, Int.J.of Nanoscience 1(3/4) 2002 4. K.A.Bulashevich, S.V.Rotkin, JETPL 75(4) 2002 5. S.V.Rotkin, K.Hess, J.of Comp.Electronics 1(3) 2002 6. S.V.Rotkin, in Microfabr. Syst. and MEMS, Eds: P. J. Hesketh, et.al. ECS Inc., Pennington, NJ, USA 2002

  13. Flow visualization of a non-contact transport device by Coanda effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iki, Norihiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Okada, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    AIST proposes new technology of non-contact transport device utilizing Coanda effect. A proposed non-contact transport device has a cylindrical body and circular slit for air. The air flow around non-contact device is turbulent and its flow pattern depends on the injection condition. Therefore we tried visualization of the air flow around non -contact device as the first step of PIV measurement. Several tracer particles were tried such as TiO2 particles, water droplets, potatoes starch, rice starch, corn starch. Hot-wire anemometer is employed to velocity measurement. TiO2 particles deposit inside of a slit and clogging of a slit occurs frequently. Potato starch particles do not clog a slit but they are too heavy to trace slow flow area. Water droplets by ultrasonic atomization also deposit inside of slit but they are useful to visualize flow pattern around a non-contact transport device by being supplied from circumference. Coanda effect of proposed non-contact transport device was confirmed and injected air flow pattern switches by a work. Air flow around non-contact trance port device is turbulent and its velocity range is wide. Therefore flow measurement by tracer part icle has traceability issue. Suitable tracer and exposure condition depends on target area.

  14. Noncontacting measuring device to indicate deflection of turbopump internal rotating parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. B.; Grieser, D. R.; Plummer, A. M.; Ensminger, D.; Saccacio, E. J.; Kissel, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Noncontacting, nondestructive techniques to measure vibrations and deflections of parts in future LOX and LH2 multistage turbopump prototypes are reported. The measurements include shaft vibration, vibration of turbine wheel and blades, blade clearance, vibration of impellers, value component flutter, and vibration of face seal components. Three techniques were selected for development: ultrasonic Doppler devices, flash X-ray, and light-pipe reflectance.

  15. Non-contact wearable single forearm cardiac biopotential acquisition device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sérgio; Carneiro Martins, Raul

    2013-09-01

    In this work the authors propose a novel approach to obtain the electrocardiogram in the forearm using non-contact sensing. This new solution should be at same time portable, ergonomic and robust, enabling its use in different set of applications. A system of four electrodes was used in an adjustable sleeve to be wrapped in the forearm. No additional electrode references were used in other body parts. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, an harmonium like approach was used in the design of the electrodes. The prototype was then compared with a similar system with a flat conformation. The developed prototype enabled the acquisition of an ECG signal in the forearm and the inclusion of the harmonium like electrode conformation resulted in a considerable increase of the sensitivity of the system. The acquired signal did not enable the identification of all characteristic cardiac waves. However, it was possible to identify clearly a signal pattern, characteristic of the QRS complex. The properties of the acquired signal restrict their use in rigorous electrocardiographic studies, allowing, however, its application in heart rate variability monitoring and biometric identification without the disadvantages usually associated with conventional electrodes. This makes it specially useful for man-machine interfaces and automated identification.

  16. Mathematical model and the dynamic simulation of an electromechanical rotary device. [SLENOID

    SciTech Connect

    Emergy, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    A mathematical model of an electro-mechanical rotary device is presented. This device contains a rotor, stator, and two spring-loaded arms which restrict the rotor motion. The desired action is the alignment of the rotor and the consequent movement of the arms. The SLENOID computer program for calculating the magnetic torque, air gap permeance, spring torque, damping effects, and motion of the rotor and arms is described. (LCL)

  17. Non-Contact Stiffness Measurement of a Suspended Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yun; Su, Chanmin; Getty, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    A new nanoscale electric field sensor was developed for studying triboelectric charging in terrestrial and Martian dust devils. This sensor is capable to measure the large electric fields for large dust devils without saturation. However, to quantify the electric charges and the field strength it is critical to calibrate the mechanical stiffness of the sensor devices. We performed a technical feasibility study of the Nano E-field Sensor stiffness by a non-contact stiffness measurement method. The measurement is based on laser Doppler vibrometer measurement of the thermal noise due to energy flunctuations in the devices. The experiment method provides a novel approach to acquire data that is essential in analyzing the quantitative performance of the E-field Nano Sensor. To carry out the non-contact stiffness measurement, we fabricated a new Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) E-field sensor with different SWCNTs suspension conditions. The power spectra of the thermal induced displacement in the nano E-field sensor were measured at the accuracy of picometer. The power spectra were then used to derive the mechanical stiffness of the sensors. Effect of suspension conditions on stiffness and sensor sensitivty was discussed. After combined deformation and resistivity measurement, we can compare with our laboratory testing and field testing results. This new non-contact measurement technology can also help to explore to other nano and MEMS devices in the future.

  18. Issues on utility management simulation system for miscellaneous airborne electromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Qiaozhen; Wang, Zhanlin

    2006-11-01

    UMS for miscellaneous airborne electromechanical devices is the part and parcel of VMS. The object of utility management is airborne electromechanical devices which ensure that air engine, avionics and other systems work in order. This paper works over several items about UMS by introducing advanced simulation and its correlative technologies. Firstly, message transmission software of 1553B bus is designed and the bus characteristics are tested. Also, the problem of time synchronization is solved by testing network delay. Secondly, in order to obtain high performance of distributed process ability, heuristic job dispatching algorithm and hydrodynamic load balancing strategy are adopted, which solve the static job dispatch and dynamic job scheduling respectively. The hydrodynamic load balancing strategy is aiming to fulfill the resources usage in the whole system and accomplishes best resources sharing. Thirdly, this paper establishes and realizes the demo environment for visual simulation of the electromechanical subsystems. Adopting tree-mode during the software design makes the system scalable and reconstruction. As multithreading synchronization is resolved, real-time performance of simulation. is ensured during.

  19. Noncontact inspection technique for electrical failures in semiconductor devices using a laser terahertz emission microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo; Nikawa, Kiyoshi; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2008-07-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a novel technique for the noncontact inspection of electrical failures in semiconductor devices using a laser terahertz emission microscope. It was found that the waveforms of the terahertz pulses, emitted by exciting p-n junctions in semiconductor circuits with focused ultrafast laser pulses, depend on the interconnection structures of the circuits. We successfully distinguished damaged silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor circuits with disconnected wires from normal ones by comparing the images of terahertz emission amplitudes between a normal chip and a defective one.

  20. A process for the agile product realization of electro-mechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Diegert, K.V.; Ashby, M.R.; Parratt, S.W.; Benavides, G.L.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed at Sandia National Laboratories by the A-PRIMED project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` into a complete, step-by-step, design-to-production process. For three separate product realization efforts, each geared to a different set of requirements, A-PRIMED demonstrated product realization of a custom device in less than a month. A-PRIMED used a discriminator (a precision electro-mechanical device) as the demonstration device, but the process is readily adaptable to other electro-mechanical products. The process begins with a qualified design parameter space. From that point, the product realization process encompasses all facets of requirements development, analysis and testing, design, manufacturing, robotic assembly and quality assurance, as well as product data management and concurrent engineering. In developing the product realization process, A-PRIMED employed an iterative approach whereby after each of three builds, the process was reviewed and refinements made on the basis of lessons learned. This paper describes the integration of project functions and product realization technologies, with references to reports detailing specific facets of the overall process. The process described herein represents the outcome of an empirically-based process development effort that on repeated iterations, was proven successful.

  1. Experimental validation of a novel smart electromechanical tuned mass damper beam device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, S.; Bonello, P.; Shuttleworth, R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper validates the novel concept of utilising piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) beams as a tuned mass damper (TMD)—which suppresses a particular vibration mode of a generic host structure over a broad band of excitation frequencies. The proposed device comprises a pair of bimorphs shunted by a resistor, capacitor and inductor connected in various alternative circuit configurations. A benchmark for the performance is established through Den Hartog's theory for the optimal damping of a classical TMD. Experimental results demonstrate that such optimal damping is equivalently generated by the PVEH effect for appropriately tuned circuitry. These results correlate reasonably well with the results of a theoretical analysis introduced in a previous paper. The proposed TMD beam device combines the relative advantages of the classical ('mechanical') TMD and the shunted piezoelectric patch ('electrical' vibration absorber), presenting the prospect of a functionally more readily-adaptable class of 'electromechanical' tuned vibration absorbers. Moreover, with further development, this dual PVEH/TMD beam device holds the potential of simultaneous energy storage.

  2. Electromechanical model for a self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite actuating device with patterned surface electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruusamäe, Karl; Brunetto, Paola; Punning, Andres; Kodu, Margus; Jaaniso, Raivo; Graziani, Salvatore; Fortuna, Luigi; Aabloo, Alvo

    2011-12-01

    This paper further discusses a concept of creating a self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuating device with patterned surface electrodes where the actuator and sensor elements are separated by a grounded shielding electrode. Different patterning methods are discussed and compared in detail; the presented experimental data give an understanding of the qualitative properties of the patterns created. Finally, an electromechanical model of the device is proposed and validated.

  3. System and method of active vibration control for an electro-mechanically cooled device

    DOEpatents

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Mauger, Joseph; Anderson, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    A system and method of active vibration control of an electro-mechanically cooled device is disclosed. A cryogenic cooling system is located within an environment. The cooling system is characterized by a vibration transfer function, which requires vibration transfer function coefficients. A vibration controller generates the vibration transfer function coefficients in response to various triggering events. The environments may differ by mounting apparatus, by proximity to vibration generating devices, or by temperature. The triggering event may be powering on the cooling system, reaching an operating temperature, or a reset action. A counterbalance responds to a drive signal generated by the vibration controller, based on the vibration signal and the vibration transfer function, which adjusts vibrations. The method first places a cryogenic cooling system within a first environment and then generates a first set of vibration transfer function coefficients, for a vibration transfer function of the cooling system. Next, the cryogenic cooling system is placed within a second environment and a second set of vibration transfer function coefficients are generated. Then, a counterbalance is driven, based on the vibration transfer function, to reduce vibrations received by a vibration sensitive element.

  4. Superconducting electromechanical rotating device having a liquid-cooled, potted, one layer stator winding

    DOEpatents

    Dombrovski, Viatcheslav V.; Driscoll, David I.; Shovkhet, Boris A.

    2001-01-01

    A superconducting electromechanical rotating (SER) device, such as a synchronous AC motor, includes a superconducting field winding and a one-layer stator winding that may be water-cooled. The stator winding is potted to a support such as the inner radial surface of a support structure and, accordingly, lacks hangers or other mechanical fasteners that otherwise would complicate stator assembly and require the provision of an unnecessarily large gap between adjacent stator coil sections. The one-layer winding topology, resulting in the number of coils being equal to half the number of slots or other mounting locations on the support structure, allows one to minimize or eliminate the gap between the inner radial ends of adjacent straight sections of the stator coilswhile maintaining the gap between the coil knuckles equal to at least the coil width, providing sufficient room for electrical and cooling element configurations and connections. The stator winding may be potted to the support structure or other support, for example, by a one-step VPI process relying on saturation of an absorbent material to fill large gaps in the stator winding or by a two-step process in which small gaps are first filled via a VPI or similar operation and larger gaps are then filled via an operation that utilizes the stator as a portion of an on-site mold.

  5. Non-contact detection of cardiac rate based on visible light imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huishi; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a non-contact method to detect human cardiac rate at a distance. This detection is based on the general lighting condition. Using the video signal of human face region captured by webcam, we acquire the cardiac rate based on the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy theory. In this paper, the cardiac rate detecting method is mainly in view of the blood's different absorptivities of the lights various wavelengths. Firstly, we discompose the video signal into RGB three color signal channels and choose the face region as region of interest to take average gray value. Then, we draw three gray-mean curves on each color channel with time as variable. When the imaging device has good fidelity of color, the green channel signal shows the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy information most clearly. But the red and blue channel signals can provide more other physiological information on the account of their light absorptive characteristics of blood. We divide red channel signal by green channel signal to acquire the pulse wave. With the passband from 0.67Hz to 3Hz as a filter of the pulse wave signal and the frequency spectrum superimposed algorithm, we design frequency extracted algorithm to achieve the cardiac rate. Finally, we experiment with 30 volunteers, containing different genders and different ages. The results of the experiments are all relatively agreeable. The difference is about 2bmp. Through the experiment, we deduce that the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy theory based on visible light can also be used to detect other physiological information.

  6. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich

    2014-09-29

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0% ∼ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  7. Device with Functions of Linear Motor and Non-contact Power Collector for Wireless Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Nobuo; Mizuma, Tsuyoshi

    The authors propose a new apparatus with functions of propulsion and non-contact power collection for a future vehicle which can run like an electric vehicle supplied from the onboard battery source in most of the root except near stations. The batteries or power-capacitors are non-contact charged from the winding connected with commercial power on ground in the stations etc. The apparatus has both functions of linear motor and transformer, and the basic configuration is a wound-secondary type linear induction motor (LIM). In the paper, the wound type LIM with the concentrated single-phase winding for the primary member on the ground is dealt from the viewpoint of low cost arrangement. The secondary winding is changed to the single-phase connection for zero thrust in the transformer operation, and the two-phase connection for the linear motor respectively. The change of connection is done by the special converter for charge and linear drive on board. The characteristics are studied analytically.

  8. Non-Contact Printed Aluminum Metallization of Si Photovoltaic Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, H. A. S.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Li, Y.; Novak, J. P.

    2012-06-01

    Alternative solution-based techniques such as aerosol jet printing offer the dual benefits of contactless pattern deposition and high material utilization. We have used aerosol jet printing to investigate non-contact printed Al metal ink as a replacement for screen printed Al back contacts on wafer Si solar cells. This particle-based ink can be prepared at high loadings of 60 weight % metal, which enables rapid deposition of 1 - 10 um thick lines. Al lines printed on Si wafers and heated between 550 and 800 degrees C form low resistance contacts suitable for current extraction. The effectiveness of these printed Al back contacts has further been demonstrated by incorporating them into a series of 21 cm2 crystalline Si solar cells that produced a champion power conversion efficiency of 13%.

  9. Realization of modes of satellite attitude motion with a small level of microaccelerations using electromechanical executive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatov, A. I.; Sazonov, V. V.

    2012-09-01

    Quasi-static microaccelerations are estimated for a satellite specially designed to perform space experiments in the field of microgravity. Three modes of attitude motion of the spacecraft are considered: passive gravitational orientation, orbital orientation, and semi-passive gravitational orientation. In these modes the lengthwise axis of the satellite is directed along the local vertical, while solar arrays lie in the orbit plane. The second and third modes are maintained using electromechanical executive devices: flywheel engines or gyrodynes. Estimations of residual microaccelerations are performed with the help of mathematical modeling of satellite's attitude motion under the action of gravitational and aerodynamic moments, as well as the moment produced by the gyro system. It is demonstrated that all modes ensure rather low level of quasi-static microaccelerations on the satellite and provide for a fairly narrow region of variation for the vector of residual microacceleration. The semi-passive gravitational orientation ensures also a limited proper angular momentum of the gyro system.

  10. Noncontacting devices to indicate deflection and vibration of turbopump internal rotating parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. B.; Ensminger, D.; Grieser, D. R.; Plummer, A. M.; Saccocio, E. J.; Kissel, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Published report discusses feasibility of ultrasonic techniques; neutron techniques; X-radiography; optical devices; gamma ray devices; and conventional displacement sensors. Use of signal transmitters in place of slip rings indicated possible improvement and will be subject of futher study.

  11. Development and optimization of a noncontact optical device for online monitoring of jaundice in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Polley, Nabarun; Saha, Srimoyee; Singh, Soumendra; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Das, Sukhen; Choudhury, Bhaskar Roy; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Jaundice is one of the notable markers of liver malfunction in our body, revealing a significant rise in the concentration of an endogenous yellow pigment bilirubin. We have described a method for measuring the optical spectrum of our conjunctiva and derived pigment concentration by using diffused reflection measurement. The method uses no prior model and is expected to work across the races (skin color) encompassing a wide range of age groups. An optical fiber-based setup capable of measuring the conjunctival absorption spectrum from 400 to 800 nm is used to monitor the level of bilirubin and is calibrated with the value measured from blood serum of the same human subject. We have also developed software in the LabVIEW platform for use in online monitoring of bilirubin levels in human subjects by nonexperts. The results demonstrate that relative absorption at 460 and 600 nm has a distinct correlation with that of the bilirubin concentration measured from blood serum. Statistical analysis revealed that our proposed method is in agreement with the conventional biochemical method. The innovative noncontact, low-cost technique is expected to have importance in monitoring jaundice in developing/underdeveloped countries, where the inexpensive diagnosis of jaundice with minimally trained manpower is obligatory. PMID:26052974

  12. Development and optimization of a noncontact optical device for online monitoring of jaundice in human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polley, Nabarun; Saha, Srimoyee; Singh, Soumendra; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Das, Sukhen; Choudhury, Bhaskar Roy; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Jaundice is one of the notable markers of liver malfunction in our body, revealing a significant rise in the concentration of an endogenous yellow pigment bilirubin. We have described a method for measuring the optical spectrum of our conjunctiva and derived pigment concentration by using diffused reflection measurement. The method uses no prior model and is expected to work across the races (skin color) encompassing a wide range of age groups. An optical fiber-based setup capable of measuring the conjunctival absorption spectrum from 400 to 800 nm is used to monitor the level of bilirubin and is calibrated with the value measured from blood serum of the same human subject. We have also developed software in the LabVIEW platform for use in online monitoring of bilirubin levels in human subjects by nonexperts. The results demonstrate that relative absorption at 460 and 600 nm has a distinct correlation with that of the bilirubin concentration measured from blood serum. Statistical analysis revealed that our proposed method is in agreement with the conventional biochemical method. The innovative noncontact, low-cost technique is expected to have importance in monitoring jaundice in developing/underdeveloped countries, where the inexpensive diagnosis of jaundice with minimally trained manpower is obligatory.

  13. Noncontacting devices to indicate deflection and vibration of turbopump internal rotating parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. B.; Ensminger, D.; Grieser, D. R.; Plummer, A. M.; Saccocio, E. J.; Kissel, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported which was conducted to develop devices for measuring vibrations and deflections of parts, such as impellers, shafts, turbine wheels, and inducers in operating turbopumps. Three devices were developed to the breadboard stage: ultrasonic Doppler transducer, flash X-rays, and light-pipe reflectance. It was found that the X-ray technique is applicable to the shaft assembly and the turbine seal of the J-2 pump, and the light-pipe-reflectance device appears to be ideal for cryogenic pump sections.

  14. Transfer-Free, Wafer-Scale Manufacturing of Graphene-Based Electromechanical Resonant Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullinan, Michael; Gorman, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) resonators offer the potential to extend the limits of force and mass detection due to their small size, high natural frequencies and high Q-factors. Graphene-based NEMS resonators are particularly promising due to their high elastic modulus and atomic thickness. However, widespread use of graphene in such systems is limited by the way in which graphene-based devices are typically fabricated. Most graphene-based NEMS devices are fabricated in a ``one-off'' manner using slow, limited scale methods such as mechanical exfoliation, electron beam lithography, or transfer from copper foils which can't be incorporated into standard micro/nanofabrication lines. This talk will present a method that can be used to manufacture graphene-based NEMS devices at the wafer scale using conventional microfabrication techniques. In this method graphene is grown directly on thin film copper using chemical vapor deposition. The copper film is then patterned and etched to produce graphene-based NEMS resonators. This talk will also address some of the challenges in fabricating a large number of graphene devices at the wafer scale including achieving high uniformity across the wafer, increasing device-to-device repeatability, and producing high device yields.

  15. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels). PMID:26818091

  16. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels).

  17. Micro-electromechanical Systems for Probing Novel Strain Physics and Innovative Strain Devices in 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Jason; Vutukuru, Mounika; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna; Goldberg, Bennett

    Straining 2D materials can dramatically change electrical, thermal and optical properties and can even cause unconventional behavior such as generating pseudo-magnetic fields. However attempts at probing these effects have been hindered by the difficulty involved with precisely straining these materials. Here we present micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) as an ideal platform for straining 2D materials because they are readily compatible with existing electronics and their size makes them compatible with 2D materials. Additionally the MEMS platform does more than facilitate experimentation; by freeing us to think of strain as dynamical it makes a whole new class of devices practical for next generation technology. To demonstrate the power of this platform we have for the first time measured the strain response of the Raman and photoluminescence spectra of suspended MoS2, and measured the friction force between MoS2 and the MEMS structure. This talk will touch on the basics of designing MEMS structures for straining 2D materials, how to transfer 2D materials onto MEMS without break either, proof of concept experimental results, and next steps in developing the MEMS platform. This work is supported by NSF DMR Grant 1411008, and author J. Christopher thanks the NDSEG program for its support.

  18. The impact of rare earth cobalt permanent magnets on electromechanical device design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.; Studer, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Specific motor designs which employ rare earth cobalt magnets are discussed with special emphasis on their unique properties and magnetic field geometry. In addition to performance improvements and power savings, high reliability devices are attainable. Both the mechanism and systems engineering should be aware of the new performance levels which are currently becoming available as a result of the rare earth cobalt magnets.

  19. A theoretical study of a smart electromechanical tuned mass damper beam device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonello, P.; Rafique, S.; Shuttleworth, R.

    2012-12-01

    Research into piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) beams has so far largely overlooked the fact that these are, in many practical applications, mechanical absorbers of the vibration of the structure to which they are attached. This paper introduces the novel concept of utilizing a PVEH beam as a tuned mass damper (TMD)—which suppresses a particular vibration mode of a generic host structure over a broad band of excitation frequencies. This device comprises a pair of bimorphs shunted by resistor-capacitor-inductor circuitry. The optimal damping required by this TMD is generated by the PVEH effect of the bimorphs. The theoretical basis of this dual PVEH/TMD beam device is presented and verified by alternative analytical methods. The simulation results demonstrate that the ideal degree of vibration attenuation can be achieved through appropriate tuning of the circuitry for a device whose effective mass is less than 2% of the equivalent modal mass of the host structure. The proposed dual PVEH/TMD beam device combines the relative advantages of the classical (mechanical) TMD and the shunted piezoelectric patch (electrical vibration absorber), presenting the prospect of a functionally more readily adaptable class of ‘electromechanical’ tuned vibration absorbers.

  20. Simple yet accurate noncontact device for measuring the radius of curvature of a spherical mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Spiridonov, Maxim; Toebaert, David

    2006-09-10

    An easily reproducible device is demonstrated to be capable of measuring the radii of curvature of spherical mirrors, both convex and concave, without resorting to high-end interferometric or tactile devices. The former are too elaborate for our purposes,and the latter cannot be used due to the delicate nature of the coatings applied to mirrors used in high-power CO2 laser applications. The proposed apparatus is accurate enough to be useful to anyone using curved optics and needing a quick way to assess the values of the radii of curvature, be it for entrance quality control or trouble shooting an apparently malfunctioning optical system. Specifically, the apparatus was designed for checking 50 mm diameter resonator(typically flat or tens of meters concave) and telescope (typically some meters convex and concave) mirrors for a high-power CO2 laser, but it can easily be adapted to any other type of spherical mirror by a straightforward resizing.

