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Sample records for nonhormonal estrus synchronization

  1. Synchronization of estrus and fertility in zebu beef heifers treated with three estrus synchronization protocols.

    PubMed

    Corbet, N J; Miller, R G; Bindon, B M; Burrow, H M; D'Occhio, M J; Entwistle, K W; Fitzpatrick, L A; Wilkins, J F; Kinder, J E

    1999-02-01

    The effects on estrus and fertility of 3 estrus synchronization protocols were studied in Brahman beef heifers. In Treatment 1 (PGF protocol; n=234), heifers received 7.5 mg, i.m. prostianol on Day 0 and were inseminated after observed estrus until Day 5. Treatment 2 (10-d NOR protocol; n = 220) consisted of norgestomet (NOR; 3 mg, s.c. implant and 3 mg, i.m.) and estradiol valerate (5 mg, i.m.) treatment on Day -10, NOR implant removal and 400 IU, i.m. PMSG on Day 0, and AI after observed estrus through to Day 5. Treatment 3 (14-d NOR+PGF protocol; n = 168) constituted a NOR implant (3 mg, sc) on Day -14, NOR implant removal on Day 0, PGF on Day 16, and AI after observed estrus through to Day 21. All heifers were examined for return to estrus at the next cycle and inseminated after observed estrus. The heifers were then exposed to bulls for at least 21 d. During the period of estrus observation (5 d) after treatment, those heifers treated with the PGF protocol had a lower (P<0.01) rate of estrual response (58%) than heifers treated with the 10-d NOR (87%) or 14-d NOR+PGF (88%) protocol. Heifers treated with the 10-d NOR protocol displayed estrus earlier and had a closer synchrony of estrus than heifers treated with either the PGF or the 14-d NOR+PGF protocol. Heifers treated with the 14-d NOR+PGF protocol had higher (P<0.05) conception and calving rates (51 and 46%) to AI at the induced estrus than heifers treated with the PGF (45 and 27%) or the 10-d NOR (38 and 33%) protocol. Calving rate to 2 rounds of AI was greater (P<0.05) for heifers treated with the 14-d NOR-PGF (50%) protocol than heifers treated with the 10-d NOR (38%) but not the PGF (43%) protocol. Breeding season calving rates were similar among the 3 protocols. The results show that the 14-d NOR+PGF estrus synchronization protocol induced a high incidence of estrus with comparatively high fertility in Brahman heifers. PMID:10729049

  2. Resynchronization of estrus in beef cattle: Ovarian function, estrus and fertility following progestin treatment and treatments to synchronize ovarian follicular development and estrus

    PubMed Central

    Colazo, Marcos G.; Kastelic, John P.; Small, Julie A.; Wilde, Randy E.; Ward, Douglas R.; Mapletoft, Reuben J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to optimize rebreeding of nonpregnant, previously inseminated beef cattle. In Experiment 1, 43 cows received a used intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (IVPRI; Days 0–7) 12.3 d after ovulation and received concurrently no treatment, 100 μg gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), 1 mg estradiol cypionate (ECP), or 150 mg progesterone. Emergence of a new ovarian follicular wave was most synchronous (P < 0.0001) in the GnRH group. In Experiment 2, 675 heifers were given GnRH or no treatment on Day 0, fed melengestrol acetate (MGA; 0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0–5 (Day 0 = 13–14 d after timed insemination; TAI), given 0.5 mg ECP or nothing on Day 7, and reinseminated 6–12 h after onset of estrus. Estrus was more synchronous (P < 0.05) in heifers given GnRH versus no treatment on Day 0. In Experiment 3, 317 TAI heifers were resynchronized with either MGA or a used IVPRI with or without ECP on Day 7; estrus was more synchronous (P < 0.05) and pregnancy rates were higher (54.1% versus 39.2%, P < 0.05) in heifers given a used IVPRI than those fed MGA. For resynchronization of heifers, pregnancy rates were not significantly improved with GnRH treatment, but were higher with a used IVPRI than with MGA. PMID:17310622

  3. Synchronization of estrus and fertility in beef cattle with two injections of buserelin and prostaglandin.

    PubMed

    Twagiramungu, H; Guilbault, L A; Proulx, J; Dufour, J J

    1992-12-01

    Postpartum beef cows and heifers in Group 1 received 8 mug of buserelin on Day 0 (the beginning of the experiment) and 500 microg of cloprostenol (PGF) on Day 6 (GnRH I, n=54). In Group 2 (GnRH II, n=54), the females were injected with buserelin on Day 0 (8 microg) and Day 3 (4 microg), and PGF on Day 6 and Day 9 for females not detected in estrus previously. Animals were bred by AI 12 hours after the onset of estrus. Blood samples were collected on Day -11 and Day 0 to assess cyclicity and on Day 3 and Days 6 to 12 to examine luteal activity. Progesterone levels did not differ between the 2 groups between Days 0 to 9. In both groups, the proportion of spontaneous estruses from Days 0 to 6 was reduced. Precision of estrus was higher (P<0.005) in the GnRH II group than in the GnRH I group of cows that were detected in estrus between Days 6 and 9. The synchronization rate, interval to estrus, pregnancy and conception rates were similar in GnRH I and GnRH II groups. The conception rate and interval to estrus were similar in cyclic and acyclic cows. Increasing the number of buserelin injections enhanced the precision of estrus, but not the conception rate, without any detrimental effect on luteal activity and induced more estruses in postpartum acyclic beef cattle. PMID:16727210

  4. Efficacy of four synchronization protocols on the estrus behavior and conception in native Korean cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeung-Sik; Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Chung, Hak-Jae; Yang, Boh-Suk; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2013-11-01

    Ineffective estrus detection is the foremost limiting factor in the fertility of farmed cattle worldwide. Failure to detect estrus or erroneous diagnosis of estrus results in great economic losses in Korea each year. This study was carried out in order to comprehensively describe the estrus behaviors and conception rates of different estrus synchronization protocols applied to 40 cycling native Korean cattle (Hanwoo). The cows were grouped into four (n = 10) and treated with the following protocols: (1) Day -15: controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR) for 12 days; Day -5: prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), (2) ovulation synchronization (OVS): Day -15: GnRH; Day -6: PGF2α; Day -4: GnRH, (3) Day -15: progesterone-releasing intravaginal device for 12 days; Day -5: PGF2α; and (4) Day -15: PGF2α; Day -4: PGF2α. Artificial insemination was performed 12 hours after the detection of estrus using frozen-thawed semen. Estrus signs were compared using a charge-coupled device camera (CCDC) and a control method (direct visual observation). The pregnancy of the cows was determined by transrectal ultrasonography at Days 25 to 30 postinsemination. The results indicated that the day of estrus return was significantly earlier using the CCDC method compared with direct visualization (P < 0.05). Mounting of other cows was the most predominant sign of estrus among the flock (P < 0.05), as analyzed using the CCDC. In the OVS group, a lower rate of mounting was observed than in the other three groups. Moreover, significantly fewer estrus behaviors were noticed in the OVS protocol group (P < 0.05). Both first service conception and overall conception rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the CIDR and OVS treatment groups. In conclusion, the CIDR and OVS protocols appear to be the best practice for the synchronization of estrus for reproductive competence through the CCDC in Hanwoo cows. However, CIDR has a practical advantage over OVS with respect to estrus detection

  5. Effects of timed artificial insemination following estrus synchronization in postpartum beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Malik, A.; Wahid, H.; Rosnina, Y.; Kasim, A.; Sabri, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate estrus response and pregnancy rates resulting from timed artificial insemination (AI) following estrus synchronization using CIDR in postpartum beef cattle. A total of 100 cows were randomly divided into three groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were artificially inseminated at 48-50 h (n=30), 53-55 h (n=30) and 58-60 h (n=40) after CIDR removal, respectively. Estrus synchronization was carried out using a CIDR containing 1.38 mg progesterone. All cows were given 2 mg estradiol benzoate, intramuscularly on the day of CIDR insertion (D 0). The CIDR was removed after 8 days and 125 μg of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was injected intramuscularly. One day after CIDR removal all cows were given 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (D 9). Cows were observed visually for estrus after removal of CIDR. Between 30 and 32 days after timed AI, pregnancy was determined using transrectal ultrasonography. The first estrus observation which is approximately 32 h after CIDR removal showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among the three groups. The onset response of estrus after 32 h removal of CIDR was less than 10% in all three groups 6.6% (G1), 6.8% (G2) and 7.3% (G3). Furthermore, percentages of estrus response (D 10) following CIDR removal were 76.6%, 75.0% and 77.5%. The difference between on D 9 and D 10 estrus response were statistically significant (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates were 23.3% (G1), 26.6% (G2) and 37.5% (G3), which were not significant (P>0.05). PMID:26623282

  6. Comparison of timed AI after synchronized ovulation to AI at estrus: reproductive and economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Tenhagen, B A; Drillich, M; Surholt, R; Heuwieser, W

    2004-01-01

    A timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol using OvSynch was compared to artificial insemination (AI) at detected estrus in 2 large dairy herds differing in reproductive management. Cows were synchronized for TAI starting at 62 and 42 d in milk in herds 1 and 2, respectively. The OvSynch regimen included: GnRH (buserelin) at 0.02 mg (i.m.) on d 0; PGF2alpha (tiaprost) at 0.75 mg (i.m.) on d 7; buserelin at 0.02 mg (i.m.) on d 9; and TAI 16 to 20 h later. After TAI, cows seen in estrus received AI, whereas cows diagnosed not pregnant were resynchronized for TAI. Control cows received AI based on detected estrus after voluntary waiting periods of 72 d in herd 1 and 50 d in herd 2. An economic analysis included costs associated with days open, culling, AI, synchrony products, treatment, and examinations. A sensitivity analysis of those variables determined effects on total costs per pregnancy. Use of OvSynch reduced intervals to first AI and days open in both herds and reduced culling for infertility in herd 2. Conception rates for first AI at detected estrus were significantly higher compared to TAI in both herds and for overall AI at estrus in herd 2. For groups assigned to AI at estrus, mean 21-d submission rates over 200 d for AI were higher in herd 1 than in herd 2 (55.6 vs. 28.6%). Days open and culling were the major cost factors. Although OvSynch improved reproduction in both herds, AI based on detected estrus was economically superior in herd 1, whereas OvSynch was superior in herd 2. This was consistent across ranges of cost factors evaluated. Evaluation of synchrony protocols should include reproductive performance along with appropriate costs associated with treatments. Such costs may offset benefits to reproduction in herds with good estrous detection rates. PMID:14765814

  7. Supplementation with rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus.

    PubMed

    de Chávez, Julio Agustín Ruiz; Guzmán, Adrian; Zamora-Gutiérrez, Diana; Mendoza, Germán David; Melgoza, Luz María; Montes, Sergio; Rosales-Torres, Ana María

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine-HCl supplementation on ovulation rate, fertility, prolificacy, and serum VEGF concentrations in ewes with synchronized oestrus. Thirty Suffolk ewes with a mean body weight of 45 ± 3 kg and a mean body condition score (BCS) of 2.4 ± 0.28 were synchronized for estrus presentation with a progestin-containing sponge (20 mg Chronogest® CR) for 9 days plus PGF2-α (Lutalyse; Pfizer, USA) on day 7 after the insertion of the sponge. The ewes were divided into two groups; i.e., a control group (n = 15) that was fed on the native pasture (basal diet) and an L-arginine-HCl group (n = 15) that received 7.8 g of rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl from day 5 of the sponge insertion until day 25 after mating plus the basal diet. The L-arginine-HCl was administered daily via an esophageal probe between days 5 and 9 of the synchronization protocol and every third day subsequently. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein every 6 days throughout the entire experimental period. The results revealed that the L-arginine-HCl supplementation increased fertility during the synchronized estrus (P = 0.05). However, no effects were observed on the final BCS (P = 0.78), estrus presentation (P = 0.33), multiple ovulations (P = 0.24), prolificacy (P = 0.63), or serum VEGF concentration. In conclusion, L-arginine-HCl supplementation during the period used in this study increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus possibly due to improved embryo-fetal survival during early pregnancy. PMID:25991464

  8. Comparison of long-term progestin-based estrus synchronization protocols in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Mallory, D A; Wilson, D J; Busch, D C; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated long-term progestin-based estrus-synchronization programs on the basis of potential for use in facilitating fixed-time AI in estrous cycling and prepubertal beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments by age, BW, and estrous cyclicity status. Heifers assigned to the melengestrol acetate-PGF(2α) protocol (MGA-PG; n = 50) received MGA (0.5 mg·animal(-1)·d(-1)) in a 1.0-kg carrier from d 0 to 13 and were administered PGF(2α) (25 mg, intramuscularly) 19 d after MGA withdrawal (d 32). Heifers assigned to the Show-Me-Synch protocol (n = 49) received a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert (1.38 g of progesterone) from d 2 to 16 followed by PGF(2α) administration 16 d after CIDR removal (d 32). All heifers were fitted with HeatWatch estrus-detection transmitters at the time of progestin removal for continuous estrus detection through the synchronized period after PGF(2α). In Exp. 2, heifers (n = 396) were assigned to the same 2 treatments described in Exp. 1 by age, BW, and reproductive tract score. Heifers in Exp. 2, however, were fitted with HeatWatch estrus-detection transmitters at PGF(2α) to characterize estrus-distribution patterns during the synchronized period after PGF(2α). Heifers in both experiments were inseminated approximately 12 h after the onset of estrus. In Exp. 1, estrous response after PGF(2α) and mean interval to estrus after PGF(2α) did not differ between MGA-PG and Show-Me-Synch treatments (P = 0.97). The variance for interval to estrus after PGF(2α) tended (P = 0.06) to be reduced among MGA-PG-treated heifers compared with Show-Me-Synch-treated heifers. Conception to AI, AI pregnancy, and final pregnancy rates did not differ (P > 0.1) between treatments. In Exp. 2, estrous response after PGF(2α) was greater (P = 0.01) among Show-Me-Synch-treated heifers (92%) compared with MGA-PG-treated heifers (85%); however, mean interval to estrus after PGF(2α) did not differ (P = 0

  9. An evaluation of estrus synchronization programs in reproductive management of dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D P; Snijders, S; Yaakub, H; O'Farrell, K J

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of various estrus synchronization programs on estrus detection rate (EDR) and pregnancy rate (PR) in lactating cows. Spring-calving, lactating dairy cows (n = 3,096) were allocated to one of six treatments: 1) PG (n = 514), estrus detection for 10 d before the onset of the breeding season (BS), cows detected in estrus received PGF2 alpha (PGF) 8 d after estrus, and all cows to be bred by d 11 of BS; 2) PG+EBZ (n = 510), as in PG plus cows treated with PGF received 1 mg of estradiol benzoate 48 h later; 3) C (n = 522), progestogen (controlled intravaginal drug release; CIDR) inserted per vaginum 10 d before BS for 8 d, PGF treatment on the day before CIDR removal, and AI within 6 d after CIDR withdrawal; 4) C+EBZ (n = 520), as in C, plus 10 mg of estradiol benzoate 10 d before BS; 5) C+BUS (n = 517), as in C plus 10 micrograms of buserelin on the day of CIDR insertion; or 6) CON (n = 513), no treatment, and a 32-d period of AI. Relative to other CIDR-treated groups, estradiol benzoate at the time of CIDR insertion reduced (P < .05) the EDR (C, 85.0%;C+EBZ, 75.9%; C+BUS, 88.5%). The PR to first AI was reduced (P < .05) by C compared with other treatments (PG, 60.9%; PG+EBZ, 57.2%; C, 46.6%; C+EBZ, 60.5%; C+BUS, 57.9%; CON, 60.1%). The interval from the onset of BS to AI and pregnancy was reduced (P < .05) by up to 9 d by estrus synchronization relative to controls (PG, 5.5 +/- .2 d; PG+EBZ, 5.2 +/- .2 d; C 1.7 +/- .1 d; C+EBZ, 2.3 +/- .1 d; C+BUS, 106 +/- .04d, CON, 10.4 +/- .3 d). In conclusion an 8-d progestogen-buserelin-PGF treatment resulted in the best overall estrus detection and pregnancy rates, which would be beneficial to a compact calving program. PMID:8655445

  10. Estrus synchronization of lactating dairy cows with GnRH, progesterone, and prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z Z; Burton, L J

    2000-03-01

    The reproductive performance of synchronized cows was compared with that of nonsynchronized cows. In trial 1, cyclic cows in five seasonal herds were randomly divided into two groups. Cows in one group (n = 515) were treated with a GnRH agonist and an intravaginal progesterone device, followed in 7 d by a PGF2 alpha injection, and the device was removed 1 d after PGF2 alpha. Cows in the other group (n = 512) did not receive any treatment and acted as control. In trial 2, the treatments were similar to those used in trial 1 except that the progesterone device was removed at the time of PGF2 alpha injection (synchronized: n = 516; control: n = 512). The estrus synchronization rate was 92.8% in trial 1 and 92.2% in trial 2. Conception rate to first artificial insemination (AI) was lower for synchronized cows than for control cows in trial 1 (56.5 vs. 62.7%), but similar in trial 2 (64.6 vs. 63.3%). Across both trials, the pregnancy rate during the AI breeding period was greater for the synchronized cows (85.6%) than for the control cows (81.2%). The synchronization treatment reduced the interval from start of the breeding season to conception for cows conceiving by AI (8.9 vs. 14.8 d) or by AI or natural mating (14.1 vs. 21.6 d). The synchronization protocol used in trial 2 achieved better conception rate than that used in trial 1, but the precision of estrus was less in trial 2 than in trial 1. PMID:10750104

  11. Influence of an agonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (buserelin) on estrus synchronization and fertility in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Twagiramungu, H; Guilbault, L A; Proulx, J; Villeneuve, P; Dufour, J J

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sequential treatment with buserelin (a GnRH agonist) and cloprostenol (a prostaglandin F2 alpha analog) on estrous response and fertility in beef cattle with different ovarian conditions. On d 0 (1st d of treatment), the control group (n = 52, 10 heifers and 42 cows) and the GnRH group (n = 48, 10 heifers and 38 cows) received 2 mL of saline or 2 mL of Receptal (8 micrograms of buserelin), respectively. On d 6, all cows that had not exhibited spontaneous estrus were given i.m. 500 micrograms of cloprostenol (PGF). Ultrasonography on d 0 and assays of progesterone in blood on d -11, 0, and 6 were used to identify follicular and luteal status of animals. Cattle were observed for estrus from d 0 to 10. Cows showing estrus were bred artificially 12 h after onset of estrus. Over the 10-d period, the number of cows detected in estrus and pregnancy and conception rates were identical for the two groups. However, between d 0 and 6, the proportion of cows exhibiting estrus was lower (P less than .01) in the GnRH group than in the control group. Between d 6 and 10, the synchronization rate and precision of estrus were greater (P less than .01) in the buserelin-treated group than in the control group. Conception rate and interval from PGF injection to onset of estrus were not different between the two treatment groups. Presence of a large (greater than 10 mm) follicle on d 0 enhanced synchronization rate and precision of estrus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1634414

  12. Efficacy of Heatsynch protocol for induction of estrus, synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination in yaks (Poephagus grunniens L.).

    PubMed

    Sarkar, M; Sengupta, D H; Bora, B Dutta; Rajkhoa, J; Bora, S; Bandopadhaya, S; Ghosh, M; Ahmed, F A; Saikia, P; Mohan, Krishna; Prakash, B S

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of induction of estrus, synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination in anestrous yaks using the Heatsynch protocol. In Experiment 1, 10 anestrous yaks were administered an analogue of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by prostaglandin (PG)F2alpha 7 days later and then estradiol cyponate (ECP) 24 h after that. Ovulation was detected by rectal palpation at 2h intervals beginning at the initial signs of estrus. Blood samples were collected at 2h intervals beginning at the time of ECP injection up to 2h after the occurrence of ovulation for the determination of LH and progesterone. All the animals responded to the Heatsynch protocol with expression of estrus and synchronization of ovulation. The mean time interval from the ECP injection to ovulation was 59.4+/-2.62 h (range 50-72 h). The interval from the LH peak to ovulation was 30.2+/-2.3 h. The high degree of synchrony in ovulation could be attributed to the synchrony in the timing of LH peaks. In Experiment 2, 10 anestrous yaks were treated with the Heatsynch protocol (as in Experiment 1) and TAI was performed at 48 and 60 h after the ECP treatment. Concurrently, 16 cycling yaks were inseminated approximately 12 h after detection of spontaneous estrus. Pregnancy rates were similar in both groups, 40% for TAI and 43.75% for yaks inseminated following spontaneous estrus (p>0.05). From this study, two conclusions can be drawn. First, the Heatsynch protocol can be successfully used to induce and synchronize estrus in anestrous yaks and, second, ovulation following the Heatsynch protocol is synchronized adequately to permit the use of fixed time AI in this species. PMID:17383122

  13. Estrus response and follicular development in Boer does synchronized with flugestone acetate and PGF2α or their combination with eCG or FSH.

    PubMed

    Bukar, Muhammad Modu; Yusoff, Rosnina; Haron, Abd Wahid; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet Kaur; Khan, Mohd Azam Goriman; Omar, Mohammed Ariff

    2012-10-01

    The effects of different estrus synchronization techniques on follicular development and estrus response were studied in 81 nulliparous Boer does. The does were divided into nine groups. Eight of the nine groups were synchronized with prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF(2α)) or flugestone acetate (FGA) or their combinations, and the ninth group was a control group. In addition to the above combinations, four of the eight synchronized groups were given 5 mg follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the remaining four groups were administered 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG). Posttreatment follicular development was monitored until ovulation occurred using a real-time B-mode ultrasound scanner (Aloka, 500 SSD, Japan), with a 7.5-MHz transrectal linear probe. All the does from the synchronized groups that were given eCG exhibited oestrus while only 88.9% of the does synchronized with FSH showed estrus. The estrus response was observed to be the least among the does synchronized with PGF(2α) + FSH (33.3%) combination followed closely by the FGA + FSH (42.9%) combinations. It was observed that the combinations of FGA + PGF(2α) + FSH resulted in increased percentage of estrus response, duration of estrus, and ovulation. The number of follicles was higher (P < 0.05) in FSH-synchronized groups than the eCG-synchronized groups. It was concluded that the best estrus synchronization protocol in goats is the FGA + eCG with or without PGF(2α). However, the PGF(2α) + FGA + FSH method of estrus synchronization is the most promising combination for further development as a better alternative to estrus synchronization with eCG in does. PMID:22461200

  14. Comparative efficacy of different estrus synchronization protocols on estrus induction response, fertility and plasma progesterone and biochemical profile in crossbred anestrus cows

    PubMed Central

    Dhami, A. J.; Nakrani, B. B.; Hadiya, K. K.; Patel, J. A.; Shah, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate estrus induction response and fertility including plasma progesterone and biochemical profile following use of three standard hormonal protocols in anestrus crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 40 true anestrus and 10 normal cyclic cows. 10 anestrus cows each were treated with standard intravaginal controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device, Ovsynch (GPG) protocol, and Norgestomet ear implant with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). 10 anestrus cows were kept as untreated control while 10 cows exhibiting the first estrus within 90 days postpartum without any treatment served as normal cyclic control. Blood samples were obtained from treated cows on day 0, 7, 9 (AI) of treatment and day 21 post-AI, and from control groups on the day of AI and day 21 post-AI for estimation of plasma progesterone, protein, cholesterol, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus profile. Results: The use of CIDR, Ovsynch, and Norgestomet ear implant protocols resulted in 100% estrus induction with conception rates at induced estrus of 60%, 50%, and 50%, and the overall of three cycles as 80%, 80%, and 70%. In untreated anestrus control (n=10), only three cows exhibited spontaneous estrus within 90 days of follow-up and conceived giving the first service and overall conception rates of 66.66% and 30.00%, respectively. In normal cyclic control (n=10), the conception rates at first and overall of three cycles were 50% and 80%. The overall mean plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations in anestrus cows studied on day 0 (initiation), 7 (prostaglandin injection and/or removal of implant), 9 (FTAI) of treatment and on day 21 post-AI revealed that the values on day 7 and 21 were significantly (p<0.01) higher than other two periods in all three groups. The concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) higher in conceived than non-conceived group on day 21 post-AI in CIDR (4.36±0.12 vs. 1.65±0.82 ng/ml) and Ovsynch (4.85±0.62 vs. 1.59±0.34 ng

  15. Use of intravaginal progesterone-releasing inserts in a synchronization protocol before timed AI and for synchronizing return to estrus in Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, H; Lopez, H; Fricke, P M

    2005-03-01

    Holstein heifers (n = 189) were submitted to a 42-d artificial insemination (AI) period in which they underwent AI after once-daily evaluation of rubbed tail chalk. At the onset of the AI period (d 0), heifers were assigned randomly to receive synchronization of ovulation and timed AI (TAI; d 0: 100 mug of GnRH; d 6: 25 mg of PGF(2alpha); d 8: 100 mug of GnRH + TAI) either without (GPG; n = 95), or with inclusion of a CIDR insert (CIDR; n = 94) from d 0 to 6. No CIDR heifers received AI before d 8 compared with 24% of GPG heifers, and pregnancy rate per AI (PR/AI) at 30 d after TAI did not differ between treatments. To synchronize return to estrus for heifers failing to conceive after TAI, heifers (n = 166) receiving TAI to first service were randomly assigned to receive no further treatment (control; n = 85) or receive a new CIDR insert between 14 and 20 d after TAI (Resynch; n = 81). No Resynch heifers received AI during CIDR treatment compared with 35% of control heifers, and the proportion of heifers receiving AI within 72 h after the day of CIDR removal was 78 vs. 50% for Resynch vs. control heifers, respectively. No treatment x inseminator interaction was detected at first or second AI; however, overall PR/AI was modest for heifers throughout the experiment due to poor performance of 2 of the 3 herd inseminators (14, 6, and 58% PR/AI, respectively). Inclusion of CIDR inserts suppressed estrus during the TAI protocol with no reduction in PR/ AI. Resynchronization of estrus using CIDR inserts resulted in tighter synchrony of estrus among nonpregnant heifers compared with untreated controls. PMID:15738230

  16. Estrus synchronization in microminipig using estradiol dipropionate and prostaglandin F2α

    PubMed Central

    NOGUCHI, Michiko; IKEDO, Tomonobu; KAWAGUCHI, Hiroaki; TANIMOTO, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    The induction of pseudopregnancy by the exogenous administration of estradiol dipropionate (EDP) was investigated in cyclic Microminipigs (MMpigs) and the effects of exogenous administration of prostaglandin (PG) F2α on estrus exhibition were assessed in pseudopregnant MMpigs. In experiment 1, ovariectomized MMpigs were given a single intramuscular injection of 0.5, 1.5, or 2.5 mg of EDP. The estradiol-17β level at each of these doses was significantly higher 1 to 3 days after EDP administration than on the day of the injection. In experiment 2, animals were given 1.5 mg of EDP once at 9 to 12 days after the end of estrus (D0) and then no (1.5 mg × 1 group), one (D0 and D4; 1.5 mg × 2 group), or two (D0, D4 and D7; 1.5 mg × 3 group) additional treatments. The pseudopregnancy rate was significantly higher in the 1.5 mg × 3 than in the 1.5 mg × 1 group. In experiment 3, PGF2α was administered twice between 26 and 28 days after EDP treatment to five pseudopregnant gilts with a 24-h interval between the two injections. Estrus after PGF2α treatment and LH surge were observed in 100% and 80% pseudopregnant MMpigs, respectively. The interval from the day of the first PGF2α treatment to the onset of estrus was 6.5 ± 0.2 days. These results indicate that multiple EDP treatments are required for induction of pseudopregnancy in MMpigs and estrus exhibition can be controlled in MMpigs by treatment with EDP and PGF2α. PMID:27151362

  17. Estrus synchronization in microminipig using estradiol dipropionate and prostaglandin F2α.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Michiko; Ikedo, Tomonobu; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Tanimoto, Akihide

    2016-08-25

    The induction of pseudopregnancy by the exogenous administration of estradiol dipropionate (EDP) was investigated in cyclic Microminipigs (MMpigs) and the effects of exogenous administration of prostaglandin (PG) F2α on estrus exhibition were assessed in pseudopregnant MMpigs. In experiment 1, ovariectomized MMpigs were given a single intramuscular injection of 0.5, 1.5, or 2.5 mg of EDP. The estradiol-17β level at each of these doses was significantly higher 1 to 3 days after EDP administration than on the day of the injection. In experiment 2, animals were given 1.5 mg of EDP once at 9 to 12 days after the end of estrus (D0) and then no (1.5 mg × 1 group), one (D0 and D4; 1.5 mg × 2 group), or two (D0, D4 and D7; 1.5 mg × 3 group) additional treatments. The pseudopregnancy rate was significantly higher in the 1.5 mg × 3 than in the 1.5 mg × 1 group. In experiment 3, PGF2α was administered twice between 26 and 28 days after EDP treatment to five pseudopregnant gilts with a 24-h interval between the two injections. Estrus after PGF2α treatment and LH surge were observed in 100% and 80% pseudopregnant MMpigs, respectively. The interval from the day of the first PGF2α treatment to the onset of estrus was 6.5 ± 0.2 days. These results indicate that multiple EDP treatments are required for induction of pseudopregnancy in MMpigs and estrus exhibition can be controlled in MMpigs by treatment with EDP and PGF2α. PMID:27151362

  18. Evaluation of protocols to synchronize estrus and ovulation in seasonal calving pasture-based dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, M M; Berry, D P; Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Butler, S T

    2011-09-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=1,538) were enrolled in a randomized complete block design study to evaluate protocols to synchronize estrus and ovulation. Within each herd (n=8), cows were divided into 3 calving groups: early, mid, and late, based on days in milk (DIM) at mating start date (MSD). Early calving cows (n=1,244) were ≥42 DIM at MSD, mid-calving cows (n=179) were 21 to 41 DIM at MSD, and late-calving cows (n=115) were 0 to 20 DIM at MSD. Cows in the early, mid-, and late-calving groups were synchronized to facilitate estrus or timed AI (TAI) at MSD (planned breeding 1; PB1), 21 d (PB2), and 42 d (PB3) after MSD, respectively. For each PB, cows in the relevant calving group were stratified by parity and calving date and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: (1) d -10 GnRH (10 μg of i.m. buserelin) and controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR; 1.38 g of progesterone); d -3 PGF(2α) (25 mg of i.m. dinoprost); and d -2 CIDR out and AI at observed estrus (CIDR_OBS); (2) same as CIDR_OBS, but GnRH 36 h after CIDR out and TAI 18 h later (CIDR_TAI); (3) same as CIDR_TAI, but no CIDR (Ovsynch); or (4) untreated controls (CTRL). The CIDR_OBS, CIDR_TAI, and Ovsynch had shorter mean intervals from calving to first service compared with the CTRL (69.2, 63.4, and 63.7 vs. 73.7 d, respectively). Both CIDR_OBS (predicted probability; PP of pregnancy=0.59) and CIDR_TAI (PP of pregnancy=0.54) had increased odds of conceiving at first service compared with Ovsynch [PP of pregnancy=0.45; odds ratio (OR)=1.81 and OR=1.46, respectively], and Ovsynch had decreased likelihood of conceiving at first service (OR=0.70) compared with CTRL (PP of pregnancy=0.53). Both CIDR_TAI hazard ratio; HR [95% confidence interval=1.21 (1.04, 1.41)] and Ovsynch [HR (95% confidence interval)=1.23 (1.05, 1.44)] were associated with an increased likelihood of earlier conception compared with the CTRL. A greater proportion of cows on the CIDR_TAI treatment successfully established

  19. Short communication: Drug residues in goat milk after prophylactic use of antibiotics in intravaginal sponges for estrus synchronization.

