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Sample records for nonlactating cows submitted

  1. [Amino acid composition and peptide maps of udder and serum albumins in lactating and nonlactating cows].

    PubMed

    Lagodiuk, P Z; Klos, Iu S; Charkin, V A; Kisil', I O

    1983-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides of albumin hydrolyzates from the mammary gland and blood serum were studied for lactating and nonlactating (dry, pregnant 1-4.5 and 4.5-9 months) black-and-white cows. Most pronounced difference between the content of certain amino acids of the mammary gland and blood serum albumins are established for lactating cows and least pronounced for nonlactating dry cows. Dactylography detected 55-57 fragments of products resulted from trypsin hydrolysis of the mammary gland and blood serum albumins of the animals under study. Differences are found in the content and mobility of certain peptides. PMID:6829076

  2. Daily dry matter intake to sustain body weight of mature, nonlactating, nonpregnant cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To quantify the relationship between DM consumption, the ability to sustain weight per unit of DMI and days to reach weight equilibrium among diverse cattle breeds, weight and DM intake data were recorded for mature, non-pregnant and non-lactating cows sampled from Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Heref...

  3. Effect of anionic salts on selenium metabolism in nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gant, R G; Sanchez, W; Kincaid, R L

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine whether anionic salts in the diets of nonlactating, pregnant cows for 14 to 21 d prepartum affected measures of Se status. One of three dietary treatments (control, anionic salts, and anionic salts plus Se) was administered to 34 nonlactating, pregnant cows using a completely randomized design with repeated measures. The anionic salts were delivered via gelatin capsules that were administered orally in two equal amounts per day, and the Se (3 mg/d) was administered via an intraruminal bolus. The incidence of milk fever among cows was not significantly different across dietary treatments. The severity of hypocalcemia as indicated by concentrations of ionized Ca in serum collected < 2 h postpartum was significantly lessened by dietary anionic salts. Supplementation of anionic salts to the diet did not significantly affect serum Ca concentrations at either 7 d prepartum or 7 d postpartum. Anionic salts did not affect concentrations of Se in blood; however, Se supplementation of the diets of cows significantly increased postpartum concentrations of Se in serum. No treatment effects were detected for concentrations of Se in either serum or whole blood of newborn calves. In conclusion, these data indicate that diets supplemented with anionic salts for 14 to 21 d prepartum and the supplementation of diets with Se had independent effects on concentrations of minerals in blood. Thus, anionic salts administered to prevent milk fever without danger of significantly reducing the transfer of Se from the dam to the calf and without compromising the Se status of the cow when the anionic salts are limited to administration for 14 to 21 d before calving. PMID:9684171

  4. The influence of body condition on the fasting energy metabolism of nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Birnie, J W; Agnew, R E; Gordon, F J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of cow body condition score on fasting heat production. Twelve nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows were selected from within the dairy herd at the Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland. Six of these animals (group A) had condition scores > or = 4.5, and the remainder (group B) had condition scores <2. All cows were offered dried grass pellets at estimated maintenance energy level (0.58 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg(0.75)) for a minimum of 21 d. The diet also supplied 2.5 times the metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance. Following this, each cow underwent a 5-d fast in open circuit respiration calorimeters during which fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. On completion of measurement, group A was fed to reduce condition score (CS) below 2, while group B was fed to raise each individual condition score above 4.5. When the appropriate condition scores were achieved, dried grass pellets were again offered at maintenance for a minimum of 21 d, and fasting heat production was measured. It was observed that fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was significantly higher for cows with low body condition (<2; ultrasonic fat depth < or = 2.9 mm) compared with cows displaying high body condition (> or = 4.5; ultrasonic fat depth > or = 8.2 mm). A linear relationship between condition score and fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was defined by regression analysis as; FHP (MJ/kg(0.75)) = 0.501(SE 0.0121) - 0.030CS (SE 0.0035). PMID:10877386

  5. Cardiac responses to palpation per rectum in lactating and nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kovács, L; Tőzsér, J; Szenci, O; Póti, P; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Gábriel-Tőzsér, Gy; Hoffmann, D; Bakony, M; Jurkovich, V

    2014-11-01

    Interest in the monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV) has increased recently, as it gives more detailed and immediate information about the level of stress than traditional behavioral or hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal measures. In this study, we evaluated heart rate (HR) and parasympathetic HRV parameters to monitor cardiac stress responses to palpation per rectum (PPR) in lactating (LACT; n = 11) and nonlactating (NLACT; n = 12) dairy cows. Heart rate and HRV were recorded from 40 min before PPR until 120 min after it was completed. Heart rate, the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and the high-frequency component (HF) of HRV were analyzed by examining 5-min time windows. To compare cardiac responses to PPR between groups, changes in HR and HRV parameters were calculated as area under the curve (AUC) for LACT and NLACT cows. An immediate increase in HR was detected during PPR in both LACT (+21.4 ± 2.4 beats/min) and NLACT cows (+20.6 ± 2.3 beats/min); however, no differences were found between groups on the basis of parameters of AUC. The increase in HR in both groups along with a parallel decrease in RMSSD (LACT cows: -5.2 ± 0.4 ms; NLACT cows: -5.1 ± 0.4 ms) and HF [LACT cows: -10.1 ± 0.8 nu (where nu = normalized units); NLACT cows: -16.9 ± 1.2 nu] during PPR indicate an increase in the sympathetic, and a decrease in the parasympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system. The increase in RMSSD (LACT cows: +7.3 ± 0.7 ms; NL cows: +17.8 ± 2.2 ms) and in HF (LACT cows: +24.3 ± 2.6 nu; NLACT cows: +32.7 ± 3.5 nu) immediately after PPR indicated a rapid increase in parasympathetic activity, which decreased under the baseline values 10 min following PPR. The amplitude and the maximum RMSSD and HF values were greater in NLACT cows than in LACT animals, suggesting a higher short-term cardiac responsiveness of NLACT cows. However, the magnitude and the duration of the stress response were greater in LACT cows, as indicated by the

  6. Nitrate but not tea saponin feed additives decreased enteric methane emissions in nonlactating cows.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2015-11-01

    Tea saponin is considered a promising natural compound for reducing enteric methane emissions in ruminants. A trial was conducted to study the effect of this plant extract fed alone or in combination with nitrate on methane emissions, total tract digestive processes, and ruminal characteristics in cattle. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 ruminally cannulated nonlactating dairy cows. Feed offer was restricted to 90% of voluntary intake and diets consisted of (DM basis): 1) control (CON; 50% hay and 50% pelleted concentrates), 2) CON with 0.5% tea saponin (TEA), 3) CON with 2.3% nitrate (NIT), and 4) CON with 0.5% tea saponin and 2.3% nitrate (TEA+NIT). Tea saponin and nitrate were included in pelleted concentrates. Diets contained similar amounts of CP (12.2%), starch (26.0%), and NDF (40.1%). Experimental periods lasted 5 wk including 2 wk of measurement (wk 4 and 5), during which intake was measured daily. In wk 4, daily methane emissions were quantified for 4 d using open circuit respiratory chambers. In wk 5, total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were determined from total feces and urine collected separately for 6 d. Ruminal fermentation products and protozoa concentration were analyzed from samples taken after morning feeding for 2 nonconsecutive days in wk 5. Tea saponin and nitrate supplementation decreased feed intake ( < 0.05), with an additive effect when fed in combination. Compared with CON, tea saponin did not modify methane emissions (g/kg DMI; > 0.05), whereas nitrate-containing diets (NIT and TEA+NIT) decreased methanogenesis by 28%, on average ( < 0.001). Total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were similar among diets. Ruminal fermentation products were not affected by tea saponin, whereas nitrate-containing diets increased acetate proportion and decreased butyrate proportion and ammonia concentration ( < 0.05). Under the

  7. Timothy silage with low dietary cation-anion difference fed to nonlactating cows.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, E; Chouinard, P Y; Tremblay, G F; Allard, G; Pellerin, D

    2009-05-01

    Decreasing the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) by using anion sources before calving reduces hypocalcemia in cows at calving. Reduced DCAD from CaCl2-fertilized timothy hay achieves similar results, but the effects of feeding low-DCAD forage as silage have not been determined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-DCAD timothy silage on dry cows. Six nonlactating and nonpregnant Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Treatments were 1) control diet (DCAD = 232 mEq/kg of dry matter, DM); 2) low-DCAD diet using a low-DCAD timothy silage (LDTS; DCAD = -21 mEq/kg of DM); and 3) low-DCAD diet using a fermentation by-product (LDBP; DCAD = -32 mEq/kg of DM). Differences between dietary treatments were considered statistically significant at P < or = 0.05 and tendencies were noted when 0.05 < P < 0.10. Compared with the control, feeding LDTS tended to decrease DM intake (10.6 vs. 12.5 kg/d) and decreased urinary pH (6.15 vs. 8.18) as well as apparent digestibility of DM (67 vs. 69%). Blood pH (7.37 vs. 7.42), HCO3- (25.3 vs. 27.5 mM), and base excess (0.4 vs. 3.1 mM) were decreased, and blood Cl- (29.6 vs. 29.1 mg/dL) was increased. Apparently absorbed Na and Cl were higher and apparently absorbed K, P, and digested ADF were lower for LDTS compared with the control. Both LDTS and LDBP resulted in similar DM intake. Urinary pH tended to be higher (6.15 vs. 5.98) and percentage of digested DM was lower (67 vs. 70%) with LDTS compared with LDBP. Blood ionized Ca (5.3 vs. 5.4 mg/dL) tended to be lower and blood Cl- (29.6 vs. 30.1 mg/dL) was lower, whereas blood pH (7.37 vs. 7.33), HCO3- (25.3 vs. 21.5 mM), and base excess (0.4 vs. -3.8 mM) were higher with LDTS compared with LDBP. Apparent absorption of Na, Cl, S, and P, as well as apparent digestion of acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and N were lower, and K, Cl, S, P, Mg, and N were less retained with LDTS compared with LDBP. Results confirm that low

  8. Requirements for zero energy balance of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed fresh autumn pasture are greater than currently estimated.

    PubMed

    Mandok, K S; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; Edwards, G R; Roche, J R

    2013-06-01

    Fifty-three nonlactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cross dairy cows were grouped into 4 cohorts (n=15, 12, 13, and 13) and offered 1 of 3 allowances of fresh, cut pasture indoors for 38 ± 2 d (mean ± SD). Cows were released onto a bare paddock after their meal until the following morning. Animals were blocked by age (6 ± 2 yr), day of gestation (208 ± 17 d), and body weight (BW; 526 ± 55 kg). The 3 pasture allowances [low: 7.5 kg of dry matter (DM), medium: 10.1 kg of DM, or high: 12.4 kg of DM/cow per day] were offered in individual stalls to determine the estimated DM and metabolizable energy (ME) intake required for zero energy balance. Individual cow DM intake was determined daily and body condition score was assessed once per week. Cow BW was recorded once per week in cohorts 1 and 2, and 3 times per week in cohorts 3 and 4. Low, medium, and high allowance treatments consumed 7.5, 9.4, and 10.6 kg of DM/cow per day [standard error of the difference (SED)=0.26 kg of DM], and BW gain, including the conceptus, was 0.2, 0.6, and 0.9 kg/cow per day (SED=0.12 kg), respectively. The ME content of the pasture was estimated from in vitro true digestibility and by near infrared spectroscopy. Total ME requirements for maintenance, pregnancy, and limited activity were 1.07 MJ of ME/kg of measured metabolic BW per day. This is more than 45% greater than current recommendations. Differences may be due to an underestimation of ME requirements for maintenance or pregnancy, an overestimation of diet metabolizability, or a combination of these. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for the greater ME requirements measured in the present study, but the results are important for on-farm decisions regarding feed allocation for nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows. PMID:23522671

  9. Evaluation of the systemic innate immune response and metabolic alterations of nonlactating cows with diet-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lecompte, J C; Kroeker, A D; Ceballos-Márquez, A; Li, S; Plaizier, J C; Gomez, D E

    2014-12-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) increases lipopolysaccharide endotoxin in the rumen, which might translocate into the systemic circulation, triggering a cascade of clinical and immunological alterations. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical immune and metabolic responses to ruminal-derived lipopolysaccharide in nonlactating cows induced with SARA using 2 challenges, a grain-based SARA challenge (GBSC) or an alfalfa-pellet SARA challenge (APSC). Six dry, nonlactating Holstein cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement of treatments with 4-wk experimental cycles. All cows received the control diet containing 70% forage and 30% mixed concentrates (dry matter basis) for 3 wk. In wk 4, cows received a control diet, GBSC (38% wheat-barley pellets, 32% other mixed concentrate, and 30% forages), or APSC (45% mixed concentrate, 32% alfalfa pellets, and 23% other forages). Total plasma proteins and immunology-related proteins, acute phase proteins, blood cells, serum chemistry, mRNA gene expression of peripheral blood cell surface markers, and selected proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Ruminal pH was lower in both groups with induced SARA compared with a control group. Ruminal endotoxins were higher in GBSC; however, plasma endotoxin was not detected in any study group. No significant differences in feed intake, rectal temperature, white blood cell counts, or differentials were found between control and SARA challenge groups; changes in glucose, urea, Ca, and Mg were observed in SARA groups. Total plasma proteins were lower in both SARA groups, and acute phase proteins were higher in GBSC. The expression of CD14, MD2, and TLR4 mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes was not affected by SARA induction. The induction of SARA as a result of GBSC or APSC challenge was successful; however, LPS was not detected in plasma. Changes in clinical, metabolic, and inflammatory responses were not observed in the SARA-challenged cows, suggesting that

  10. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility. PMID:22951117

  11. Efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for body weight gain in pasture-based, nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mandok, K M; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; McNamara, J P; Crookenden, M; White, R; Shields, S; Edwards, G R; Roche, J R

    2014-07-01

    Four cohorts of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows (n=50, 47, 45, and 42) were individually fed indoors to determine the amount of feed required for body weight (BW) gain from autumn pasture and commonly used supplementary feeds. These results were used to estimate the apparent efficiency with which metabolizable energy (ME) is used for BW gain (app_kg). Control cows were offered autumn pasture to estimated maintenance requirements (~0.55 MJ of ME/kg of BW(0.75)), with an additional 20 MJ of ME/d allocated for pregnancy and activity. All other cows received the same allowance of autumn pasture and an additional allowance (2.5 or 5.0 kg of dry matter/d) of autumn pasture (Past), spring pasture silage (Psil), maize silage (Msil), cracked maize grain (Mgr), or palm kernel expeller (PKE), resulting in a total of 11 treatments. Individual cow dry matter intake was determined daily; BW was recorded once per week for cohorts 1 and 2, and 3 times per week for cohorts 3 and 4. The ME contents of feeds were estimated from feed quality assays. Regression analyses were used on each feed to determine the ME requirement for 1 kg of BW gain. The app_kg of Past and Msil was 0.34 and 0.47, respectively; these estimates are in line with published literature. The app_kg of Psil (0.50) was consistent with the published kg for spring pasture, from which the silage was made. Palm kernel expeller had the greatest app_kg (0.61). The reasons for this cannot be deduced from the current study but may reflect the relatively high fat content of the feed and the high kg of fat. The app_kg for Mgr was low (0.38) in comparison with the other supplementary feeds and, in particular, relative to its feed ME and published kg estimates. Although the reason for the low app_kg cannot be deduced from the current data, the most plausible reason is the preferential use of propionate-derived glucose for conceptus metabolism rather than BW gain, a factor not accounted for in previous experimental models that

  12. Use of a split or single prostaglandin F(2α) treatment in a 6-day synchronization protocol for nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Valldecabres-Torres, X; García-Muñoz, A; García-Roselló, E; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2013-03-01

    The 6-d timed artificial insemination protocol has been designed to advance luteolysis after the first administration of GnRH so that the preovulatory follicular diameter at second GnRH is reduced and thereby pregnancy outcome may be improved. To achieve an earlier and complete luteolysis (5 to 6 d after the first GnRH treatment), an extra PGF(2α) treatment must be administered to cows 24 h after the initial PGF(2α) treatment. Although the use of 2 PGF(2α) treatments increases labor costs resulting from the increased handling of cows, no alternative and efficient protocol with a single PGF(2α) treatment has been found to date. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a modified 6-d synchronization protocol on the luteolytic response and final preovulatory follicle diameter. The study followed a crossover design: 14 nonlactating dairy cows were included in 2 treatment doses. All cows received a presynchronization treatment consisting of 2 administrations of a PGF(2α) analog (PGF) 14 d apart followed by treatment with GnRH 11 d later. After the first GnRH administration, one treatment consisted of 150 µg of d-cloprostenol 5 and 6 d later (split dose) and the other treatment consisted of 375 µg of d-cloprostenol as a single dose 6 d after the first GnRH (single large dose). All cows were then treated with a second GnRH 8 d after the first. The luteolytic response to treatment was evaluated by blood progesterone concentration and CL area regression -1 to 3 d relative to the last PGF treatment obtained by ELISA and ultrasonography, respectively. Fewer cows of the split dose tended to have complete luteolysis 3 d after the last PGF treatment compared with the cows of the single large dose (35.7 and 64.3%, respectively). The final preovulatory diameter of the dominant follicle was similar in cows from the split dose and single large dose (13.7 ± 0.3 and 13.1 ± 0.5mm, respectively). Our results support the modification of the 6-d synchronization

  13. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Winkler, Janine; Ulrich, Sebastian; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Rehage, Jürgen; Häussler, Susanne; Sauerwein, Helga; Locher, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Diet change and fatness are supposed to challenge the immune system of the cow. Therefore, immunological and haematological consequences of adaptation to and continued feeding of a high-energy diet were studied in eight non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein cows over 16 weeks. Blood haptoglobin concentration remained unaltered, suggesting that an acute phase reaction was not induced. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated oxidative burst capacity of granulocytes increased significantly in the course of the experiment after an initial drop. While total leucocyte counts increased, the proportion of granulocytes increased and that of lymphocytes decreased at the same time as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes did. Capability of rumen microbes to detoxify the immune-modulating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not compromised as indicated by the exclusive presence of de-DON as the detoxified DON metabolite in blood. In conclusion, both diet change and prolonged positive energy balance influenced the bovine immune system. PMID:26654380

  14. Development of a programmable piggyback syringe pump and four-times-a-day injection regimen for superovulation in non-lactating Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    IRSHAD, Abdul Razaq; SASAKI, Taihei; KUBO, Tomoaki; ODASHIMA, Naoyuki; KATANO, Keiji; OSAWA, Takeshi; TAKAHASHI, Toru; IZAIKE, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a programmable piggyback syringe pump for bovine superovulation and to evaluate the effects of a four-times-a-day injection regimen using the pump. Non-lactating Holstein cows were treated with a total of 30 armour units of porcine FSH by injection four times a day with the pump (study, n = 9) or injection twice a day manually (control, n = 9) for four consecutive days from D10 of the estrous cycle. The pump-driven program successfully induced superovulation in all cows tested. The numbers of small (3– < 5 mm in diameter) and large (≥ 10 mm in diameter) follicles were greater in the study group on D11-13 and D14, respectively. There were fewer unovulated follicles detected on D21 (7 days after estrus) in the study group than in the control group (1.2 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6, respectively). PMID:26052155

  15. The effect of a negative energy balance status on β-carotene availability in serum and follicular fluid of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Bie, J; Langbeen, A; Verlaet, A A J; Florizoone, F; Immig, I; Hermans, N; Fransen, E; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolic pressure due to a cow's negative energy balance (NEB) has a negative effect on oocyte quality as a result of increased oxidative stress. In this study, we hypothesized that a NEB status may negatively affect the availability of β-carotene (bC, an antioxidant) in the micro-environment of the oocyte or follicular fluid (FF) and that daily bC supplementation can increase bC availability. We aimed to (1) determine the effect of a nutritionally induced NEB on bC concentrations in serum and FF as well as on the presence of bC metabolites, oxidative stress levels, and follicular growth in a nonlactating dairy cow model, and (2) investigate how this effect could be altered by dietary bC supplementation. Six multiparous nonlactating Holstein Friesian cows were subjected to 4 consecutive dietary treatments, 28 d each: (1) 1.2 × maintenance (M) or positive energy balance (PEB) without bC supplement (PEB-bC), (2) 1.2 × M with daily supplement of 2,000mg of bC comparable to the level of bC intake at grazing (PEB+bC), (3) 0.6 × M with 2,000mg of bC (NEB+bC), and (4) 0.6 × M (NEB-bC). At the end of each treatment, estrous cycles were synchronized and blood and FF of the largest follicle were sampled and analyzed for bC, retinol, α-tocopherol, free fatty acids, estradiol, and progesterone. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, insulin growth factor 1, growth hormone, total antioxidant status (TAS), and red blood cell glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined as well. All cows lost body weight during both energy restriction periods and showed increased serum free fatty acid concentrations, illustrating a NEB. A dietary induced NEB reduced FF bC, but not plasma bC or plasma and FF retinol concentrations. However, bC and retinol concentrations drastically increased in both fluid compartments after bC supplementation. Follicular diameter was increased in supplemented PEB cows. Energy restriction reduced the TAS and red blood cell GSH, whereas daily b