  1. A process for the agile product realization of electromechanical devices (A-primed)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed at Sandia National Laboratories by the A-PRIMED project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` (Nagel & Dove, 1992) into a complete, step-by-step, design-to-production process. For two separate product realization efforts, each geared to a different set of requirements, A-PRIMED demonstrated product realization of a custom device in less than a month. A-PRIMED used a discriminator (a precision electro mechanical device) as the demonstration device, but the process is readily adaptable to other electro mechanical products. The process begins with a qualified design parameter space (Diegert et al, 1995). From that point, the product realization process encompasses all facets of requirements development, analysis and testing, design, manufacturing, robot assembly and quality assurance, as well as product data management and concurrent engineering. In developing the product realization process, A-PRIMED employed an iterative approach whereby after each build, the process was reviewed and refinements were made on the basis of lessons learned. This paper describes the integration of project functions and product realization technologies to develop a product realization process that on repeated iterations, was proven successful.

  2. Ocular biomechanical measurements on post-keratoplasty corneas using a Scheimpflug-based noncontact device

    PubMed Central

    Modis, Laszlo; Hassan, Ziad; Szalai, Eszter; Flaskó, Zsuzsanna; Berta, Andras; Nemeth, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyse ocular biomechanical properties, central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in post-keratoplasty eyes, as compared to normal subjects, with a new Scheimpflug-based technology. Moreover, biomechanical data were correlated with the size and age of the donor and recipient corneas. METHODS Measurements were conducted on 46 eyes of 46 healthy patients without any corneal pathology (age: 53.83±20.8y) and 30 eyes of 28 patients after penetrating keratoplasty (age: 49.43±21.34y). Ten biomechanical parameters, the CCT and IOP were recorded by corneal visualization scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) using high-speed Scheimpflug imaging. Keratometry values were also recorded using Pentacam HR system. Scheimpflug measurements were performed after 43.41±40.17mo (range: 11-128mo) after the keratoplasty and after 7.64±2.34mo (range: 5-14mo) of suture removal. RESULTS Regarding the device-specific biomechanical parameters, the highest concavity time and radius values showed a significant decrease between these two groups (P=0.01 and P<0.001). None of other biomechanical parameters disclosed a significant difference. The CCT showed a significant difference between post-keratoplasty eyes as compared to normal subjects (P=0.003) using the CorVis ST device. The IOP was within the normal range in both groups (P=0.84). There were no significant relationships between the keratometric data, the size of the donor and recipient, age of the donor and recipient and biomechanical properties obtained by CorVis ST. CONCLUSION The ocular biomechanics remain stable after penetrating keratoplasty according to the CorVis ST measurements. Only two from the ten device-specific parameters have importance in the follow-up period after penetrating keratoplasty. PMID:26949641

  3. Analytical model of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model magnetic bearing actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical model of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model magnetic bearing actuator with permanent magnet fluxbiasing is presented. An AMCD consists of a spinning annular rim which is suspended by a noncontacting linear electromagnetic spin motor. The actuator is treated as a lumped-parameter electromechanical system in the development of the model.

  4. A process for the agile product realization of electro-mechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed and demonstrated at Sandia by the A-PRIMED (Agile Product Realization for Innovative Electro MEchanical Devices) project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` into a complete, design-to-production process. Evidence indicates that the process has reduced the product realization cycle and assured product quality. Products included discriminators for a robotic quick change adapter and for an electronic defense system. These discriminators, built using A-PRIMED, met random vibration requirements and had life cycles that far surpass the performance obtained from earlier efforts.

  5. Conceptual design of a noncontacting power transfer device for the ASPS Vernier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, J.; Drilling, J.; Gunderman, T.

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual of electrical power transfer across a magnetically controlled gap as discussed for several years. The design represents the culmination of the first serious attempt to design a very low force, noncontracting power transfer mechanism. The electromagnetic device advanced herein is an ironless, translatable secondary transformer in which one of the two coils is fixed to the entire magnetic core. The second coil is free to move within the core over the full range of motions required. The specific application considered for this design was the Vernier subsystem of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS). The development of and rationale for the electromagnetics design is presented. Similar documentation is provided for the Electronics Design. The Appendices detail the results of small scale model tests, disturbance force calculations, the baseline transformer fabrication drawings, the AVS Converter Parts List, and model schematic diagrams.

  6. Enhancement of effective electromechanical coupling factor by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Teshigahara, Akihiko; Iwaki, Takao; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a drastic enhancement of the effective coupling factor K\\text{e}2 by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures such as the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure. This phenomenon occurs when the piezoelectric layer exhibits a high acoustic wave velocity. The mass loading decreases the SAW velocity and causes SAW energy confinement close to the top surface where an interdigital transducer is placed. It is shown that this phenomenon is obvious even when an amorphous SiO2 film is deposited on the top surface for temperature compensation. This K\\text{e}2 enhancement was also found in various combinations of electrode, piezoelectric layer, and/or substrate materials. The existence of this phenomenon was verified experimentally using the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure.

  7. Graphene Quantum Dots Interfaced with Single Bacterial Spore for Bio-Electromechanical Devices: A Graphene Cytobot

    PubMed Central

    Sreeprasad, T. S.; Nguyen, Phong; Alshogeathri, Ahmed; Hibbeler, Luke; Martinez, Fabian; McNeil, Nolan; Berry, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    The nanoarchitecture and micromachinery of a cell can be leveraged to fabricate sophisticated cell-driven devices. This requires a coherent strategy to derive cell's mechanistic abilities, microconstruct, and chemical-texture towards such microtechnologies. For example, a microorganism's hydrophobic membrane encapsulating hygroscopic constituents allows it to sustainably withhold a high aquatic pressure. Further, it provides a rich surface chemistry available for nano-interfacing and a strong mechanical response to humidity. Here we demonstrate a route to incorporate a complex cellular structure into microelectromechanics by interfacing compatible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a highly responsive single spore microstructure. A sensitive and reproducible electron-tunneling width modulation of 1.63 nm within a network of GQDs chemically-secured on a spore was achieved via sporal hydraulics with a driving force of 299.75 Torrs (21.7% water at GQD junctions). The electron-transport activation energy and the Coulomb blockade threshold for the GQD network were 35 meV and 31 meV, respectively; while the inter-GQD capacitance increased by 1.12 folds at maximum hydraulic force. This is the first example of nano/bio interfacing with spores and will lead to the evolution of next-generation bio-derived microarchitectures, probes for cellular/biochemical processes, biomicrorobotic-mechanisms, and membranes for micromechanical actuation. PMID:25774962

  8. Graphene Quantum Dots Interfaced with Single Bacterial Spore for Bio-Electromechanical Devices: A Graphene Cytobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeprasad, T. S.; Nguyen, Phong; Alshogeathri, Ahmed; Hibbeler, Luke; Martinez, Fabian; McNeil, Nolan; Berry, Vikas

    2015-03-01

    The nanoarchitecture and micromachinery of a cell can be leveraged to fabricate sophisticated cell-driven devices. This requires a coherent strategy to derive cell's mechanistic abilities, microconstruct, and chemical-texture towards such microtechnologies. For example, a microorganism's hydrophobic membrane encapsulating hygroscopic constituents allows it to sustainably withhold a high aquatic pressure. Further, it provides a rich surface chemistry available for nano-interfacing and a strong mechanical response to humidity. Here we demonstrate a route to incorporate a complex cellular structure into microelectromechanics by interfacing compatible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a highly responsive single spore microstructure. A sensitive and reproducible electron-tunneling width modulation of 1.63 nm within a network of GQDs chemically-secured on a spore was achieved via sporal hydraulics with a driving force of 299.75 Torrs (21.7% water at GQD junctions). The electron-transport activation energy and the Coulomb blockade threshold for the GQD network were 35 meV and 31 meV, respectively; while the inter-GQD capacitance increased by 1.12 folds at maximum hydraulic force. This is the first example of nano/bio interfacing with spores and will lead to the evolution of next-generation bio-derived microarchitectures, probes for cellular/biochemical processes, biomicrorobotic-mechanisms, and membranes for micromechanical actuation.

  9. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  10. Electromechanical Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 25 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of electromechanical technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific occupation and…

  11. Electromechanical cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Neufeld, K.W.

    1996-12-10

    An electromechanical cryocooler is disclosed for substantially reducing vibrations caused by the cooler. The direction of the force of the vibrations is measured and a counterforce sufficient to substantially reduce this vibration is calculated and generated. The counterforce is 180{degree} out of phase with the direction of the force of the vibrations. 3 figs.

  12. Electromechanical cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Neufeld, Kenneth W.

    1996-01-01

    An electromechanical cryocooler is disclosed for substantially reducing vibrations caused by the cooler. The direction of the force of the vibrations is measured and a counterforce sufficient to substantially reduce this vibration is calculated and generated. The counterforce is 180.degree. out of phase with the direction of the force of the vibrations.

  13. Electromechanical Componentry. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Don

    This training module on electromechanical components contains 10 units for a two-year vocational program packaging system equipment control course at Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College. This module describes the functions of electromechanical devices essential for understanding input/output devices for Programmable Logic Control (PLC)…

  14. Quantum electromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milburn, Gerard J.; Polkinghorne, Rodney

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the conditions under which electromechanical systems, fabricated on a sub micron scale, require a quantum description. We illustrate the discussion with the example of a mechanical electroscope for which the resonant frequency of a cantilever changes in response to a local charge. We show how such devices may be used as a quantum noise limited apparatus for detection of a single charge or spin with applications to quantum computing.

  15. Electromechanical oscillations in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benameur, Muhammed M.; Gargiulo, Fernando; Manzeli, Sajedeh; Autès, Gabriel; Tosun, Mahmut; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2015-10-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems constitute a class of devices lying at the interface between fundamental research and technological applications. Realizing nanoelectromechanical devices based on novel materials such as graphene allows studying their mechanical and electromechanical characteristics at the nanoscale and addressing fundamental questions such as electron-phonon interaction and bandgap engineering. In this work, we realize electromechanical devices using single and bilayer graphene and probe the interplay between their mechanical and electrical properties. We show that the deflection of monolayer graphene nanoribbons results in a linear increase in their electrical resistance. Surprisingly, we observe oscillations in the electromechanical response of bilayer graphene. The proposed theoretical model suggests that these oscillations arise from quantum mechanical interference in the transition region induced by sliding of individual graphene layers with respect to each other. Our work shows that bilayer graphene conceals unexpectedly rich and novel physics with promising potential in applications based on nanoelectromechanical systems.

  16. Electromechanical oscillations in bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Benameur, Muhammed M; Gargiulo, Fernando; Manzeli, Sajedeh; Autès, Gabriel; Tosun, Mahmut; Yazyev, Oleg V; Kis, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems constitute a class of devices lying at the interface between fundamental research and technological applications. Realizing nanoelectromechanical devices based on novel materials such as graphene allows studying their mechanical and electromechanical characteristics at the nanoscale and addressing fundamental questions such as electron-phonon interaction and bandgap engineering. In this work, we realize electromechanical devices using single and bilayer graphene and probe the interplay between their mechanical and electrical properties. We show that the deflection of monolayer graphene nanoribbons results in a linear increase in their electrical resistance. Surprisingly, we observe oscillations in the electromechanical response of bilayer graphene. The proposed theoretical model suggests that these oscillations arise from quantum mechanical interference in the transition region induced by sliding of individual graphene layers with respect to each other. Our work shows that bilayer graphene conceals unexpectedly rich and novel physics with promising potential in applications based on nanoelectromechanical systems. PMID:26481767

  17. Electromechanical oscillations in bilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Benameur, Muhammed M.; Gargiulo, Fernando; Manzeli, Sajedeh; Autès, Gabriel; Tosun, Mahmut; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems constitute a class of devices lying at the interface between fundamental research and technological applications. Realizing nanoelectromechanical devices based on novel materials such as graphene allows studying their mechanical and electromechanical characteristics at the nanoscale and addressing fundamental questions such as electron–phonon interaction and bandgap engineering. In this work, we realize electromechanical devices using single and bilayer graphene and probe the interplay between their mechanical and electrical properties. We show that the deflection of monolayer graphene nanoribbons results in a linear increase in their electrical resistance. Surprisingly, we observe oscillations in the electromechanical response of bilayer graphene. The proposed theoretical model suggests that these oscillations arise from quantum mechanical interference in the transition region induced by sliding of individual graphene layers with respect to each other. Our work shows that bilayer graphene conceals unexpectedly rich and novel physics with promising potential in applications based on nanoelectromechanical systems. PMID:26481767

  18. Lead zirconate titanate cantilever for noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Y.; Fujii, T.; Watanabe, S.; Tonoli, A.; Carabelli, S.; Yamada, H.; Bleuler, H.

    1999-02-01

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy with frequency modulation detection is a promising technique for surface observation with true atomic resolution. The piezoelectric material itself can be an actuator and sensor of the oscillating probe simultaneously, without the need for additional electro-mechanical transducers or other measurement systems. A vertical resolution of 0.01 nm rms has been achieved using a microfabricated cantilever with lead zirconate titanate thin film in noncontact mode frequency modulation detection. The cantilever also has a sharpened pyramidal stylus with a radius of about 10 nm for noncontact atomic force microscopy.

  19. Electromechanical cell lysis using a portable audio device: enabling challenging sample preparation at the point-of-care.

    PubMed

    Buser, J R; Wollen, A; Heiniger, E K; Byrnes, S A; Kauffman, P C; Ladd, P D; Yager, P

    2015-05-01

    Audio sources are ubiquitously available on portable electronic devices, including cell phones. Here we demonstrate lysis of Mycobacterium marinum and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria utilizing a portable audio device coupled with a simple and inexpensive electromagnetic coil. The resulting alternating magnetic field rotates a magnet in a tube with the sample and glass beads, lysing the cells and enabling sample preparation for these bacteria anywhere there is a cell phone, mp3 player, laptop, or other device with a headphone jack. PMID:25797443

  20. Bilayer Graphene Electromechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, Alexandre; Storms, Matthew; Yigen, Serap; Reulet, Bertrand

    Bilayer graphene is an outstanding electromechanical system, and its electronic and mechanical properties, as well as their coupling, are widely tunable. To the best of our knowledge, simultaneous charge transport and mechanical spectroscopy (via RF mixing) has not been realized in bilayer graphene. We present data showing clear electromechanical resonances in three suspended bilayer devices whose length range from 1 to 2 microns. We first describe the low-temperature current annealing of the devices which is crucial to achieve the transconductance, I -VG , necessary to implement a RF mixing detection method. We describe our RF mixing circuit and data. We measure clear mechanical resonances ranging in frequency from 50 to 140 MHz. We show that we can smoothly tune the resonance frequencies of our bilayer resonators with mechanical strain applied via a backgate voltage. We measure quality factors up to 4000. We briefly discuss the effects of the RF driving power on the dispersion of the mechanical resonance. We aim to use these high quality mechanical resonance as a mechanical sensor of the bilayer quantum Hall phase transitions. We show initial data of a bilayer mechanical resonance as a function of magnetic field and quantum Hall phase transitions.

  1. Electro-Mechanical Properties of Metal-Insulator-Metal Device Fabricated on Polymer Substrate Using Low-Temperature Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Kyu; Han, Jeong In; Kim, Won Keun; Hong, Sung Jei; Kwak, Min Gi; Lee, Myung Jae; Chung, Kwan Soo

    2002-02-01

    High-performance metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices on flexible polymer substrates were successfully fabricated without any defects such as cracks, delamination and blistering. This work examines the mechanical and electrical properties of MIM devices constructed using anodic Ta2O5 films. Using newly developed methods including stepped heating process and low-temperature post-annealing below 180°C, we obtained high-performances MIM devices on polymer substrates. Here, we propose the use of stacked bottom electrode and water barrier layer in order to enhance the ductility of the Ta electrode and to prevent blistering problems, respectively. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electronic microscope (TEM) observations were performed for the structural investigation of the MIM devices on polymer substrates. Electrical measurements were also carried out for as-deposited and thermally treated MIM devices including Al/Ta/Ta2O5/Cr or Ti structures. They exhibit a low leakage current (below 10-7 A/cm2 at 2 MV) and reasonable breakdown voltage (5-7 MV/cm) with a uniformity of 92%. Finally, under low-temperature post-annealing conditions, The Current-Voltage (I-V) behaviors and conduction mechanisms of MIM devices on polymer substrates are discussed based on the results of electrical measurements, structural investigations and conduction band modeling.

  2. Evaluation of Qualitative Changes in Simulated Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Using a Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Device with a Laser Displacement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Yamaoka, Masaru; Yasukawa, Takuya; Ibi, Haruna; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating periodontal tissue condition is an important diagnostic parameter in periodontal disease. Noncontact electromagnetic vibration device (NEVD) was previously developed to monitor this condition using mechanical parameters. However, this system requires accelerometer on the target tooth. This study assessed application of laser displacement sensor (LDS) to NEVD without accelerometer using experimental tooth models. Tooth models consisted of cylindrical rod, a tissue conditioner, and polyurethane or polyurethane foam to simulate tooth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, respectively. Tissue conditioner was prepared by mixing various volumes of liquid with powder. Mechanical parameters (resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and coefficient of viscosity) were assessed using NEVD with the following methods: Group A, measurement with accelerometer; Group B, measurement with LDS in the presence of accelerometer; and Group C, measurement with LDS in the absence of accelerometer. Mechanical parameters significantly decreased with increasing liquid volume. Significant differences were also observed between the polyurethane and polyurethane foam models. Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were observed between Groups A and B; however, most mechanical parameters in Group C were significantly larger and more distinguishable than those of Groups A and B. LDS could measure mechanical parameters more accurately and clearly distinguished the different periodontal ligament and alveolar bone conditions. PMID:27274995

  3. Evaluation of Qualitative Changes in Simulated Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Using a Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Device with a Laser Displacement Sensor.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Yamaoka, Masaru; Yasukawa, Takuya; Ibi, Haruna; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating periodontal tissue condition is an important diagnostic parameter in periodontal disease. Noncontact electromagnetic vibration device (NEVD) was previously developed to monitor this condition using mechanical parameters. However, this system requires accelerometer on the target tooth. This study assessed application of laser displacement sensor (LDS) to NEVD without accelerometer using experimental tooth models. Tooth models consisted of cylindrical rod, a tissue conditioner, and polyurethane or polyurethane foam to simulate tooth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, respectively. Tissue conditioner was prepared by mixing various volumes of liquid with powder. Mechanical parameters (resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and coefficient of viscosity) were assessed using NEVD with the following methods: Group A, measurement with accelerometer; Group B, measurement with LDS in the presence of accelerometer; and Group C, measurement with LDS in the absence of accelerometer. Mechanical parameters significantly decreased with increasing liquid volume. Significant differences were also observed between the polyurethane and polyurethane foam models. Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were observed between Groups A and B; however, most mechanical parameters in Group C were significantly larger and more distinguishable than those of Groups A and B. LDS could measure mechanical parameters more accurately and clearly distinguished the different periodontal ligament and alveolar bone conditions. PMID:27274995

  4. Use of a laser displacement sensor with a non-contact electromagnetic vibration device for assessment of simulated periodontal tissue conditions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Masaru; Hayashi, Makoto; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2016-01-01

    A non-contact electromagnetic vibration device (NEVD) was previously developed to monitor the condition of periodontal tissues by assessing mechanical parameters. This system requires placement of an accelerometer on the target tooth, to detect vibration. Using experimental tooth models, we evaluated the performance of an NEVD system with a laser displacement sensor (LDS), which does not need an accelerometer. Simulated teeth (polyacetal rods) were submerged at various depths in simulated bone (polyurethane or polyurethane foam) containing simulated periodontal ligament (tissue conditioner). Then, mechanical parameters (resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and viscosity coefficient) were assessed using the NEVD with the following detection methods: Group 1, measurement with an accelerometer; Group 2, measurement with an LDS in the presence of the accelerometer; and Group 3, measurement with an LDS in the absence of the accelerometer. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric methods (n = 5) (P < 0.05). The three mechanical parameters significantly increased with increasing depth. In addition, the mechanical parameters significantly differed between the polyurethane and polyurethane foam models. Although Groups 1 and 2 did not significantly differ, most all mechanical parameters in Group 3 were significantly larger and more distinguishable than those in Groups 1 and 2. The LDS was more accurate in measuring mechanical parameters and better able to differentiate periodontal tissue conditions. (J Oral Sci 58, 93-99, 2016). PMID:27021545

  5. EMMA: Electromechanical Modeling in ALEGRA

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    To ensure high levels of deterrent capability in the 21st century, new stockpile stewardship principles are being embraced at Sandia National Laboratories. The Department of Energy Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program is providing the computational capacity and capability as well as funding the system and simulation software infrastructure necessary to provide accurate, precise and predictive modeling of important components and devices. An important class of components require modeling of piezoelectric and ferroceramic materials. The capability to run highly resolved simulations of these types of components on the ASCI parallel computers is being developed at Sandia in the ElectroMechanical Modeling in Alegra (EMMA) code. This a simulation capability being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for high-fidelity modeling of electromechanical devices. these devices can produce electrical current arising from material changes due to shock impact or explosive detonation.

  6. Intracorporeal Electromechanical Tissue Morcellation

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Kimberly A.; Anderson, Ted L.; Nezhat, Ceana H.

    2015-01-01

    Electromechanical morcellators have come under scrutiny with concerns about complications involving iatrogenic dissemination of both benign and malignant tissues. Although the rapidly rotating blade has resulted in morcellator-related vascular and visceral injuries, equally concerning are the multiple reports in the literature demonstrating seeding of the abdominal cavity with tissue fragmented such as leiomyomas, endometriosis, adenomyosis, splenic and ovarian tissues, and occult cancers of the ovaries and uterus. Alternatives to intra-corporeal electric morcellation for tissue extirpation through the vagina and through minilaparotomy are feasible, safe, and have been shown to have comparable, if not superior, outcomes without an increased need for laparotomy. Intracorporeal morcellation within a containment bag is another option to minimize the risk of iatrogenic tissue seeding. Patient safety is a priority with balanced goals of maximizing benefits and minimizing harm. When intracorporeal electromechanical morcellation is planned, physicians should discuss the risks and consequences with their patients. Although data are being collected to quantify and understand these risks more clearly, a minimally invasive alternative to unenclosed intracorporeal morcellation is favored when available. It is incumbent on surgeons to communicate the risks of practices and devices and to advocate for continued improvement in surgical instrumentation and techniques. PMID:25198260

  7. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Laser pyrometer techniques are utilized to accurately image a true temperature distribution on a given target without touching the target and without knowing the localized emissivity of the target. The pyrometer utilizes a very high definition laser beam and photodetector, both having a very narrow focus. The pyrometer is mounted in a mechanism designed to permit the pyrometer to be aimed and focused at precise localized points on the target surface. The pyrometer is swept over the surface area to be imaged, temperature measurements being taken at each point of focus.

  8. Non-contact handling device

    DOEpatents

    Reece, Mark; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.

    2007-05-15

    A pressurized fluid handling nozzle has a body with a first end and a second end, a fluid conduit and a recess at the second end. The first end is configured for connection to a pressurized fluid source. The fluid conduit has an inlet at the first end and an outlet at the recess. The nozzle uses the Bernoulli effect for lifting a part.

