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Sample records for nonlinear electromagnetic wave

  1. Analytic descriptions of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A simple but highly efficient approach for dealing with the problem of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagation in a nonlinear medium is proposed based on an exact solution proposed recently. We derive an analytical explicit formula, which exhibiting rich interesting nonlinear effects, to describe the propagation of any amount of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium. The results obtained by using the present method are accurately concordant with the results of using traditional coupled-wave equations. As an example of application, we discuss how a third wave affects the sum- and difference-frequency generation of two waves propagation in the nonlinear medium. PMID:26073066

  2. Nonlinear Landau damping of transverse electromagnetic waves in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tsintsadze, N. L.; Chaudhary, Rozina; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.

    2009-04-15

    High-frequency transverse electromagnetic waves in a collisionless isotropic dusty plasma damp via nonlinear Landau damping. Taking into account the latter we have obtained a generalized set of Zakharov equations with local and nonlocal terms. Then from this coupled set of Zakharov equations a kinetic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with local and nonlocal nonlinearities is derived for special cases. It is shown that the modulation of the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves leads to the modulation instability through the nonlinear Landau damping term. The maximum growth rate is obtained for the special case when the group velocity of electromagnetic waves is close to the dust acoustic velocity.

  3. Nonlinear mixing of electromagnetic waves in plasmas.

    PubMed

    Stefan, V; Cohen, B I; Joshi, C

    1989-01-27

    Recently, a strong research effort has been focused on applications of beat waves in plasma interactions. This research has important implications for various aspects of plasma physics and plasma technology. This article reviews the present status of the field and comments on plasma probing, heating of magnetically confined and laser plasmas, ionospheric plasma modification, beat-wave particle acceleration, beat-wave current drive in toroidal devices, beat wave-driven free-electron lasers, and phase conjugation with beat waves. PMID:17799185

  4. In-situ observations of nonlinear wave particle interaction of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Keika, K.; Katoh, Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nakamura, S.; Omura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Direct measurement method for the electromagnetic wave and space plasma interaction has been suggested by a computer simulation study [Katoh et al., 2013], so-called Wave Particle Interaction Analysis (WPIA). We perform the WPIA for rising tone electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves (so-called EMIC triggered emissions), of which generation mechanism is essentially the same as the chorus emissions. THEMIS observation data (EFI, FGM, and ESA) are used for the WPIA. In the WPIA, we calculate (1) the inner product of the wave electric field and the velocity of the energetic protons: Wint, (2) the inner product of the wave magnetic field and the velocity of the energetic protons: WBint, and (3) the phase angle ζ between the wave magnetic field and the perpendicular velocity of the energetic protons. The values of (1) and (2) indicate the existence of the resonant currents inducing the nonlinear wave growth and the frequency change, respectively. We find the negative Wint and positive WBint at the nonlinear growing phase of the triggered emission as predicted in the theory [e.g. Omura and Nunn, 2011, Shoji and Omura, 2013]. In histogram of (3), we show the existence of the electromagnetic proton holes in the phase space generating the resonant currents. We also perform a hybrid simulation and evaluate WPIA method for EMIC waves. The simulation results show good agreement with the in-situ THEMIS observations.

  5. High-informative version of nonlinear transformation of Langmuir waves to electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, Vasily I.; Erofeev

    2014-04-01

    The concept of informativeness of nonlinear plasma physical scenario is discussed. Basic principles for heightening the informativeness of plasma kinetic models are explained. Former high-informative correlation analysis of plasma kinetics (Erofeev, V. 2011 High-Informative Plasma Theory, Saarbrücken: LAP) is generalized for studies of weakly turbulent plasmas that contain fields of solenoidal plasma waves apart from former potential ones. Respective machinery of plasma kinetic modeling is applied to an analysis of fusion of Langmuir waves with transformation to electromagnetic waves. It is shown that the customary version of this phenomenon (Terashima, Y. and Yajima, N. 1963 Prog. Theor. Phys. 30, 443; Akhiezer, I. A., Danelia, I. A. and Tsintsadze, N. L. 1964 Sov. Phys. JETP 19, 208; Al'tshul', L. M. and Karpman, V. I. 1965 Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1043) substantially distorts the picture of merging of Langmuir waves with long wavelengths (λ >~ c/ωpe ).

  6. Computer simulation on the linear and nonlinear propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the dielectric media

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Okuda, H.

    1993-08-01

    In this Letter, we first present a new computer simulation model developed to study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a dielectric medium in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The model is constructed by combining a microscopic model used in the semi-classical approximation for the dielectric media and the particle model developed for the plasma simulations. The model was then used for studying linear and nonlinear wave propagation in the dielectric medium such as an optical fiber. It is shown that the model may be useful for studying nonlinear wave propagation and harmonics generation in the nonlinear dielectric media.

  7. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-01

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  8. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-20

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO{sub 2} through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  9. Nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in negative-refraction-index composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in left-handed materials. For this purpose, we consider a set of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations, which govern the dynamics of coupled electric and magnetic field envelopes. The CNLS equations are used to obtain a nonlinear dispersion, which depicts the modulational stability profile of the coupled plane-wave solutions in left-handed materials. An exact (in)stability criterion for modulational interactions is derived, and analytical expressions for the instability growth rate are obtained. PMID:16090126

  10. Nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in a plasma containing random irregularities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of propagation of finite-amplitude electromagnetic waves in a plasma containing random irregularities is studied. Using a recently developed perturbation technique, a general equation for finite amplitude coherent waves is derived. Included in this equation are both the effects of quasi-harmonic nonlinear heating of electrons and random scattering by irregularities. The equation is solved in general by the equivalent linearization procedure. The amplitude of the coherent wave is found to be attenuated by collision and scattering. Both attenuation are affected by the nonlinear heating of the electrons. Curves showing the results for a specific example will be presented.

  11. Nonlinear interactions between electromagnetic waves and electron plasma oscillations in quantum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B

    2007-08-31

    We consider nonlinear interactions between intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) in a dense quantum plasma, taking into account the electron density response in the presence of the relativistic ponderomotive force and mass increase in the CPEM wave fields. The dynamics of the CPEM waves and EPOs is governed by the two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations and Poisson's equation. The nonlinear equations admit the modulational instability of an intense CPEM pump wave against EPOs, leading to the formation and trapping of localized CPEM wave pipes in the electron density hole that is associated with a positive potential distribution in our dense plasma. The relevance of our investigation to the next generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments is discussed. PMID:17931024

  12. Nonlinear Interactions between Electromagnetic Waves and Electron Plasma Oscillations in Quantum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.

    2007-08-31

    We consider nonlinear interactions between intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) in a dense quantum plasma, taking into account the electron density response in the presence of the relativistic ponderomotive force and mass increase in the CPEM wave fields. The dynamics of the CPEM waves and EPOs is governed by the two coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations and Poisson's equation. The nonlinear equations admit the modulational instability of an intense CPEM pump wave against EPOs, leading to the formation and trapping of localized CPEM wave pipes in the electron density hole that is associated with a positive potential distribution in our dense plasma. The relevance of our investigation to the next generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments is discussed.