  16. Urinary calcium excretion in non-lactating dairy cows in relation to intake of fat-coated rice bran.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; Derks, M; van Laar, H; Mulder, K; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-02-01

    At calving, many older cows fail to compensate the sudden demand of calcium by an adequate activation of intestinal absorption. This results in a variable degree of hypocalcaemia. Reducing intestinal availability of calcium during the close-up period can prevent milk fever. Fat-coated rice bran (FCRB) was investigated for its potential to reduce Ca availability in pre-calving cows. Fat-coated rice bran was incubated in situ to estimate ruminal degradation of dry matter and phytic acid. Also, seven dry multiparous dairy cows were used for a feeding trial in three periods of approximately 1 week each: P1: adaptation; P2: feeding of 2 kg of FCRB and P3: withdrawal of FCRB. Feed intake was recorded and daily urine samples were analysed for pH, Ca and creatinine. The bypass fraction of phytic acid (passage rate: 5%/h) was 30%. Fat-coated rice bran depressed dry matter intake in P2, resulting in a lower Ca intake. In P2 urine pH and calcium excretion were lower. Daily calcium excretion decreased after introduction of FCRB, peaked after withdrawal and dropped 2 days later. Changes in urinary Ca excretion by feeding FCRB indicate that FCRB affected Ca homeostasis in dry multiparous dairy cows. PMID:19364378

  17. Prediction of metabolisable energy concentrations of fresh-cut grass using digestibility data measured with non-pregnant non-lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Allen, Michelle; Chen, Xianjiang; Wills, David; Yan, Tianhai

    2015-05-28

    Pasture-based ruminant production systems are common in certain areas of the world, but energy evaluation in grazing cattle is performed with equations developed, in their majority, with sheep or cattle fed total mixed rations. The aim of the current study was to develop predictions of metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations in fresh-cut grass offered to non-pregnant non-lactating cows at maintenance energy level, which may be more suitable for grazing cattle. Data were collected from three digestibility trials performed over consecutive grazing seasons. In order to cover a range of commercial conditions and data availability in pasture-based systems, thirty-eight equations for the prediction of energy concentrations and ratios were developed. An internal validation was performed for all equations and also for existing predictions of grass ME. Prediction error for ME using nutrient digestibility was lowest when gross energy (GE) or organic matter digestibilities were used as sole predictors, while the addition of grass nutrient contents reduced the difference between predicted and actual values, and explained more variation. Addition of N, GE and diethyl ether extract (EE) contents improved accuracy when digestible organic matter in DM was the primary predictor. When digestible energy was the primary explanatory variable, prediction error was relatively low, but addition of water-soluble carbohydrates, EE and acid-detergent fibre contents of grass decreased prediction error. Equations developed in the current study showed lower prediction errors when compared with those of existing equations, and may thus allow for an improved prediction of ME in practice, which is critical for the sustainability of pasture-based systems. PMID:25864464

  18. Pathways of the dominant follicle after exposure to sub-luteal circulating progesterone concentrations are different in lactating dairy cows versus non-lactating heifers.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, B; De Koster, J; Bommelé, L; Dovenski, T; Opsomer, G

    2015-03-01

    With the increased use of different synchronization programs in cattle, attention is given to the progesterone concentration during development of the ovulatory follicle. It has been shown that low peripheral progesterone concentrations during follicular development may lead to decreased fertility. To investigate the effect of low progesterone concentrations on the fate of the dominant follicle, a study was conducted where cycles of dairy cows and heifers were manipulated to induce the development of the first dominant follicle without progesterone (PLACEBO) or under sub-luteal progesterone concentrations from a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID Delta(®)). After insertion of the devices, daily follow up was performed by transrectal ultrasonography to identify and measure follicular development and blood samples were taken to determine the circulating progesterone concentration. Follow up was continued until the ovulation of a follicle occurred. After ovulation, the fate of the first dominant follicle was identified as arrested, atretic or ovulatory. Arrest was defined as persistence of the dominant follicle followed by ovulation whereas atresia was defined as regression of the dominant follicle and subsequent growth and ovulation of a new follicle. During PLACEBO treatment, heifers ovulated earlier and smaller follicles in comparison to cows. During PRID Delta(®) treatment, heifers had greater progesterone concentrations compared to cows and arrest of the dominant follicle occurred more in cows in comparison to heifers. In cycles where the dominant follicle was arrested, the ovulatory follicle was larger in comparison to cycles where the dominant follicle was atretic. PMID:25637465

  19. Effect of ovulatory follicle size on steroidogenic capacity and molecular markers of oocyte competence prior to GnRH-induced ovulation in non-lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality in beef cows. Inadequate oocyte competence, as affected by the physiological status of the dominant follicle, is a potential explanation for the...

  20. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  1. Milk traits of lactating cows submitted to feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Alexandre Mossate; McManus, Concepta Margareth; Zanela, Maira Balbinotti; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Barbosa, Rosângela Silveira; Fruscalso, Vilmar; Thaler Neto, André; Schmidt, Fernando André; Fischer, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Data from five experiments with dairy cows where feed was restricted to 0, 40, and 50% of the ad libitum amount, with 259 observations, were subjected to multivariate analyses to determine the effects of severity and duration of feed restriction on production, physical-chemical characteristics, ethanol stability, and somatic cell score of milk. A negative relationship was seen between the severity and duration of feed restriction with milk production, lactose content, titratable acidity, and milk stability to the ethanol test. The milk stability to the ethanol test, protein content, milk yield, and somatic cells score were the most important attributes retained by the discriminant analysis. Milk stability to the ethanol test, live weight, days in restriction, and pH were the most important characteristics explaining the variance within the different levels of feed restriction. Milk production and ethanol stability were significantly lower in both levels of feed restriction compared with the group fed ad libitum. When feed restriction was followed by refeeding, the difference observed in ethanol stability was the first discriminant variable, followed by the difference in unstable milk frequency and titratable acidity. Increments in the severity and duration of feed restriction negatively affect milk production and milk ethanol stability. PMID:26385460

  2. The prediction of methane production of Holstein cows by several equations.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    1995-11-01

    Ruminants are one of many sources contributing to atmospheric methane. The accuracy of seven published equations for methane prediction was evaluated using a data file consisting of 16 experiments (602 observations). Methane energy emissions ranged from .89 to 7.21 Mcal/d for Holstein cows. The DMI ranged from 9.7 to 28.7 kg/d for lactating cows and 4.0 to 12.9 kg/d for nonlactating cows. Mean dietary concentrations of ADF, CP, and ether extract were similar for lactating and nonlactating cows (20.9, 16.5, and 3.0% for lactating cows versus 21.2, 15.7, and 2.9% for nonlactating cows, respectively). Milk production ranged from 2.7 to 55.9 kg/d. Prediction equations were ranked by correlation coefficients and error of prediction. Prediction of methane energy loss from lactating and nonlactating Holstein cows with equations based on the daily total intake or intake of digested cellulose, hemicellulose, and nonfiber carbohydrates (OM - NDF - CP - ether extract) provided the highest correlation coefficients for reproducibility and the lowest errors of prediction. Predictions were poor for lactating cows when a quadratic function of DMI was used. In general, equations estimated methane production more accurately and precisely for nonlactating than for lactating cows. PMID:8747332

  3. Vitamin D3 toxicity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Littledike, E T; Horst, R L

    1982-05-01

    Large parenteral doses of vitamin D3 (15 to 17.5 x 10(6) IU vitamin D3) were associated with prolonged hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and large increases of vitamin D3 and its metabolites in the blood plasma of nonlactating nonpregnant and pregnant Jersey cows. Calcium concentrations 1 day postpartum were higher in cows treated with vitamin D3 about 32 days prepartum (8.8 mg/100 ml) than in control cows (5.5 mg/100 ml). None of the cows treated with vitamin D3 showed signs of milk fever during the peripartal period; however, 22% of the control cows developed clinical signs of milk fever during this period. Signs of vitamin D3 toxicity were not observed in nonlactating nonpregnant cows; however, pregnant cows commonly developed severe signs of vitamin D3 toxicity and 10 of 17 cows died. There was widespread metastatic calcification in the cows that died. Because of the extreme toxicity of vitamin D3 in pregnant Jersey cows and the low margin of safety between doses of vitamin D3 that prevent milk fever and doses that induce milk fever, we concluded that vitamin D3 cannot be used practically to prevent milk fever when injected several weeks prepartum. PMID:6286738

  4. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO. PMID:27216557

  5. Behavioral effects of rotation between lactating and nonlactating females.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, S F; Turkewitz, G

    1979-05-01

    Rat pups stunted by housing only 8 hr daily with lactating females and 16 hr with nonlactating foster mothers showed a delay in returning to their nest from other parts of the home cage. This delay was not due to changes in activity level or to lack of attraction to the nest, but appeared to be perceptual in nature. Both lactating and nonlactating females caring for stunted litters tended to be more maternal than those caring for control pups. After nutritional rehabilitation, the adult experimental animals showed no deficits in learning a series of visual discrimination problems in a modified version of the Lashley jumping stand procedure with a nonappetitive reinforcement. We compared the results with those obtained when other methods of stunting animals are employed and concluded that different methods of stunting may result in both common and divergent effects on behavior. Although many methods of stunting may produce similar behavioral deficits during the period of food deprivation, after rehabilitation behavioral deficits reported with other techniques of stunting may be due to extranutritional causes rather than to reduced food intake per se. PMID:437363

  6. Influence of ruminal methane on digesta retention and digestive physiology in non-lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Hammond, Kirsty J; Kirton, Paul; Humphries, David J; Crompton, Les A; Ortmann, Sylvia; Misselbrook, Tom H; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Reynolds, Christopher K; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Enteric methane (CH4) production is a side-effect of herbivore digestion, but it is unknown whether CH4 itself influences digestive physiology. We investigated the effect of adding CH4 to, or reducing it in, the reticulorumen (RR) in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with rumen-fistulated, non-lactating cows, with four treatments: (i) control, (ii) insufflation of CH4 (iCH4), (iii) N via rumen fistula, (iv) reduction of CH4 via administration of bromochloromethane (BCM). DM intake (DMI), apparent total tract digestibility, digesta mean retention times (MRT), rumen motility and chewing activity, spot breath CH4 emission (CH4exhal, litre/kg DMI) as well as CH4 dissolved in rumen fluid (CH4RRf, µg/ml) were measured. Data were analysed using mixed models, including treatment (or, alternatively, CH4exhal or CH4RRf) and DMI relative to body mass0·85 (rDMI) as covariates. rDMI was the lowest on the BCM treatment. CH4exhal was highest for iCH4 and lowest for BCM treatments, whereas only BCM affected (reduced) CH4RRf. After adjusting for rDMI, CH4RRf had a negative association with MRT in the gastrointestinal tract but not in the RR, and negative associations with fibre digestibility and measures of rumination activity. Adjusting for rDMI, CH4exhal had additionally a negative association with particle MRT in the RR and a positive association with rumen motility. Thus, higher rumen levels of CH4 (CH4exhal or CH4RRf) were associated with shorter MRT and increased motility. These findings are tentatively interpreted as a feedback mechanism in the ruminant digestive tract that aims at mitigating CH4 losses by shortening MRT at higher CH4. PMID:27452637

  7. Nutritional management of the donor cow.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E P; Cerri, R L A; Sartori, R

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition of the donor cow can influence oocyte and embryo quality, which can affect the success of embryo transfer. Severe undernutrition compromised ovarian follicular development, with implications for superovulatory response and embryo quality. In postpartum lactating cows, undernutrition or inability to consume sufficient nutrients delayed resumption of ovulation, reduced the number of follicles, and compromised oocyte quality. Moderate undernutrition of nonlactating cows was unlikely to affect embryo quality; conversely, nonlactating animals on maintenance diets usually had better superovulatory responses and improved oocyte competence and embryo quality. The negative effects of overfeeding are thought to be mediated by alterations in endocrine cues, such as hyperinsulinemia and increased glucose and IGF-I, which may interfere with glucose transport in the embryo and increase apoptosis. Manipulating energy sources such as carbohydrates and fatty acids (FA) may influence embryo viability, but the effects of FA were not consistent in vitro; increasing concentrations of unsaturated FA in follicular and embryonic cells usually improved embryo viability and resistance to cryopreservation. Excess protein intake and increased urea and ammonia in body fluids can be toxic to embryos, impairing their development; these effects seemed to be associated with alterations in uterine pH and granulosa cell function. Likewise, toxins in feeds (e.g. gossypol), reduced embryo development and increased pregnancy losses. Diet of donor cows should be formulated to optimize the supply of nutrients to meet needs; however, manipulating energy intake, source of FA and protein content of donor diets, particularly moderate underfeeding in nonlactating cows, may further optimize responses. PMID:17959235

  8. Effect of Ovulatory Folicle Size and Expression of Estrus on Progesterone Secretion in Beef Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of ovulatory follicle size at GnRH-induced or spontaneous ovulation on serum concentrations of progesterone in nonlactating beef cows (Exp. 1), and to determine the effect of ovulatory follicle size at GnRH-induced or spontaneous ovulation on...

  9. Decreases in serum apolipoprotein B-100 and A-I concentrations in cows with milk fever and downer cows

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Shin; Katoh, Norio

    2002-01-01

    Milk fever occurring during the peripartum period has been suggested to be caused by fatty liver developed during the nonlactating stage because diseased cows have increased serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and show hepatic lipidosis. In cows with fatty liver and related diseases such as ketosis, serum concentrations of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 and apoA-I are decreased. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether apoB-100 and apoA-I concentrations are similarly decreased in cows with milk fever. Apolipoprotein concentrations were also measured in cows with downer syndrome, which has been suggested to be related, at least in part, to milk fever. Compared with healthy cows during early lactation, apoB-100 and apoA-I concentrations were decreased in cows with milk fever and also in downer cows. In cows with milk fever, the decreases in apoB-100 and apoA-I concentrations were associated with increased NEFA and decreased cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations. However, in downer cows, serum lipid concentration changes were not as distinct as in cows with milk fever. These results, coupled with previous findings on the decreases in apoB-100 and apoA-I concentrations of cows with fatty liver-related diseases, suggest that fatty liver is involved in the development of milk fever and partly in that of downer cow syndrome. PMID:11858646

  10. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  11. The effect of high-starch diets fed to beef cows during late gestation on the feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fetus requires glucose as an energy source; hence, it was hypothesized that diets rich in glycogenic substrates during late gestation would yield offspring that have a greater potential to produce a high quality carcass. In November of 2005 and 2006, 54 and 59, respectively, non-lactating cows o...

  12. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

  13. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P < 0.01) and consumed more herbage (P < 0.01) compared with cows grazed in the morning. Higher (P < 0.05) daily mean concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate and n-butyrate in rumen fluid were observed for cows grazed in the evening compared with cows grazed in the morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P < 0.01) in the urine of cows grazed in the evening than in cows grazed in the morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency. PMID:26607997

  14. The effect of vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity in non-lactating women with postpartum thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, R; Kowalcze, K; Okopien, B

    2016-05-01

    The study included 38 non-lactating l-thyroxine-treated women with postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) and 21 matched healthy postpartum women. Women with vitamin D deficiency were treated with oral vitamin D (4000 IU daily), whereas women with vitamin D insufficiency and women with normal 25-hydroxy vitamin levels were either treated with vitamin D (2000 IU daily) or left untreated. Serum hormone levels and thyroid antibody titers were measured at the beginning of the study and 3 months later. 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were lower in women with PPT than in healthy women. Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibody titers inversely correlated with vitamin D status. Apart from increasing serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and decreasing serum levels of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D reduced titers of thyroid peroxidase antibodies and this effect was stronger in women with vitamin D deficiency. The study's results suggest that vitamin D supplementation may bring benefits to l-thyroxine-treated women with PPT. PMID:26757834

  15. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    PubMed

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  16. The monitoring, prevention, and treatment of milk fever and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2008-04-01

    The periparturient cow undergoes a transition from non-lactating to lactating at calving. The animal is tremendously challenged to maintain calcium homeostasis. Those that fail can develop milk fever, a clinical disorder that is life threatening to the cow and predisposes the animal to a variety of other disorders. Guidelines for monitoring the incidence of hypocalcemia and methods for treating milk fever are reviewed. The physiological factors that cause milk fever and strategies for prevention of milk fever are discussed, focusing on the effects diet cation-anion difference can have on tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Another major risk factor for milk fever is hypomagnesemia, which is observed when animals are fed inadequate amounts of magnesium, or some factor is present in the diet that prevents adequate absorption of magnesium. Moderate hypomagnesemia impairs the ability of the cow to maintain calcium homeostasis and hypocalcemia occurs. PMID:18342555

  17. An evaluation of visual assessment for fertility in Brahman cross cows using the Bonsma technique.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, G; Cooper, N J

    1995-01-15

    A technique of visual assessment of cattle for reproductive efficiency, described by Professor Jan Bonsma of South Africa, was evaluated in two well-managed large herds of 1/2 to 3/4 Brahman cross heifers and cows located in the dry tropics of north Australia. Individual lifetime performance records were available for all animals. Experienced cattlemen carried out the assessments. Higher scores were previously claimed to indicate higher fertility. The technique had high repeatability (0.7) and was quickly learned by the assessors. Scores from visual assessment had no useful predictive value for either heifer or cow fertility or for growth rate up to 27 mo of age, although 2.5-yr-old heifers which were scored as subfertile matured into 4% smaller cows than heifers which had scored higher. Scores decreased as fatness increased (P < 0.05). Some biases in visual assessment occurred. Lactating cows scored higher than nonlactating cows (P < 0.05), independently of their reproductive record. Red and grey cows scored higher than brindle and black/brown cows (P < 0.05). Bonsma scores were not influenced by the percentage of Brahman in the genotype. Significant, but apparently random, age effects on scores also occurred. It was concluded that the visual assessment criteria described by Bonsma were of no practical value in assessing potential productivity of breeding animals in well-managed Brahman cross cattle in the dry tropics. PMID:16727641

  18. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    PubMed

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte. PMID:12487447

  19. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow

    PubMed Central

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized. PMID:24489391

  20. Menstrual patterns and fecundity among non-lactating and lactating cycling women in rural highland Bolivia: implications for contraceptive choice.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, V J; Spielvogel, H; Caceres, E; Gaines, J

    2000-10-01

    Choosing an appropriate contraceptive method, particularly one based on fertility awareness, depends in part upon the degree of a woman's cycling regularity. However, while the suppressive effect of lactation on ovarian function is well established, the potential influence of continued breastfeeding on menstrual patterns once post-partum cycling has resumed is largely unexamined. This longitudinal study in a population of non-contracepting Aymara women (n = 191 providing 665 non-truncated menstrual segments) identified conceptions and fetal loss via urine tests for hCG and classified segments accordingly to test the hypotheses that (1) cycles in lactating women are significantly different in length and regularity from those of non-lactating women, and (2) cycles in women living at high altitude are significantly different in length and regularity from those at lower altitudes. Analyses found that segments are significantly longer and regularity tends to be less common among lactating than non-lactating women; however, the rate of conception is twice as great among the former than the latter, and the distribution of conception outcomes does not differ between the two groups. Menstrual regularity is not the norm in this population, even among those who are not currently breastfeeding. High altitude per se does not appear to influence menstrual cycling as both regularity and segment length are comparable to other populations, hence women indigenous to high altitude are suitable candidates for a wide variety of contraceptive choices. In addition, these findings suggest that studies of fecundability limited to non-lactating women may be biased towards those of relatively lower fecundity. PMID:11137072

  1. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  2. Exercise training of late-pregnant and nonpregnant dairy cows affects physical fitness and acid-base homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J A; Beede, D K