  9. Powerful Electromechanical Linear Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John R.; Myers, William N.

    1994-01-01

    Powerful electromechanical linear actuator designed to replace hydraulic actuator that provides incremental linear movements to large object and holds its position against heavy loads. Electromechanical actuator cleaner and simpler, and needs less maintenance. Two principal innovative features that distinguish new actuator are use of shaft-angle resolver as source of position feedback to electronic control subsystem and antibacklash gearing arrangement.

  10. Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovtun, V.; Döring, J.; Bartusch, J.; Beck, U.; Erhard, A.; Yakymenko, Y.

    2007-09-01

    Dielectric and electromechanical properties of the cellular polypropylene ferroelectret films (EMFIT), combining strong piezoelectric response with a low density and softness, evidence their high potential for the air-coupled ultrasonic applications. The disadvantage of the low coupling factor is compensated by the extremely low acoustic impedance, which provides excellent matching to air and promises efficient sound transmission through the air transducer interface. The influence of the electrodes on the electromechanical properties was investigated. Electron beam evaporation technology was adapted to the EMFIT films, and films with both-sided Au and Al electrodes were prepared without reducing or suppressing of the electromechanical properties. Finally, prototype transducers based on the EMFIT films were developed. In spite of the simple construction and absence of matching layers, high sensitivity of the EMFIT transducers was proved in the air-coupled ultrasonic experiment. Amplitude and delay time scanned images of the polyethylene step wedge with holes, obtained in both pulse-echo and transmission modes, demonstrate that non-contact ultrasonic imaging and testing with EMFIT transducers is possible.

  11. Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Willatzen, M.

    2011-02-01

    Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductors are still poorly studied from a fundamental and an applied science perspective, even though significant strides have been made in the last decade or so. Indeed, most current electromechanical devices are based on ferroelectric oxides. Yet, the importance of the effect in certain semiconductors is being increasingly recognized. For instance, the magnitude of the electric field in an AlN/GaN nanostructure can reach 1-10 MV/cm. In fact, the basic functioning of an (0001) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor is due to the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the material interface by the polarization fields. The goal of this review is to inform the reader of some of the recent developments in the field for nanostructures and to point out still open questions. Examples of recent work that involves the piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects in semiconductors include: the study of the optoelectronic properties of III-nitrides quantum wells and dots, the current controversy regarding the importance of the nonlinear piezoelectric effect, energy harvesting using ZnO nanowires as a piezoelectric nanogenerator, the use of piezoelectric materials in surface acoustic wave devices, and the appropriateness of various models for analyzing electromechanical effects. Piezoelectric materials such as GaN and ZnO are gaining more and more importance for energy-related applications; examples include high-brightness light-emitting diodes for white lighting, high-electron mobility transistors, and nanogenerators. Indeed, it remains to be demonstrated whether these materials could be the ideal multifunctional materials. The solutions to these and other related problems will not only lead to a better understanding of the basic physics of these materials, but will validate new characterization tools, and advance the development of new and better devices. We will restrict ourselves to nanostructures in the current article even though the

  12. Noncontact Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Noncontact temperature measurement has been identified as one of the eight advanced technology development (ATD) areas to support the effort of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division in developing six Space Station flight experiment facilities. This two-day workshop was an opportunity for all six disciplines to present their requirements on noncontact temperature measurement and to discuss state-of-the-art developments. Multi-color pyrometry, laser pyrometry and radiometric imaging techniques are addressed.

  13. Modeling of dielectric elastomer as electromechanical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo Liu, Lei; Chen, Hualing; Jia, Shuhai; Zhang, Junshi; Li, Dichen

    2014-09-28

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) feature nonlinear dynamics resulting from an electromechanical coupling. Under alternating voltage, the DE resonates with tunable performances. We present an analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a DE as electromechanical resonator (DEER) configured as a pure shear actuator. A theoretical model is developed to characterize the complex performance under different boundary conditions. Physical mechanisms are presented and discussed. Chaotic behavior is also predicted, illustrating instabilities in the dynamics. The results provide a guide to the design and application of DEER in haptic devices.

  14. Modeling of dielectric elastomer as electromechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Junshi; Liu, Lei; Chen, Hualing; Jia, Shuhai; Li, Dichen

    2014-09-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) feature nonlinear dynamics resulting from an electromechanical coupling. Under alternating voltage, the DE resonates with tunable performances. We present an analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a DE as electromechanical resonator (DEER) configured as a pure shear actuator. A theoretical model is developed to characterize the complex performance under different boundary conditions. Physical mechanisms are presented and discussed. Chaotic behavior is also predicted, illustrating instabilities in the dynamics. The results provide a guide to the design and application of DEER in haptic devices.

  15. Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Sebastian G.; Lehnert, Konrad W.; Hammerer, Klemens

    2016-02-01

    Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments.

  16. Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Sebastian G; Lehnert, Konrad W; Hammerer, Klemens

    2016-02-19

    Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments. PMID:26943516

  17. Electromechanical acoustic liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Cattafesta, III, Louis N. (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikazu (Inventor); Horowitz, Stephen Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A multi-resonator-based system responsive to acoustic waves includes at least two resonators, each including a bottom plate, side walls secured to the bottom plate, and a top plate disposed on top of the side walls. The top plate includes an orifice so that a portion of an incident acoustical wave compresses gas in the resonators. The bottom plate or the side walls include at least one compliant portion. A reciprocal electromechanical transducer coupled to the compliant portion of each of the resonators forms a first and second transducer/compliant composite. An electrical network is disposed between the reciprocal electromechanical transducer of the first and second resonator.

  18. Elevation scanning laser/multi-sensor hazard detection system controller and mirror/mast speed control components. [roving vehicle electromechanical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The electro-mechanical and electronic systems involved with pointing a laser beam from a roving vehicle along a desired vector are described. A rotating 8 sided mirror, driven by a phase-locked dc motor servo system, and monitored by a precision optical shaft encoder is used. This upper assembly is then rotated about an orthogonal axis to allow scanning into all 360 deg around the vehicle. This axis is also driven by a phase locked dc motor servo-system, and monitored with an optical shaft encoder. The electronics are realized in standard TTL integrated circuits with UV-erasable proms used to store desired coordinates of laser fire. Related topics such as the interface to the existing test vehicle are discussed.

  19. Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.

  20. Electromechanical railgun model

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M. ); Condit, W.C. )

    1991-07-01

    In this paper, the electromechanical aspects of railgun motion are modeled analytically. A Lagrangian formulation is used to obtain the force and circuit equations, which are then solved for energy conservation and resistive flux decay. The resulting integral equation is solved for the barrel length as a measure of the launcher size and cost.

  1. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  2. Electromechanical Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)

  3. Electro-Mechanical Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The electro-mechanical actuator, a new electronics technology, is an electronic system that provides the force needed to move valves that control the flow of propellant to the engine. It is proving to be advantageous for the main propulsion system plarned for a second generation reusable launch vehicle. Hydraulic actuators have been used successfully in rocket propulsion systems. However, they can leak when high pressure is exerted on such a fluid-filled hydraulic system. Also, hydraulic systems require significant maintenance and support equipment. The electro-mechanical actuator is proving to be low maintenance and the system weighs less than a hydraulic system. The electronic controller is a separate unit powering the actuator. Each actuator has its own control box. If a problem is detected, it can be replaced by simply removing one defective unit. The hydraulic systems must sustain significant hydraulic pressures in a rocket engine regardless of demand. The electro-mechanical actuator utilizes power only when needed. A goal of the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program is to substantially improve safety and reliability while reducing the high cost of space travel. The electro-mechanical actuator was developed by the Propulsion Projects Office of the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Electro-Mechanical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This electromechanical technician curriculum covers the following general areas: (1) basic soldering; (2) reading diagrams and following schematics; and (3) repairing circuitry and mechanics common to major appliances, vending machines, amusement equipment, and small office machines. The manual includes the following sections: (1) course…

  5. Electromechanical Technician Skills Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

    This document contains test items to measure the job skills of electromechanical technicians. Questions are organized in four sections that cover the following topics: (1) shop math; (2) electricity and electronics; (3) mechanics and machining; and (4) plumbing, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and welding skills. Questions call for…

  6. Noncontact simultaneous dual wavelength photoplethysmography: A further step toward noncontact pulse oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Kenneth; Ward, Tomas; Markham, Charles

    2007-04-01

    We present a camera-based device capable of capturing two photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals at two different wavelengths simultaneously, in a remote noncontact manner. The system comprises a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and dual wavelength array of light emitting diodes (760 and 880nm). By alternately illuminating a region of tissue with each wavelength of light, and detecting the backscattered photons with the camera at a rate of 16frames/wavelengths, two multiplexed PPG wave forms are simultaneously captured. This process is the basis of pulse oximetry, and we describe how, with the inclusion of a calibration procedure, this system could be used as a noncontact pulse oximeter to measure arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) remotely. Results from an experiment on ten subjects, exhibiting normal SpO2 readings, that demonstrate the instrument's ability to capture signals from a range of subjects under realistic lighting and environmental conditions are presented. We compare the signals captured by the noncontact system to a conventional PPG signal captured concurrently from a finger, and show by means of a J. Bland and D. Altman [Lancet 327, 307 (1986); Statistician 32, 307 (1983)] test, the noncontact device to be comparable to a contact device as a monitor of heart rate. We highlight some considerations that should be made when using camera-based "integrative" sampling methods and demonstrate through simulation, the suitability of the captured PPG signals for application of existing pulse oximetry calibration procedures.

  7. Toward noncontacting seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Scales, J. A.; Mikesell, T. D.; Peacock, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    Buried land mines and chemical waste may provide the contrast in elastic properties within the soil needed to achieve detection via near-surface seismic methods. The hazardous nature of these targets strongly indicates the use of noncontacting sources and receivers. A home-made ultrasonic parametric array allows us to insonify the soil with an intense beam of sound; this acoustic energy is converted to elastic waves in the soil. Our noncontacting seismometer is a microwave Doppler vibrometer that can detect seismic waves, even through grass. We believe that developments along these lines will ultimately lead to the ability to probe large areas of the near-surface in a safe and reliable fashion, without physically touching the ground.

  8. Electromechanics of graphene spirals

    SciTech Connect

    Korhonen, Topi; Koskinen, Pekka

    2014-12-15

    Among the most fascinating nanostructure morphologies are spirals, hybrids of somewhat obscure topology and dimensionality with technologically attractive properties. Here, we investigate mechanical and electromechanical properties of graphene spirals upon elongation by using density-functional tight-binding, continuum elasticity theory, and classical force field molecular dynamics. It turns out that electronic properties are governed by interlayer interactions as opposed to strain effects. The structural behavior is governed by van der Waals interaction: in its absence spirals unfold with equidistant layer spacings, ripple formation at spiral perimeter, and steadily increasing axial force; in its presence, on the contrary, spirals unfold via smooth local peeling, complex geometries, and nearly constant axial force. These electromechanical trends ought to provide useful guidelines not only for additional theoretical investigations but also for forthcoming experiments on graphene spirals.

  9. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lijie

    2015-09-15

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted.

  10. Noncontacting Finger Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P. (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An annular finger seal is adapted to be interposed between a high pressure upstream region and a lower pressure downstream region to provide noncontact sealing along a rotatable member. The finger seal comprises axially juxtaposed downstream and upstream finger elements, each having integrally spaced fingers. The downstream fingers each have a lift pad, whereas the upstream fingers lack a pad. Each pad extends in a downstream direction. Each upstream finger is spaced from the rotating member a greater distance than each pad. Upon sufficient rotational speed of the rotating member, each pad is operative to lift and ride on a thin film of fluid intermediate the rotating member and the Pad.

  11. Noncontacting waveguide backshort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A noncontacting waveguide backshort is provided for use with frequencies of interest between 1 and 1000 GHz including a relatively rugged metallic bar movably mounted within the waveguide in a MYLAR insulator. A series of regularly shaped and spaced circular or rectangular openings are made in the metallic bar to form sections of high impedance alternating with sections of the bar having low impedance. This creates a periodic impedance variation which serves to provided an adjustable short circuit in a waveguide for the frequencies of interest.

  12. An electromechanical displacement transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villiers, Marius; Mahboob, Imran; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Hatanaka, Daiki; Fujiwara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Two modes of an electromechanical resonator are coupled through the strain inside the structure with a cooperativity as high as 107, a state-of-the-art value for purely mechanical systems, which enables the observation of normal-mode splitting. This coupling is exploited to transduce the resonator’s fundamental mode into the bandwidth of the second flexural mode, which is 1.4 MHz higher in frequency. Thus, an all-mechanical heterodyne detection scheme is implemented that can be developed into a high-precision displacement sensor.

  13. Electromechanical Materials for Cryogenic Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidinger, Peter; Pilgrim, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    Electromechanical materials can be used in smart sensor and actuator devices. Yet none performing at low temperatures are available. To meet this need, Pb((MgNi)(1/3)Ta(2/3))03 was synthesized as an electrostrictive ceramic for applications in cryogenic environments. Employing the columbite precursor route, samples with 0% to 100% Ni substitution for Mg were prepared, but only samples with Ni-substitutions less than or equal to 20% yielded primarily the desired perovskite phase. For these compositions the temperature of highest permittivity decreased linearly with increasing Ni content to yield a minimum value of -124 C for 20% Ni-substitution. This composition showed good relaxor dielectric behavior with a maximum relative permittivity of 5890 at 1 kHz. Additionally, in samples with excess MgO, the magnitude of permittivity doubled. In this effort, Pb((MgNi)(1/3)Ta(2/3))03 (PMNiTa) was fabricated to lower its transition temperature by substituting Ni for Mg successively.

  14. The electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal device in multi-component liquid crystal mixture system with non-contact photo-induced vertical alignment mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fa-Hsin; Ho, Czung-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Yih

    2012-05-01

    In previous studies, we mixed photo-curable acrylic pre-polymer into negative dielectric anisotropy nematic type liquid crystal (N-type LC, NLC) to obtain a NLC/photo-curable acrylic pre-polymer mixture solution (NLC mixture system). After irradiation with UV light of fixed intensity, we successfully fabricated copolymer films with vertical alignment effect among the LC molecules. In this study, we propose a new type of multi-component LC mixture system by mixing chiral smectic type (SmA*) LC with homeotropic texture into NLC/photo-curable acrylic pre-polymer mixture system (NSLC mixture system). Our experimental results revealed that this SmA* LC exhibited the vertical alignment effect associated with LC molecules in the auxiliary LC mixture system. Moreover, we also discovered that altering the main chain type biphenol acrylic pre-polymer had drastic impact on the contrast ratio (CR) of the LC mixture system, with an increase of as much as 73%. More importantly, adding the SmA* LC can evidently increase the anchoring energy of the alignment film surface. We also further performed measurements, analyses, and discussions of electro-optical properties of devices fabricated from the new LC mixture systems.

  15. A noncontact temperature measurement method in polymerase chain reaction reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochivko, D. G.; Varlamov, D. A.; Fedorov, A. A.; Kurochkin, V. E.

    2016-04-01

    A new noncontact method for measuring temperatures of liquids, which is based on the fluorescent probes, is proposed. The method is intended for measuring temperatures of reaction media in reactors of devices for polymerase chain reactions in real time and can be used for determining dynamic temperature parameters.

  16. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  17. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  18. Microwave Nano-abacus Electro-mechanical Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haibing; Chang, C. W.; Aloni, S.; Yuzvinsky, T. D.; Zettl, A.

    2007-03-01

    We describe nanoscale electromechanical oscillators capable of operating in ambient-pressure air at room temperature with unprecedented fundamental resonance frequency of ˜4 GHz. The devices, created from suspended carbon nanotubes loaded abacus-style with inertial metal clamps yielding short effective beam lengths, open windows for immediate practical microwave frequency nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) applications.

  19. Electromechanical Simulation of Actively Controlled Rotordynamic Systems with Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Reng Rong; Palazzolo, A. B.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, G.

    1991-01-01

    Theories and tests for incorporating piezoelectric pushers as actuator devices for active vibration control are discussed. It started from a simple model with the assumption of ideal pusher characteristics and progressed to electromechanical models with nonideal pushers. Effects on system stability due to the nonideal characteristics of piezoelectric pushers and other elements in the control loop were investigated.

  20. Noncontact surface roughness measurement using a vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçer, Erdinç; Horozoǧlu, Erhan; Asiltürk, Ilhan

    2015-02-01

    Surface roughness measurement is one of the basic measurement that determines the quality and performance of the final product. After machined operations, tracer end tools are commonly used in industry in order to measure the surface roughness that occurred on the surface. This measurement technique has disadvantages such as user errors because it requires calibration of the device occurring during measurement. In this study, measuring and evaluation techniques were conducted by using display devices over surface image which occurred on the processed surfaces. Surface measurement which performed by getting image makes easier measurement process because it is non-contact, and does not cause any damage. Measurement of surface roughness, and analysis was conducted more precise and accurate. Experimentally obtained results of the measurements on the parts in contact with the device is improved compared with the results of the non-contact image processing software, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  1. Non-contact ECG monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexey S.; Erlikh, Vadim V.; Kodkin, Vladimir L.; Keller, Andrei V.; Epishev, Vitaly V.

    2016-03-01

    The research is dedicated to non-contact methods of electrocardiography. The authors describe the routine of experimental procedure and suggest the approach to solving the problems which arise at indirect signal recording. The paper presents the results of experiments conducted by the authors, covers the flow charts of ECG recorders and reviews the drawbacks of filtering methods used in foreign equivalents.

  2. Noncontact measurement of angular deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring instantaneous angular deflection of object requires no physical contact. Technique utilizes two flat refractors, converging lens, and different photocell. Distinction of method is its combination of optical and electromechanical components into feedback system in which measurement error is made to approach zero. Application is foreseen in measurement of torsional strain.

  3. Electromechanical assembly department manufacturing improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, S.W.

    1991-12-01

    Techniques for streamlining the processing and flow of products is an electromechanical assembly department were evaluated. Areas looked at included a paperless system for lot identification records, automated tool and fixture storage, evaluation of product transfer methods, and queue time reduction.

  4. A tunable electromechanical Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei

    Acoustic liners are used in turbofan engine nacelles for the suppression of engine noise. For a given engine, there are different optimum impedance distributions associated with take-off, cut-back, and approach flight conditions. The impedance of conventional acoustic liners is fixed for a given geometry, and conventional active liner approaches are impractical. This project addresses the need for a tunable impedance through the development of an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR). The device consists of a Helmholtz resonator with the standard rigid backplate replaced by a compliant piezoelectric composite. Analytical models (i.e., a lumped element model (LEM) and a transfer matrix (TM) representation of the EMHR) are developed to predict the acoustic behavior of the EMHR. The EMHR is experimentally investigated using the standard two-microphone method (TMM). The measurement results validate both the LEM and the TM of the EMHR. Good agreement between predicted and measured impedance is obtained. Short- and open-circuit loads define the limits of the tuning range using resistive and capacitive loads. There is approximately a 9% tuning limit under these conditions for the non-optimized resonator configuration studied. Inductive shunt loads result in a 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) system and an enhanced tuning range of over 47% that is not restricted by the short- and open-circuit limits. Damping coefficient measurements for a piezoelectric backplate in a vacuum chamber are performed and indicate that the damping is dominated by structural damping losses. A Pareto optimization design based on models of the EMHR is performed with non-inductive loads. The EMHR with non-inductive loads has 2DOF and two resonant frequencies. The tuning ranges of the two resonant frequencies of the EMHR with non-inductive loads cannot be optimized simultaneously, so a trade-off (Pareto solution) must be reached. The Pareto solution shows how design trade-offs can be used to satisfy

  5. PREFACE: Non-contact AFM Non-contact AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, Franz J.; Morita, Seizo

    2012-02-01

    This special issue is focussed on high resolution non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact atomic force microscopy was established approximately 15 years ago as a tool to image conducting and insulating surfaces with atomic resolution. Since 1998, an annual international conference has taken place, and although the proceedings of these conferences are a useful source of information, several key developments warrant devoting a special issue to this subject. In the theoretic field, the possibility of supplementing established techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Kelvin probe microscopy with atomically resolved force micrsoscopy poses many challenges in the calculation of contrast and contrast reversal. The surface science of insulators, self-assembled monolayers and adsorbates on insulators is a fruitful field for the application of non-contact AFM: several articles in this issue are devoted to these subjects. Atomic imaging and manipulation have been pioneered using STM, but because AFM allows the measurement of forces, AFM has had a profound impact in this field as well. Three-dimensional force spectroscopy has allowed many important insights into surface science. In this issue a combined 3D tunneling and force microscopy is introduced. Non-contact AFM typically uses frequency modulation to measure force gradients and was initially used mainly in a vacuum. As can be seen in this issue, frequency modulation is now also used in ambient conditions, allowing better spatial and force resolution. We thank all of the contributors for their time and efforts in making this special issue possible. We are also very grateful to the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative aspects and for steering the refereeing process. Non-contact AFM contents Relation between the chemical force and the tunnelling current in atomic point contacts: a simple model Pavel Jelínek, Martin Ondrácek and Fernando Flores Theoretical simulation of

  6. Electromechanically active polymer blends for actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ji; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Leary, Sean P.

    2000-06-01

    Actuator mechanisms that are lightweight, durable, and efficient are needed to support telerobotic requirements, for future NASA missions. In this work, we present a series of electromechanically active polymer blends that can potentially be used as actuators for a variety of applications. This polymer blend combines an electrostrictive graft-elastomer with a ferroelectric poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) polymer. Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the blends as a function of temperature, frequency and relative composition of the two constituents in the blends have been studied. Electric field induced strain response of the blend films has also been studied as a function of the relative composition. A bending actuator device was developed incorporating the use of the polymer blend materials. The results and the possible effects of the combination of piezoelectricity and electrostriction in a material system are presented and discussed. This type of analysis may enable the design of blend compositions with optimal strain, mechanical, and dielectric properties for specific actuator applications.

  7. Quantum electromechanics on silicon nitride nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, J. M.; Kalaee, M.; Pitanti, A.; Norte, R.; Heinzle, L.; Davanço, M.; Srinivasan, K.; Painter, O.

    2016-08-01

    Radiation pressure has recently been used to effectively couple the quantum motion of mechanical elements to the fields of optical or microwave light. Integration of all three degrees of freedom--mechanical, optical and microwave--would enable a quantum interconnect between microwave and optical quantum systems. We present a platform based on silicon nitride nanomembranes for integrating superconducting microwave circuits with planar acoustic and optical devices such as phononic and photonic crystals. Using planar capacitors with vacuum gaps of 60 nm and spiral inductor coils of micron pitch we realize microwave resonant circuits with large electromechanical coupling to planar acoustic structures of nanoscale dimensions and femtoFarad motional capacitance. Using this enhanced coupling, we demonstrate microwave backaction cooling of the 4.48 MHz mechanical resonance of a nanobeam to an occupancy as low as 0.32. These results indicate the viability of silicon nitride nanomembranes as an all-in-one substrate for quantum electro-opto-mechanical experiments.