    PubMed

    Romero, T; Balado, J; Althaus, R L; Beltrán, M C; Molina, M P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the prophylactic use of antibiotics in intravaginal sponges used for estrus synchronization in goats may result in the presence of inhibitors in milk and, therefore, of positive results by microbial screening tests. Ninety-eight Murciano-Granadina goats were used, divided into 7 groups of 14 animals. Intravaginal sponges were placed in 6 groups using 2 concentrations of 3 different antibiotics: doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfathiazole-framycetin. The sponges of the control group were placed without antibiotics. Milk samples were collected daily until 7 d posttreatment and analyzed using 3 microbial tests. Positive samples were retested by specific receptor-binding assays to confirm the positive results. Vaginal status was evaluated by visual assessment of the external aspect of the sponges after removal. The microbial test response was not affected by either day posttreatment or dose of antibiotic used, except for oxytetracycline at the higher concentration. Moreover, no positive results were obtained using receptor-binding assays, suggesting that residues, if present in milk, did not exceed the regulatory (safety) levels established for these drugs. The occurrence of soiled sponges was higher in the control group. With respect to the dose of antibiotics used, no significant differences were found for the lower dose administered. However, a significant increase in the percentage of clean sponges was observed for the higher dose of doxycycline. We conclude that the prophylactic use of low doses of doxycycline, oxytetracycline, or sulfathiazole in intravaginal sponges used for synchronization of estrus helps to reduce clinical vaginitis in dairy goats and does not seem to be the cause of positive results in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in goat milk. PMID:26585470

  20. Seasonality, estrous cycle characterization, estrus synchronization, semen cryopreservation, and artificial insemination in the Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    PubMed

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Greenwell, M; Ramirez, K; Van Bonn, W; Yoshioka, M; Katsumata, E; Dalton, L; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K

    2009-08-01

    The reproductive physiology of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination (AI) using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were to: 1) describe reproductive seasonality of the Pacific white sided dolphins; 2) describe urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; 3) correlate LH and ovarian steroidal metabolite patterns to ultrasound-monitored follicular growth and ovulation; and 4) assess the efficacy of synchronizing estrus, sperm collection/cryopreservation, and intrauterine insemination. Ovulations (64%, n=37) and conceptions (83%, n=18) occurred from August to October. Peak mean serum testosterone (24 ng/ml), cross-sectional testicular area (41.6 cm(2)), and sperm concentration (144.3 x 10(7) sperm/ml) occurred in July, August, and September respectively. Spermatozoa were only found in ejaculates from July to October. Estrous cycles (n=22) were 31 d long and were comprised of a 10 d follicular and 21 d luteal phase. Ovulation occurred 31.2 h after the onset of the LH surge and 19.3 h after the LH peak. Follicular diameter and circumference within 12 h of ovulation were 1.52 and 4.66 cm respectively. Estrus synchronization attempts with altrenogest resulted in 17 (22%) ovulatory cycles with ovulation occurring 21 d post-altrenogest. Ten AI attempts using cryopreserved semen resulted in five pregnancies (50%). The mean gestation length was 356 days (range 348-367). These data provide new information on the Pacific white-sided dolphin's reproductive physiology and collectively enabled the first application of AI in this species. PMID:19494046

  1. Synchronization of ovarian follicular waves with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to increase the precision of estrus in cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Twagiramungu, H; Guilbault, L A; Dufour, J J

    1995-10-01

    Treatment with GnRH and PGF2 alpha is a practical method for controlling ovarian follicular and luteal functions and increasing the precision of estrus synchronization in cyclic and acyclic postpartum cows and heifers. This method reduces considerably the period of time needed for estrus detection; it synchronizes the estrous cycle of 70 to 80% of the cyclic cows to within a 4-d interval without any detrimental effect on the fertility rate (65 to 85%). Moreover, resumption of ovarian activity and normal fertility in acyclic cows in favored. Administration of GnRH eliminates the large follicles by ovulation or atresia and induces emergence of a new follicular wave within 3 to 4 d after treatment at any stage of the estrous cycle, but it limits further growth of these emerging follicles by increasing atresia. The precision of estrus and the unaltered fertility rate is due to the synchronized selection of a new larger growing follicle, which becomes the ovulatory follicle after PGF(2 alpha)-induced luteolysis 6 d after GnRH treatment. Also, fixed-time AI programs without the need for estrus detection may be possible using a second injection of GnRH in a GnRH-PGF(2 alpha)-GnRH protocol to ovulate the selected follicle at a precise time. We describe a physiological model to explain how the precision of estrus is improved following PGF(2 alpha)-induced luteolysis, via the effect of pretreatment with GnRH on follicular development and luteal functions in cattle. Application of this model to the development of reliable methods of fixed-time insemination is also explored. PMID:8617687

  2. Photoperiod length and the estrus synchronization protocol used before AI affect the twin pregnancy rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Vázquez, C; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2012-10-01

    This study addresses potential management risk factors affecting the incidence of twin pregnancies in high-producing dairy cows. Special attention was paid to the estrus synchronization protocol used before the AI resulting in pregnancy. Possible factors affecting the twin pregnancy rate were analyzed through binary logistic regression procedures on 2015 pregnant cows from July 2010 to July 2011. Twin pregnancy was recorded in 361 of the 2015 pregnancy diagnoses made (17.9%). Twin pregnancy rates differed among herds (P < 0.001) and ranged from 12.4% to 23.9%. Based on the odds ratios, the risk of twin pregnancy was reduced by factors of 0.65 or 0.71 when AI was performed during the warm season or an increasing photoperiod, respectively and increased by a factor of 1.11 for each unit increase in lactation number; by factors of 4.57 or 6.33 in cows that received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) plus 500 or 750 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) 28 days before the pregnancy AI, respectively; by a factor of 2.39 in cows with an ovarian cyst diagnosed in the 14 days prior to AI and treated with prostaglandins (PG); by factors of 1.94 or 3.91 in cows that received two PG doses during the 14 days prior to AI or cows that following failed PRID treatment had received PG started over the 28 days prior to AI, respectively; and by a factor of 2.58 in cows that had previously delivered twins compared to cows delivering singletons. Our results indicate that cow factors, such as lactation number and previous twining, as well as environmental factors, such as photoperiod and season and management related to synchronization protocols affect significantly the incidence of twin pregnancies. PMID:22898015

  3. Use of fluorogestone acetate sponges or controlled internal drug release for estrus synchronization in ewes: Effects of hormonal profiles and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Alowaimer, Abdullah Nasser; Abouheif, Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out using 300 multiparous Najdi ewes during breeding season to compare the effects of fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges and controlled internal drug release (CIDR) dispensers to synchronize estrus on reproductive performance and hormonal profiles. Ewes were equally and randomly allotted into group A (FGA) and group B (CIDR); intravaginal progestagen was administered for 14-day period with intramuscular administration of 600-IU eCG at withdrawal time. Estrus was detected using a vasectomized ram starting 12 hours after progestagen withdrawal and repeated every 12 hours up to 84 hours. Blood samples were collected at the time of progestagen withdrawal (0 hour), 24 hours, and 48 hours. Follicle-stimulating hormone, LH, estradiol, and progesterone serum concentrations were measured using commercial ELISA kits and microtitrimetric plates. Timed laparoscopic insemination was performed 48 hours after progestagen withdrawal. Pregnancy and the number of fetuses were diagnosed by ultrasonography on Day 23 after insemination and confirmed on Days 35 and 60. The results revealed that the retention, vaginal discharge, and drawstring breakage rates after progestagen removal were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in the FGA group (94.00, 98.58, and 9.22, respectively) than those in the CIDR group. On the other hand, pregnancy, fertility, twinning rates, and fecundity were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in the CIDR group (77.86, 75.57, 34.34, and 1.02, respectively) than in the FGA group. Estrus responses in FGA and CIDR groups increased gradually to attain their significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher percentages after 48 hours of progestagen withdrawal (91.49 and 92.37, respectively); thereafter, they decreased. The overall estrus responses and prolificacy did not differ between the FGA and CIDR groups. Follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly higher in the FGA group at 24 and 48 hours after progestagen withdrawal, whereas LH was significantly higher

  4. Progesterone status, parity, body condition, and days postpartum before estrus or ovulation synchronization in suckled beef cattle influence artificial insemination pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Hill, S L; Bridges, G A; Larson, J E; Lamb, G C

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to assess the effects of progesterone before initiating an estrus- or ovulation-synchronization program in addition to the influence of parity, BCS, and days postpartum on resulting pregnancy rates per AI. Experimental data were combined from 73 herd-year studies consisting of more than 8,500 suckled beef cows exposed to variants of the CO-Synch program. Blood was harvested from samples collected at 10 and 0 d before the onset of CO-Synch, and progesterone concentrations of the samples were determined. The progesterone environment preceding synchronization was assessed in 3 ways on the basis of progesterone concentrations measured in the 2 defined blood samples. All binomial logistic regression models used procedure GLIMMIX in SAS and included the fixed effects of program duration, inclusion of progesterone via an intravaginal insert, parity, days postpartum at AI, BCS, and appropriate interactions. In addition, model 1 included 3 categories of progesterone concentrations (low [<1 ng/mL], medium [1.00 to 3.99 ng/mL], and high [≥4.00 ng/mL] concentrations) at 10 and 0 d before synchronization and their interaction. Model 2 included 4 categories defining the stage of the estrous cycle (late diestrus, early diestrus, and proestrus-estrus-metestrus) or anestrus, at which cows started the synchronization program. Model 3 defined cows as cycling or noncycling at the onset of the program. Significant effects of progesterone supplementation, which hormone was used to initiate the timed AI program, parity, BCS, days postpartum, and progesterone status assessed in 3 ways were consistent in nearly all models. Progesterone status at the onset of synchronization was not important to pregnancy outcomes in multiparous cows, whereas pregnancy rate per AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began in a low-progesterone environment (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, or anestrus). A significant 3-way interaction of parity, BCS, and days postpartum in 2 models

  5. Estrus synchronization and fertility in post-partum dairy cattle after administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and prostaglandin F2 alpha analog.

    PubMed

    De Rensis, F; Allegri, M; Seidel, G E

    1999-07-15

    Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) plus PGF2 alpha was compared with GnRH plus PGF2 alpha for estrus synchronization of dairy cows. There were 3 treatments: GnRH analog (Buserelin, 12.6 micrograms) plus PGF2 alpha analog (Cloprostenol, 150 micrograms) 6 d later (GnRH + PGF[Day 6]); hCG (2000 IU) plus PGF2 alpha 9 d later (hCG + PGF[Day 9]); and hCG plus PGF2 alpha 6 d later (hCG + PGF[Day 6]). Treatment occurred either Days 55 to 90 or Days 91 to 135 post partum. For responses during the first 10 d after PGF2 alpha administration, estrus synchronization (P = 0.24), efficacy (percentage of treated pregnant; P = 0.20) and conception (percentage of inseminated pregnant; P = 0.23) rates were not different among the 3 treatments. Cows treated between Days 55 and 90 had a higher rate (P < 0.05) of detected estrus during this period (69% for GnRH + PG [Day 6], 70% for hCG + PGF[Day 9] and 72% for hCG + PGF[Day 6]) compared with cows treated between Days 91 and 135 (52% for GnRH + PGF[Day 6], 50% for hCG + PGF[Day 9] and 57% for hCG + PGF[Day 6]). Efficacy of treatment was higher (P < 0.05) in animals treated between Days 55 and 90 (54% for GnRH + PGF[Day 6], 56% for hCG + PGF[Day 9] and 63% for hCG + PGF [Day 6]) compared to animals treated between Days 91 and 135 (36% for GnRH + PGF[Day 6], 35% for hCG + PGF[Day 9] and 47% for hCG + PGF[Day 6]). There were no significant differences in conception between Days 51 and 90 and Days 91 and 135. The interval between parturition-first AI with conception was significantly (P < 0.001) shorter in GnRH + PGF (Day 6; 106 d), hCG + PGF (Day 9; 109 d) and hCG + PGF (Day 6; 103 d) treated cattle than in 106 untreated animals (136 d). Thus, GnRH plus PGF2 alpha or hCG plus PGF2 alpha treatments elicited similar effects in estrus synchronization, treatment efficacy, and conception rate in post-partum dairy cows. PMID:10734393

  6. Factors associated with fertility outcomes in cows treated with protocols to synchronize estrus and ovulation in seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, M M; Crowe, M A; Berry, D P; Diskin, M G; Butler, S T

    2013-03-01

    Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with fertility outcomes in cows treated with protocols to synchronize estrus and ovulation. Lactating dairy cows (n=1,538) were enrolled in a completely randomized block design study to evaluate synchronization treatments. Within each herd (n=8), cows were divided into 3 calving groups: early [≥ 42 d in milk (DIM) at mating start date (MSD); n=1,244], mid (21 to 41 DIM at MSD; n=179), and late (0 to 20 DIM at MSD; n=115), based on DIM at MSD. Cows in the early-, mid-, and late-calving groups were synchronized to facilitate estrus or timed artificial insemination (TAI) at MSD (planned breeding 1; PB1), 21 d (PB2), and 42 d (PB3) after MSD, respectively. For each PB, cows in the relevant calving group were stratified by parity and calving date and randomly assigned to (1) d -10 GnRH (10 μg i.m. of buserelin) and CIDR [controlled internal drug release insert, 1.38 g of progesterone (P4)]; d -3 PGF(2α) (25mg i.m. of dinoprost); d -2 CIDR out and AI at observed estrus (CIDR_OBS); (2) same as CIDR_OBS, but GnRH 36 h after CIDR out and TAI 18 h later (CIDR_TAI); (3) same as CIDR_TAI, but no CIDR (i.e., Ovsynch); or (4) untreated controls (CTRL). Use of a CIDR-based ovulation synchronization protocol (i.e., CIDR_TAI) increased synchronization rates in anovular cows. Both CIDR_OBS and CIDR_TAI animals without a corpus luteum (CL) had increased likelihood of conception at first service compared with Ovsynch animals without a CL. Animals with low body condition score (BCS) treated with CIDR_OBS had an increased likelihood of conceiving at first service compared with low-BCS animals treated with CIDR_TAI, Ovsynch, or CTRL. Animals <60 d in milk (DIM) treated with CIDR_OBS and CIDR_TAI had increased likelihood of conceiving at first service compared with animals treated with Ovsynch. Treatment with CIDR_TAI increased synchronization rate in cows categorized as low BCS, anovulatory, and <60 DIM compared with both

  7. Expression of cumulus-oocyte complex genes and embryonic development in goats subjected to progestogen-based estrus synchronization.

    PubMed

    Thammasiri, Jiratti; Navanukraw, Chainarong; Uriyapongson, Suthipong; Khanthusaeng, Vilaivan; Kamollirt, Chuchat

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of short-term (7 days) and long-term (14 days) progesterone-based estrus synchronization on number of follicles, progesterone concentrations, cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) gene expression, and embryonic development in goats. Nulliparous Thai-native goats (n = 45) were randomly assigned to one of two estrus synchronization treatments. Goats were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 60-mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP; Synchrogest esponjas, Spain) during 7 or 14 days (short-term or long-term protocol, respectively). Multiple follicular development was induced by intramuscularly injections of 300-IU eCG in both groups (1 day before sponge withdrawal). An ovariectomy was performed at 24 hours after sponge removal to evaluate number of follicle and collect oocyte for IVF. Oocyte quality (healthy or nonhealthy) was determined by morphology of COCs before IVM. Recovery of COCs and total cellular RNA isolation were applied to determine apoptosis-related gene expression. After IVF, embryos were evaluated during the eight-day culture as numbers of cleaved oocyte, morula, and blastocyst embryo. Total numbers of follicles and oocytes were similar for both treatments. Plasma progesterone concentrations were not different during MAP insertion period (P > 0.05). However, goats that received the short-term protocol had a greater number of 4 to 6-mm follicle, healthy oocytes, cleaved oocytes, and morula embryos than goats that received the long-term protocol (P < 0.01). In addition, the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 messenger RNA was greater (P < 0.05) in COCs derived from the 7 days MAP-treated when compared to the 14 days MAP-treated goats. These data highlight that the 7-day progestin-based treatment may contribute to quality of oocytes and embryonic development in goats. PMID:27056418

  8. ASAS centennial paper: Contributions in the Journal of Animal Science to the development of protocols for breeding management of cattle through synchronization of estrus and ovulation.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, J W

    2009-02-01

    American Society of Animal Science members, publishing in Journal of Animal Science (JAS), completed research that resulted in understanding the estrous cycle of cattle, which led to the ability to inseminate cattle on a given day with pregnancy rates similar to those achieved by 21-d breeding by a fertile and sound bull. Research published in JAS led to understanding estrus, ovulation, the estrous cycle, and postpartum interval for cattle (1930s through 1960s) and hormonal factors affecting corpus luteum lifespan of cattle (1950s through 1980s). Research during the 1940s to 1960s, using gonadotropins and progesterone to manage the estrous cycle of cattle, established the concepts for estrous synchronization and stimulated commercial research directed at developing cost-effective progestogen estrous synchronization products, leading to commercially available products from 1967 through today (Repromix, melengestrol acetate, Syncro-Mate-B, controlled internal drug release). Prostaglandin F(2alpha) products were approved for estrous synchronization (1970s, 1980s), and GnRH products were approved for use in cattle to treat ovarian follicular cysts (1970s, 1980s). Research published in JAS was essential for understanding the biology of and potential value of both PGF(2alpha) and GnRH and contributed both to new knowledge and scientific bases for future Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine approval of those products. Research during the1980s through 2000s led to understanding ovarian follicular waves and described the timing of follicular recruitment, selection, dominance, and atresia; this research was essential for the ability to effectively manage follicles to achieve success with timed AI. The knowledge gained through research published in JAS resulted in development of the numerous estrous synchronization and breeding management protocols that are cost-effective and meet the breeding management needs of most beef and dairy enterprises. PMID

  9. Effect of PMSG dosage on the reproductive performance of adult ewes and ewe lambs bred at a progestagen-PMSG synchronized estrus.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, L; Shrestha, J N

    1985-11-01

    The effect of dose of pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on the reproductive performance of adult ewes and ewe lambs and lamb survival at birth after treatment with fluorogestone acetate (FGA)-impregnated intravaginal sponges and PMSG (250 IU or 500 IU) to synchronize estrus was evaluated. Ewes were exposed to rams for breeding at the synchronized and subsequent estrous cycles. The flock, comprised of three synthetic strains and two control breeds, was maintained in a controlled environment and exposed to an artificial light regimen which alternated at 4-mo intervals from 16h of light daily to 9h of light daily. Trials were conducted during January, May and September at the end of a 9-h daylength cycle. Adult ewes were bred in May and 8 mo later in January. Ewe lambs were bred in September at 6.5 to 7.5 mo of age. The overall reproductive performance of the adult ewes was similar at the two breedings: fertility approximately 90%, prolificacy approximately 2.7, fecundity approximately 240% and lambs born alive approximately 2.4. Dosage of PMSG had no effect. Reproductive performance of ewe lambs was lower and there was a strain x treatment interaction, suggesting greater variability in response. The results indicate there is no advantage to using a higher dose of PMSG in ewes with a natural relatively high fecundity. Moreover, the use of the artificial photoperiod appears to overcome the natural seasonal variation in reproductive performance. PMID:16726102

  10. Effect of estrus synchronization with norgestomet on the integrity of oocytes from persistent follicles in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Borchert, K M; Farin, C E; Washburn, S P

    1999-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether oocyte integrity is compromised when oocytes are recovered from progestogen-induced persistent follicles. Beef cows were presynchronized using PGF2alpha (PGF). Cows detected in estrus after PGF were assigned to either NOR (one 6-mg norgestomet implant for 10 d starting on d 16 of cycle; day 0 = estrus; n = 112) or CON (control, no implant [n = 128] and presynchronized 8 d later than NOR). All cows received 25 mg of PGF at the end of treatment (NOR, d 26; CON, d 18). Treatments produced persistent preovulatory follicles (NOR) or normal preovulatory-size follicles (CON), which were measured via ultrasonography 1 d before slaughter. Ovaries were collected from all animals (NOR, d 27; CON, d 19) along with random (RAN) ovaries from cattle slaughtered on the same days. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were aspirated from the preovulatory follicles with recovery rates of 63% across treatments. Small follicles (2 to 7 mm diameter) from NOR, CON, and RAN cows were also aspirated to recover COC. Preovulatory follicles were larger (19.5+/-.9 vs. 13.6+/-.4 mm, P<.05), serum P4 was lower (.4+/-.1 vs. 3.9+/-.2 ng/mL, P<.05), and serum E2 was higher (28.7+/-1.6 vs. 7.6+/-.8 pg/mL, P<.05) in NOR than in CON cows. Cumulus oocyte complexes recovered from preovulatory follicles (62 NOR, 64 CON) were matured, fertilized, and cultured in vitro for comparison of embryonic development. A subset (24 NOR, 34 CON) of COC were assigned morphological quality grades. A separate set of recovered COC (10 NOR, 15 CON) was fixed within 1 h after recovery for assessment of the stage of meiosis. Treatments did not differ for oocyte quality grade or stage of meiosis. However, COC from NOR cows had more layers of cumulus cells (P<.05), and more of those COC had undergone cumulus expansion (29.2 vs. 5.9%, P<.05 for NOR vs. CON, respectively). Development of cleaved embryos to the morula and blastocyst stages from preovulatory follicles (22.6% NOR, 18.9% CON) or

  11. Control of estrus and ovulation in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David J; Thomas, Jordan M; Martin, Neal T; Nash, Justin M; Smith, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    Expanded use of artificial insemination (AI) and/or adoption of emerging reproductive technologies for beef heifers and cows require precise methods of estrous-cycle control. New protocols for inducing and synchronizing a fertile estrus in replacement beef heifers and postpartum beef cows in which progestins are used provide new opportunities for beef producers to synchronize estrus and ovulation and to facilitate fixed-time AI. This article reviews the various estrous synchronization protocols currently available for use in replacement beef heifers. New methods of inducing and synchronizing estrus now create the opportunity to significantly expand the use of AI in the United States cowherd. PMID:24182437

  12. Efficacy of nonhormonal vaginal contraceptives from a hydrogel delivery system.

    PubMed

    Saxena, B B; Singh, M; Gospin, R M; Chu, C C; Ledger, W J

    2004-09-01

    This investigation describes the synthesis of a biodegradable hydrogel composed of a core surrounded by four concentric sheaths containing dextran, copolymers of polylactide and epsilon-caprolactone. The hydrogel was impregnated with iron (II) d-gluconate dihydrate, which causes complete spermiostasis due to lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid to increase the viscosity of the cervical mucus and mixtures of polyamino and polycarboxylic acids to sustain vaginal pH close to 4.5. The combined effects of the agents in the daily eluates of the hydrogel were efficacious up to 16 days, within 30 s, as shown by sperm penetration tests. For in vivo studies, rabbits were chosen as the experimental model because they are easy to handle and the female is always in estrus. The anterior vagina of estrous female rabbits was instilled with the hydrogel, and then inseminated with the semen from a fertile male. Postinsemination flush from the female rabbits showed that all of the sperm were dead. These observations demonstrate the potential for the development of a biocompatible, nonhormonal, intravaginal contraceptive device. PMID:15325890

  13. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, C. Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male’s reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. PMID:20933122

  14. Evaluation of reproductive and economic outcomes of dairy heifers inseminated at induced estrus or at fixed time after a 5-day or 7-day progesterone insert-based ovulation synchronization protocol.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Johnson, C R; Mendonça, L G D; Silva, P R B; Moraes, J G N; Ahmadzadeh, A; Dalton, J C; Chebel, R C

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the reproductive performance and economic outcome of 3 synchronization strategies for first artificial insemination (AI) of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers from 2 herds (site A, California, n=415; site B, Idaho, n=425) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Heifers assigned to the AI on estrus (AIE) treatment received an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α) at enrollment (d 0) and every 11 d thereafter until AI occurred. Heifers assigned to the CIDR5 treatment received a controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone, which was removed 5 d later concomitantly with an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α), and received fixed-time AI (TAI) concomitantly with an injection of 100 μg of GnRH 53 to 60 h later. Heifers assigned to the CIDR7 treatment received a CIDR insert, which was removed 7 d later concomitantly with an injection of 25mg of PGF(2α), and received TAI concomitantly with an injection of 100 μg of GnRH 53 to 60 h later. Heifers were observed for estrus and inseminated up to 98 and 73 d after enrollment in sites A and B, respectively. Thereafter, heifers were moved to pens with bulls and considered failure to conceive to AI if still not pregnant at the end of the observation period. Economic outcomes were based on cost of synchronization protocol (CIDR treatment=$11, PGF(2α) or GnRH treatments=$2.5/treatment, estrous detection=$0.80/heifer per day), rearing cost ($2.75/heifer per day), and economic loss if a heifer did not conceive to first AI ($150). Input cost of the reproductive programs=synchronization protocol cost + semen cost + rearing cost + replacement cost. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) 38 ± 3 d after first AI was greatest for AIE heifers (61.1%) followed by CIDR5 (44.8%) and CIDR7 (35.7%) heifers. Furthermore, P/AI 73 ± 7 d after first AI was greatest for AIE (58.8%) and tended to be greater for CIDR5 (42%) than for CIDR7 (34.1%) heifers. The percentage of heifers that had

  15. Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikovsky, Arkady; Rosenblum, Michael; Kurths, Jürgen

    2003-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Synchronization Without Formulae: 2. Basic notions: the self-sustained oscillator and its phase; 3. Synchronization of a periodic oscillator by external force; 4. Synchronization of two and many oscillators; 5. Synchronization of chaotic systems; 6. Detecting synchronization in experiments; Part II. Phase Locking and Frequency Entrainment: 7. Synchronization of periodic oscillators by periodic external action; 8. Mutual synchronization of two interacting periodic oscillators; 9. Synchronization in the presence of noise; 10. Phase synchronization of chaotic systems; 11. Synchronization in oscillatory media; 12. Populations of globally coupled oscillators; Part III. Synchronization of Chaotic Systems: 13. Complete synchronization I: basic concepts; 14. Complete synchronization II: generalizations and complex systems; 15. Synchronization of complex dynamics by external forces; Appendix 1. Discovery of synchronization by Christiaan Huygens; Appendix 2. Instantaneous phase and frequency of a signal; References; Index.

  16. The efficiency of vaginal temperature measurement for detection of estrus in Japanese Black cows

    PubMed Central

    SAKATANI, Miki; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; TAKENOUCHI, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Recently, weak estrous behavior was assumed to be the cause of a decline in breeding efficiency in cattle. The present study investigated the effect of measuring the vaginal temperature on the detection of estrus in Japanese Black cows. First, the effect of hormone administration to cows with a functional corpus luteum on the vaginal temperature was evaluated by continuous measurement using a temperature data logger. After 24 h of cloprostenol (PG) treatment, the vaginal temperature was significantly lower than on day 7 after estrus, and the low values were maintained until the beginning of estrus (P < 0.05). The cows that received PG and exogenous progesterone (CIDR) did not show a temperature decrease until the CIDR was removed. This finding suggested that the vaginal temperature change reflected the progesterone concentration. The rate of detection of natural estrus was lower for a pedometer than for the vaginal temperature (P < 0.05); synchronization of estrus resulted in a high estrus detection rate regardless of the detection method. In a subsequent experiment, the effect of vaginal temperature measurement and the use of a pedometer on estrus detection was evaluated in the cool and hot seasons. The average activities during non-estrus and the activity increase ratio (estrus/non-estrus) changed according to season (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). However, the average vaginal temperatures during estrus and non-estrus were not affected by season. The estrus detection rate of the pedometer was lower in summer and lower than that obtained using the vaginal temperature. These results indicated that vaginal temperature measurement might be effective for detecting estrus regardless of estrous behavior. PMID:26853785

  17. Technical note: a novel approach to the detection of estrus in dairy cows using ultra-wideband technology.

    PubMed

    Homer, E M; Gao, Y; Meng, X; Dodson, A; Webb, R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2013-10-01

    Detection of estrus is a key determinant of profitability of dairy herds, but estrus is increasingly difficult to observe in the modern dairy cow with shorter duration and less-intense estrus. Concurrent with the unfavorable correlation between milk yield and fertility, estrus-detection rates have declined to less than 50%. We tested ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology (Thales Research & Technology Ltd., Reading, UK) for proof of concept that estrus could be detected in dairy cows (two 1-wk-long trials; n=16 cows, 8 in each test). The 3-dimensional positions of 12 cows with synchronized estrous cycles and 4 pregnant control cows were monitored continuously using UWB mobile units operating within a network of 8 base units for a period of 7d. In the study, 10 cows exhibited estrus as confirmed by visual observation, activity monitoring, and milk progesterone concentrations. Automated software was developed for analysis of UWB data to detect cows in estrus and report the onset of estrus in real time. The UWB technology accurately detected 9 out of 10 cows in estrus. In addition, UWB technology accurately confirmed all 6 cows not in estrus. In conclusion, UWB technology can accurately detect estrus and hence we have demonstrated proof of concept for a novel technology that has significant potential to improve estrus-detection rates. PMID:23910546

  18. Nonpuberal estrus in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Rutter, L M; Randel, R D

    1986-10-01

    The frequency of occurrence of behavioral estrus without subsequent development of functional luteal tissue (termed nonpuberal estrus, NPE), was determined in 43 Simmental X Hereford-Brahman heifers. Blood samples were collected weekly from the start of the study to first behavioral estrus and then daily from d 1 (d 0 = estrus) through d 14 following first and subsequently observed estrous behaviors. All blood samples were analyzed for serum progesterone (P4) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. More heifers (62.8%) exhibited NPE than had luteal development after their first behavioral estrus (37.2%). There was a tendency for fewer light-weight heifers (less than or equal to 240 kg at the start of the experiment) to exhibit a puberal first estrus compared with the heavy-weight (greater than 240 kg at the start of the experiment) heifers (31.2% vs 68.8%, respectively; P = .12). Heifers that had a puberal first estrus were older (376 +/- 12 d vs 334 +/- 9 d, P less than .05) compared with heifers that had NPE. Weight at first behavioral estrus was similar between heifers that had a puberal first estrus and those that had NPE (298 +/- 8 kg and 289 +/- 6 kg, respectively). More heifers that had a puberal first estrus also had an elevation in serum P4 concentrations before that first estrus (64.3% vs 20.0%, P less than .05), and the serum P4 elevation was greater (2.5 +/- .4 ng vs 1.2 +/- .1 ng, P less than .05) than heifers that had NPE. We have concluded from these results that NPE is a common occurrence in heifers approaching puberty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3771388

  19. Expression of estrus improves fertility and decreases pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows that receive artificial insemination or embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate if expression of estrus by dairy cattle altered fertility in timed artificial insemination (AI; n=5,430) or timed embryo transfer (ET; n=2,003) programs that used estradiol and progesterone (P4) to synchronize ovulation. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed on d 0 (time of AI) and 7 to determine ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation. Only cows with a visible corpus luteum on d 7 were used in this study. At the time of controlled internal drug release removal, all cows received a tail-head device for detection of estrus and were considered in estrus when the paint of the device was completely removed by d 0. Circulating P4 concentrations were evaluated on d 7. Pregnancies per AI (P/AI) or ET (P/ET) were determined by ultrasonography on d 32 and 60. At d-32 pregnancy diagnosis, cows with expression of estrus had increased P/AI [no estrus=25.5% (222/846) vs. estrus=38.9% (1,785/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=32.7% (193/606) vs. estrus=46.2% (645/1,397)]. Similarly, at d-60 pregnancy diagnosis, expression of estrus increased P/AI [no estrus=20.1% (179/846) vs. estrus=33.3% (1,530/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=25.1% (150/606) vs. estrus=37.5% (525/1,397)]. Pregnancy loss was lower in cows that expressed estrus in timed AI [TAI; no estrus=20.1% (43/222) vs. estrus 14.4% (255/1,785)] and timed ET [TET; no estrus=22.7% (43/193) vs. estrus=18.6% (120/645)] compared with cows with no estrus. Independent of expression of estrus cows ovulating either too small or too large of follicles had lower P/AI. No effect of ovulatory follicle diameter on P/ET was noted in cows that expressed estrus; although, cows that did not express estrus tended to have lower P/ET if they ovulated larger follicles. In cows that showed estrus, follicle diameter did not affect pregnancy loss, but cows that did not show estrus and ovulated larger follicles tended to have greater pregnancy loss after TAI and had greater pregnancy loss on TET. A positive effect of d-7 P4

  20. Effective and clinically meaningful non-hormonal hot flash therapies.

    PubMed

    Guttuso, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Although many non-hormonal compounds have shown statistically significant benefit over placebo in hot flash randomized controlled trials (RCTs), these studies have varied considerably in basic methodology making it challenging to deduce which compounds have the greatest potential to provide clinically meaningful benefit. This review used evidence-based methodology closely mirroring the FDA and EMEA guidelines as a template to identify "well-designed" RCTs from which effective and clinically meaningful non-hormonal hot flash therapies could be identified. In addition, pertinent safety information was reviewed. Out of 3548 MEDLINE citations and abstracts, 51 well-designed hot flash RCTs were identified. From these trials, gabapentin, oxybutynin ER, desvenlafaxine, soy-derived isoflavones and black cohosh each showed a clinically meaningful treatment effect in at least 1 RCT. Among these 5 compounds, only gabapentin demonstrated consistent and statistically significant benefit over placebo in all of its well-designed RCTs. Desvenlafaxine, soy-derived isoflavones, and black cohosh demonstrated statistically significant benefit over placebo in 75%, 21%, and 17% of the well-designed RCTs for each compound, respectively. There was only 1 well-designed RCT using oxybutynin ER, which showed it to have a robust and clinically meaningful benefit. In terms of safety, there have been cardiovascular risks associated with desvenlafaxine use in postmenopausal women with hot flashes. The use of anticonvulsants, in general, has been associated with an absolute 0.21% increase in suicidal thoughts and behavior. Further research is needed with several of these nonhormonal compounds to replicate these findings and to also directly compare their efficacy and tolerability with those of hormone replacement therapy. PMID:22377187

  1. Follicular growth monitoring in the female cat during estrus.

    PubMed

    Malandain, E; Rault, D; Froment, E; Baudon, S; Desquilbet, L; Begon, D; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2011-10-15

    Follicular growth in the feline ovary is usually detected indirectly, through behavior observation, vaginal smears, or more invasively, by estradiol assay in blood. This study was designed to describe follicular dynamics by transabdominal ultrasonography. Secondly, the stage of follicular growth was associated to behavioral and vaginal changes. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed during nine anovulatory and 12 ovulatory cycles. Forty-eight follicles were followed during anovulatory cycles: on the first day of estrus behavior, 4.8 ± 0.2 follicles (2 to 7 per female) of 2.3 ± 0.01 mm mean diameter were present. Follicular growth continued at a rate of 0.2 ± 0.04 mm per day. At least one follicle in the cohort reached a diameter greater than 3.0 mm. Maximal follicular growth (when one follicle of the cohort reached the maximal diameter observed for the whole estrus) was reached 3.8 ± 0.3 days after the onset of estrus with the largest follicle reaching a diameter of 3.5 ± 0.04 mm. Growth of the various follicles within a cohort was not exactly synchronous. When no ovulation took place, the follicular diameter decreased by 0.1 ± 0.01 mm per day until the end of estrus. The first day after the end of behavioral estrus, the diameter of the largest follicle in each cohort was 2.7 ± 0.05 mm. No correlation was found between follicular development and either vaginal smear characteristics, or time elapsed since the onset of estrus. When ovulations were mechanically induced after one follicle had reached 3.0 mm in diameter, artificial insemination produced normal pregnancy rate and litter size: four pregnant females out of nine, and 2 to 4 kittens per litter. Ultrasonography proved thus to allow the monitoring of follicular growth in the female cat, with low correlation with behavior and vaginal smear modifications. Further studies are needed to evaluate the interest of an ultrasonographic ovarian follow-up to determine the optimal moment for ovulation induction

  2. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, Tongku N.; Melia, Juli; Rohaya; Thasmi, Cut Nila; Masyitha, Dian; Wahyuni, Sri; Rosa, Juliana; Nurhafni; Panjaitan, Budianto; Herrialfian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination. PMID:26977335

  3. Expression and detection of estrus in dairy cows: the role of new technologies.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Carvalho, P D; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C

    2014-05-01

    Despite the widespread adoption of hormonal synchronization protocols that allow for timed artificial insemination (AI), detection of estrus plays an important role in the reproductive management program on most dairies in the United States. Increased physical activity is a secondary sign of estrus in dairy cattle, and a new generation of electronic systems that continuously monitor physical activity to predict timing of AI have been developed and marketed to the dairy industry. A variety of management and physiologic challenges inhibit detection of behavioral estrus on farms, but the prevalence of anouvular cows near the end of the voluntary waiting period is particularly problematic. Only 70% of lactating Holstein cows were detected in estrus when using an activity monitoring system, with the remaining 20% of cows classified as anovular and 10% ovulating without showing signs of activity. Mean time of AI in relation to ovulation based on the activity monitoring system was acceptable for most of the cows with increased activity, however, variability in the duration of estrus and timing of AI in relation to ovulation could result in poor pregnancy outcomes in some cows. Use of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for submission of cows for first AI has been widely adopted by dairies in the United States, and a combined approach in which AI based on activity is followed by submission of cows not detected with activity to timed AI after synchronization of ovulation may be an effective strategy for submission of cows to first AI. Based on a field trial on a large commercial dairy in the United States, the activity monitoring system detected 70% of cows with increased activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, however, cows inseminated to increased activity had fewer pregnancies per AI (P/AI) compared with cows with increased activity after the second PGF2α injection that received timed AI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. Based on

  4. Non-Hormonal treatment of BPH/BOO

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Nadir I.; Mangera, Altaf; Chapple, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To review the use of non-hormonal pharmacotherapies in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to presumed benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods: A search of the PUBMED database was conducted for the terms BPH, LUTS, bladder outlet obstruction, alpha-adrenoceptor blockers, anti-muscarinics, and phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors. Results: Medical therapy has long been established as the accepted standard of care in the treatment of male LUTS. The aim of treatment is improvement in symptoms and quality of life whilst minimizing adverse effects. The agents most widely used as 1st line therapy are alpha-blockers (AB), as a standalone or in combination with 2 other classes of drug; 5-α reductase inhibitors and anti-muscarinics. AB have rapid efficacy, improving symptoms and flow rate in a matter of days, these effects are then maintained over time. AB do not impact on prostate size and do not prevent acute urinary retention or the need for surgery. Anti-mucarinics, alone or in combination with an AB are safe and efficacious in the treatment of bothersome storage symptoms associated with LUTS/BPH. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are an emerging treatment option that improve LUTS without improving flow rates. Conclusions: AB are the most well-established pharmacotherapy in the management of men with LUTS/BPH. The emergence of different classes of agent offers the opportunity to target underlying pathophysiologies driving symptoms and better individualize treatment. PMID:24744520

  5. Behavioral and physiological changes around estrus events identified using multiple automated monitoring technologies.