    2009-02-01

    The objective was to determine if exercise training improves physical fitness of nonlactating, late-pregnant and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows and alters acid-base homeostasis during an exercise test on a treadmill. Twenty-six pairs (each pair having 1 late-pregnant and 1 nonpregnant) of cows were assigned to treatments of exercise training or no exercise. Exercise training was walking (1.25 to 1.5 h at 3.25 km/h) every other day in an outdoor mechanical walker for 70 d. Cows completed treadmill exercise tests on d 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment or about d 70, 40, and 10 before expected parturition of the pregnant cow of each pair. On d 0, physical fitness was similar among all cows based on durations of treadmill tests, heart rates, and acid-base measurements at given workloads (21.1 +/- 0.6 min; 144 +/- 2.2 beats per min; plasma lactate 3.1 +/- 1.9 mmol/L; and venous blood pH 7.44 +/- 0.0035, respectively). After 60 d of training, exercised cows walked longer during treadmill exercise tests compared with nonexercised cows (23.7 vs. 18.3 +/- 0.85 min, respectively), indicating greater physical fitness (pooled across pregnancy status). Heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations at given workloads were less (144 vs. 156 +/- 2.7 beats per min; and 1.4 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.24 mmol/L for exercised compared with nonexercised cows, respectively). Additionally, exercised cows more effectively maintained acid-base homeostasis during treadmill tests compared with nonexercised cows. Metabolic, endocrine, and nutritional demands associated with late pregnancy did not affect responses differently to exercise training for late-pregnant compared with nonpregnant cows. Overall, exercise training of late-pregnant and nonpregnant cows for 60 d improved physical fitness. PMID:19164665

  3. Synchronization of ovulation in beef cows (Bos indicus) using GnRH, PGF2alpha and estradiol benzoate.

    PubMed

    Barros, C M; Moreira, M B; Figueiredo, R A; Teixeira, A B; Trinca, L A

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate protocols for synchronizing ovulation in beef cattle. In Experiment 1, Nelore cows (Bos indicus) at random stages of the estrous cycle were assigned to 1 of the following treatments: Group GP controls (nonlactating, n=7) received GnRH agonist (Day 0) and PGF2alpha (Day 7); while Groups GPG (nonlactating, n=8) and GPG-L (lactating, n=9) cows were given GnRH (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and GnRH again (Day 8, 30 h after PGF2alpha). A new follicular wave was observed 1.79+/-0.34 d after GnRH in 19/24 cows. After PGF2alpha, ovulation occurred in 19/24 cows (6/7 GP, 6/8 GPG, 7/9 GPG-L). Most cows (83.3%) exhibited a dominant follicle just before PGF2alpha, and 17/19 ovulatory follicles were from a new follicular wave. There was a more precise synchrony of ovulation (within 12 h) in cows that received a second dose of GnRH (GPG and GPG-L) than controls (GP, ovulation within 48 h; P<0.01). In Experiment 2, lactating Nelore cows with a visible corpus luteum (CL) by ultrasonography were allocated to 2 treatments: Group GPE (n=10) received GnRH agonist (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and estradiol benzoate (EB; Day 8, 24 h after PGF2alpha); while Group EPE (n=11), received EB (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 9) and EB (Day 10, 24 h after PGF2alpha). Emergence of a new follicular wave was observed 1.6+/-0.31 d after GnRH (Group GPE). After EB injection (Day 8) ovulation was observed at 45.38+/-2.03 h in 7/10 cows within 12 h. In Group EPE the emergence of a new follicular wave was observed later (4.36+/-0.31 d) than in Group GEP (1.6+/-0.31 d; P<0.001). After the second EB injection (Day 10) ovulation was observed at 44.16+/-2.21 h within 12 (7/11 cows) or 18 h (8/11 cows). All 3 treatments were effective in synchronizing ovulation in beef cows. However, GPE and, particularly, EPE treatments offer a promising alternative to the GPG protocol in timed artificial insemination of beef cattle, due to the low cost of EB compared with GnRH agonists. PMID

  4. Genetic regulation of prepartum dry matter intake in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shonka, B N; Tao, S; Dahl, G E; Spurlock, D M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI) in prepartum nonlactating and in lactating Holstein cows. Measurements were recorded on cows from Iowa State University (ISU) and the University of Florida (UF) dairy herds. Individual feed intake data were recorded daily at ISU from approximately 30 d prepartum through 150 d in milk (DIM). Individual intakes from cows at UF were recorded for approximately 42 d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum DMI traits were defined as DMI on d -15 (multiparous) or d -8 (primiparous) relative to calving date (DRYDMI), DMI on d -1 before parturition (CALVEDMI), and the negative of the slope of a regression line fitted through the last 14 (multiparous) or 7 (primiparous) days before calving (DEC). Lactation DMI traits were defined as DMI at 30 DIM (DMI30) and 100 DIM (DMI100; ISU data only). The final data set included 245 primiparous and 221 multiparous cows from ISU, and 125 multiparous cows from UF. Heritability estimates were 0.43, 0.64, 0.32, and 0.62 for DRYDMI, CALVEDMI, DEC, and DMI30, respectively. The estimate of heritability for DMI100 (ISU only) was 0.52. The genetic correlation between DRYDMI and DMI30 was 0.97. Thus, DMI prepartum is a moderately heritable trait that is highly correlated with intake during early lactation. Genetic correlations between DEC and DMI during lactation were lower and similar to standard error estimates (-0.24 ± 0.22 for DEC and DMI30 for combined data, and -0.13 ± 0.27 for DEC and DMI100 in ISU data). Thus, selection for altered DMI during lactation may not dramatically affect the depression in intake that occurs before parturition. PMID:26319760

  5. Absorption, retention, and utilization of two forms of selenium given simultaneously as stable isotope tracers to lactating and nonlactating women

    SciTech Connect

    Mangels, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated absorption, retention, and utilization of selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}) in 6 lactating and 6 nonlactating women, 2 to 3 mo postpartum, and 7 never pregnant women. Subjects were maintained on controlled diets for 3 wk. After 1 wk equilibration, subjects received simultaneous oral doses of {sup 74}Se L-SeMet and {sup 76}Se SeO{sub 3}. Complete urine and fecal collections were made for 1 d prior to and 2 wk after isotope dosing. Lactating women collected milk samples from all feedings for 24 h before and 48 h after isotopes. Blood was collected from subjects before isotope dosing and 2,24, 168, and 336 h later. All samples were analyzed for natural Se, {sup 74}Se, and {sup 76}Se by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

  6. Flaxseed supplementation decreases methanogenic gene abundance in the rumen of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Schoenhals, K E; Brady, P A; Estill, C T; Perumbakkam, S; Craig, A M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a flaxseed-supplemented diet on archaeal abundance and gene expression of methanogens in the rumen of dairy cows. In all, 11 non-lactating dairy cows were randomly divided into two groups: group A (five cows) and B (six cows). The two diets fed were: (1) the control diet, a conventional dry cow ration; and (2) the flaxseed-supplemented diet, the conventional dry cow ration adjusted with 12.16% ground flaxseed incorporated into the total mixed ration. A cross-over experiment was performed with the two groups of cows fed the two different diets for five 21-day periods, which included the first adaptation period followed by two treatment and two wash out periods. At the end of each feeding period, rumen fluid samples were collected via rumenocentesis and DNA was extracted. Quantitative PCR was utilized to analyze the gene abundance of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) targeting the ruminal archaea population and the mcrA gene coding for methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A, a terminal enzyme in the methanogenesis pathway. Results demonstrated a 49% reduction of 16S rRNA and 50% reduction of mcrA gene abundances in the rumen of dairy cows fed the flaxseed-supplemented diet in comparison with those fed the control diet. This shows flaxseed supplementation effectively decreases the methanogenic population in the rumen. Future studies will focus on the mechanisms for such reduction in the rumen of dairy cattle, as well as the relationship between methanogenic gene expression and methane production. PMID:22717375

  7. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems. PMID:26593693

  8. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  9. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  10. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  11. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( < 0.01) liver Co concentrations at birth compared with calves from CON cows. Liver Cu and Zn concentrations at birth were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows. Weaning BW was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows, and this difference was maintained until slaughter. In the growing lot

  12. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  13. A system to assess fitness of dairy cows responding to exercise training.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J A; Beede, D K

    2003-09-01

    Objectives were to develop a system to administer exercise training to dairy cows, to measure potential physiological indicators of fitness, and to assess physical fitness. Nonlactating, nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows (n = 19) were in one of three exercise training treatments: no exercise; 1-h exercise; or 2-h exercise by walking 3 km/h every other day for 60 d in a mechanical walker. Treadmill tests on d 15, 30, 45, and 60 consisted of walking (5 km/h) with 1.6% increases in slope at 3-min intervals until heart rates reached 180 beats per minute (experimentally specified maximum) or until cows refused to walk. Fitness indices analyzed in tests as single datum points at maximal heart rates were length of time of test, heart rate, and plasma L-lactate concentration at end of the test, and change in heart rate and lactate concentration during the test. Exercised (1 or 2 h) cows had longer times to end of tests than nonexercised cows. Maximal and change in heart rates or plasma lactate during tests did not indicate improved physical fitness. However, when all data were evaluated as repeated measures of day and minute of tests, reductions of heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations were greatest on d 60 between exercised and nonexercised cows indicating improved fitness. Acid-base measurements were not found useful in this study. Changes of heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations over time (repeated measures) of treadmill tests quantified the physical fitness of dairy cows and can be used to compare potential responses to different exercise training treatments in this system. PMID:14507020

  14. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  15. Determination of the effect of single abomasal or jejunal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens Type A in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A randomized study was conducted to determine if inoculation of the abomasum or jejunum with Clostridium perfringens Type A would induce jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in healthy cows. Twelve adult nonlactating dairy cows were inoculated with 10 mL of pure culture broth of C. perfringens type A (beta2 toxin positive) into the abomasum (n = 6) or jejunum (n = 6). On day 6, the cows were euthanized and samples for culture were taken from the abomasum, jejunum, and feces. No cows developed clinical signs of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome during the course of the study. Five of 6 abomasal samples and 1 of 6 jejunal samples were positive for C. perfringens Type A (beta2 negative) prior to inoculation. Eight of 12 abomasal samples, 11 of 12 fecal samples, and 10 of 12 jejunal samples were positive for C. perfringens Type A (beta2 negative) after inoculation. Intraluminal inoculation of C. perfringens Type A alone at this dose and under these conditions did not induce clinical signs of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in adult dairy cows. The multifactorial nature of the disease likely contributed to our inability to reproduce the disease in this study. PMID:16231652

  16. A new tracer experiment to estimate the methane emissions from a dairy cow shed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marik, Thomas; Levin, Ingeborg

    1996-09-01

    Methane emission from livestock and agricultural wastes contribute globally more than 30% to the anthropogenic atmospheric methane source. Estimates of this number have been derived from respiration chamber experiments. We determined methane emission rates from a tracer experiment in a modern cow shed hosting 43 dairy cows in their accustomed environment. During a 24-hour period the concentrations of CH4, CO2, and SF6, a trace gas which has been released at a constant rate into the stable air, have been measured. The ratio between SF6 release rate and measured SF6 concentration was then used to estimate the ventilation rate of the stable air during the course of the experiment. The respective ratio between CH4 or CO2 and SF6 concentration together with the known SF6 release rate allows us to calculate the CH4 (and CO2) emissions in the stable. From our experiment we derive a total daily mean CH4 emission of 441 LSTP per cow (9 cows nonlactating), which is about 15% higher than previous estimates for German cows with comparable milk production obtained during respiration chamber experiments. The higher emission in our stable experiment is attributed to the contribution of CH4 release from about 50 m3 of liquid manure present in the cow shed in underground channels. Also, considering measurements we made directly on a liquid manure tank, we obtained an estimate of the total CH4 production from manure: The normalized contribution of methane from manure amounts to 12-30% of the direct methane release of a dairy cow during rumination. The total CH4 release per dairy cow, including manure, is 521-530 LSTP CH4 per day.

  17. Effect of moderate dietary restriction on visceral organ weight, hepatic oxygen consumption, and metabolic proteins associated with energy balance in mature pregnant beef cows.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-09-01

    Twenty-two nonlactating multiparous pregnant beef cows (639 ± 68 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary restriction on the abundance of selected proteins regulating cellular energy metabolism. Cows were fed at either 85% (n = 11; LOW) or 140% (n = 11; HIGH) of total NE requirements. The diet consisted of a haylage-based total mixed ration containing 20% wheat straw. Cows were slaughtered by block (predicted date of parturition), beginning 83 d after the initiation of dietary treatments and every week thereafter for 6 wk, such that each block was slaughtered at approximately 250 d of gestation. Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papilli (ventral sac), pancreas, and small intestinal muscosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N2. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α), and 5´-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the activated form phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Statistical analysis was conducted using Proc Mixed in SAS and included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, cow age, block, and the random effect of pen. Dietary treatments resulted in cows fed HIGH having greater (P ≤ 0.04) ADG and final BW than cows fed LOW. Abundance of ubiquitin in muscle was greater (P = 0.009) in cows fed LOW, and PCG-1 α in liver was greater (P = 0.03) in cows fed HIGH. Hepatic O2 consumption was greater in HIGH (P ≤ 0.04). Feed intake can influence the abundance of important metabolic proteins and suggest that protein degradation may increase in muscle from moderately nutrient restricted cows and that energy metabolism in liver increases in cows fed above NE requirements. PMID:23893975

  18. In vivo oocyte developmental competence is reduced in lean but not in obese superovulated dairy cows after intraovarian administration of IGF1.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Miguel A; Hadeler, Klaus-Gerd; Herrmann, Doris; Kues, Wilfried A; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Ulbrich, Susanne; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Rémy, Benoît; Beckers, Jean-François; Sauerwein, Helga; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigated the role of IGF1 in lactating lean and non-lactating obese dairy cows by injecting 1 μg IGF1 into the ovaries prior to superovulation. This amount of IGF1 has been linked with pregnancy loss in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and was associated with impaired bovine oocyte competence in vitro. Transcript abundance and protein expression of selected genes involved in apoptosis, glucose metabolism, and the IGF system were analyzed. Plasma concentrations of IGF1 and leptin, and IGF1 in uterine luminal fluid (ULF), were also measured. IGF1 treatment decreased embryo viability in lean cows to the levels observed in obese cows. Obese cows were not affected by IGF1 treatment and showed elevated levels of IGF1 (in both plasma and ULF) and leptin. Blastocysts from lean cows treated with IGF1 showed a higher abundance of SLC2A1 and IGFBP3 transcripts. IGF1 treatment reduced protein expression of tumor protein 53 in blastocysts of lean cows, whereas the opposite was observed in obese cows. IGF1 in plasma and ULF was correlated only in the control groups. Blastocyst transcript abundance of IGF1 receptor and IGFBP3 correlated positively with IGF1 concentrations in both plasma and ULF in lean cows. The detrimental microenvironment created by IGF1 injection in lean cows and the lack of effect in obese cows resemble to a certain extent the situation observed in PCOS patients, where IGF1 bioavailability is increased in normal-weight women but reduced in obese women, suggesting that this bovine model could be useful for studying IGF1 involvement in PCOS. PMID:21543511

  19. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  20. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-10-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touchpanel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  1. Dissecting the COW

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  2. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  3. Alternative low doses and routes of administering a prostaglandin F2α analogue to induce luteolysis in Nelore cows

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Valsair Matos; Ferreira, João Carlos Pinheiro; Araujo, Gustavo Henrique M.; Gioso, Marilu M.; Bicudo, Sony Dimas; Oba, Eunice; Orlandi, Cassia

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to verify the efficacy of lower doses and alternative routes of a prostaglandin F2α analogue, luprostiol (PGF), for the induction of luteolysis and the precipitation of estrus in nonlactating Nelore cows (Bos taurus indicus). A conventional dose (15 mg) of PGF was compared to doses lower than the conventional dose, which ranges from 10 to 50%, that were administered intramuscularly (IM), intravulvosubmucosally (IVSM), or in the Bai-hui acupuncture site located within the lumbosacral area. The cows were administered PGF 8 day after estrus in the presence of a corpus luteum, and randomly assigned to the following groups: G1 (positive control), 15 mg, IM (n = 23); G2, 7.5 mg, IM (n = 23); G3, 3.75 mg, IM (n = 24); G4, 7.5 mg, IVSM (n = 25); G5, 3.75 mg, Bai-hui acupoint (n = 24); and G6, 1.5 mg, Bai-hui acupoint (n = 25). The results indicated that 50% of a conventional dose of PGF (7.5 mg) resulted in a complete luteal regression (plasma progesterone <1 ng/ml) at Hour 48, and hastened estrus, regardless of whether or not PGF was administered IM or IVSM. Comparatively, 10 or 25% of the conventional dose, even when administered to the Bai-hui acupoint, resulted in an initial reduction in the concentration of progesterone at Hour 24, followed by an increase observed at Hour 48. In conclusion, 25% of a conventional PGF dose administered via the Bai-hui acupoint proved inadequate to induce a complete luteal regression, whereas 50% of a conventional dose administered IM or IVSM was found to be the minimal dose required to induce effectively a complete luteal regression, and to precipitate the onset of estrus in nonlactating Nelore cows. PMID:17106232

  4. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  5. Hypomagnesaemia in suckler cows.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Hypomagnesaemia in housed and grazing suckler cows. Coronavirus infection in cows. Suspected nitrite toxicity in lambs associated with feeding broccoli. Maedi visna in ewes. Mycotic pneumonia in a wildcat. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26940414

  6. Using water to cool cattle: behavioral and physiological changes associated with voluntary use of cow showers.

    PubMed

    Legrand, A; Schütz, K E; Tucker, C B

    2011-07-01

    Water is commonly used to cool cattle in summer either at milking or over the feed bunk, but little research has examined how dairy cows voluntarily use water separate from these locations. The objectives were to describe how and when dairy cattle voluntarily used an overhead water source separate from other resources, such as feed, and how use of this water affected behavioral and physiological indicators of heat stress. Half of the 24 nonlactating cattle tested had access to a "cow shower" composed of 2 shower heads activated by a pressure-sensitive floor. All animals were individually housed to prevent competition for access to the shower. Over 5 d in summer (air temperature=25.3±3.3°C, mean ± standard deviation), cattle spent 3.0±2.1 h/24h in the shower, but considerable variability existed between animals (individual daily values ranged from 0.0 to 8.2 h/24h). A portion of this variation can be explained by weather; shower use increased by 0.3h for every 1°C increase in ambient temperature. Cows preferentially used the shower during the daytime, with 89±12% of the time spent in the shower between 1000 and 1900 h. Respiration rate and skin temperature did not differ between treatments [53 vs. 61 breaths/min and 35.0 vs. 35.4°C in shower and control cows, respectively; standard error of the difference (SED)=5.6 breaths/min and 0.49°C]. In contrast, body temperature of cows provided with a shower was 0.2°C lower than control cows in the evening (i.e., 1800 to 2100h; SED=0.11°C). Cows with access to a shower spent half as much time near the water trough than control animals, and this pattern became more pronounced as the temperature-humidity index increased. In addition, cattle showed other behavioral changes to increasing heat load; they spent less time lying when heat load index increased, but the time spent lying, feeding, and standing without feeding did not differ between treatments. Cows had higher respiration rate, skin temperature, and body

  7. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  8. Responses of the mammary transcriptome of dairy cows to altered photoperiod during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Bentley, P A; Wall, E H; Dahl, G E; McFadden, T B

    2015-10-01

    Cows exposed to short day photoperiod (SD, 8L:16D) during the 60-day nonlactating period prior to parturition produce more milk in their subsequent lactation compared with cows exposed to long day photoperiod (LD, 16L:8D). Although this response is well established in dairy cows, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We hypothesized that differential gene expression in cows exposed to SD or LD photoperiods during the dry period could be used to identify the functional basis for the subsequent increase in milk production during lactation. Pregnant, multiparous cows were maintained on an SD or LD photoperiod for 60 days prior to parturition. Mammary biopsies were obtained on days -24 and -9 relative to parturition and Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays were used to quantify gene expression. Sixty-four genes were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05 and fold-change ≥ |1.5|) between SD and LD treatments. Many of these genes were associated with cell growth and proliferation, or immune function. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted upstream regulators to include TNF, TGF-β1, interferon-γ, and several interleukins. In addition, expression of 125 genes was significantly different between day -24 and day -9; those genes were associated with milk component metabolism and immune function. The interaction of photoperiod and time affected 32 genes associated with insulin-like growth factor I signaling. Genes differentially expressed in response to photoperiod were associated with mammary development and immune function consistent with the enhancement of milk yield in the ensuing lactation. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms by which photoperiod affects the mammary gland and subsequently lactation. PMID:26175502

  9. Fitting Cows to Your Operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in cattle can be used to improve efficiency of the cow herd. A cow that is optimum in one production system may not be the best cow for another production system. To improve cow efficiency, we need to optimize the ratio of output to inputs. The optimum ratio on biological bases ...