  8. Electromechanical Simulation of Switching Characteristics for Nanoelectromechanical Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagami, Tasuku; Tsuchiya, Yoshishige; Saito, Shinichi; Arai, Tadashi; Shimada, Toshikazu; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Oda, Shunri

    2009-11-01

    The static switching properties and readout characteristics of proposed high-speed and nonvolatile nanoelectromechanical (NEM) memory devices are investigated. By conducting a three-dimensional finite element mechanical simulation combined with an electrostatic analysis, we analyze the electromechanical switching operation of a mechanically bistable NEM floating gate by applying gate voltage. We show that switching voltage can be reduced to less than 10 V by reducing the zero-bias displacement of the floating gate and optimizing the cavity structure to improve mechanical symmetry. We also analyze the electrical readout property of the NEM memory devices by combining the electromechanical simulation with a drift-diffusion analysis. We demonstrate that the mechanically bistable states of the floating gate can be detected via the changes in drain current with an ON/OFF current ratio of about 3 ×104.

  9. A Hybrid Actuation System Demonstrating Significantly Enhanced Electromechanical Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji; Xu, Tian-Bing; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Zhang, Qiming

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid actuation system (HYBAS) utilizing advantages of a combination of electromechanical responses of an electroactive polymer (EAP), an electrostrictive copolymer, and an electroactive ceramic single crystal, PZN-PT single crystal, has been developed. The system employs the contribution of the actuation elements cooperatively and exhibits a significantly enhanced electromechanical performance compared to the performances of the device made of each constituting material, the electroactive polymer or the ceramic single crystal, individually. The theoretical modeling of the performances of the HYBAS is in good agreement with experimental observation. The consistence between the theoretical modeling and experimental test make the design concept an effective route for the development of high performance actuating devices for many applications. The theoretical modeling, fabrication of the HYBAS and the initial experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  10. Noncontacting NDE for materials characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, K.L.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes research performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from May 1983 to September 1995, funded by the Interior Department`s Bureau of Mines, on ultrasonic methods (particularly noncontacting methods) for nondestructive evaluation and process control. The abilities of ultrasonic techniques to measure microstructural features in metals, ceramics, and composite materials were demonstrated. A major emphasis in this project was the development of noncontacting ultrasonic techniques, based on laser generation and detection of elastic waves, for process monitoring and control in high-temperature, harsh environments without close coupling to the material being processed. Laser ultrasonic measurements were utilized for in situ process monitoring during ceramic sintering, high temperature annealing, and molten metal solidification.

  11. The electromechanical battery: The new kid on the block

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1993-08-01

    In a funded program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory new materials and novel designs are being incorporated into a new approach to an old concept -- flywheel energy storage. Modular devices, dubbed ``electromechanical batteries`` (EMB) are being developed that should represent an important alternative to the electrochemical storage battery for use in electric vehicles or for stationary applications, such as computer back-up power or utility load-leveling.

  12. Advanced composite microtubes for micro-electromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhya, Kamleshwar; Hoffman, Wesley P.

    1994-05-01

    Microtubes fabricated by a magnetron sputtering system, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and conventional chemical vapor deposition will become the nucleus of a technology that will revolutionize the miniaturization of electronic components and systems such as heat exchangers, heat pumps, or nanosatellites. Microtubes will play a crucial role in successful developments of smart structures incorporating hundreds of embedded sensors, actuators, detectors, and switching devices. This article briefly describes the fabrication and application of these microtubes in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

  13. Active feedback cooling of massive electromechanical quartz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, Junghoon; Lee, Manhee; Stambaugh, Corey; Bak, Wan; Jhe, Wonho

    2011-08-15

    We present a general active feedback cooling scheme for massive electromechanical quartz resonators. We cool down two kinds of macrosized quartz tuning forks and find several characteristic constants for this massive quartz-resonator feedback cooling, in good agreement with theoretical calculations. When combined with conventional cryogenic techniques and low-noise devices, one may reach the quantum sensitivity for macroscopic sensors. This may be useful for high sensitivity measurements and for quantum information studies.

  14. Electromechanical propellant control system actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill; Weir, Rae Ann

    1990-01-01

    New control mechanism technologies are currently being sought to provide alternatives to hydraulic actuation systems. The Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for this purpose. Through this effort, an in-house designed electromechanical propellant valve actuator has been assembled and is presently being evaluated. This evaluation will allow performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulics systems. The in-house design consists of the following hardware: a three-phase brushless motor, a harmonic drive, and an output spline which will mate with current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) propellant control valves. A resolver and associated electronics supply position feedback for the EMA. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. Frequency response testing has been performed with further testing planned as hardware and test facilities become available.

  15. Electromechanical simulations of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiba, Oxana; Gracie, Robert; Potapenko, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    Improving the reliability of micro-electronic devices depends in part on developing a more in-depth understanding of dislocations because dislocations are barriers to charge carriers. To this end, the quasi-static simulation of discrete dislocations dynamics in materials under mechanical and electrical loads is presented. The simulations are based on the extended finite element method, where dislocations are modelled as internal discontinuities. The strong and weak forms of the boundary value problem for the coupled system are presented. The computation of the Peach-Koehler force using the J-integral is discussed. Examples to illustrate the accuracy of the simulations are presented. The motion of the network of the dislocations under different electrical and mechanical loads is simulated. It was shown that even in weak piezoelectric materials the effect of the electric field on plastic behaviour is significant.

  16. Hybrid electromechanical actuator and actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid electromechanical actuator has two different types of electromechanical elements, one that expands in a transverse direction when electric power is applied thereto and one that contracts in a transverse direction when electric power is applied thereto. The two electromechanical elements are (i) disposed in relation to one another such that the transverse directions thereof are parallel to one another, and (ii) mechanically coupled to one another at least at two opposing edges thereof. Electric power is applied simultaneously to the elements.

  17. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  18. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  19. Dissipation engineering in a coherent feedback electromechanical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerckhoff, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Modern superconducting microwave circuit experiments often consist of a quantum circuit under study, followed by a quantum-limited microwave amplifier. The subfield of quantum electromechanics, in which the quantum circuit is a mechanical resonator coupled to a microwave resonator, is no exception. However, a simple modification of the cables between these devices turns this open-loop, serial network into a fully-cryogenic, coherent feedback network. In effect, this easy-to-build network becomes a brand new kind of device, with useful and novel dynamics. Applied to an electromechanical context, the microwave and electromechanical dissipation is greatly modified through these closed loop dynamics, leading to dynamically tunable and phase-sensitive decay. We experimentally demonstrate that the microwave decay rate may be modulated by at least a factor of 10 at a rate greater than 104 times the mechanical response rate. Similarly, the mechanical state can be dynamically squeezed and unsqueezed. While we have only investigated dynamics in the classical regime, we expect analogous behavior in the quantum regime. Finally, this approach is suitable for both 3D and planar architectures. I will describe my observations of this network and the general utility of networks of modular quantum circuits to dissipation engineering. With support from the NRC, and partial support from DARPA QuEST, DARPA ORCHID, and the NSF PFC at JILA.

  20. Enhanced electromechanical behaviors of cellulose ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Seongchoel; Min, Seung-Ki; Kim, Hyun Chan; Im, Jongbeom; Geddis, Demetris L.; Kim, Jaehwan

    2015-04-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid composite has attracted as its combined synergistic properties. Cellulose based inorganicorganic hybrid composite was fabricated with semiconductive nanomaterials which has functionality of nanomaterial and biocompatibility piezoelectricity, high transparency and flexibility of cellulose electro active paper namely EAPap. ZnO is providing semiconductive functionality to EAPap for hybrid nanocomposite by simple chemical reaction. Cellulose- ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (CEZOHN) demonstrates novel electrical, photoelectrical and electromechanical behaviors. This paper deals with methods to improve electromechanical property of CEZOHN. The fabrication process is introduced briefly, charging mechanism and evaluation is studied with measured piezoelectric constant. And its candidate application will be discussed such as artificial muscle, energy harvester, strain sensor, flexible electrical device.

  1. An electromechanical attenuator/actuator for Space Station docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean; Carroll, Monty B.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a docking system for aerospace vehicles has identified the need for reusable and variably controlled attenuators/actuators for energy absorption and compliance. One approach to providing both the attenuator and the actuator functions is by way of an electromechanical attenuator/actuator (EMAA) as opposed to a hydraulic system. The use of the electromechanical devices is considered to be more suitable for a space environment because of the absence of contamination from hydraulic fluid leaks and because of the cost effectiveness of maintenance. A smart EMAA that uses range/rate/attitude sensor information to preadjust a docking interface to eliminate misalignments and to minimize contact and stroking forces is described. A prototype EMAA was fabricated and is being tested and evaluated. Results of preliminary testing and analysis already performed have established confidence that this concept is feasible and will provide the desired reliability and low maintenance for repetitive long term operation typical of Space Station requirements.

  2. Docking-mechanism attenuator with electromechanical damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syromyatnikov, V. S.

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical and practical problems involved in the application of electromechanical damping for spacecraft docking-mechanism attenuation are discussed. Some drawbacks of hydraulic dampers used for the purpose are pointed out. The basic scheme of the attenuator with the electromechanical damper is given.

  3. Flexoelectric MEMS: towards an electromechanical strain diode.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, U K; Banerjee, N; Abdollahi, A; Solanas, E; Rijnders, G; Catalan, G

    2016-01-21

    Piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity are two independent but not incompatible forms of electromechanical response exhibited by nanoscale ferroelectrics. Here, we show that flexoelectricity can either enhance or suppress the piezoelectric response of the cantilever depending on the ferroelectric polarity and lead to a diode-like asymmetric (two-state) electromechanical response. PMID:26676467

  4. Electromechanical wave imaging for arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Thanh-Hieu Nguyen, Vu; Legrand, Diégo; Okrasinski, Stan; Costet, Alexandre; Gambhir, Alok; Garan, Hasan; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2011-11-01

    Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a novel ultrasound-based imaging modality for mapping of the electromechanical wave (EW), i.e. the transient deformations occurring in immediate response to the electrical activation. The correlation between the EW and the electrical activation has been established in prior studies. However, the methods used previously to map the EW required the reconstruction of images over multiple cardiac cycles, precluding the application of EWI for non-periodic arrhythmias such as fibrillation. In this study, new imaging sequences are developed and applied based on flash- and wide-beam emissions to image the entire heart at very high frame rates (2000 fps) during free breathing in a single heartbeat. The methods are first validated by imaging the heart of an open-chest canine while simultaneously mapping the electrical activation using a 64-electrode basket catheter. Feasibility is then assessed by imaging the atria and ventricles of closed-chest, conscious canines during sinus rhythm and during right-ventricular pacing following atrio-ventricular dissociation, i.e., during a non-periodic rhythm. The EW was validated against electrode measurements in the open-chest case, and followed the expected electrical propagation pattern in the closed-chest setting. These results indicate that EWI can be used for the characterization of non-periodic arrhythmias in conditions similar to the clinical setting, in a single heartbeat, and during free breathing.

  5. Electromechanical Wave Imaging for Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Nguyen, Vu Thanh-Hieu; Legrand, Diégo; Okrasinski, Stan; Costet, Alexandre; Gambhir, Alok; Garan, Hasan; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Electromechanical Wave Imaging (EWI) is a novel ultrasound-based imaging modality for the mapping of the electromechanical wave (EW), i.e., the transient deformations occurring in immediate response to the electrical activation. The correlation between the EW and the electrical activation has been established in previous studies. However, the methods used previously to map the EW required the reconstruction of images over multiple cardiac cycle, precluding the application of EWI for non-periodic arrhythmia such as fibrillation. In this study, we develop new imaging sequences based on flash and wide-beam emissions to image the entire heart at very high frame rate (2000 fps) during free breathing in a single heartbeat. The methods are first validated by imaging the heart of an open-chest canine while simultaneously mapping the electrical activation using a 64-electrode basket catheter. Feasibility is then assessed by imaging the atria and ventricles of closed-chest, conscious canines during sinus rhythm and during right-ventricular pacing following atrioventricular dissociation, i.e., a non-periodic rhythm. The EW was validated against electrode measurements in the open-chest case, and followed the expected electrical propagation pattern in the closed-chest setting. These results indicate that EWI can be used for the characterization of non-periodic arrhythmia in conditions close to the clinical setting, in a single heartbeat, and during free-breathing. PMID:22024555

  6. Electromechanical wave imaging for arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Nguyen, Vu Thanh-Hieu; Legrand, Diégo; Okrasinski, Stan; Costet, Alexandre; Gambhir, Alok; Garan, Hasan; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2011-11-21

    Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a novel ultrasound-based imaging modality for mapping of the electromechanical wave (EW), i.e. the transient deformations occurring in immediate response to the electrical activation. The correlation between the EW and the electrical activation has been established in prior studies. However, the methods used previously to map the EW required the reconstruction of images over multiple cardiac cycles, precluding the application of EWI for non-periodic arrhythmias such as fibrillation. In this study, new imaging sequences are developed and applied based on flash- and wide-beam emissions to image the entire heart at very high frame rates (2000 fps) during free breathing in a single heartbeat. The methods are first validated by imaging the heart of an open-chest canine while simultaneously mapping the electrical activation using a 64-electrode basket catheter. Feasibility is then assessed by imaging the atria and ventricles of closed-chest, conscious canines during sinus rhythm and during right-ventricular pacing following atrio-ventricular dissociation, i.e., during a non-periodic rhythm. The EW was validated against electrode measurements in the open-chest case, and followed the expected electrical propagation pattern in the closed-chest setting. These results indicate that EWI can be used for the characterization of non-periodic arrhythmias in conditions similar to the clinical setting, in a single heartbeat, and during free breathing. PMID:22024555

  7. Motion-compensated non-contact detection of heart rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-12-01

    A new non-contact heart rate detection method based on the dual-wavelength technique is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. It is a well-known fact that the differences in the circuits of two detection modules result in different responses of two modules for motion artifacts. This poses a great challenge to compensate the motion artifacts during measurements. In order to circumvent this problem, we have proposed the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum adaptive filter. Comparing with the time-domain adaptive filter and independent component analysis, the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum adaptive filter can suppress the interference caused by the two circuit differences and effectively compensate the motion artifacts. To make the device is much compact and portable, a photoelectric probe is designed. The measurement distance is from several centimeters up to several meters. Moreover, the data obtained by using this non-contact detection system is compared with those of the conventional finger blood volume pulse (BVP) sensor by simultaneously measuring the heart rate of the subject. The data obtained from the proposed non-contact system are consistent and comparable with that of the BVP sensor.

  8. Noncontact Acoustic Manipulation in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozuka, Teruyuki; Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Towata, Atsuya; Iida, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    A noncontact manipulation technique is useful for micromachine technology, biotechnology, and new materials processing. In this paper, we describe an advanced manipulation technique for transporting small objects in air. A standing wave field was generated by two sound beams crossing each other generated by bolted Langevin transducers. Expanded polystyrene particles were trapped at the nodes of the sound pressure in the standing wave field. The position of a trapped particle was shifted by changing the phase difference between the two sound beams. When the trapped particle is transported, it spatially oscillate periodically in a direction perpendicular to that of particle transportation. The numerical calculation of an acoustic field revealed that it is caused by the reflection of an ultrasonic wave at each transducer surface.

  9. Electromechanical performance of piezoelectric scanning mirrors for medical endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Dausch, David E.; Grego, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The electromechanical performance of piezoelectric scanning mirrors for endoscopy imaging is presented. The devices are supported by a single actuating cantilever to achieve a high fill factor, the ratio of mirror area to the combined mirror and actuator area. The largest fill factor devices (74%) achieved 10° mechanical scan range at +/−10V with a 300 μm long cantilever. The largest angular displacement of 30° mechanical scan range was obtained with a 500 μm long cantilever device with a 63% fill factor driven at 40 Vpp. A systematic investigation of device performance (displacement and speed) as a function of fabrication and operational parameters including the stress balance in the cantilever revealed unexpectedly large displacements with lack of inversion at the coercive field. An interpretation of the results is presented based on piezoelectric film domain orientation and clamping with supporting piezoelectric film characterization measurements. PMID:22773894

  10. Micro electro-mechanical heater

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Asif, Syed Amanulla Syed; Cyrankowski, Edward; Warren, Oden Lee

    2016-04-19

    A sub-micron scale property testing apparatus including a test subject holder and heating assembly. The assembly includes a holder base configured to couple with a sub-micron mechanical testing instrument and electro-mechanical transducer assembly. The assembly further includes a test subject stage coupled with the holder base. The test subject stage is thermally isolated from the holder base. The test subject stage includes a stage subject surface configured to receive a test subject, and a stage plate bracing the stage subject surface. The stage plate is under the stage subject surface. The test subject stage further includes a heating element adjacent to the stage subject surface, the heating element is configured to generate heat at the stage subject surface.

  11. Superconducting circuitry for quantum electromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaHaye, Matthew D.; Rouxinol, Francisco; Hao, Yu; Shim, Seung-Bo; Irish, Elinor K.

    2015-05-01

    Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and e orts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.

  12. Quantum electromechanics on silicon nitride nanomembranes.

    PubMed

    Fink, J M; Kalaee, M; Pitanti, A; Norte, R; Heinzle, L; Davanço, M; Srinivasan, K; Painter, O

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure has recently been used to effectively couple the quantum motion of mechanical elements to the fields of optical or microwave light. Integration of all three degrees of freedom-mechanical, optical and microwave-would enable a quantum interconnect between microwave and optical quantum systems. We present a platform based on silicon nitride nanomembranes for integrating superconducting microwave circuits with planar acoustic and optical devices such as phononic and photonic crystals. Using planar capacitors with vacuum gaps of 60 nm and spiral inductor coils of micron pitch we realize microwave resonant circuits with large electromechanical coupling to planar acoustic structures of nanoscale dimensions and femtoFarad motional capacitance. Using this enhanced coupling, we demonstrate microwave backaction cooling of the 4.48 MHz mechanical resonance of a nanobeam to an occupancy as low as 0.32. These results indicate the viability of silicon nitride nanomembranes as an all-in-one substrate for quantum electro-opto-mechanical experiments. PMID:27484751

  13. Quantum electromechanics on silicon nitride nanomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Fink, J. M.; Kalaee, M.; Pitanti, A.; Norte, R.; Heinzle, L.; Davanço, M.; Srinivasan, K.; Painter, O.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure has recently been used to effectively couple the quantum motion of mechanical elements to the fields of optical or microwave light. Integration of all three degrees of freedom—mechanical, optical and microwave—would enable a quantum interconnect between microwave and optical quantum systems. We present a platform based on silicon nitride nanomembranes for integrating superconducting microwave circuits with planar acoustic and optical devices such as phononic and photonic crystals. Using planar capacitors with vacuum gaps of 60 nm and spiral inductor coils of micron pitch we realize microwave resonant circuits with large electromechanical coupling to planar acoustic structures of nanoscale dimensions and femtoFarad motional capacitance. Using this enhanced coupling, we demonstrate microwave backaction cooling of the 4.48 MHz mechanical resonance of a nanobeam to an occupancy as low as 0.32. These results indicate the viability of silicon nitride nanomembranes as an all-in-one substrate for quantum electro-opto-mechanical experiments. PMID:27484751

  14. Rapid Cellular Identification by Dynamic Electromechanical Response

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Reukov, Vladimir V; Vertegel, Alexey; Thompson, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    Coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena is ubiquitous in living systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid identification of cellular organisms using difference in electromechanical activity in a broad frequency range. Principal component analysis of the dynamic electromechanical response spectra bundled with neural network based recognition provides a robust identification algorithm based on their electromechanical signature, and allows unambiguous differentiation of model Micrococcus Lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas Fluorescens system. This methodology provides a universal pathway for biological identification obviating the need for well-defined analytical models of Scanning Probe Microscopy response.

  15. Non-contact method for characterization of small size thermoelectric modules.

    PubMed

    Manno, Michael; Yang, Bao; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2015-08-01

    Conventional techniques for characterization of thermoelectric performance require bringing measurement equipment into direct contact with the thermoelectric device, which is increasingly error prone as device size decreases. Therefore, the novel work presented here describes a non-contact technique, capable of accurately measuring the maximum ΔT and maximum heat pumping of mini to micro sized thin film thermoelectric coolers. The non-contact characterization method eliminates the measurement errors associated with using thermocouples and traditional heat flux sensors to test small samples and large heat fluxes. Using the non-contact approach, an infrared camera, rather than thermocouples, measures the temperature of the hot and cold sides of the device to determine the device ΔT and a laser is used to heat to the cold side of the thermoelectric module to characterize its heat pumping capacity. As a demonstration of the general applicability of the non-contact characterization technique, testing of a thin film thermoelectric module is presented and the results agree well with those published in the literature. PMID:26329215

  16. Non-contact method for characterization of small size thermoelectric modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Michael; Yang, Bao; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2015-08-01

    Conventional techniques for characterization of thermoelectric performance require bringing measurement equipment into direct contact with the thermoelectric device, which is increasingly error prone as device size decreases. Therefore, the novel work presented here describes a non-contact technique, capable of accurately measuring the maximum ΔT and maximum heat pumping of mini to micro sized thin film thermoelectric coolers. The non-contact characterization method eliminates the measurement errors associated with using thermocouples and traditional heat flux sensors to test small samples and large heat fluxes. Using the non-contact approach, an infrared camera, rather than thermocouples, measures the temperature of the hot and cold sides of the device to determine the device ΔT and a laser is used to heat to the cold side of the thermoelectric module to characterize its heat pumping capacity. As a demonstration of the general applicability of the non-contact characterization technique, testing of a thin film thermoelectric module is presented and the results agree well with those published in the literature.

  17. Revolution of Sensors in Micro-Electromechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi

    2012-08-01

    Microsensors realized by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology play a key role as the input devices of systems. In this report, the following sensors are reviewed: piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors, surface acoustic wave (SAW) wireless pressure sensors, tactile sensor networks for robots, accelerometers, angular velocity sensors (gyroscopes), range image sensors using optical scanners, infrared imagers, chemical sensing systems as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography, flow sensors for fluids, and medical sensors such as ultrafine optical-fiber blood pressure sensors and implantable pressure sensors.

  18. Fast Electromechanical Switches Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama; Wong, Eric; Epp, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated nanoelectromechanical switches based on carbon nanotubes have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop high-speed switches for a variety of stationary and portable electronic equipment. As explained below, these devices offer advantages over electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical switches, which, heretofore, have represented the state of the art of rapid, highly miniaturized electromechanical switches. Potential applications for these devices include computer memories, cellular telephones, communication networks, scientific instrumentation, and general radiation-hard electronic equipment. A representative device of the present type includes a single-wall carbon nanotube suspended over a trench about 130 nm wide and 20 nm deep in an electrically insulating material. The ends of the carbon nanotube are connected to metal electrodes, denoted the source and drain electrodes. At bottom of the trench is another metal electrode, denoted the pull electrode (see figure). In the off or open switch state, no voltage is applied, and the nanotube remains out of contact with the pull electrode. When a sufficiently large electric potential (switching potential) is applied between the pull electrode and either or both of the source and drain electrodes, the resulting electrostatic attraction bends and stretches the nanotube into contact with the pull electrode, thereby putting the switch into the "on" or "closed" state, in which substantial current (typically as much as hundreds of nanoamperes) is conducted. Devices of this type for use in initial experiments were fabricated on a thermally oxidized Si wafer, onto which Nb was sputter-deposited for use as the pull-electrode layer. Nb was chosen because its refractory nature would enable it to withstand the chemical and thermal conditions to be subsequently imposed for growing carbon nanotubes. A 200- nm-thick layer of SiO2 was formed on top of the Nb layer by plasma

  19. A multimode electromechanical parametric resonator array

    PubMed Central

    Mahboob, I.; Mounaix, M.; Nishiguchi, K.; Fujiwara, A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Electromechanical resonators have emerged as a versatile platform in which detectors with unprecedented sensitivities and quantum mechanics in a macroscopic context can be developed. These schemes invariably utilise a single resonator but increasingly the concept of an array of electromechanical resonators is promising a wealth of new possibilities. In spite of this, experimental realisations of such arrays have remained scarce due to the formidable challenges involved in their fabrication. In a variation to this approach, we identify 75 harmonic vibration modes in a single electromechanical resonator of which 7 can also be parametrically excited. The parametrically resonating modes exhibit vibrations with only 2 oscillation phases which are used to build a binary information array. We exploit this array to execute a mechanical byte memory, a shift-register and a controlled-NOT gate thus vividly illustrating the availability and functionality of an electromechanical resonator array by simply utilising higher order vibration modes. PMID:24658349

  20. Six-Message Electromechanical Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2007-01-01

    A proposed electromechanical display system would be capable of presenting as many as six distinct messages. In the proposed system, each display element would include a cylinder having a regular hexagonal cross section.