  13. Nonlinear propagation of coherent electromagnetic waves in a dense magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.; Stenflo, L.

    2012-07-15

    We present an investigation of the nonlinear propagation of high-frequency coherent electromagnetic waves in a uniform quantum magnetoplasma. Specifically, we consider nonlinear couplings of right-hand circularly polarized electromagnetic-electron-cyclotron (CPEM-EC) waves with dispersive shear Alfven (DSA) and dispersive compressional Alfven (DCA) perturbations in plasmas composed of degenerate electron fluids and non-degenerate ion fluids. Such interactions lead to amplitude modulation of the CPEM-EC wave packets, the dynamics of which is governed by a three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) with the frequency shift arising from the relativistic electron mass increase in the CPEM-EC fields and density perturbations associated with the DSA and DCA perturbations. Accounting for the electromagnetic and quantum forces, we derive the evolution equation for the DSA and DCA waves in the presence of the magnetic field-aligned ponderomotive force of the CPEM-EC waves. The NLSE and the driven DSA and DCA equations are then used to investigate the modulational instability. The relevance of our investigation to laser-plasma interaction experiments and the cores of white dwarf stars is pointed out.

  14. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Tejero, E M; Crabtree, C; Blackwell, D D; Amatucci, W E; Mithaiwala, M; Ganguli, G; Rudakov, L

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10(-6) times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth's plasma environment. PMID:26647962

  15. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10−6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment. PMID:26647962

  16. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10-6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment.

  17. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1997-01-01

    We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.

  18. Integrable parameter regimes and stationary states of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the stationary propagation of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma via the ponderomotive force is carried out. For small but finite amplitudes, the governing equations have a Hamiltonian structure, but with a kinetic energy term that is not positive definite. The Hamiltonian is similar to the well-known H{acute e}non{endash}Heiles Hamiltonian of nonlinear dynamics, and is completely integrable in three regimes of the allowed parameter space. The corresponding second invariants of motion are also explicitly obtained. The integrable parameter regimes correspond to supersonic values of the Mach number, which characterizes the propagation speed of the coupled waves. On the other hand, in the sub- as well as near-sonic regimes, the coupled mode equations admit different types of exact analytical solutions, which represent nonlinear localized eigenstates of the electromagnetic field trapped in the density cavity due to the ponderomotive potential. While the density cavity has always a single-dip structure, for larger amplitudes it can support higher-order modes having a larger number of nodes in the electromagnetic field. In particular, we show the existence of a new type of localized electromagnetic wave whose field intensity has a triple-hump structure. For typical parameter values, the triple-hump solitons propagate with larger Mach numbers that are closer to the sonic limit than the single- as well as the double-hump solitons, but carry a lesser amount of the electromagnetic field energy. A comparison between the different types of solutions is carried out. The possibility of the existence of trapped electromagnetic modes having a larger number of humps is also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Nonlinear propagation of Rossby-Khantadze electromagnetic planetary waves in the ionospheric E-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kaladze, T. D.

    2013-10-01

    Nonlinear vortex propagation of electromagnetic coupled Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer is investigated with numerical simulations. Large scale, finite amplitude vortex structures are launched as initial conditions at low, mid, and high latitudes. For each k-vector the linear dispersion relation has two eigenmodes corresponding to the slow magnetized Rossby wave and the fast magnetic Khantadze wave. Both waves propagate westward with local speeds of the order of 10-20 m/s for the slow wave and of the order of 500-1000 km/s for the fast wave. We show that for finite amplitudes there are dipole solitary structures emitted from the initial conditions. These structures are neutrally stable, nonlinear states that avoid radiating waves by propagating faster than the corresponding linear wave speeds. The condition for these coherent structures to occur is that their amplitudes are such that the nonlinear convection around the core of the disturbance is faster than the linear wave speed for the corresponding dominant Fourier components of the initial disturbance. The presence of the solitary vortex states is indicative of an initial strong disturbance such as that from a solar storm or a tectonic plate movement. We show that for generic, large amplitude initial disturbances both slow and fast vortex structures propagate out of the initial structure.

  20. Nonlinear propagation of Rossby-Khantadze electromagnetic planetary waves in the ionospheric E-layer

    SciTech Connect

    Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kaladze, T. D.

    2013-10-15

    Nonlinear vortex propagation of electromagnetic coupled Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer is investigated with numerical simulations. Large scale, finite amplitude vortex structures are launched as initial conditions at low, mid, and high latitudes. For each k-vector the linear dispersion relation has two eigenmodes corresponding to the slow magnetized Rossby wave and the fast magnetic Khantadze wave. Both waves propagate westward with local speeds of the order of 10–20 m/s for the slow wave and of the order of 500–1000 km/s for the fast wave. We show that for finite amplitudes there are dipole solitary structures emitted from the initial conditions. These structures are neutrally stable, nonlinear states that avoid radiating waves by propagating faster than the corresponding linear wave speeds. The condition for these coherent structures to occur is that their amplitudes are such that the nonlinear convection around the core of the disturbance is faster than the linear wave speed for the corresponding dominant Fourier components of the initial disturbance. The presence of the solitary vortex states is indicative of an initial strong disturbance such as that from a solar storm or a tectonic plate movement. We show that for generic, large amplitude initial disturbances both slow and fast vortex structures propagate out of the initial structure.

  1. Three-wave mixing of ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves: extraordinary transients in the nonlinear reflectivity and parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Slabko, Vitaly V; Popov, Alexander K; Tkachenko, Viktor A; Myslivets, Sergey A

    2016-09-01

    Three-wave mixing of ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves in a pulsed regime is investigated in the metamaterials that enable the coexistence and phase-matching of such waves. It is shown that the opposite direction of phase velocity and energy flux in backward waves gives rise to extraordinary transient processes due to greatly enhanced optical parametric amplification and frequency up- and down-shifting nonlinear reflectivity. The differences are illustrated through comparison with the counterparts in ordinary, co-propagating settings. PMID:27607951

  2. Latitudinal dependence of nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave and terrestrial ring current ions

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhenpeng Zhu, Hui; Zheng, Huinan; Xiao, Fuliang; Zhang, Min; Liu, Y. C.-M.; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2014-05-15

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can lead to the rapid decay (on a timescale of hours) of the terrestrial ring current. Such decay process is usually investigated in the framework of quasi-linear theory. Here, both theoretical analysis and test-particle simulation are performed to understand the nonlinear interaction between ring current ions and EMIC waves. In particular, the dependence of the nonlinear wave-particle interaction processes on the ion initial latitude is investigated in detail. These nonlinear processes are classified into the phase trapping and phase bunching, and the phase bunching is further divided into the channel and cluster effects. Compared to the prediction of the quasi-linear theory, the ring current decay rate can be reduced by the phase trapping, increased by the channel effect phase bunching, but non-deterministically influenced by the cluster effect phase bunching. The ion initial latitude changes the occurrence of the phase trapping, modulates the transport direction and strength of the cluster effect phase bunching, and only slightly affects the channel effect phase bunching. The current results suggest that the latitudinal dependence of these nonlinear processes should be considered in the evaluation of the ring current decay induced by EMIC waves.