  10. Competing addition and hydrolysis of the cytidylylcytidylyladenosine terminal residues of transfer ribonucleic acid isolated from the non-lactating bovine mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, M. D.; Hawtrey, A. O.

    1970-01-01

    1. The enzyme fraction obtained from the pH5 enzyme of non-lactating bovine mammary gland between 40 and 100% ammonium sulphate saturation markedly inhibited the AMP-incorporating activity of rat liver nucleotide-incorporating enzyme. This inhibitory effect has been attributed to high nuclease activity which can be partially removed by adsorption of the enzyme fraction on to calcium phosphate gel. 2. The degradation action of the calcium phosphate-purified enzyme is confined mainly to the terminal trinucleotide sequence -pCpCpA of tRNA, its effect being analogous to that of venom phosphodiesterase. This enzyme is heat labile and very readily loses its degradative activity. 3. Treatment of the enzyme fraction with Macaloid results in complete removal of the phosphodiesterase, leaving an enzyme capable of incorporating AMP into tRNA. 4. Transfer RNA extracted from non-lactating bovine mammary gland in the presence of polyvinyl sulphate and Macaloid is able to accept amino acids with an efficiency 30% of that shown by lactating bovine mammary-gland tRNA isolated under identical conditions. PMID:4321270

  11. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    PubMed

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  12. Response of the Cholesterol Metabolism to a Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Cows Depends on the Lactational Stage

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  13. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  14. Effects of gestation and lactation on forage intake, digestion, and passage rates of primiparous beef heifers and multiparous beef cows.

    PubMed

    Linden, D R; Titgemeyer, E C; Olson, K C; Anderson, D E

    2014-05-01

    Angus-cross cows (n = 13; 8 pregnant, BW 610 ± 24 kg, and 5 nonpregnant, BW 571 ± 23 kg) and heifers (n = 13; 8 pregnant, BW 511 ± 40 kg, and 5 nonpregnant, BW 451 ± 60 kg) were individually fed chopped warm-season grass hay (5.5% CP, 67% NDF) for ad libitum intake and soybean meal (46% CP) at 450 g/d. Intake was measured daily, and DM digestibility, digesta passage rate, and plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured every 14 d from 49 d prepartum to 49 d postpartum. Prepartum DMI (% of BW) increased over time for pregnant heifers through 2 wk prepartum before declining but did not change over time for pregnant cows. Dry matter digestibility decreased with advancing gestation (P < 0.001); pregnant animals had greater digestibility than nonpregnant cows and heifers (P = 0.02). Digestibility was not influenced by age (P = 0.99). Pregnant cows and heifers had faster digesta passage rates than their nonpregnant counterparts (P = 0.02). Pregnant animals had lower plasma glucose (P < 0.001). Plasma BHBA concentrations were greater in pregnant animals than in nonpregnant animals (P < 0.001) but were not influenced by age (P = 0.27) or time prepartum (P = 0.98). Postpartum DMI (% of BW) was greater for lactating heifers than other groups (age × lactation status; P = 0.05) and increased over time (P < 0.001). Diet digestibility increased with time postpartum (P < 0.001), and heifers had greater digestibility than cows from 3 to 7 wk postpartum but not at 1 wk postpartum (age × time; P = 0.02). Postpartum passage rate was not influenced by age or lactation status (P > 0.23). Lactating animals had lower plasma glucose and greater plasma BHBA concentrations postpartum than nonlactating animals (P < 0.001). Calves from mature cows grew faster than calves from heifers (age × time; P < 0.001). These data show that although primiparous beef heifers have similar DM digestibility, passage rates, and plasma glucose and BHBA concentrations

  15. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, P<0.05) and produced more CH4 per kg BW0.75 than LIMx cows (1.30 v. 1.05 g CH4/kg BW0.75; P<0.01). Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P<0.001) and propionate and butyrate lower (P<0.01) in rumen fluid samples from BG-fed compared with GS-fed cows. This study demonstrated that replacing GS with BG in barley straw-based diets can effectively reduce CH4

  16. A field study of culling and mortality in beef cows from western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Kennedy, Richard I; Rosengren, Leigh; Clark, Edward G

    2009-05-01

    The objectives were to describe the pattern of losses through culling, sales of breeding stock, mortality, and disappearance, and to characterize the causes of mortality of cows and replacement heifers of breeding age from Western Canadian beef herds. Cows and replacement heifers from 203 herds were observed for a 1-year period starting June 1, 2001. Veterinarians examined dead animals on-farm using a standard postmortem protocol. The incidence of culling in cows and replacements heifers was 14.3 per 100 cow-years at risk, and the frequencies of sales for breeding stock, mortality, and cows reported missing per cow-years at risk were 4.0, 1.1, and 0.4, respectively. During the study, 355 animals died or were euthanized, 209 were examined postmortem, and the requested tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination from 184. A cause of death was determined for 70% (128/184) of the cows with complete gross postmortem and histopathologic examinations. Hardware disease (traumatic reticuloperitonitis), malignant neoplasia (cancer), calving-associated injury, rumen tympany (bloat), myopathy, and pneumonia accounted for 56% (72/128) of the animals where a cause of death was determined. Twenty-three other causes of death accounted for the remaining 44% (56/128). Factors relating to cow nutrition accounted for 25% of the deaths, emphasizing the importance of feeding management as a determinant of cow health in western Canada. PMID:19436634

  17. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  18. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K.; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  19. Transporter gene expression in lactating and nonlactating human mammary epithelial cells using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, J; Lu, X; Moscow, J A; McNamara, P J

    2002-11-01

    Transporter-mediated processes in the lactating mammary gland may explain the significant accumulation of certain drugs in breast milk. The purpose of this study was to identify potential candidate drug transport proteins involved in drug accumulation in milk. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were developed to determine the relative RNA levels of 30 different drug transporter genes. Transporter gene RNA levels in lactating mammary epithelial cells (MEC) purified from pooled fresh breast milk samples were compared with levels in nonlactating MEC, liver, and kidney tissue. Transcripts were detected in lactating MEC for OCT1, OCT3, OCTN1, OCTN2, OATP-A, OATP-B, OATP-D, OATP-E, MRP1, MRP2, MRP5, MDR1, CNT1, CNT3, ENT1, ENT3, NCBT1, PEPT1, and PEPT2. No transcripts were detected for OCT2, OAT1, OAT2, OAT3, OAT4, OATP-C, MRP3, MRP4, CNT2, ENT2, and NCBT2. Lactating MEC demonstrated more than 4-fold higher RNA levels of OCT1, OCTN1, PEPT2, CNT1, CNT3, and ENT3, and more than 4-fold lower RNA levels of MDR1 and OCTN2 relative to nonlactating MEC. Lactating MEC showed significantly higher RNA levels of CNT3 relative to liver and kidney, increased PEPT2 RNA levels relative to liver, and increased OATP-A RNA levels relative to kidney. These data imply CNT3 may play a specialized role in nucleoside accumulation in milk and may identify an important role for PEPT2 and OATP-A transporters at the lactating mammary epithelium. Furthermore, transporters expressed in lactating MEC identify a potential role for these transporters in drug disposition at the mammary gland. PMID:12388627

  20. Contribution of the female reproductive tract to low fertility in postpartum lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rizos, D; Carter, F; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Lonergan, P

    2010-03-01

    Infertility in dairy cattle is a multifactorial problem that may be linked to follicle development and the quality of the ovulated oocyte, to sperm transport and fertilization, to the reproductive tract environment, or to a combination of these factors. Using a state-of-the-art endoscopic embryo transfer technique, the aim of this study was to compare the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows and nulliparous heifers to support the development of early embryos to the blastocyst stage. Bovine embryos of 2 to 4 cells (n=1,800) were produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes derived from the ovaries of slaughtered cattle. The estrus cycles of nulliparous Holstein heifers (n=10) and postpartum Holstein cows (n=8, approximately 60 d postpartum) were synchronized using an 8-d controlled internal drug release device coupled with prostaglandin injection. On d 2, one hundred 2- to 4-cell embryos were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum. Five days later, on d 7, the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically to recover the embryos. The number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded immediately at recovery and following overnight culture in vitro. A representative number of blastocysts from heifers and cows were stained to assess cell number. Progesterone concentrations were lower in cows than in heifers on d 5, 6, and 7 (d 7=2.39+/-0.33 vs. 5.34+/-0.77ng/mL, respectively). More embryos were recovered from heifers than cows (79.0+/-7.0 vs. 57.2+/-11.4%). Of the embryos recovered, 33.9+/-3.6% had developed to the blastocyst stage in the heifer oviduct compared with 18.3+/-7.9% in the postpartum cow oviduct. There was no evidence of a difference in blastocyst quality as evidenced by total cell number in the blastocysts (71.2+/-5.7 vs. 67.0+/-5.3, respectively). In conclusion, the reproductive tract of the postpartum lactating dairy cow may be less capable of supporting early

  1. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  2. Changes of very low-density lipoprotein concentration in hepatic blood from cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Shin; Mizunuma, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yukari; Tharwat, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) components in hepatic blood (HB) from 5 nonlactating nonpregnant cows fasted from days 0 to 3 and subsequently refed to day 10 and, in addition, to assess those of other lipoproteins. Increased phospholipid concentrations in each lipoprotein after the start of fasting suggested their availability for the surface lipids of lipoproteins. Although the VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentration in HB from all cows increased on day 1, the value on day 4 became similar to that on day 0. However, the concentration on day 10 was significantly increased. In all cows, the decreased ratio of the VLDL-TG concentration in HB to the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration in portal blood (PB) on day 4 appeared to reflect relatively decreased secretion of TG as VLDL by NEFA excessively mobilized to the liver via PB. The markedly increased ratio on day 10 was considered to contribute to the improvement of hepatic lipidosis. PMID:21197233

  3. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants. PMID:26585483

  4. FEEDING AND MARKETING CULL COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sale of cull beef cows accounts for 15-25% of yearly gross revenues of cow-calf operations in the United States. Beef from market cows is widely used in the retail and food service sector in a variety of product forms, not all of which is ground. Producers should identify opportunities to add value...

  5. Heart rate and heart rate variability in pregnant dairy cows and their fetuses determined by fetomaternal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Trenk, Lisa; Kuhl, Juliane; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine; Nagel, Christina

    2015-11-01

    In this study, fetomaternal electrocardiograms were recorded once weekly in cattle during the last 14 weeks of gestation. From the recorded beat-to-beat (RR) intervals, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR) and root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD) were calculated. To differentiate between effects of lactation and gestation, pregnant lactating (PL) cows (n = 7) and pregnant nonlactating (PNL) heifers (n = 8) were included. We hypothesized that lactation is associated with stress detectable by HRV analysis. We also followed the hypothesis that heart rate and HRV are influenced by growth and maturation of the fetus toward term. Maternal heart rate changed over time in both groups, and in PL cows, it decreased with drying-off. During the last 5 weeks of gestation, maternal heart rate increased in both groups but was lower in PL cows than in PNL heifers. Maternal HRV did not change over time, but SDRR was significantly higher in PL cows than in PNL heifers, and significant interactions of group × time existed. On the basis of HRV, undisturbed pregnancies are thus no stressor for the dam in cattle. Fetal heart rate decreased from week 14 to week 1 before birth with no difference between groups. Gestational age thus determines heart rate in the bovine fetus. The HRV variables SDRR and RMSSD increased toward the end of gestation in fetuses carried by cows but not in those carried by heifers. The increase in HRV indicates maturation of fetal cardiac regulation which may be overrun by high sympathoadrenal activity in fetuses carried by heifers as suggested by their low HRV. PMID:26279313

  6. Follicular and endocrinological turnover associated with GnRH induced follicular wave synchronization in Indian crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, S; Subramanian, A; Devanathan, T G; Kathiresan, D; Veerapandian, C; Palanisamy, A

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to record the hormonal and follicular turnover in Jersey crossbred cows when subjected for follicular wave synchronization using GnRH. Six healthy, non-lactating and regularly cycling Jersey crossbred cows (5-6 y) were used for the study. In the control group, the follicular wave pattern was ultrasonographically investigated in 18 cycles (3 cycles/cow). In the treatment group, GnRH analogue (buserelin acetate 10 μg im) was administered on Day 6 of the cycle and follicular wave pattern was studied in 12 cycles (2 cycles/animal). Follicular population was categorized based on their diameter Class I, ≤5 mm; Class II, >5-<9 mm; Class III, ≥9 mm) and the number of follicles in each category was determined on Day 6, Day 8 and Day 10. Plasma FSH and progesterone concentrations were estimated in both control and treatment groups. Out of 18 estrous cycles studied, 14 cycles (77.8%), three cycles (16.7%) and one cycle (5.6%) exhibited three-, two- and four-follicular waves per cycle, respectively. It was evident that the DF of Wave I established its dominance and was in the growing phase by Day 6 of the estrous cycle in all the normally cycling crossbred cows. The DF ovulated in all the animals (100%) in the mean interval of 27.7 ± 0.2 h after GnRH administration. A synchronized homogenous group of follicles emerged two days after GnRH injection (Day of 8.0 ± 0.0) in all the animals (100%). The combination of LH surge induced ovulation of DF (abrupt termination of Wave I) and FSH surge stimulated homogenous recruitment of Class I follicles, led to a synchronized emergence of follicular wave. All the GnRH treated cows had three follicular waves because of early emergence and short period of dominance of Wave II DF. PMID:22192396

  7. Physiologic, health, and production responses of dairy cows supplemented with an immunomodulatory feed ingredient during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Brandão, A P; Cooke, R F; Corrá, F N; Piccolo, M B; Gennari, R; Leiva, T; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-07-01

    This study compared physiological, health, and productive parameters in dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (OMN; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the transition period. Thirty-eight nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (n=19) or not (CON; n=19) OMN at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis) beginning 35 d before expected date of calving. Before calving, cows were maintained in single drylot pen with ad libitum access to corn silage, and received (as-fed basis) 3kg/cow daily of a concentrate. After calving, cows were moved to an adjacent drylot pen, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after both milkings. Cows received OMN individually as top-dressing in the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -35 relative to expected calving date. After calving and until 46 d in milk, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded, and milk samples were collected daily for total solids and somatic cell count analyses. Blood was sampled daily from 0 to 7 d in milk, every other day from 9 to 21 d in milk, and every 5 d from 26 to 46 d in milk. On 30 and 46 d in milk, cows were evaluated for endometritis via cytobrush technique, based on % of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in 100 total cell count (PMN + endometrial cells). On 48.7±1.6 d in milk, 9 cows/treatment received a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (0.25μg/kg of BW), and blood was sampled hourly from -2 to 8 h, at 12-h intervals from 12 to 72 h, and at 24-h intervals form 96 to 120 h relative to LPS administration. No treatment differences were detected on BW, BCS, serum concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose, haptoglobin, cortisol, and

  8. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and cardiac autonomic responses to transrectal examination differ with behavioral reactivity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Kulcsár-Huszenicza, M; Ruff, F; Szenci, O; Jurkovich, V

    2016-09-01

    Behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were evaluated in response to transrectal examination in nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows with different behavioral reactivity. According to behavioral reactions shown to the procedure of fixing the heart rate (HR) monitors, the 20 cows with the highest and the 20 cows with the lowest behavioral reactivity were involved in the study (high responder, n=20; and low responder, n=20, respectively). Activity of the ANS was assessed by HR and HR variability parameters. Blood and saliva were collected at 5 min before (baseline) and 0, 5 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 120 min after the examination to determine cortisol concentrations. The examination lasted for 5 min. Cardiac parameters included HR, the root mean square of successive differences between the consecutive interbeat intervals, the high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability, and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF parameter (LF/HF). Following the examination, peak plasma and saliva cortisol levels and the amplitude of the plasma and saliva cortisol response were higher in high responder cows than in low responders. Areas under the plasma and saliva cortisol response curves were greater in high responder cows. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels correlated significantly at baseline (r=0.91), right after examination (r=0.98), and at peak levels (r=0.96). Area under the HR response curve was higher in low responder cows; however, maximum HR and the amplitude of the HR response showed no differences between groups. Minimum values of both parameters calculated for the examination were higher in high responders. Following the examination, response parameters of root mean square of successive differences and HF did not differ between groups. The maximum and the amplitude of LF/HF response and area under the LF/HF response curve were lower in low responder cows, suggesting a lower sympathetic

  9. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C.; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross‐over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose‐dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. PMID:27427946

  10. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross-over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. PMID:27427946

  11. Application of an ELISA Milk Pregnancy Test in Beef Cows.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J N; Byrem, T M; Grooms, D L

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are secreted by the binucleate giant cells of the ruminant placenta and enter maternal circulation at the time of placental attachment. The IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Test (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME) detects a subset of PAG in milk. Although designed as a management tool for dairy cows, there is potential for using the milk PAG test in beef cows. Our objective was to compare the performance of the milk PAG ELISA with a gold standard method for pregnancy diagnosis and determine the agreement between milk and serum PAG analysis in lactating beef cows. Angus and Angus-crossed cows (n = 332) from two Michigan beef herds were enrolled in this study. Cows were subjected either to timed artificial insemination followed by exposure to a bull or exclusively exposed to a bull. The bulls and cows were separated 30 days prior to examination. Serum and milk samples were collected and submitted within 24 h of collection to a commercial laboratory for PAG analysis using the IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Assay (milk) and the IDEXX Bovine Pregnancy Assay (serum). Concurrently with milk and serum collection, each cow was examined transrectally by palpation or ultrasonography. When compared to transrectal examination, the performance (and 95% confidence intervals) of the milk PAG ELISA was sensitivity of 99.7% (99.0-100.0%) and specificity of 80.8% (65.6-95.9%). The lower specificity is likely due to the low prevalence (9.9%) of open cows (n = 30) in the herds examined. Of the 332 cows examined, 1.8% (n = 6) were classified as rechecks using the milk PAG ELISA. Results of the milk and serum PAG ELISA were in high agreement (kappa coefficient = 0.91). The milk PAG ELISA was accurate in predicting pregnancy status using milk collected from beef cattle between days 37 and 125 post-insemination and may be useful for aiding management decisions in beef herds. PMID:26058919

  12. Development of Fibroblast Cell Lines From the Cow Used to Sequence the Bovine Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.BGCF.2 and MARC.BGCF.1-3, were initiated from skin biopsies obtained from the Hereford cow whose DNA was used in sequencing the bovine genome. These cell lines were submitted to American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA) and will be made publicly avai...