  1. Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Zheng-Yuan Yang, Li-Na; Zhou, Jian

    2015-07-13

    In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.

  2. Flexoelectric MEMS: towards an electromechanical strain diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, U. K.; Banerjee, N.; Abdollahi, A.; Solanas, E.; Rijnders, G.; Catalan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity are two independent but not incompatible forms of electromechanical response exhibited by nanoscale ferroelectrics. Here, we show that flexoelectricity can either enhance or suppress the piezoelectric response of the cantilever depending on the ferroelectric polarity and lead to a diode-like asymmetric (two-state) electromechanical response.Piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity are two independent but not incompatible forms of electromechanical response exhibited by nanoscale ferroelectrics. Here, we show that flexoelectricity can either enhance or suppress the piezoelectric response of the cantilever depending on the ferroelectric polarity and lead to a diode-like asymmetric (two-state) electromechanical response. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06514c

  3. Report on Non-Contact DC Electric Field Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R; Bond, T; Meyer, G

    2009-06-16

    This document reports on methods used to measure DC electrostatic fields in the range of 100 to 4000 V/m using a non-contact method. The project for which this report is written requires this capability. Non-contact measurements of DC fields is complicated by the effect of the accumulation of random space-charges near the sensors which interfere with the measurement of the field-of-interest and consequently, many forms of field measurements are either limited to AC measurements or use oscillating devices to create pseudo-AC fields. The intent of this document is to report on methods discussed in the literature for non-contact measurement of DC fields. Electric field meters report either the electric field expressed in volts per distance or the voltage measured with respect to a ground reference. Common commercial applications for measuring static (DC) electric fields include measurement of surface charge on materials near electronic equipment to prevent arcing which can destroy sensitive electronic components, measurement of the potential for lightning to strike buildings or other exposed assets, measurement of the electric fields under power lines to investigate potential health risks from exposure to EM fields and measurement of fields emanating from the brain for brain diagnostic purposes. Companies that make electric field sensors include Trek (Medina, NY), MKS Instruments, Boltek, Campbell Systems, Mission Instruments, Monroe Electronics, AlphaLab, Inc. and others. In addition to commercial vendors, there are research activities continuing in the MEMS and optical arenas to make compact devices using the principles applied to the larger commercial sensors.

  4. Electromechanical flight control actuator, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An electromechanical actuator was developed that will follow a proportional control command with minimum wasted energy to demonstrate the feasibility of meeting space vehicle actuator requirements using advanced electromechanical concepts. The approach was restricted to a four-channel redundant configuration. Each channel has independent drive and control electronics, a brushless electric motor with brake, and velocity and position feedback transducers. A differential gearbox sums the output velocities of the motors. Normally, two motors are active and the other two are braked.

  5. Electromechanical response of NCC-PEO composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Patrick S.; Baltzell, Matthew; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Daihui; Tu, Maobing; Cheng, Zhongyang

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) has been widely studied as a solid-polymer electrolyte where both the cations and anions can move inside of it under an applied electric field. The motion of these charge carriers in the PEO results in the accumulation of ions close to the electrodes. The inherent size difference between the types of ions causes an unequal volume change between the two sides which translates to an observed mechanical bending. This is similar to electroactive polymers made from conducting polymers. Typically, PEO has a slow response. Some efforts have been given to develop PEO-based polymer blends to improve their performance. In this work, a fundamental study on the electromechanical response is conducted: the time dependence of the electromechanical response is characterized for PEO under different electric fields. Based on the results, a new methodology to monitor the electromechanical response is introduced. The method is based on the frequency dependence of the samples' dielectric properties. To improve the electromechanical response, the PEO is embedded with piezoelectric nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). NCC is a biomass derivative that is biodegradable, renewable, and inexpensive. The dielectric, mechanical, and electromechanical properties of the NCC-PEO composites are characterized. It is found that the mechanical and electromechanical properties of the PEO are significantly improved with adding NCC. For example, the composites with 1.5 vol.% of NCC exhibit an electromechanical strain and elastic modulus that is 33.4% and 20.1% higher, respectively, than for PEO without NCC. However, the electromechanical response decreases when the NCC content is high.

  6. 78 FR 37203 - Authorization of Production Activity; Subzone 196A; TTI, Inc. (Electromechanical and Circuit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... comment (78 FR 15683, 03-12-2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of the activity is... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Production Activity; Subzone 196A; TTI, Inc. (Electromechanical and Circuit Protection Devices Production/Kitting); Fort Worth, Texas On February 13, 2013, TTI,...

  7. 78 FR 15682 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity TTI, Inc.; Subzone 196A (Electromechanical and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity TTI, Inc.; Subzone 196A (Electromechanical and Circuit Protection Devices Production/ Kitting); Fort Worth, TX TTI, Inc. (TTI), operator of Subzone 196A, submitted a notification of proposed production activity for its facilities located in...

  8. Noncontact scanning electrical impedance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongze; Hawkins, Aaron; Schultz, Stephen; Oliphant, Travis E

    2004-01-01

    We are interested in applying electrical impedance imaging to a single cell because it has potential to reveal both cell anatomy and cell function. Unfortunately, classic impedance imaging techniques are not applicable to this small scale measurement due to their low resolution. In this paper, a different method of impedance imaging is developed based on a noncontact scanning system. In this system, the imaging sample is immersed in an aqueous solution allowing for the use of various probe designs. Among those designs, we discuss a novel shield-probe design that has the advantage of better signal-to-noise ratio with higher resolution compared to other probes. Images showing the magnitude of current for each scanned point were obtained using this configuration. A low-frequency linear physical model helps to relate the current to the conductivity at each point. Line-scan data of high impedance contrast structures can be shown to be a good fit to this model. The first two-dimensional impedance image of biological tissues generated by this technique is shown with resolution on the order of 100 mum. The image reveals details not present in the optical image. PMID:17271930

  9. Electromechanics of packed granular beds

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Strong, electrical, interparticle forces are induced by applied electric fields within packed beds of dielectric particles. Proposed applications utilizing electropacked beds (EPBs) or electrofluidized beds (EFBs) include air filtration and gas clean-up, fine particle separation, commercial drying and coating processes, heat and mass transfer, and bulk bed control. A new distributed circuit model of the electrical interparticle force is presented that identifies the role of surface roughness as determining the interparticle spacing. The dc steady state force is predicted to increase nearly linearly with the applied electric field and is theoretically independent of particle surface conductivity. The electric stress is found to vary nearly linearly with the applied electric field. Data are generally consistent with the theoretical contention that increased surface roughness decreases electromechanical effects. Surface conductivity variations of three to four times have no measurable effect on the dc steady state electric stress. The electric stress is insensitive to the dielectric properties of the interstitial gas eliminating Townsend discharge as a candidate for the nonlinear charge transport process thought to occur near interparticle contacts. The theoretical upper bound of the electric stress calculated using the distributed circuit model falls within the scatter of the data if a limit on the electric field in the interparticle gap which models nonlinear charge transport is in the range of 1 to 6 x 10/sup 7/ V/m. Estimates of the charge relaxation time using transient angle of repose experiments are somewhat smaller but comparable with theoretical values calculated by ignoring nonlinear charge transport.

  10. Electromechanical properties of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide transistors structured with an island configuration on plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Bum; Na, Hyung Il; Yoo, Soon Sung; Park, Kwon-Shik

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of the electromechanical properties was carried out on a low-temperature-processed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor, particularly with regard to the structural design of the device under the stress accumulation of an outward bending surface. Shown herein is the reliable electromechanical integrity of island-structured devices against the mechanical strain at bending radii of mm order. The onset of crack strain also closely corresponded to the electrical failure of the stressed device. These results revealed that the island configuration on the bending surface effectively suppresses the stress accumulation on sheets composed of inorganic stacked layers in a uniaxial direction.

  11. Electromechanical properties of nanotube PVA composite actuator bimorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, Christèle; Derré, Alain; Roubeau, Olivier; Zakri, Cécile; Poulin, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube (oxidized-MWNT)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite sheets have been prepared for electromechanical actuator applications. MWNT have been oxidized by nitric acid treatments. They were then dispersed in water and mixed with various amounts of PVA of high molecular weight (198 000 g mol-1). The composite sheets were then obtained through a membrane filtration process. The composition of the systems has been optimized to combine suitable mechanical and electrical properties. Thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical tensile tests and conductivity measurements show that the best compromise of mechanical and electrical properties was obtained for a PVA weight fraction of about 30 wt%. In addition, one face of the sheets was coated with gold to increase the conductivity of the sheets and promote uniform actuation. Pseudo-bimorph devices have been realized by subsequently coating the composite sheets with an inert layer of PVA. The devices have been tested electromechanically in a liquid electrolyte (tetrabutylammonium/tetrafluoroborate (TBA/TFB) in acetonitrile) at constant frequency and different applied voltages, from 2 to 10 V. Measurements of the bimorph deflections were used to determine the stress generated by the nanotube-PVA sheets. The results show that the stress generated increases with increasing amplitude of the applied voltage and can reach 1.8 MPa. This value compares well with and even exceeds the stress generated by recently obtained bimorphs made of gold nanoparticles.

  12. Case study of piezoelectric flexible thin films in pulse excited electromechanical transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamon, Natalia; Gozdur, Roman; Turczyński, Marcin; Lisik, Zbigniew; Soupremanien, Ulrich; Ollier, Emmanuel; Monfray, Stéphane; Skotnicki, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the examination of modern flexible piezoelectric thin films made of PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) in terms of their application in electromechanical transducers, a brief overview of available piezoelectric materials and energy harvesting devices based on piezoelectric. In order to assess the usefulness of these films from the perspective of described devices, the energy efficiency coefficient determined under the pulse excitation conditions was taken into account. Normalized volumetric efficiency ratio allows to evaluate the commercially available flexible piezoelectric films.

  13. Noncontact Monitoring of Blood Oxygen Saturation Using Camera and Dual-Wavelength Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dangdang; Liu, Chenbin; Tsow, Francis; Yang, Yuting; Du, Zijian; Iriya, Rafael; Yu, Hui; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-06-01

    We present a noncontact method to monitor blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). The method uses a CMOS camera with a trigger control to allow recording of photoplethysmography (PPG) signals alternatively at two particular wavelengths, and determines the SpO2 from the measured ratios of the pulsatile to the nonpulsatile components of the PPG signals at these wavelengths. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the SpO2 value depends on the choice of the wavelengths. We found that the combination of orange (λ = 611 nm) and near infrared (λ = 880 nm) provides the best SNR for the noncontact video-based detection method. This combination is different from that used in traditional contact-based SpO 2 measurement since the PPG signal strengths and camera quantum efficiencies at these wavelengths are more amenable to SpO2 measurement using a noncontact method. We also conducted a small pilot study to validate the noncontact method over an SpO2 range of 83%-98%. This study results are consistent with those measured using a reference contact SpO2 device ( r = 0.936, ). The presented method is particularly suitable for tracking one's health and wellness at home under free-living conditions, and for those who cannot use traditional contact-based PPG devices. PMID:26415199

  14. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Smart materials and structures based on electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) represent a fast growing and stimulating field of research and development. EAPs are materials capable of changing dimensions and/or shape in response to suitable electrical stimuli. They are commonly classified in two major families: ionic EAPs (activated by an electrically induced transport of ions and/or solvent) and electronic EAPs (activated by electrostatic forces). These polymers show interesting properties, such as sizable active strains and/or stresses in response to electrical driving, high mechanical flexibility, low density, structural simplicity, ease of processing and scalability, no acoustic noise and, in most cases, low costs. Since many of these characteristics can also describe natural muscle tissues from an engineering standpoint, it is not surprising that EAP transducers are sometimes also referred to as 'muscle-like smart materials' or 'artificial muscles'. They are used not only to generate motion, but also to sense or harvest energy from it. In particular, EAP electromechanical transducers are studied for applications that can benefit from their 'biomimetic' characteristics, with possible usages from the micro- to the macro-scale, spanning several disciplines, such as mechatronics, robotics, automation, biotechnology and biomedical engineering, haptics, fluidics, optics and acoustics. Currently, the EAP field is just undergoing its initial transition from academic research into commercialization, with companies starting to invest in this technology and the first products appearing on the market. This focus issue is intentionally aimed at gathering contributions from the most influential European groups working in the EAP field. In fact, today Europe hosts the broadest EAP community worldwide. The rapid expansion of the EAP field in Europe, where it historically has strong roots, has stimulated the creation of the 'European Scientific Network for Artificial

  15. Non-Contact Heart Rate Monitoring Using Lab Color Space.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hamidur; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Research progressing during the last decade focuses more on non-contact based systems to monitor Heart Rate (HR) which are simple, low-cost and comfortable to use. Most of the non-contact based systems are using RGB videos which is suitable for lab environment. However, it needs to progress considerably before they can be applied in real life applications. As luminance (light) has significance contribution on RGB videos HR monitoring using RGB videos are not efficient enough in real life applications in outdoor environment. This paper presents a HR monitoring method using Lab color facial video captured by a webcam of a laptop computer. Lab color space is device independent and HR can be extracted through facial skin color variation caused by blood circulation considering variable environmental light. Here, three different signal processing methods i.e., Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied on the color channels in video recordings and blood volume pulse (BVP) has been extracted from the facial regions. In this study, HR is subsequently quantified and compare with a reference measurement. The result shows that high degrees of accuracy have been achieved compared to the reference measurements. Thus, this technology has significant potential for advancing personal health care, telemedicine and many real life applications such as driver monitoring. PMID:27225552

  16. Silicon Micropore based Electromechanical Transducer to Differentiate Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Waqas; Raza, Muhammad U.; Khanzada, Raja R.; Kim, Young-Tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2015-03-01

    Solid-state micropores have been used before to differentiate cancer cells from normal cells using size-based filtering. Tumor cells differ from normal ones not only in size but also in physical properties like elasticity, shape, motility etc. Tumor cells show different physical attributes depending on the stage and type of cancer. We report a micropore based electromechanical transducer that differentiated cancer cells based on their mechanophysical properties. The device was interfaced with a high-speed patch-clamp measurement system that biased the ionic solution across the silicon-based membrane. The bias resulted in the flow of ionic current. Electrical pulses were generated when cells passed through. Different cells depicted characteristic pulses. Translocation profiles of cells that were either small or were more elastic and flexible caused electrical pulses shorter in widths and amplitudes whereas cells with larger size or lesser elasticity/flexibility showed deeper and wider pulses. Three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines NCI-H1155, A549 and NCI-H460 were successfully differentiated. NCI-H1155, due to their comparatively smaller size, were found quickest in translocating through. The solid-sate micropore based electromechanical transducer could process the whole blood sample of cancer patient without any pre-processing requirements and is ideal for point-of-care applications. Support Acknowledged from NSF through ECCS-1201878.

  17. Tuning the Electromechanical Properties of Single DNA Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Bruot, Christopher; Xiang, Limin; Palma, Julio L; Li, Yueqi; Tao, Nongjian

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the interplay between the electrical and mechanical properties of DNA molecules is important for the design and characterization of molecular electronic devices, as well as understanding the role of charge transport in biological functions. However, to date, force-induced melting has limited our ability to investigate the response of DNA molecular conductance to stretching. Here we present a new molecule-electrode linker based on a hairpin-like design, which prevents force-induced melting at the end of single DNA molecules during stretching by stretching both strands of the duplex evenly. We find that the new linker group gives larger conductance than previously measured DNA-electrode linkers, which attach to the end of one strand of the duplex. In addition to changing the conductance the new linker also stabilizes the molecule during stretching, increasing the length a single DNA molecule can be stretched before an abrupt decrease in conductance. Fitting these electromechanical properties to a spring model, we show that distortion is more evenly distributed across the single DNA molecule during stretching, and thus the electromechanical effects of the π-π coupling between neighboring bases is measured. PMID:26480049

  18. Electromechanical properties of smart aggregate: theoretical modeling and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun; Kong, Qingzhao; Shi, Zhifei; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    Smart aggregate (SA), as a piezoceramic-based multi-functional device, is formed by sandwiching two lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patches with copper shielding between a pair of solid-machined cylindrical marble blocks with epoxy. Previous researches have successfully demonstrated the capability and reliability of versatile SAs to monitor the structural health of concrete structures. However, the previous works concentrated mainly on the applications of SAs in structural health monitoring; no reasonable theoretical model of SAs was proposed. In this paper, electromechanical properties of SAs were investigated using a proposed theoretical model. Based on one dimensional linear theory of piezo-elasticity, the dynamic solutions of a SA subjected to an external harmonic voltage were solved. Further, the electric impedance of the SA was computed, and the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies were calculated based on derived equations. Numerical analysis was conducted to discuss the effects of the thickness of epoxy layer and the dimension of PZT patch on the fundamental resonance and anti-resonance frequencies as well as the corresponding electromechanical coupling factor. The dynamic solutions based on the proposed theoretical model were further experimentally verified with two SA samples. The fundamental resonance and anti-resonance frequencies of SAs show good agreements in both theoretical and experimental results. The presented analysis and results contribute to the overall understanding of SA properties and help to optimize the working frequencies of SAs in structural health monitoring of civil structures.

  19. Unimodal optimal passive electromechanical damping of elastic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mekki, O.; Bourquin, F.; Maceri, F.; Merliot, E.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a new electromechanical damper is presented and used, made of a pendulum oscillating around an alternator axis and connected by a gear to the vibrating structure. In this way, the mechanical energy of the oscillating mass can be transformed into electrical energy to be dissipated when the alternator is branched on a resistor. This damping device is intrinsically non-linear, and the problem of the optimal parameters and of the best placement of this damper on the structure is studied. The optimality criterion chosen here is the maximum exponential time decay rate (ETDR) of the structural response. This criterion leads to new design formulas. The case of a bridge under construction is considered and the analytical results are compared with experimental ones, obtained on a mock-up made of a vertical tower connected to a free-end horizontal beam, to simulate the behavior of a cable-stayed bridge during the erection phase. Up to three electromechanical dampers are placed in order to study the multi-modal damping. The satisfactory agreement between the theoretical model and the experiments suggests that a multi-modal passive damping of electromagnetic type could be effective on lightweight flexible structures, when dampers are suitably placed.

  20. Electromechanical cardioplasty using a wrapped elasto-conductive epicardial mesh.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinkyung; Choi, Suji; Janardhan, Ajit H; Lee, Se-Yeon; Raut, Samarth; Soares, Joao; Shin, Kwangsoo; Yang, Shixuan; Lee, Chungkeun; Kang, Ki-Woon; Cho, Hye Rim; Kim, Seok Joo; Seo, Pilseon; Hyun, Wonji; Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Nohyun; Choi, Seung Hong; Sacks, Michael; Lu, Nanshu; Josephson, Mark E; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Hwang, Hye Jin

    2016-06-22

    Heart failure remains a major public health concern with a 5-year mortality rate higher than that of most cancers. Myocardial disease in heart failure is frequently accompanied by impairment of the specialized electrical conduction system and myocardium. We introduce an epicardial mesh made of electrically conductive and mechanically elastic material, to resemble the innate cardiac tissue and confer cardiac conduction system function, to enable electromechanical cardioplasty. Our epicardium-like substrate mechanically integrated with the heart and acted as a structural element of cardiac chambers. The epicardial device was designed with elastic properties nearly identical to the epicardial tissue itself and was able to detect electrical signals reliably on the moving rat heart without impeding diastolic function 8 weeks after induced myocardial infarction. Synchronized electrical stimulation over the ventricles by the epicardial mesh with the high conductivity of 11,210 S/cm shortened total ventricular activation time, reduced inherent wall stress, and improved several measures of systolic function including increases of 51% in fractional shortening, ~90% in radial strain, and 42% in contractility. The epicardial mesh was also capable of delivering an electrical shock to terminate a ventricular tachyarrhythmia in rodents. Electromechanical cardioplasty using an epicardial mesh is a new pathway toward reconstruction of the cardiac tissue and its specialized functions. PMID:27334261

  1. Electromechanical assembly department manufacturing improvements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, S.W.

    1991-12-01

    Techniques for streamlining the processing and flow of products is an electromechanical assembly department were evaluated. Areas looked at included a paperless system for lot identification records, automated tool and fixture storage, evaluation of product transfer methods, and queue time reduction.

  2. Electromechanical Technology. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides a model for a postsecondary electromechanical technology program. It is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 overviews the philosophy, purpose, and goals for vocational education in Georgia. Contents of section 2 include a definition of the guide's purpose and program objective. Section 3 describes the occupational…

  3. Electromechanical flight control actuator, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design verification tests which were conducted on the electromechanical actuator are described. A description is also given of the power components tests which were conducted to aid in selecting the power transistors for use in the single-channel power electronics breadboard and the results of tests which were conducted on the power electronics breadboard.

  4. Low tension graphene drums for electromechanical pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raj N.; Mathew, John P.; Borah, Abhinandan; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a process to fabricate electromechanical pressure sensors using multilayer graphene in a sealed drum geometry. The drum resonators are fabricated on insulating sapphire substrates with a local back gate for direct radio frequency ({\\text{}}{{rf}}) actuation and detection of the mechanical modes. Using this scheme, we show the detection and electrostatic tuning of multiple resonant modes of the membrane up to 200 MHz. The geometry of the device also helps in attaining low tensile stress in the membrane, thereby giving high gate tunability (∼1 MHz/V) of the resonator modes. We study the resonant frequency shifts in the presence of helium gas and demonstrate a sensing capability of 1 Torr pressure in a cryogenic environment.

  5. Non-Contact Gaging with Laser Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Clinesmith, Mike

    2009-03-20

    A gage has been constructed using conventional (high end) components for the application of measuring fragile syntactic foam parts in a non-contact mode. Success with this approach has been achieved through a novel method of transferring (mapping) high accuracy local measurements of a coated aluminum master, taken on a Leitz Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM), to the gage software system. The mapped data is then associated with local voltage readings from two (inner and outer) laser triangulating probes. This couples discreet laser probe offset and linearity characteristics to the measured master geometry. The gage software compares real part measured data against the master data to provide non-contact part inspection that results in a high accuracy and low uncertainty performance. Uncertainty from the part surface becomes the prevailing contributor to the gaging process. The gaging process provides a high speed, hands off measurement with nearly zero impedance.