    PubMed

    Dolecheck, K A; Silvia, W J; Heersche, G; Chang, Y M; Ray, D L; Stone, A E; Wadsworth, B A; Bewley, J M

    2015-12-01

    This study included 2 objectives. The first objective was to describe estrus-related changes in parameters automatically recorded by the CowManager SensOor (Agis Automatisering, Harmelen, the Netherlands), DVM bolus (DVM Systems LLC, Greeley, CO), HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel), IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, UK), and Track a Cow (Animart Inc., Beaver Dam, WI). This objective was accomplished using 35 cows in 3 groups between January and June 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. We used a modified Ovsynch with G7G protocol to partially synchronize ovulation, ending after the last PGF2α injection (d 0) to allow estrus expression. Visual observation for standing estrus was conducted for four 30-min periods at 0330, 1000, 1430, and 2200h on d 2, 3, 4, and 5. Eighteen of the 35 cows stood to be mounted at least once during the observation period. These cows were used to compare differences between the 6h before and after the first standing event (estrus) and the 2wk preceding that period (nonestrus) for all technology parameters. Differences between estrus and nonestrus were observed for CowManager SensOor minutes feeding per hour, minutes of high ear activity per hour, and minutes ruminating per hour; twice daily DVM bolus reticulorumen temperature; HR Tag neck activity per 2h and minutes ruminating per 2h; IceQube lying bouts per hour, minutes lying per hour, and number of steps per hour; and Track a Cow leg activity per hour and minutes lying per hour. No difference between estrus and nonestrus was observed for CowManager SensOor ear surface temperature per hour. The second objective of this study was to explore the estrus detection potential of machine-learning techniques using automatically collected data. Three machine-learning techniques (random forest, linear discriminant analysis, and neural network) were applied to automatically collected parameter data from the 18 cows observed in standing estrus. Machine learning

  6. A systematic review of non-hormonal treatments of vasomotor symptoms in climacteric and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Drewe, Juergen; Bucher, Kathleen A; Zahner, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal climacteric symptoms of hot flushes and night sweats affect 24-93% of all women during the physiological transition from reproductive to post-reproductive life. Though efficacious, hormonal therapy and partial oestrogenic compounds are linked to a significant increase in breast cancer. Non-hormonal treatments are thus greatly appreciated. This systematic review of published hormonal and non-hormonal treatments for climacteric, and breast and prostate cancer-associated hot flushes, examines clinical efficacy and therapy-related cancer risk modulation. A PubMed search included literature up to June 19, 2014 without limits for initial dates or language, with the search terms, (hot flush* OR hot flash*) AND (clinical trial* OR clinical stud*) AND (randomi* OR observational) NOT review). Retrieved references identified further papers. The focus was on hot flushes; other symptoms (night sweats, irritability, etc.) were not specifically screened. Included were some 610 clinical studies where a measured effect of the intervention, intensity and severity were documented, and where patients received treatment of pharmaceutical quality. Only 147 of these references described studies with alternative non-hormonal treatments in post-menopausal women and in breast and prostate cancer survivors; these results are presented in Additional file 1. The most effective hot flush treatment is oestrogenic hormones, or a combination of oestrogen and progestins, though benefits are partially outweighed by a significantly increased risk for breast cancer development. This review illustrates that certain non-hormonal treatments, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, gabapentin/pregabalin, and Cimicifuga racemosa extracts, show a positive risk-benefit ratio. Key pointsSeveral non-hormonal alternatives to hormonal therapy have been established and registered for the treatment of vasomotor climacteric symptoms in peri- and post-menopausal women.There are indications

  7. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. PMID:27140297

  8. Efficiency of the OVATEC unit for estrus detection and calf sex control in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Wehner, G R; Wood, C; Tague, A; Barker, D; Hubert, H

    1997-03-01

    Seventy five spring calving Gelbvieh and Angus cows were utilized over a three year period to evaluate the usefulness of the OVATEC intravaginal probe for indicating the onset of estrus and providing the possibility to influence the sex of the offspring by choosing a breeding time in relation to critical changes in cervical mucus conductivity. Cows were randomly assigned by breed each year into one of four treatments: (1) probed and inseminated when impedance values declined, creating conditions expected to favor X-bearing sperm and with it an increase in the conception of females (PF); (2) probed and inseminated when impedance values were rebounding, expected to favor Y-bearing sperms and with it an increase in the conception of males (PB); (3) standing estrus (AI); or (4) natural service by bull (NS). Cows grazed or were fed hay from tall fescue-legume pastures. Lutalyse was used to synchronize estrus in a two injection scheme. Vaginal probe readings were taken at first injection, second injection and every 12 h thereafter for 6 days. Visual observations for estrus were obtained for PF, PB and AI every 12 h postsecond injection. Rectal palpations of ovaries were obtained at standing heat in all but NS treatments. In cycling cows, probe readings increased prediction of estrus onset (P < 0.10) compared to visual observations and were similar (P > 0.95) to rectal palpations in all probed cows. PF cows delivered heifer calves at greater rates (P < 0.025) than all other treatments whereas PB cows delivered bulls at greater rates (P < 0.05) than all other treatments. Heifer to bull ratios were not different (P > 0.95) for AI or NS treatments. The results of this study indicate that the potential exists for increasing female offspring conceptions utilizing cervical mucus conductivity as a gauge for insemination times. PMID:9231244

  9. Breeding laboratory cats during artificially induced estrus.

    PubMed

    Cline, E M; Jennings, L L; Sojka, N J

    1980-12-01

    Mature female cats of known reproductive history were randomly divided into groups for natural breeding or mating following hormonal induction of estrus. Treatment with a single injection of 100 international units of pregnant mares' serum followed in 7 days by 50 international units of human chorionic gonadotropin produced results comparable to natural breeding. Daily injections of pregnant mares' serum (300-500 international units total) resulted in fewer successful pregnancies and adversely affected the ability of kittens to survive to weaning. PMID:7464025

  10. Estrus response and fertility of Menz and crossbred ewes to single prostaglandin injection protocol.

    PubMed

    Mekuriaw, Zeleke; Assefa, Habtemariam; Tegegne, Azage; Muluneh, Dagne

    2016-01-01

    Natural lambing in sheep in Ethiopia occurs throughout the year in a scattered manner negatively affecting survival and growth rates of the lambs born during the unfavorable season of the year. Thus, controlling the time of mating artificially using exogenous source of hormones is considered as one of the ways to mitigated problems related to haphazard lambing. To this end, an experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin-based estrus synchronization protocol in local and crossbred ewes. A total of 160 ewes (80 local and 80 crossbreds) which lambed at least once and aged 3-5 years were used. Lutalyse® (dinoprost tromethamine sterile solution equivalent to 5 mg dinoprost per ml) and its analog, Synchromate® (cloprostenol sodium equivalent to 0.250 mg cloprostenol per ml), were tested at different doses. The treatments used were intramuscular injection of (1) 2.50 ml of Lutalyse® (12.5 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (2) 2 ml of Lutalyse® (10.0 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (3) 1 ml of Synchromate® (0.25 mg of cloprostenol Sodium), and (4) 0.8 ml of Synchromate® (0.20 mg of cloprostenol Sodium). Forty ewes (20 local and 20 crossbreds) were allocated per treatment. Following injection of the respective hormones, rams of known fertility were introduced into the flock for the duration of 96 h at the ratio of one ram to 10 ewes. All estrus synchronization protocols except treatment 4 (0.8 ml of Synchromate®) induced estrus (heat) in majority (55-65%) of local and crossbred ewes within 96 h post-hormone injection. The time interval from hormone administration to onset of estrus was also more or less similar for all treatment groups except for treatment group 4 which showed heat quicker. The highest lambing rate was recorded in local ewes (84.62% (11/13) treated with 2.5 ml of Lutalyse®, whereas the least was obtained in crossbreds (33.33% (3/9) treated with 0.8 ml Synchromate®. In conclusion, even though 2.5 ml and 2 ml of Lutalyse® or 1 ml of

  11. Non-hormonal male contraception: A review and development of an Eppin based contraceptive.

    PubMed

    O'Rand, Michael G; Silva, Erick J R; Hamil, Katherine G

    2016-01-01

    Developing a non-hormonal male contraceptive requires identifying and characterizing an appropriate target and demonstrating its essential role in reproduction. Here we review the development of male contraceptive targets and the current therapeutic agents under consideration. In addition, the development of EPPIN as a target for contraception is reviewed. EPPIN is a well characterized surface protein on human spermatozoa that has an essential function in primate reproduction. EPPIN is discussed as an example of target development, testing in non-human primates, and the search for small organic compounds that mimic contraceptive antibodies; binding EPPIN and blocking sperm motility. Although many hurdles remain before the success of a non-hormonal male contraceptive, continued persistence should yield a marketable product. PMID:26593445

  12. Nonhormonal Management of Hot Flashes for Women on Risk Reduction Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sideras, Kostandinos; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Hot flashes are very common in women in menopause and can have a detrimental effect on quality of life. Women on risk reduction therapy are particularly prone because treatments, such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, or oophorectomy, have the potential to exacerbate these symptoms. Hormonal treatments, despite the fact that they represent the most effective therapies, are not used for the treatment of hot flashes in these women because of concerns that they may increase the risk for breast cancer. As a result, several nonhormonal therapies have been tested in randomized placebo-controlled trials and shown to be effective, such as paroxetine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, fluoxetine, citalopram, gabapentin, and pregabalin. In addition, several nonpharmacotogic therapies have been tested with various successes. An additional consideration is how some of those drugs, especially fluoxetine and paroxetine, interact with the metabolism of tamoxifen. This article discusses these issues, and provides some recommendations regarding use of nonhormonal therapies for treating hot flashes in women on risk reduction therapy, with an emphasis on pharmacogenomic considerations. PMID:20971841

  13. Characteristics of estrous cycles in gilts treated with gonadotropins after estrus or treatment with a progestogen.

    PubMed

    Estienne, Mark J; Crawford, Russell J

    2015-03-01

    A combination of eCG (400 IU) and hCG (200 IU) (P.G. 600; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ, USA) stimulates puberty in gilts, but variation in the estrual response exists among farms. We hypothesized that some of the variability is a consequence of gilts that have commenced cycling being inadvertently treated. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine the effect of intramuscular (im) P.G. 600 on estrous cycles in sexually mature gilts. Gilts in treatment 1 (n = 16) received P.G. 600 at the onset of daily boar exposure. Gilts in treatments 2 to 5 (n = 16 per treatment) were allowed to express a natural first estrus and were then treated with P.G. 600 during the first estrous cycle as follows: treatment 2 at Day 6, treatment 3 at Day 12, and treatment 4 at Day 18 of the estrous cycle. Treatment 5 gilts received no P.G. 600. The proportion of gilts displaying a normal estrous cycle (18-24 days) was greater (P < 0.05) for treatments 4 (100%) and 5 (100%) compared with treatments 1 (73.3%) and 3 (60%), with treatment 2 having a value (87.5%) that was not different from the other groups. For treatment 3, 33% of gilts displayed an increased interestrus interval that averaged 32.5 days. Concentrations of progesterone remained elevated 20 days after the onset of first estrus in treatment 3 gilts, which supports the concept that P.G. 600 administered at Day 12 of the estrous cycle induced follicular growth, ovulation, and formation of CL that functioned for approximately 15 days, increasing the length of the estrous cycle. It is common for swine producers to have groups of replacement gilts that include both cycling and prepubertal animals, or individuals, the cycling status of which is unknown. The objective of experiment 2 was to evaluate a system using a combination of a progestogen (Matrix; Merck Animal Health) and P.G. 600 to synchronize estrus in replacement gilts. Crossbred gilts, assumed to be a mix of cycling and prepubertal females, were allocated to

  14. Influence of lameness on follicular growth, ovulation, reproductive hormone concentrations and estrus behavior in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Morris, M.J.; Kaneko, K.; Walker, S.L.; Jones, D.N.; Routly, J.E.; Smith, R.F.; Dobson, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a chronic stressor, lameness, on reproductive parameters. Seventy cows 30–80 days post-partum were scored for lameness and follicular phases synchronized with GnRH followed seven days later by prostaglandin (PG). Fifteen Lame animals did not respond to GnRH ovarian stimulation. Milk progesterone for 5 days prior to PG was lower in the remaining Lame cows than Healthy herdmates. Fewer Lame cows ovulated (26/37 versus 17/18; P = 0.04) and the interval from PG to ovulation was shorter in Lame cows. In Subset 1 (20 animals), the LH pulse frequency was similar in ovulating animals (Lame and Healthy) but lower in Lame non-ovulators. An LH surge always preceded ovulation but lameness did not affect the interval from PG to LH surge onset or LH surge concentrations. Before the LH surge, estradiol was lower in non-ovulating cows compared to those that ovulated and estradiol concentrations were positively correlated with LH pulse frequency. In Subset 2 (45 cows), Lame ovulating cows had a less intense estrus than Healthy cows, although Lame cows began estrus and stood-to-be-mounted earlier than Healthy cows. In conclusion, we have identified several parameters to explain poor fertility in some chronically stressed animals. From 30 to 80 days post-partum, there was a graded effect that ranged from 29% Lame cows with absence of ovarian activity, whereas another 21% Lame cows failed to express estrus or ovulate a low estrogenic follicle; in 50% cows, many reproductive parameters were unaffected by lameness. PMID:21601262

  15. Changes in Mouse Uterine Transcriptome in Estrus and Proestrus1

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Kerri Stanley; Suvorov, Alexander; Connerney, Jeannette; Lodato, Nicholas J.; Waxman, David J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Changes in the CD-1 mouse uterine transcriptome during proestrus and estrus were investigated to help elucidate mechanisms of uterine tissue remodeling during the estrus cycle and their regulation by estrogen and progesterone in preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. Mice were staged beginning at 6 weeks of age, and uterine horns were harvested after monitoring two estrus cycles. Microarray analysis of whole uterine horn RNA identified 2428 genes differentially expressed in estrus compared to proestrus, indicating there is extensive remodeling of mouse uterus during the estrus cycle, affecting ∼10% of all protein-encoding genes. Many (∼50%) of these genes showed the same differential expression in independent analyses of isolated uterine lumenal epithelial cells. Changes in gene expression associated with structural alterations of the uterus included remodeling of the extracellular matrix, changes in cell keratins and adhesion molecules, activation of mitosis and changes in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) presentation, complement and coagulation cascades, and cytochrome P450 expression. Signaling pathways regulated during the estrus cycle, involving ligand-gated channels, Wnt and hedgehog signaling, and transcription factors with poorly understood roles in reproductive tissues, included several genes and gene networks that have been implicated in pathological states. Many of the molecular pathways and biological functions represented by the genes differentially expressed from proestrus to estrus are also altered during the human menstrual cycle, although not necessarily at the corresponding phases of the cycle. These findings establish a baseline for further studies in the mouse model to dissect mechanisms involved in uterine tissue response to endocrine disruptors and the development of reproductive tract diseases. PMID:23740946

  16. Serum testosterone concentration, efficiency of estrus detection and libido expression in androgenized beef cows.

    PubMed

    Nix, J P; Spitzer, J C; Chenoweth, P J

    1998-04-15

    Twenty multiparous, cyclic, nonlactating beef cows were blocked by dominance rank and randomly and equally allotted to 1 of 4 treatment groups: an untreated control group, a synovex-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with no additional hormones, a testosterone-treated group which received 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 with additional 1000 mg, s.c. doses of testosterone enanthate every 14 d, and a synovex + testosterone-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 only. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture once a week beginning 3 wk prior to start of treatment. In addition, samples were collected just prior to treatment; once a day for 1 wk after initiation of treatment; and then twice a week until 225 d after treatment. Efficiency of estrus detection was assessed 22 d prior to start of treatment and every 14 d thereafter for 98 d, using estrus detection trials with synchronized females or modified libido tests. Scores for estrus detection trials included total mounts in 1 h and the percentage of estrous cows detected. Libido was scored on a scale of 0 through 6. All testosterone treatments raised plasma testosterone concentrations above control and pretreatment levels (testosterone and synovex + testosterone > synovex > control; all P < 0.05). Synovex-, testosterone- and synovex + testosterone-treated females performed more mounts in 1 h than the controls (18, 9, 6 and 1, respectively; all P < 0.05). All testosterone-treated cows mounted a higher number of estrous females than the controls (P < 0.05). Only synovex + testosterone- and testosterone-treated cows received libido scores above pretreatment and control values. However, libido of testosterone-treated cows decreased over time, while that of synovex + testosterone-treated females remained high until Day 98. Libido scores correlated positively with the number of mounts in 1

  17. Estrus cycle effect on muscle tyrosine kinase activity in bitches.

    PubMed

    Gomes Pöppl, Álan; Costa Valle, Sandra; Hilário Díaz González, Félix; de Castro Beck, Carlos Afonso; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Silveira Martins Da Silva, Roselis

    2012-03-01

    Estrus cycle is a well recognized cause of insulin resistance in bitches. The insulin receptor (IR) as well as the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor belong to the same subfamily of tyrosine kinase (TK) receptors. The objective of this study was to evaluate basal TK activity in muscle tissue of bitches during the estrus cycle. Twenty-four bitches were used in the study (7 in anestrus, 7 in estrus, and 10 in diestrus). Muscle samples, taken after spaying surgery to determine TK activity, were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -80°C until the membranes were prepared by sequential centrifugation after being homogenized. TK activity was determined by Poly (Glu 4:Tyr 1) phosphorylation and expressed in cpm/μg of protein. TK activity was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the animals in estrus (104.5 ± 11.9 cpm/μg of protein) and diestrus (94.5 ± 16.9 cpm/μg of protein) when compared with bitches in anestrus (183.2 ± 39.2 cpm/μg of protein). These results demonstrate, for the first time, lower basal TK activity in the muscle tissue of female dogs during estrus and diestrus, which may represent lower insulin signaling capacity, opening a new field of investigation into the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in dogs. PMID:22139063

  18. Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) with natural estrus or estrus induced with prostaglandin F2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, O L; Barros, C M; Figueiredo, R A; do Valle, E R; Encarnação, R O; Padovani, C R

    1998-02-01

    Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval are essential for estimating the best time to artificially inseminate cattle. Because these parameters are not well characterized in the Nelore breed (Bos indicus), the main purpose of the this study was to determine the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore heifers and cows with natural estrus or with estrus induced by treatments with PGF2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate (NEV). The cows and heifers were observed continuously (24 h a day) to determine the onset of estrus and to study estrous behavior in the cows. Ten hours after the start of estrus the ovaries were scanned every 2 h by ultrasonography to monitor the dominant follicle until ovulation. Blood samples were collected periodically to determine progesterone levels by RIA. Administration of PGF2 alpha (2 injections, 11 days apart) did not induce estrus in most Nelore females in spite of the presence of functional CL, indicated by progesterone concentrations above 6.0 ng/ml in 25 of 28 animals. Treatment with NEV induced high sexual receptivity in cows (10/11), but only 66% ovulated. Cows with natural or induced estrus exhibited behavioral estrus of 10.9 +/- 1.4 h, and ovulation occurred 26.6 +/- 0.44 h (n = 26) after the onset of estrus. In most of the cows (53.8%) estrus began at night (between 1801 and 600 h), and 34.6% it started and finished during the night. It is concluded that in Nelore females ovulation occurs approximately 26 h after the onset of estrus. Additionally, estrous behavior is shorter than in European breeds, and there is a high incidence of estrus at night, which makes it difficult to detect and, consequently, impairs Al in Nelore cattle. The observation that a high percentage of Nelore females with an active CL did not respond to usual dosages of PGF2 alpha warrants further investigation. PMID:10732045

  19. Sexually active groups in cattle-a novel estrus sign.

    PubMed

    Sveberg, G; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Aldrin, M; Tvete, I F; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2013-07-01

    The current study presents a novel objective measure for characterizing sexually active groups (SAG 3-5) and relates this measure to other behaviors of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows in SAG 3-5 were required to participate in a minimum of 1 estrus behavior per 5min while staying within 3m (2 cow lengths) of its partner(s) for a minimum of 5min. Twenty Holstein-Friesian cows were video-monitored continuously through 1 complete estrous cycle (22d). Standing behavior, SAG 3-5, secondary estrus signs (SEC), and other social and agonistic behaviors were recorded continuously. The period of mounting estrus (MTE) was divided into the 3 parts: prestand, standing estrus (STE), and poststand. The mean durations of MTE, prestand, STE, and poststand period were 12.9±1.84, 4.0±1.93, 7.1±1.44, and 1.8±0.57h (n=13). The fractions of time spent in SAG 3-5 during MTE, prestand, STE, and poststand period were 13, 8, 19, and 1% (n=11). During MTE, cows participated, on average, in 5.8±1.24 SAG 3-5 and initiated 9.5±2.99 mounts, with mean durations of 0.25±0.03h and 4.00±0.36s, respectively. The novel measure SAG 3-5 was a sign of long duration not confined only to groups of STE cows. On one day when no cows were in estrus and during the periods 4 to 24h before and after MTE, no SAG 3-5 behaviors were observed. Luteal-phase cows participated in SAG 3-5 only when the partner was a single cow in estrus. The time spent in SAG 3-5 increased between 1 and 3h before MTE and the prestand period (3 vs. 8%) and reached a peak level during STE. From STE to poststand, time spent in SAG 3-5 decreased considerably (19 vs. 1%). The observed decrease in nonmutual agonistic behaviors 4 to 24h before MTE is suggested as an early sign of pre-estrus. Changes in SAG 3-5, agonistic behaviors, and SEC are suggested as indicators of the specific stages of MTE. Increased SEC initiated and SAG 3-5 were indicators of late pre-estrus and early estrus (prestand). Peak levels of SAG 3-5, SEC, and

  20. Synchronicity from synchronized chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Duane, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related events mysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical) correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind and matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1) synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2) the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable) interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.

  1. Synchronicity from synchronized chaos

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Duane, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related events mysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical) correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind andmore » matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1) synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2) the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable) interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.« less

  2. Non-hormonal interruption of incessant ovulation as a potential approach for ovarian cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Fathalla, Mahmoud F

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is a silent killer. There is a need to intensify research efforts on prevention strategies. The causative role of incessant ovulation has been supported by the protective effect of oral hormonal contraceptives. The released follicular fluid in the process of ovulation bathes not only the surface of the ovary but also the fimbrial end of the fallopian tube. Evidence has been accumulating about a fimbrial tubal origin for ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma, and for the potential of opportunistic or elective salpingectomy as an intervention strategy. Alternatively, periodic suppression of ovulation could be beneficial among women who have no need or are not using oral hormonal contraceptives. Rupture of the ovarian follicle releasing the ovum and follicular fluid is a prostaglandin-mediated inflammatory process. It can be stopped by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, leading to pharmacologic production of a luteinized unruptured follicle, simulating a normal non-conception cycle with unaltered steroid patterns/levels and cycle length. Non-hormonal periodic interruption of incessant ovulation could be recommended for women who are at high risk of ovarian cancer, but further research is needed to validate the potential of this approach. PMID:26876699

  3. Hormonal and non-hormonal bases of maternal behavior: The role of experience and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S; Champagne, Frances A

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Though hormonal changes occurring throughout pregnancy and at the time of parturition have been demonstrated to prime the maternal brain and trigger the onset of mother-infant interactions, extended experience with neonates can induce similar behavioral interactions. Sensitization, a phenomenon in which rodents engage in parental responses to young following constant cohabitation with donor pups, was elegantly demonstrated by Rosenblatt (1967) to occur in females and males, independent of hormonal status. Study of the non-hormonal basis of maternal behavior has contributed significantly to our understanding of hormonal influences on the maternal brain and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate maternal behavior. Here, we highlight our current understanding regarding both hormone-induced and experience-induced maternal responsivity and the mechanisms that may serve as a common pathway through which increases in maternal behavior are achieved. In particular, we describe the epigenetic changes that contribute to chromatin remodeling and how these molecular mechanisms may influence the neural substrates of the maternal brain. We also consider how individual differences in these systems emerge during development in response to maternal care. This research has broad implications for our understanding of the parental brain and the role of experience in the induction of neurobiological and behavior changes. PMID:26172856

  4. Infrared technology for estrus detection and as a predictor of time of ovulation in dairy cows in a pasture-based system.

    PubMed

    Talukder, S; Kerrisk, K L; Ingenhoff, L; Thomson, P C; Garcia, S C; Celi, P

    2014-04-15

    The development and application of an algorithm to assess the ability of an infrared thermography (IRT) device to predict cows in estrus and about to ovulate was investigated. Twenty cows were synchronized using a controlled internal drug release and PGF2α. Vulval and muzzle temperatures were measured every 12 hours from controlled internal drug release insertion to 32 hours after PGF2α treatment and then every 4 hours until ovulation occurred or until 128 hours after PGF2α treatment (whichever occurred first). Thermal images obtained with a FLIR T620 series infrared camera were analyzed using ThermaCAM Researcher Professional 2.9 software. Cows were also monitored for behavioral signs of estrus and color changes of an Estrotect applied to the tail head of each cow 36 hours after PGF2α treatment. Algorithms were developed by adjusting body surface temperature of individual animals for ambient temperature and humidity during each observation period, and were expressed as a deviation from the baseline temperature. Of the 20 cows enrolled in this study, 12 (60%) ovulated. An IRT estrus alert was defined using different thresholds (D = 1 °C, 1.25 °C, and 1.5 °C). Sensitivity and specificity to predict estrus depended upon the chosen threshold level. At a threshold D = 1 °C, the highest sensitivity (92%; n = 11) and the lowest specificity (29%) and positive predictive value (64%) were observed. Conversely, D = 1.5 °C resulted in sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 57%, and positive predictive value of 69%. The mean ± standard deviation intervals between onset and the end of IRT estrus alert to ovulation were 30.7 ± 8.2 and 13.3 ± 7.7 hours, respectively. Ovulation occurred 24 to 47 hours after the onset of the IRT estrus alert for eight out of the 11 ovulated cows (73%). Although the sensitivity of the IRT alert was greater than visual observation (67%) and Estrotect activation (67%), the specificity and positive predictive value were lower than

  5. Lameness, Activity Time-Budgets, and Estrus Expression in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S. L.; Smith, R. F.; Routly, J. E.; Jones, D. N.; Morris, M. J.; Dobson, H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify specific behavioral patterns that contribute to diminished estrus expression in lame cows. Behavioral scan and focal sampling were used to examine the effect of lameness on daily activity budgets, sexual behavior, feeding activities, and body condition score. A total of 59 milking cows (51.8 ± 1.4 d postpartum) were monitored on a commercial dairy farm for 5 d following estrus synchronization. Overall, lame cows (n = 39) spent proportionately less time elevated on their feet and more time lying down compared with nonlame cows (n = 20). This included lame cows spending less time walking or standing. Overall, the total proportion of scans in which an estrous behavior was observed was very small but tended to be smaller for lame compared with nonlame cows. Throughout a day, lame cows displayed a lower proportion of estrous behaviors in the early morning. Lameness did not affect durations of drinking, grazing, or ruminating, or how these behavioral states fluctuated throughout the day. Similarly, rumination chewing rates were the same for lame and nonlame cows, and there was no association between lameness and dominance/displacement while feeding at a feed-fence. Lame cows did, however, have a slower bite rate at pasture and had a lower body condition score. Lame cows were also nearer the rear of the herd, both as they left the field and when entering the milking parlor. In conclusion, lame cows have longer lying times and spend less time standing, walking, and expressing an estrous behavior. Lame cows also have a lower bite rate at pasture and are more likely to be of lower body condition score. PMID:19038930

  6. Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus.

    PubMed

    Binelli, M; Hampton, J; Buhi, W C; Thatcher, W W

    1999-07-01

    The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF. PMID:10377040

  7. Mechanisms of nonhormonal activation of adenylate cyclase based on target analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Verkman, A.S.; Ausiello, D.A.; Jung, C.Y.; Skorecki, K.L.

    1986-08-12

    Radiation inactivation was used to examine the mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase in the cultured renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 with hormonal (vasopressin) and nonhormonal (GTP, forskolin, fluoride, and chloride) activating ligands. Intact cells were frozen, irradiated at -70 degrees C (0-14 Mrad), thawed, and assayed for adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of activating ligands. The ln (adenylate cyclase activity) vs. radiation dose relation was linear (target size 162 kDa) for vasopressin- (2 microM) stimulated activity and concave downward for unstimulated (10 mM Mn/sup 2 +/), NaF- (10 mM) stimulated, and NaCl- (100 mM) stimulated activities. Addition of 2 microM vasopressin did not alter the ln activity vs. dose relation for NaF- (10 mM) stimulated activity. The dose-response relations for adenylate cyclase activation and for transition in the ln activity vs. dose curve shape were measured for vasopressin and NaF. On the basis of our model for adenylate cyclase subunit interactions reported previously (Verkman, A. S., Skorecki, K. L., and Ausiello, D. A. (1986) Am. J. Physiol. 260, C103-C123) and of new mathematical analyses, activation mechanisms for each ligand are proposed. In the unstimulated state, equilibrium between alpha beta and alpha + beta favors alpha beta; dissociated alpha binds to GTP (rate-limiting step), which then combines with the catalytic (C) subunit to form active enzyme. Vasopressin binding to receptor provides a rapid pathway for GTP binding to alpha. GTP and its analogues accelerate the rate of alpha GTP formation. Forskolin inhibits the spontaneous deactivation of activated C. Activation by fluoride may occur without alpha beta dissociation or GTP addition through activation of C by an alpha beta-F complex.

  8. A 67 kDa non-hormone binding estradiol receptor is present in human mammary cancers.

    PubMed

    Castoria, G; Migliaccio, A; Bilancio, A; Pagano, M; Abbondanza, C; Auricchio, F

    1996-03-01

    The presence of large amounts of a 67 kDa estradiol receptor that does not bind hormone was observed in 8 to 37 human mammary tumors (34 malignant and 3 benign). This form of receptor was detected by its conversion to hormone binding receptor by an endogenous tyrosine kinase in vitro. All 8 tumors were malignant. In these, the incubation of cytosol with ATP was seen to cause a 1- to 5-fold increase in estradiol-specific binding sites. These sites bound estradiol with physiological affinity, and their appearance was associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of estradiol receptor. The enzyme converting the non-hormone binding receptor into the hormone binding receptor is largely present in cytosol and scarce in membranes. It has been extensively purified. It is a 67 kDa protein under denaturating conditions, binds calmodulin-Sepharose in a Ca2+-dependent manner, is stimulated by Ca2+ and calmodulin, phosphorylates exogenous actin, is activated by the estradiol-receptor complex. The enzyme interacts with antibodies directed against the carboxy-terminal and catalytic domains of c-src. Therefore, it is a putative new member of the large c-src-related kinase family. Human mammary cancers with significant amounts of 67 kDa non-hormone binding receptor show relatively low levels of hormone binding estradiol receptor. The presence of non-hormone binding receptor that can be activated by in vitro tyrosine phosphorylation suggests that functional interaction of estradiol receptor with tyrosine kinases is altered in malignant tumors and has bearing on loss of hormone dependence and progression of the mammary cancer malignancy. PMID:8598306

  9. [Measuring the estrus cycle and its effect on superovulation in mice].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Na; Jia, Hong-Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Kun; Zhao, Xiao-E; Wei, Qiang; Ma, Bao-Hua

    2012-06-01

    This study compares superovulation efficiency during different stages of the estrus cycle in mice by investigating the pudendum appearance, vaginal epithelial cell type, and the follicular development dynamics, in relation to the estrus cycle. We determined the stages of the estrus cycle by observing the pudendum and making vaginal smears of the Kunming mouse, and ascertaining the follicular development by making paraffin sections. Based on the observation, mice in stages of proestrus, oestrus, metoestrus and dioestrus were superovulated respectively, and their follicular developments and embryo collection results were tracked to ascertain the appropriate estrus cycle stage for superovulation. Our data showed that pudendum appearance and vaginal smears could effectively distinguish different stages of the estrus cycle and that ovarian tissue observation showed that follicular development, corpus luteum formation and luteolysis were regular during the estrus cycle. Likewise, during the estrus cycle of the Kunming mouse, pudendum appearance, vaginal epithelial cell type and follicular development were relational to one another. Superovulating mice in different stages of the estrus cycle showed marked differences both in pregnancy rate and average number of embryos collected. Proestrus was significantly better than metoestrus and dioestrus (P<0.05), and better than oestrus, but the difference between them was not significant (P>0.05). We suggest that pudendum appearance and vaginal smears can be used to distinguish estrus cycle stages and that proestrus is the optimal stage of the estrus cycle for superovulation. PMID:22653855

  10. Selecting Female Mice in Estrus and Checking Plugs.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Richard; Gertsenstein, Marina; Nagy, Kristina Vintersten; Nagy, Andras

    2016-01-01

    The female mouse estrous cycle is divided into four phases: proestrus (development of ovarian follicles), estrus (ovulation), metestrus (formation of corpora lutea), and diestrus (beginning of follicle development for next ovulation and elimination of previous oocytes). The appearance of the epithelium of the external genitalia is used to identify the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse. This is usually easier to see in strains with either no or only light skin pigmentation. By examining the color, moistness, and degree of swelling of the vagina, females in estrus can readily be identified. To set up the matings, females are examined in the afternoon, and those in estrus are placed into the cages with males (one or two females in each cage with one male). Usually, 50% or more of the selected females will mate. The presence of a vaginal copulation plug next morning indicates that mating has occurred, but it does not mean that a pregnancy will result even if proven breeder fertile males were used. It is important to check vaginal plugs early in the morning because they fall out or are no longer detectable ~12 h after mating or sometimes earlier. PMID:27480722

  11. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P < 0.05) between FSF and daily milk yield; pregnancy rates were 42.20% and 41.67% for the SC-FTAI and NSE-IA groups, respectively (P > 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  12. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: II. Ovarian follicular and corpus luteum dynamics, reproductive hormones, and estrus behavior.

    PubMed

    Cummins, S B; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Butler, S T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the estrous cycle of cows with similar proportions of Holstein genetics, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. In total, 37 lactating cows were enrolled on a protocol to synchronize estrus. Nineteen Fert+ and 12 Fert- cows that successfully ovulated a dominant follicle and established a corpus luteum underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography. Blood sampling was carried out at 8-h intervals from d 0 to 6 and from d 15 to ovulation, and once daily from d 7 to 15. Blood samples were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Estrus behavior was recorded using neck activity collars and mounting pads. The Fert+ cows tended to have fewer follicular waves (2.2 vs. 2.7) and had a shorter estrous cycle (21.0 vs. 25.1 d) than Fert- cows. We observed no effect of genotype on day of first-wave emergence or day of first-wave dominant follicle peak diameter, but the peak diameter of the first-wave dominant follicle tended to be larger in Fert- cows. During the first 13 d of the cycle, Fert+ cows developed a corpus luteum that was 16% larger than that in Fert- cows. Circulating progesterone concentrations were 34% greater in Fert+ than in Fert- cows (5.15 vs. 3.84ng/mL, respectively) from d 5 to 13. During the final follicular wave, the interval from preovulatory follicle emergence to ovulation and the interval from preovulatory follicle dominance to ovulation were similar in both genotypes. Maximum preovulatory follicle diameter was larger in Fert+ than Fert- cows (17.9 vs. 16.8mm, respectively); however, circulating concentrations of estradiol were not different between genotypes. A greater proportion of Fert- cows ovulated to a silent heat than Fert+ cows (22 vs. 2%, respectively). Of cows that showed behavioral estrus, Fert+ cows had 41% greater mean activity count; however, no difference was

  13. Use of a domestic Korean black goat (Capra hircus coreanae) with its chest crayon-harnessed in detecting estrus of Himalayan tahrs (Hemitragus jemlahicus)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hwanyul

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of a Korean black goat (Capra hircus coreanae) to detect estrus in Himalayan tahrs (Hemitragus jemlahicus) for an artificial breeding program was investigated. Estrus in six female Himalayan tahrs was synchronized using fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges. Thirteen days later, 200 IU of PMSG and 100 IU of hCG were injected before removing the sponges and simultaneously injecting 5 mg of PGF2α the next day. Penetration of the cervical canal and the thickness and location of red crayon marks were examined 40~43 h later. Two females treated with sponges containing 60 or 45 mg of FGA had estrogen levels of 8.7 and 11.1 pg/mL, respectively. No red marks were found on the backs of these two tahrs. The remaining females had higher levels of estradiol, and the red crayon marks were clearly shown. The cervical folds of these tahrs were readily penetrated and the insemination gun was smoothly inserted into the uterine body. In conclusion, a Korean domestic goat with its chest crayon-harnessed was successfully used to detect estrus of Himalayan tahrs. This technique might be utilized as a part of breeding programs for wild goats and avoid the need for a vasectomy of conspecific males. PMID:24690603

  14. Factors affecting pregnancy rate to estrous synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of AI in extensive beef cattle production is limited by the necessity to monitor estrus and handle animals twice daily for several weeks. Protocols that effectively synchronize ovarian follicular development and ovulation to enable fixed-time AI (TAI) would facilitate the use of AI. Obje...