  13. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present. PMID:20071017

  14. Hay to reduce dietary cation-anion difference for dry dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, E; Chouinard, P Y; Tremblay, G F; Allard, G; Pellerin, D

    2008-04-01

    Timothy grass has a lower dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD = (Na + K) - (Cl + S)] than other cool-season grass species. Growing timothy on low-K soils and fertilizing it with CaCl2 could further decrease its DCAD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding low-DCAD timothy hay on dry dairy cows. Six nonpregnant and nonlactating cows were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Treatments were as follows: 1) control diet (control; DCAD = 296 mEq/kg of dry matter); 2) low-DCAD diet based on low-DCAD timothy hay (L-HAY; DCAD = - 24 mEq/kg of dry matter); and 3) low-DCAD diet using HCl (L-HCl; DCAD = - 19 mEq/kg of dry matter). Decreasing DCAD with L-HAY had no effect on dry matter intake (11.8 kg/d) or dry matter digestibility (71.5%). Urine pH decreased from 8.21 to 5.89 when L-HAY was fed instead of the control. Blood parameters that decreased with L-HAY were base excess (- 0.4 vs. 3.8 mM) and HCO3- (23 vs. 27 mM), and blood parameters that increased were Ca2+ (5.3 vs. 5.1 mg/dL), Cl- (30.5 vs. 29.5 mg/dL), and Na+ (60.8 vs. 60.1 mg/dL). Compared with the control, L-HAY resulted in more Ca in urine (13.4 vs. 1.2 g/d). Comparing L-HAY with L-HCl, cow dry matter intake tended to be higher (11.5 vs. 9.8 kg/d), and blood pH was higher (7.37 vs. 7.31). Urine pH; total dry matter; Ca, K, P, and Mg apparent absorption; and Ca, K, Na, Cl, S, P, and Mg apparent retention were similar. Absorption as a percentage of intake of Na and Cl was lower for L-HAY as compared with L-HCl. In an EDTA-challenge test, cows fed L-HAY regained their initial level of blood Ca2+ twice as quickly as the control treatment (339 vs. 708 min); there were no differences between L-HAY and L-HCl. This experiment confirms that feeding low-DCAD hay is an effective means of decreasing the DCAD of rations and obtaining a metabolic response in dry dairy cows. PMID:18349251

  15. Serum testosterone concentration, efficiency of estrus detection and libido expression in androgenized beef cows.

    PubMed

    Nix, J P; Spitzer, J C; Chenoweth, P J

    1998-04-15

    Twenty multiparous, cyclic, nonlactating beef cows were blocked by dominance rank and randomly and equally allotted to 1 of 4 treatment groups: an untreated control group, a synovex-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with no additional hormones, a testosterone-treated group which received 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 with additional 1000 mg, s.c. doses of testosterone enanthate every 14 d, and a synovex + testosterone-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 only. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture once a week beginning 3 wk prior to start of treatment. In addition, samples were collected just prior to treatment; once a day for 1 wk after initiation of treatment; and then twice a week until 225 d after treatment. Efficiency of estrus detection was assessed 22 d prior to start of treatment and every 14 d thereafter for 98 d, using estrus detection trials with synchronized females or modified libido tests. Scores for estrus detection trials included total mounts in 1 h and the percentage of estrous cows detected. Libido was scored on a scale of 0 through 6. All testosterone treatments raised plasma testosterone concentrations above control and pretreatment levels (testosterone and synovex + testosterone > synovex > control; all P < 0.05). Synovex-, testosterone- and synovex + testosterone-treated females performed more mounts in 1 h than the controls (18, 9, 6 and 1, respectively; all P < 0.05). All testosterone-treated cows mounted a higher number of estrous females than the controls (P < 0.05). Only synovex + testosterone- and testosterone-treated cows received libido scores above pretreatment and control values. However, libido of testosterone-treated cows decreased over time, while that of synovex + testosterone-treated females remained high until Day 98. Libido scores correlated positively with the number of mounts in 1

  16. Relevance of apolipoproteins in the development of fatty liver and fatty liver-related peripartum diseases in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Norio

    2002-04-01

    Most metabolic diseases in dairy cows occur during the peripartum period and are suggested to be derived from fatty liver initially developed during the nonlactating stage. Fatty liver is induced by hepatic uptake of nonesterified fatty acids that are released in excess by adipose tissues attributable to negative energy balance. The fatty accumulation leads to impairment of lipoprotein metabolism in the liver, and the impairment in turn influences other metabolic pathways in extrahepatic tissues such as the steroid hormone production by the corpus luteum. Detailed understanding of the impaired lipoprotein metabolism is crucial for elucidation of the mechanistic bases of the development of fatty liver and fatty liver-related peripartum diseases. This review summarizes results on evaluation of lipoprotein lipid and protein concentrations and enzyme activity in cows with fatty liver and those with ketosis, left displacement of the abomasum, milk fever, downer syndrome and retained placenta. Obtained data strongly suggest that decreases in serum concentrations of apolipoprotein B-100, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein C-III, a reduction in activity of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and induction of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A are intimately related to the development of fatty liver and fatty liver-related diseases. Moreover, determination of the apolipoprotein concentrations and enzyme activity during the peripartum period is useful for early diagnoses of these diseases. PMID:12014573

  17. The use biochemical and hepatic parameters to predict treatment outcome of dairy cows suffering from displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, R; Ahmed, M M I; Baumgartner, W; Gelfert, C C

    2007-06-01

    In this prospective study the impact of fatty liver and an impaired liver function on the treatment outcome of displacement of the abomasum (DA) was investigated. In a yearlong period, all cows suffering from DA submitted to the clinic were included in this study. All cows were clinically examined before surgery and a serum sample was taken to measure the following parameters: ASAT, bilirubin, urea. Liver biopsy was performed in all cows. Liver fat content was measured gravimetrically and concentrations of triglycerides were measured using a commercial test kit. Reposition of DA was done using the method by Dirksen. A total of 365 cows with DA entered the study, 326 (89.3%) suffered from LDA and 39 (10.7%) from RDA. RDA-cows had significantly (p = 0.002) more days in milk than LDA-cows. RDA-cows had significantly (p < 0.001) higher urea concentrations than LDA-cows. Bilirubin concentrations (p = 0.008) and liver fat content, triglyceride concentrations and the ratio of triglycerides to fat (TRI/FAT) (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in LDA-cows. The majority of LDA-cows showed at least a mild fatty liver. Comparing the cows with successful and failed treatment showed that ASAT-activity (p = 0.021), bilirubin concentration (p = 0.001), triglyceride concentration in liver and TRI/FAT (all p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the unsuccessfully treated cows. In RDA cows, significant differences between successfully and unsuccessfully treated cows were only seen in urea concentration (p = 0.004). ROC-analysis was performed to determine whether any parameter is suitable for a prediction of treatment outcome. In RDA-cows no threshold value was traceable for urea concentration. In LDA cows, TRI/FAT showed the best curve progression. The threshold value of 53.5 % had a sensitivity of 0.720 and a specificity of 0.700. LDA-cows exceeding this threshold had a 2.4 higher risk of an unsuccessful treatment. Due to the good overall treatment success (92.3 %) the positive

  18. Prevalence, bacterial causes, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of mastitis isolates from cows in large-scale dairy farms of Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haftu, Rgbe; Taddele, Habtamu; Gugsa, Getachew; Kalayou, Shewit

    2012-10-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bovine mastitis, isolate mastitis causing bacteria, assess the association of some risk factors, and determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates in cows in large-scale dairy farms of Northern Ethiopia. A total of 305 lactating and nonlactating cows were included in the present study. The overall prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was 3.6 and 33.8 %, respectively. The quarter level prevalence was 15.4 %; from which, 11.9 and 1.1 % were subclinical form and blind teat, respectively, while the remaining 2.4 % were of clinical form. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 36 % of the isolates followed by Escherichia coli (27.3 %). Risk factors including age (p < 0.001), parity (p < 0.001), and lactation stage (p = 0.02) showed significant association with the occurrence of mastitis. Higher prevalence was observed in both groups of older cows (i.e., 6-9 years (odds ratio (OR) = 4.65, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.74-7.89) and >9 years (OR = 3.63, 95 % CI = 1.42-9.25)), cows with four to seven calves (OR = 3.39, 95 % CI = 2.06-5.60), and cows in late lactation stage (OR = 3.79, 95 % CI = 1.64-8.75). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (p = 0.005) and lactation stage (p = 0.027) showed statistically significant association with the occurrence of mastitis. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern showed high susceptibility of S. aureus to nalidixic acid (82.4 %) followed by chloramphenicol (58.8 %); however, these species were resistant to the rest of the antimicrobials tested. Highest resistance was observed against clindamycin and ampicillin. Coliform bacteria (E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) showed resistance to most of the antimicrobials used. Detailed investigation is needed to identify the interplay of managemental and environmental risk factors to design appropriate control measures. PMID:22476790

  19. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  20. Comparisons between nulliparous heifers and cows as oocyte donors for embryo production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rizos, Dimitrios; Burke, Lisa; Duffy, Patrick; Wade, Mary; Mee, John F; O'Farrell, Kevin J; Macsiurtain, Mairtin; Boland, Maurice P; Lonergan, Patrick

    2005-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare (1) Holstein-Friesian heifers versus early postpartum lactating cows, and (2) different age categories of crossbred beef heifers versus cows, in terms of oocyte yield, morphological quality and developmental competence. Four experiments were designed to test the associated hypotheses. In Experiment 1, ovum pick up was carried out twice weekly for a period of 5 weeks on Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 8) and early postpartum cows (n = 8). Oocytes were submitted to in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization and culture. Significantly more follicles were punctured on the ovaries of heifers than cows (10.4 versus 7.8, P < 0.001). This was reflected in a significantly higher number of total oocytes (4.7 versus 2.8, P < 0.001) and grade 1-2 oocytes recovered/animal from heifers than from cows (3.0 versus 1.8, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the percentage of oocytes cleaving after fertilization, or in the percentage reaching the blastocyst stage between heifers and cows. In Experiment 2, oocytes were obtained by manual aspiration from the ovaries of slaughtered crossbred beef heifers (under 30 months, n = 1241) and cows (over 4 years old, n = 1125), and processed in vitro as above. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the number of aspirated follicles or oocytes recovered. A significantly higher proportion (P < 0.01) of cow oocytes than heifer oocytes reached the blastocyst stage (Day 8: 46.5% versus 33.4%). In Experiment 3, ovaries were separated according to age of heifer into three groups: (1) 12-18 months, (2) 19-24 months and (3) 25-30 months, and compared with cow oocytes. There was no significant difference in the blastocyst yield between the different age groups of heifers. Irrespective of heifer age, the blastocyst yield on Day 8 was significantly lower than that from cow oocytes (35.0, 35.2, 36.5 and 48.3%, respectively, P < 0.05). In Experiment 4, a significantly

  1. Effects of prepartum roughage neutral detergent fiber levels on periparturient dry matter intake, metabolism, and lactation in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Homwong, N; Buatong, N

    2010-06-01

    Heat stress of lactating cattle results in dramatic reductions in dry matter intake (DMI). As a result, energy input cannot satisfy energy needs and thus accelerates body fat mobilization. Decreasing the level of roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in prepartum diets, and thereby increasing the amount of nonfiber carbohydrates, may provide an adequate supply of energy and glucose precursors to maintain and minimize the decrease in DMI while reducing mobilization of adipose tissue. The effects of 3-wk prepartum diets containing different amounts of roughage NDF on DMI, blood metabolites, and lactation performance of dairy cows were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Thirty cross-bred cows (87.5% Holstein x 12.5% Sahiwal) were dried off 60 d before their expected calving date and were assigned immediately to a nonlactating cow diet containing the net energy for lactation recommended by the National Research Council (2001) model. The treatment diets contained 17.4, 19.2, and 21.0% DM as roughage NDF from bana grass (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum glaucum) silage. Levels of concentrate NDF were 39.8, 40.2, and 38.6% of dietary NDF, so the levels of dietary NDF were 28.9, 32.1, and 34.2% of DM. After parturition, all cows received a lactating cow diet containing 12.7% roughage NDF and 23% dietary NDF. During the entire experiment, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity index averaged 77.7 and 86.8, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for the induction of extreme heat stress. As parturition approached, DMI decreased steadily, resulting in a 12.9, 25, and 32.8% decrease in DMI from d -21 until calving for nonlactating cows fed prepartum diets containing 17.4, 19.2, and 21% roughage NDF, respectively. During the 3-wk prepartum period, intakes of DM and net energy for lactation and concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin were higher for cows fed diets containing less roughage NDF. In cows fed the 3-wk prepartum diets

  2. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  3. Atrial Fibrillation in Ten Cows

    PubMed Central

    Brightling, P.; Townsend, H. G. G.

    1983-01-01

    An irregular cardiac rhythm was identified in ten adult cows during auscultation of the heart and was subsequently characterized as atrial fibrillation by electrocardiography. The occurrence of the arrhythmia was associated with primary, organic disease of the heart in two animals which had valvular endocarditis. In seven of the other cows secondary or “functional” atrial fibrillation occurred in association with disorders of abdominal origin, six gastrointestinal disorders and one uterine torsion. Spontaneous conversion to normal sinus rhythm occurred in six cows after elimination of the primary disease. ImagesFigure 1b.Figure 3a.Figure 3b. PMID:17422324

  4. Alterations in bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and gene expression in granulosa cells in preovulatory follicles of dairy cows given porcine LH.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Amir; Colazo, Marcos Germán; Ambrose, Divakar Justus

    2016-04-15

    In a previous work, using porcine LH (pLH) in lieu of GnRH for synchronizing ovulation in dairy cows improved pregnancy rates without increasing plasma progesterone concentrations after ovulation. The LH profile is known to remain elevated above basal concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) for up to 20 hours in pLH-treated cows compared to less than 6 hours in GnRH-treated cows. Because LH triggers a cascade of signaling networks in the preovulatory follicle to promote final maturation and support oocyte competence, we hypothesized that dissimilar LH profiles will differentially regulate the intrafollicular factors and expression of downstream genes associated with improved oocyte competence. Specific objectives were to determine differences in the abundance of oocyte-secreted factors in the preovulatory follicular fluid and target genes in granulosa cells associated with oocyte competence, in response to exogenous porcine LH or GnRH-induced endogenous bovine LH exposure, in dairy cows. Follicular contents were aspirated by a transvaginal ultrasound-guided procedure from the preovulatory follicle of cyclic, nonlactating Holstein cows 21 ± 1 hour after administration of either pLH (25-mg) or GnRH (100-μg). Mature forms of bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and transforming growth factorβ1 were approximately 2-fold more abundant in pLH-treated cows which were exposed to an extended, low LH profile, than in GnRH-treated cows that had a short, high LH profile. The relative abundance of messenger RNA for cyclooxygenase-2, LH receptor, and progesterone receptor in granulosa cells, was about two-, eight-, and two-fold higher, respectively, in cows subjected to pLH than GnRH treatment. We infer that the improved pregnancy rate after pLH-induced ovulation reported previously, occurred through greater activation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-β1 superfamily members, as these proteins promote cumulus expansion and oocyte competence

  5. Long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate fed to dairy cows on enteric methane emission and nitrate and nitrite residuals in milk.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2016-07-01

    A previous study showed the additive methane (CH4)-mitigating effect of nitrate and linseed fed to non-lactating cows. Before practical application, the use of this new strategy in dairy cows requires further investigation in terms of persistency of methanogenesis reduction and absence of residuals in milk products. The objective of this experiment was to study the long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate on enteric CH4 emission and performance in dairy cows. We also assessed the effect of this feeding strategy on the presence of nitrate residuals in milk products, total tract digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and rumen fermentation. A total of 16 lactating Holstein cows were allocated to two groups in a randomised design conducted in parallel for 17 weeks. Diets were on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) control (54% maize silage, 6% hay and 40% concentrate; CON) or (2) control plus 3.5% added fat from linseed and 1.8% nitrate (LIN+NIT). Diets were equivalent in terms of CP (16%), starch (28%) and NDF (33%), and were offered twice daily. Cows were fed ad libitum, except during weeks 5, 16 and 17 in which feed was restricted to 95% of dry matter intake (DMI) to ensure complete consumption of meals during measurement periods. Milk production and DMI were measured weekly. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in milk and milk products were determined monthly. Daily CH4 emission was quantified in open circuit respiration chambers (weeks 5 and 16). Total tract apparent digestibility, N balance and rumen fermentation parameters were determined in week 17. Daily DMI tended to be lower with LIN+NIT from week 4 to 16 (-5.1 kg/day on average). The LIN+NIT diet decreased milk production during 6 non-consecutive weeks (-2.5 kg/day on average). Nitrate or nitrite residuals were not detected in milk and associated products. The LIN+NIT diet reduced CH4 emission to a similar extent at the beginning and end of the trial (-47%, g/day; -30%, g/kg DMI; -33%, g/kg fat- and protein

  6. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... versions of the disease can affect certain other animals, like goats and sheep. BSE is an incurable ... it affects a cow's nervous system, causing the animal to act strangely and lose control of its ...

  7. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  8. Alopecia areata in Eringer cows.

    PubMed

    Timm, Katrin; Rüfenacht, Silvia; von Tscharner, Claudia; Bornand, Valérie F; Doherr, Marcus G; Oevermann, Anna; Flury, Christine; Rieder, Stefan; Hirsbrunner, Gaby; Drögemüller, Cord; Roosje, Petra J

    2010-12-01

    Alopecia areata is a hair loss disorder in humans, dogs and horses with a suspected autoimmune aetiology targeting anagen hair follicles. Alopecia areata is only sporadically reported in cows. Recently, we observed several cases of suspected alopecia areata in Eringer cows. The aim of this study was to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of alopecia areata and to define the clinical phenotype and histopathological patterns, including characterization of the infiltrating inflammatory cells. Twenty Eringer cows with alopecia and 11 Eringer cows without skin problems were included in this study. Affected cows had either generalized or multifocal alopecia or hypotrichosis. The tail, forehead and distal extremities were usually spared. Punch biopsies were obtained from the centre and margin of alopecic lesions and normal haired skin. Histological examination revealed several alterations in anagen hair bulbs. These included peri- and intrabulbar lymphocytic infiltration, peribulbar fibrosis, degenerate matrix cells with clumped melanosomes and pigmentary incontinence. Mild lymphocytic infiltrative mural folliculitis was seen in the inferior segment and isthmus of the hair follicles. Hair shafts were often unpigmented and dysplastic. The large majority of infiltrating lymphocytes were CD3(+) T cells, whereas only occasional CD20(+) lymphocytes were present in the peribulbar infiltrate. Our findings confirm the diagnosis of T-cell-mediated alopecia areata in these cows. Alopecia areata appears to occur with increased frequency in the Eringer breed, but distinct predisposing factors could not be identified. PMID:20626715

  9. Glutamine synthetase and alanine transaminase expression are decreased in livers of aged vs. young beef cows and GS can be upregulated by 17β-estradiol implants.

    PubMed

    Miles, E D; McBride, B W; Jia, Y; Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Bridges, P J; Matthews, J C

    2015-09-01

    Aged beef cows (≥ 8 yr of age) produce calves with lower birth and weaning weights. In mammals, aging is associated with reduced hepatic expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) and alanine transaminase (ALT), thus impaired hepatic Gln-Glu cycle function. To determine if the relative protein content of GS, ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST), glutamate transporters (EAAC1, GLT-1), and their regulating protein (GTRAP3-18) differed in biopsied liver tissue of (a) aged vs. young (3 to 4 yr old) nonlactating, nongestating Angus cows (Exp. 1 and 2) and (b) aged mixed-breed cows with and without COMPUDOSE (17β-estradiol) ear implants (Exp. 3), Western blot analyses were performed. In Exp. 1, 12 young (3.62 ± 0.01 yr) and 13 aged (10.08 ± 0.42 yr) cows grazed the same mixed forage for 42 d (August-October). In Exp. 2, 12 young (3.36 ± 0.01 yr) and 12 aged (10.38 ± 0.47 yr) cows were individually fed (1.03% of BW) a corn-silage-based diet to maintain BW for 20 d. For both Exp. 1 and 2, the effect of cow age was assessed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Cow BW did not change ( ≥ 0.17). Hepatic ALT (78% and 61%) and GS (52% and 71%) protein content (Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) was decreased ( ≤ 0.01), whereas GTRAP3-18 (an inhibitor of EAAC1 activity) increased ( ≤ 0.01; 170% and 136%) and AST, GLT-1, and EAAC1 contents did not differ ( ≥ 0.17) in aged vs. young cows. In Exp. 2, free concentrations (nmol/g) of Glu, Ala, Gln, Arg, and Orn in liver homogenates were determined. Aged cows tended to have less ( = 0.10) free Gln (15.0%) than young cows, whereas other AA concentrations did not differ ( 0.26). In Exp. 3, 14 aged (> 10 yr) cows were randomly allotted ( = 7) to sham or COMPUDOSE (25.7 mg of 17β-estradiol) implant treatment (TRT), and had ad libitum access to alfalfa hay for 28 d. Blood and liver biopsies were collected 14 and 28 d after implant treatment. Treatment, time after implant (DAY), and TRT × DAY effects were assessed by ANOVA using

  10. Timothy hays differing in dietary cation-anion difference affect the capability of dairy cows to maintain their calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Heron, V S; Tremblay, G F; Oba, M

    2009-01-01

    Forages low in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) can be used to decrease the DCAD in prepartum diet but the extent to which DCAD needs to be reduced is of recent interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of timothy hays differing in DCAD at maintaining Ca homeostasis. Six nonlactating and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay with DCAD values of 4.1 +/- 3.6 (LOW), 14.1 +/- 3.0 (MED), or 25.1 +/- 2.5 (HIGH) mEq per 100 g of DM in a duplicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 14-d experimental periods. The LOW and MED hays were produced by fertilizing established timothy fields at a rate of 224 kg CaCl(2) per ha, and HIGH hay was obtained from the same field where LOW hay was produced, but from a section not fertilized with CaCl(2). Experimental diets, containing LOW, MED, or HIGH timothy hay at 71% of dietary DM, had DCAD values of 0.7, 7.3, and 14.4 mEq per 100 g of DM, respectively. Animals were fed at 6% of metabolic body weight, which provided 108% of their daily energy requirement. For each period, after a 12 d diet adaptation, cows were subjected to an EDTA challenge (3 cows each on d 13 and 14). Infusion of EDTA solution into the jugular vein decreases the concentration of blood ionized Ca, and the EDTA challenge protocol determined the resistance time and recovery time: the time required for the blood ionized Ca concentration to decrease to 60%, and the time required to recover to 90% of the prechallenge concentrations, respectively. Urine pH was lower when cows were fed LOW compared with HIGH diet (6.88 vs. 7.83), but urine pH when cows were fed MED diet (7.15) did not differ from that when cows received the LOW or HIGH diet. However, immediately before the EDTA challenge, blood pH was lower when cows were fed LOW or MED compared with HIGH diet (7.44 vs. 7.47). Although the resistance time was not affected by treatments, the recovery time was shorter when cows were