  3. Self-focusing of electromagnetic surface waves on a nonlinear impedance surface

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Zhangjie; Chen, Xing; Long, Jiang; Quarfoth, Ryan; Sievenpiper, Daniel

    2015-05-25

    The self-focusing effect of optical beams has been a popular topic of study for quite a while, but such a nonlinear phenomenon at microwave frequencies has never been realized, partially due to the underdevelopment of nonlinear material. In this research, self-focused electromagnetic (EM) surface waves are demonstrated on a circuit-based, power-dependent impedance surface. The formation of a self-focused beam is investigated using a series of discrete-time simulations, and the result is further validated in measurement. It is experimentally observed that, in contrast to the normal scattering of low-power surface waves, high-power waves propagate through the surface while maintaining narrow beam width, and even converge extremely tightly to create a hot spot with higher power. The result is essentially a nonlinear effect of the surface that compensates for the natural tendency of surface waves to diffract. This intriguing experiment can be extended to various potential EM applications such as power-dependent beam steering antennas and nonlinear microwave propagation or dissipation.

  4. Nonlinear dispersion and transverse profile of intense electromagnetic waves, propagating through electron-positron-ion hot magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Javan, N. Sepehri Homami, S. H. H.

    2015-02-15

    Self-guided nonlinear propagation of intense circularly-polarized electromagnetic waves in a hot electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma is studied. Using a relativistic fluid model, a nonlinear equation is derived, which describes the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with the plasma in the quasi-neutral approximation. Transverse Eigen modes, the nonlinear dispersion relation and the group velocity are obtained. Results show that the transverse profile in the case of magnetized plasma with cylindrical symmetry has a radially damping oscillatory form. Effect of applying external magnetic fields, existence of the electron-positron pairs, changing the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave, and its polarization on the nonlinear dispersion relation and Eigen modes are studied.

  5. Nonlinear interaction of intense electromagnetic waves with a magnetoactive electron-positron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M.; Rastbood, E.; Zeinaddini Meymand, H.; Niknam, A. R.

    2013-08-15

    The nonlinear coupling between circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and acoustic-like waves in a magnetoactive electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma is studied, taking into account the relativistic motion of electrons and positrons. The possibility of modulational instability and its growth rate as well as the envelope soliton formation and its characteristics in such plasmas are investigated. It is found that the growth rate of modulation instability increases in the case that ω{sub c}/ω<1 (ω{sub c} and ω are the electron gyrofrequency and the CPEM wave frequency, respectively) and decreases in the case that ω{sub c}/ω>1. It is also shown that in a magnetoactive e-p-i plasma, the width of bright soliton increases/decreases in case of (ω{sub c}/ω)<1/(ω{sub c}/ω)>1 by increasing the magnetic field strength.

  6. Theoretical investigation of nonlinear damping and nonlinear phase shift of spin-electromagnetic waves propagating in infinite multiferroics at sub-terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinova, I. A.; Cherkasskii, M. A.; Ustinov, A. B.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The nonlinear phase shift and nonlinear damping of spin-electromagnetic waves were theoretically studied for the first time in sub-terahertz frequency range in infinite homogeneous longitudinal magnetized multiferroics. The research was based on the solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. It is shown that the saturation of the phase shift occurs due to the nonlinear damping if the nonlinear damping coefficients exceed v1=108 s-1 and v2=109 s-1.

  7. Generation of low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves as nonlinear consequences of beam-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Umeda, Takayuki

    2008-06-15

    Nonlinear evolution of the electron two-stream instability in a current-carrying plasma is examined by using a two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation. Formation of electron phase-space holes is observed as an early nonlinear consequence of electron-beam-plasma interactions. Lower-hybrid waves, electrostatic, and electromagnetic whistler mode waves are also excited by different mechanisms during the ensuing nonlinear wave-particle interactions. It is shown by the present computer simulation with a large simulation domain and a long simulation time that these low-frequency waves can disturb the electrostatic equilibrium of electron phase-space holes, suggesting that the lifetime of electron phase-space holes sometimes becomes shorter in a current-carrying plasma.

  8. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Influence of a Single Frequency Electromagnetic Wave on Energy Spectrum of Nonpolariton System in a Kerr Nonlinear Blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qi-Jun; Cheng, Ze

    2010-06-01

    In a Kerr nonlinear blackbody, bare photons with opposite wave vectors and helicities are bound into pairs and unpaired photons are transformed into a different kind of quasiparticle, the nonpolariton. The present paper investigates the influence of a single frequency electromagnetic wave on the energy spectrum of the nonpolariton system. We find that the wave can lead to an energy shift of nonpolaritons. Moreover, we calculate the first-order energy shift on certain conditions.

  9. Full-wave Nonlinear Inverse Scattering for Acoustic and Electromagnetic Breast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Mark Spencer

    Acoustic and electromagnetic full-wave nonlinear inverse scattering techniques are explored in both theory and experiment with the ultimate aim of noninvasively mapping the material properties of the breast. There is evidence that benign and malignant breast tissue have different acoustic and electrical properties and imaging these properties directly could provide higher quality images with better diagnostic certainty. In this dissertation, acoustic and electromagnetic inverse scattering algorithms are first developed and validated in simulation. The forward solvers and optimization cost functions are modified from traditional forms in order to handle the large or lossy imaging scenes present in ultrasonic and microwave breast imaging. An antenna model is then presented, modified, and experimentally validated for microwave S-parameter measurements. Using the antenna model, a new electromagnetic volume integral equation is derived in order to link the material properties of the inverse scattering algorithms to microwave S-parameters measurements allowing direct comparison of model predictions and measurements in the imaging algorithms. This volume integral equation is validated with several experiments and used as the basis of a free-space inverse scattering experiment, where images of the dielectric properties of plastic objects are formed without the use of calibration targets. These efforts are used as the foundation of a solution and formulation for the numerical characterization of a microwave near-field cavity-based breast imaging system. The system is constructed and imaging results of simple targets are given. Finally, the same techniques are used to explore a new self-characterization method for commercial ultrasound probes. The method is used to calibrate an ultrasound inverse scattering experiment and imaging results of simple targets are presented. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of quantitative microwave inverse scattering by way of a self

  10. On the formation of shocks of electromagnetic plane waves in non-linear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Demetrios; Perez, Daniel Raoul

    2016-08-01

    An influential result of F. John states that no genuinely non-linear strictly hyperbolic quasi-linear first order system of partial differential equations in two variables has a global C2-solution for small enough initial data. Inspired by recent work of D. Christodoulou, we revisit John's original proof and extract a more precise description of the behaviour of solutions at the time of shock. We show that John's singular first order quantity, when expressed in characteristic coordinates, remains bounded until the final time, which is then characterised by an inverse density of characteristics tending to zero in one point. Moreover, we study the derivatives of second order, showing again their boundedness when expressed in appropriate coordinates. We also recover John's upper bound for the time of shock formation and complement it with a lower bound. Finally, we apply these results to electromagnetic plane waves in a crystal with no magnetic properties and cubic electric non-linearity in the energy density, assuming no dispersion.