  15. The relationship of plasma urea nitrogen with growth traits and age at first estrus in gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age with more backfat have greater lifetime productivity. Increased growth rates generally promote earlier age at first estrus; however, an association of age at first estrus with discrete measures of body fatness remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis...

  16. First deliveries after estrus induction using deslorelin and endoscopic transcervical insemination in the queen.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Daniele; Bini, Costanza; Küster, Daniel Gerhard; Molari, Valeria; Cunto, Marco

    2015-09-15

    The present study consists of two distinct parts, experiment 1 and experiment 2. In experiment 1, 13 anestrous queens were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implant to assess its effectiveness in inducing estrus in the domestic cat. Deslorelin is currently used for the reversible suppression of ovarian and testicular activity in dogs and cats and for estrus induction in the bitch. Estrus induction is also reported in the queen but never reported with a targeted study. All the queens showed a positive response to the induction protocol, and estrus was detected within an average of 5.0 ± 2.2 days after the implant placement in 13 out of 13 subjects (100%). Seven of 13 queens exhibited behavioral manifestations of estrus, and the mean number of follicles detected at ultrasound examination was 4.8 ± 1.6 per subject. In experiment 2, three of the queens previously treated with deslorelin for estrus induction were submitted to artificial insemination through endoscopic transcervical catheterization, a new nonsurgical technique for intrauterine sperm deposition. All of them (100%) were pregnant after insemination and they gave birth to healthy litters. The study, as a whole, proves the effectiveness of the 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implants in inducing estrus in the domestic cat and is, to our knowledge, the first study assessing fertility of the induced estruses. Moreover, it shows the effectiveness of endoscopic transcervical catheterization for artificial insemination in the queen. PMID:26092701

  17. QTL associations for weaning-to-estrus interval in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire swine population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) contributes to number of non-productive days of females within a breeding herd. Several reports have indicated females returning to estrus within seven days of weaning are more likely to settle on service thereby contributing to the overall economic potential of the...

  18. Spectral pattern of urinary water as a biomarker of estrus in the giant panda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Miyazaki, Mari; Morita, Hiroyuki; Vassileva, Maria; Tang, Chunxiang; Li, Desheng; Ishikawa, Osamu; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2012-11-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used for non-invasive diagnosis of diseases and abnormalities where water spectral patterns are found to play an important role. The present study investigates water absorbance patterns indicative of estrus in the female giant panda. NIR spectra of urine samples were acquired from the same animal on a daily basis over three consecutive putative estrus periods. Characteristic water absorbance patterns based on 12 specific water absorbance bands were discovered, which displayed high urine spectral variation, suggesting that hydrogen-bonded water structures increase with estrus. Regression analysis of urine spectra and spectra of estrone-3-glucuronide standard concentrations at these water bands showed high correlation with estrogen levels. Cluster analysis of urine spectra grouped together estrus samples from different years. These results open a new avenue for using water structure as a molecular mirror for fast estrus detection.

  19. Spectral pattern of urinary water as a biomarker of estrus in the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Miyazaki, Mari; Morita, Hiroyuki; Vassileva, Maria; Tang, Chunxiang; Li, Desheng; Ishikawa, Osamu; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used for non-invasive diagnosis of diseases and abnormalities where water spectral patterns are found to play an important role. The present study investigates water absorbance patterns indicative of estrus in the female giant panda. NIR spectra of urine samples were acquired from the same animal on a daily basis over three consecutive putative estrus periods. Characteristic water absorbance patterns based on 12 specific water absorbance bands were discovered, which displayed high urine spectral variation, suggesting that hydrogen-bonded water structures increase with estrus. Regression analysis of urine spectra and spectra of estrone-3-glucuronide standard concentrations at these water bands showed high correlation with estrogen levels. Cluster analysis of urine spectra grouped together estrus samples from different years. These results open a new avenue for using water structure as a molecular mirror for fast estrus detection. PMID:23181188

  20. Spectral pattern of urinary water as a biomarker of estrus in the giant panda

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Miyazaki, Mari; Morita, Hiroyuki; Vassileva, Maria; Tang, Chunxiang; Li, Desheng; Ishikawa, Osamu; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used for non-invasive diagnosis of diseases and abnormalities where water spectral patterns are found to play an important role. The present study investigates water absorbance patterns indicative of estrus in the female giant panda. NIR spectra of urine samples were acquired from the same animal on a daily basis over three consecutive putative estrus periods. Characteristic water absorbance patterns based on 12 specific water absorbance bands were discovered, which displayed high urine spectral variation, suggesting that hydrogen-bonded water structures increase with estrus. Regression analysis of urine spectra and spectra of estrone-3-glucuronide standard concentrations at these water bands showed high correlation with estrogen levels. Cluster analysis of urine spectra grouped together estrus samples from different years. These results open a new avenue for using water structure as a molecular mirror for fast estrus detection. PMID:23181188

  1. Effect of vaccination with a multivalent modified-live viral vaccine on reproductive performance in synchronized beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Walz, Paul H; Edmondson, Misty A; Riddell, Kay P; Braden, Timothy D; Gard, Julie A; Bayne, Jenna; Joiner, Kellye S; Galik, Patricia K; Zuidhof, Sjoert; Givens, M Daniel

    2015-03-15

    Prebreeding vaccination should provide fetal and abortive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) but not impede reproduction when administered to cattle before estrus synchronization and breeding. The objective was to assess reproductive performance when naive beef heifers were vaccinated with modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine 2 days after unsynchronized estrus, and then revaccinated with MLV vaccine at 10 or 31 days before synchronized natural breeding. Sixty beef heifers naive to BVDV and BoHV-1 were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Groups A and B (n = 20 per group) were vaccinated with MLV vaccine containing BVDV and BoHV-1 at 2 days after initial detected estrus, and then revaccinated 30 days later, which corresponded to 10 days (group A) or 31 days (group B) before synchronized natural breeding. Groups C and D (n = 10 per group) served as controls and were vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine that did not contain BVDV or BoHV-1 at the same time points as groups A and B, respectively. Estrous behavior was assessed using radio frequency technology. Estrus synchronization was performed, with initiation occurring at revaccination (groups A and C) or 21 days after revaccination (groups B and D). After synchronization, heifers were submitted to a bull breeding pasture for 45 days. At the end of the breeding period, heifers were assessed for pregnancy using ultrasonography. Progesterone concentrations were evaluated at estrus and 10 days after unsynchronized and synchronized estrus, at initial pregnancy check, and at the end of the study. All pregnant heifers in groups A and B and five pregnant heifers in group C were euthanized between 44 and 62 days of gestation and ovarian and conceptus tissues were assayed for BVDV and BoHV-1. Vaccination with MLV vaccine did not result in significant negative reproductive impact based on the duration of interestrus intervals, proportion of heifers

  2. Litter loss triggers estrus in a nonsocial seasonal breeder

    PubMed Central

    Steyaert, Sam MJG; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide (SSI) is often presumed to be rare among seasonal breeders, because it would require a near immediate return to estrus after the loss of an entire litter during the mating season. We evaluated changes in reproductive strategies and the reproductive fate of females that experienced litter loss during the mating season in a seasonal breeder with strong evidence for SSI, the brown bear. First, we used a long-term demographic dataset (1986–2011) to document that a large majority of females (>91%) that lose their entire litter during the mating season in fact do enter estrus, mate, and give birth during the subsequent birthing season. Second, we used high-resolution movement data (2005–2011) to evaluate how females changed reproductive strategies after losing their entire litter during the mating season. We hypothesized that females would shift from the sedentary lifestyle typical for females with cubs-of-the-year to a roam-to-mate behavior typical for receptive females in no more than a few (∼3) days after litter loss. We found that females with cubs-of-the-year moved at about 1/3 of the rate and in a less bimodal diurnal pattern than receptive females during the mating season. The probability of litter loss was positively related with movement rate, suggesting that being elusive and sedentary is a strategy to enhance cub survival rather than a relic of cub mobility itself. The movement patterns of receptive females and females after litter loss were indistinguishable within 1–2 days after the litter loss, and we illustrate that SSI can significantly reduce the female interbirth interval (50–85%). Our results suggest that SSI can also be advantageous for males in seasonally breeding mammals. We propose that infanticide as a male reproductive strategy is more prevalent among mammals with reproductive seasonality than observed or reported. PMID:24558586

  3. Saliva ferning, an unorthodox estrus detection method in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ravinder, R; Kaipa, Onnureddy; Baddela, Vijay Simha; Singhal Sinha, Eshu; Singh, Prashant; Nayan, Varij; Velagala, Chandra Sekhar Naidu; Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2016-09-15

    Estrus detection is a major problem in buffalo husbandry because of inconsistent expression of estrous signs at different seasons, and a high prevalence of the silent heat and postpartum anestrus in this species. Around 50% of the estrus events in buffaloes are currently undetected in the field conditions, resulting in a huge economic loss. Although the cervicovaginal fluid fern patterns confirm the estrus for a breeding decision, the fluid discharge is absent during the silent-heat condition. Therefore, the present study focused on the crystallization patterns of the saliva as an alternative method for estrus detection in buffaloes. Saliva is a body fluid available regularly, and its ferning ability before ovulation was established in women. In this study, eight female nonpregnant Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were considered during two experimental periods of 3 months each. One period was in summer with five animals, and another period was in rainy season with three animals. Estrus was determined by the estrus symptoms, ovarian ultrasonography, and salivary estradiol (E2) to progesterone (P4) ratio. A total of 450 saliva samples were collected from these animals on the daily basis. The salivary smear was prepared with 20 μL of the cell-free saliva on a clean glass slide, and its microscopic images were captured at a magnification of × 200. The images were used for fractal analysis as the salivary crystallization or fern patterns follow the fractal geometry. Saliva at estrus showed a typical symmetrical fern-like crystallization patterns with significantly (P < 0.05) lower fractal dimension values. Salivary estradiol levels and E2/P4 ratio were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the estrus stage than those at the diestrus stage. An average period of an estrous cycle was 21.7 ± 2.7 days (n = 18 estrous cycles) in buffaloes on the basis of distinct salivary crystallization patterns. The proportion of estrus detection by the salivary fern patterns

  4. Non-hormonal treatment of vulvo-vaginal atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tersigni, C; Di Simone, N; Tempestilli, E; Cianfrini, F; Russo, R; Moruzzi, M C; Amar, I D; Fiorelli, A; Scambia, G; Villa, P

    2015-01-01

    In post-menopausal period vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA)-related symptoms may seriously affect women's quality of life. Hormonal replacement therapy effectively relieves these symptoms but it is not always safe or accepted, and a non-hormonal treatment is often needed instead. Over a period of 12 weeks, we tested the effect of a twice-a-week vulvo-vaginal application of a hyaluronic acid, AC collagen, isoflavones and vitamins-based cream (Perilei Pausa) on 35 women in post-menopausal period, reporting VVA-related symptoms. After 12 weeks of treatment with Perilei Pausa a significant improvement in vaginal dryness, vulvo-vaginal itching, dyspareunia (P < 0.001), dysuria (P = 0.02), nocturia (P = 0.009) and pollakiuria (P = 0.005) was reported by the women. Colposcopical score assessing the intensity of atrophic colpitis, cervico-vaginal paleness and petechiae was also reduced (P = 0.037, P = 0.016 and P = 0.032, respectively). No significant difference in terms of maturation value of cervico-vaginal epithelium was observed. In conclusion, Perilei Pausa may represent an effective and safe alternative treatment of symptomatic VVA in post-menopausal women. PMID:25968636

  5. Comparison of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle for estrus length and estrous signs.

    PubMed

    Sveberg, G; Rogers, G W; Cooper, J; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2015-04-01

    This study addressed the effect of breed on estrus length and estrous behavior by observing 20 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 20 Norwegian Red (NRF) cows on an outdoor wood-chip pad through 1 estrous cycle (22d). Detailed behavioral data were collected by continuous (24 h) video monitoring of all cows. Accurate estimation of duration of estrous periods, behavioral signs (sum per period and counts per hour), and duration and number of sexually active groups were reported through all stages of mount estrus (prestand, standing estrus, and poststand). These dependent variables were analyzed with a basic statistical model that included fixed effects for breed and lactation group. Other independent variables (milk yield, body condition score, and number of cows in standing estrus) were added to the basic model one by one and included in an expanded model if they had an effect on the respective dependent variables. Estrus duration was considerably shorter in HF compared with NRF cows for all the major periods: mount estrus (11.2 ± 3.0 vs. 21.3 ± 2.7 h), standing estrus (7.1 ± 1.4 vs. 11.7 ± 1.3 h), mounting period (6.9 ± 2.7 vs. 18.2 ± 2.4 h), and mounted period (9.2 ± 2.8 vs. 17.5 ± 2.6 h). Additionally, the NRF cows spent more time in sexually active groups (36.1 ± 4.0 vs. 17.6 ± 4.8%) during standing estrus compared with HF cows. The NRF cows participated in a greater number of sexually active groups (9.6 ± 1.3 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3) with longer average duration (0.42 ± 0.04 vs. 0.20 ± 0.04 h) and continued to be more active in these groups through late stages of estrus (poststand) compared with the HF breed. Mounting activity differed between breeds as NRF mounted more times in total (46.3 ± 6.2 vs. 18.1 ± 6.3) and per hour (2.6 ± 0.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5) during mount estrus. In addition, NRF tended to express the primary estrous sign, standing when mounted, more often during standing estrus (32.4 ± 5.0 vs. 18.5 ± 5.2). The HF initiated more unsuccessful mounts (1

  6. Reproductive response of ewes synchronized with different lengths of MGA treatments in intrauterine insemination program.

    PubMed

    Emsen, E; Gimenez-Diaz, C; Kutluca, M; Koycegiz, F

    2011-06-01

    A total of 415 fat tailed ewes were randomly assigned to two groups to assess the effect of duration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) (9 versus 12d) administration on reproductive parameters associated with laparoscopic artificial insemination. At the end of MGA treatment, ewes in each group were subdivided and inseminated with one of two different insemination doses (10×10(7) or 20×10(7) sperm per 0.5 ml insemination dose) of fresh diluted semen. Inseminations were carried out 11-18 h after first detected estrus. Ewes were screened for their return to oestrus from 10 to 21 days post AI and inseminated at their returned oestrus. Pregnancy diagnosis was done from approximately 55 days after insemination in both synchronized and return estrus. For short (9-day) and long (12-day) term MGA treated groups, estrus rates were 62% versus 89% (P<0.0001), respectively. Ewes (n=115) that returned to estrus were inseminated (7-11h after estrus detection) with fresh diluted semen at different doses (20×10(7) or 40×10(7) or 60×10(7) sperm per 0.5 ml insemination dose). Pregnancy rates were 41% and 44% for short term and long term MGA treated ewes, respectively. Pregnancy rate of ewes which returned to oestrus was 53.4%. There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in pregnancy rates (38-52% for 11-16 h; 63% for 17-18 h) when insemination was held at 17-18 h after first detected estrus following MGA treatments. Pregnancy rates were found to be similar in ewes inseminated with 10×10(7) (36%) or 20×10(7) (47%) motile spermatozoa at first AI, and 20×10(7) (44%) or 40×10(7) (59%) or 60×10(7)(48%) at second AI. It was concluded that short term MGA treated ewes were recorded with lower estrus rates but was similar to pregnancy rates with long term MGA treatment. Acceptable pregnancy rates were achieved in MGA induced estrus when insemination is conducted at 17-18 h after estrus onset and with 20×10(7) sperm per insemination dose. PMID:21571456

  7. Uterine glycogen metabolism in mink during estrus, embryonic diapause and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dean, Matthew; Hunt, Jason; McDougall, Lisa; Rose, Jack

    2014-01-01

    We have determined uterine glycogen content, metabolizing enzyme expression and activity in the mink, a species that exhibits obligatory embryonic diapause, resulting in delayed implantation. Gross uterine glycogen concentrations were highest in estrus, decreased 50% by diapause and 90% in pregnancy (P ≤ 0.05). Endometrial glycogen deposits, which localized primarily to glandular and luminal epithelia, decreased 99% between estrus and diapause (P ≤ 0.05) and were nearly undetectable in pregnancy. Glycogen synthase and phosphorylase proteins were most abundant in the glandular epithelia. Glycogen phosphorylase activity (total) in uterine homogenates was higher during estrus and diapause, than pregnancy. While glycogen phosphorylase protein was detected during estrus and diapause, glycogen synthase was almost undetectable after estrus, which probably contributed to a higher glycogenolysis/glycogenesis ratio during diapause. Uterine glucose-6-phosphatase 3 gene expression was greater during diapause, when compared to estrus (P ≤ 0.05) and supports the hypothesis that glucose-6-phosphate resulting from phosphorylase activity was dephosphorylated in preparation for export into the uterine lumen. The relatively high amount of hexokinase-1 protein detected in the luminal epithelia during estrus and diapause may have contributed to glucose trapping after endometrial glycogen reserves were depleted. Collectively, our findings suggest to us that endometrial glycogen reserves may be an important source of energy, supporting uterine and conceptus metabolism up to the diapausing blastocyst stage. As a result, the size of uterine glycogen reserves accumulated prior to mating may in part, determine the number of embryos that survive to the blastocyst stage, and ultimately litter size. PMID:25225159

  8. Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-02-01

    Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. PMID:23261382

  9. Analysis of non-hormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-androgenic steroids - results of an international study.

    PubMed

    Geyer, H; Parr, M K; Mareck, U; Reinhart, U; Schrader, Y; Schänzer, W

    2004-02-01

    Several recent studies have shown evidence of some nutritional supplements containing prohibited anabolic androgenic steroids, so-called prohormones, which were not declared on the label. Therefore, a broad-based investigation of the international nutritional supplement market was initiated to clarify the extent of this problem. From October 2000 until November 2001, 634 non-hormonal nutritional supplements were purchased in 13 countries from 215 different suppliers. Most supplements were bought in shops in the respective countries (578 samples = 91.2 %) and on the internet (52 samples = 8.2 %). 289 supplements were from prohormone-selling companies and 345 supplements came from companies which do not offer prohormones. After isolation from the supplement matrix 11 different anabolic androgenic steroids, mainly prohormones of testosterone and nandrolone, were analysed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Out of the 634 samples analysed 94 (14.8 %) contained anabolic androgenic steroids not declared on the label ("positive supplements"). We could not obtain reliable data for 66 samples (10.4 %) due to matrix effects. In relation to the total number of products purchased per country, most of the positive supplements were bought in the Netherlands (25.8 %), in Austria (22.7 %), in the UK (18.8 %) and the USA (18.8 %). According to the label, all positive supplements were from companies located in only five countries: the USA, the Netherlands, the UK, Italy and Germany. 21.1 % of the nutritional supplements from prohormone-selling companies contained anabolic androgenic steroids, whereas 9.6 % of the supplements from companies not selling prohormones were positive. The positive supplements showed anabolic androgenic steroid concentrations of 0.01 micro g/g up to 190 micro g/g. The administration of supplements containing nandrolone prohormones adding up to a total uptake of more than 1 micro g resulted in positive doping results for norandrosterone for several

  10. Short communication: Comparison of estrus characteristics in Holstein heifers by 2 activity monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Silper, B F; Madureira, A M L; Kaur, M; Burnett, T A; Cerri, R L A

    2015-05-01

    Two activity monitoring systems-Heatime (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) and IceTag (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, UK)-were compared on their ability to detect and quantify estrus expression. Holstein heifers (n=57) were fitted with Heatime (HT) and IceTag (IT) sensors from 12 mo of age until confirmation of pregnancy. Upon detection of high activity by HT, ovaries were scanned by ultrasound, a blood sample was collected for analysis of plasma estradiol, and signs of estrus (clear vaginal mucus, uterine muscle tone, visual mounting activity, standing to be mounted, or rump showing signs of repeated acceptance of mounts) were recorded. Because only estrus episodes detected by HT (n=111) were further evaluated, only the positive predictive value was measured. Heifers were housed in groups of 24 in a freestall pen. Data were analyzed using Proc CORR and GLM of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The positive predictive value was 84.7% (94/111) for HT and 98.7% (74/75) for IT. Estrus duration was recorded by HT as 14.3±4.1h [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and by IT as 15.0±4.0h; duration measurements were correlated (r=0.60). The mean duration difference was 0.74±3.52h. Recordings of onset and end of estrus by IT were 3.5±4.3h and 2.9±4.9h earlier than those by HT. The overlap in duration was 9h. Measurements of estrus intensity were correlated (r=0.63). Peak activity was 77.3±19.5 index value (approximately 7.7 SD from basal activity) on HT. The relative increase in activity measured by IT was 360±170% baseline value. Measurements of intensity and duration from HT were correlated (r=0.64) but those from IT were not (r=0.13). Plasma estradiol concentration (11.2±4.6pg/mL) was not correlated with preovulatory follicle diameter or with duration or intensity of estrus. Diameter of preovulatory follicle (15.7±2.6mm) had no correlation with duration of estrus and was only weakly correlated with intensity measured by either system. Baseline steps/hour was

  11. Control of estrus and ovulation: Fertility to timed insemination of gilts and sows.

    PubMed

    De Rensis, F; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-10-01

    It is possible to control follicular development in gilts and sows with the use of hormones including the progestogen altrenogest, GnRH, eCG, hCG, and porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH). These hormones can be used to develop protocols for control of estrus with artificial insemination (AI) timed to estrus detection (timed artificial insemination; TAI) or to control estrus and ovulation with insemination at a fixed time without the requirement of estrus detection (fixed-timed artificial insemination; FTAI). In cyclic gilts, double TAI after protocols based on altrenogest and eCG plus hCG administration can achieve a 70% of farrowing rate. Valuable results can be obtained in weaned sows by the utilization of protocols based on eCG administration at weaning and then GnRH or pLH at estrus onset followed by single or double TAI. In cyclic gilts, single or double FTAI regardless of estrus expression can be applied after protocols based on altrenogest administration followed by eCG and then GnRH, hCG, or pLH some hours later; farrowing rates are similar to control animals inseminated at estrus detection. With sows, a protocol based on eCG administration at weaning and hCG, GnRH, or pLH some hours later followed by single or double FTAI can give fertility rates comparable to control animal inseminated at estrus. Most recently, injection or vaginal deposition of GnRH 96 hours after weaning followed by a single FTAI 24 to 30 hours later is resulting in reproductive performance not different to animals subject to multiple inseminations after natural estrus. It is possible to apply FTAI in lactating sows. The protocols are based on eCG during lactation followed by hCG and FTAI. These protocols will induce ovulation during lactation, but pregnancy rates are reduced. However, in the future, a better knowledge on the effect of hormone administration on follicular dynamics during lactation may allow the development of more effective protocols. PMID:27287469

  12. Factors affecting expression of estrus measured by activity monitors and conception risk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Madureira, A M L; Silper, B F; Burnett, T A; Polsky, L; Cruppe, L H; Veira, D M; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk-factors affecting increase in physical activity during estrus and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows. Cows were monitored continuously by 2 automated activity monitors [a collar-mounted accelerometer (HT; Heatime, SCR Engineers, Netanya, Israel) and a leg-mounted pedometer (BO; Boumatic Heat-seeker-TX, Boumatic Dairy Equipment, Madison, WI)]. When an increase in activity was detected, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected, ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography, and, if the cow was eligible for breeding, artificial insemination was performed. Milk production and health-related data were recorded throughout the experimental period. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 42 ± 7 d of gestation. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, ANOVA, and logistic regression. A total of 1,099 true events of estrus from 318 lactating Holstein cows were recorded, averaging 3.46 ± 1.1 events per cow. Positive predictive value for estrus episodes detected by the HT and BO systems were 89.6 and 85.5%, respectively. Mean peak activity at estrus (PA) recorded by the HT system was 71.6 ± 20.7 index-value, and 334.3 ± 155.7% relative increase by the BO system. Compared with primiparous, multiparous cows expressed estrus with lower PA (69.3 ± 0.8 vs. 75.9 ± 1.1 index for HT; 323.9 ± 6.0 vs. 354.8 ± 8.48% for BO) and shorter duration (DU; 10.7 ± 0.2 vs. 12.0 ± 0.3 h); DU was measured by HT only. Lower BCS was associated with decreased PA measured by both systems, estrus DU, and P/AI. Peak activity was weakly correlated with milk production on the day of artificial insemination (r = -0.20); however, when categorized into quartiles, the highest-yield cows had lower PA and DU. Follicle diameter was not correlated with PA or DU, but cows with greater concentrations of estradiol had higher PA. Cows with greater PA in both systems had greater P/AI than those with lower PA (36

  13. Synchronous demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, John F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A synchronous demodulator includes a switch which is operated in synchronism with an incoming periodic signal and both divides and applies that signal to two signal channels. The two channels each include a network for computing and holding, for a predetermined length of time, the average signal value on that channel and applies those valves, in the form of two other signals, to the inputs of a differential amplifier. The networks may be R-C networks. The output of the differential amplifier may or may not form the output of the synchronous detector and may or may not be filtered. The output will not include a periodic signal due to the presence of a dc offset. Additionally, the output will not contain any substantial ripple due to periodic components in the input signal. In a somewhat more complex version, containing twice the structural components of the above synchronous demodulator with a more complex switching mechanism, essentially all ripple due to periodic components in the input signal are eliminated.

  14. Synchronizing Fireflies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ying; Gall, Walter; Nabb, Karen Mayumi

    2006-01-01

    "Imagine a tenth of a mile of river front with an unbroken line of trees with fireflies on ever leaf flashing in synchronism. ... Then, if one's imagination is sufficiently vivid, he may form some conception of this amazing spectacle." So wrote the naturalist Hugh Smith. In this article we consider how one might model mathematically the…

  15. Relationship of follicle size and concentrations of estradiol among cows exhibiting or not exhibiting estrus during a fixed-time AI protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows exhibiting estrus near the time of fixed-time AI had greater pregnancy success than cows showing no estrus. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between follicle size and peak estradiol concentration between cows that did or did not exhibit estrus during a fixed-time AI...

  16. Long-term prevention of estrus in the bitch and queen using chlormadinone acetate.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2003-05-01

    Estrus was prevented with weekly oral administration of 2 mg chlormadinone acetate for 2.0 to 9.8 y in bitches and queens. Abnormalities, including mammary or uterine disorders, or both, were noted in 7 out of 14 bitches and 9 out of 24 queens during this long-term treatment. PMID:12757134

  17. Long-term prevention of estrus in the bitch and queen using chlormadinone acetate

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    Estrus was prevented with weekly oral administration of 2 mg chlormadinone acetate for 2.0 to 9.8 y in bitches and queens. Abnormalities, including mammary or uterine disorders, or both, were noted in 7 out of 14 bitches and 9 out of 24 queens during this long-term treatment. PMID:12757134

  18. Role of exogenous estrogen in initiation of estrus and induction of an LH surge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among cattle the LH surge that causes ovulation occurs shortly after the onset of a spontaneous estrus. In addition an injection of 100 'g of GnRH can induce an LH surge capable of inducing ovulation. We hypothesized that different preovulatory estradiol profiles would result in different ovulator...

  19. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (estrus not detected until 8 mo of age, i.e. delayed puberty) is the major reason for culling about 30% of the total number of gilts selected for reproduction at the large breeding farm units in Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia). It is important to determine whether...

  20. Estrus response and fertility after a single cloprostenol treatment in dairy cows with various ovarian structures.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Csilla; Balogh, Orsolya G; Endrődi, Tamás; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Holló, István; Kastelic, John P; Gábor, György

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine rates of estrus and conception in lactating multiparous Holstein cows given 500 μg of cloprostenol intramuscularly after detection of the following ≥ 60 d after parturition: a solid corpus luteum (CL), a CL with a nonechodense cavity ≤ 20 mm in diameter (CLcav), a luteal cyst (cavity > 20 mm in diameter and a luteinized wall > 3 mm in diameter), or a follicular cyst (cavity > 20 mm and a luteinized wall ≤ 3 mm in diameter). The estrus rates were 335/419 (80.0%), 183/223 (82.1%), 170/182 (93.4%), and 44/87 (50.6%), respectively (P < 0.0001), and the conception rates 30 to 36 d after insemination among the estrous cows with an apparently normal mucus discharge were 130/285 (45.6%), 44/141 (31.2%), 39/79 (49.4%), and 19/30 (63.3%), respectively (P < 0.002). Compared with a solid CL, a CLcav did not affect the estrus rate but significantly reduced the conception rate (P < 0.05), and the estrus rates were significantly higher and lower in cows with a luteal or follicular cyst, respectively (P < 0.05). PMID:24101799

  1. Estrus response and fertility after a single cloprostenol treatment in dairy cows with various ovarian structures

    PubMed Central

    Hatvani, Csilla; Balogh, Orsolya G.; Endrődi, Tamás; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Holló, István; Kastelic, John P.; Gábor, György

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine rates of estrus and conception in lactating multiparous Holstein cows given 500 μg of cloprostenol intramuscularly after detection of the following ≥ 60 d after parturition: a solid corpus luteum (CL), a CL with a nonechodense cavity ≤ 20 mm in diameter (CLcav), a luteal cyst (cavity > 20 mm in diameter and a luteinized wall > 3 mm in diameter), or a follicular cyst (cavity > 20 mm and a luteinized wall ≤ 3 mm in diameter). The estrus rates were 335/419 (80.0%), 183/223 (82.1%), 170/182 (93.4%), and 44/87 (50.6%), respectively (P < 0.0001), and the conception rates 30 to 36 d after insemination among the estrous cows with an apparently normal mucus discharge were 130/285 (45.6%), 44/141 (31.2%), 39/79 (49.4%), and 19/30 (63.3%), respectively (P < 0.002). Compared with a solid CL, a CLcav did not affect the estrus rate but significantly reduced the conception rate (P < 0.05), and the estrus rates were significantly higher and lower in cows with a luteal or follicular cyst, respectively (P < 0.05). PMID:24101799

  2. Methods of estrus detection and correlates of the reproductive cycle in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus).

    PubMed

    Frederick, Cheryl; Kyes, Randall; Hunt, Kathleen; Collins, Darin; Durrant, Barbara; Wasser, Samuel K

    2010-10-15

    The objective was to explore multiple methods for detecting and characterizing the reproductive cycle of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). Thirteen H. m. euryspilus females, loaned from the Malaysian government to US zoos, were used. Fecal metabolite concentrations of estrogen and progesterone were compared to vaginal cytology, changes in genital appearance, and behavior (videotapes and zookeeper observations). Cytology and video behavior were characterized during five hormonally defined states: high, low, and baseline progesterone, estrus, and high estrogen. Among states, there were significant differences in cytology and behavior. Sexual, affiliative, and stereotypic behaviors were highest during estrus, whereas affiliative and social behaviors were lowest during high progesterone. In this captive breeding population, 30.8% of females cycled two or three times a year, 30.8% cycled once a year, and 38.5% did not cycle during this study. Inter-estrus intervals were (mean ± SEM) 115.7 ± 6.3 d (range, 101-131). Spearman rank correlations were significant between both ordinal sexual and affiliative behaviors and vulva swelling and color. Sexual behavior was significantly positively correlated with superficial and keratinized cells, but negatively correlated with parabasal and basophilic cells in cycling females (opposite pattern for appetitive behavior). In conclusion, data for cytology, vulva changes and behavior were consistent with, and complementary to, hormonal data; collectively, they delineated estrus and identified specific reproductive types. PMID:20688366

  3. The effect of subclinical ketosis on activity at estrus and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Andrew J; Oikonomou, Georgios; Smith, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to investigate the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) on physical activity at estrus using a neck accelerometer device and on future reproductive performance. Two hundred three Holstein-Friesian cows were studied on 3dairy farms in Northwest England between September 2013 and March 2014. Seventeen percent (35 of 203) of the enrolled cows were affected with SCK between 7 and 21d in milk, defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9mmol/L. Time to event analyses and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effect of SCK on reproductive performance and activity at estrus. The SCK cows exhibited a lower peak activity (measured as the number of standard deviations above mean activity) and shorter duration in activity clusters associated with first estrus and first insemination postpartum, compared with non-SCK cows. Peak activity and cluster duration associated with the insemination that led to a pregnancy were not different between SCK and non-SCK cows. Calving to first estrus, calving to first insemination, and calving to pregnancy intervals were prolonged in SCK cows. First insemination was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval=1.6 to 15.0) less likely to be successful in SCK cows compared with non-SCK cows. Adjusted mean number of inseminations per pregnancy was 2.8 for SCK cows and 2.0 for non-SCK cows. The current study confirms the long-lasting effects of SCK on reproductive efficiency. Furthermore, it is indicated that physical activity around estrus is reduced by SCK in early lactation, but this negative effect appears to diminish as cows progress through lactation. PMID:26995121

  4. Estrus induction in anestrous mixed-breed goats using the "female-to-female effect".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; Ángel-García, Oscar; Guillén-Muñoz, Juan Manuel; Robles-Trillo, Pedro Antonio; De Santiago-Miramontes, Maria de Los Angeles; Meza-Herrera, Cesar Alberto; Mellado, Miguel; Véliz, Francisco Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    A trial was conducted during the anestrous period in female goats to determine: (a) whether estrus can be induced in anestrous goats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropic hormone (eCG) and PGF2α under pen conditions and (b) whether these sexually active female goats can elicit sexual arousal in sexually inactive bucks. One hundred and fifteen pluriparous, nonlactating mixed-breed female goats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) administration of a single dose of 240 IU of eCG, 50 μg PGF2α i.m., and 25 mg progesterone (P4) (eCG; n=30); (2) administration of P4 and exposure to female goats treated with eCG-PGF2α (P4; n=39); (3) administration of 0.5 ml saline and P4 (Sal; n=23); and (4) P4 plus exposure to female goats treated with saline (Con; n=23). After hormone administration, all goats were put together with adult sexually inactive bucks for 15 days. The percentage of goats in estrus during these 15 days was similar in eCG-treated animals and untreated animals exposed to the eCG animals (97 and 95%). Pregnancy rate was also similar (63 vs. 64%) between these two groups. eCG-treated goats exhibited estrus earlier (P<0.05) than the treated goats in contact with the eCG goats. Furthermore, eCG-treated goats had larger litters (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1, P<0.05) than the untreated goats in contact with the eCG goats. These results show that fertile estrus can be induced in anestrous female goats by exposing them to female goats induced to estrus with eCG. This female-female interaction triggers the stimulation cycle leading to the sexual arousal of bucks. PMID:23135982

  5. Effects of fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus on conception rate in smallholder zebu and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double PGF2α administration.