  6. Microwave electromechanical resonator consisting of clamped carbon nanotubes in an abacus arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, H. B.; Chang, C. W.; Aloni, S.; Yuzvinsky, T. D.; Zettl, A.

    2007-07-01

    We describe nanoscale electromechanical resonators capable of operating in ambient-pressure air at room temperature with unprecedented fundamental resonance frequency of ˜4GHz . The devices are created from suspended carbon nanotubes loaded abacus style with inertial metal clamps, yielding short effective beam lengths. We examine the energy dissipation in the system due to air damping and contact loss. Such nanoabacus resonators open windows for immediate practical microwave frequency nanoelectromechanical system applications.

  7. Development of a Tunable Electromechanical Acoustic Liner for Engine Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Fei; Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III

    2007-01-01

    provides the information for a designer that shows how design trade-offs can be used to satisfy specific design requirements. The optimization design of the EMHR with inductive loads aims at optimal tuning of these three resonant fiequencies. The results indicate that it is possible to keep the acoustic reactance of the resonator close to a constant over a given frequency range. An effort to mimic the second layer of the NASA 2DOF liner using a piezoelectric composite diaphragm has been made. The optimal acoustic reactance of the second layer of the NASA 2DOF liner is achieved using a thin PVDF composite diaphragm, but matching the acoustic resistance requires further investigation. Acoustic energy harvesting is achieved by connecting the EMHR to an energy reclamation circuit that converts the ac voltage signal across the piezoceramic to a conditioned dc signal. Energy harvesting experiment yields 16 m W continuous power for an incident SPL of 153 dB. Such a level is sufficient to power a variety of low power electronic devices. Finally, technology transfer has been achieved by converting the original NASA ZKTL FORTRAN code to a MATLAB code while incorporating the models of the EMHR. Initial studies indicate that the EMHR is a promising technology that may enable lowpower, light weight, tunable engine nacelle liners. This technology, however, is very immature, and additional developments are required. Recommendations for future work include testing of sample EMHR liner designs in NASA Langley s normal incidence dual-waveguide and the grazing-incidence flow facility to evaluating both the impedance characteristics as well as the energy reclamation abilities. Additional design work is required for more complex tuning circuits with greater performance. Poor electromechanical coupling limited the electromechanical tuning capabilities of the proof of concept EMHR. Different materials than those studies and perhaps novel composite material systems may dramatically improvehe

  8. Quartz-superconductor quantum electromechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolley, M. J.; Emzir, M. F.; Milburn, G. J.; Jerger, M.; Goryachev, M.; Tobar, M. E.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose and analyze a quantum electromechanical system composed of a monolithic quartz bulk acoustic wave oscillator coupled to a superconducting transmon qubit via an intermediate L C electrical circuit. Monolithic quartz oscillators offer unprecedentedly high effective masses and quality factors for the investigation of mechanical oscillators in the quantum regime. Ground-state cooling of such mechanical modes via resonant piezoelectric coupling to an L C circuit, which is itself sideband cooled via coupling to a transmon qubit, is shown to be feasible. The fluorescence spectrum of the qubit, containing motional sideband contributions due to the couplings to the oscillator modes, is obtained and the imprint of the electromechanical steady state on the spectrum is determined. This allows the qubit to function both as a cooling resource for, and transducer of, the mechanical oscillator. The results described are relevant to any hybrid quantum system composed of a qubit coupled to two (coupled or uncoupled) thermal oscillator modes.

  9. Electromechanical flight control actuator, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Schematic diagrams are given for both the four-channel electromechanical actuator and the single-channel power electronics breadboard. Detailed design data is also given on the gears used in the differential gearbox and a copy of the operations manual for the system is included. Performance test results are given for the EMA motor and its current source indicator, the drive control electronics, and the overall system. The power converter waveform test results are also summarized.

  10. Passive magnetic bearings for vehicular electromechanical batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the design of a passive magnetic bearing system to be used in electromechanical batteries (flywheel energy storage modules) suitable for vehicular use. One or two such EMB modules might, for example, be employed in a hybrid-electric automobile, providing efficient means for power peaking, i.e., for handling acceleration and regenerative braking power demands at high power levels. The bearing design described herein will be based on a ''dual-mode'' operating regime.

  11. Noncontact depth-resolved micro-scale corneal elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive high-resolution depth-resolved measurement of corneal biomechanics is of great clinical significance for improving the diagnosis and optimizing the treatment of various degenerated ocular diseases. Here, we report a micro-scale optical coherence elastography (OCE) method that enables noncontact assessment of the depthwise elasticity distribution in the cornea. The OCE system combines a focused air-puff device with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Low-pressure short-duration air stream is used to load the cornea with the localized displacement at micron level. The phase-resolved OCT detection with nano-scale sensitivity probes the induced corneal deformation at various locations within a scanning line, providing the ultra-fast imaging of the corneal lamb wave propagation. With spectral analysis, the amplitude spectra and the phase spectra are available for the estimation of the frequency range of the lamb wave and the quantification of the wave propagation, respectively. Curved propagation paths following the top and bottom corneal boundaries are selected inside the cornea for measuring the phase velocity of the lamb wave at the major frequency components over the whole depths. Our pilot experiments on ex vivo rabbit eyes indicate the distinct stiffness of different layers in the cornea, including the epithelium, the anterior stroma, the posterior stroma, and the innermost region, which demonstrates the feasibility of this micro-scale OCE method for noncontact depth-resolved corneal elastography. Also, the quantification of the lamb wave dispersion in the cornea could lead to the measurement of the elastic modulus, suggesting the potential of this method for quantitative monitoring of the corneal biomechanics.

  12. Nanomechanical and Electro-mechanical Characterization of Materials for Flexible Electrodes Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng

    Flexible electronics attract research and commercial interests in last 2 decades for its flexibility, low cost, light weight and etc. To develop and improve the electro-mechanical properties of flexible electrodes is the most critical and important step. In this work, we have performed nanomechanical and electromechanical characterization of materials for flexible electrode applications, including metallic nanowires (NWs), indium tin oxide (ITO)-based and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electrodes. First, we designed and developed four different testing platforms for nanomechanical and electro-mechanical characterization purpose. For the nano/sub-micro size samples, the micro mechanical devices can be used for uniaxial and bi-axial loading tests. For the macro size samples, the micro tester will be used for in situ monotonic tensile test, while the fatigue tester can be used for in situ cyclic tensile or bending testing purpose. Secondly, we have investigated mechanical behaviors of single crystalline Ni nanowires and single crystalline Cu nanowires under uni-axial tensile loading inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber. We demonstrated both size and strain-rate dependence on yield stress of single-crystalline Ni NWs with varying diameters (from 100 nm to 300 nm), and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation helped to confirm and understand the experimental phenomena. Also, two different fracture modes, namely ductile and brittle-like fractures, were found in the same batch of Cu nanowire samples. Finally, we studied the electro-mechanical behaviors of flexible electrodes in macro scale. We reported a coherent study integrating in situ electro-mechanical experiments and mechanics modeling to decipher the failure mechanics of ITO-based and CNTbased electrodes under tension. It is believed that our combined experimental and simulation results provide some further insights into the important yet complicated deformation mechanisms for nanoscale metals and

  13. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibration—an external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  14. Continuous wave terahertz spectrometer as a noncontact thickness measuring device.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Rafał; Breitfeld, Falk; Mikulics, Martin; Koch, Martin

    2008-06-01

    We present a low cost terahertz (THz) spectrometer with coherent detection based on two simple and robust dipole antennas driven by two laser diodes. The spectrometer covers frequencies up to 1 THz, with a peak signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 40 dB for a lock-in integration time of 30 ms. We demonstrate that the thickness profile of a sample can be reconstructed from an acquired THz image. PMID:18516122

  15. High voltage DC switchgear development for multi-kW space power system: Aerospace technology development of three types of solid state power controllers for 200-1100VDC with current ratings of 25, 50, and 80 amperes with one type utilizing an electromechanical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    Three types of solid state power controllers (SSPC's) for high voltage, high power DC system applications were developed. The first type utilizes a SCR power switch. The second type employes an electromechanical power switch element with solid state commutation. The third type utilizes a transistor power switch. Significant accomplishments include high operating efficiencies, fault clearing, high/low temperature performance and vacuum operation.

  16. Noncontact orientation of objects in three-dimensional space using magnetic levitation.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Yang, Dian; Yu, Hai-Dong; Nemiroski, Alex; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes several noncontact methods of orienting objects in 3D space using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev). The methods use two permanent magnets arranged coaxially with like poles facing and a container containing a paramagnetic liquid in which the objects are suspended. Absent external forcing, objects levitating in the device adopt predictable static orientations; the orientation depends on the shape and distribution of mass within the objects. The orientation of objects of uniform density in the MagLev device shows a sharp geometry-dependent transition: an analytical theory rationalizes this transition and predicts the orientation of objects in the MagLev device. Manipulation of the orientation of the levitating objects in space is achieved in two ways: (i) by rotating and/or translating the MagLev device while the objects are suspended in the paramagnetic solution between the magnets; (ii) by moving a small external magnet close to the levitating objects while keeping the device stationary. Unlike mechanical agitation or robotic selection, orienting using MagLev is possible for objects having a range of different physical characteristics (e.g., different shapes, sizes, and mechanical properties from hard polymers to gels and fluids). MagLev thus has the potential to be useful for sorting and positioning components in 3D space, orienting objects for assembly, constructing noncontact devices, and assembling objects composed of soft materials such as hydrogels, elastomers, and jammed granular media. PMID:25157136

  17. Noncontact orientation of objects in three-dimensional space using magnetic levitation

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Yang, Dian; Yu, Hai-Dong; Nemiroski, Alex; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K.; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes several noncontact methods of orienting objects in 3D space using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev). The methods use two permanent magnets arranged coaxially with like poles facing and a container containing a paramagnetic liquid in which the objects are suspended. Absent external forcing, objects levitating in the device adopt predictable static orientations; the orientation depends on the shape and distribution of mass within the objects. The orientation of objects of uniform density in the MagLev device shows a sharp geometry-dependent transition: an analytical theory rationalizes this transition and predicts the orientation of objects in the MagLev device. Manipulation of the orientation of the levitating objects in space is achieved in two ways: (i) by rotating and/or translating the MagLev device while the objects are suspended in the paramagnetic solution between the magnets; (ii) by moving a small external magnet close to the levitating objects while keeping the device stationary. Unlike mechanical agitation or robotic selection, orienting using MagLev is possible for objects having a range of different physical characteristics (e.g., different shapes, sizes, and mechanical properties from hard polymers to gels and fluids). MagLev thus has the potential to be useful for sorting and positioning components in 3D space, orienting objects for assembly, constructing noncontact devices, and assembling objects composed of soft materials such as hydrogels, elastomers, and jammed granular media. PMID:25157136

  18. Non-contact temperature measurement requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, D. B.; Witherow, W. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is involved with levitation experiments for Spacelab, Space Station, and drop tube/tower operations. These experiments have temperature measurement requirements, that of course must be non-contact in nature. The experiment modules involved are the Acoustic Levitator Furnace (ALF), and the Modular Electromagnetic Levitator (MEL). User requirements of the ALF and drop tube are presented. The center also has temperature measurement needs that are not microgravity experiment oriented, but rather are related to the propulsion system for the STS. This requirement will also be discussed.

  19. Precision non-contact polishing tool

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, John S.

    1997-01-01

    A non-contact polishing tool that combines two orthogonal slurry flow geometries to provide flexibility in altering the shape of the removal footprint. By varying the relative contributions of the two flow geometries, the footprint shape can be varied between the characteristic shapes corresponding to the two independent flow regimes. In addition, the tool can include a pressure activated means by which the shape of the brim of the tool can be varied. The tool can be utilized in various applications, such as x-ray optical surfaces, x-ray lithography, lenses, etc., where stringent shape and finish tolerances are required.

  20. Precision non-contact polishing tool

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, J.S.

    1997-01-07

    A non-contact polishing tool is disclosed that combines two orthogonal slurry flow geometries to provide flexibility in altering the shape of the removal footprint. By varying the relative contributions of the two flow geometries, the footprint shape can be varied between the characteristic shapes corresponding to the two independent flow regimes. In addition, the tool can include a pressure activated means by which the shape of the brim of the tool can be varied. The tool can be utilized in various applications, such as x-ray optical surfaces, x-ray lithography, lenses, etc., where stringent shape and finish tolerances are required. 5 figs.

  1. Solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  2. Orientation Dependence of Electromechanical Characteristics of Defect-free InAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kun; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Yibin; Chen, Pingping; Lu, Wei; Drennan, John; Han, Xiaodong; Zou, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the electrical properties of defect-free nanowires with different structures and their responses under deformation are essential for design and applications of nanodevices and strain engineering. In this study, defect-free zinc-blende- and wurtzite-structured InAs nanowires were grown using molecular beam epitaxy, and individual nanowires with different structures and orientations were carefully selected and their electrical properties and electromechanical responses were investigated using an electrical probing system inside a transmission electron microscope. Through our careful experimental design and detailed analyses, we uncovered several extraordinary physical phenomena, such as the electromechanical characteristics are dominated by the nanowire orientation, rather than its crystal structure. Our results provide critical insights into different responses induced by deformation of InAs with different structures, which is important for nanowire-based devices. PMID:26837494

  3. Mechanical and Electromechanical Properties of Semiconducting and Metallic Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal Montoya, Rodrigo A.

    Nanowires are envisioned as the building blocks of future electronics, sensing and actuation devices, nanostructured materials, among many applications. This technological potential arises because the properties of nanowires tend to be superior to those of bulk structures. However, unambiguous characterization of these properties has not been yet achieved, due to the challenging nature of nanoscale experimentation. In this thesis, we aimed at advancing the unambiguous characterization of mechanical and electromechanical properties of nanowires, by employing and improving MEMS-based (Microelectromechanical Systems) characterization technologies, which allow in-situ electron microscopy testing. Furthermore, we coupled the experimental results with atomistic simulations in order to attain fundamental understanding, and allow the determination of structure-property relations. This synergy between experiments and simulations also provides guidelines for improvements in both the experimental and computational techniques. In the context of semiconducting specimens, we characterized the elastic modulus of GaN nanowires. We find that below 20 nm in diameter, the nanowires display enhanced elastic moduli. Above this size, nanowires show bulk behavior. The measured trends are consistent both in experiments and simulations. The modulus enhancement is caused by local contraction of the atomic bonds near the surface of the nanowires, which leads to a locally higher modulus at the surface. For metallic specimens, we characterized the mechanical behavior of fivefold-twinned silver nanowires below 120 nm in diameter. To better match the loading condition between experiments and simulations, we implement a MEMS device for displacement-controlled testing, and subsequently employ it to characterize the cyclic plastic behavior of the nanowires. Experimentally, Bauschinger effect and partial recovery of the plastic deformation are observed. In-situ TEM experiments and atomistic

  4. Non-contact temperature measurement requirements for electronic materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements for non-contact temperature measurement capabilities for electronic materials processing in space are assessed. Non-contact methods are probably incapable of sufficient accuracy for the actual absolute measurement of temperatures in most such applications but would be useful for imaging in some applications.

  5. Electromechanical Interplay in Deformable Dielectric Elastomer Networks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noy; deBotton, Gal

    2016-05-20

    A systematic, statistical-mechanics-based analysis of the response of dielectric elastomers to coupled electromechanical loading is conducted, starting from the monomer level through the polymer chain and ending with closed-form expressions for the polarization and stress fields. It is found that the apparent response at the macrolevel is dictated by four microscopic parameters-the monomer type and polarizability and the chain length and density. Our analysis further reveals a new electrostrictive effect that either reinforces or opposes the polarization-induced deformation. The validity of the results is attested through comparisons with well-established experimental measurements of both the polarization field and the electrostrictive stress. PMID:27258888

  6. 25 CFR 502.8 - Electronic or electromechanical facsimile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facsimile means a game played in an electronic or electromechanical format that replicates a game of chance by incorporating all of the characteristics of the game, except when, for bingo, lotto, and other games similar to bingo, the electronic or electromechanical format broadens participation by...

  7. 25 CFR 502.8 - Electronic or electromechanical facsimile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... facsimile means a game played in an electronic or electromechanical format that replicates a game of chance by incorporating all of the characteristics of the game, except when, for bingo, lotto, and other games similar to bingo, the electronic or electromechanical format broadens participation by...

  8. 25 CFR 502.8 - Electronic or electromechanical facsimile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... facsimile means a game played in an electronic or electromechanical format that replicates a game of chance by incorporating all of the characteristics of the game, except when, for bingo, lotto, and other games similar to bingo, the electronic or electromechanical format broadens participation by...

  9. 25 CFR 502.8 - Electronic or electromechanical facsimile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... facsimile means a game played in an electronic or electromechanical format that replicates a game of chance by incorporating all of the characteristics of the game, except when, for bingo, lotto, and other games similar to bingo, the electronic or electromechanical format broadens participation by...

  10. 25 CFR 502.8 - Electronic or electromechanical facsimile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... facsimile means a game played in an electronic or electromechanical format that replicates a game of chance by incorporating all of the characteristics of the game, except when, for bingo, lotto, and other games similar to bingo, the electronic or electromechanical format broadens participation by...

  11. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOEpatents

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  12. MEMS device for spacecraft thermal control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theordore D. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A micro-electromechanical device that comprises miniaturized mechanical louvers, referred to as Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) louvers are employed to achieve a thermal control function for spacecraft and instruments. The MEMS louvers are another form of a variable emittance control coating and employ micro-electromechanical technology. In a function similar to traditional, macroscopic thermal louvers, the MEMS louvers of the present invention change the emissivity of a surface. With the MEMS louvers, as with the traditional macroscopic louvers, a mechanical vane or window is opened and closed to allow an alterable radiative view to space.

  13. Dynamic electromechanical instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Michael Yu

    2015-11-01

    Electromechanical instability, a significant phenomenon in dielectric elastomers, has been well studied in the literature. However, most previous work was based on the assumption that dielectric elastomers undergo quasi-static deformation. This letter investigates the dynamic electromechanical instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon which renders four types of oscillation subject to a parametric combination of DC and AC voltages. The simulated oscillations show that dynamic electromechanical instability occurs within quite a large range of excitation frequency, in the form of snap-through or snap-back, when the DC and AC voltages reach critical values. The balloon is at its most susceptible to dynamic electromechanical instability when the superharmonic, harmonic or subharmonic resonance is excited. Taking all excitation parameters into account, this letter analyzes the global critical condition which triggers the dynamic electromechanical instability of the balloon.

  14. Non-contact detection of myocardium's mechanical activity by ultrawideband RF-radar and interpretation applying electrocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, F.; Kreiseler, D.; Seifert, F.

    2009-11-01

    Electromagnetic waves can propagate through the body and are reflected at interfaces between materials with different dielectric properties. Therefore the reason for using ultrawideband (UWB) radar for probing the human body in the frequency range from 100 MHz up to 10 GHz is obvious and suggests an ability to monitor the motion of organs within the human body as well as obtaining images of internal structures. The specific advantages of UWB sensors are high temporal and spatial resolutions, penetration into object, low integral power, and compatibility with established narrowband systems. The sensitivity to ultralow power signals makes them suitable for human medical applications including mobile and continuous noncontact supervision of vital functions. Since no ionizing radiation is used, and due to the ultralow specific absorption rate applied, UWB techniques permit noninvasive sensing with no potential risks. This research aims at the synergetic use of UWB sounding combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to gain complementary information for improved functional diagnosis and imaging, especially to accelerate and enhance cardiac MRI by applying UWB radar as a noncontact navigator of myocardial contraction. To this end a sound understanding of how myocardial's mechanic is rendered by reflected and postprocessed UWB radar signals must be achieved. Therefore, we have executed the simultaneous acquisition and evaluation of radar signals with signals from a high-resolution electrocardiogram. The noncontact UWB illumination was done from several radiographic standard positions to monitor selected superficial myocardial areas during the cyclic physiological myocardial deformation in three different respiratory states. From our findings we could conclude that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultrahigh field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it

  15. Non-contact detection of myocardium's mechanical activity by ultrawideband RF-radar and interpretation applying electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Thiel, F; Kreiseler, D; Seifert, F

    2009-11-01

    Electromagnetic waves can propagate through the body and are reflected at interfaces between materials with different dielectric properties. Therefore the reason for using ultrawideband (UWB) radar for probing the human body in the frequency range from 100 MHz up to 10 GHz is obvious and suggests an ability to monitor the motion of organs within the human body as well as obtaining images of internal structures. The specific advantages of UWB sensors are high temporal and spatial resolutions, penetration into object, low integral power, and compatibility with established narrowband systems. The sensitivity to ultralow power signals makes them suitable for human medical applications including mobile and continuous noncontact supervision of vital functions. Since no ionizing radiation is used, and due to the ultralow specific absorption rate applied, UWB techniques permit noninvasive sensing with no potential risks. This research aims at the synergetic use of UWB sounding combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to gain complementary information for improved functional diagnosis and imaging, especially to accelerate and enhance cardiac MRI by applying UWB radar as a noncontact navigator of myocardial contraction. To this end a sound understanding of how myocardial's mechanic is rendered by reflected and postprocessed UWB radar signals must be achieved. Therefore, we have executed the simultaneous acquisition and evaluation of radar signals with signals from a high-resolution electrocardiogram. The noncontact UWB illumination was done from several radiographic standard positions to monitor selected superficial myocardial areas during the cyclic physiological myocardial deformation in three different respiratory states. From our findings we could conclude that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultrahigh field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it

  16. Non-Contact Plant Growth Measurement Method and System Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jinweon; Kim, Seokhoon; Ryoo, Intae

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments. PMID:22163849

  17. Demonstration of a non-contact x-ray source using an inductively heated pyroelectric accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopfer, Michael; Satchouk, Vladimir; Cao, Anh; Wolowiec, Thomas; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

    2015-04-01

    X-ray emission from pyroelectric sources can be produced through non-contact thermal cycling using induction heating. In this study, we demonstrated a proof of concept non-contact x-ray source powered via induction heating. An induction heater operating at 62.5 kHz provided a total of 6.5 W of delivered peak thermal power with 140 V DC of driving voltage. The heat was applied to a ferrous substrate mechanically coupled to a cubic 1 cm3 Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) pyroelectric crystal maintained in a 3-12 mTorr vacuum. The maximum temperature reached was 175 °C in 86 s of heating. The cooling cycle began immediately after heating and was provided by passive radiative cooling. The total combined cycle time was 250 s. x-ray photons were produced and analyzed in both heating and cooling phases. Maximum photon energies of 59 keV and 55 keV were observed during heating and cooling, respectively. Non-contact devices such as this, may find applications in cancer therapy (brachytherapy), non-destructive testing, medical imaging, and physics education fields.

  18. High-Throughput Non-Contact Vitrification of Cell-Laden Droplets Based on Cell Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Meng; Ling, Kai; Yong, Kar Wey; Li, Yuhui; Feng, Shangsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is the most promising way for long-term storage of biological samples e.g., single cells and cellular structures. Among various cryopreservation methods, vitrification is advantageous by employing high cooling rate to avoid the formation of harmful ice crystals in cells. Most existing vitrification methods adopt direct contact of cells with liquid nitrogen to obtain high cooling rates, which however causes the potential contamination and difficult cell collection. To address these limitations, we developed a non-contact vitrification device based on an ultra-thin freezing film to achieve high cooling/warming rate and avoid direct contact between cells and liquid nitrogen. A high-throughput cell printer was employed to rapidly generate uniform cell-laden microdroplets into the device, where the microdroplets were hung on one side of the film and then vitrified by pouring the liquid nitrogen onto the other side via boiling heat transfer. Through theoretical and experimental studies on vitrification processes, we demonstrated that our device offers a high cooling/warming rate for vitrification of the NIH 3T3 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with maintained cell viability and differentiation potential. This non-contact vitrification device provides a novel and effective way to cryopreserve cells at high throughput and avoid the contamination and collection problems.