  11. Effect of induced subclinical hypocalcemia on physiological responses and neutrophil function in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Gomes, G C; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N; Taylor-Rodriguez, D; Driver, J P; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2014-02-01

    The objectives were to study the effects of induced subclinical hypocalcemia [SCH, blood ionized Ca (iCa(2+)) <1.0mM, without recumbency] on physiological responses and function of immune cells in dairy cows. Ten nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein cows were blocked by lactation and assigned randomly to a normocalcemic (NC; intravenous infusion of 0.9% NaCl i.v. plus 43 g of oral Ca, as Ca sulfate and Ca chloride, at -1 and 11h) or an induced SCH [SCHI, 5% ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), a selective iCa(2+) chelator, intravenous infusion] treatment for 24h, using a crossover design. The sequence of treatments was either NC-SCHI or SCHI-NC, with a 6-d washout period. Ionized Ca was evaluated before, hourly during the infusion period, and at 48 and 72 h, to monitor concentrations and adjust the rate of infusion, maintaining blood iCa(2+) <1.0mM in SCHI throughout the 24-h infusion period. Additional measurements included heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, dry matter intake, rumen contractions, whole-blood pH, concentrations of glucose and K in whole blood, concentrations of total Ca, Mg, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin in plasma, and urinary excretion of Ca. Total and differential leukocyte count in blood was also performed. The concentration of cytosolic iCa(2+) in neutrophils and lymphocytes was quantified and neutrophil function was assayed in vitro. Infusion of a 5% EGTA solution successfully induced SCH in all SCHI cows, resulting in decreased blood iCa(2+) concentrations throughout the 24-h treatment period (0.77 ± 0.01 vs. 1.26 ± 0.01 mM iCa(2+)). Induction of SCH reduced dry matter intake on the day of infusion (5.3 ± 0.8 vs. 9.1 ± 0.8 kg/d) and rumen contractions (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 contractions/2 min) for the last 12h of infusion. Cows in SCHI had decreased plasma insulin concentration (1.44 ± 0.23 vs. 2.32 ± 0.23 ng/mL) evident between 6 and 18 h after the beginning of the infusion, accompanied

  12. Rumen degradability characteristics of normal maize stover and silage, and quality protein maize silage-based diets offered to cows.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Berhan; Gebrehawariat, Ephrem; Tegegne, Azage; Kortu, Mohammed Y

    2012-10-01

    Rumen degradability characteristics of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) of normal maize (NM) stover (T1)-, NM silage (T2)- and quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3)-based diets were studied using three rumen-fistulated Boran × Friesian non-lactating cows (371 ± 32.00 kg) in 3 × 3 Latin Square Design. Cows were supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. In sacco degradability of DM and OM indicated that the (a) values of DM (128) and OM (114) for NM stover were lower (P < 0.001) than that for NM silage (268 and 253) and for QPM silage (323 and 303), respectively. The (a) value for CP was lower (P < 0.05) for QPM silage (286) than for NM stover (404) and NM silage (326). The (b) values of DM in NM stover (597) and NM silage (535) were higher (P < 0.05) than in QPM silage (499). The (b) value of CP in NM stover (372) was lower (P < 0.05) than in NM silage (655) and in QPM silage (608). Rate of degradation of OM in NM stover and NM silage, each with 0.03, was faster (P < 0.01) than in QPM silage (0.02). Moreover, QPM silage had higher potentially degradable fraction for DM (821) (P < 0.05) and OM (840) (P < 0.01) than DM (725) and OM (712) in NM stover. The mean rumen ammonia concentration (209 mg/l) of QPM silage was higher (P < 0.05) than that of NM stover (179 mg/l) and NM silage (170 mg/l). The average rumen pH (6.1) in cows fed QPM silage was lowest (P < 0.05) compared to pH (6.3) in cows fed either NM stover or silage. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids (116 mmol/l) in the rumen of cows incubated with QPM silage was higher (P < 0.001) than in those incubated with NM stover (113 mmol/l) and NM silage (110 mmol/l). It was concluded that QPM silage-based diet was superior in DM and OM degradability, and had higher ammonia and VFA concentration than NM stover-based diet. No differences have been observed in all parameters measured between QPM and NM silages. PMID:22366928

  13. Effects of buserelin injection and deslorelin (GnRH-agonist) implants on plasma progesterone, LH, accessory CL formation, follicle and corpus luteum dynamics in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rajamahendran, R; Ambrose, J D; Schmitt, E J; Thatcher, M J; Thatcher, W W

    1998-11-01

    The influence of Buserelin injection and Deslorelin (a GnRH analogue) implants administered on Day 5 of the estrous cycle on plasma concentrations of LH and progesterone (P4), accessory CL formation, and follicle and CL dynamics was examined in nonlactating Holstein cows. On Day 5 (Day 1 = ovulation) following a synchronized estrus, 24 cows were assigned randomly (n = 4 per group) to receive 2 mL saline, i.m. (control), 8 micrograms, i.m. Buserelin or a subcutaneous Deslorelin (DES) implant in concentrations of 75 micrograms, 150 micrograms, 700 micrograms or 2100 micrograms. Blood samples were collected (for LH assay) at 30-min intervals for 2 h before and 12 h after GnRH-treatment from cows assigned to Buserelin, DES-700 micrograms and DES-2100 micrograms treatments and thereafter at 4-h intervals for 48 h. Beginning 24 h after treatment, ovaries were examined by ultrasound at 2-h intervals until ovulation was confirmed. Thereafter, ultrasonography and blood sampling (for P4 assay) was performed daily until a spontaneous ovulation before Day 45. A greater release of LH occurred in response to Deslorelin implants than to Buserelin injection (P < 0.01). Basal levels of LH between 12 and 48 h were higher in DES-700 micrograms group than in DES-2100 micrograms and Buserelin (P < 0.05). The first wave dominant follicle ovulated in all cows following GnRH treatment. Days to CL regression did not differ between treatments, but return to estrus was delayed (44.2 vs 27.2 d; P < 0.01) in cows of DES-2100 micrograms group. All GnRH treatments elevated plasma P4 concentrations, and the highest P4 responses were observed in the DES-700 micrograms and DES-2100 micrograms groups. The second follicular wave emerged earlier in GnRH-treated than in control cows (9.9 vs 12.8 d; P < 0.01). However, emergence of the third dominant follicle was delayed in cows of DES-2100 micrograms treatment (37.0 d) compared with DES-700 micrograms (22.2 d), Buserelin (17.8 d) or control (19.0 d

  14. Consider a spherical cow

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, J.

    1985-01-01

    Consider a Spherical Cow describes relatively simple mathematical methods for developing quantitative answers to often complex environmental problems. Early chapters provide systematic insights into problem solving and identifying mathematical tools and models that lead to back of the envelope answers. Subsequent chapters treat increasingly complex problems. Solutions are sought at different levels, e.g., informed guesses, quantitative solutions based on detailed analytical models, and ultimately, critical evaluation of the consequences of removing simplifying assumptions from the models. The vehicle employed is a collection of 44 challenging problems, with clearly worked out solutions, plus ample exercises. The book, though directed at environmentalists, should appeal to chemists. Many of the problems are rooted in chemistry, including acid rain, the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect, chemical contamination, and the disturbing of cyclical chemical balances. Readers feeling a civic responsibility to think and speak more clearly on environmental issues will find the essential modeling and quantitative approaches valuable assets beyond the help provided by the usual courses in science and mathematics. In fact, the techniques of problem solving have broad applicability beyond the specific environmental examples covered in this text.

  15. Effects of grass hay proportion in a corn silage-based diet on rumen digesta kinetics and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Win, Kyaw San; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of six levels of orchardgrass hay (GH) proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% of dry matter) in finely chopped corn silage (CS)-based diets on digesta kinetics of CS and GH in the rumen. Six non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ruminal digesta kinetics was measured by ruminal dosing of feed particle markers (dysprosium for CS, erbium for GH) followed by fecal sampling. The increase of GH proportion had a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber. The proportion of GH did not affect the particle size distribution of rumen digesta, total weight of dry matter or NDF in the rumen. The rates of large particle size reduction in the rumen for CS tended to increase linearly with increasing GH proportion (P = 0.077). A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was found with increasing the GH proportion for the ruminal passage rate of small GH particles, but not for CS particles. The results suggested that associative effects between CS and GH could be generated on rumen digesta kinetics when cows were fed a CS-based diet with an increased proportion of GH. PMID:25599766

  16. Hyperplastic goiter in two adult dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chee Bing; Herdt, Thomas H; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Iodine excess and resultant hyperplastic goiter are well documented in neonatal ruminants, but little is reported on iodine excess in adult ruminants and associated histological changes of the thyroid gland. Two adult Holstein cows from a Michigan dairy herd that had lost several other animals had nonspecific clinical signs of illness and were submitted for necropsy. Thyroid glands of one of these 2 animals were grossly and markedly enlarged, and histologically, thyroid glands from both animals had regions of cystic nodular hyperplasia and follicular atrophy. Thyroid glands from both animals had markedly elevated iodine concentrations. Investigation into the potential source of excessive iodine on the farm revealed multiple sources of supplemental dietary iodine and probable uneven feed and mineral mixing. Based on the findings of this investigation, adult cattle could be susceptible to excessive doses of iodine. Possibility of previous iodine deficiency before supplementation period, with subsequent development and persistence of thyroid hyperplasia and cystic change, cannot be completely excluded. Current findings suggested that iodine excess in adult cattle can result in nodular hyperplastic goiter. Use of iodized salt in mineral supplements in adult dairy herds is common practice, and accidental excessive iodine supplement may be more common than reported. Recognizing gross and histological thyroid gland changes, consisting of concurrent cystic follicular hyperplasia, atrophy, and fibrosis should raise suspicion of iodine excess and/or prior deficiency in a cattle herd, and ancillary tests such as serum iodine measurements should be part of the diagnostic workup in suspected cases. PMID:25292195

  17. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  18. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-01

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874

  19. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows. PMID:25187026

  20. How to reintroduce cow's milk?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    In a child that is allergic to milk, the natural next step, following the elimination diet, is the reintroduction of cow's milk. Several questions may arise. When feasible, this reintroduction has many benefits for the child and his family. However, the disease needs to be well defined by physicians and explained to parents. They need to understand that there are different types of allergy to cow's milk, specifically IgE- and non-IgE-mediated, and each of these may exhibit both a variable duration and frequently an incomplete recovery. Deciding where to first reintroduce cow's milk to a child who has previously followed a milk-free diet, whether it be at home or in a hospital, also frequently presents an issue. Following this first reintroduction, the progressive increase of milk into the diet needs to be managed properly, as not all children will go back to a normal dairy products intake. Recent studies show that most children with milk allergy tolerate products containing baked milk and that their consumption might speed up recovery. Hence, the purpose of the milk challenge in a child on a milk-free diet is becoming, even in a child still reactive to milk, the first step of gradual and individually adapted reintroduction of milk or dairy products. When reintroduction of cow's milk does not work, immunotherapy becomes an option, and this is carried out in specialized centers. PMID:24112424

  1. Genetic evaluation for cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When genetic evaluations for Productive Life were introduced by USDA in 1994, U.S. dairy producers had an opportunity to produce healthier cows, and it happened. The genetic evaluations were incorporated into selection programs and the deterioration occurring in pregnancy rate and somatic cell score...

  2. Intracranial Schwannoma in a Cow

    PubMed Central

    Mitcham, S. A.; Kasari, T. R.; Parent, J. M.; Naylor, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A nine year old Hereford crossbred cow with a history of progressive neurological signs was referred to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon. A large intracranial mass, histologically identified as a schwannoma, was found to be compressing the left brain stem and appeared to have arisen from the left fifth cranial nerve. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17422375

  3. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  4. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  5. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW equipment: Removal. 157.170... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The...

  6. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW equipment: Removal. 157.170... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The...

  7. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet...

  8. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW equipment: Removal. 157.170... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The...

  9. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species. PMID:27221255

  10. Inflammation- and lipid metabolism-related gene network expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of energy overfeeding on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a controlled energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or moderate energy-overfed group (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lactate signaling, hepatokine signaling, lipolysis, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and adipose depot was not significant for any gene analyzed except LPL, which indicated a consistent response to diet. Expression of ACACA and FASN was greater in SAT than MAT, whereas expression of SCD and ADFP were greatest in SAT, intermediate in OAT, and lowest in MAT. However, the 2 visceral depots had greater expression of THRSP, ACLY, LPL, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1 compared with SAT. The transcription factor SREBF1 was more highly expressed in MAT and SAT than in OAT. The expression of PNPLA2 was greater in visceral AT sites than in SAT, but other lipolysis-related genes were not differentially expressed among AT depots. Visceral AT depots had greater expression of LEP, ADIPOQ, and SAA3 compared with SAT. Moreover, MAT had greater expression than SAT of proinflammatory cytokines (IL1B and IL6), IL6 receptor (IL6R), and chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5). However, TNF expression was greatest in SAT, lowest in OAT, and intermediate in MAT. Overall, results indicated that visceral AT might be more active in uptake of preformed long-chain fatty acids than SAT, whereas de novo fatty acid synthesis could make a greater contribution to the intracellular pool of fatty acids in SAT than in visceral AT. The visceral AT compared

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Epithelial and Stromal Contributions to Mammogenesis in Three Week Prepartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Theresa; Dover, Heather; Liesman, James; DeVries, Lindsey; Kiupel, Matti; VandeHaar, Michael; Plaut, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of bovine mammary development has provided insight into regulation of mammogenesis. However, previous studies primarily examined expression of epithelial and stromal tissues combined, and consequently did not account for tissue specific contribution to mammary development. Our objective was to identify differences in gene expression in epithelial and intralobular stromal compartments. Tissue was biopsied from non-lactating dairy cows 3 weeks prepartum, cut into explants and incubated for 2 hr with insulin and hydrocortisone. Epithelial and intralobular stromal tissues were isolated with laser capture microdissection. Global gene expression was measured with Bovine Affymetrix GeneChips, and data were preprocessed using RMA method. Moderated t-tests from gene-specific linear model analysis with cell type as a fixed effect showed more than 3,000 genes were differentially expressed between tissues (P<0.05; FDR<0.17). Analysis of epithelial and stromal transcriptomes using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) showed that epithelial and stromal cells contributed distinct molecular signatures. Epithelial signatures were enriched with gene sets for protein synthesis, metabolism and secretion. Stromal signatures were enriched with genes that encoded molecules important to signaling, extracellular matrix composition and remodeling. Transcriptome differences also showed evidence for paracrine interactions between tissues in stimulation of IGF1 signaling pathway, stromal reaction, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and immune response. Molecular signatures point to the dynamic role the stroma plays in prepartum mammogenesis and highlight the importance of examining the roles of cell types within the mammary gland when targeting therapies and studying mechanisms that affect milk production. PMID:21829467

  12. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  13. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations... recorded in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual approved under § 157.112; and (c)...

  14. Effects of protein supplementation frequency on physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Cappellozza, B I; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Perry, G A; Jump, D B; Lytle, K A; Bohnert, D W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if frequency of protein supplementation impacts physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows. Fourteen nonpregnant, nonlactating beef cows were ranked by age and BW and allocated to 3 groups. Groups were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design, containing 3 periods of 21 d and the following treatments: 1) soybean meal supplementation daily (D), 2) soybean meal supplementation 3 times/week (3WK), and 3) soybean meal supplementation once/week (1WK). Within each period, cows were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol: 100 μg of GnRH + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone (P4) on d 1, 25 mg of PGF2α on d 8, and CIDR removal + 100 μg of GnRH on d 11. Grass-seed straw was offered for ad libitum consumption. Soybean meal was individually supplemented at a daily rate of 1 kg/cow (as-fed basis). Moreover, 3WK was supplemented on d 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and 18 whereas 1WK was supplemented on d 4, 11, and 18. Blood samples were collected from 0 (before) to 72 h after supplementation on d 11 and 18 and analyzed for plasma urea-N (PUN). Samples collected from 0 to 12 h were also analyzed for plasma glucose, insulin, and P4 (d 18 only). Uterine flushing fluid was collected concurrently with blood sampling at 28 h for pH evaluation. Liver biopsies were performed concurrently with blood sampling at 0, 4, and 28 h and analyzed for mRNA expression of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS-I; h 28) and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (h 0 and 4 on d 18). Plasma urea-N concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. 3WK from 20 to 72 h and greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D from 16 to 48 h and at 72 h after supplementation (treatment × hour interaction, P < 0.01). Moreover, PUN concentrations peaked at 28 h after supplementation for 3WK and 1WK (P < 0.01) and were greater (P < 0.01) at this time for 1WK vs. 3WK and D and for 3WK vs. D. Expression of CPS-I was

  15. The effect of strain of Holstein-Friesian cow on size of ovarian structures, periovulatory circulating steroid concentrations, and embryo quality following superovulation.

    PubMed

    de Feu, M A; Patton, J; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2008-10-15

    When managed under grass-based systems of production, the New Zealand (NZ) strain of Holstein-Friesian cow has superior reproductive performance compared to the North American (NA) strain despite having similar solids-corrected milk (SCM) yields. This study compared the ontogeny of early pregnancy events in NZ and NA cows. Ten NZ and 10 NA cows were submitted to a superovulation protocol on three occasions. Blood samples were collected daily from every cow from days -3 to +7 relative to a synchronized oestrus during each superovulation protocol. Pre-ovulatory oestradiol concentrations, follicle diameter, post-ovulatory progesterone concentrations, corpus luteum (CL) diameter, and circulating insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations did not differ between the two strains. Uteri were non-surgically flushed 7 days post-AI, embryos were isolated and graded. The proportion of transferable embryos recovered was higher (P<0.01) in the NZ cows compared with the NA cows. A greater (P=0.01) proportion of the recovered structures were at the blastocyst stage in the NZ cows. Peak SCM yield and body condition score (BCS) at the time of peak SCM yield were not different between strains. However, during the experimental period the NA cows maintained significantly higher daily SCM yields, whereas the NZ cows replenished significantly greater levels of BCS. The results indicate that differences in periovulatory steroid concentrations and size of ovarian structures do not explain the differences in embryo quality between the two strains. However, strain differences in nutrient partitioning from the time of peak SCM yield through late lactation may provide the key signals responsible for superior embryo quality in NZ cows. PMID:18672283

  16. Evaluation of the udder health status in subclinical mastitis affected dairy cows through bacteriological culture, somatic cell count and thermographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bortolami, A; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Corrò, M; Catania, S; Morgante, M

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is a big economic loss for farmers. The monitoring of subclinical mastitis is usually performed through Somatic Cell Count (SCC) in farm but there is the need of new diagnostic systems able to quickly identify cows affected by subclinical infections of the udder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of thermographic imaging compared to SCC and bacteriological culture for infection detection in cow affected by subclinical mastitis and possibly to discriminate between different pathogens. In this study we evaluated the udder health status of 98 Holstein Friesian dairy cows with high SCC in 4 farms. From each cow a sample of milk was collected from all the functional quarters and submitted to bacteriological culture, SCC and Mycoplasma spp. culture. A thermographic image was taken from each functional udder quarter and nipple. Pearson's correlations and Analysis of Variance were performed in order to evaluate the different diagnostic techniques. The most frequent pathogen isolated was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae and others. The Somatic Cell Score (SCS) was able to discriminate (p<0.05) cows positive for a pathogen from cows negative at the bacteriological culture except for cows with infection caused by CNS. Infrared thermography was correlated to SCS (p<0.05) but was not able to discriminate between positive and negative cows. Thermographic imaging seems to be promising in evaluating the inflammation status of cows affected by subclinical mastitis but seems to have a poor diagnostic value. PMID:26812823

  17. Effect of manipulating progesterone before timed artificial insemination on reproductive and endocrine parameters in seasonal-calving, pasture-based Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Carvalho, P D; Lucy, M C; Curran, F; Herlihy, M M; Waters, S M; Larkin, J A; Crowe, M A; Butler, S T