    PubMed

    Gugssa, Tadesse; Ashebir, Gebregiorgis; Yayneshet, Tesfay

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate estrus response, time to the onset of estrus, and conception rate at fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus in local and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double administration of PGF2α. One hundred twenty local (heifers, n = 27; cows, n = 33) and crossbreds (heifers, n = 21; cows, n = 39) were used for the study. About 63 and 85.7 % of the local and crossbred heifers, respectively, exhibited estrus. Similarly, all crossbred cows and 90.9 % of local cows showed estrus. Most heifers came to estrus between 48 and 72 h while cows exhibited behavioral signs of estrus between 72 and 96 h. AI at detected estrus resulted in higher conception rate than fixed time AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination was higher in AI at detected estrus than fixed time AI. Accurate estrus detection followed by insemination are crucial factors in maximizing pregnancy, and this study has demonstrated that conception rate in smallholder heifers and cows should be inseminated following estrus detection to maximize the conception rate of the animals. PMID:27184042

  6. Factors affecting gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in Spanish donkey breeds reared in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, J; Perez-Marin, C C

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigated gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in three different Spanish donkey breeds (Andalusian, Zamorano-Leones, and Catalonian) kept on farm conditions in southern Spain, using data for ten consecutive breeding seasons. Gestation length was measured in 58 pregnancies. Ovarian ultrasonography was used to detect the ovulation, in order to ascertain true gestation length (ovulation-parturition). Pregnancy was diagnosed approximately 14-18 d after ovulation and confirmed on approximately day 60. Average gestation length was 362 +/-15.3 (SD) d, and no significant differences were observed between the three different breeds. Breeding season had a significant effect (P < 0.01), with longer gestation lengths when jennies were covered during the early period. Breed, age of jenny, year of birth, foal gender, month of breeding, and type of gestation had no significant effect on gestation length. After parturition, foal-heat was detected in 53.8% of the postpartum cycles studied (n = 78), and ovulation occurred on day 13.2 +/- 2.7. The duration of foal-heat was 4.7 +/-1.7 d, with a pregnancy rate of 40.5%. When subsequent estrus cycles were analyzed, the interovulatory interval (n = 68) and estrus duration (n = 258) were extended to a mean 23.8 +/- 3.5 and 5.7 +/- 2.2 d, respectively. Both variables were influenced by the year of study (P < 0.03 and P < 0.001), whereas month and season of ovulation (P < 0.005 and P < 0.009, respectively) affected only interovulatory intervals. Estrus duration was significantly longer than that observed at the foal-heat (P < 0.006), and the pregnancy rate was 65.8%. This study provides reference values for true gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in Spanish jennies. Breeding season affected gestation length in farm conditions. Also, seasonal influence was observed on the length of the estrus cycle (i.e., interovulatory interval), although foal-heat was not affected by environmental factors. PMID

  7. Use of an electronic activity detection system to characterize estrus activity in crossbred beef heifers differing in follicle number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased numbers of antral follicles have been associated with decreased calving day, increased fertility, increased serum estradiol concentrations, increased serum progesterone concentrations, and increased estrus behavior in cattle. In addition, cows with increased fertility have been shown to h...

  8. Pre-service ultrasonic and manual evaluation of the reproductive organs of dairy cows presumed to be in estrus.

    PubMed

    Hansar, Endris; Lemma, Alemayehu; Yilma, Tefera

    2014-01-01

    Manual and ultrasonic evaluation of the the reproductive organs of 62 dairy cows and heifers belonging to smallholder farms was conducted. The objective was to assess the efficiency of visual estrus detection method in the dairy animals that were presented for artificial insemination. Data were collected on reproductive status, body condition, estrus signs, and findings of rectal examination. Thirty-three animals were inseminated after ultrasonic evaluation while 29 animals were inseminated after manual evaluation through rectal palpation. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed using ultrasound 30 days post insemination. The most frequently observed estrus signs by the dairy owners were mucus discharge (83.9%) and mounting (67.7%) while the most frequently confirmed physical signs of estrus by rectal examination were cervical opening (88.7%), and uterine turgidity (82.3%). The overall mean (±SD) diameter of the largest follicle was 12.9 ± 3.4 mm with an average number of 3.5 follicles per ovary. The overall pregnancy rate was 29%. Evaluation of post-insemination records showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the diameter of largest follicle between the pregnant (14.7 mm) and non-pregnant (12.1 mm) animals. The mean (±SD) time interval between the first observed estrus sign to service were 10.5 ± 7.0 hrs and 14.5 ± 10.0 hrs for pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively. The low pregnancy rate, delayed time of insemination, and the difference in the size of dominant follicle indicate the incompatibility between visual estrus detection and optimal time of insemination. This confirms the significance of improving estrus detection and the need for combining estrus signs with pre-service evaluation of the reproductive organs either manually or using ultrasound. PMID:25279320

  9. Conference lecture: influence of stress on estrus, gametes and early embryo development in the sow.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, S; Brandt, Y; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Madej, A

    2008-11-01

    Systems with loose-housed sows have become common. Regrouping, which is commonly done after weaning and may coincide with many important reproductive events, causes stressful situations with elevated blood cortisol concentrations. Depending on group size, approximately 2-7 d are required for a new group of sows to become relatively stable. In a series of studies, the social stress after regrouping was simulated with repeated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) treatments for approximately 48h. Sows were allocated into control and experimental groups, fitted with jugular catheters, and blood samples were collected every 2 or 4h. Follicular development and ovulation were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography every 4h. Simulated stress during pro-estrus prolonged estrus and disturbed the follicular growth and ovulation. Giving ACTH during estrus elevated concentrations of cortisol and progesterone, and changed the intraluminal environment, including exaggerated amounts of mucus in the UTJ and isthmus. Although ACTH had no effect on the time of ovulation (relative to onset of standing estrus), or on embryo development, fewer oocytes/embryos were retrieved from the ACTH group than from the control group (51% vs. 81%, P<0.05), and there was a tendency towards faster embryo transportation to the uterus. Short-term fasting after ovulation had an unfavourable effect on sperm numbers in UTJ/isthmus, cleavage rate of fertilized ova, as well as ova transport through the isthmic part of the oviduct. Treatment with ACTH after ovulation reduced numbers of spermatozoa at the zona pellucida and retarded cleavage rate of fertilized ova. Therefore, the timing of stress seemed to be an important factor regarding effects on reproductive events. PMID:18786720

  10. A 280-day tolerance-efficacy study with mibolerone for suppression of estrus in the cat.

    PubMed

    Burke, T J; Reynolds, H A; Sokolowski, J H

    1977-04-01

    Mibolerone, a synthetic anabolic steroid, prevented estrus in domesticated cats when orally given a daily dose of 50 microng over a 180-day period. Doses of 20 microng daily and 50 microng given once a week failed to prevent estrus. Treatment with the 50-microng dose each day for 6 months had no apparent effects on subsequent estrus, mating, queening, or litter size. Kittens born to queens which had been treated did not have obvious developmental defects. Systemic metabolic changes produced by treatment were detected only in thyroid function, as revealed in dose- and time-related changes in serum cholesterol concentrations, thyroid gland weights, and thyroid histology. Clinical evidence of thyroid dysfunction was not apparent during the 6 months of treatment. Clinical and microscopic evidence of slight masculinization was apparent in cats after 3 months of treatment with 20 or 50 microng per day. Masculinizing changes consisted of thickening of the cervical dermis and clitoral hypertrophy. Behavioral changes were not observed. The apparent mechanism of action of mibolerone in the cat is the suppression of the release of pituitary luteinizing hormone. PMID:851279

  11. Milk yield and estrous behavior during eight consecutive estruses in Holstein cows fed standardized or high energy diets and grouped according to live weight changes in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Barbu, H; Sørensen, M T; Sehested, J; Callesen, H; Vestergaard, M

    2016-04-01

    Cows managed for extended lactation go through several estruses before rebreeding. The aims of this study were (1) to quantify the effect of the first 8 estruses after calving on milk yield, milking frequency, and estrous behavioral activity, and (2) to determine the effects of early lactation live weight gain (LWG) as an indication of energy balance on milk yield, plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentration, estrous behavioral activity, interval from calving to first estrus, between-estrus intervals, and pregnancy risk. Milk yield, live weight, and estrous behavioral activity were measured daily in 62 Holstein cows, 17 primiparous and 45 multiparous, managed for an 18-mo calving interval. Blood plasma obtained at wk 3, 5, 12, and 24 after calving was analyzed for IGF-1. Estrus was detected by use of milk progesterone profiles combined with visual observations (i.e., mounting behavior and other). The cows were divided into 2 groups: the cows having a negative LWG in each of the first 5wk postpartum and the cows having a positive LWG in at least 1 of the first 5wk after calving. The results indicate a similar decrease of 0.56kg of milk per day of estrus during each of the 8 consecutive estruses. The activity level was 17±1 movements per hour higher during the 8 estruses compared with the basic activity level. More cows expressed mounting behavior at estrus 8 than at estrus 2 (63.3 and 45.9%, respectively). The negative LWG cows had lower IGF-1 and higher milk production than the positive LWG cows. Both LWG groups had similar interval from calving to first estrus, on average 55 d. To conclude, the decrease in milk yield during estrus is marginal and similar in consecutive estruses. Moreover, estrous behavior is more highly expressed in the later estruses compared with the earlier estruses. Reproductive parameters (frequency of mounting, pregnancy risk, interval to first estrus, and between-estrus intervals) were not influenced by the live weight change

  12. Use of an anti-GnRF vaccine to suppress estrus in crossbred Iberian female pigs.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, A; Velarde, A; Rodríguez, P; Pedernera, C; Llonch, P; Fàbrega, E; Casal, N; Mainau, E; Gispert, M; King, V; Slootmans, N; Thomas, A; Mombarg, M

    2015-08-01

    Antibodies against GnRF elicited by vaccination with Improvac are expected to have the same effects on the gonads of female pigs as those observed in males and thus suppress estrus. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a 3- or a 4-dose regimen of Improvac was effective in inducing and maintaining suppression of estrus in intact Iberian female pigs through 14 months of age. Sixty 18-week-old gilts were randomly assigned to one of the following three treatment groups: control (PBS injected), V3 (3-dose Improvac regimen), and V4 (4-dose Improvac regimen). Animals were tested for the presence of standing estrus in the presence of a boar three times per week until study completion at 60 weeks of age. Blood samples were regularly collected to determine the serum levels of anti-GnRF antibodies and progesterone. The weight and size of the uterus and the weight and activity of the ovaries were assessed at the time of euthanasia. For both treatment groups V3 and V4, a large reduction in the incidence of standing estrus was observed when compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). No significant differences between the V3 and V4 groups were observed. Both V3 and V4 groups had higher serum anti-GnRF antibody levels than the control group from 28 days after the first vaccination until the end of the study. In addition, both V3 and V4 groups had lower levels of progesterone than the control group from Day 112 until the end of the study (P < 0.0001 in all cases). Mean ovary weights at study end in treatment groups V3 and V4 were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than those for the control group and not significantly different between the V3 and V4 groups. An onset of immunity of 2 weeks after the second vaccination and a long-lasting immunity of at least 20 weeks after the third vaccination were observed. In summary, both the 3-and 4-dose Improvac regimens were efficacious in reducing the incidence of standing estrus, serum progesterone levels, and the development

  13. Effects of different five-day progesterone-based synchronization protocols on the estrous response and follicular/luteal dynamics in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    LÓPEZ-GATIUS, Fernando; LÓPEZ-HELGUERA, Irene; DE RENSIS, Fabio; GARCIA-ISPIERTO, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the responses shown by lactating dairy cows to four different P4-based protocols for AI at estrus. Cows with no estrous signs 96 h after progesterone intravaginal device (PRID) removal were subjected to fixed-time AI (FTAI), and their data were also included in the study. In Experiment I, follicular/luteal and endometrial dynamics were assessed every 12 h from the beginning of treatment until AI. The estrous response was examined in Experiment II, and fertility was assessed in both experiments. The protocols consisted of a PRID fitted for five days, along with the administration of different combinations of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), equine chorionic gonadotropin and a single or double dose (24 h apart) of prostaglandin F2α. In Experiment I (40 cows), animals receiving GnRH at the start of treatment showed a significantly higher ovulation rate during the PRID insertion period while estrus was delayed. In Experiment II (351 cows), according to the odds ratios, cows showing luteal activity at the time of treatment were less likely to show estrus than cows with no signs of luteal activity. Treatment affected the estrous response and the interval from PRID removal to estrus but did not affect conception rates 28–34 days post AI. Primiparous cows displayed a better estrous response than multiparous cows. Our findings reveal acceptable results of 5-day P4-based protocols for AI at estrus in high-producing dairy cows. Time from treatment to estrus emerged as a good guide for FTAI after a 5-day P4-based synchronization protocol. PMID:26211922

  14. Cyclical DNA Methyltransferase 3a Expression Is a Seasonal and Estrus Timer in Reproductive Tissues.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Eloise W J; Coyle, Chris S; Lorgen, Marlene; Campbell, Ewan M; Bowman, Alan S; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2016-06-01

    It is becoming clear that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation can be dynamic and, in many cases, reversible. Here we investigated the photoperiod and hormone regulation of DNA methylation in testes, ovaries, and uterine tissue across multiple time scales. We hypothesized that DNA methyltransferase 3a (dnmt3a) is driven by photoperiodic treatment and exhibits natural variation across the female reproductive cycle and that melatonin increases whereas estrogen reduces DNA methylation. We used Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) due to their robust changes in reproductive physiology across seasonal and estrus time scales. Our findings indicate that short-day (SD) winter-like conditions significantly increased global DNA methylation and dnmt3a expression in the testes. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirm that increased dnmt3a expression was primarily localized to spermatogonium. Conversely, the ovaries did not exhibit variation in DNA methylation or dnmt3a/3b expression. However, exposure to SD significantly increased uterine dnmt3a expression. We then determined that dnmt3a was significantly decreased during the estrus stage. Next, we ovariectomized females and subsequently identified that a single estrogen+progesterone injection was sufficient to rapidly inhibit dnmt3a and dnmt3b expression. Finally, we demonstrate that treatment of human embryonic kidney-293 cells with melatonin significantly increased both dnmt3a and dnmt3b expression, suggesting that long-duration nocturnal signaling in SD may be involved in the regulation of DNA methylation in both sexes. Overall, our data indicate that dnmt3a shows marked photoperiod and estrus plasticity that likely has broad downstream effects on the timing of the genomic control of reproductive function. PMID:27105384

  15. Cycle-Related Changes in Mood, Sexual Desire, and Sexual Activity in Oral Contraception-Using and Nonhormonal-Contraception-Using Couples.

    PubMed

    Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra; Gerris, Jan; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Findings on women's sexuality across the menstrual cycle are inconsistent. One relatively consistent finding is a midcycle and premenstrual peak in sexual desire in freely cycling women. Results on the cycle-related effects on sexual behavior are less clear. Large proportions of reproductive-aged women use combined oral contraception (COC), but studies on potential cycle-related shifts in sexual desire and behavior are sparse. A prospective diary study assessed sexual desire, sexual behavior, and mood in 89 heterosexual couples. Women were using one of four contraceptive methods: (1) nonhormonal contraception, (2) low-dose COC containing 20 mcg ethinylestradiol and 75 mcg gestoden or desogestrel, (3) COC containing 35 mcg ethinylestradiol and 2 mg cyproteronacetate, and (4) COC containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone. No cycle effects of sexual desire were established in the COC group, but frequency of sexual intercourse declined in the last days of active pill taking. These results were similar in both female and male partners. Negative affect did not covary with sexual desire. PMID:25420716

  16. Synchronized ovulation for first insemination improves reproductive performance and reduces cost per pregnancy in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Silva, T V; Lima, F S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of synchronizing estrus and ovulation to implement a timed artificial insemination (AI) at first insemination on reproductive performance and cost per pregnancy in dairy heifers. Six hundred eleven Holsteins heifers at approximately 400 d of age from 3 farms were enrolled in the study. Six days before moving to the breeding pens, heifers were allocated randomly to AI after detected estrus from study d 0 to 84 (CON, n=306), or to timed AI for first AI followed by detected estrus for the remainder of the 84-d study (TAI, n=305). Heifers receiving TAI were enrolled in the 5-d timed AI protocol on study d -6 (d -6, GnRH and a progesterone insert; d -1, PGF2α and insert removal; d 0, PGF2α; d 2, GnRH + AI), and they were allowed to be bred the day before scheduled timed AI if detected in estrus. Starting on study d 0, estrus was detected daily. Heifers in estrus were inseminated on the same morning as detected estrus. Control heifers not inseminated by study d 7 received PGF2α and this treatment was repeated every 2 wk until AI. The study lasted 84 d to allow a period of breeding equivalent to four 21-d estrous cycles. A herd budget accounting for inputs for both treatments was created to determine the cost per pregnancy. Sensitivity analysis compared economic differences between the 2 treatments under different input scenarios when detection of estrus after the first AI varied from 50 to 80%. Interval to first AI was 8 d shorter for TAI than for CON. Pregnancy at first AI did not differ between treatments (CON=58.3 vs. TAI=62.8%). In contrast, TAI increased pregnancy per AI (P/AI) compared with CON in heifers inseminated with sex-sorted semen (CON=31.6 vs. TAI=54.8%). The 21-d cycle insemination rate was greater for TAI (91.4%) than for CON (82.4%), even when evaluated after the first 21 d in the study (CON=68.2 vs. TAI=77.1%). The increased insemination rate improved the 21-d cycle pregnancy rate from 47.9% in CON to 57

  17. Luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts after induction of estrus with PMSG/hCG.

    PubMed

    Blitek, Agnieszka; Szymanska, Magdalena; Pieczywek, Marta; Morawska-Pucinska, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether an estrus induction with gonadotropins could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Sixteen prepubertal gilts received 750IU of PMSG and 500IU of hCG 72h later. Prepubertal gilts in the control group (n=17) were observed daily for estrus behavior. All gilts were inseminated in their first estrus. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 10, 12 and 15 of pregnancy and analyzed for (1) the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (2) the tissue concentration of P4; and (3) the mRNA expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2). Additionally, P4 concentration was analyzed in blood serum of all animals. PMSG/hCG injections to induce estrus decreased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1 and 3βHSD on day 10 and CYP11A1 on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group, while CYP11A1 and 3βHSD proteins were down-regulated on day 10 in the hormonally-treated gilts. Concentrations of P4 in luteal tissue and blood serum were also lower in animals after gonadotropin-induced estrus. In contrast, LHR and ESR1 mRNA expression was greater in PMSG/hCG-treated than control gilts on day 15 of gestation. In conclusion, induction of estrus with a PMSG/hCG protocol in prepubertal gilts impaired expression of the luteal P4 synthesis system. Low P4 content may, in turn, induce local mechanisms involving LHR and ESR1 expression to support CL function. PMID:26781360

  18. Relationship of follicle size and concentrations of estradiol among cows that do and do not exhibit estrus during a fixed-time AI protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows that exhibited estrus around the time of fixed-time AI had greater pregnancy success compared to cows that did not. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between follicle size and peak estradiol concentration between cows that did or did not exhibit estrus during a fixed...

  19. Synchronizing redundant power oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, K. J.

    1969-01-01

    Outputs of oscillators are synchronized by summing the power transformer phase voltages, the summed voltages are applied to the frequency determining inductors of the individual voltage-controlled power oscillators. The beat frequency is eliminated when synchronization is achieved.

  20. Impacts of incorporation of follicle stimulating hormone into an estrous synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination of crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gentry, G T; Walker, R S; Gentry, L R

    2016-05-01

    One-hundred-eighty crossbred beef cows and 66 crossbred beef heifers across three locations were stratified by body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and age (within location) to evaluate administration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on Day 2 using a modified 7-day CO-Synch plus CIDR(®) protocol (Day 0=CIDR insertion) with timed-artificial insemination (TAI) at 72h (cows) or 54h (heifers) following CIDR removal. Estrous response following CIDR removal was determined using an Estrotect patch and TAI and final pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography 42-45days following TAI and ≥45days following removal of clean-up bulls. Estrous response rate, TAI and final pregnancy rates for cows were not affected (P≥0.65) by treatment. Cows that exhibited estrus had greater (P<0.01) TAI pregnancy rate (66%) than cows not exhibiting estrus (38%). There was an estrous response by postpartum length interaction (P=0.02) where cows exhibiting estrus and ≥55days postpartum had greater TAI pregnancy rates (75%) compared to cows not exhibiting estrus and <55days postpartum (39%) or ≥55days postpartum (28%). For heifers, timed AI (P=0.46) and final pregnancy rates (P=0.45) were similar across treatments and estrous response had no effect (P=0.30) on TAI pregnancy rates. In conclusion, the addition of FSH to the CO-Synch plus CIDR estrous synchronization protocol did not increase TAI pregnancy rates in beef cows or heifers. However, a positive estrous response to the synchronization protocol was associated with increased TAI pregnancy rates in cows. PMID:26968244

  1. A new automatic synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    A phase lock loop automatic synchronizer, PLLS, matches generator speed starting from dead stop to bus frequency, and then locks the phase difference at zero, thereby maintaining zero slip frequency while the generator breaker is being closed to the bus. The significant difference between the PLLS and a conventional automatic synchronizer is that there is no slip frequency difference between generator and bus. The PLL synchronizer is most advantageous when the penstock pressure fluctuates the grid frequency fluctuates, or both. The PLL synchronizer is relatively inexpensive. Hydroplants with multiple units can economically be equipped with a synchronizer for each unit.

  2. Synchronization of chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pecora, Louis M.; Carroll, Thomas L.

    2015-09-15

    We review some of the history and early work in the area of synchronization in chaotic systems. We start with our own discovery of the phenomenon, but go on to establish the historical timeline of this topic back to the earliest known paper. The topic of synchronization of chaotic systems has always been intriguing, since chaotic systems are known to resist synchronization because of their positive Lyapunov exponents. The convergence of the two systems to identical trajectories is a surprise. We show how people originally thought about this process and how the concept of synchronization changed over the years to a more geometric view using synchronization manifolds. We also show that building synchronizing systems leads naturally to engineering more complex systems whose constituents are chaotic, but which can be tuned to output various chaotic signals. We finally end up at a topic that is still in very active exploration today and that is synchronization of dynamical systems in networks of oscillators.

  3. Synchronization of chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Louis M.; Carroll, Thomas L.

    2015-09-01

    We review some of the history and early work in the area of synchronization in chaotic systems. We start with our own discovery of the phenomenon, but go on to establish the historical timeline of this topic back to the earliest known paper. The topic of synchronization of chaotic systems has always been intriguing, since chaotic systems are known to resist synchronization because of their positive Lyapunov exponents. The convergence of the two systems to identical trajectories is a surprise. We show how people originally thought about this process and how the concept of synchronization changed over the years to a more geometric view using synchronization manifolds. We also show that building synchronizing systems leads naturally to engineering more complex systems whose constituents are chaotic, but which can be tuned to output various chaotic signals. We finally end up at a topic that is still in very active exploration today and that is synchronization of dynamical systems in networks of oscillators.

  4. Evidence for estrogen-dependent uterine serpin (SERPINA14) expression during estrus in the bovine endometrial glandular epithelium and lumen.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Frohlich, Thomas; Schulke, Katy; Englberger, Eva; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Uterine secretions have a dominant impact on the environment in which embryo development takes place. The uterine serpins (SERPINA14, previously known as UTMP) are found most abundantly during pregnancy in the uterus of ruminants. Although progesterone is currently assumed to be the major regulator of SERPINA14 expression, our recent study of transcriptome changes in bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle unexpectedly detected a marked upregulation of SERPINA14 mRNA levels at estrus. The present study describes the full-length mRNA sequence, genomic organization, and putative promoter elements of the SERPINA14 gene. The SERPINA14 mRNA abundance was quantified by real-time RT-PCR in intercaruncular endometrium at several time points during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Highest levels were found at estrus, followed by a dramatic decrease and a moderate expression during the luteal phase. Transcript levels were higher in pregnant endometrium compared with controls at Day 18. At estrus, immunoreactive protein was localized in deep glandular epithelium, and Western blotting concomitantly showed the 52-kDa form in uterine flushings. SERPINA14 mRNA was significantly upregulated in glandular endometrial cells in vitro after stimulation with estradiol-17beta and progesterone, but not after interferon-tau treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that SERPINA14 appears distinctly in bovine endometrium during the estrus phase. A supporting role toward providing a well-prepared endometrial environment for passing gametes, especially sperm, is assumed. PMID:19494250

  5. Evaluation of two progestogen-based estrous synchronization protocols in yearling heifers of Bos indicus × Bos taurus breeding.

    PubMed

    McKinniss, E N; Esterman, R D; Woodall, S A; Austin, B R; Hersom, M J; Thatcher, W W; Yelich, J V

    2011-06-01

    Yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers (n = 410) from three locations, were synchronized with either the Select Synch/CIDR+timed-AI (SSC+TAI) or 7-11+timed-AI (7-11+TAI) treatments. On Day 0 of the experiment, within each location, heifers were equally distributed to treatments by reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5: 1 = immature, 5 = estrous cycling) and body condition score. The 7-11+TAI treatment consisted of melengestrol acetate (0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0 to 7, with PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 7, GnRH (100 μg im) on Day 11, and PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 18. The SSC+TAI heifers received the same carrier supplement (without MGA) from Days 0 to 7, and on Day 11 they were given 100 μg GnRH and an intravaginal CIDR (containing 1.38 g progesterone). The CIDR were removed on Day 18, concurrent with 25 mg PGF(2α) im For both treatments, estrus was visually detected for 1 h twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) for 72 h after PGF(2α), with AI done 6 to 12 h after a detected estrus. Non-responders were timed-AI and received GnRH (100 μg im) 72 to 76 h post PGF(2α). The 7-11+TAI heifers had a greater (P < 0.05) estrous response (55.2 vs 41.9%), conception rate (47.0 vs 31.3%), and synchronized pregnancy rate (33.5 vs 24.8%) compared to SSC+TAI heifers, respectively. Heifers exhibiting estrus at 60 h (61.7%) had a greater (P < 0.05) conception rate compared to heifers that exhibited estrus at ≤ 36 (35.3%), 48 (31.6%), and 72 h (36.2%), which were similar (P > 0.05) to each other. As RTS increased from ≤ 2 to ≥ 3, estrous response, conception rate, synchronized pregnancy rate, and 30 d pregnancy rate all increased (P < 0.05), irrespective of synchronization treatment. In conclusion, the 7-11+TAI treatment yielded greater synchronized pregnancy rates compared to SSC+TAI treatment in yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers. PMID:21356555

  6. Lactation feed disappearance and weaning to estrus interval for sows fed spray-dried plasma.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, J D; Boyd, R D; Campbell, J M; Russell, L E; Moser, R L; Wilson, M E

    2007-12-01

    Four experiments involving 265, 410, 894, and 554 sows (Exp. 1 to 4, respectively) were conducted to determine the effect of spray-dried plasma (SDP) at 0 or 0.25% (Exp. 1 and 2) and 0 or 0.50% (Exp. 3 and 4) in lactation diets on average daily feed disappearance (FD), sum of sow BW, fetal and placental loss from d 110 gestation to weaning (SWL), litter size at weaning, litter weight at weaning, and average days from weaning to first estrus (WEI). Experiments 1, 3, and 4 were conducted during summer months, and Exp. 2 was conducted during fall to winter months. Experiment 1 used only parity 1 and parity 2 sows and Exp. 4 used only mature (>2 parities) sows, whereas Exp. 2 and 3 used all parity groups. Sows fed SDP in Exp. 1 had increased (P < 0.01) FD and a tendency for reduced (P = 0.06) SWL and WEI (P = 0.06). Sows fed SDP in Exp. 2 had a tendency for increased (P = 0.09) sow BW at weaning and reduced (P = 0.09) SWL, whereas other variables were not different between diets. Parity 1 and 2 sows fed SDP in Exp. 3 had increased (P < 0.01) FD, but mature sows fed SDP had reduced (P = 0.02) FD. Pig survival and litter size at weaning for all parity groups was not different between diets. The WEI for parity 1 sows fed SDP was reduced (P = 0.02) and tended to be reduced (P = 0.10) for mature sows fed SDP, but was not different between diets for parity 2 sows. More parity 1 sows fed SDP were detected (P = 0.01) in estrus 4 to 6 d after weaning, and fewer were detected (P < 0.01) in estrus 6 d after weaning compared with control parity 1 sows. In Exp. 4, FD was reduced (P < 0.01) for mature sows fed SDP; however, litter weight and average pig BW at weaning was increased (P < 0.01) with more (P < 0.01) marketable pigs (pig BW > 3.6 kg) weaned per litter. Relatively low dietary levels of SDP (0.25 to 0.50%) fed to parity 1 sows farrowed during summer months increased lactation FD and reduced WEI. Mature sows fed SDP during summer months consumed less lactation feed without

  7. Differential expression of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta isoforms in dog endometrium during different periods of the estrus cycle.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, D; Kempisty, B; Jackowska, M; Woźna, M; Antosik, P; Piotrowska, H; Jaśkowski, J M

    2011-01-01

    Both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) play an important physiological role in the processes of proliferation and differentiation of several different cell types. However, the expression profiles of these factors in domestic bitches endometrium are still poorly recognized. The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze the differential expression of these factors in various stages of the estrus cycle. Endometrial tissue from proestrus (n = 17), estrus (n = 10), day 10 diestrus (n = 15), day 35 diestrus (n = 18) and anestrus (n = 25) was collected soon after ovariohysterectomy. Total RNA was isolated from the endometrium by means of Chomczyński and Sacchi method, treated by DNase I, and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Quantitative analysis of EGF, TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, and TGFbeta3 cDNA was performed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EGF expression in canine endometrium was increased in the estrus stage as compared to proestrus (P < 0.05), day 10 diestrus (P < 0.05), day 35 diestrus (P < 0.01) and anestrus (P < 0.001). We also found the differences in EGF expression between day 10 and day 35 of estrus as well as between day 35 of estrus with anestrus (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). The TGFf1 transcript contents were also higher in estrus as compared to other stages (P < 0.01). The TGFbeta2 and TGFbeta3 in the estrus stage was increased compared to proestrus, day 10 diestrus, day 35 diestrus and anestrus (P < 0.05). We proved that expression of EGF and TGFbeta transcript isoforms is related to the phase of estrus in bitches and therefore may be regulated by specific hormone concentrations during these periods. Our results confirm the hypothesis that these growth factors play a role in the regulation of biochemical changes in the endometrial tissues during the estrus cycle. PMID:21721411

  8. Hepatic and Whole-Body Insulin Metabolism during Proestrus and Estrus in Mongrel Dogs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Erin Nz; Winnick, Jason J; Edgerton, Dale S; Scott, Melanie F; Smith, Marta S; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phillip E; Cherrington, Alan D; Moore, Mary Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance occurs during various stages of the estrus cycle in dogs. To quantify the effects of proestrus-estrus (PE) and determine whether PE affects liver insulin sensitivity, 11 female mongrel dogs were implanted with sampling and intraportal infusion catheters. Five of the dogs (PE group) entered proestrus after surgery; those remaining in anestrus were controls. The dogs were fasted overnight, [3-(3)H]glucose and somatostatin were infused through peripheral veins, and glucagon was infused intraportally. Insulin was infused intraportally, with the rate adjusted to maintain arterial plasma glucose at basal levels (PE, 294±25 μU/kg/min; control, 223±21 μU/kg/min). Subsequently the insulin infusion rate was increased by 0.2 mU/kg/min for 120 min (P1) and then to 1.5 mU/kg/min for the last 120 min (P2); glucose was infused peripherally as needed to maintain euglycemia. Insulin concentrations did not differ between groups at any time; they increased 3 μU/mL over baseline during P1 and to 3 times baseline during P2. The glucose infusion rate in PE dogs during P2 was 63% of that in control dogs. Net hepatic glucose output and the endogenous glucose production rate declined 40% to 50% from baseline in both groups during P1; during P2, both groups exhibited a low rate of net hepatic glucose uptake with full suppression of endogenous glucose production. The glucose disappearance rate during P1 and P2 was 35% greater in control than PE dogs. Therefore, PE in canines is associated with loss of nonhepatic (primarily muscle) but not hepatic insulin sensitivity. PMID:27298249

  9. Synchronizing large systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.L.; Kung, H.T.

    1982-04-01

    Parallel computing structures consist of many processors operating simultaneously. If a concurrent structure is regular, as in the case of systolic array, it may be convenient to think of all processors as operating in lock step. Totally synchronized systems controlled by central clocks are difficult to implement because of the inevitable problem of clock skews and delays. An alternate means of enforcing necessary synchronization is the use of self-timed, asynchronous schemes, at the cost of increased design complexity and hardware cost. Realizing that different circumstances call for different synchronization methods, this paper provides a spectrum of synchronization models; based on the assumptions made for each model, theoretical lower bounds on clock skew are derived, and appropriate or best-possible synchronization schemes for systolic arrays are proposed. This paper represents a first step towards a systematic study of synchronization problems for large systolic arrays.

  10. Synchronization via Hydrodynamic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendelbacher, Franziska; Stark, Holger

    2013-12-01

    An object moving in a viscous fluid creates a flow field that influences the motion of neighboring objects. We review examples from nature in the microscopic world where such hydrodynamic interactions synchronize beating or rotating filaments. Bacteria propel themselves using a bundle of rotating helical filaments called flagella which have to be synchronized in phase. Other micro-organisms are covered with a carpet of smaller filaments called cilia on their surfaces. They beat highly synchronized so that metachronal waves propagate along the cell surfaces. We explore both examples with the help of simple model systems and identify generic properties for observing synchronization by hydrodynamic interactions.

  11. Synchronization of genetic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianshou; Zhang, Jiajun; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Chen, Luonan

    2008-09-01

    Synchronization of genetic or cellular oscillators is a central topic in understanding the rhythmicity of living organisms at both molecular and cellular levels. Here, we show how a collective rhythm across a population of genetic oscillators through synchronization-induced intercellular communication is achieved, and how an ensemble of independent genetic oscillators is synchronized by a common noisy signaling molecule. Our main purpose is to elucidate various synchronization mechanisms from the viewpoint of dynamics, by investigating the effects of various biologically plausible couplings, several kinds of noise, and external stimuli. To have a comprehensive understanding on the synchronization of genetic oscillators, we consider three classes of genetic oscillators: smooth oscillators (exhibiting sine-like oscillations), relaxation oscillators (displaying jump dynamics), and stochastic oscillators (noise-induced oscillation). For every class, we further study two cases: with intercellular communication (including phase-attractive and repulsive coupling) and without communication between cells. We find that an ensemble of smooth oscillators has different synchronization phenomena from those in the case of relaxation oscillators, where noise plays a different but key role in synchronization. To show differences in synchronization between them, we make comparisons in many aspects. We also show that a population of genetic stochastic oscillators have their own synchronization mechanisms. In addition, we present interesting phenomena, e.g., for relaxation-type stochastic oscillators coupled to a quorum-sensing mechanism, different noise intensities can induce different periodic motions (i.e., inhomogeneous limit cycles).