  19. High-Throughput Non-Contact Vitrification of Cell-Laden Droplets Based on Cell Printing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Meng; Ling, Kai; Yong, Kar Wey; Li, Yuhui; Feng, Shangsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the most promising way for long-term storage of biological samples e.g., single cells and cellular structures. Among various cryopreservation methods, vitrification is advantageous by employing high cooling rate to avoid the formation of harmful ice crystals in cells. Most existing vitrification methods adopt direct contact of cells with liquid nitrogen to obtain high cooling rates, which however causes the potential contamination and difficult cell collection. To address these limitations, we developed a non-contact vitrification device based on an ultra-thin freezing film to achieve high cooling/warming rate and avoid direct contact between cells and liquid nitrogen. A high-throughput cell printer was employed to rapidly generate uniform cell-laden microdroplets into the device, where the microdroplets were hung on one side of the film and then vitrified by pouring the liquid nitrogen onto the other side via boiling heat transfer. Through theoretical and experimental studies on vitrification processes, we demonstrated that our device offers a high cooling/warming rate for vitrification of the NIH 3T3 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with maintained cell viability and differentiation potential. This non-contact vitrification device provides a novel and effective way to cryopreserve cells at high throughput and avoid the contamination and collection problems. PMID:26655688

  20. High-Throughput Non-Contact Vitrification of Cell-Laden Droplets Based on Cell Printing

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Meng; Ling, Kai; Yong, Kar Wey; Li, Yuhui; Feng, Shangsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the most promising way for long-term storage of biological samples e.g., single cells and cellular structures. Among various cryopreservation methods, vitrification is advantageous by employing high cooling rate to avoid the formation of harmful ice crystals in cells. Most existing vitrification methods adopt direct contact of cells with liquid nitrogen to obtain high cooling rates, which however causes the potential contamination and difficult cell collection. To address these limitations, we developed a non-contact vitrification device based on an ultra-thin freezing film to achieve high cooling/warming rate and avoid direct contact between cells and liquid nitrogen. A high-throughput cell printer was employed to rapidly generate uniform cell-laden microdroplets into the device, where the microdroplets were hung on one side of the film and then vitrified by pouring the liquid nitrogen onto the other side via boiling heat transfer. Through theoretical and experimental studies on vitrification processes, we demonstrated that our device offers a high cooling/warming rate for vitrification of the NIH 3T3 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with maintained cell viability and differentiation potential. This non-contact vitrification device provides a novel and effective way to cryopreserve cells at high throughput and avoid the contamination and collection problems. PMID:26655688

  1. NDT applications of non-contact thermosonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhi; Tao, Ning; Feng, Lichun; Zhang, Cunlin

    2014-02-01

    Thermosonics or SonicIR has been proven an effective NDT method, in which ultrasonic welding horn is pushed against the tested sample under certain force through a piece of coupling material. Due to the mechanical contact between horn and sample, it may damage the contacted surface, especially for some brittle or fragile samples. In this study, the conventional horn in a small size was replaced by a much bigger horn to avoid the direct contact of horn with the sample. The tested sample could be positioned up to several centimeters away from the bottom or beside of the horn, heat is generated at the defect location under the excitation of ultrasonic field, its heating mechanism is similar with contact thermosonics, the infrared camera could be positioned wherever is convenient to monitor the variation of the surface temperature. The presented experimental results show that the non-contact thermosonics has some potential in NDT application.

  2. Non-contact ACL Injuries: Mechanisms and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Barry P.; Sheehan, Frances T.; Torg, Joseph S.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Significant advances have recently been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Most ACL injuries involve minimal to no contact. Female athletes sustain a two- to eightfold greater rate of injury than do their male counterparts. Recent videotape analyses demonstrate significant differences in average leg and trunk positions during injury compared with control subjects. These findings as well as those of cadaveric and MRI studies indicate that axial compressive forces are a critical component in noncontact ACL injury. A complete understanding of the forces and risk factors associated with noncontact ACL injury should lead to the development of improved preventive strategiess for this devastating injury. PMID:20810933

  3. A non-contact mouse for surgeon-computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, C; Fong, T; Grange, S; Baur, C

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a system that uses computer vision to replace standard computer mouse functions with hand gestures. The system is designed to enable non-contact human-computer interaction (HCI), so that surgeons will be able to make more effective use of computers during surgery. In this paper, we begin by discussing the need for non-contact computer interfaces in the operating room. We then describe the design of our non-contact mouse system, focusing on the techniques used for hand detection, tracking, and gesture recognition. Finally, we present preliminary results from testing and planned future work. PMID:15328453

  4. Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs) for RF technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Czaplewski, David A.; Gibson, John Murray; Webster, James R.; Carton, Andrew James; Keeler, Bianca Elizabeth Nelson; Carr, Dustin Wade; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Tallant, David Robert; Boyce, Brad Lee; Sullivan, John Patrick; Dyck, Christopher William; Chen, Xidong

    2004-12-01

    Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs), capacitively-coupled radio frequency (RF) MEMS switches incorporating dissipative dielectrics, new processing technologies for tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films, and scientific understanding of dissipation mechanisms in small mechanical structures were developed in this project. NEMOs are defined as mechanical oscillators with critical dimensions of 50 nm or less and resonance frequencies approaching 1 GHz. Target applications for these devices include simple, inexpensive clocks in electrical circuits, passive RF electrical filters, or platforms for sensor arrays. Ta-C NEMO arrays were used to demonstrate a novel optomechanical structure that shows remarkable sensitivity to small displacements (better than 160 fm/Hz {sup 1/2}) and suitability as an extremely sensitive accelerometer. The RF MEMS capacitively-coupled switches used ta-C as a dissipative dielectric. The devices showed a unipolar switching response to a unipolar stimulus, indicating the absence of significant dielectric charging, which has historically been the major reliability issue with these switches. This technology is promising for the development of reliable, low-power RF switches. An excimer laser annealing process was developed that permits full in-plane stress relaxation in ta-C films in air under ambient conditions, permitting the application of stress-reduced ta-C films in areas where low thermal budget is required, e.g. MEMS integration with pre-existing CMOS electronics. Studies of mechanical dissipation in micro- and nano-scale ta-C mechanical oscillators at room temperature revealed that mechanical losses are limited by dissipation associated with mechanical relaxation in a broad spectrum of defects with activation energies for mechanical relaxation ranging from 0.35 eV to over 0.55 eV. This work has established a foundation for the creation of devices based on nanomechanical structures, and outstanding critical research areas that need

  5. Controlled-Potential Electromechanical Reshaping of Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Bryan M; Kallick, Jeremy; Kissel, Jessica; Herzig, Maya; Manuel, Cyrus; Protsenko, Dmitri; Wong, Brian J F; Hill, Michael G

    2016-04-25

    An alternative to conventional "cut-and-sew" cartilage surgery, electromechanical reshaping (EMR) is a molecular-based modality in which an array of needle electrodes is inserted into cartilage held under mechanical deformation by a jig. Brief (ca. 2 min) application of an electrochemical potential at the water-oxidation limit results in permanent reshaping of the specimen. Highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans within the cartilage matrix provide structural rigidity to the tissue through extensive ionic-bonding networks; this matrix is highly permselective for cations. Our studies indicate that EMR results from electrochemical generation of localized, low-pH gradients within the tissue: fixed negative charges in the proteoglycan matrix are protonated, resulting in chemically induced stress relaxation of the tissue. Re-equilibration to physiological pH restores the fixed negative charges, and yields remodeled cartilage that retains a new shape approximated by the geometry of the reshaping jig. PMID:27059655

  6. Electromechanical transducer for acoustic telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1993-06-22

    An improved electromechanical transducer is provided for use in an acoustic telemetry system. The transducer of this invention comprises a stack of ferroelectric ceramic disks interleaved with a plurality of spaced electrodes which are used to electrically pole the ceramic disks. The ceramic stack is housed in a metal tubular drill collar segment. The electrodes are preferably alternatively connected to ground potential and driving potential. This alternating connection of electrodes to ground and driving potential subjects each disk to an equal electric field; and the direction of the field alternates to match the alternating direction of polarization of the ceramic disks. Preferably, a thin metal foil is sandwiched between electrodes to facilitate the electrical connection. Alternatively, a thicker metal spacer plate is selectively used in place of the metal foil in order to promote thermal cooling of the ceramic stack.

  7. Electromechanical transducer for acoustic telemetry system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1993-01-01

    An improved electromechanical transducer is provided for use in an acoustic telemetry system. The transducer of this invention comprises a stack of ferroelectric ceramic disks interleaved with a plurality of spaced electrodes which are used to electrically pole the ceramic disks. The ceramic stack is housed in a metal tubular drill collar segment. The electrodes are preferably alternatively connected to ground potential and driving potential. This alternating connection of electrodes to ground and driving potential subjects each disk to an equal electric field; and the direction of the field alternates to match the alternating direction of polarization of the ceramic disks. Preferably, a thin metal foil is sandwiched between electrodes to facilitate the electrical connection. Alternatively, a thicker metal spacer plate is selectively used in place of the metal foil in order to promote thermal cooling of the ceramic stack.

  8. Tunable electromechanical actuation in silicone dielectric film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Andrea; Di Donato, Marco; Chiappone, Annalisa; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Canavese, Giancarlo

    2014-10-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuator films were fabricated on transparent conductive electrode using bi-component poly(dimethyl)siloxane (PDMS). PDMS is a well-known material in microfluidics and soft lithography for biomedical applications, being easy to process, low cost, biocompatible and transparent. Moreover its mechanical properties can be easily tuned by varying the mixing ratio between the oligomer base and the crosslinking agent. In this work we investigate the chemical composition and the electromechanical properties of PDMS thin film verifying for the first time the tuneable actuation response by simply modifying the amount of the curing agent. We demonstrate that, for a 20:1 ratio of base:crosslinker mixture, a striking 150% enhancement of Maxwell strain occurs at 1 Hz actuating frequency.

  9. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy.

  10. Exactly solvable chaos in an electromechanical oscillator.

    PubMed

    Owens, Benjamin A M; Stahl, Mark T; Corron, Ned J; Blakely, Jonathan N; Illing, Lucas

    2013-09-01

    A novel electromechanical chaotic oscillator is described that admits an exact analytic solution. The oscillator is a hybrid dynamical system with governing equations that include a linear second order ordinary differential equation with negative damping and a discrete switching condition that controls the oscillatory fixed point. The system produces provably chaotic oscillations with a topological structure similar to either the Lorenz butterfly or Rössler's folded-band oscillator depending on the configuration. Exact solutions are written as a linear convolution of a fixed basis pulse and a sequence of discrete symbols. We find close agreement between the exact analytical solutions and the physical oscillations. Waveform return maps for both configurations show equivalence to either a shift map or tent map, proving the chaotic nature of the oscillations. PMID:24089945

  11. Exactly solvable chaos in an electromechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Benjamin A. M.; Stahl, Mark T.; Corron, Ned J.; Blakely, Jonathan N.; Illing, Lucas

    2013-09-01

    A novel electromechanical chaotic oscillator is described that admits an exact analytic solution. The oscillator is a hybrid dynamical system with governing equations that include a linear second order ordinary differential equation with negative damping and a discrete switching condition that controls the oscillatory fixed point. The system produces provably chaotic oscillations with a topological structure similar to either the Lorenz butterfly or Rössler's folded-band oscillator depending on the configuration. Exact solutions are written as a linear convolution of a fixed basis pulse and a sequence of discrete symbols. We find close agreement between the exact analytical solutions and the physical oscillations. Waveform return maps for both configurations show equivalence to either a shift map or tent map, proving the chaotic nature of the oscillations.

  12. A novel electromechanical approach to constant frequency power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishner, Bryan; Morris, Angela

    An alternate design approach to the hydrochemical constant speed drive (CSD) used on aircraft to drive synchronous generators at constant speed has been evaluated. The alternative design replaces hydraulic devices with advanced technology permanent magnet (PM) motor/generators which rely on power semiconductors in the speed compensation link to produce a constant speed output to the synchronous generator. The feasibility study for the product, electrically compensated CSD (ECCSD), has been demonstrated. The ECCSD program demonstrates the basic axial gear differential CSD concept of passing the power and speed trimming functions through gearing, while at the same time efficiently accomplishing the closed-loop speed control function electromechanically with small, high-speed motors. The ECCSD configuration chosen for development uses a 50,000 rev/min PM generator and a 50,000 rev/min motor. A thyristor-based AC-to-DC converter conditions the PM generator output. A transistor-based brushless DC-type motor drive is used with the PM motor. The hardware is described, and test results are presented.

  13. Controlling Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, D.; Schneider, W.; Osiander, R.; Champion, J. L.; Darrin, A. G.; Douglas, D.; Swanson, T. D.

    2003-01-01

    Small spacecraft, including micro and nanosats, as they are envisioned for future missions, will require an alternative means to achieve thermal control due to their small power and mass budgets. One of the proposed alternatives is Variable Emittance (Vari-E) Coatings for spacecraft radiators. Space Technology-5 (ST-5) is a technology demonstration mission through NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) that will utilize Vari-E Coatings. This mission involves a constellation of three (3) satellites in a highly elliptical orbit with a perigee altitude of ~200 km and an apogee of ~38,000 km. Such an environment will expose the spacecraft to a wide swing in the thermal and radiation environment of the earth's atmosphere. There are three (3) different technologies associated with this mission. The three technologies are electrophoretic, electrochromic, and Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). The ultimate goal is to make use of Vari-E coatings, in order to achieve various levels of thermal control. The focus of this paper is to highlight the Vari-E Coating MEMS instrument, with an emphasis on the Electronic Control Unit responsible for operating the MEMS device. The Test & Evaluation approach, along with the results, is specific for application on ST-5, yet the information provides a guideline for future experiments and/or thermal applications on the exterior structure of a spacecraft.

  14. Fundamental design concepts in multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2005-12-01

    The most fundamental concept in designing multi-lane smart electromechanical actuation systems, besides meeting performance requirements, is the realization of high integrity. The essential requirements for realizing high integrity (and in any safety-critical system) are hardware redundancy and intelligent monitoring. To correctly detect, identify, isolate and replace redundant components, an intelligent fault detection and fault isolation scheme is required. The effectiveness of any fault detection and fault isolation system is assessed by examining promptness of detection, sensitivity, missed fault detection, the rate of false alarms, and incorrect fault identification. These terms are very much dependent on the threshold values of the monitoring devices imbedded in the system. The main aim of this paper is to provide fundamental consolidation designs and monitoring schemes in different architectures. It will address single-type and two-type summing architectures and highlight feedback sensor integration and monitoring strategies in the former, and explore the suitability of different threshold setting methodologies such as a simulation-graphical based Monte Carlo method, decision theory and analysis of variance. The paper will also address other fundamentals that are essential at the design stage, such as control surface load estimation, force fight (between mismatch lanes) reduction through lane equalization, and threshold setting concepts (scheduled and unscheduled) in a multi-mode operation system. The analysis is based on a four-lane actuation system capable of driving aerodynamic and inertial loads (with two lanes failed) of an aileron control surface similar to that of the Sea Harrier.

  15. Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Timothy

    2005-07-12

    A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

  16. Noncontact friction via capillary shear interaction at nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Manhee; Kim, Bongsu; Kim, Jongwoo; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-01

    Friction in an ambient condition involves highly nonlinear interactions of capillary force, induced by the capillary-condensed water nanobridges between contact or noncontact asperities of two sliding surfaces. Since the real contact area of sliding solids is much smaller than the apparent contact area, the nanobridges formed on the distant asperities can contribute significantly to the overall friction. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the water nanobridges mediate the ‘noncontact' friction, which helps narrow the gap between our knowledge of friction on the microscopic and macroscopic scales. Here we show, by using noncontact dynamic force spectroscopy, the single capillary bridge generates noncontact friction via its shear interaction. The pinning–depinning dynamics of the nanobridge's contact line produces nonviscous damping, which occurs even without normal load and dominates the capillary-induced hydrodynamic damping. The novel nanofriction mechanism may provide a deeper microscopic view of macroscopic friction in air where numerous asperities exist. PMID:26066909

  17. Non-Contact Electrical Conductivity Measurement Technique for Molten Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Ishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    A non-contact technique of measuring the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) of conducting liquids while they are levitated by the high temperature electrostatic levitator in a high vacuum is reported.

  18. Noncontact friction via capillary shear interaction at nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Manhee; Kim, Bongsu; Kim, Jongwoo; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-06-01

    Friction in an ambient condition involves highly nonlinear interactions of capillary force, induced by the capillary-condensed water nanobridges between contact or noncontact asperities of two sliding surfaces. Since the real contact area of sliding solids is much smaller than the apparent contact area, the nanobridges formed on the distant asperities can contribute significantly to the overall friction. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the water nanobridges mediate the `noncontact' friction, which helps narrow the gap between our knowledge of friction on the microscopic and macroscopic scales. Here we show, by using noncontact dynamic force spectroscopy, the single capillary bridge generates noncontact friction via its shear interaction. The pinning-depinning dynamics of the nanobridge's contact line produces nonviscous damping, which occurs even without normal load and dominates the capillary-induced hydrodynamic damping. The novel nanofriction mechanism may provide a deeper microscopic view of macroscopic friction in air where numerous asperities exist.

  19. COMPACT NON-CONTACT TOTAL EMISSION DETECTION FOR IN-VIVO MULTI-PHOTON EXCITATION MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Glancy, Brian; Karamzadeh, Nader S.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Redford, Glen; Kilborn, Karl; Knutson, Jay R.; Balaban, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe a compact, non-contact design for a Total Emission Detection (c-TED) system for intra-vital multi-photon imaging. To conform to a standard upright two-photon microscope design, this system uses a parabolic mirror surrounding a standard microscope objective in concert with an optical path that does not interfere with normal microscope operation. The non-contact design of this device allows for maximal light collection without disrupting the physiology of the specimen being examined. Tests were conducted on exposed tissues in live animals to examine the emission collection enhancement of the c-TED device compared to heavily optimized objective-based emission collection. The best light collection enhancement was seen from murine fat (5×-2× gains as a function of depth), while murine skeletal muscle and rat kidney showed gains of over two and just under two-fold near the surface, respectively. Gains decreased with imaging depth (particularly in the kidney). Zebrafish imaging on a reflective substrate showed close to a two-fold gain throughout the entire volume of an intact embryo (approximately 150 μm deep). Direct measurement of bleaching rates confirmed that the lower laser powers (enabled by greater light collection efficiency) yielded reduced photobleaching in vivo. The potential benefits of increased light collection in terms of speed of imaging and reduced photo-damage, as well as the applicability of this device to other multi-photon imaging methods is discussed. PMID:24251437

  20. Compact non-contact total emission detection for in vivo multiphoton excitation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Combs, C A; Smirnov, A; Glancy, B; Karamzadeh, N S; Gandjbakhche, A H; Redford, G; Kilborn, K; Knutson, J R; Balaban, R S

    2014-02-01

    We describe a compact, non-contact design for a total emission detection (c-TED) system for intra-vital multiphoton imaging. To conform to a standard upright two-photon microscope design, this system uses a parabolic mirror surrounding a standard microscope objective in concert with an optical path that does not interfere with normal microscope operation. The non-contact design of this device allows for maximal light collection without disrupting the physiology of the specimen being examined. Tests were conducted on exposed tissues in live animals to examine the emission collection enhancement of the c-TED device compared to heavily optimized objective-based emission collection. The best light collection enhancement was seen from murine fat (5×-2× gains as a function of depth), whereas murine skeletal muscle and rat kidney showed gains of over two and just under twofold near the surface, respectively. Gains decreased with imaging depth (particularly in the kidney). Zebrafish imaging on a reflective substrate showed close to a twofold gain throughout the entire volume of an intact embryo (approximately 150 μm deep). Direct measurement of bleaching rates confirmed that the lower laser powers, enabled by greater light collection efficiency, yielded reduced photobleaching in vivo. The potential benefits of increased light collection in terms of speed of imaging and reduced photo-damage, as well as the applicability of this device to other multiphoton imaging methods is discussed. PMID:24251437

  1. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electromechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based device provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of the benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis for the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for mechanical characterization of the tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make it conducting. The electromechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers 180μm × 180μm area and the size of the complete device is 20mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1mm and the thickness was 8μm. The region of interest was 200μm × 200μm. Microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancer breast tissue specimens. PMID:26526747

  2. Electronic Non-Contacting Linear Position Measuring System

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-06-14

    A non-contacting linear position location system employs a special transmission line to encode and transmit magnetic signals to a receiver on the object whose position is to be measured. The invention is useful as a non-contact linear locator of moving objects, e.g., to determine the location of a magnetic-levitation train for the operation of the linear-synchronous motor drive system.

  3. Non-contact transportation using near-field acoustic levitation

    PubMed

    Ueha; Hashimoto; Koike

    2000-03-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation, where planar objects 10 kg in weight can levitate stably near the vibrating plate, is successfully applied both to non-contact transportation of objects and to a non-contact ultrasonic motor. Transporting apparatuses and an ultrasonic motor have been fabricated and their characteristics measured. The theory of near-field acoustic levitation both for a piston-like sound source and a flexural vibration source is also briefly described. PMID:10829622

  4. Amplified piezoelectric transduction of nanoscale motion in gallium nitride electromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, Marc; Grimbert, Bertrand; Cordier, Yvon; Baron, Nicolas; Wilk, Arnaud; Lahreche, Hacène; Bove, Philippe; François, Marc; Tilmant, Pascal; Gehin, Thomas; Legrand, Christiane; Werquin, Matthieu; Buchaillot, Lionel; Gaquière, Christophe; Théron, Didier

    2009-06-01

    A fully integrated electromechanical resonator is described that is based on high mobility piezoelectric semiconductors for actuation and detection of nanoscale motion. We employ the two-dimensional electron gas present at an AlGaN/GaN interface and the piezoelectric properties of this heterostructure to demonstrate a resonant high-electron-mobility transistor enabling the detection of strain variation. In this device, we take advantage of the polarization field divergence originated by mechanical flexural modes for generating piezoelectric doping. This enables a modulation of carrier density which results in a large current flow and thus constitutes a motion detector with intrinsic amplification.

  5. Thermal Remote Anemometer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Miller, William E.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Remote Anemometer Device developed for remote, noncontacting, passive measurement of thermal properties of sample. Model heated locally by scanning laser beam and cooled by wind in tunnel. Thermal image of model analyzed to deduce pattern of airflow around model. For materials applications, system used for evaluation of thin films and determination of thermal diffusivity and adhesive-layer contact. For medical applications, measures perfusion through skin to characterize blood flow and used to determine viabilities of grafts and to characterize tissues.