  11. Effect of a novel nonlinearity, viz., electron temperature dependence of electron-ion recombination on electromagnetic wave. Plasma interaction: Nonlinear propagation in the E-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Sweta

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the nonlinearity in the propagation of electromagnetic (e.m.) waves in a plasma caused by the electron temperature dependence of the coefficient of recombination of electrons with ions; specifically, the ionospheric E layer has been investigated. The enhancement in electron temperature by an intense electromagnetic wave causes reduction of the electron-ion recombination coefficient and thereby enhancement of electron density, the electron collision frequency also gets enhanced. The equations for number and energy balance of electrons and the wave equation have been used to predict the dependence of electron density/collision frequency and the nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficient on αE02 (proportional to wave irradiance). The dependence of the propagation parameters on αE02 has been used to investigate the nonlinear electromagnetic wave propagation in the ionosphere. The study concludes that the electron temperature dependence of the recombination coefficient should be considered in all analyses of nonlinear plasma-e.m. wave interaction.

  12. Nonlinear propagation of broadband intense electromagnetic waves in an electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Marklund, M.; Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.

    2006-08-15

    A kinetic equation describing the nonlinear evolution of intense electromagnetic pulses in electron-positron (e-p) plasmas is presented. The modulational instability is analyzed for a relativistically intense partially coherent pulse, and it is found that the modulational instability is inhibited by the spectral pulse broadening. A numerical study for the one-dimensional kinetic photon equation is presented. Computer simulations reveal a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-type recurrence phenomenon for localized broadband pulses. The results should be of importance in understanding the nonlinear propagation of broadband intense electromagnetic pulses in e-p plasmas in laser-plasma systems as well as in astrophysical plasma settings.

  13. Frequency sweep rates of rising tone electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves: Comparison between nonlinear theory and Cluster observation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhaoguo; Zong, Qiugang Wang, Yongfu; Liu, Siqing; Lin, Ruilin; Shi, Liqin

    2014-12-15

    Resonant pitch angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves has been suggested to account for the rapid loss of ring current ions and radiation belt electrons. For the rising tone EMIC wave (classified as triggered EMIC emission), its frequency sweep rate strongly affects the efficiency of pitch-angle scattering. Based on the Cluster observations, we analyze three typical cases of rising tone EMIC waves. Two cases locate at the nightside (22.3 and 22.6 magnetic local time (MLT)) equatorial region and one case locates at the duskside (18MLT) higher magnetic latitude (λ = –9.3°) region. For the three cases, the time-dependent wave amplitude, cold electron density, and cold ion density ratio are derived from satellite data; while the ambient magnetic field, thermal proton perpendicular temperature, and the wave spectral can be directly provided by observation. These parameters are input into the nonlinear wave growth model to simulate the time-frequency evolutions of the rising tones. The simulated results show good agreements with the observations of the rising tones, providing further support for the previous finding that the rising tone EMIC wave is excited through the nonlinear wave growth process.

  14. Subwavelength electromagnetic switch: bistable wave transmission of side-coupling nonlinear meta-atom.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yaqiong; Xue, Chunhua; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Yunhui; Li, Hongqiang; Chen, Hong

    2012-10-22

    We propose a scheme for subwavelength electromagnetic switch by employing nonlinear meta-atom. Bistable response is conceptually demonstrated on a microwave transmission line, which is side-coupled to a varactor-loaded split ring resonator acting as a nonlinear meta-atom. Calculations and experiments show that by applying conductive coupling instead of near-field interaction between the transmission line and the nonlinear meta-atom, switch performances are improved. The switch threshold of low to -5.8 dBm and the transmission contrast of up to 4.0 dB between the two bistable states were achieved. Subwavelength size of our switch should be useful for miniaturization of integrated optical nanocircuits. PMID:23187246

  15. The Nonlinear Coupling of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Ring Current Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2004-01-01

    The excitation of lower hybrid waves (LHWs) is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space, and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. In this paper we present the morphology, dynamics, and level of LHW activity generated by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves during the May 2-7, 1998 storm period on the global scale. The LHWs were calculated based on a newly developed self-consistent model (Khazanov et. al., 2002, 2003) that couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation describes the ring current (RC) ion dynamic, and another equation describes the evolution of EMIC waves. It is found that the LHWs are excited by helium ions due to their mass dependent drift in the electric field of EMIC waves. The level of LHW activity is calculated assuming that the induced scattering process is the main saturation mechanism for these waves. The calculated LHWs electric fields are consistent with the observational data.

  16. Systematic wave-equation finite difference time domain formulations for modeling electromagnetic wave-propagation in general linear and nonlinear dispersive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Omar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, systematic wave-equation finite difference time domain (WE-FDTD) formulations are presented for modeling electromagnetic wave-propagation in linear and nonlinear dispersive materials. In the proposed formulations, the complex conjugate pole residue (CCPR) pairs model is adopted in deriving a unified dispersive WE-FDTD algorithm that allows modeling different dispersive materials, such as Debye, Drude and Lorentz, in the same manner with the minimal additional auxiliary variables. Moreover, the proposed formulations are incorporated with the wave-equation perfectly matched layer (WE-PML) to construct a material independent mesh truncating technique that can be used for modeling general frequency-dependent open region problems. Several numerical examples involving linear and nonlinear dispersive materials are included to show the validity of the proposed formulations.

  17. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-12-15

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.

  18. Nonlinear response of the equatorial current jet to external action and its influence on electromagnetic waves of the whistle range in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Savina, O. N.

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear response of the equatorial current jet to external actions is considered, as well as some geophysical effects produced by it. Irradiating the current jet by short-wave electromagnetic radiation with amplitude modulation in ranges of VLF emission and geomagnetic pulsations, one can provide for conditions when a nonlinear antenna is realized in the current jet region. Estimations have shown that under the current jet on the ground surface electromagnetic signals on modulation frequencies can be two orders of magnitude larger than at middle latitudes due to modulated electron temperature and density. The effect of signals from the modulated equatorial current jet on the modes of operation of the plasma magnetospheric maser in VLF waveband is considered. The resonance modification of the spectra of natural electromagnetic waves of VLF range in the magnetosphere is shown to be possible.