  12. Transient Uncoupling Induces Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Malte; Mannattil, Manu; Dutta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Sagar; Timme, Marc

    2015-07-31

    Finding conditions that support synchronization is a fertile and active area of research with applications across multiple disciplines. Here we present and analyze a scheme for synchronizing chaotic dynamical systems by transiently uncoupling them. Specifically, systems coupled only in a fraction of their state space may synchronize even if fully coupled they do not. While for many standard systems coupling strengths need to be bounded to ensure synchrony, transient uncoupling removes this bound and thus enables synchronization in an infinite range of effective coupling strengths. The presented coupling scheme therefore opens up the possibility to induce synchrony in (biological or technical) systems whose parameters are fixed and cannot be modified continuously. PMID:26274420

  13. Transient Uncoupling Induces Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Malte; Mannattil, Manu; Dutta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Sagar; Timme, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Finding conditions that support synchronization is a fertile and active area of research with applications across multiple disciplines. Here we present and analyze a scheme for synchronizing chaotic dynamical systems by transiently uncoupling them. Specifically, systems coupled only in a fraction of their state space may synchronize even if fully coupled they do not. While for many standard systems coupling strengths need to be bounded to ensure synchrony, transient uncoupling removes this bound and thus enables synchronization in an infinite range of effective coupling strengths. The presented coupling scheme therefore opens up the possibility to induce synchrony in (biological or technical) systems whose parameters are fixed and cannot be modified continuously.

  14. Synchronous Energy Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The synchronous technology requirements for large space power systems are summarized. A variety of technology areas including photovoltaics, thermal management, and energy storage, and power management are addressed.

  15. Intra-cervical application of Misoprostol at estrus alters the content of cervical hyaluronan and the mRNA expression of follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and cyclooxygenase-2 in the ewe.

    PubMed

    Leethongdee, S; Kershaw-Young, C M; Scaramuzzi, R J; Khalid, M

    2010-06-01

    The complex anatomy the of ovine cervix limits the success of transcervical artificial insemination in sheep, but Misoprostol (a PGE(1) analogue) relaxes the cervix and facilitates transcervical artificial insemination. However, the mechanism by which Misoprostol causes cervical relaxation is not known. This study examined if intra-cervical Misoprostol altered the hyaluronan content and the mRNA expression of COX-2, LHR, or FSHR in the cervix of the estrus ewe. Estrus was synchronized in cyclic ewes with progestagen pessaries and 48 h after sponge removal ewes were treated intra-cervically with 0 (controls), 200, or 400 microg Misoprostol. Hyaluronan content was determined by ELISA and mRNA expression of LHR, FSHR, and COX-2 was analyzed by in situ hybridization using digoxigenin-11-uridine-5'-triphosphate labeled riboprobes. The hyaluronan content of the cervix was significantly higher in sheep that received 200 (P<0.05) or 400 (P<0.05) microg Misoprostol compared to controls. Moreover, it was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the vaginal region compared to mid and uterine regions. Misoprostol increased (P<0.05) the mRNA expression of LHR and COX-2 but not FSHR. The expression for all three genes was highest in the vaginal region and lowest in uterine region. The luminal epithelium and circular smooth muscle layers had higher (P<0.05) expression for LHR, FSHR, and COX-2 mRNAs, and the sub-epithelial stroma had the lowest (P<0.05). We propose that the intra-cervical application of Misoprostol induces the mRNA expression of LHR, FSHR, and COX-2 through a positive feedback loop. The data suggest that softening of the cervix by Misoprostol is caused by an increase in the hyaluronan content of the cervix. PMID:20171717

  16. EEG synchronization and migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Angelini, Leonardo; Pellicoro, Mario; Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2004-03-01

    We investigate phase synchronization in EEG recordings from migraine patients. We use the analytic signal technique, based on the Hilbert transform, and find that migraine brains are characterized by enhanced alpha band phase synchronization in presence of visual stimuli. Our findings show that migraine patients have an overactive regulatory mechanism that renders them more sensitive to external stimuli.

  17. SONET synchronization: What's happening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cubbage, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Almost everyone that has heard of SONET knows that the acronym stands for Synchronous Optical NETwork. There has been a host of magazine articles on SONET rings, SONET features, even SONET compatibility with digital radio. What has not been highly publicized is the critical relationship between SONET, network synchronization, and payload jitter. This topic is addressed.

  18. SONET synchronization: What's happening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubbage, Robert W.

    1993-06-01

    Almost everyone that has heard of SONET knows that the acronym stands for Synchronous Optical NETwork. There has been a host of magazine articles on SONET rings, SONET features, even SONET compatibility with digital radio. What has not been highly publicized is the critical relationship between SONET, network synchronization, and payload jitter. This topic is addressed.

  19. Enhance of the estrus and ovulation sychronism in ewes using protocols with progesterone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrous synchronization in combination with artificial insemination is an important biotechnology that enables greater and more efficient use of cryopreserved germplasm. However, when using this technology fertility rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) still exist because of variati...

  20. [Mechanism of the development of permanent estrus in rats after transplantation of the ovaries into a low temperature medium].

    PubMed

    Vunder, P A; Smetanina, M D

    1983-03-01

    Autotransplantation of the ovaries to the ears of adult rats induces permanent estrus following 5-7 days. Autotransplantation of the ovaries beneath the renal capsules makes the sexual cycle return to normal after the same period. Autotransplantation of the ovaries to the ears of infantile rats brings about pubertas precox followed by normal sexual cycle. Permanent estrus ensues only after 4 months. Transplantation of the ovaries from infantile rats to adult ones and vice versa has shown that age-related differences in the alterations seen in the sexual cycle in response to gonadal transplantation to the ears are caused by age-related differences in the recipients, precisely by those in the cyclic center. PMID:6681996

  1. A pre-synchronization program at early postpartum might increase the chances of Bos indicus cows cycling prior to 50 days regardless of the length of calf separation

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-TORRES, Libia; RUBIO, Ivette; CORRO, Manuel; COHEN, Abraham; ORIHUELA, Agustín; GALINA, Carlos S.; PABLOS, J. Luis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if pre-synchronization would enhance the number of animals cycling prior to conventional breeding at 45 days irrespective of the length of calf separation. Multiparous Bos indicus cows were allotted in four groups (n = 10). Control group (C) dams remained with their calves; groups G24, G48 and G72, which were partially weaned for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, were estrus synchronized using a controlled internal drug. These procedures were performed at 25 days and again at 45 days postpartum. The number of follicles, presence of a corpus luteum and back fat thickness (BFT) were determined by ultrasound. The proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation at day 25 postpartum was statistically different between the control and treated groups, with the values being 20, 60, 50 and 70 for the control, G24, G48 and G72 groups respectively (P < 0.05). At days 45 postpartum, the proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation was different in group G48 compared with the other groups (P <0.05). The average BFT and body condition score for the four experimental groups in the two periods were similar (P >0.05). Animals with a higher proportion of follicles from 17 to 21 mm, BFT values above 3.5 mm and a regular body condition were significantly different regardless of whether the dams remained with their calves or were separated, regardless of the length of this event. It can be concluded that (1) a pre-synchronization program at day 25 could trigger the onset of ovarian activity and facilitate a breeding program at day 50 and (2) temporary weaning enhances the effect of a pre-synchronization program. PMID:25739397

  2. Phasic Contractions of the Mouse Vagina and Cervix at Different Phases of the Estrus Cycle and during Late Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gravina, Fernanda S.; van Helden, Dirk F.; Kerr, Karen P.; de Oliveira, Ramatis B.; Jobling, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The pacemaker mechanisms activating phasic contractions of vaginal and cervical smooth muscle remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate properties of pacemaking in vaginal and cervical tissues by determining whether: 1) functional pacemaking is dependent on the phase of the estrus cycle or pregnancy; 2) pacemaking involves Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) -dependent intracellular Ca2+ stores; and 3) c-Kit and/or vimentin immunoreactive ICs have a role in pacemaking. Methodology/Principal Findings Vaginal and cervical contractions were measured in vitro, as was the distribution of c-Kit and vimentin positive interstitial cells (ICs). Cervical smooth muscle was spontaneously active in estrus and metestrus but quiescent during proestrus and diestrus. Vaginal smooth muscle was normally quiescent but exhibited phasic contractions in the presence of oxytocin or the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride. Spontaneous contractions in the cervix and TEA-induced phasic contractions in the vagina persisted in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a blocker of the SERCA that refills intracellular SR Ca2+ stores, but were inhibited in low Ca2+ solution or in the presence of nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type Ca2+channels. ICs were found in small numbers in the mouse cervix but not in the vagina. Conclusions/Significance Cervical smooth muscle strips taken from mice in estrus, metestrus or late pregnancy were generally spontaneously active. Vaginal smooth muscle strips were normally quiescent but could be induced to exhibit phasic contractions independent on phase of the estrus cycle or late pregnancy. Spontaneous cervical or TEA-induced vaginal phasic contractions were not mediated by ICs or intracellular Ca2+ stores. Given that vaginal smooth muscle is normally quiescent then it is likely that increases in hormones such as oxytocin, as might occur through sexual stimulation, enhance the

  3. Effects of altering the dose and timing of triptorelin when given as an intravaginal gel for advancing and synchronizing ovulation in weaned sows.

    PubMed

    Knox, R V; Taibl, J N; Breen, S M; Swanson, M E; Webel, S K

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that triptorelin gel (TG) given intravaginally in gel form is effective for advancing the time of ovulation in weaned sows. Three experiments were performed to determine the effects of altering the dose and timing of administration of intravaginal TG for advancing and synchronizing ovulation in weaned sows. In all experiments, estrus was detected twice or three times daily and ultrasound was performed to determine ovulation at 8-hour intervals. In experiment 1, sows (n = 131) received intravaginal gel containing 0 (Placebo), 25, 100, or 200 μg of TG at 96 hours after weaning and sows were inseminated on each day of standing estrus. Wean-to-estrus interval and duration of estrus were correlated (P < 0.0001) with estrus duration longer in TG (P < 0.05) compared with Placebo. More sows ovulated (P < 0.001) by 48 hours after treatment with 200 (81%), 100 (64%), and 25 μg (63%) of TG compared with Placebo (42%). The farrowing rate and total pigs born did not differ (P > 0.10). In experiment 2, sows (n = 126) received 200 μg of TG at 72, 84, or 96 hours after weaning or were untreated (Control-96). Sows receiving TG were inseminated once 24 to 28 hours after treatment. Control-96 sows were inseminated on each day of standing estrus. Wean-to-estrus interval was not affected by treatment, but wean-to-ovulation interval was reduced (P < 0.05) by TG-72 and TG-84 compared with TG-96 and Control-96. More sows ovulated 40 hours after treatment (P < 0.001) with TG-72 (56.5%) and TG-84 (32.2%) compared with TG-96 and Control-96 (13%) and for all TG treatments 48 hours after treatment (64%) compared with Control-96 (34%, P < 0.05). The farrowing rate was lower (P < 0.05) for sows assigned to TG-72 and TG-84 compared with TG-96 and Control-96, whereas the number of liveborn pigs did not differ (P > 0.10). In experiment 3, sows (n = 113) were assigned to receive no treatment (Control), intravaginal gel alone (Placebo), or 200 μg of TG given

  4. Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-17

    We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2{pi} in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step {delta}t. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/{delta}t is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is ''blue shifted'' relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval {delta}t. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.

  5. Tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin after intramuscular and intrauterine administration to mares in estrus.

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, J A; Park, M I; Spencer, P A

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of amikacin in endometrial tissue and plasma were studied in mares in estrus after intrauterine infusion of 1.0 or 2.0 g once a day for 3 consecutive d, and after 9.7 or 14.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) had been injected intramuscularly once a day for 3 consecutive d to determine concentrations of amikacin sulfate in plasma and endometrial tissues, and whether parenteral administration provides any advantages over intramuscular infusion. No amikacin was detected in serum at the 1.0 g dose. At the infusion dose of 2.0 g once a day, very low levels of serum amikacin were detected at 1 and 4 h postinfusion on the 1st treatment day. Amikacin was found to penetrate the endometrium after intramuscular injection; however, the levels attained were not as high as those achieved following intrauterine infusion. Based on the tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin, an intrauterine infusion at a dose of 4.4 mg/kg BW/d would appear to be an appropriate therapeutic regimen for the treatment of gram-negative endometritis. PMID:8681283

  6. Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral seizures were recorded and ovarian morphology was evaluated by light and electron microscopies. Our results showed that the kindled rats lost their ovarian periodicity displayed significant ovarian enlargement. H&E staining revealed increased number of growing follicles and total follicles, as well as polycysts in the ovaries of the kindled animals compared to sham and control animals. Ultrastructural study detected numerous apoptotic granulosa cells in growing follicles and thecal cell hyperplasia with secretary granules in the thecal cells in the kindled rats. The results suggest that amygdala kindling is a risk factor for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25285307

  7. Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan; Li, P Andy; Sun, Tao

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral seizures were recorded and ovarian morphology was evaluated by light and electron microscopies. Our results showed that the kindled rats lost their ovarian periodicity displayed significant ovarian enlargement. H&E staining revealed increased number of growing follicles and total follicles, as well as polycysts in the ovaries of the kindled animals compared to sham and control animals. Ultrastructural study detected numerous apoptotic granulosa cells in growing follicles and thecal cell hyperplasia with secretary granules in the thecal cells in the kindled rats. The results suggest that amygdala kindling is a risk factor for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25285307

  8. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition.

  9. Synchronization in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  10. Binary synchronous simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R., III

    1980-01-01

    Flexible simulator for trouble-shooting data transmission system uses binary synchronous communications protocol to produce error-free transmission of data between two points. Protocol may be used to replace display generator or be directly fed to display generator.

  11. Synchronization in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alex; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Kurths, Jurgen; Moreno, Yamir; Zhou, Changsong

    2008-12-01

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understanding synchronization phenomena in natural systems now take advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also take an overview of the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying patterns of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  12. Expression of estrus modifies the gene expression profile in reproductive tissues on Day 19 of gestation in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, S; Cooke, R F; Fernandes, A C C; Cappellozza, B I; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of expression of estrus at artificial insemination (AI) on endometrium, conceptus, and CL gene expression of beef cows. Thirty-six multiparous nonlactating Nelore cows were enrolled on an estradiol- and progesterone (P4)-based timed AI protocol (AI = Day 0) and then slaughtered for the endometrium, CL, and conceptus collection on Day 19. The animals were retrospectively grouped on the basis of cows that (1) showed signs of estrus near AI (n = 19; estrus) and (2) did not show any signs of estrus (n = 17; nonestrus). Body condition score, blood sampling, and ultrasound examination were performed on Days 0, 7, and 18 of the experiment followed by messenger RNA extraction and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of 58 target genes. Data were checked for normality and analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures using proc GLM, MIXED, and UNIVARIATE of SAS. Only pregnant cows were included in the analyses (n = 12; nonestrus, n = 11). Estrous expression had no correlation with parameters such as body condition score, preovulatory follicle and CL diameter, P4 concentration in plasma on Days 7 and 18 after AI, and interferon-tau concentration in the uterine flushing (P > 0.15); however, a significant increase was observed in conceptus size from cows that expressed estrus (P = 0.02; 38.3 ± 2.8 vs. 28.2 ± 2.9 mm). The majority of transcripts affected by estrous expression in the endometrium belong to the immune system and adhesion molecule family (MX1, MX2, MYL12A, MMP19, CXCL10, IGLL1, and SLPI; P ≤ 0.05), as well as those related with prostaglandin synthesis (OTR and COX-2; P ≤ 0.05). Genes related to apoptosis, P4 synthesis, and prostaglandin receptor were downregulated (CYP11A, BAX, and FPr; P < 0.05) in the CL tissue of cows that expressed estrus. In addition, four genes were identified as differentially expressed in the 19-day-old conceptus from cows that expressed

  13. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  14. Variations in the vulvar temperature of sows during proestrus and estrus as determined by infrared thermography and its relation to ovulation.

    PubMed

    Simões, Vasco G; Lyazrhi, Faouzi; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Gayrard, Véronique; Martineau, Guy-Pierre; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    The prediction of ovulation time is one of the most important and yet difficult processes in pig production, and it has a considerable impact on the fertility of the herd and litter size. The objective of this study was to assess the vulvar skin temperature of sows during proestrus and estrus using infrared thermography and to establish a possible relationship between the variations in vulvar temperature and ovulation. The experimental group comprised 36 crossbred Large White × Landrace females, of which 6 were gilts and 30 were multiparous sows. Estrus was detected twice daily and the temperature was obtained every 6 hours from the vulvar area and from two control points in the gluteal area (Gluteal skin temperature [GST]). A third variable, vulvar-gluteal temperature (VGT) was obtained from the difference between the vulvar skin temperature and the GST values. The animals were divided into two subgroups: group A consisting of 11 animals with estrus detected at 6:00 AM, Day 4 postweaning, and group B comprising seven animals with estrus detected at 6:00 AM, Day 5 post-weaning. Both groups showed a similar trend in the VGT. The VGT increased during the proestrus, reaching a peak 24 hours before estrus in group A and 48 hours before estrus in group B. The VGT then decreased markedly reaching the lowest value in groups A and B, respectively, 12 and 6 hours after estrus. Although the time of ovulation was only estimated on the basis of a literature review, the matching between the temporal variations of the VGT values and the predicted time of the peak of estradiol secretion that ultimately leads to the ovulation processes suggests that the VGT values represent a potential predictive marker of the ovulatory events. PMID:25159660

  15. Single fixed-time artificial insemination in gilts and weaned sows using pLH at estrus onset administered through vulvar submucosal route.

    PubMed

    Ulguim, R R; Fontana, D L; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of a single fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in gilts and weaned sows using 2.5 mg of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) administered through vulvar submucosal route, at the onset of estrus. In experiment 1 (Exp.1), 318 pubertal gilts were assigned to two groups: control-G-no hormonal application and artificial inseminations (AIs) at 12, 36, and 60 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; and FTAI-G-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 12 hours later. In experiment 2 (Exp. 2), 309 weaned sows were assigned to three groups: Control-S-no hormone application and AIs at 0, 24, and 48 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; FTAI-NH-no hormone application and a single FTAI at 24 hours after the onset of estrus, and FTAI-pLH-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 24 hours later. Transabdominal real time B-mode ultrasonography was performed to determine whether the insemination had been performed within 24 hours before ovulation, considered as the optimal interval. In Exp. 1, ultrasound evaluation (12-hour intervals) was carried out to determine the interval between the onset of estrus and ovulation. In both experiments, 2 × 10(9) sperm cells in 80 mL were used to perform cervical and postcervical deposition of semen in gilts and sows, respectively. Compared with control-G, FTAI-G gilts had shorter (P < 0.05) duration of estrus (57.7 vs. 61.2 hours) and interval between the onset of estrus and ovulation (36.3 vs. 42.3 hours). The adjusted farrowing rate (AFR) was lower (P < 0.05) in FTAI-G (86.0%) compared with control-G (93.5%), but total piglets born (TPB) did not differ between these groups (12.3 vs. 12.5 piglets). Within the FTAI-G group, the AFR was lower (P < 0.05) in the presence (50.0%) than in the absence (94.9%) of semen backflow during AI. Also in the FTAI-G group, the insemination outside the optimal interval reduced (P

  16. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Dairy Herds.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-01

    Timed artificial insemination (AI) programs are commonly used in the dairy industry for lactating cows, but less so in replacement heifers. Excellent programs using combinations of prostaglandin F2α and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in protocols relying on timed AI without detection of estrus or in protocols that combine timed AI with inseminations performed after detected estrus are able to achieve acceptable pregnancy percentages. In herds with excellent estrus detection, timed AI programs serve as a failsafe system to address cows or heifers not yet inseminated after a defined period of estrus detection. PMID:27039693

  17. Optimistic barrier synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Barrier synchronization is fundamental operation in parallel computation. In many contexts, at the point a processor enters a barrier it knows that it has already processed all the work required of it prior to synchronization. The alternative case, when a processor cannot enter a barrier with the assurance that it has already performed all the necessary pre-synchronization computation, is treated. The problem arises when the number of pre-sychronization messages to be received by a processor is unkown, for example, in a parallel discrete simulation or any other computation that is largely driven by an unpredictable exchange of messages. We describe an optimistic O(log sup 2 P) barrier algorithm for such problems, study its performance on a large-scale parallel system, and consider extensions to general associative reductions as well as associative parallel prefix computations.

  18. Synchronization in Superradiant Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Kevin; Weiner, Joshua; Bohnet, Justin; Thompson, James

    2015-05-01

    Superradiant (or bad-cavity) lasers based on highly forbidden transitions in cold atoms are expected to produce light with coherence properties exceeding the state-of-the-art, finding applications in optical atomic clocks and other precision measurements. We study experimentally and theoretically the response of a superradiant Raman laser to an applied coherent drive. We observe two forms of synchronization (injection locking) between the superradiant ensemble and the applied drive: one attractive and one repulsive in nature, in which the atomic spin degrees of freedom play a crucial role in determining the dynamics. Additionally, we present time dynamics and steady state behavior of two interacting superradiant lasers. Understanding the synchronization physics of superradiant lasers could inform future implementations with technologically relevant phase noise properties and explorations for understanding synchronization in a quantum regime.

  19. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptors and their ligands (epidermal growth factor, neuregulin, amphiregulin) in the bitch uterus during the estrus cycle.

    PubMed

    Sağsöz, Hakan; Liman, Narin; Saruhan, Berna Güney; Küçükaslan, İbrahim

    2014-06-30

    In order to study the possible role of EGFR receptors in the bitch reproductive process, we have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of EGFR receptors and some of their ligands epidermal growth factor (EGF), neuregulin (NRG), amphiregulin (AREG), in the uterus during the estrus cycle using immunohistochemistry. The immunostaining for receptors and ligands of EGFR/ligand system was confined to membrane and cytoplasm of the target cells. Variations were observed, not only at the different stages of the estrous cycle, but also in the different tissue compartments of the uterus. However, it was detected that the immunostainings for NRG and AREG in the different cells do not show important differences at stages of the estrus cycle. In the luminal epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB1/HER1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB4/HER4 and EGF was found at estrus. In the glandular epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB4/HER4 was observed at diestrus, while strong immunostaining for EGF was detected in both of estrus and diestrus. ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity in the stromal cells was higher at diestrus and anestrus, while ErbB4/HER4 immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus. In the myometrium, the highest levels of immunoreactivity of ErbB2/HER2 were found at estrus, while ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity was higher at anestrus. EGF immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus compared to other stage of cycle. Altered EGFR/ligand system expression during the estrus cycle suggests this growth factor system is a potent regulator of proliferation and differentiation events during preparation for implantation of bitch uterus. PMID:24813021

  20. Effects of GnRH administered to cows at the onset of estrus on timing of ovulation, endocrine responses, and conception.

    PubMed

    Kaim, M; Bloch, A; Wolfenson, D; Braw-Tal, R; Rosenberg, M; Voet, H; Folman, Y

    2003-06-01

    Two experiments examined effects of GnRH administered within 3 h after onset of estrus (OE) on ovulation and conception in dairy cows. In experiment 1, 46 cows received either saline, 250 microg of GnRH, or 10 microg of the GnRH analogue, Buserelin. Cows were observed for estrus, blood samples were collected, and ovulations were monitored by ultrasound. In controls, 76% of cows had intervals from estrus to ovulation of < or = 30 h and 24% had intervals > 30 h. Treatment with either GnRH or GnRH analogue (data combined) increased magnitude of LH surges and decreased intervals from estrus to LH surge or to ovulation. Treated cows all ovulated < or = 30 h after OE. Among control cows, plasma estradiol concentrations before estrus correlated positively with amplitudes of LH surges. Higher plasma progesterone was observed in the subsequent estrous cycle in GnRH-treated cows compared to control cows with delayed ovulations. Experiment 2 included 152 primiparous and 211 multiparous cows in summer and winter. Injection of GnRH analogue at OE increased conception rates (CR) from 41.3 to 55.5% across seasons. In summer, GnRH treatment increased CR from 35.1 to 51.6%. Across seasons, GnRH increased CR from 36.0 to 61.5% in cows with lower body condition at insemination and GnRH increased CR (63.2 vs. 42.2%) in primiparous cows compared to controls. Use of GnRH eliminated differences in CR for cows inseminated early or late relative to OE and increased CR in cows having postpartum reproductive disorders. In conclusion, GnRH at onset of estrus increased LH surges, prevented delayed ovulation, and may increase subsequent progesterone concentrations. Treatments with GnRH increased conception in primiparous cows, during summer, and in cows with lower body condition. PMID:12836937

  1. Postpartum interval to estrus and patterns of LH and progesterone in first-calf suckled beef cows exposed to mature bulls.

    PubMed

    Custer, E E; Berardinelli, J G; Short, R E; Wehrman, M; Adair, R

    1990-05-01

    Two trials were conducted in which Angus x Hereford first-calf cows were assigned randomly at calving to one of two treatments: exposure to mature penile-blocked bulls (BE) or isolation from bulls (NE). In Trial 1 (BE, n = 38; NE, n = 37), cow to bull ratio increased from 12:1 to 19:1 over a 14-d period; in Trial 2 (BE, n = 25; NE, n = 24), this ratio was maintained at 13:1. In both trials, blood samples were collected weekly for progesterone and ovaries and uteri of cows were examined rectally. Cows were observed for estrus twice daily (am:pm) beginning 10 d after calving. In Trial 2, intensive blood sampling for LH began 10 d after calving (eight cows per treatment) and continued at weekly intervals until estrus or the end of the trial. Postpartum weight change, condition score change and time to uterine involution did not differ (P greater than .10) between treatments in either trial. Interval to estrus was shorter (P less than .05) for BE cows than for NE cows in both trials. A greater proportion (P less than .05) of BE cows exhibited estrus by 60 and 90 d after calving and showed an increase in progesterone before first estrus. Mean and baseline LH concentrations and amplitude, frequency and duration of LH pulses were not altered (P greater than .10) by bull exposure. In conclusion, exposing first-calf suckled beef cows to bulls after calving hastened resumption of estrous cycles. Bull exposure did not alter patterns of LH concentrations but did increase proportions of cows that showed increased progesterone before first estrus. PMID:2365649

  2. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1997-02-04

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition. 14 figs.

  3. Implementing the Synchronous Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    This commentary describes an action research project conducted by selected staff at the Northern Valley Regional High School District in New Jersey. The project focused on the idea of developing a synchronous classroom to provide world language learning opportunities to students. Relevant research is provided as are ideas regarding logistics and…

  4. Synchronized time stamp support

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalkowski, J.

    1994-02-16

    New software has been added to IOC core to maintain time stamps. The new software has the ability to maintain time stamps over all IOCs on a network. The purpose of this paper is to explain how EPICS will synchronize the time stamps. In addition, this paper will explain how to configure and use the new EPICS time stamp support software.

  5. Estrous synchronization strategies to optimize beef heifer reproductive performance after reproductive tract scoring.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Whittier, William D; Hall, John B; Kastelic, John P

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments comparing four estrous synchronization protocols were conducted to determine estrous expression rate and artificial insemination pregnancy rate (AI-PR) in heifers with a range (1-5) of reproductive tract scores (RTSs). At enrollment (Day 0), 1783 Angus cross beef heifers from six locations were given body condition score and RTS. The four protocols were: (1) HRTS-DPGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received prostaglandin F2α (PGF; Dinoprost 25 mg; im) on Days 0 and 14; (2) HRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received a CIDR (1.3-g progesterone) insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; (3) LRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 4 or less received a CIDR insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; and (4) HRTS-Select-Synch group-heifers with RTS 5 received 100 μg of gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate (gonadotropin releasing homone; im) on Day 7 and PGF on Day 14. In all groups, heifers observed in estrus were artificially inseminated (within 120 hours after PGF) using the AM-PM rule. In Experiment 1, estrus expression rates were 82.2% (282/343) and 88.5% (184/208) for HRTS-DPGF and LRTS-CIDR-PGF, respectively (P < 0.05), whereas AI-PR were 51.3% (176/343) and 59.1% (123/208; P < 0.1). In Experiment 2, estrus expression rates were 79.6 (168/211), 86.9 (186/214) and 84.2% (176/209) for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-CIDR-PGF, and LRTS-CIDR-PGF groups (P > 0.1) and AI-PR were 52.1 (110/211), 60.3 (129/214), and 58.4% (122/209; P > 0.05). In Experiment 3, estrus expression rates were 77.5 (131/169), 85.5 (142/166), and 83.3% (219/263) for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch and LRTS-CIDR-PGF (P > 0.05) and AI-PR were 53.3 (90/169), 60.2 (100/166), and 58.6% (154/263; P > 0.1). Overall, estrus expression rates for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch, LRTS-CIDR-PGF, and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups were 80.4 (581/723), 85.5 (142/166), 85.1 (579/680), and 86.9% (186/214), respectively; higher for heifers in LRTS-CIDR-PGF and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups

  6. Effects of a commercial canine gonadotropin releasing hormone vaccine on estrus suppression and estrous behavior in mares.

    PubMed

    Donovan, C E; Hazzard, T; Schmidt, A; LeMieux, J; Hathaway, F; Kutzler, M A

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effect of immunization against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) using a commercial canine GnRH vaccine on estrus suppression and unwanted estrous behavior in mares. In experiment 1, mares were immunized (n = 6) twice with vaccine (5 mL) given intramuscularly 4 weeks apart or received a control diluent (n = 5). Transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tracts was performed three days a week for 40 weeks after initial vaccination. Blood samples were collected weekly for GnRH antibody titer and progesterone concentration determination. In experiment 2, privately-owned mares (n = 12) were immunized twice with vaccine (1 mL) given intramuscularly 4 weeks apart. Blood samples were collected prior to each vaccination as well as 12 and 20 weeks after initial treatment, and transrectal ultrasonographic examinations of the reproductive tracts were performed 12 weeks after the first vaccination. Vaccinated mares in experiment 1 responded with a GnRH antibody titer, progesterone concentrations significantly lower than controls, and cessation of ovarian activity. Vaccinated mares in experiment 2 also responded with a GnRH antibody titer, progesterone concentrations that remained basal for the duration of the study, and cessation of ovarian activity. Owners of vaccinated mares in experiment 2 reported that the number of unwanted estrous behaviors present before vaccination significantly decreased following vaccination. In conclusion, GnRH immunization using a canine GnRH vaccine is an effective method for suppressing estrus and unwanted estrous behavior. PMID:24083943

  7. Changes in the sexual behavior and testosterone levels of male rats in response to daily interactions with estrus females.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Leanne M; Spritzer, Mark D

    2014-06-22

    Male rat sexual behavior has been intensively studied over the past 100 years, but few studies have examined how sexual behavior changes over the course of several days of interactions. In this experiment, adult male rats in the experimental group (n=12) were given daily access to estrus females for 30 min per day for 15 consecutive days while control males (n=11) did not interact with females. Ovariectomized females were induced into estrus with hormonal injections, and males interacted with a different female each day. The amount of sexual activity (mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations) was found to cycle with a period of approximately 4 days in most male rats. Additionally, blood was collected every other day following sexual interactions to assess serum testosterone levels. Testosterone was found to peak on the first day of interaction and then fell back to near the level of control rats that did not interact with females. Following the initial peak, testosterone concentrations fluctuated less in males exposed to females than in controls. Sexual activity was not found to predict testosterone concentration. We conclude that when male rats have daily sexual interactions, sexual behavior tends to show cyclic changes and testosterone is significantly elevated only on the first day of interactions. PMID:24813700

  8. Ovarian follicle apoptosis at the onset of standing estrus in virgin and repeat-breeder dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Båge, R; Bosu, W T; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2001-09-15

    There is evidence that repeat breeding in dairy cattle can be caused by both extrinsic, environmental factors and intrinsic, animal factors. In repeat-breeder heifers (RBH), disturbed endocrine patterns and estrous events result in a subsequent decreased fertility associated with delayed ovulation. Whether infertility is also due to the presence of an unsuitable follicular environment impairing normal fertilization, remains to be determined. At the onset of standing estrus, ovaries were obtained from 7 strictly defined RBH and 5 virgin heifers (VH) of the Swedish Red and White breed. Detection of apoptosis in the preovulatory and three subordinate follicle walls was done by using the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) technique at light microscopy level. The follicles were histologically assessed for degree of atresia. The ultrastructure of the follicle wall and recovered oocytes was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The overall degree of apoptosis in membrana granulosa and theca interna of preovulatory and subordinate follicles did not differ between RBH and VH, but the numbers of TUNEL-positive cells differed significantly between preovulatory and subordinate follicles in both RBH and VH. There was a strong relationship between density of apoptotic cells and degree of atresia. No differences in follicle wall apoptosis nor morphology were detectable, suggesting that repeat breeder heifers enter standing estrus with the same morphological prerequisites as normal animals, considering follicular structure. PMID:11665874

  9. Changes in the sexual behavior and testosterone levels of male rats in response to daily interactions with estrus females

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Leanne M.; Spritzer, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Male rat sexual behavior has been intensively studied over the past 100 years, but few studies have examined how sexual behavior changes over the course of several days of interactions. In this experiment, adult male rats (n = 12) were given daily access to estrus females for 30 min per day for 15 consecutive days and control males did not interact with females. Ovariectomized females were induced into estrus with hormonal injections, and males interacted with a different female each day. The amount of sexual activity (mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations) was found to cycle with a period of approximately 4 days in most male rats. Additionally, blood was collected every other day following sexual interactions to assess serum testosterone levels. Testosterone was found to peak on the first day of interaction and then fell back to near the level of control rats that did not interact with females. Following the initial peak, testosterone concentrations fluctuated less in males exposed to females than in controls. Sexual activity was not found to predict testosterone concentration. We conclude that when male rats have daily sexual interactions, sexual behavior tends to show cyclic changes and testosterone is significantly elevated only on the first day of interactions. PMID:24813700

  10. Immunohistochemical determination of estrogen receptor-α in canine vaginal biopsies throughout proestrus, estrus, and early diestrus.