  6. Improved noncontact optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration and indication of dehydration level

    PubMed Central

    Ozana, Nisan; Arbel, Nadav; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Mico, Vicente; Sanz, Martin; Garcia, Javier; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Epstein, Yoram; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    The ability to extract different bio-medical parameters from one single wristwatch device can be very applicable. The wearable device that is presented in this paper is based on two optical approaches. The first is the extraction and separation of remote vibration sources and the second is the rotation of linearly polarized light by certain materials exposed to magnetic fields. The technique is based on tracking of temporal changes of reflected secondary speckles produced in the wrist when being illuminated by a laser beam. Change in skin’s temporal vibration profile together with change in the magnetic medium that is generated by time varied glucose concentration caused these temporal changes. In this paper we present experimental tests which are the first step towards an in vivo noncontact device for detection of glucose concentration in blood. The paper also shows very preliminary results for qualitative capability for indication of dehydration. PMID:24940550

  7. 13. INTERIOR, OPERATOR'S HOUSE, ELECTROMECHANICAL INTERLOCKING MACHINE New York, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR, OPERATOR'S HOUSE, ELECTRO-MECHANICAL INTERLOCKING MACHINE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River between Groton & Stonington, Groton, New London County, CT

  8. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  9. Atrial Electromechanical Coupling in Patients with Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Mehmet; Beton, Osman; Asarcıklı, Lale Dinç; Aksakal, Aytekin; Dogdu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives A chronic inflammatory disease, lichen planus may cause disturbance of atrial electromechanical coupling and increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate atrial electromechanical delay with both electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography in patients with lichen planus (LP). Subjects and Methods Seventy-two LP patients (43 males [59.7%], mean age: 44.0±16.7 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional case-control study. The control group was selected in a 1:1 ratio from 70 patients in an age and sex matched manner. P wave dispersion was measured by ECG to show atrial electromechanical delay. All of the patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography for measuring inter- and intra-atrial electromechanical delays. Results The baseline characteristics of the patients and the control group were similar except for the presence of LP. P-wave dispersion measured by ECG was significantly higher in patients with LP (p<0.001). Patients with LP had significantly prolonged intra- and interatrial electromechanical delays when compared to the control group (p<0.001). In addition, all of these variables were significantly correlated with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. Conclusion Atrial electromechanical coupling, which is significantly correlated with increased hsCRP levels, is impaired in patients with LP. PMID:27482262

  10. Electromechanical interaction in rotordynamics of cage induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, Timo P.; Tenhunen, Asmo; Arkkio, Antero

    2005-06-01

    Eccentric rotor motion induces an unbalanced magnetic pull between the rotor and stator of cage induction motors. Recently, a linear parametric model of this eccentricity force due to the arbitrary rotor motion was presented. The purpose of this study is to combine this electromagnetic force model with a simple mechanical rotor model, and further, to demonstrate the rotordynamic response induced by this electromechanical interaction. An electromechanical rotor model is derived on the basis of the Jeffcott rotor with two additional variables for the harmonic currents of the rotor cage. Applying this model, the rotordynamic effects of electromechanical interaction were studied. Three induction motors were used in the numerical examples. The electromechanical parameters of these motors were estimated from the numerical simulations carried out separately. The results obtained show that the electromechanical interaction may decrease the natural frequencies of the rotor, induce additional damping or cause rotordynamic instability. These interaction effects are most significant in motors operating at or near the first bending critical speed. Excluding the potential rotordynamic instability, the numerical results indicate that the electromechanical interaction reduces effectively the unbalance response close to the first bending critical speed.

  11. Investigation of a noncontact strain measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, B.; Talarico, L.J.

    1996-05-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of a new noncontact technique for directly and continuously monitoring peak strain in rotating components. The technique utilizes the unique strain-sensitive magnetic material properties of transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel alloys to measure strain. These alloys are weakly magnetic when unstrained but become strongly ferromagnetic after mechanical deformation. A computer study was performed to determine whether the strain-induced change in the magnetic material properties of a TRIP steel gage bonded to a rotating component would cause significant perturbations in the magnetic flux of a stationary electromagnet. The effects of strain level, distance between the rotating component and the stationary electromagnet, and motion-induced eddy currents on flux perturbation magnitude were investigated. The calculated results indicate that a TRIP steel strain sensing element can cause a significant perturbation in the magnetic flux of a stationary electromagnet. The magnetic flux perturbation magnitude was found to be inversely proportional to the distance between the magnet face and the TRIP steel element and directly proportional to the TRIP steel strain level. The effect of motion-induced eddy currents on the magnetic flux was found to be negligible. It appears that the technique can be successfully applied to measure peak strain in rotating components; however, the sensitivity of the magnetic flux perturbation magnitude to the distance between the strain sensing element and the electromagnet may require making an independent proximity measurement.

  12. Noncontact vibration measurements using magnetoresistive sensing elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, R.; Rossi, G.

    2016-06-01

    Contactless instrumentations is more and more used in turbomachinery testing thanks to the non-intrusive character and the possibility to monitor all the components of the machine at the same time. Performances of blade tip timing (BTT) measurement systems, used for noncontact turbine blade vibration measurements, in terms of uncertainty and resolution are strongly affected by sensor characteristics and processing methods. The sensors used for BTT generate pulses, used for precise measurements of turbine blades time of arrival. Nowadays proximity sensors used in this application are based on optical, capacitive, eddy current and microwave measuring principle. Pressure sensors has been also tried. This paper summarizes the results achieved using a novel instrumentation based on the magnetoresistive sensing elements. The characterization of the novel probe has been already published. The measurement system was validated in test benches and in a real jet-engine comparing different sensor technologies. The whole instrumentation was improved. The work presented in this paper focuses on the current developments. In particular, attention is given to the data processing software and new sensor configurations.

  13. Photothermal speckle modulation for noncontact materials characterization.

    PubMed

    Stolyarov, Alexander M; Sullenberger, Ryan M; Crompton, David R; Jeys, Thomas H; Saar, Brian G; Herzog, William D

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a noncontact, photothermal materials characterization method based on visible-light speckle imaging. This technique is applied to remotely measure the infrared absorption spectra of materials and to discriminate materials based on their thermal conductivities. A wavelength-tunable (7.5-8.7 μm), intensity-modulated, quantum cascade pump laser and a continuous-wave 532 nm probe laser illuminate a sample surface such that the two laser spots overlap. Surface absorption of the intensity-modulated pump laser induces a time-varying thermoelastic surface deformation, resulting in a time-varying 532 nm scattering speckle field from the surface. The speckle modulation amplitude, derived from a series of visible camera images, is found to correlate with the amplitude of the surface motion. By tuning the pump laser's wavelength over a molecular absorption feature, the amplitude spectrum of the speckle modulation is found to correlate to the IR absorption spectrum. As an example, we demonstrate this technique for spectroscopic identification of thin polymeric films. Furthermore, by adjusting the rate of modulation of the pump beam and measuring the associated modulation transfer to the visible speckle pattern, information about the thermal time constants of surface and sub-surface features can be revealed. Using this approach, we demonstrate the ability to distinguish between different materials (including metals, semiconductors, and insulators) based on differences in their thermal conductivities. PMID:26670512

  14. Noncontact Acousto-Ultrasonics for Material Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1998-01-01

    A NdYAG 1064 nm, laser pulse was employed to produce ultrasonic waves in specimens of SiC/SiC and SiC/Ti 6-4 composites which are high temperature materials of interest for aerospace applications. Air coupled transducers were used to detect and collect the signals used for acousto-ultrasonic analysis. Conditions for detecting ultrasonic decay signals were examined. The results were compared to those determined on the same specimens with contact coupling. Some non-contact measurements were made employing conventional air focused detectors. Others were performed with a more novel micromachined capacitance transducer. Concerns of the laser-in technology include potential destructiveness of the laser pulse. Repeated laser pulsing at the same location does lead to deterioration of the ultrasonic signal in some materials, but seems to recover with time. Also, unlike contact AU, the frequency regime employed is a function of laser-material interaction rather than the choice of transducers. Concerns of the air coupled-out technology include the effect of air attenuation. This imposes a practical upper limit to frequency of detection. In the case of the experimental specimens studied ultrasonic decay signals could be imaged satisfactorily.

  15. Non-contact scanning electrical impedance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongze; Hawkins, Aaron; Schultz, Stephen; Oliphant, Travis

    2004-01-01

    We are interested in applying electrical impedance imaging to a single cell because it has potential to reveal both cell anatomy and cell function. Unfortunately, classic impedance imaging techniques are not applicable to this small scale measurement due to their low resolution. In this paper, a different method of impedance imaging is developed based on a non-contact scanning system. In this system, the imaging sample is immersed in an aqueous solution allowing for the use of various probe designs. Among those designs, we discuss a novel shield-probe design that has the advantage of better signal-to-noise ratio with higher resolution compared to other probes. Images showing the magnitude of current for each scanned point were obtained using this configuration. A low-frequency linear physical model helps to relate the current to the conductivity at each point. Line-scan data of high impedance contrast structures can be shown to be a good fit to this model. The first two-dimensional impedance image of biological tissues generated by this technique is shown with resolution on the order of 100 mum. The image reveals details not present in the optical image. PMID:17271931

  16. Noncontact blood perfusion mapping in clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovlev, Dmitry; Dwyer, Vincent; Hu, Sijung; Silberschmidt, Vadim

    2016-04-01

    Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) to detect pulsatile blood microcirculation in tissue has been selected as a successor to low spatial resolution and slow scanning blood perfusion techniques currently employed by clinicians. The proposed iPPG system employs a novel illumination source constructed of multiple high power LEDs with narrow spectral emission, which are temporally modulated and synchronised with a high performance sCMOS sensor. To ensure spectrum stability and prevent thermal wavelength drift due to junction temperature variations, each LED features a custom-designed thermal management system to effectively dissipate generated heat and auto-adjust current flow. The use of a multi-wavelength approach has resulted in simultaneous microvascular perfusion monitoring at various tissue depths, which is an added benefit for specific clinical applications. A synchronous detection algorithm to extract weak photoplethysmographic pulse-waveforms demonstrated robustness and high efficiency when applied to even small regions of 5 mm2. The experimental results showed evidences that the proposed system could achieve noticeable accuracy in blood perfusion monitoring by creating complex amplitude and phase maps for the tissue under examination.

  17. Device measures fluid drag on test vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, R.; Judd, J. H.; Leiss, A.

    1965-01-01

    Electromechanical drag balance device measures the aerodynamic drag force acting on a vehicle as it moves through the atmosphere and telemeters the data to a remote receiving station. This device is also used for testing the hydrodynamic drag characteristics of underwater vehicles.

  18. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The advanced launch system (ALS), is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost-effective, highly reliable, and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. An electromechanical actuation (EMA) system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link power management and distribution (PMAD) technology and pulse population modulation (PPM) techniques to implement field-oriented vector control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a built-in test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance, and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA thrust vector control (TVC) system. The EMA system and work proposed for the future are discussed.

  19. Solitary electromechanical pulses in lobster neurons.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, A; Mosgaard, L D; Budvytyte, R; Villagran-Vargas, E; Jackson, A D; Heimburg, T

    2016-09-01

    Investigations of nerve activity have focused predominantly on electrical phenomena. Nerves, however, are thermodynamic systems, and changes in temperature and in the dimensions of the nerve can also be observed during the action potential. Measurements of heat changes during the action potential suggest that the nerve pulse shares many characteristics with an adiabatic pulse. First experiments in the 1980s suggested small changes in nerve thickness and length during the action potential. Such findings have led to the suggestion that the action potential may be related to electromechanical solitons traveling without dissipation. However, there have been no modern attempts to study mechanical phenomena in nerves. Here, we present ultrasensitive AFM recordings of mechanical changes on the order of 2-12Å in the giant axons of the lobster. We show that the nerve thickness changes in phase with voltage changes. When stimulated at opposite ends of the same axon, colliding action potentials pass through one another and do not annihilate. These observations are consistent with a mechanical interpretation of the nervous impulse. PMID:27448851

  20. Designing Piezoelectric Films for Micro Electromechanical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Griggio, Flavio; Yaeger, Charles; Jousse, Pierre; Zhao, Dalong; Bharadwaja, Srowthi; Jackson, Thomas N; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Wasa, Kiyotaka

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric thin films are of increasing interest in low-voltage micro electromechanical systems for sensing, actuation, and energy harvesting. They also serve as model systems to study fundamental behavior in piezoelectrics. Next-generation technologies such as ultrasound pill cameras, flexible ultrasound arrays, and energy harvesting systems for unattended wireless sensors will all benefit from improvements in the piezoelectric properties of the films. This paper describes tailoring the composition, microstructure, orientation of thin films, and substrate choice to optimize the response. It is shown that increases in the grain size of lead-based perovskite films from 75 to 300 nm results in 40 and 20% increases in the permittivity and piezoelectric coefficients, respectively. This is accompanied by an increase in the nonlinearity in the response. Band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy was used to interrogate the nonlinearity locally. It was found that chemical solution-derived PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) thin films show clusters of larger nonlinear response embedded in a more weakly nonlinear matrix. The scale of the clusters significantly exceeds that of the grain size, suggesting that collective motion of many domain walls contributes to the observed Rayleigh behavior in these films. Finally, it is shown that it is possible to increase the energy-harvesting figure of merit through appropriate materials choice, strong imprint, and composite connectivity patterns.

  1. Toward GPGPU accelerated human electromechanical cardiac simulations

    PubMed Central

    Vigueras, Guillermo; Roy, Ishani; Cookson, Andrew; Lee, Jack; Smith, Nicolas; Nordsletten, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the acceleration of weakly coupled electromechanics using the graphics processing unit (GPU). Specifically, we port to the GPU a number of components of Heart—a CPU-based finite element code developed for simulating multi-physics problems. On the basis of a criterion of computational cost, we implemented on the GPU the ODE and PDE solution steps for the electrophysiology problem and the Jacobian and residual evaluation for the mechanics problem. Performance of the GPU implementation is then compared with single core CPU (SC) execution as well as multi-core CPU (MC) computations with equivalent theoretical performance. Results show that for a human scale left ventricle mesh, GPU acceleration of the electrophysiology problem provided speedups of 164 × compared with SC and 5.5 times compared with MC for the solution of the ODE model. Speedup of up to 72 × compared with SC and 2.6 × compared with MC was also observed for the PDE solve. Using the same human geometry, the GPU implementation of mechanics residual/Jacobian computation provided speedups of up to 44 × compared with SC and 2.0 × compared with MC. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24115492

  2. 40 HP Electro-Mechanical Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulmer, Chris

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed on the 40 BP electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) system developed on NASA contract NAS3-25799 for the NASA National Launch System and Electrical Actuation (ELA) Technology Bridging Programs. The system was designed to demonstrate the capability of large, high power linear ELA's for applications such as Thrust Vector Control (TVC) on rocket engines. It consists of a motor controller, high frequency power source, drive electronics and a linear actuator. The power source is a 25kVA 20 kHz Mapham inverter. The drive electronics are based on the pulse population modulation concept and operate at a nominal frequency of 40 kHz. The induction motor is a specially designed high speed, low inertia motor capable of a 68 peak HP. The actuator was originally designed by MOOG Aerospace under an internal R & D program to meet Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) TVC requirements. The design was modified to meet this programs linear rate specification of 7.4 inches/second. The motor and driver were tested on a dynamometer at the Martin Marietta Space Systems facility. System frequency response and step response tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center facility. A complete description of the system and all test results can be found in the body of the report.

  3. Mobile cloud-computing-based healthcare service by noncontact ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ee-May; Chung, Wan-Young

    2013-01-01

    Noncontact electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement technique has gained popularity these days owing to its noninvasive features and convenience in daily life use. This paper presents mobile cloud computing for a healthcare system where a noncontact ECG measurement method is employed to capture biomedical signals from users. Healthcare service is provided to continuously collect biomedical signals from multiple locations. To observe and analyze the ECG signals in real time, a mobile device is used as a mobile monitoring terminal. In addition, a personalized healthcare assistant is installed on the mobile device; several healthcare features such as health status summaries, medication QR code scanning, and reminders are integrated into the mobile application. Health data are being synchronized into the healthcare cloud computing service (Web server system and Web server dataset) to ensure a seamless healthcare monitoring system and anytime and anywhere coverage of network connection is available. Together with a Web page application, medical data are easily accessed by medical professionals or family members. Web page performance evaluation was conducted to ensure minimal Web server latency. The system demonstrates better availability of off-site and up-to-the-minute patient data, which can help detect health problems early and keep elderly patients out of the emergency room, thus providing a better and more comprehensive healthcare cloud computing service. PMID:24316562

  4. Mobile Cloud-Computing-Based Healthcare Service by Noncontact ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Ee-May; Chung, Wan-Young

    2013-01-01

    Noncontact electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement technique has gained popularity these days owing to its noninvasive features and convenience in daily life use. This paper presents mobile cloud computing for a healthcare system where a noncontact ECG measurement method is employed to capture biomedical signals from users. Healthcare service is provided to continuously collect biomedical signals from multiple locations. To observe and analyze the ECG signals in real time, a mobile device is used as a mobile monitoring terminal. In addition, a personalized healthcare assistant is installed on the mobile device; several healthcare features such as health status summaries, medication QR code scanning, and reminders are integrated into the mobile application. Health data are being synchronized into the healthcare cloud computing service (Web server system and Web server dataset) to ensure a seamless healthcare monitoring system and anytime and anywhere coverage of network connection is available. Together with a Web page application, medical data are easily accessed by medical professionals or family members. Web page performance evaluation was conducted to ensure minimal Web server latency. The system demonstrates better availability of off-site and up-to-the-minute patient data, which can help detect health problems early and keep elderly patients out of the emergency room, thus providing a better and more comprehensive healthcare cloud computing service. PMID:24316562

  5. Non-contact Laser-based Human Respiration Rate Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, L.; Marchionni, P.; Ercoli, I.

    2011-08-01

    At present the majority of the instrumentation, used in clinical environments, to measure human respiration rate are based on invasive and contact devices. The gold standard instrument is considered the spirometer which is largely used; it needs a direct contact and requires a collaboration by the patient. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDVi) is an optical, non-contact measurement system for the assessment of a surface velocity and displacement. LDVi has already been used for the measurement of the cardiac activity and for the measurement of the chest-wall displacements. The aims of this work are to select the best measurement point on the thoracic surface for LDVi monitoring of the respiration rate (RR) and to compare measured data with the RR valued provided by the spirometer. The measurement system is composed by a LDV system and a data acquisition board installed on a PC. Tests were made on 10 different point of the thorax for each patient. Patients population was composed by 33 subjects (17 male and 16 female). The optimal measurement point was chosen considering the maximum peak-to-peak value of the displacement measured by LDV. Before extracting RR we have used a special wavelet decomposition for better selection of the expiration peaks. A standard spirometer was used for the validation of the data. From tests it results that the optimal measurement point, namely is located on the inferior part of the thoracic region (left, front side). From our tests we have obtained a close correlation between the RR values measured by the spirometer and those measured by the proposed method: a difference of 14±211 ms on the RR value is reported for the entire population of 33 subjects. Our method allows a no-contact measurement of lungs activity (respiration period), reducing the electric and biological risks. Moreover it allows to measure in critical environment like in RMN or in burned skin where is difficult or impossible to apply electrodes.

  6. Control of microwave signals using bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in multimode circuit electromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jiang; Yuanshun, Cui; Xintian, Bian; Xiaowei, Li; Guibin, Chen

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the tunable delay and advancement of microwave signals based on bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in a three-mode circuit electromechanical system, where two nanomechanical resonators with closely spaced frequencies are independently coupled to a common microwave cavity. In the presence of a strong microwave pump field, we obtain two transparency windows accompanied by steep phase dispersion in the transmitted microwave probe field. The width of the transparency window and the group delay of the probe field can be controlled effectively by the power of the pump field. It is shown that the maximum group delay of 0.12 ms and the advancement of 0.27 ms can be obtained in the current experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304110 and 11174101), the Jiangsu Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant Nos. BK20130413 and BK2011411), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China (Grant Nos. 13KJB140002 and 15KJB460004).

  7. Acoustic enhancement for photo detecting devices

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G; Senesac, Lawrence R; Van Neste, Charles W

    2013-02-19

    Provided are improvements to photo detecting devices and methods for enhancing the sensitivity of photo detecting devices. A photo detecting device generates an electronic signal in response to a received light pulse. An electro-mechanical acoustic resonator, electrically coupled to the photo detecting device, damps the electronic signal and increases the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the electronic signal. Increased photo detector standoff distances and sensitivities will result.

  8. Electromechanical Battery Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Bender, D.A.; Merritt, B.T.

    1994-05-31

    New materials and new design concepts are being incorporated in a new approach to an old idea -- flywheel energy storage -- to create an important alternative to the electrochemical storage battery for use in electric vehicles or for stationary applications, such as computer back-up power or utility load-leveling. We visualize such EMBs (electromechanical batteries) as being modular in character, with small (1--5 kWh) modules being used for power-conditioning and for vehicular use, and paralleled 25 kWh modules being used for bulk storage, i.e., load-leveling, applications. In a funded program at the Laboratory two fractional kWh, 200 kW (design peak power) modules have been constructed and subjected to shake-down testing. Their design for high peak power was prompted by awareness of a particular commercial need, as a component in a power-line conditioning device. In addition to such stationary applications, the high power capability of our EMB designs makes them attractive for use in hybrid-electric vehicles. Important elements of the LLNL program include the development of passive magnetic bearings and the application of new high-efficiency permanent magnet arrays to an ironless generator/motor. Use of these particular elements, together with a multi-ring design for the flywheel rotor, is particularly conducive to a systemic approach to the design of an EMB module. These particular design developments have been motivated by the economic issues of simplification, lowered cost, and extended maintenance-free service life.

  9. Electromechanical Battery Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. F.; Bender, D. A.; Merritt, B. T.

    1994-05-01

    New materials and new design concepts are being incorporated in a new approach to an old idea - flywheel energy storage - to create an important alternative to the electrochemical storage battery for use in electric vehicles or for stationary applications, such as computer back-up power or utility load-leveling. We visualize such EMB's (electromechanical batteries) as being modular in character, with small (1-5 kWh) modules being used for power-conditioning and for vehicular use, and paralleled 25 kWh modules being used for bulk storage, i.e., load-leveling, applications. In a funded program at the Laboratory two fractional kWh, 200 kW (design peak power) modules have been constructed and subjected to shake-down testing. Their design for high peak power was prompted by awareness of a particular commercial need, as a component in a power-line conditioning device. In addition to such stationary applications, the high power capability of our EMB designs makes them attractive for use in hybrid-electric vehicles. Important elements of the LLNL program include the development of passive magnetic bearings and the application of new high-efficiency permanent magnet arrays to an ironless generator/motor. Use of these particular elements, together with a multi-ring design for the flywheel rotor, is particularly conducive to a systemic approach to the design of an EMB module. These particular design developments have been motivated by the economic issues of simplification, lowered cost, and extended maintenance-free service life.

  10. Noncontact speckle-based optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using magneto-optic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally verify a speckle-based technique for noncontact measurement of glucose concentration in the bloodstream. The final device is intended to be a single wristwatch-style device containing a laser, a camera, and an alternating current (ac) electromagnet generated by a solenoid. The experiments presented are performed in vitro as proof of the concept. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an ac magnetic field, it exhibits Faraday rotation, which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle pattern distributions. The temporal frequency resulting from the ac magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role, which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.