  19. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  20. Nonlinear electromagnetic interactions in energetic materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wood, Mitchell Anthony; Dalvit, Diego Alejandro; Moore, David Steven

    2016-01-12

    We study the scattering of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic energetic materials. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in molecular crystals result in frequency-conversion and polarization changes. Applied electromagnetic fields of moderate intensity can induce these nonlinear effects without triggering chemical decomposition, offering a mechanism for the nonionizing identification of explosives. We use molecular-dynamics simulations to compute such two-dimensional THz spectra for planar slabs made of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and ammonium nitrate. Finally, we discuss third-harmonic generation and polarization-conversion processes in such materials. These observed far-field spectral features of the reflected or transmitted light may serve as an alternative tool for standoff explosive detection.

  1. "Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…

  2. Reply to "Comment on `Guided electromagnetic waves propagating in a plane dielectric waveguide with nonlinear permittivity' "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Yury G.; Valovik, Dmitry V.

    2015-11-01

    The preceding Comment contains statements that we feel are inaccurate and that lead one to think that the problem we study in Phys. Rev. A 91, 013840 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.013840 was solved long ago. However, we argue that our results are new and add to the understanding of the process of transverse electric wave propagation in a Kerr medium. In our Reply we contest the critical statements that are given in the Comment.

  3. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. PMID:22627995

  4. Particle-In-Cell Simulations of a Nonlinear Transverse Electromagnetic Wave in a Pulsar Wind Termination Shock

    SciTech Connect

    Skjaeraasen, Olaf; Melatos, A.; Spitkovsky, A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-08-15

    A 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell code is used to investigate the propagation of a large-amplitude, superluminal, nearly transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave in a relativistically streaming electron-positron plasma with and without a shock. In the freestreaming, unshocked case, the analytic TEM dispersion relation is verified, and the streaming is shown to stabilize the wave against parametric instabilities. In the confined, shocked case, the wave induces strong, coherent particle oscillations, heats the plasma, and modifies the shock density profile via ponderomotive effects. The wave decays over {approx}> 10{sup 2} skin depths; the decay length scale depends primarily on the ratio between the wave frequency and the effective plasma frequency, and on the wave amplitude. The results are applied to the termination shock of the Crab pulsar wind, where the decay length-scale ({approx}> 0.05''?) might be comparable to the thickness of filamentary, variable substructure observed in the optical and X-ray wisps and knots.

  5. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V

    2015-07-31

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters. PMID:26274421

  6. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.

  7. Electromagnetic wave propagation characteristics in unimolecular reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingpeng; Huang, Kama

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted chemical reactions have attracted interests because of their benefits for enhancement of reaction rates. However, the problems, such as hot spots and thermal runaway, limit the application of microwaves in the chemical industry. To study the characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in a chemical reaction is critical to solve the problems. The research on the characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in the unimolecular reaction that is a simple model reaction, can be generalized to the research in a chemical reaction. The approximate expressions of the attenuation and dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in the unimolecular reaction are derived by the nonlinear propagation theory. Specially, when the reaction rate is zero, the derived approximate expressions can be reduced to the formulas in low-loss dispersive media. Moreover, a 1D mold is used to validate the feasibility of the approximate expressions. The influences of the reaction rate and initial reactant concentration on the characteristics are obtained.

  8. Global Simulation of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K.; Gallagher, D. L.; Kozyra, J. U.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on ring current (RC) ion and radiation belt (RB) electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. The consequence is that accurate modeling of EMIC waves and RC particles requires robust inclusion of the interdependent dynamics of wave growth/damping, wave propagation, and particles. Such a self-consistent model is being progressively developed by Khazanov et al. [2002 - 2007]. This model is based on a system of coupled kinetic equations for the RC and EMIC wave power spectral density along with the ray tracing equations. We will discuss the recent progress in understanding EMIC waves formation mechanisms in the inner magnetosphere. This problem remains unsettled in spite of many years of experimental and theoretical studies. Modern satellite observations by CRRES, Polar and Cluster still do not reveal the whole picture experimentally since they do not stay long enough in the generation region to give a full account of all the spatio-temporal structure of EMIC waves. The complete self-consistent theory taking into account all factors significant for EMIC waves generation remains to be developed. Several mechanisms are discussed with respect to formation of EMIC waves, among them are nonlinear modification of the ionospheric reflection by precipitating energetic protons, modulation of ion-cyclotron instability by long-period (Pc3/4) pulsations, reflection of waves from layers of heavy-ion gyroresonances, and nonlinearities of wave generation process. We show that each of these mechanisms have their attractive features and explains certain part experimental data but any of them, if taken alone, meets some difficulties when compared to observations. We conclude that development of a refined nonlinear theory and further correlated analysis

  9. Global Simulation of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Gallagher, D. L.; Kozyra, J. U.

    2007-01-01

    It is very well known that the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on ring current (RC) ion and radiation belt (RB) electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. The consequence is that accurate modeling of EMIC waves and RC particles requires robust inclusion of the interdependent dynamics of wave growth/damping, wave propagation, and particles. Such a self-consistent model is being progressively developed by Khazanov et al. This model is based on a system of coupled kinetic equations for the RC and EMIC wave power spectral density along with the ray tracing equations. We will discuss the recent progress in understanding EMIC waves formation mechanisms in the inner magnetosphere. This problem remains unsettled in spite of many years of experimental and theoretical studies. Modern satellite observations by CRRES, Polar and Cluster still do not reveal the whole picture experimentally since they do not stay long enough in the generation region to give a full account of all the spatio-temporal structure of EMIC waves. The complete self-consistent theory taking into account all factors significant for EMIC waves generation remains to be developed. Several mechanisms are discussed with respect to formation of EMIC waves, among them are nonlinear modification of the ionospheric reflection by precipitating energetic protons, modulation of ion-cyclotron instability by long-period (Pc3/4) pulsations, reflection of waves from layers of heavy-ion gyroresonances, and nonlinearities of wave generation process. We show that each of these mechanisms have their attractive features and explains certain part experimental data but any of them, if taken alone, meets some difficulties when compared to observations. We conclude that development of a refined nonlinear theory and further correlated analysis of modern

  10. Emergent cosmological constant from colliding electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Gurtug, O. E-mail: habib.mazhari@emu.edu.tr

    2014-11-01

    In this study we advocate the view that the cosmological constant is of electromagnetic (em) origin, which can be generated from the collision of em shock waves coupled with gravitational shock waves. The wave profiles that participate in the collision have different amplitudes. It is shown that, circular polarization with equal amplitude waves does not generate cosmological constant. We also prove that the generation of the cosmological constant is related to the linear polarization. The addition of cross polarization generates no cosmological constant. Depending on the value of the wave amplitudes, the generated cosmological constant can be positive or negative. We show additionally that, the collision of nonlinear em waves in a particular class of Born-Infeld theory also yields a cosmological constant.