    PubMed

    Ithurralde, Javier; Costas, Ana Laura; Pessina, Paula; Cueto, Enrique; Fila, Danilo; Meikle, Ana

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to describe the presence of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in several vaginal histological compartments in healthy adult bitches throughout three estrous cycle stages (proestrus, estrus, and early diestrus) and to relate ERα presence with serum progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations. For this purpose, serial blood samples and vaginal biopsies were taken from five bitches every 48 hours, starting at the clinical onset of proestrus, marked by the beginning of serosanguineous vaginal secretion. Serum progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations were determined by RIA, whereas detection of steroid receptors was carried out through immunohistochemistry. Subjective image analysis was conducted by two independent observers in the following histological compartments: superficial, intermediate, and deep epithelia and superficial (loose) and deep (dense) stroma (connective tissue). Nuclear ERα immunoreactivity was detected in every histological compartment and estrous cycle stage studied. ERα expression varied among histological compartments and during stages of the cycle. Receptor expression was associated with estradiol-17β and progesterone serum profiles. Most relevant cyclic changes were detected in the superficial and deep epithelia and in the dense connective tissue. The highest ERα expression was detected during diestrus, although each compartment had a different pattern throughout the other cycle stages. Thus, vaginal ERα expression in the bitch varied throughout proestrus, estrus, and early diestrus according to the histological compartment involved. PMID:23953742

  11. Alternative programs for synchronizing and resynchronizing ovulation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bó, Gabriel A; de la Mata, José Javier; Baruselli, Pietro S; Menchaca, Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been regarded as the most useful method to increase the number of cows inseminated in a given herd. The main treatments for FTAI in beef cattle are based on the use of progesterone-releasing devices and GnRH or estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with a mean pregnancy per AI (P/AI) around 50%. However, more recent protocols based on GnRH (named 5-day Co-Synch) or estradiol (named J-Synch) that reduce the period of progesterone device insertion and extend the period from device removal to FTAI have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. Furthermore, treatments to resynchronize ovulation for a second FTAI in nonpregnant cows have provided the opportunity to do sequential inseminations and achieve high P/AI in a breeding season, reducing or even eliminating the need for clean-up bulls. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in beef cattle, primarily by eliminating the necessity of estrus detection in beef herds. PMID:27180326

  12. Non-hormonal systemic therapy in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and metastases: a systematic review from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-based Care's Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group

    PubMed Central

    Winquist, Eric; Waldron, Tricia; Berry, Scott; Ernst, D Scott; Hotte, Sébastien; Lukka, Himu

    2006-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer that has recurred after local therapy or disseminated distantly is usually treated with androgen deprivation therapy; however, most men will eventually experience disease progression within 12 to 20 months. New data emerging from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of chemotherapy provided the impetus for a systematic review addressing the following question: which non-hormonal systemic therapies are most beneficial for the treatment of men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) and clinical evidence of metastases? Methods A systematic review was performed to identify RCTs or meta-analyses examining first-line non-hormonal systemic (cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic) therapy in patients with HRPC and metastases that reported at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, disease control, palliative response, quality of life, and toxicity. Excluded were RCTs of second-line hormonal therapies, bisphosphonates or radiopharmaceuticals, or randomized fewer than 50 patients per trial arm. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology were searched for relevant trials. Citations were screened for eligibility by four reviewers and discrepancies were handled by consensus. Results Of the 80 RCTs identified, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Two recent, large trials reported improved overall survival with docetaxel-based chemotherapy compared to mitoxantrone-prednisone. Improved progression-free survival and rates of palliative and objective response were also observed. Compared with mitoxantrone, docetaxel treatment was associated with more frequent mild toxicities, similar rates of serious toxicities, and better quality of life. More frequent serious toxicities were observed when docetaxel was combined with estramustine. Three trials reported improved time-to-disease progression, palliative response, and/or quality of life with mitoxatrone plus corticosteroid

  13. Synchronization and hydrodynamic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas; Qian, Bian; Breuer, Kenneth

    2008-03-01

    Cilia and flagella commonly beat in a coordinated manner. Examples include the flagella that Volvox colonies use to move, the cilia that sweep foreign particles up out of the human airway, and the nodal cilia that set up the flow that determines the left-right axis in developing vertebrate embryos. In this talk we present an experimental study of how hydrodynamic interactions can lead to coordination in a simple idealized system: two nearby paddles driven with fixed torques in a highly viscous fluid. The paddles attain a synchronized state in which they rotate together with a phase difference of 90 degrees. We discuss how synchronization depends on system parameters and present numerical calculations using the method of regularized stokeslets.

  14. Synchronously deployable truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G. (Inventor); Mikulas, M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A collapsible-expandable truss structure, including first and second spaced surface truss layers having an attached core layer is described. The surface truss layers are composed of a plurality of linear struts arranged in multiple triangular configurations. Each linear strut is hinged at the center and hinge connected at each end to a nodular joint. A passive spring serves as the expansion force to move the folded struts from a stowed collapsed position to a deployed operative final truss configuration. A damper controls the rate of spring expansion for the synchronized deployment of the truss as the folded configuration is released for deployment by the restrain belts. The truss is synchronously extended under the control of motor driven spools.

  15. Breeding capacity, behavior and fertility of bulls with Brahman genetic influence during synchronized breeding of beef females.

    PubMed

    Williams, G L

    1988-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the feasibility of using bulls of Brahman-derived breeds for synchronized breeding of females treated with Syncro-Mate-B (SMB). Suckled, postpartum cows (n = 261) and virgin heifers (n = 227) were given the standard SMB treatment. Calves were removed from cows for 48 h beginning at implant removal, and individual bulls were placed in pens with 15 to 20 females (x = 1:15.7 ) for 48 h beginning at implant removal. Bulls (n = 31) were 18 to 36 mo of age and had scored satisfactorily on a breeding soundness evaluation (BSE). The mean +/- SEM percentage of females in estrus, percentage of estrous females serviced and percentage of total females serviced were 77.2 +/- 2.4, 72.9 +/- 2.9 and 55.7 +/- 3%, respectively. Total average services per bull was 23.6 +/- 1.6; however, average number of individuals serviced was only 8.6 +/- 0.42. Mean +/- SEM percentage of females conceiving of those serviced, percentage conceiving of those in estrus and percentage conceiving of total females available were 57.3 +/- 3.7, 40.6 +/- 2.6 and 32.6 +/- 2.5%, respectively. Mean BSE scores of eight Simbrah bulls tested immediately before and 5 d after synchronized breeding did not differ (P > 0.05). These data suggest that the conception rate of Brahman-influenced bulls servicing SMB-synchronized cows is within the normal range. However, the total number of individual females serviced and the total pregnancy rate under the protocol employed was low. This occurred because all estrous females were not inseminated, and some bulls exhibited unpredicted low fertility. PMID:16726447

  16. Synchronization of Eukaryotic Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-11-01

    From unicellular organisms as small as a few microns to the largest vertebrates on earth we find groups of beating flagella or cilia that exhibit striking spatio-temporal organization. This may take the form of precise frequency and phase locking as frequently found in the swimming of green algae, or beating with long-wavelength phase modulations known as metachronal waves, seen in ciliates and in our respiratory systems. The remarkable similarity in the underlying molecular structure of flagella across the whole eukaryotic world leads naturally to the hypothesis that a similarly universal mechanism might be responsible for synchronization. Although this mechanism is poorly understood, one appealing hypothesis is that it results from hydrodynamic interactions between flagella. In this talk I will describe a synthesis of recent experimental and theoretical studies of this issue that have provided the strongest evidence to date for the hydrodynamic origin of flagellar synchronization. At the unicellular level this includes studies of the beating of the two flagella of the wild type unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in their native state and under conditions of regrowth following autotomy, and of the flagellar dominance mutant ptx1, which displays unusual anti-phase synchronization. Analysis of the related multicellular organism Volvox carteri shows it to be an ideal model organism for the study of metachronal waves. Supported by BBSRC, EPSRC, ERC, and The Wellcome Trust.

  17. Superinsulator and quantum synchronization.

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.; Fistul, M. V.; Mironov, A. Yu.; Baklanov, M. R.; Strunk, C.; Materials Science Division; Inst. Semiconductor Physics; Univ. Regensburg; Ruhr-Univ. Bochum; IMEC

    2008-04-01

    Synchronized oscillators are ubiquitous in nature, and synchronization plays a key part in various classical and quantum phenomena. Several experiments have shown that in thin superconducting films, disorder enforces the droplet-like electronic texture 'superconducting islands immersed into a normal matrix' and that tuning disorder drives the system from superconducting to insulating behavior. In the vicinity of the transition, a distinct state forms: a Cooper-pair insulator, with thermally activated conductivity. It results from synchronization of the phase of the superconducting order parameter at the islands across the whole system. Here we show that at a certain finite temperature, a Cooper-pair insulator undergoes a transition to a superinsulating state with infinite resistance. We present experimental evidence of this transition in titanium nitride films and show that the superinsulating state is dual to the superconducting state: it is destroyed by a sufficiently strong critical magnetic field, and breaks down at some critical voltage that is analogous to the critical current in superconductors.

  18. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  19. Digital Synchronizer without Metastability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simle, Robert M.; Cavazos, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    A proposed design for a digital synchronizing circuit would eliminate metastability that plagues flip-flop circuits in digital input/output interfaces. This metastability is associated with sampling, by use of flip-flops, of an external signal that is asynchronous with a clock signal that drives the flip-flops: it is a temporary flip-flop failure that can occur when a rising or falling edge of an asynchronous signal occurs during the setup and/or hold time of a flip-flop. The proposed design calls for (1) use of a clock frequency greater than the frequency of the asynchronous signal, (2) use of flip-flop asynchronous preset or clear signals for the asynchronous input, (3) use of a clock asynchronous recovery delay with pulse width discriminator, and (4) tying the data inputs to constant logic levels to obtain (5) two half-rate synchronous partial signals - one for the falling and one for the rising edge. Inasmuch as the flip-flop data inputs would be permanently tied to constant logic levels, setup and hold times would not be violated. The half-rate partial signals would be recombined to construct a signal that would replicate the original asynchronous signal at its original rate but would be synchronous with the clock signal.

  20. Socially synchronized circadian oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Herzog, Erik D.; Levine, Joel D.; Schwartz, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian ‘clock’). The alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizes (entrains) these rhythms to the natural day–night cycle, and underlying mechanisms have been investigated using singly housed animals in the laboratory. But, most species ordinarily would not live out their lives in such seclusion; in their natural habitats, they interact with other individuals, and some live in colonies with highly developed social structures requiring temporal synchronization. Social cues may thus be critical to the adaptive function of the circadian system, but elucidating their role and the responsible mechanisms has proven elusive. Here, we highlight three model systems that are now being applied to understanding the biology of socially synchronized circadian oscillators: the fruitfly, with its powerful array of molecular genetic tools; the honeybee, with its complex natural society and clear division of labour; and, at a different level of biological organization, the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus, site of the brain's circadian clock, with its network of mutually coupled single-cell oscillators. Analyses at the ‘group’ level of circadian organization will likely generate a more complex, but ultimately more comprehensive, view of clocks and rhythms and their contribution to fitness in nature. PMID:23825203

  1. Metabolism of energy substrates of in vitro and in vivo derived embryos from ewes synchronized and super ovulated with norgestomet and porcine follicle stimulating hormone

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The synchronization and ovulatory responses of Sangsari cross bred ewes and metabolism of energy substrates in 8-cell stage embryos to hatched blastocysts stage produced in vitro or in vivo were investigated. Ewes were assigned randomly to receive 37.5 IU of porcine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P) daily for the 3 days preceding implant removal (Day 0). Synchronization of estrus was carried out using a 1.5 mg norgestomet (Crestar) ear implant for 12 days. Ewes in estrus were mated two to three times with rams of proven fertility. At the time of first mating each ewe was administered 1000 IU of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to induce ovulation. Surgical embryo recovery was performed on Days 4 and 6 after onset of estrus (Day 0) and recovered embryos were subjected to comparative metabolism studies with in vitro derived embryos at the same stage of development. The number of corpora lutea (CL), unovulated follicles and overall ovarian activity were recorded for each ewe during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. While the pattern of oxidation was similar among in vitro and in vivo derived embryos, a low pyruvate to lactate ratio was the preferred substrate of embryos derived in vitro. A high level of production of CO2 and lactate resulted from a stress response to the suboptimal culture environment. The first marked increase in the metabolism of glucose by ovine embryos was detected in compact morula stage, but there was no significant increase in the oxidation of glucose after the morula stage. Two different concentrations of glucose were compared, but this did not affect metabolism. However, the rate of incorporation and metabolism of glucose tended to be higher at the 0.56 mmol/L glucose dosage. PMID:23157819

  2. Estrus behavior, ovarian dynamics, and progesterone secretion in Criollo cattle during estrous cycles with two and three follicular waves.

    PubMed

    Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Ramírez-Godínez, José Alejandro; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo

    2014-04-01

    In beef and dairy cattle, the number of follicular waves affects endocrine, ovarian, and behavioral events during a normal estrous cycle. However, in Mexican-native Criollo cattle, a shortly and recently domesticated breed, the association between wave patterns and follicular development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of number of follicular waves in an estrous cycle on development of anovulatory and ovulatory follicles, corpus luteum (CL) development and functionality, as well as estrual behavior in Criollo cows. Ovarian follicular activities of 22 cycling multiparous Criollo cows were recorded daily by transrectal ultrasound examinations during a complete estrous cycle. Additionally, blood samples were collected daily to determine serum progesterone concentrations. Only two- (n = 17, 77.3%) and three-wave follicular (n = 5, 22.7%) patterns were observed. Duration of estrus, length of estrous cycle, and length of follicular and luteal phases were similar (P > 0.05) between cycles of two and three waves. Two-wave cows ovulated earlier (P < 0.05) after detection of estrus than three-wave cows. Detected day and maximum diameter of first anovulatory follicle were not affected (P > 0.05) by number of waves. Growth rate of first dominant follicle was higher (P < 0.05) in three-wave cycles. Onset of regression of the first dominant follicle was earlier (P < 0.01) in cycles with three waves than in those with two waves. In two-wave cycles, ovulatory follicles were detected earlier (P < 0.01) and had lower (P < 0.01) growth rate than in three-wave cycles. Development (i.e., maximum diameter and volume) and functionality (minimum and maximum progesterone concentration) of CL were similar (P > 0.05) between two- and three-wave patterns. In conclusion, Criollo cows have two or three follicular waves per estrous cycle, which alters partially ovulatory follicle development and ovulation time after detection of estrus. Length of

  3. Reproductive outcomes of Alpine goats primed with progesterone and treated with human chorionic gonadotropin during the anestrus-to-estrus transition season.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Espino, A S; Meza-Herrera, C A; Carrillo, E; González-Álvarez, V H; Guillen-Muñoz, J M; Ángel-García, O; Mellado, M; Véliz-Deras, F G

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the possible effects of a single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a means for estrus induction in acyclic French-Alpine goats during the reproductive transition period at 25°N, 103°W. The potential effects of hCG upon ovarian function and reproductive performance of goats were also assessed. Multiparous acyclic French-Alpine goats (n = 39; 37.4 ± 8 .5 kg) were primed with 20mg progesterone (P4) 1 day prior to hCG administration. Thereafter, does were treated either with saline (hCG-0; n = 10), 50 (hCG-50; n = 9), 100 (hCG-100; n = 10), or 300 IU of hCG (hCG-300; n = 10). Ovarian structures and pregnancy were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In addition, after hCG application, goats were monitored twice daily (0800 and 1800 h) to detect estrus signs, with the use of aproned, sexually active bucks treated with testosterone. Goats were bred 12h after the onset of estrus. Two days after hCG administration, the number of large follicles was higher (P < 0.05) in the hCG-50 and hCG-300 groups (1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively) compared with the hCG-100 and hCG-0 groups (1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.1 ± 0.1, respectively). Although none of the hCG-0-goats depicted estrus, the estrus response from the hCG-50, hCG-100, and hCG-300 groups over the 7-d breeding period was 67%, 100%, and 90%, respectively (P > 0.05), being always accompanied by ovulation. Pregnancy rate (67, 100, and 70%), kidding rate (55%, 80%, and 70%), and litter size (1.6 ± 0.5, 1.5 ± 0.5, and 1.5 ± 0.5) for hCG-50, hCG-100, and hCG-300, respectively, did not differ among the hCG-treated does. Therefore, the combined use of P4-priming plus a 100-IU hCG injection is an effective protocol for inducing estrus in non-cycling Alpine goats during the anestrus-to-estrus transition period, which is of key importance for both goat producers and industrializers. PMID:26944772

  4. The period of the follicular phase during which the uterus of mares shows estrus-like echotexture influences the subsequent pregnancy rate.

    PubMed

    Mateu-Sánchez, S; Newcombe, J R; Garcés-Narro, C; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-10-01

    The interval from both spontaneous and prostaglandin (PGF)-induced luteolysis to ovulation is greatly variable in mares. Several reports have shown a positive association between the length of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) and the subsequent pregnancy rate (PR). However, it is not known whether this association also occurs in estrous cycles with spontaneous luteolysis. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of the duration of estrus-like echotexture of the uterus during the follicular phase on the subsequent PR in both spontaneous and PGF-induced cycles. A total of 768 estrous cycles from 325 thoroughbred mares were analyzed (401 estruses were induced with exogenous PGF and 367 cycles were not treated with PGF). The following factors were taken into account to determine the effect on PR: age of the mare, stallion, year of breeding, month of season, reproductive status of the mare, use of PGF treatment, duration of follicular phase with estrus-like echotexture, interovulatory interval (IOI; in spontaneous cycles), and ITO (in PGF-induced cycles). The age of the mare (P = 0.017), mare status (P = 0.031), the ITO (P = 0.041), and the duration of the follicular phase with estrus-like echotexture (P < 0.001) influenced the PR. The PR increased with the duration of estrus and of endometrial edema in both PGF-induced and spontaneous cycles. The correlation between the duration of endometrial edema and the IOI and ITO was positive (r = 0.5) and significant (P < 0.05). PMID:27298152

  5. Potential role for GnRH in the synchronization of follicular emergence before the superovulatory Day 0 protocol.

    PubMed

    Balaro, M F A; Fonseca, J F; Barbosa, T G B; Souza-Fabjan, J M G; Figueira, L M; Teixeira, T A; Carvalheira, L R; Brandão, F Z

    2016-01-01

    The ability of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to synchronize ovulation and new follicular wave emergence before a "superovulatory Day 0" protocol was assessed in Santa Inês ewes. For estrus synchronization, a 60-mg medroxyprogesterone acetate sponge was inserted for 6 d. One day before sponge removal, 37.5-μg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin were injected intramuscularly (i.m.). After sponge removal, ewes were assigned to the following 3 groups: (1) GC-1 mL saline at 12 h (n = 10); (2) G24h-0.025-mg lecirelin (GnRH agonist) i.m. at 24 h (n = 10); or (3) G36h-0.025-mg lecirelin i.m. at 36 h (n = 9). Ovarian ultrasonography was conducted to assess follicular dynamics. Blood was collected to determine plasma concentrations of progesterone and estradiol. Females from G36h and GC had a greater (P < 0.05) estrous response than those from the G24h group (78.0 and 90.0 vs 0.0%, respectively). Ewes from G24h and G36h had earlier (P < 0.05) ovulation (48.0 ± 10.2 and 56.7 ± 5.7 h) compared with those from Gc (64.1 ± 9.7 h). The mean number of ovulations per ewe was greater (P < 0.05) in Gc (1.9 ± 0.6) and G36h (2.0 ± 1.0) than G24h (1.2 ± 0.4). Plasma concentrations of progesterone and estradiol differed over time. Follicular growth during the postovulatory day was affected (P < 0.05) by day of the estrus cycle as well as by the interaction (P < 0.05) of treatment and day of the estrus cycle. There was a larger (P < 0.05) population of medium follicles during the first 24 h after the ovulation in G24h compared with Gc, and there was an absence of large follicles in G36h between 36 and 72 h after ovulation. In conclusion, the use of GnRH agonist at 36 h more efficiently synchronized ovulation and promoted the absence of dominant follicles during early diestrus and may be used at the start of superovulatory treatment at 80 h in Santa Inês ewes. PMID:26343000

  6. Estrus, ovulation, and serum progesterone, estradiol, and LH concentrations in mares after an increased photoperiod during winter.

    PubMed

    Oxender, W D; Noden, P A; Hafs, H D

    1977-02-01

    On December 11, 1974, 15 seasonally anestrous mares were assigned at random to 1 of 3 experimental groups: outdoor-control, indoor-control, or indoor light-treated (a 16-hour photo-period). This experiment was terminated on April 21, 1975. The five mares in the indoor light-treated group ovulated 59.0+/-6.9 days later, which was 74 days earlier (P less than 0.01) than 2 of the 5 outdoor-controls (the other 3 ovulated after April 21 during a subsequent experiment) and 50 days earlier (P less than 0.05) than the indoor-controls. Durations of the 1st estrus for the 3 groups of mares were 13.3+/-3.6, 8.4+/-2.0, and 6.0+/-1.0 days for the indoor light-treated, indoor-control, and outdoor-control groups, respectively. The indoor light-treated mares averaged 4.2 estrous cycles before April 21, the indoor-control mares averaged 1.4 estrous cycles, and 2 of 5 outdoor-control mares ovulated 1 time during the experiment. The peripheral blood luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were minimal during winter anestrous. The hormone changes normally associated with estrous cycle activity in mares--maximal estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations near ovulation and maximal progesterone concentration during diestrus--were observed in all mares beginning at the 1st estrus. Hair loss was observed earlier in the light-treated mares, than in either of the other groups. In conclusion, a 16-hour photo-period initiated in early December for anestrous brood mares caused endocrinologically normal estrous cycles to begin within 2 months. This may allow breeding and foaling considerably earlier than normally expected. PMID:557304

  7. Increased TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain and peripheral tissues during proestrus/estrus.

    PubMed

    Pekary, A E; Sattin, Albert

    2014-02-01

    Women are at greater risk for major depression, PTSD, and other anxiety disorders. ERβ-selective agonists for the treatment of these disorders are the focus of pharmacologic development and clinical testing. Estradiol and its metabolites contribute to the neuroprotective effects of this steroid class, particularly in men, due to local conversion of testosterone to estiradiol in key brain regions which are predisposed to neurodegenerative diseases. We have used young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats to assess the role of TRH and TRH-like peptides, with the general structure pGlu-X-Pro-NH2 where "X" can be any amino acid residue, as mediators of the neurobiochemical effects of estradiol. The neuroprotective TRH and TRH-like peptides are coreleased with excitotoxic glutamate by glutamatergic neurons which contribute importantly to the regulation of the estrus cycle. The levels of TRH and TRH-like peptides during proestrus and/or estrus in the 12 brain regions analyzed were significantly decreased (due to accelerated release) 106 times but increased only 25 times when compared to the corresponding levels during diestrus days 1 and 2. These changes, listed by brain region in the order of decreasing number of significant decreases (↓) and/or increases (↑), were: striatum (20↓,1↑), medulla oblongata (16↓,2↑), amygdala (14↓,1↑), cerebellum (13↓,1↑), hypothalamus (12↓,1↑), entorhinal cortex (6↓,6↑), posterior cingulate (10↓,1↑), frontal cortex (3↓,5↑), nucleus accumbens (5↓,3↑), hippocampus (5↓,2↑), anterior cingulate (2↓,1↑), and piriform cortex (1↑). In peripheral tissues the corresponding changes were: ovaries (23↓), uterus (16↓,1↑), adrenals (11↓,3↑), and pancreas (1↓,6↑). We conclude that these peptides may be downstream mediators of some of the therapeutic effects of estrogen. PMID:24296042

  8. Breathing synchronization in interconnected networks

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, V. H. P.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Global synchronization in a complex network of oscillators emerges from the interplay between its topology and the dynamics of the pairwise interactions among its numerous components. When oscillators are spatially separated, however, a time delay appears in the interaction which might obstruct synchronization. Here we study the synchronization properties of interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay between networks and analyze the dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a new breathing synchronization regime, where two groups appear in each network synchronized at different frequencies. Each group has a counterpart in the opposite network, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their counterpart. For strong couplings, instead, networks are internally synchronized but a phase shift between them might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed. PMID:24256765

  9. Speed of complex network synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabow, C.; Grosskinsky, S.; Timme, M.

    2011-12-01

    Synchrony is one of the most common dynamical states emerging on networks. The speed of convergence towards synchrony provides a fundamental collective time scale for synchronizing systems. Here we study the asymptotic synchronization times for directed networks with topologies ranging from completely ordered, grid-like, to completely disordered, random, including intermediate, partially disordered topologies. We extend the approach of master stability functions to quantify synchronization times. We find that the synchronization times strongly and systematically depend on the network topology. In particular, at fixed in-degree, stronger topological randomness induces faster synchronization, whereas at fixed path length, synchronization is slowest for intermediate randomness in the small-world regime. Randomly rewiring real-world neural, social and transport networks confirms this picture.

  10. Sun synchronous solar refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The primary goal of this project was to prototype a complete Sun Synchronous Solar Powered Refrigerator. The key element to the technology is the development of the hermetic motor compressor assembly. The prototype was to be developed to either the stage where Polar Products could receive additional venture capital or to the point whereby Polar could use their own capital to manufacture the systems. Our goal was to construct a prototype which would be the next step to a proven and market ready product. To demonstrate the technology under laboratory conditions was a very minimal goal.

  11. Huygens synchronization of two clocks

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Henrique M.; Melo, Luís V.

    2015-01-01

    The synchronization of two pendulum clocks hanging from a wall was first observed by Huygens during the XVII century. This type of synchronization is observed in other areas, and is fundamentally different from the problem of two clocks hanging from a moveable base. We present a model explaining the phase opposition synchronization of two pendulum clocks in those conditions. The predicted behaviour is observed experimentally, validating the model. PMID:26204557

  12. Huygens synchronization of two clocks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Henrique M; Melo, Luís V

    2015-01-01

    The synchronization of two pendulum clocks hanging from a wall was first observed by Huygens during the XVII century. This type of synchronization is observed in other areas, and is fundamentally different from the problem of two clocks hanging from a moveable base. We present a model explaining the phase opposition synchronization of two pendulum clocks in those conditions. The predicted behaviour is observed experimentally, validating the model. PMID:26204557

  13. FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2013-10-01

    The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.

  14. Digital synchronization and communication techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.

  15. Robust Sliding Window Synchronizer Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, Kue S.; Xiong, Fuqin; Pinchak, Stanley

    2004-01-01

    The development of an advanced robust timing synchronization scheme is crucial for the support of two NASA programs--Advanced Air Transportation Technologies and Aviation Safety. A mobile aeronautical channel is a dynamic channel where various adverse effects--such as Doppler shift, multipath fading, and shadowing due to precipitation, landscape, foliage, and buildings--cause the loss of symbol timing synchronization.

  16. Asynchronous & Synchronous E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrastinski, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    An ongoing debate addresses the usefulness of asynchronous versus synchronous e-learning. "Asynchronous e-learning," commonly facilitated by media such as e-mail and discussion boards, supports work relations among learners and with teachers, even when participants cannot be online at the same time. "Synchronous e-learning," commonly supported by…

  17. Pattern of induced estrus and conception rate following Ovsynch and Ovsynch based gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatments initiated on day 6 of estrous cycle in repeat breeding crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, N.; Kathiresan, D.; Ahmed, F. A.; Lalrintluanga, K.; Mayengbam, P.; Gali, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the estrus response, incidence of accessory corpus luteum formation and fertility following different hormonal protocols in repeat breeding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 24 repeat breeding crossbred cows allotted into four groups. Cows of Group I was not given any treatment, Group II was treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection on day 6 post-estrus, Group III was treated with Ovsynch protocol, and Group IV was treated with Ovsynch based GnRH treatment. Estrus responses such as duration, onset, percentage, and intensity of estrus were recorded during the study. The incidence of accessory corpus luteum was recorded per rectally on day 7 after first and additional GnRH of Ovsynch treatment. The conception rate for all groups was calculated by the absence of estrus and on day 45 after artificial insemination (AI) per rectum. Serum samples were collected at AI and day 12 post-AI in Group I and II. Serum samples were also collected at GnRH, Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), timed AI (TAI) and day 12 post-TAI in Group III and IV. Results: Ovsynch and Ovsynch based GnRH treatments are resulted in 100.00% induction of estrus after the PGF2α injection. Onset of induced estrus after the PGF2α injection for Group III and IV was recorded as 48.750±0.713 and 51.472±1.989 h, respectively, and it was not significant. There was no significant difference in duration of estrus among the groups. The incidence of intermediate estrus intensity was found to be highest. All the cows showed the incidence of formation of accessory corpus luteum subsequent to GnRH treatment on day 6 of the estrous cycle in Group II, III, and IV. The conception rate was 0.00%, 16.67%, 50.00%, and 50.00% in Group I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Conclusion: Ovsynch and Ovsynch based GnRH treatments initiated on day 6 of estrous cycle capable of responding with a higher percentage of ovulation and formation of accessory

  18. Explosive synchronization is discontinuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Zou, Yong; Pereira, Tiago

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous explosive is an abrupt transition to collective behavior taking place in heterogeneous networks when the frequencies of the nodes are positively correlated with the node degree. This explosive transition was conjectured to be discontinuous. Indeed, numerical investigations reveal a hysteresis behavior associated with the transition. Here, we analyze explosive synchronization in star graphs. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the transition to (and out of) collective behavior is indeed discontinuous. The discontinuous nature of the transition is related to the nonlinear behavior of the order parameter, which in the thermodynamic limit exhibits multiple fixed points. Moreover, we unravel the hysteresis behavior in terms of the graph parameters. Our numerical results show that finite-size graphs are well described by our predictions.

  19. Twin engine synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kobus, J.R.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes an apparatus for synchronizing the speeds of two engines, each having its own throttle level connected by an associated cable to a respective hand throttle lever, comprising moving means carried by the throttle lever of one of the engines for moving the throttle lever of the one engine independently of its associated cable and its respective hand throttle lever to increase or decrease the speed of the one engine until the speed of the one engine matches the speed of the other engine. The moving means moves the throttle lever of the one engine without moving its associated cable or its respective hand throttle lever, and actuating means mounted remote from the throttle lever of the one engine for actuating the moving means.

  20. Synchronization in neural nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.; Haggerty, John

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents an artificial neural network concept (the Synchronizable Oscillator Networks) where the instants of individual firings in the form of point processes constitute the only form of information transmitted between joining neurons. In the model, neurons fire spontaneously and regularly in the absence of perturbation. When interaction is present, the scheduled firings are advanced or delayed by the firing of neighboring neurons. Networks of such neurons become global oscillators which exhibit multiple synchronizing attractors. From arbitrary initial states, energy minimization learning procedures can make the network converge to oscillatory modes that satisfy multi-dimensional constraints. Such networks can directly represent routing and scheduling problems that consist of ordering sequences of events.

  1. Synchronous anorectal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Balicevic, Drinko; Tomic, Karla; Bekavac-Beslin, Miroslav; Kovacevic, Igor; Mijic, August; Belicza, Mladen; Kruslin, Bozo

    2006-01-01

    Anorectal melanoma is a very rare tumor with poor prognosis. Rectal bleeding is the most frequent symptom and surgical treatment ranges from local excision to radical abdominoperineal resection. We report a case of a 75-years-old male patient who presented with a history of recurrent rectal bleeding, and whose histopathological diagnosis was melanoma. Macroscopically, we found two distinct tumors in anorectal region, 0.5 cm and 1.5 cm from dentate line. The first one was pedunculated, on a thin stalk, measuring 1 cm in greatest diameter, and the second one was sessile and nodular measuring up to 2.8 cm in largest diameter. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical analysis of both tumors confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. This case represents multiple synchronous primary melanoma of the anorectal region, with a possibility that one of the lesions is primary melanoma and the second one is a satellite lesion. PMID:16733870

  2. Changes in PSA Kinetics Predict Metastasis-Free Survival in Men with PSA-Recurrent Prostate Cancer Treated with Non-Hormonal Agents: Combined Analysis of 4 Phase II Trials

    PubMed Central

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Zahurak, Marianna L.; Lin, Jianqing; Keizman, Daniel; Carducci, Michael A.; Eisenberger, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several phase II trials in men with non-castrate PSA-recurrent prostate cancer have assessed the impact of novel non-hormonal agents on PSA kinetics. However, it is unknown whether changes in PSA kinetics influence metastasis-free survival (MFS). Methods We performed a retrospective post hoc analysis of 146 men treated in four phase II trials examining the investigational agents marimastat (a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor; n=39), imatinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor; n=25), ATN-224 (a copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase inhibitor; n=22), and lenalidomide (an antiangiogenic/immunomodulatory drug; n=60). We investigated factors influencing MFS, including within-subject changes in PSA kinetics (PSA slope, doubling time, and velocity) before and after treatment initiation. Results After a median follow-up of 16.8 months, 70 patients (47.9%) developed metastases. In multivariable Cox regression models, factors that were independently predictive of MFS after adjusting for age and other clinical prognostic variables were baseline PSA doubling time (PSADT) (P=.05), baseline PSA slope (P=.01), on-study change in PSADT (P=.02), and on-study change in PSA slope (P=.03). In a landmark Kaplan-Meier analysis, median MFS was 63.5 months (95% CI 34.6–not reached) and 28.9 months (95% CI 13.5–68.0) for men with or without any decrease in PSA slope by 6 months after treatment, respectively. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests that within-subject changes in PSADT and PSA slope after initiation of experimental therapy may correlate with MFS in men with biochemically-recurrent prostate cancer. If validated in prospective trials, changes in PSA kinetics may represent a reasonable intermediate endpoint for screening new agents in these patients. PMID:21960118

  3. Pharmacokinetics of eCG and induction of fertile estrus in bitches using eCG followed by hCG.

    PubMed

    Stornelli, M C; García Mitacek, M C; Giménez, F; Bonaura, M C; Videla Dorna, I; de la Sota, R L; Stornelli, M A

    2012-09-15

    The aim was to design a protocol combining eCG followed by hCG for estrus induction in the bitch. In Experiment 1, three ovariohysterectomized bitches received 10 000 IU of eCG iv, and 15 days later 10 000 IU of eCG im. Blood samples were taken up to 144 h after each injection to measure eCG concentrations. In Experiment 2, 25 healthy, intact late anestrous bitches were assigned to one of five doses of eCG (5, 10, 15, 20, 44, or 50 IU/kg eCG im; [TRT5-TRT50]). Sexual behavior (SB), clinical signs of estrus (CSE) and vaginal cytology (VC) samples were obtained and scored before eCG administration and every other day until onset of estrus, or for 14 days. In Experiment 3, intact late anestrous bitches were assigned to a treatment group (TRT; n = 16) and received eCG (50 IU/kg im) followed by hCG (500 IU im) 7 days later; or to a placebo group (PLA; n = 8) where they received 1 mL saline solution im. All bitches that were induced in estrus were mated or AI with fresh semen. In Experiment 1, maximum observed concentration (C(max)) eCG were similar between im and iv routes (6.1 ± 0.9 vs. 8.6 ± 0.5 IU/mL, P > 0.08), whereas time for maximum observed concentration (T(max.)) was longer for im compared to iv routes (17.5 ± 0.5 vs. 11.6 ± 0.3 h, P < 0.01). The area under the curve (AUC) was similar for im and iv routes (P > 0.48), and eCG was detectable in serum for at least 144 h for both routes. In Experiment 2, 3 days or 3 to 5 days after treatment, all bitches in TRT50 had higher scores compared to TRT5-44 animals (P < 0.01). In TRT50, the mean interval from treatment to estrus was 4.0 ± 0.4 days. In Experiment 3, the mean interval from treatment to estrus was shorter in the TRT group compared to the PLA group (4.1 ± 3.3 vs. 68.5 ± 4.4 days, P < 0.01). The previous interestrus interval was similar for TRT and PLA groups (199.6 ± 7.2 vs. 197.5 ± 10.2 days), but the new interestrus interval was shorter for the TRT compared to the PLA group (164.0 ± 7.2 vs. 212

  4. Ovarian-cell-like cells from skin stem cells restored estradiol production and estrus cycling in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong-Wook; Pan, Bo; Toms, Derek; Huynh, Evanna; Byun, June-Ho; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Shen, Wei; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Li, Julang

    2014-07-15

    Reduction of estradiol production and high serum concentrations of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) are endocrine disorders associated with premature ovarian failure. Here, we report that transplantation of ovarian-like cells differentiated from stem cells restored endogenous serum estradiol levels. Stem cells were isolated from postnatal mouse skin and differentiated into ovarian-cell-like cells that are consistent with female germ, and ovarian follicle somatic cells. The ovarian-cell-like cells were transplanted into ovariectomized mice (Cell Trans), whereas control mice were subjected to bilateral ovariectomies without cell transplantation (OVX). Using vaginal cytology analysis, it was revealed that in 13 out of 19 Cell Trans mice, estrus cycles were restored around 8 weeks after cell transplantation and were maintained until 16 weeks post-transplantation, whereas in the OVX group, all mice were arrested at metestrus/diestrus of the estrus cycle. The uterine weight in the Cell Trans group was similar to sham operation mice (Sham OP), while severe uterine atrophy and a decreased uterine weight were observed in the OVX group. Histologically, ectopic follicle-like structures and blood vessels were found within and around the transplants. At 12-14 weeks after cell transplantation, mean serum estradiol level in Cell Trans mice (178.0±35 pg/mL) was comparable to that of the Sham OP group (188.9±29 pg/mL), whereas it was lower in the OVX group (59.0±4 pg/mL). Serum FSH concentration increased in the OVX group (1.62±0.32 ng/mL) compared with the Sham OP group (0.39±0.34 ng/mL). Cell Trans mice had a similar FSH level (0.94±0.23 ng/mL; P<0.05) to Sham OP mice. Our results suggest that ovarian somatic cells differentiated from stem cells are functional in vivo. In addition to providing insights into the function of ovarian somatic cells derived from stem cells, our study may offer potential therapeutic means for patients with hypo-estradiol levels

  5. Synchronized defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Ganesh; Navarro, Cesar; Walsh, Simon J; Allen, John D; Anderson, John McC; Adgey, AA Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Optimization of defibrillation success is important to improve efficacy and minimize post-shock sequelae. Previous work has suggested an improvement in shock success when an intracardiac shock is delivered synchronized to the upslope of a VF wave. We investigated the efficacy of transthoracic defibrillation success using a novel external biphasic defibrillator which delivers shocks synchronized to the upslope of the surface ECG. Methods: A prospective, controlled, randomized study in a research institute laboratory of male and female pigs (54.2±1.8 kg). Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced in 10 anaesthetized and ventilated pigs. Shocks were delivered randomly from a biphasic defibrillator in synchronized or non-synchronized mode via self-adhesive electrode pads following 30 s of VF. Energy settings at 50, 70, 80, and 100J were randomly tested. VF amplitude, impedance, and shock outcome were recorded and analysed digitally. Results: A total of 300 shocks were delivered. Synchronized shocks were delivered on the upslope of the VF wave in 99% of cases. There was no significant difference in shock success between shocks delivered in synchronized or non-synchronized modes (p=0.695). There was no significant difference in the amplitude of VF between successful and unsuccessful shocks (p=0.163). Furthermore, there was no association between shock success and transthoracic impedance. Conclusion: The novel defibrillator used in this study was able to consistently deliver shocks on the upslope portion of the VF wave but did not show an improvement in shock success. PMID:24062919

  6. Nutritional recommendations for synchronized swimming.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sherry; Benardot, Dan; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers. PMID:24667278

  7. Synchronization in an evolving network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. K.; Bagarti, Trilochan

    2015-09-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of Kuramoto oscillators on a stochastically evolving network whose evolution is governed by the phases of the individual oscillators and degree distribution. Synchronization is achieved after a threshold connection density is reached. This cumulative effect of topology and dynamics has many real-world implications, where synchronization in a system emerges as a collective property of its components in a self-organizing manner. The synchronous state remains stable as long as the connection density remains above the threshold value, with additional links providing resilience against network fluctuations.