    2016-08-01

    Fertility to timed AI (TAI) is profoundly affected by progesterone (P4) levels during hormonal synchronization protocols. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows managed in a seasonal-calving, pasture-based production system were randomly assigned to 2 treatments to manipulate P4 before TAI during growth of the preovulatory follicle. Cows in the first treatment (High P4; n=30) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol {Pre-Ovsynch [GnRH; 7 d, PGF2α; 3 d, GnRH] followed 7 d later by Breeding-Ovsynch [GnRH (G1); 7 d PGF2α; 24 h, PGF2α; 32 h, GnRH (G2); 16 h, TAI]}. Cows in the second treatment (n=30; Low P4) received the same Double-Ovsynch protocol but with an additional PGF2α treatment 24 h after G1. Overall, synchronization rate did not differ between treatments and was 92% (55/60). Unexpectedly, 37% of Low P4 cows were detected in estrus ~24 h before scheduled TAI and were inseminated ~16 h before scheduled TAI. Overall, P4 did not differ between treatments at G1, whereas High P4 cows had greater P4 concentrations at PGF2α and G2 than Low P4 cows. High P4 cows had the smallest mean follicle diameter at G2, whereas Low P4 cows with no estrus before TAI had intermediate mean follicle diameter at G2, and Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had the largest mean follicle diameter. Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had larger corpora lutea 15 d after TAI than Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI or High P4 cows. In accordance with corpus luteum size on d 15, High P4 cows and Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI had lower P4 from 4 to 46 d after TAI than Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI. Relative mRNA levels of the interferon-stimulated genes ISG15, MX1, MX2, and OAS1 were greater for Low P4 than for High P4 cows, whereas relative mRNA levels of RTP4 were greater for High P4 than for Low P4 cows 18 d after TAI. Treatment did not affect plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations after TAI; however, pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations were

  18. Expression of estrus modifies the gene expression profile in reproductive tissues on Day 19 of gestation in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, S; Cooke, R F; Fernandes, A C C; Cappellozza, B I; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of expression of estrus at artificial insemination (AI) on endometrium, conceptus, and CL gene expression of beef cows. Thirty-six multiparous nonlactating Nelore cows were enrolled on an estradiol- and progesterone (P4)-based timed AI protocol (AI = Day 0) and then slaughtered for the endometrium, CL, and conceptus collection on Day 19. The animals were retrospectively grouped on the basis of cows that (1) showed signs of estrus near AI (n = 19; estrus) and (2) did not show any signs of estrus (n = 17; nonestrus). Body condition score, blood sampling, and ultrasound examination were performed on Days 0, 7, and 18 of the experiment followed by messenger RNA extraction and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of 58 target genes. Data were checked for normality and analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures using proc GLM, MIXED, and UNIVARIATE of SAS. Only pregnant cows were included in the analyses (n = 12; nonestrus, n = 11). Estrous expression had no correlation with parameters such as body condition score, preovulatory follicle and CL diameter, P4 concentration in plasma on Days 7 and 18 after AI, and interferon-tau concentration in the uterine flushing (P > 0.15); however, a significant increase was observed in conceptus size from cows that expressed estrus (P = 0.02; 38.3 ± 2.8 vs. 28.2 ± 2.9 mm). The majority of transcripts affected by estrous expression in the endometrium belong to the immune system and adhesion molecule family (MX1, MX2, MYL12A, MMP19, CXCL10, IGLL1, and SLPI; P ≤ 0.05), as well as those related with prostaglandin synthesis (OTR and COX-2; P ≤ 0.05). Genes related to apoptosis, P4 synthesis, and prostaglandin receptor were downregulated (CYP11A, BAX, and FPr; P < 0.05) in the CL tissue of cows that expressed estrus. In addition, four genes were identified as differentially expressed in the 19-day-old conceptus from cows that expressed

  19. Natural influence of season on follicular, luteal, and endocrinological turnover in Indian crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, S; Brindha, K; Roy, A; Devanathan, T G; Kathiresan, D; Kumanan, K

    2015-07-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the effect of seasonal changes on follicular and luteal dynamics in vivo in normally cycling crossbred cows during summer and winter months of the year. Six healthy regularly cycling Jersey crossbred nonlactating pluriparous cows were used for the study. Follicular and luteal developmental pattern was studied every other day throughout the estrous cycle by scanning the ovaries during two periods of a year viz., hot season (April to June; n = 16) and cold season (December to February; n = 12). Plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured on Days 0 (estrus), 6, and 12 of the estrous cycle. Among the 12 cycles studied during the cold season, 11 (91.7%) had three waves and one had two waves. Of 16 cycles studied during the hot season, eight (50%) had two waves, four (25%) had three waves, and the remaining four cycles had single (n = 2) and four waves (n = 2). High P4 concentrations during the midcycle would have suppressed the dominant follicle of the second follicular wave and induced the emergence of the third wave during the cold season. The first follicular wave (wave I) of the cycle emerged much earlier (Day 0.5 ± 0.3) during the cold season than that in the hot season (Day 1.7 ± 0.4). The ovulatory wave emerged significantly earlier during the hot season (Day 11.5 ± 1.3) than in the cold season (Day 14.8 ± 0.4), and hence, the growth phase of ovulatory follicle significantly increased during the former season (11.0 ± 1.4 days) than the latter (5.8 ± 0.2 days). The ovulatory follicle attained a significantly larger diameter (12.8 ± 0.8 mm) to express the estrus during the hot season when compared to the cold season (11.3 ± 0.4 mm), which might be indicative of alterations in steroidogenic activity within the follicular microenvironment. During the midphase of the cycle, a period critical for embryonic sustenance, the P4 level was significantly reduced in the hot months indicating suppression of luteal activity

  20. Comparison of oestrous synchronization regimens for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D P; Galvin, J A; O'Farrell, K J

    1999-08-16

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate various programmes for synchronization of oestrus. The focus of the study was to evaluate rates of detection of oestrus, synchrony of oestrus, pregnancy rate, and effect of ovarian status at initiation of the programmes on rates of detection of oestrus and pregnancy rate. Spring-calving, lactating dairy cows (n = 2009) were allocated at random to one of six treatments: (1) A (n = 335), progestogen (controlled intravaginal drug release; CIDR) inserted per vaginum 10 d before breeding season for 8 d, 10 microg of buserelin at CIDR insertion, PGF2alpha treatment on the day prior to CIDR removal, and AI of cows detected in oestrus within 6 d after CIDR withdrawal; (2) B (n = 330), as in A, plus 1 mg of oestradiol benzoate i.m. 10 h post CIDR withdrawal; (3) C (n = 347), as in A, except buserelin was replaced by 10 mg of oestradiol benzoate; (4) D (n = 335), as in A, plus PGF2alpha and oestradiol benzoate at CIDR insertion; (5) E (n = 332), CIDR containing a 10 mg oestradiol benzoate capsule inserted per vaginum for 12 d; or (6) F (n = 330), as in E, plus PGF2alpha on the day prior to CIDR withdrawal. The oestrous detection rate (number of cows detected in oestrus within 6 days of CIDR withdrawal as a proportion of the number of cows submitted for synchronization of oestrus) and oestrous synchrony (oestrous detection rate within 2 d of CIDR withdrawal), respectively, were greater (P<0.05) following B (95.7% of 330, 98.7% of 316) compared with any of the other programmes for synchronization of oestrus (A: 87.5 of 335, 79.4% of 293; C: 86.7% of 347, 80.0% of 301; D: 90.1% of 335, 89.8% of 302; E: 74.4% of 332, 70.4% of 247; F: 76.4% of 330, 78.5% of 252). The oestrous detection rate was reduced (P<0.05) among cows in metoestrus administered E (64.0% of 50) relative to similar cows administered F (82.8% of 64). Pregnancy rate was greater (P<0.05) following B (57.9% of 330) than A (48.9% of 335, P = 0.06), C (43.2% of 347), E

  1. Effect of administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin on health and performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with hyperketonemia.

    PubMed

    Gohary, K; Leslie, K E; Ford, J; Capel, M; LeBlanc, S J; Duffield, T F

    2015-07-01

    The effect of administering recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) to cows with hyperketonemia during the early postpartum period on health, metabolic parameters, milk production, and early reproductive performance was evaluated in a double-blinded clinical trial. Cows from 8 dairy herds in New York State were tested weekly between 3 and 16d in milk for elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows were enrolled in the study when blood β-hydroxybutyrate was ≥1.3mmol/L for the first time. Enrolled cows were randomly assigned to a treatment (n=273) or placebo control (n=270) group. Treated cows were given 325mg of rbST subcutaneously on the day of enrollment and again 14d later. Control cows received the same regimen except the syringe contained only the carrier without somatotropin. After enrollment, blood samples were collected weekly for 4wk and submitted to the laboratory to be analyzed for selected metabolites. Risk ratios for clinical diseases subsequent to treatment were calculated using Poisson regression. Continuous data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Time to first insemination was assessed with survival analysis. In the 42d following the first administration of rbST, incidence risks of displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, metritis, clinical mastitis, and lameness were not different between treatment groups. Cows treated with rbST had a slightly lower body condition score 28d after enrollment compared with control cows. In the 4wk following enrollment, serum nonesterified fatty acids and aspartate amino-transferase were slightly higher for treated than control cows, respectively. Serum glucose, calcium, haptoglobin, and β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between groups. Treatment had no effect on resolution of hyperketonemia in any of the 4wk after enrollment. Milk production in either of the 2-wk periods after each treatment was not different between treated and control cows. Furthermore, milk production was not different between groups from enrollment

  2. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  3. Improving cow herd production through early weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning, in spring calving production systems, has intrigued many producers to consider this alternative management practice especially during extended droughts and as a tool to promote stayability within a cow herd for young developing cows. The first objective of this study was to evaluate ...

  4. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  5. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  6. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  7. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  8. 33 CFR 117.965 - Cow Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cow Bayou. 117.965 Section 117.965 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.965 Cow Bayou. The draws of the Orange...

  9. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  10. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  11. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  12. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  13. 7 CFR 701.13 - Submitting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting requests. 701.13 Section 701.13 Agriculture... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.13 Submitting requests. (a) Subject to the availability of funds, the Deputy Administrator shall provide for an enrollment period for submitting ECP cost-share requests. (b) Requests may...

  14. 15 CFR 325.14 - Submitting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting reports. 325.14 Section 325... OF REVIEW § 325.14 Submitting reports. (a) Not later than each anniversary of a certificate's... certificate holder shall submit its annual report to the Secretary. The Secretary shall deliver a copy of...

  15. 7 CFR 75.37 - Submitted samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitted samples. 75.37 Section 75.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 75.37 Submitted samples. Submitted samples may be obtained by or for any interested...

  16. 20 CFR 405.333 - Submitting documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submitting documents. 405.333 Section 405.333... DISABILITY CLAIMS Administrative Law Judge Hearing § 405.333 Submitting documents. All documents prepared and submitted by you, i.e., not including medical or other evidence that is prepared by persons other than...

  17. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  18. Management of Young Cows for Maximum Reproductive Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common problem that cow calf producers face in the U.S. is low rebreeding performance among two- and three-year old cows. In Brazil, however, most cows are not bred until at least 2 years of age. However, the underlying reason that young cows in both countries have difficulty re-breeding ...

  19. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature. PMID:24790232

  20. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  1. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  2. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  3. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  4. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  5. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  6. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW system... inspector evidence that the COW system has been installed in accordance with the plans accepted under §...

  7. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  8. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  9. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  10. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  11. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a... removed from a cargo tank for the carriage of cargoes other than crude oil and then reinstalled, the master shall ensure that, before COW operations are conducted, the system has no crude oil leakage....

  12. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  13. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: General. 157.155... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2)...

  14. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  15. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: Meeting manual... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil...

  16. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW operations: General. 157.155... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2)...

  17. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW operations: General. 157.155... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2)...

  18. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  19. 33 CFR 157.156 - COW operations: Meeting manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.156 COW operations... COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) that has the Crude Oil Washing....10c(b)(2) shall ensure that during each COW operation— (a) The procedures listed in the Crude...

  20. Excretion of Brucella abortus vaccine B19 strain during a reproductive cycle in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, W. A.; Genovez, M. E.; Pozzi, C. R.; Silva, L. M. P.; Azevedo, S. S.; Did, C. C.; Piatti, R. M.; Pinheiro, E. S.; Castro, V.; Miyashiro, S.; Gambarini, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to determine the excretion period of B19 vaccine strain during a complete reproductive cycle (from estrus synchronization, artificial insemination, pregnancy and until 30 days after parturition) of dairy cows from 3 to 9 years old that were previously vaccinated from 3 to 8 months. Three groups were monitored with monthly milk and urine collection during 12 months: G1 with seven cows from 3 to 4 years old; G2 with three cows from 5 to 6 years old; and G3 with four cows from 7 to 9 years old. Urine and milk samples were submitted to bacteriological culture and urine and PCR reactions for detection of Brucella spp. and PCR-multiplex for B19 strain identification. Ring test (RT) was also performed in the milk samples, and serum samples were tested by buffered acidified plate antigen test (BAPA). All animals were serologically negative at BAPA and Brucella spp. was not isolated from both urine and milk samples. RT revealed 13/210 (6.2%) positive milk samples. PCR reactions detected DNA of Brucella spp. in 86/420 (20.5%) samples. In urine it was found a significantly higher frequency (35.2%; 74/210) than in milk (5.7%; 12/210), more frequently from the estrus to 150 days of pregnancy and after parturition (6.7%; 10/150), and from 150 days of pregnancy to parturition (3.4%; 2/60), and they were all identified as B19 strain. In three groups, intermittent excretion of B19 strain was detected mainly in urine samples, which confirmed its multiplication and persistence in cows for until 9 years. PMID:24031869

  1. Ovarian function in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows after post-ovulation hormonal treatments.

    PubMed

    Machado, R; Bergamaschi, M A C M; Barbosa, R T; de Oliveira, C A; Binelli, M

    2008-04-15

    Maternal recognition of pregnancy in the cow requires successful signaling by the conceptus to block luteolysis. Conceptus growth and function depend on an optimal uterine environment, regulated by luteal progesterone. The objective of this study was to test strategies to optimize luteal function, as well as prevent a dominant follicle from initiating luteolysis. Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) beef cows (n=40) were submitted to a GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH protocol. Cows that ovulated from a dominant ovarian follicle (ovulation=Day 0) were allocated to receive: no additional treatment (G(C); n=7); 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 (G(hCG); n=5); 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(E2); n=6); or 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 and 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(hCG/E2); n=5). Ultrasonographic imaging of the ovaries, assessment of plasma progesterone concentration, and detection of estrus were done daily from Day 5 to the day of subsequent ovulation. Treatment with hCG induced an accessory CL, increased CL volume, and plasma progesterone concentration throughout the luteal phase (P<0.01). Estradiol-17beta induced atresia and recruitment of a new wave of follicular growth; it eliminated a potentially estrogen-active, growing ovarian follicle within the critical period for maternal recognition of pregnancy, but it also hastened luteolysis (Days 16 or 17 vs. Days 18 or 19 in non-treated cows). In conclusion, the approaches tested enhanced luteal function (hCG) and altered ovarian follicular dynamics (estradiol-17beta), but were unable to extend the life-span of the CL in Nelore cows. PMID:18336896

  2. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  3. Differences during the first lactation between cows cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer and noncloned cows.

    PubMed

    Montazer-Torbati, F; Boutinaud, M; Brun, N; Richard, C; Neveu, A; Jaffrézic, F; Laloë, D; LeBourhis, D; Nguyen, M; Chadi, S; Jammes, H; Renard, J-P; Chat, S; Boukadiri, A; Devinoy, E

    2016-06-01

    Lactation performance is dependent on both the genetic characteristics and the environmental conditions surrounding lactating cows. However, individual variations can still be observed within a given breed under similar environmental conditions. The role of the environment between birth and lactation could be better appreciated in cloned cows, which are presumed to be genetically identical, but differences in lactation performance between cloned and noncloned cows first need to be clearly evaluated. Conflicting results have been described in the literature, so our aim was to clarify this situation. Nine cloned Prim' Holstein cows were produced by the transfer of nuclei from a single fibroblast cell line after cell fusion with enucleated oocytes. The cloned cows and 9 noncloned counterparts were raised under similar conditions. Milk production and composition were recorded monthly from calving until 200d in milk. At 67d in milk, biopsies were sampled from the rear quarter of the udder, their mammary epithelial cell content was evaluated, and mammary cell renewal, RNA, and DNA were then analyzed in relevant samples. The results showed that milk production did not differ significantly between cloned and noncloned cows, but milk protein and fat contents were less variable in cloned cows. Furthermore, milk fat yield and contents were lower in cloned cows during early lactation. At around 67 DIM, milk fat and protein yields, as well as milk fat, protein, and lactose contents, were also lower in cloned cows. These lower yields could be linked to the higher apoptotic rate observed in cloned cows. Apoptosis is triggered by insulin-like factor growth binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), which both interact with CSN1S2. During our experiments, CSN1S2 transcript levels were lower in the mammary gland of cloned cows. The mammary cell apoptotic rate observed in cloned cows may have been related to the higher levels of DNA (cytosine-5

  4. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established. PMID:8746959

  5. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  6. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  7. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  8. Oral calcium supplementation in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, Garrett R

    2013-07-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cattle around parturition can be manifest as clinical milk fever or subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia has the greatest economic effect because it affects a much higher proportion of cows. Oral calcium supplements are used to mitigate the effects of both forms of hypocalcemia. Oral calcium supplements are appropriate for cows displaying early clinical signs of hypocalcemia and prophylactically to lessen the negative impacts of hypocalcemia. PMID:23809900

  9. Serial Non-Invasive Measurements of Dermal Carotenoid Concentrations in Dairy Cows following Recovery from Abomasal Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E.; Müller, Kerstin E.; Lademann, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining the health of farm animals forms the basis for a sustainable and profitable production of food from animal origin. Recently, the effects of carotenoids on the oxidative status as well as on reproductive and immune functions in cattle have been demonstrated. The present study aimed at investigating dermal carotenoid levels in cattle recovering from abomasal displacement. For this purpose, serial in vivo measurements were undertaken using a miniaturized scanner system that relies on reflection spectroscopy (Opsolution GmbH, Kassel, Germany). In a first trial, repeated measurements of dermal carotenoid concentrations were performed on the udder skin of healthy non-lactating cattle (n = 6) for one month in weekly intervals. In a second trial, in vivo dermal carotenoid concentrations were determined in intervals in 23 cows following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement. The results show that dermal carotenoid concentrations, determined on a weekly basis over a period of one month, showed variations of up to 18% in the healthy individuals kept under constant conditions with respect to housing and nutrition. Repeated measurements during the recovery period following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement resulted in an increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in 18 of 20 animals with a favourable outcome when compared with results obtained within 12 hours following surgery. The mean increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in subsequent measurements was 53±44%, whereas levels decreased (mean 31±27%) in cattle with a fatal outcome. These results indicate potential applications for reflection spectroscopy for non-invasive early detection of changes in the dermal carotenoid concentrations as a reflection of the antioxidant status in an animal. PMID:23118891

  10. Serial non-invasive measurements of dermal carotenoid concentrations in dairy cows following recovery from abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Klein, Julian; Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E; Müller, Kerstin E; Lademann, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining the health of farm animals forms the basis for a sustainable and profitable production of food from animal origin. Recently, the effects of carotenoids on the oxidative status as well as on reproductive and immune functions in cattle have been demonstrated. The present study aimed at investigating dermal carotenoid levels in cattle recovering from abomasal displacement. For this purpose, serial in vivo measurements were undertaken using a miniaturized scanner system that relies on reflection spectroscopy (Opsolution GmbH, Kassel, Germany). In a first trial, repeated measurements of dermal carotenoid concentrations were performed on the udder skin of healthy non-lactating cattle (n = 6) for one month in weekly intervals. In a second trial, in vivo dermal carotenoid concentrations were determined in intervals in 23 cows following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement. The results show that dermal carotenoid concentrations, determined on a weekly basis over a period of one month, showed variations of up to 18% in the healthy individuals kept under constant conditions with respect to housing and nutrition. Repeated measurements during the recovery period following surgical treatment of abomasal displacement resulted in an increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in 18 of 20 animals with a favourable outcome when compared with results obtained within 12 hours following surgery. The mean increase in dermal carotenoid concentrations in subsequent measurements was 53 ± 44%, whereas levels decreased (mean 31 ± 27%) in cattle with a fatal outcome.These results indicate potential applications for reflection spectroscopy for non-invasive early detection of changes in the dermal carotenoid concentrations as a reflection of the antioxidant status in an animal. PMID:23118891

  11. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    PubMed

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and

  12. 5 CFR 1205.31 - Submitting appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting appeal. 1205.31 Section 1205.31 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS Appeals § 1205.31 Submitting appeal. (a) A partial or complete denial, by the Clerk of the...

  13. 25 CFR 1001.6 - Submitting applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submitting applications. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.6 Submitting applications. (a) Applications for inclusion in the applicant pool will be...