  11. Acoustic and electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Douglas Samuel

    Theoretical models of EM and acoustic wave propagation are presented in an introductory text intended for intermediate-level science and engineering students. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical representation of acoustic and EM fields, the special theory of relativity, radiation, resonators, waveguide theory, refraction, surface waves, scattering by smooth objects, diffraction by edges, and transient waves. The mathematical tools required for the analysis (Bessel, Legendre, Mathieu, parabolic-cylinder, and spheroidal functions; tensor calculus; and the asymptotic evaluation of integrals) are covered in appendices.

  12. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  13. Electromagnetic waves in a strong Schwarzschild plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.; Tajima, T.

    1996-11-01

    The physics of high frequency electromagnetic waves in a general relativistic plasma with the Schwarzschild metric is studied. Based on the 3 + 1 formalism, we conformalize Maxwell`s equations. The derived dispersion relations for waves in the plasma contain the lapse function in the plasma parameters such as in the plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency, but otherwise look {open_quotes}flat.{close_quotes} Because of this property this formulation is ideal for nonlinear self-consistent particle (PIC) simulation. Some of the physical consequences arising from the general relativistic lapse function as well as from the effects specific to the plasma background distribution (such as density and magnetic field) give rise to nonuniform wave equations and their associated phenomena, such as wave resonance, cutoff, and mode-conversion. These phenomena are expected to characterize the spectroscopy of radiation emitted by the plasma around the black hole. PIC simulation results of electron-positron plasma are also presented.

  14. Electromagnetic wave scattering by Schwarzschild black holes.

    PubMed

    Crispino, Luís C B; Dolan, Sam R; Oliveira, Ednilton S

    2009-06-12

    We analyze the scattering of a planar monochromatic electromagnetic wave incident upon a Schwarzschild black hole. We obtain accurate numerical results from the partial wave method for the electromagnetic scattering cross section and show that they are in excellent agreement with analytical approximations. The scattering of electromagnetic waves is compared with the scattering of scalar, spinor, and gravitational waves. We present a unified picture of the scattering of all massless fields for the first time. PMID:19658920

  15. Computational modeling of nonlinear electromagnetic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Taflove, Allen

    1992-01-01

    A new algorithm has been developed that permits, for the first time, the direct time integration of the full-vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations. This new capability permits the modeling of linear and nonlinear, instantaneous and dispersive effects in the electric polarization material media. Results are presented of first-time calculations in 1D of the propagation and collision of femtosecond electromagnetic solitons that retain the optical carrier.

  16. Collision of strong gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the expanding universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, G. A.

    2016-03-01

    An exact analytical model of the process of collision and nonlinear interaction of gravitational and/or electromagnetic soliton waves and strong nonsoliton electromagnetic traveling waves of arbitrary profile propagating in the expanding universe (the symmetric Kasner spacetime) is presented. In contrast to intuitive expectations that rather strong traveling waves can destroy the soliton, it occurs that the soliton survives during its interaction with electromagnetic waves of arbitrary amplitude and profile, but its parameters begin to evolve under the influence of this interaction. If a traveling electromagnetic wave possesses a finite duration, the soliton parameters after interaction take constant values again, but these values in general are different from those before the interaction. Based on exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, our model demonstrates a series of nonlinear phenomena, such as (a) creation of gravitational waves in the collision of two electromagnetic waves, (b) creation of electromagnetic soliton waves in the collision of a gravitational soliton with traveling electromagnetic waves, (c) scattering of a part of a soliton wave in the direction of propagation of a traveling electromagnetic wave, and (d) quasiperiodic oscillating character of fields in the wave interaction region and multiple mutual transformations of gravitational and electromagnetic waves in this region. The figures illustrate these features of nonlinear wave interactions in general relativity.

  17. Laboratory investigation of nonlinear whistler wave processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatucci, Bill; Tejero, Erik; Crabtree, Chris; Enloe, Lon; Blackwell, Dave; Ganguli, Guru

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear interactions involving whistler wave turbulence result from processes such as wave-particle interactions in the radiation belts and instability generation in sharp magnetospheric boundary layers. Nonlinear scattering of large amplitude waves off thermal electrons substantially changes the wave vector direction and energy flux, while inducing a small frequency shift [Crabtree, Phys. Plasmas 19, 032903 (2012)]. This nonlinear scattering of primarily electrostatic lower hybrid waves into electromagnetic whistler modes is being investigated in the NRL Space Chamber under conditions scaled to match the respective environments. Lower hybrid waves are generated directly by antennas or self-consistently from sheared cross-magnetic field flows with scale length less than an ion gyroradius via the Electron-Ion Hybrid Instability [Ganguli, Phys. Fluids 31, 2753 (1988)), Amatucci, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1963 (2003)]. Sufficiently large amplitude lower hybrid waves have been observed to convert into whistler modes by scattering from thermal electrons. The plasma response as a function of transmitted lower hybrid wave amplitude is monitored with magnetic loop antennas. Details of the observed wave spectra and mode characteristics will be presented. This work supported by the NRL Base Program.

  18. On the breaking of a plasma wave in a thermal plasma. II. Electromagnetic wave interaction with the breaking plasma wave

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; Califano, Francesco; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2012-11-15

    In thermal plasma, the structure of the density singularity formed in a relativistically large amplitude plasma wave close to the wavebreaking limit leads to a refraction coefficient with discontinuous spatial derivatives. This results in a non-exponentially small above-barrier reflection of an electromagnetic wave interacting with the nonlinear plasma wave.

  19. The Nonlinear Coupling of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Ring Current Region: The Magnetic Storm May 1-7 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E.; Gamayunov, K.; Avanov, L.

    2003-01-01

    The excitation of lower hybrid waves (LHWs) is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space, and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. In this paper we present the morphology, dynamics, and level of LHW activity generated by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves during the May 2-7, 1998 storm period on the global scale. The LHWs were calculated based on our newly developed self-consistent model that couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation describes the ring current (RC) ion dynamic, and another equation describes the evolution of EMIC waves. It is found that the LHWs are excited by helium ions due to their mass dependent drift in the electric field of EMIC waves. The level of LHW activity is calculated assuming that the induced scattering process is the main saturation mechanism for these waves. The calculated LHWs electric fields are consistent with the observational data.

  20. Nonlinear whistler wave scattering in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhimuk, V.; Roussel-Dupre, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the evolution of nonlinear scattering of whistler mode waves by kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) in time and two spatial dimensions is studied analytically. The authors suggest this nonlinear process as a mechanism of kinetic Alfven wave generation in space plasmas. This mechanism can explain the dependence of Alfven wave generation on whistler waves observed in magnetospheric and ionospheric plasmas. The observational data show a dependence for the generation of long periodic pulsations Pc5 on whistler wave excitation in the auroral and subauroral zone of the magnetosphere. This dependence was first observed by Ondoh T.I. For 79 cases of VLF wave excitation registered by Ondoh at College Observatory (L=64.6 N), 52 of them were followed by Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation generation. Similar results were obtained at the Loparskaia Observatory (L=64 N) for auroral and subauroral zone of the magnetosphere. Thus, in 95% of the cases when VLF wave excitation occurred the generation of long periodic geomagnetic pulsations Pc5 were observed. The observations also show that geomagnetic pulsations Pc5 are excited simultaneously or insignificantly later than VLF waves. In fact these two phenomena are associated genetically: the excitation of VLF waves leads to the generation of geomagnetic pulsations Pc5. The observations show intensive generation of geomagnetic pulsations during thunderstorms. Using an electromagnetic noise monitoring system covering the ULF range (0.01-10 Hz) A.S. Fraser-Smith observed intensive ULF electromagnetic wave during a large thunderstorm near the San-Francisco Bay area on September 23, 1990. According to this data the most significant amplification in ULF wave activity was observed for waves with a frequency of 0.01 Hz and it is entirely possible that stronger enhancements would have been measured at lower frequencies.