  8. Time synchronized video systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Ron

    1994-01-01

    The idea of synchronizing multiple video recordings to some type of 'range' time has been tried to varying degrees of success in the past. Combining this requirement with existing time code standards (SMPTE) and the new innovations in desktop multimedia however, have afforded an opportunity to increase the flexibility and usefulness of such efforts without adding costs over the traditional data recording and reduction systems. The concept described can use IRIG, GPS or a battery backed internal clock as the master time source. By converting that time source to Vertical Interval Time Code or Longitudinal Time Code, both in accordance with the SMPTE standards, the user will obtain a tape that contains machine/computer readable time code suitable for use with editing equipment that is available off-the-shelf. Accuracy on playback is then determined by the playback system chosen by the user. Accuracies of +/- 2 frames are common among inexpensive systems and complete frame accuracy is more a matter of the users' budget than the capability of the recording system.

  9. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    Data from 96 Holstein Friesian cows on a commercial dairy farm were used to investigate whether body condition and serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) postpartum (pp) affect progesterone (P4) levels, estrous activity, and fertility in dairy cows. The examination period started 14 days before the expected calving date and ended either when a cow was inseminated or at a maximum of 90 days pp. Body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) and backfat thickness (BFT) were determined every 2 weeks. Blood for analysis of NEFA and P4 concentrations was sampled weekly during the first 35 days pp and then every 48 hours until an ovulation was observed. Transrectal ultrasonography of the ovaries started at 21 days pp and was performed after blood sampling. If cows were not inseminated because of silent ovulation, sampling and ultrasonography continued on Days 7, 14, and 18 after ovulation and again every 48 hours until the next ovulation. Estrous activity was continuously measured with the Heatime estrus detection system. Pregnancy controls were performed ultrasonographically 28 and 42 days after AI. Cows with increased NEFA levels at 28 days pp had an increased risk of maintaining minimum P4 levels above 0.4 ng/mL at first recognized estrus (P = 0.03). Higher NEFA levels at Day 7 were associated with lower probability for a cow to have elevated P4 levels (≥2 ng/mL) by Day 35 pp, indicating delayed commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Estrous activity was not influenced (P > 0.10) by minimum P4 concentrations at estrus, but more animals with C-LA until Day 35 pp showed estrous activity compared to cows without C-LA throughout this period (P = 0.006). Estrous activity was lower in cows with a low BCS 14 days pp (P = 0.02) and with a low BFT 42 days pp (P = 0.03). Moreover, the probability to exhibit estrus was reduced with higher NEFA levels at 21 days pp (P = 0.01). Eighty-five cows were inseminated and 37 (44%) got pregnant after insemination. Higher NEFA levels

  10. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. PMID:25284281

  11. Optimistic barrier synchronization. Contractor report

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    Barrier synchronization is a fundamental operation in parallel computation. In many contexts, at the point a processor enters a barrier it knows that is has already processed all work required of it prior to the synchronization. This paper treats the alternative case, when a processor cannot enter a barrier with the assurance that it has already performed all necessary pre-synchronization computation. The proble marises when the number of pre-synchronization messages to be received by a processor is unknown, for example, in a parallel discrete simulation or any other computation that is largely driven by an unpredictable exchange of messages. The authors describe an optimistic O(log2P) barrier algorithm for such problems, study its performance on a large-scale parallel system, and consider extensions to general associative reductions, as well as associative parallel prefix computations.

  12. Generic Conditions for Hydrodynamic Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Nariya; Golestanian, Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Synchronization of actively oscillating organelles such as cilia and flagella facilitates self-propulsion of cells and pumping fluid in low Reynolds number environments. To understand the key mechanism behind synchronization induced by hydrodynamic interaction, we study a model of rigid-body rotors making fixed trajectories of arbitrary shape under driving forces that are arbitrary functions of the phase. For a wide class of geometries, we obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for synchronization of a pair of rotors. We also find a novel synchronized pattern with an oscillating phase shift. Our results shed light on the role of hydrodynamic interactions in biological systems, and could help in developing efficient mixing and transport strategies in microfluidic devices.

  13. Synchronous motion modulates animacy perception.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Visual motion serves as a cue for high-level percepts. The present study reports novel modulation of animacy perception through synchronous motion. A target dot moving along a random trajectory was presented. The trajectory was generated based on a variant of 1/f noise; hence, the dot could be perceived as animate. Participants were asked to rate the strength of perceived animacy and perceived intention from the target dot. Several task-irrelevant dots surrounding the target were also presented. Results indicated that perceived animacy and intention were drastically weakened when surrounding dots created synchronous motion with the target dot as compared to when surrounding dots did not create synchronous motion. A series of follow-up experiments replicated these results and revealed specific characteristics of this modulation. The present findings suggest synchronous visual motion serves as a strong modulator of animacy perception. PMID:26114680

  14. Synchronous identification of friendly targets

    DOEpatents

    Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.

    1998-01-01

    A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.

  15. Synchronization by small time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruessner, G.; Cheang, S.; Jensen, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    Synchronization is a phenomenon observed in all of the living and in much of the non-living world, for example in the heart beat, Huygens' clocks, the flashing of fireflies and the clapping of audiences. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom involved, different mathematical approaches have been used to describe it, most prominently integrate-and-fire oscillators and the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. In the present work, we study a very simple and general system of smoothly evolving oscillators, which continue to interact even in the synchronized state. We find that under very general circumstances, synchronization generically occurs in the presence of a (small) time delay. Strikingly, the synchronization time is inversely proportional to the time delay.

  16. Synchronous Photodiode-Signal Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, Howard K.

    1988-01-01

    Synchronous sampling circuit increases signal-to-noise ratio of measurements of chopped signal of known phase and frequency in presence of low-frequency or dc background noise. Used with linear array of photoelectric sensors for locating edge of metal plate. Multiplexing circuit cycles through 16 light-emitting-diode/photodiode pairs, under computer control. Synchronized with multiplexer so edge detector makes one background-subtracted signal measurement per emitter/detector pair in turn.

  17. Synchronizing Rotation Of A Heavy Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Drive system rotates large-inertia load at constant low speed. Simple setup of motors, pulleys, and belts provides both torque and synchronism. Induction motor drives two loads: rotating instrument and slightly lagging synchronous motor. Provides ample torque to start and maintain rotation, and synchronous motor ensures rotation synchronized with ac power supply.

  18. Synchronous reactive programming in Ptolemy

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanger, F.; Vidal-Naquet, G.

    1996-12-31

    Synchronous reactive languages allow a high level deterministic description of reactive systems such as control-command systems. Their well defined mathematical semantics makes it possible to check formal properties on the control of a system. In previous work, we developed an object-oriented execution model for synchronous reactive modules. This model is implemented as a set of tools and a C++ class library, and allows us to use object-oriented methodologies and tools for the design of complex applications with both transformational and reactive parts. Among these design tools, the Ptolemy system stands as an object-oriented framework that supports various execution models, or {open_quotes}domains{close_quotes}. We are currently working on a translator from the output format of the Lustre and Esterel compilers to the Ptolemy language. Since no existing domain matches the reactive synchronous execution model, we also plan to develop a SEC (Synchronous Execution and Communication) domain. Such a domain will provide support for the execution of synchronous modules in Ptolemy. One of the most interesting features of Ptolemy is the communication between domains. Therefore we discuss the interface of the SEC domain to other domains to determine the meaning of communications between them. The main goal is to allow the use of synchronous reactive modules for the control of the behavior of data-flow or discrete event processes.

  19. Synchronization configurations of two coupled double pendula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koluda, Piotr; Perlikowski, Przemyslaw; Czolczynski, Krzysztof; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2014-04-01

    We consider the synchronization of two self-excited double pendula hanging from a horizontal beam which can roll on the parallel surface. We show that such pendula can obtain four different robust synchronous configurations. Our approximate analytical analysis allows to derive the synchronization conditions and explains the observed types of synchronizations. We consider the energy balance in the system and show how the energy is transferred between the pendula via the oscillating beam allowing the pendula' synchronization.

  20. Noncoherent DTTLs for Symbol Synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin; Tkacenko, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Noncoherent data-transition tracking loops (DTTLs) have been proposed for use as symbol synchronizers in digital communication receivers. [Communication- receiver subsystems that can perform their assigned functions in the absence of synchronization with the phases of their carrier signals ( carrier synchronization ) are denoted by the term noncoherent, while receiver subsystems that cannot function without carrier synchronization are said to be coherent. ] The proposal applies, more specifically, to receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signals generated by directly phase-modulating binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data streams onto carrier signals having known frequencies but unknown phases. The proposed noncoherent DTTLs would be modified versions of traditional DTTLs, which are coherent. The symbol-synchronization problem is essentially the problem of recovering symbol timing from a received signal. In the traditional, coherent approach to symbol synchronization, it is necessary to establish carrier synchronization in order to recover symbol timing. A traditional DTTL effects an iterative process in which it first generates an estimate of the carrier phase in the absence of symbol-synchronization information, then uses the carrier-phase estimate to obtain an estimate of the symbol-synchronization information, then feeds the symbol-synchronization estimate back to the carrier-phase-estimation subprocess. In a noncoherent symbol-synchronization process, there is no need for carrier synchronization and, hence, no need for iteration between carrier-synchronization and symbol- synchronization subprocesses. The proposed noncoherent symbolsynchronization process is justified theoretically by a mathematical derivation that starts from a maximum a posteriori (MAP) method of estimation of symbol timing utilized in traditional, coherent DTTLs. In that MAP method, one chooses the value of a variable of interest (in this case, the offset in the estimated symbol

  1. Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyan, Annapurneswari; Radhakrishna, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) is not an uncommon entity in contemporary breast clinics. Improved life expectancy after breast cancer treatment and routine use of contra-lateral breast mammography has led to increased incidence of BBC. Our study objective was to define the epidemiological and tumour characteristics of BBC in India. Materials and Methods A total of 1251 breast cancer patients were treated during the period January 2007 to March 2015 and 30 patients were found to have BBC who constituted the study population (60 tumour samples). Synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBC) was defined as two tumours diagnosed within an interval of 6 months and a second cancer diagnosed after 6 months was labelled as metachronous breast cancer (MBC). Analyses of patient and tumour characteristics were done in this prospective data base of BBC patients. Results Median patient age was 66 years (range 39-85). Majority of the patients had SBC (n=28) and in 12 patients the second tumour was clinically occult and detected only by mammography of the contra-lateral breast. The second tumour was found at lower tumour size compared to the first in 73% of cases and was negative for axillary metastasis in 80% of cases (24/30). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histological type (n=51) and majority of the tumours were ER/PR positive (50/60). Her2 was overexpressed in 13 tumours (21%). Over 70% (22/30) of patients had similar histology in both breasts and amongst them grade concordance was present in about 69% (15/22) of patients. Concordance rates of ER, PR and Her2 statuses were 83%, 80% and 90% respectively. Bilateral mastectomy was the commonest surgery performed in 80% of the patients followed by bilateral breast conservation in 13%. At the end of study period, 26 patients were alive and disease free. Median survival was 29 months (range 3-86 months). Conclusion In most patients with BBC, the second tumour is identified at an early stage than index

  2. Influence of estrus expression prior to fixed-time AI on embryo survival to maternal recognition of pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estradiol has been reported to play a critical role in pregnancy establishment and embryonic survival. Our objective was to focus on the role of preovulatory estradiol in embryo survival from fertilization to maternal recognition of pregnancy. Beef cows (n = 29) were synchronized with the CO-Synch p...

  3. Effect of Amniotic-Fluid Ingestion on Vaginal-Cervical-Stimulation-Induced Fos Expression in Female Rats During Estrus

    PubMed Central

    Hoey, Robert F.; Hurley, Seth W.; Daniels, Derek; Kristal, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    Placental Opioid-Enhancing Factor (POEF) is a substance found in amniotic fluid (AF) that, when ingested, potentiates opioid-mediated, but not non-opioid-mediated, hypoalgesia. Vaginal-cervical stimulation (VCS) produces a stimulus-bound, partially opioid-mediated hypoalgesia that previous research has shown to be potentiated by AF ingestion. To understand the mechanism of opioid enhancement by POEF we investigated the pattern of neural activation after a bout of VCS that produced hypoalgesia, with and without co-administration of AF. Specifically, virgin Long-Evans rats showing vaginal estrus were handled briefly (control) or received VCS (75 g pressure, 1 min), in a pattern that approximated early parturition rather than copulation, using a spring-loaded glass-rod probe. Rats were given an orogastric infusion (0.25 ml) of either AF or 0.9% saline resulting in four groups (VCS or handling; AF or saline). Rats were perfused 90 min after treatment and tissue was processed by immunohistochemistry for Fos. The number of Fos-immunoreactive cells was counted in structures previously shown to express Fos in response to VCS (the medial preoptic area, MPOA; the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, vlVMH; the arcuate nucleus, ARC). We found that this pattern of VCS did not produce a significant increase in Fos expression in the MPOA and vlVMH unless it was paired with AF. VCS produced a significant increase in Fos in the ARC. The interaction of AF and VCS on Fos expression in the MPOA suggests that POEF may enhance vaginal-cervical sensory input at parturition to facilitate sensitization of the MPOA, and presumably facilitate maternal-behavior onset. PMID:21184750

  4. Bodily synchronization underlying joke telling

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R. C.; Nie, Lin; Franco, Alison; Richardson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in video and time series analysis have greatly enhanced our ability to study the bodily synchronization that occurs in natural interactions. Past research has demonstrated that the behavioral synchronization involved in social interactions is similar to dynamical synchronization found generically in nature. The present study investigated how the bodily synchronization in a joke telling task is spread across different nested temporal scales. Pairs of participants enacted knock–knock jokes and times series of their bodily activity were recorded. Coherence and relative phase analyses were used to evaluate the synchronization of bodily rhythms for the whole trial as well as at the subsidiary time scales of the whole joke, the setup of the punch line, the two-person exchange and the utterance. The analyses revealed greater than chance entrainment of the joke teller’s and joke responder’s movements at all time scales and that the relative phasing of the teller’s movements led those of the responder at the longer time scales. Moreover, this entrainment was greater when visual information about the partner’s movements was present but was decreased particularly at the shorter time scales when explicit gesturing in telling the joke was performed. In short, the results demonstrate that a complex interpersonal bodily “dance” occurs during structured conversation interactions and that this “dance” is constructed from a set of rhythms associated with the nested behavioral structure of the interaction. PMID:25177287

  5. Follicular populations and luteal function in dairy heifers treated with a controlled internal drug release insert for 14 days as a method to synchronize the estrous cycle before prostaglandin F₂α treatment and artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Escalante, R C; Poock, S E; Lucy, M C

    2013-06-01

    Progesterone-containing controlled internal drug release (CIDR) inserts are used to synchronize the estrous cycle before PGF2α is administered for timed AI (14dCIDR-PGF2α program). The program, initially designed for beef cattle, was recently shown to be efficacious in dairy heifers. We hypothesized that the 14-d CIDR treatment would synchronize the estrous cycle in dairy heifers and result in a uniformly sized corpus luteum (CL) and largest follicle (LF) at the time of PGF2α treatment. Holstein (n=110) or Holstein × Guernsey (n=4) dairy heifers were assigned to 2 treatments: (1) 14dCIDR-PGF2α [CIDR in for 14 d, CIDR out for 16d, PGF2α and AI after observed estrus (n=57)] or (2) control [PGF2α and AI after observed estrus (n=57)]. Regardless of treatment, additional PGF2α injections were administered at 14-d intervals to heifers that were not seen in estrus. Ovarian ultrasonography and blood sampling were done on d 0 (CIDR administered), 14 (day CIDR removed), 19 (5d after CIDR removed), 30 (PGF2α administered), and 44 (second PGF2α dose administered to heifers that were not detected in estrus after the first PGF2α). Compared with control (untreated), more CIDR-treated heifers were categorized as having a small CL (≤ 9.9 mm) and large LF (15.0-19.9 mm) on d 14 (CIDR removal) and, as expected, a greater percentage of CIDR-treated heifers were in estrus during the 5d after the CIDR removal compared with control heifers (75.4 vs. 22.8%, respectively). On d 19, the CIDR-treated heifers had apparently ovulated based on disappearance of LF and appearance of small CL. On d 30 (PGF2α administration), 89% of 14dCIDR-PGF2α heifers had CL that were ≥ 20 mm in diameter compared with 55% for control. Presence of larger CL on d 30 was associated with greater concentrations of plasma progesterone in 14dCIDR-PGF2α compared with control (10.5 ± 0.5 vs. 5.0 ± 0.6 ng/mL, respectively). The percentages of heifers with LF in the smallest category (≤ 9.9 mm) tended

  6. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-10-18

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility.

  7. Digital data detection and synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noack, T. L.; Morris, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The primary accomplishments have been in the analysis and simulation of receivers and bit synchronizers. It has been discovered that tracking rate effects play, a rather fundamental role in both receiver and synchronizer performance, but that data relating to recorder time-base-error, for the proper characterization of this phenomenon, is in rather short supply. It is possible to obtain operationally useful tape recorder time-base-error data from high signal-to-noise ratio tapes using synchronizers with relatively wideband tracking loops. Low signal-to-noise ratio tapes examined in the same way would not be synchronizable. Additional areas of interest covered are receiver false lock, cycle slipping, and other unusual phenomena, which have been described to some extent in this and earlier reports and simulated during the study.

  8. Chaotic synchronization system and electrocardiogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Liuqing; Dai, Xinlai; Li, Baodong

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model of chaotic synchronization of the heart-blood flow coupling dynamics is proposed, which is based on a seven dimension nonlinear dynamical system constructed by three subsystems of the sinoatrial node natural pacemaker, the cardiac relaxation oscillator and the dynamics of blood-fluid in heart chambers. The existence and robustness of the self-chaotic synchronization of the system are demonstrated by both methods of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The spectrum of Lyapunov exponent, the Lyapunov dimension and the Kolmogorov entropy are estimated when the system was undergoing the state of self-chaotic synchronization evolution. The time waveform of the dynamical variable, which represents the membrane potential of the cardiac integrative cell, shows a shape which is similar to that of the normal electrocardiogram (ECG) of human, thus implies that the model possesses physiological significance functionally.

  9. Remote synchronization in star networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, A.; Frasca, M.; Sciuto, G.; Buscarino, A.; Ngamga, E. J.; Fortuna, L.; Kurths, J.

    2012-02-01

    We study phase synchronization in a network motif with a starlike structure in which the central node's (the hub's) frequency is strongly detuned against the other peripheral nodes. We find numerically and experimentally a regime of remote synchronization (RS), where the peripheral nodes form a phase synchronized cluster, while the hub remains free with its own dynamics and serves just as a transmitter for the other nodes. We explain the mechanism for this RS by the existence of a free amplitude and also show that systems with a fixed or constant amplitude, such as the classic Kuramoto phase oscillator, are not able to generate this phenomenon. Further, we derive an analytic expression which supports our explanation of the mechanism.

  10. Effects of breed, age, season, and multiple ovulations on cyclic, PGF2α-induced, and postpartum estrus characteristics in Spanish jennies.

    PubMed

    Perez-Marin, C C; Galisteo, I; Perez-Rico, A; Galisteo, J

    2016-04-01

    This retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed data for a total of 104 jennies reared in southern Spain over the period 1995 to 2014. Intervals to ovulation and incidence of multiple ovulation and pregnancy were charted for spontaneous, PGF2α-induced, and postpartum estrous cycles. In spontaneous estrous cycles, the interovulatory interval varied as a function of breed (P < 0.03) and month of ovulation (P < 0.01), and duration of estrus signs was longer in older jennies (0.04). Spontaneous cycles were also associated with higher ovulation rates from September to January (P < 0.006). When PGF2α was used to induce the estrus, not only did estrus signs last longer in old (P < 0.004) and in polyovular (0.02) jennies but old jennies also displayed significantly higher ovulation rates (P < 0.03). In postpartum jennies, no variations were observed as a function of any of the independent variables analyzed. Comparison of ovulation rates between different types of cycle revealed that postpartum jennies exhibited significantly lower ovulation rates (1.32 ± 0.07) and a lower incidence of multiple ovulation (30.4%) than spontaneous (1.62 ± 0.04, 55.0%) and PGF2α-induced (1.74 ± 0.08, 65.5%) groups. No differences were observed in the incidence of ovulation or pregnancy depending on the location of ovulation in polyovular cycles, and ovulation occurred at similar rates in the right and left ovaries. These findings shed further light on reproductive physiology in jennies and may be of value in improving animal management. PMID:26747577

  11. Global Synchronization of a New Chua's System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guopeng; Liu, Di; Huang, Jinhua; Liao, Xiaoxin

    The problem of global synchronization control for a class of new Chua's system is studied in this paper. Several linear controllers are proposed to realize the global exponential synchronization of two Chua's systems. Decoupling feedback control method is used to make Chua's system global exponential synchronized. Global exponential synchronization with respect to (w.r.t) partial state variables is studied when one of the error variables is zero. Finally, an adaptive synchronization controller is designed to make the response and the driven systems synchronized. Moreover, the estimate errors of the uncertain parameters converge to zero since the persistent excitation condition holds. Additionally, numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  12. Forced synchronization of quasiperiodic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankevich, N. V.; Kurths, J.; Kuznetsov, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    A model of a generator of quasiperiodic oscillations forced by a periodic pulse sequence is studied. We analyze synchronization when the autonomous generator demonstrates periodic, quasiperiodic, respective weakly chaotic oscillations. For the forced quasiperiodic oscillations a picture of synchronization, consisting of small-scale and large-scale structures was uncovered. It even includes the existence of stable the three-frequency tori. For the regime of weak chaos a partial destruction of this features and of the regime of three-frequency tori are found.

  13. Cooperative Synchronization in Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzlinger, Bernhard; Wymeersch, Henk; Springer, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Synchronization is a key functionality in wireless network, enabling a wide variety of services. We consider a Bayesian inference framework whereby network nodes can achieve phase and skew synchronization in a fully distributed way. In particular, under the assumption of Gaussian measurement noise, we derive two message passing methods (belief propagation and mean field), analyze their convergence behavior, and perform a qualitative and quantitative comparison with a number of competing algorithms. We also show that both methods can be applied in networks with and without master nodes. Our performance results are complemented by, and compared with, the relevant Bayesian Cram\\'er-Rao bounds.

  14. Simulating synchronization in neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Christian G.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss several techniques used in simulating neuronal networks by exploring how a network's connectivity structure affects its propensity for synchronous spiking. Network connectivity is generated using the Watts-Strogatz small-world algorithm, and two key measures of network structure are described. These measures quantify structural characteristics that influence collective neuronal spiking, which is simulated using the leaky integrate-and-fire model. Simulations show that adding a small number of random connections to an otherwise lattice-like connectivity structure leads to a dramatic increase in neuronal synchronization.

  15. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOEpatents

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  16. Optimized multiparty quantum clock synchronization

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Av, Radel; Exman, Iaakov

    2011-07-15

    A multiparty protocol for distributed quantum clock synchronization has been claimed to provide universal limits on the clock accuracy, viz., that accuracy monotonically decreases with the number n of party members. But this is only true for synchronization when one limits oneself to W states. This work shows that the usage of Z (Symmetric Dicke) states, a generalization of W states, results in improved accuracy, having a maximum when Left-Floor n/2 Right-Floor of its members have their qubits with a |1> eigenstate.

  17. Synchronization in an optomechanical cavity.

    PubMed

    Shlomi, Keren; Yuvaraj, D; Baskin, Ilya; Suchoi, Oren; Winik, Roni; Buks, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    We study self-excited oscillations (SEO) in an on-fiber optomechanical cavity. Synchronization is observed when the optical power that is injected into the cavity is periodically modulated. A theoretical analysis based on the Fokker-Planck equation evaluates the expected phase space distribution (PSD) of the self-oscillating mechanical resonator. A tomography technique is employed for extracting PSD from the measured reflected optical power. Time-resolved state tomography measurements are performed to study phase diffusion and phase locking of the SEO. The detuning region inside which synchronization occurs is experimentally determined and the results are compared with the theoretical prediction. PMID:25871175

  18. Synchronization with sound propagation delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haché, A.

    2010-04-01

    Complex systems that synchronize with acoustic signals, like chanting crowds and musical ensembles, have the intrinsic ability to maintain synchrony without external aid or visual cues, even when spread over wide areas. According to two models, the counterintuitive self-synchronization happens when the system's components have a spatial distribution that is sufficiently uniform. The roles of system size and density are examined for arrangements in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions. Asynchrony is predicted to become vanishingly small at high densities, and results suggest ways on how to minimize asynchrony in real-world situations.

  19. Efficacy of the Ovsynch protocol for synchronization of ovulation and fixed-time artificial insemination in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Paul, Vijay; Prakash, B S

    2005-09-15

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the timing and synchrony of ovulation, plasma LH concentrations, and pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) treated with the Ovsynch (GnRH-PGF(2 alpha)-GnRH) protocol. In Experiment 1, 10 non-lactating cycling buffaloes received 10 microg of a GnRH analogue i.m. (buserelin acetate) without regard to the stage of the estrous cycle (day of treatment, day 0), followed by 25mg of PGF(2 alpha) i.m. (dinoprost thromethamine) 7 days later. A second-treatment of the same GnRH analogue (10 microg, i.m.) was given 48 h after PGF(2 alpha). Ovulation was confirmed by transrectal palpation (at 2-h intervals) from the second-GnRH treatment to detection of ovulation or up to 96 h after the second-GnRH treatment. Plasma LH concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 15-min intervals for 6h, starting at the second-GnRH treatment, and thereafter at 2-h intervals until 2h after detection of ovulation. Ovulation occurred in 9/10 buffalo (90%) 23.3+/-1.3h (mean+/-S.E.M.; range 20--32 h) after the second-GnRH treatment. Peak LH concentrations 13.5+/-3.5 ng/mL (range 3.9--40.0 ng/mL) occurred 2.1+/-0.1h (range 1.2-3.0 h) after the second-GnRH treatment. In Experiment 2, 15 lactating, cycling buffaloes were subjected to the Ovsynch protocol, with fixed-time AI 12 and 24h after the second-GnRH treatment and 75 lactating buffaloes were inseminated, approximately 12h after detection of spontaneous estrus. Pregnancy rates were 33.3% for TAI and were 30.7% for buffaloes inseminated following spontaneous estrus (P=0.84). In conclusion, the Ovsynch protocol effectively synchronized ovulation in Murrah buffaloes and resulted in conception rates (to two fixed-time inseminations) that were comparable to those achieved with a single AI after detection of spontaneous estrus. PMID:16125551

  20. Fermi Timing and Synchronization System

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, R.; Staples, J.; Doolittle, L.; Byrd, J.; Ratti, A.; Kaertner, F.X.; Kim, J.; Chen, J.; Ilday, F.O.; Ludwig, F.; Winter, A.; Ferianis, M.; Danailov, M.; D'Auria, G.

    2006-07-19

    The Fermi FEL will depend critically on precise timing of its RF, laser and diagnostic subsystems. The timing subsystem to coordinate these functions will need to reliably maintain sub-100fs synchronicity between distant points up to 300m apart in the Fermi facility. The technology to do this is not commercially available, and has not been experimentally demonstrated in a working facility. Therefore, new technology must be developed to meet these needs. Two approaches have been researched by different groups working with the Fermi staff. At MIT, a pulse transmission scheme has been developed for synchronization of RF and laser devices. And at LBL, a CW transmission scheme has been developed for RF and laser synchronization. These respective schemes have advantages and disadvantages that will become better understood in coming years. This document presents the work done by both teams, and suggests a possible system design which integrates them both. The integrated system design provides an example of how choices can be made between the different approaches without significantly changing the basic infrastructure of the system. Overall system issues common to any synchronization scheme are also discussed.

  1. PCM synchronization by word stuffing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butman, S.

    1969-01-01

    When a transmitted word, consisting of a number of pulses, is detected and removed from the data stream, the space left by the removal is eliminated by a memory buffer. This eliminates the need for a clock synchronizer thereby removing instability problems.

  2. Tweaking synchronization by connectivity modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Paul; Peron, Thomas; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ramírez Ávila, Gonzalo Marcelo; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally treelike substructures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach, we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behavior. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain number of additional links, with the relative position in the network being crucial, can be beneficial to ensure stable synchronization.

  3. Synchronous Parallel Kinetic Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Mart?nez, E; Marian, J; Kalos, M H

    2006-12-14

    A novel parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) algorithm formulated on the basis of perfect time synchronicity is presented. The algorithm provides an exact generalization of any standard serial kMC model and is trivially implemented in parallel architectures. We demonstrate the mathematical validity and parallel performance of the method by solving several well-understood problems in diffusion.

  4. Synchronization by elastic neuronal latencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardi, Roni; Timor, Reut; Marom, Shimon; Abeles, Moshe; Kanter, Ido

    2013-01-01

    Psychological and physiological considerations entail that formation and functionality of neuronal cell assemblies depend upon synchronized repeated activation such as zero-lag synchronization. Several mechanisms for the emergence of this phenomenon have been suggested, including the global network quantity, the greatest common divisor of neuronal circuit delay loops. However, they require strict biological prerequisites such as precisely matched delays and connectivity, and synchronization is represented as a stationary mode of activity instead of a transient phenomenon. Here we show that the unavoidable increase in neuronal response latency to ongoing stimulation serves as a nonuniform gradual stretching of neuronal circuit delay loops. This apparent nuisance is revealed to be an essential mechanism in various types of neuronal time controllers, where synchronization emerges as a transient phenomenon and without predefined precisely matched synaptic delays. These findings are described in an experimental procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on a circuit of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in vitro, and are corroborated and extended by simulations of circuits composed of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with time-dependent latencies. These findings announce a cortical time scale for time controllers based on tens of microseconds stretching of neuronal circuit delay loops per spike. They call for a reexamination of the role of the temporal periodic mode in brain functionality using advanced in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  5. Sports Medicine Meets Synchronized Swimming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz, Betty J.; And Others

    This collection of articles contains information about synchronized swimming. Topics covered include general physiology and cardiovascular conditioning, flexibility exercises, body composition, strength training, nutrition, coach-athlete relationships, coping with competition stress and performance anxiety, and eye care. Chapters are included on…

  6. Tweaking synchronization by connectivity modifications.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Paul; Peron, Thomas; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ramírez Ávila, Gonzalo Marcelo; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally treelike substructures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach, we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behavior. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain number of additional links, with the relative position in the network being crucial, can be beneficial to ensure stable synchronization. PMID:27415259

  7. Synchronous navigation for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Adam; Summers, Ronald M.; Roy, Dave

    2006-03-01

    We present a synchronous navigation module for CT colonography (CTC) reading. The need for such a system arises because most CTC protocols require a patient to be scanned in both supine and prone positions to increase sensitivity in detecting colonic polyps. However, existing clinical practices are limited to reading one scan at a time. Such limitation is due to the fact that building a reference system between scans for the highly flexible colon is a nontrivial task. The conventional centerline approach, generating only the longitudinal distance along the colon, falls short in providing the necessary orientation information to synchronize the virtual navigation cameras in both scanned positions. In this paper we describe a synchronous navigation system by using the teniae coli as anatomical references. Teniae coli are three parallel bands of longitudinal smooth muscle on the surface of the colon. They are morphologically distinguishable and form a piecewise triple helix structure from the appendix to the sigmoid colon. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal references to synchronize virtual cameras in both scanned positions. Our new navigation system consists of two side-by-side virtual colonoscopic view panels (for the supine and prone data sets respectively) and one single camera control unit (which controls both the supine and prone virtual cameras). The capability to examine the same colonic region simultaneously in both scanned images can raise an observer's confidence in polyp identification and potentially improve the performance of CT colonography.

  8. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  9. Sensorimotor Synchronization across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewing, Knut; Aschersleben, Gisa; Li, Shu-Chen

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the contribution of general processing resources as well as other more specific factors to the life-span development of sensorimotor synchronization and its component processes. Within a synchronization tapping paradigm, a group of 286 participants, 6 to 88 years of age, were asked to synchronize finger taps with…

  10. High speed synchronizer card utilizing VLSI technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speciale, Nicholas; Wunderlich, Kristin

    1988-01-01

    A generic synchronizer card capable of providing standard NASA communication block telemetry frame synchronization and quality control was fabricated using VLSI technology. Four VLSI chip sets are utilized to shrink all the required functions into a single synchronizer card. The application of VLSI technology to telemetry systems resulted in an increase in performance and a decrease in cost and size.