  14. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26867520

  15. Induction of parturition in cows using betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Box, P G; Sreenan, J M

    1982-03-20

    To avoid dystocia and calf mortality two groups of cows were induced to calve six or seven days prematurely. Group I consisted of none Hereford cross Friesian two-and-a-half-year-old recipient cows carrying Continental beef breed fetuses. Group 2 consisted of 10 four-year-old Continental beef breed cows carrying pure or crossbred fetuses of the same breeds. On day 280 of gestation a long-acting betamethasone formulation was injected into all 19 animals, followed five or six days later with an injection of short-acting betamethasone (15 animals) or prostaglandin F2alpha (one animal). Three cows calved before their second injection. Fourteen of the 15 animals given the short-acting betamethasone calved 26 to 70 hours later; the remaining animal was given prostaglandin at 72 hours and calved 36 hours later. The cow that received prostaglandin F2alpha instead of short-acting betamethasone calved after 11 hours. None of the calves in group I was born dead but three died within 36 hours. One calf was born dead in group 2. Cervical dilatation and slackening of pelvic ligaments were satisfactory in all animals. Although calf birthweights were between 39 and 60.5 kg, only two instances of dystocia were encountered. Thirteen of the 19 cows voided their fetal membranes within 12 hours of calving. Only two retained them for more than four days. All cows except two in group I showed good udder development and had a plentiful supply of colostrum at calving. PMID:7080415

  16. Leukotriene B4 in cows with normal calving, and in cows with retained fetal membranes and/or uterine subinvolution.

    PubMed Central

    Slama, H; Vaillancourt, D; Goff, A K

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the relationship between leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis and placental separation and uterine involution in the cow. In experiment I, the concentration and synthesis of LTB4 by caruncular tissue was lower in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM cows, n = 11) than in cows that expelled the fetal membranes normally (NFM cows, n = 19). The presence of bacterial cell wall, especially of alpha-hemolytic streptococci and coagulase positive staphylococci enhanced LTB4 synthesis by allantochorion only in NFM cows. In the RFM group, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide decreased allantochorionic LTB4 synthesis. With caruncle, only epidermal growth factor increased LTB4 production in NFM cows. In experiment II, the caruncular and endometrial secretion of LTB4 was lower in cows with subuterine involution (SUI cows, n = 5) or cows with SUI and RFM (SUI+RFM cows, n = 4) than in cows with normal uterine involution (NUI cows, n = 8). This decrease was especially noticeable in the previously gravid horn. In the three uterine involution groups, there were no differences in LTB4 synthesis by caruncular tissue taken from the previously gravid horn. However, progesterone and a bacterial suspension of E. coli reduced the synthesis of LTB4. Estradiol had no effect on LTB4 synthesis at the end of the postpartum period. These results suggest that LTB4 may play an important role in both placental separation and uterine involution in cattle and LTB4 synthesis may be modulated by endocrine and bacterial factors. PMID:8269369

  17. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  18. Cow's Milk Allergy in Childhood May Lead to Weaker Bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158413.html Cow's Milk Allergy in Childhood May Lead to Weaker Bones: ... HealthDay News) -- Children who are allergic to cow's milk may have weaker bones than kids with other ...

  19. The relationship of cow size and calf birth weight to calf weaning weight in a commercial Brangus cow/calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitability and sustainability of cow/calf operations are dependent on cow efficiency. Annual forage consumption is a logical input component included in cow efficiency models and large cows generally consume more forage annually than small cows. The ratio of additional kg of calf weaning BW to ea...

  20. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. PMID:23158513

  1. Treatment of Cow's Milk Protein Allergy

    PubMed Central

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is still a challenge. A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials for the diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA). Since none of the symptoms of CMPA is specific and since there is no sensitive diagnostic test (except a challenge test), the diagnosis of CMPA remains difficult. A "symptom-based score" is useful in children with symptoms involving different organ systems. The recommended dietary treatment is an extensive cow milk based hydrolysate. Amino acid based formula is recommended in the most severe cases. However, soy infant formula and hydrolysates from other protein sources (rice) are gaining popularity, as they taste better and are cheaper than the extensive cow's milk based hydrolysates. Recent meta-analyses confirmed the safety of soy and estimate that not more than 10-15% of CMPA-infants become allergic to soy. An accurate diagnosis of CMA is still difficult. The revival of soy and the development of rice hydrolysates challenge the extensive cow's milk based extensive hydrolysates as first option and amino acid formula. PMID:24749081

  2. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, S.T; Risley, C.L

    2005-01-01

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by ‘blitzkrieg’-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as ‘infinite’. PMID:17148336

  3. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'. PMID:17148336

  4. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract. PMID:26986087

  5. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  6. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2011-01-01

    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  7. Transition cow nutrition and feeding management for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J; Sniffen, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    In this article, an overview is presented of nutrient modeling to define energy and protein requirements of the late pregnant cow, and metabolic relationships between fetus and cow as they relate to nutrient utilization and risk for postparturient disease are discussed. Recommendations for formulating dry cow diets are provided, with emphasis on opportunities to minimize variation and risk for postparturient disease events. PMID:25220248

  8. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  9. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  10. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  11. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  12. 21 CFR 1210.12 - Physical examination of cows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical examination of cows. 1210.12 Section 1210... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.12 Physical examination of cows. (a) Physical examination of any and all cows in herds producing milk or cream which is to be shipped or transported...

  13. 2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COW HOUSE AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. There is an identical cow house opposite from the one pictured. In the background are: Robinson-Aiken Slave Building and Kitchens (SC-276) on left, and Robinson-Aiken Service Building and Stable (SC-275) on right. - Robinson-Aiken Cow House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  14. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  15. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.155 COW operations: General. (a) The... ensure that— (1) Before crude oil washing a cargo tank, the level in each tank with crude oil that is used as a source for crude oil washing is lowered at least one meter; (2) A tank used as a slop tank...

  16. Effect of rubber flooring on cow locomotion and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed-f...

  17. Associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of freestall-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of high-producing dairy cows housed in freestall barns. Lying behavior of approximately 40 focal cows in one high-producing pen was monitored on each of 40 farms in the northeastern United States (NE) and 39 farms in California (CA). All cows within the pen were gait scored using a 1-to-5 scale to calculate the prevalence of clinical lameness (score ≥3) and severe lameness (score ≥4). Facility and management measures, including stall design, bedding, and flooring type within the pen, were collected. Herd-level factors associated with daily lying time, standard deviation (SD) of daily lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and lying bout duration at the univariate level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In the NE, daily lying time increased with the use of deep bedding (estimate = 0.80±0.31h/d) and as average days in milk (DIM) of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.04h/d for a 10-d increase in DIM). The SD of daily lying time decreased as stall stocking density increased (estimate = -0.08±0.03h/d for a 10% increase), and increased with the presence of rubber flooring in the pen (estimate = 0.16±0.08h/d) and percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (estimate = 0.04±0.01h/d for a 10% increase). Frequency of lying bouts decreased (estimate = -1.90±0.63 bouts/d) and average bout duration increased (estimate = 15.44±3.02 min) with the use of deep bedding. In CA, where all farms used deep bedding, daily lying time increased as average DIM of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.03h/d for a 10-d increase). The SD of daily lying time decreased when feed was delivered more than once per day (estimate = -0.24±0.08h/d). The percentage of lame cows was correlated with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (r=0.45), which in turn was associated with fewer (estimate = -0.25±0.06 bouts/d) and longer lying bouts (estimate

  18. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  19. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  20. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  1. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  2. 21 CFR 558.254 - Famphur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as an aid in control of sucking lice. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 30 days; withdraw from dry dairy cows and heifers 21 days prior to freshening; withdraw 4 days.... For control of grubs. (ii) Limitations. For beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cows; feed for 10...

  3. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  4. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  5. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

  6. [Dietetic treatment of cow's milk protein allergy].

    PubMed

    Dupont, C; Chouraqui, J-P; de Boissieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Darmaun, D; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Rigo, J; Vidailhet, M; Turck, D

    2011-01-01

    New data on food allergy has recently changed the management of children with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). The diagnosis of CMPA first requires the elimination of cow's milk proteins and then an oral provocation test following a standard diagnostic procedure for food allergy, without which the elimination diet is unjustified and sometimes harmful. Once the diagnosis is made, the elimination diet is strict, at least until the age of 9-12 months. If the child is not breastfed or the mother cannot or no longer wishes to breastfeed, the first choice is a formula based on extensive hydrolyzate of cow's milk (eHF), provided that its effectiveness has been demonstrated. When eHF fails, a formula based on amino acids is warranted. eHF based on rice protein hydrolysates is an alternative to cow's milk eHF. Infant formulas based on soy protein can be used after the age of 6 months, after verification of good clinical tolerance to soy. Most commonly, CMPA disappears within 2 or 3 years of life. However, the age of recovery varies depending on the child and the type of CMPA, and whether or not it is IgE-mediated, the first being more sustainable. When the child grows, a hospital oral provocation test evaluates the development of tolerance and, if possible, authorizes continuing the reintroduction of milk proteins at home. Some children with CMPA will tolerate only a limited daily amount of cow's milk proteins. The current therapeutic options are designed to accelerate the acquisition of tolerance, which seems facilitated by regular exposure to cow's milk proteins. PMID:21115329

  7. Low numbers of ovarian follicles ≥3 mm in diameter are associated with low fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mossa, F; Walsh, S W; Butler, S T; Berry, D P; Carter, F; Lonergan, P; Smith, G W; Ireland, J J; Evans, A C O

    2012-05-01

    The total number of ovarian follicles ≥ 3mm in diameter (antral follicle count, AFC) during follicular waves varies among cattle of similar age, but AFC is highly repeatable within individuals. We hypothesized that lower AFC could be associated with reduced fertility in cattle. The AFC was assessed by ultrasonography for 2 d consecutively during the first wave of follicular growth of the estrous cycle, 4.6±1.43 d (mean ± SD) after estrus, in 306 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows approximately 70 d postpartum. Cows were classified into 3 groups based on AFC: low (AFC ≤15), intermediate (AFC=16 to 24), and high (AFC ≥25). During the cycle in which AFC was assessed and in subsequent cycles, cows were artificially inseminated (AI) following detection of estrus, and pregnancy status was assessed using ultrasonography. Cows with high AFC had 3.34 times greater odds of being pregnant at the end of the breeding season compared with cows with low AFC; the odds of a successful pregnancy at first service were 1.75 times greater in the intermediate compared with the low group. The predicted probability of a successful pregnancy by the end of the breeding period (length of breeding season was 86±16.3 d) was 94, 88, and 84% for the high, intermediate, and low AFC groups, respectively. No difference was evident among groups in 21-d submission rate (proportion of all cows detected in estrus and submitted for AI in the first 21 d of the breeding season), but the interval from calving to conception was shorter in the high (109.5±5.1 d) versus low (117.1±4 d) group, and animals with intermediate AFC received fewer services during the breeding season (2.3±0.1) compared with animals with low AFC (2.7±0.1). Lactating cows with ≤15 ovarian follicles have lower reproductive performance compared with cows with higher numbers of follicles, but the existence of a positive association between high numbers of ovarian follicles and fertility is yet to be established. PMID:22541464

  8. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy... IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section... the customer and Western. (b) Method of submitting IRPs. Customers must submit IRPs to Western...

  9. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the

  10. Preparing, Submitting, and Tracking a Grant Application

    Cancer.gov

    Information compiled by NCI's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI information and policies related to writing and submitting new, resubmission, late, and renewal grant applications.

  11. Relationships of cow age and initial cow body weight with calf and cow grazing season weight changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective in a study implemented during 1975-2001 on northern mixed-grass prairie at the High Plains Grassland Research Station (HPGRS) near Cheyenne, Wyoming, was to evaluate long-term calf and cow grazing season body weight gain responses under 14 different management practices (e.g. t...

  12. Effects of alternate-day feeding of dried distiller's grain plus solubles to forage-fed beef cows in mid- to late gestation.

    PubMed

    Klein, S I; Steichen, P L; Islas, A; Goulart, R S; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Dahlen, C R

    2014-06-01

    Forty-six nonlactating beef cows were used to examine effects of dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DG) supplementation strategies to cows fed grass hay during mid- to late gestation on BW, ultrasound body composition characteristics, concentrations of serum NEFA and urea, feeding behavior, and calf birth weight. Cows were assigned to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) control, where hay was fed each day of the week (CON), 2) both hay and DG fed daily during the week (DG7), 3) hay fed daily but DG fed 3 d of the week (DG3), and 4) hay fed 4 d of the week alternating with DG fed on the remaining 3 d (DGA). Hay was offered ad libitum on days it was fed. The DG were fed at 0.40% of BW when offered daily and 0.93% of BW when offered 3 d per week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday). Feed intake was monitored continuously over the 84-d feeding period. Hay intake and total DMI were reduced (P < 0.05) in DGA compared with DG7 and DG3. Gain and G:F were decreased (P < 0.05) for CON compared with other treatments. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed among treatments for change in BCS, intramuscular fat, rib fat, or rump fat from d 1 to 84. On a day when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG (Friday), DGA had reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of urea compared with DG3 and DG7. On a day when only DG7 received DG (Saturday), urea was greater (P < 0.01) for DG3 and DGA compared with DG7, and concentrations of NEFA were greater (P < 0.01) in CON and DGA compared with DG7. On the second consecutive day when only DG7 received DG (Sunday), concentrations of NEFA were less (P < 0.001) for DG7 compared with other treatments. On days when all cows received hay, DGA spent more time eating (P < 0.05) compared with DG7 and DG3. Cows fed DGA had greater (P < 0.05) hay intake per meal and time per meal compared with other treatments. On days when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG, cows in the DG3 and DGA treatments had greater (P < 0.05) number of DG meals, time spent

  13. Effect of dietary phosphorus on performance of lactating dairy cows: milk production and cow health.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H; Kanitz, F D; Moreira, V R; Wiltbank, M C; Satter, L D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure cow response to feeding of two dietary concentrations of P, one of which was close to recent National Research Council requirements, and the other of which was well in excess of the requirement. Diets containing 0.37 or 0.57% P (dry basis) were fed to Holstein cows for the first 165 d of lactation, and occasionally longer until cows were confirmed pregnant approximately 60 d after insemination. At calving, cows were randomly assigned to experimental diets. The number of cows completing a minimum of 165 d of lactation was 123 for the 0.37 and 124 for the 0.57% P groups. Cows were housed in a stanchion barn and fed one of two transition diets, each formulated to contain one of the P treatments for the first 3 wk of lactation, and then cows were moved to a free-stall barn where the experimental diets were group fed. Milk production, milk fat, and milk protein averaged 35.1 kg/d, 3.92%, and 2.90% for the 0.37% P diet, and 34.9 kg/d, 3.98%, and 2.91% for the 0.57% P diet. None of these measures were different between treatments. Blood serum P concentrations on d 50 and 100 of lactation averaged 6.1 and 6.2 mg/dL for the 0.37% P diet, and 6.8 and 6.9 mg/dL for the 0.57% P diet. No treatment differences were detected in milk production, cow health, or body condition score. PMID:14765820

  14. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  15. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  16. Cerebellar Disease in an Adult Cow

    PubMed Central

    Oz, H. H.; Nicholson, S. S.; Al-Bagdadi, F. K.; Zeman, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    This is the report of clinical signs and lesions of a cerebellar disorder in an adult four year old Limousin cow grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The most striking histopathological lesion was a marked paucity of Purkinje cells throughout the cerebellum. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422607

  17. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  18. Annual grass as supplements for beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown when limit grazing cool-season annual grasses as a supplement in a complementary forage system, energy and CP supplementation are not required and hay requirements are reduced 23% for gestating beef cows. To further improve the sustainability of complementary forage systems, repla...

  19. Productive Life Credits for Cows Revised

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An economic definition of productive life (PL) was introduced to replace the previous definition used since 1994. Cows now get credit for continuing in milk after 305 days of lactation and after 84 months of age. Credits now are based on standard lactation curves, with highest credits at the peak of...

  20. Pregnancy toxaemia of beef cows in Orkney.

    PubMed

    Spence, A B

    1978-05-27

    Pregnancy toxaemia in beef cows is assessed based on approximately 30 isolated cases seen in Orkney during the period 1974 to 1977. Case histories of nine of these are included. A mortality rate of over 90 per cent was recorded. The importance of nutrition and early detection is emphasised. PMID:664198

  1. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  2. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  3. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. PMID:27180327

  4. Overfeeding energy upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-controlled adipogenic and lipolytic gene networks but does not affect proinflammatory markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of overfeeding energy on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a low energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or high energy (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lipolysis, lactate signaling, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and AT depot was only significant for LPL, which indicated a consistent response among the 3 sites. The expression of key genes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis (FASN) and desaturation (SCD) was upregulated by HE compared with LE. Other genes associated with those processes, such as ACLY, ACACA, ELOVL6, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1, were numerically upregulated by HE. The expression of lipolytic (PNPLA2 and ABHD5) genes was upregulated and the antilypolytic lactate receptor HCAR1 was downregulated with HE compared with LE. The putative transcription regulator THRSP was upregulated and the transcription regulator PPARG tended to be upregulated by HE, whereas SREBF1 was downregulated. Among adipocytokines, HE tended to upregulate the expression of CCL2, whereas IL6R was downregulated. Overall, results indicated that overfeeding energy may increase AT mass at least in part by stimulating transcription of the network encompassing key genes associated with de novo synthesis. In response to energy overfeeding, the expression of PPARG rather than SREBF1 was closely associated with most adipogenic or lipogenic genes. However, the transcriptional activity of these regulators needs to be verified to confirm their role in the regulation of adipogenesis or lipogenesis in bovine

  5. Factors predisposing dairy and beef cows to grass tetany.

    PubMed

    Harris, D J; Lambell, R G; Oliver, C J

    1983-08-01

    In a study of dairy and beef herds on 120 farms in south-western Victoria, losses attributed to grass tetany were shown to have been an important cause of economic loss during the cooler months of 1980. Thin dairy cows had a higher incidence of suspected grass tetany than dairy cows in moderate body condition, and both thin and fat beef cows had a higher incidence than beef cows in moderate body condition. A lower incidence was found among dairy cows when the available pasture or hay contained a high percentage of clover, when cows in moderate body condition had been grazed on pastures topdressed with low rates of potassium fertilisers, and when cows had been rotated onto fresh pasture at least daily rather than at 2 or 3 day intervals. The incidence among dairy cows was also associated with the length of available pasture, the correlation being positive for cows of moderate body condition, but negative for thin cows. Possible reasons for the associations are discussed. Only a small proportion of farmers adopted measures to prevent grass tetany, and those who did often applied them inefficiently. Practicable control measures are suggested on the basis of the survey results. PMID:6639526

  6. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  7. Separate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, S; Thomsen, P T; Burow, E

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis was that dairy cows housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate group with herd mates would produce more milk and would be healthier than cows integrated in a group of all lactating cows immediately after calving. The experiment was conducted with 489 cows in 6 commercial loose-housing dairy herds where cows were randomly selected for treatment (separate housing) or control. Cows selected for treatment were housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate section, and controls were housed in the remaining section of the barn for lactating cows. Data were compared for milk yield, somatic cell count, medical treatments, reproductive performance, culling, mortality, and clinical observation of scores for body condition, leg and udder hygiene, lameness, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, and condition of the hair coat. The analysis of the effect of separate housing showed that primiparous cows produced more milk [approximately 230 kg of energy-corrected milk from 0 to 305 d in milk (DIM)], whereas multiparous and especially parity 3+ cows produced less milk (approximately 394 kg of energy-corrected milk from 0 to 305 DIM) during the lactation. Separate housing had no effect on mortality or reproductive efficiency. In primiparous cows, the number of medical treatments for ketosis was reduced by separate housing [hazard ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.83]. Clinical evaluations showed that separate housing decreased the scores for hock lesions in cows at 0 to 30 DIM (odds ratio 0.41, CI: 0.19-0.91), whereas the scoring of leg cleanliness showed more dirty legs in separated cows at 0 to 30 DIM (odds ratio 3.61, CI: 2.01-6.47) compared with cows integrated into the herd immediately. The body condition score in separated cows was reduced from 0 to 30 DIM (score reduced by 0.16, CI: 0.07-0.25) and from 31 to 60 DIM (score reduced by 0.13, CI: 0.04-0.23) compared with cows integrated immediately. We concluded that separate

  8. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  9. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  10. 20 CFR 10.335 - How are medical bills submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are medical bills submitted? 10.335... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.335 How are medical bills submitted? Usually, medical providers submit bills directly to OWCP. The rules for submitting and paying bills are stated...