  1. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    The concept of informativeness of nonlinear plasma physics scenarios is explained. Natural ideas of developing highly informative models of plasma kinetics are spelled out. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves in a weakly turbulent inhomogeneous plasma is developed with consideration of possible changes in wave polarization. In addition, a new formula for wave drift in spatial positions and wave vectors is derived. New scenarios of the respective wave drift and inelastic scattering are compared with the previous visions. The results indicate the need for further revision of the traditional understanding of nonlinear plasma phenomena.

  2. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves

    SciTech Connect

    Erofeev, V. I.

    2015-09-15

    The concept of informativeness of nonlinear plasma physics scenarios is explained. Natural ideas of developing highly informative models of plasma kinetics are spelled out. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves in a weakly turbulent inhomogeneous plasma is developed with consideration of possible changes in wave polarization. In addition, a new formula for wave drift in spatial positions and wave vectors is derived. New scenarios of the respective wave drift and inelastic scattering are compared with the previous visions. The results indicate the need for further revision of the traditional understanding of nonlinear plasma phenomena.

  3. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  4. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    SciTech Connect

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-15

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete.

  5. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-01

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete.

  6. Electromagnetic wave equations for relativistically degenerate quantum magnetoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Masood, Waqas; Eliasson, Bengt; Shukla, Padma K

    2010-06-01

    A generalized set of nonlinear electromagnetic quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) equations is derived for a magnetized quantum plasma, including collisional, electron spin- 1/2, and relativistically degenerate electron pressure effects that are relevant for dense astrophysical systems, such as white dwarfs. For illustrative purposes, linear dispersion relations are derived for one-dimensional magnetoacoustic waves for a collisionless nonrelativistic degenerate gas in the presence of the electron spin- 1/2 contribution and for magnetoacoustic waves in a plasma containing relativistically degenerate electrons. It is found that both the spin and relativistic degeneracy at high densities tend to slow down the magnetoacoustic wave due to the Pauli paramagnetic effect and relativistic electron mass increase. The present study outlines the theoretical framework for the investigation of linear and nonlinear behaviors of electromagnetic waves in dense astrophysical systems. The results are applied to calculate the magnetoacoustic speeds for both the nonrelativistic and relativistic electron degeneracy cases typical for white dwarf stars. PMID:20866534

  7. Electromagnetic envelope solitary waves with transverse perturbation in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Borhanian, J.

    2013-04-15

    The system of fluid-Maxwell equations governing the two-dimensional dynamics of electromagnetic waves in a plasma is analyzed by means of multiple scale perturbation method. It is shown that the evolution of the amplitude of wave field is governed by a two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The stability of bright envelope solitons is studied using the variational method. It is found that the development of transverse periodic perturbations on bright solitons is faster for a plasma with near critical density. Dynamics of electromagnetic bright solitons is investigated in the long-wave approximation. Our model predicts the appearance of collapse of electromagnetic waves in plasmas and describes the collapse dynamics at initial stages.

  8. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  9. Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations of tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenko, F.; Dorland, W.

    2001-12-01

    One of the central physics issues currently targeted by nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations is the role of finite-β effects. The latter change the MHD equilibrium, introduce new dynamical space and time scales, alter and enlarge the zoo of electrostatic microinstabilities and saturation mechanisms, and lead to turbulent transport along fluctuating magnetic field lines. It is shown that the electromagnetic effects on primarily electrostatic microinstabilities are generally weakly or moderately stabilizing. However, the saturation of these modes and hence the determination of the transport level in the quasi-stationary turbulent state can be dominated by nonlinear electromagnetic effects and yield surprising results. Despite this, the induced transport is generally electrostatic in nature well below the ideal ballooning limit.

  10. Numerical studies on the electromagnetic properties of the nonlinear Lorentz Computational model for the dielectric media

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Okuda, H.

    1994-06-01

    We study linear and nonlinear properties of a new computer simulation model developed to study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a dielectric medium in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The model is constructed by combining a microscopic model used in the semi-classical approximation for the dielectric media and the particle model developed for the plasma simulations. It is shown that the model may be useful for studying linear and nonlinear wave propagation in the dielectric media.

  11. Strong nonlinear focusing of light in nonlinearly controlled electromagnetic active metamaterial field concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Yu G.; Boardman, A. D.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. M.; Kalinich, N.

    2014-05-01

    The idea of nonlinear ‘transformation optics-inspired’ [1-6] electromagnetic cylindrical field concentrators has been taken up in a preliminary manner in a number of conference reports [7-9]. Such a concentrator includes both external linear region with a dielectric constant increased towards the centre and internal region with nonlinearity characterized by constant coefficients. Then, in the process of farther investigations we realized the following factors considered neither in [7-9] nor in the recent paper [10]: saturation of nonlinearity, nonlinear losses, linear gain, numerical convergence, when nonlinear effect becomes very strong and formation of ‘hotspots’ starts. It is clearly demonstrated here that such a strongly nonlinear process starts when the nonlinear amplitude of any incident beam(s) exceeds some ‘threshold’ value. Moreover, it is shown that the formation of hotspots may start as the result of any of the following processes: an increase of the input amplitude, increasing the linear amplification in the central nonlinear region, decreasing the nonlinear losses, a decrease in the saturation of the nonlinearity. Therefore, a tendency to a formation of ‘hotspots’ is a rather universal feature of the strongly nonlinear behaviour of the ‘nonlinear resonator’ system, while at the same time the system is not sensitive to the ‘prehistory’ of approaching nonlinear threshold intensity (amplitude). The new proposed method includes a full-wave nonlinear solution analysis (in the nonlinear region), a new form of complex geometric optics (in the linear inhomogeneous external cylinder), and new boundary conditions, matching both solutions. The observed nonlinear phenomena will have a positive impact upon socially and environmentally important devices of the future. Although a graded-index concentrator is used here, it is a direct outcome of transformation optics. Numerical evaluations show that for known materials these nonlinear effects

  12. Properties of Nonlinear Dynamo Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo theory offers the most promising explanation of the generation of the sun's magnetic cycle. Mean field electrodynamics has provided the platform for linear and nonlinear models of solar dynamos. However, the nonlinearities included are (necessarily) arbitrarily imposed in these models. This paper conducts a systematic survey of the role of nonlinearities in the dynamo process, by considering the behaviour of dynamo waves in the nonlinear regime. It is demonstrated that only by considering realistic nonlinearities that are non-local in space and time can modulation of the basic dynamo wave he achieved. Moreover, this modulation is greatest when there is a large separation of timescales provided by including a low magnetic Prandtl number in the equation for the velocity perturbations.

  13. Energy harvesting in the nonlinear electromagnetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucab, K.; Górski, G.; Mizia, J.

    2015-11-01

    We examine the electrical response of electromagnetic device working both in the linear and nonlinear domain. The harvester is consisted of small magnet moving in isolating tube surrounded by the coil attached to the electrical circuit. In the nonlinear case the magnet vibrates in between two fixed magnets attached to the both ends of the tube. Additionally we use two springs which limit the movement of the small magnet. The linear case is when the moving magnet is attached to the repelling springs, and the static magnets have been replaced by the non-magnetic material. The potentials and forces were calculated using both the analytical expressions and the finite elements method. We compare the results for energy harvesting obtained in these two cases. The generated output power in the linear case reaches the peak value 80 mW near the resonance frequency ω0 for maximum base acceleration considered by us, whereas in the non-linear case the corresponding outpot power has the peak value 95 mW and additionally relatively high values in the excitation frequencies range up to ω = 1.2ω0. The numerical results also show that the power efficiency in the nonlinear case exceeds the corresponding efficiency in the linear case at relatively high values of base accelerations greater than 5 g. The results show the increase of harvested energy in the broad band of excitation frequencies in the nonlinear case.

  14. Electromagnetic scattering from nonlinear anisotropic cylinders. I - Fundamental frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Moh'd. A.; Uslenghi, P. L. E.

    1990-04-01

    The solution of the problem of electromagnetic scattering of obliquely incident plane waves by homogeneous, nonlinear anisotropic cylindrical structures is obtained. The medium of the scatterer is characterized by Volterra-type integrals for the electric and magnetic flux density vectors D and B, respectively. The nonlinear problem is solved using the perturbation method. The effects of nonlinearities on the field properties both inside and outside the scatterer, together with the effect on the radar cross section, are investigated for the fundamental frequency components. To demonstrate the validity of the approach, the results obtained by the perturbation method are compared with those obtained using the plane wave representation method of Censor (1983), where the iteration method is used to solve the resulting dispersion equation. The results are in very good agreement in both amplitude and phase of the fields for the case of very weak nonlinearity. When the relative magnitude of the nonlinear component of the permittivity is increased, the iteration method shows a faster divergence of the phase from the linear phase.

  15. Strongly nonlinear magnetosonic waves and ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, B.; Tajima, T.

    1997-11-01

    The electromagnetic fields associated with a nonlinear compressional Alfven wave propagating perpendicular to an external magnetic field of arbitrary strength are derived. For the strongly magnetized and high phase velocity case relevant for ion acceleration to high energies, we show that the electric field increases proportionally only to the external magnetic field O (B{sub ext}[in T] MV/cm) and the electrostatic potential increases with the square root of the ion-to-electron mass ratio {radical}M{sub i}/m{sub e}.

  16. Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie

    2013-04-23

    Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.

  17. Detection of electromagnetic waves using MEMS antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrik, Nickolay V; Tobin,; Bowland, Landon T

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and characterization of simple micromechanical structures that are capable of sensing static electric time varying electromagnetic fields. Time varying electric field sensing is usually achieved using an electromagnetic antenna and a receiver. However, these antenna-based approaches do not exhibit high sensitivity over a broad frequency (or wavelength) range. An important aspect of the present work is that, in contrast to traditional antennas, the dimensions of these micromechanical oscillators can be much smaller than the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. We characterized the fabricated micromechanical oscillators by measuring their responses to time varying electric and electromagnetic fields.

  18. Relativistic particle motion in nonuniform electromagnetic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G.; Wilcox, T.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that a charged particle moving in a strong nonuniform electromagnetic wave suffers a net acceleration in the direction of the negative intensity gradient of the wave. Electrons will be expelled perpendicularly from narrow laser beams and various instabilities can result.

  19. Relativistic particle motion in nonuniform electromagnetic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G.; Wilcox, T.

    1973-01-01

    A charged particle moving in a strong nonuniform electromagnetic wave which suffers a net acceleration in the direction of the negative intensity gradient of the wave was investigated. Electrons will be expelled perpendicularly from narrow laser beams and various instabilities result.

  20. Experimental characterization of nonlinear processes of whistler branch waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments in the Space Physics Simulation Chamber at the Naval Research Laboratory isolated and characterized important nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions that can occur in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts by launching predominantly electrostatic waves in the intermediate frequency range with wave normal angle greater than 85 ° and measuring the nonlinearly generated electromagnetic scattered waves. The scattered waves have a perpendicular wavelength that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the pump wave. Calculations of scattering efficiency from experimental measurements demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is inversely proportional to the damping rate and trends towards unity as the damping rate approaches zero. Signatures of both wave-wave and wave-particle scatterings are also observed in the triggered emission process in which a launched wave resonant with a counter-propagating electron beam generates a large amplitude chirped whistler wave. The possibility of nonlinear scattering or three wave decay as a saturation mechanism for the triggered emission is suggested. The laboratory experiment has inspired the search for scattering signatures in the in situ data of chorus emission in the radiation belts.

  1. Solitons and nonlinear wave equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, Roger K.; Eilbeck, J. Chris; Gibbon, John D.; Morris, Hedley C.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the theory and applications of classical solitons is presented with a brief treatment of quantum mechanical effects which occur in particle physics and quantum field theory. The subjects addressed include: solitary waves and solitons, scattering transforms, the Schroedinger equation and the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the inverse method for the isospectral Schroedinger equation and the general solution of the solvable nonlinear equations. Also considered are: isolation of the Korteweg-de Vries equation in some physical examples, the Zakharov-Shabat/AKNS inverse method, kinks and the sine-Gordon equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and wave resonance interactions, amplitude equations in unstable systems, and numerical studies of solitons. 45 references.

  2. Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia

    2009-07-15

    The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.

  3. Multiple-scattering theory for electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. ); Zhang, X. ); Yu, Q.; Harmon, B.N. )

    1993-02-15

    In this paper, a multiple-scattering formalism for electromagnetic waves is presented. Its application to the three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures is given in a form similar to the usual Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker form of scalar waves. Using this approach, the band-structure results of touching spheres of diamond structure in a dielectric medium with dielectric constant 12.96 are calculated. The application to disordered systems under the coherent-potential approximation is discussed.

  4. Spatiotemporal electromagnetic soliton and spatial ring formation in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jinggui; Wen Shuangchun; Xiang Yuanjiang; Wang Youwen; Luo Hailu

    2010-02-15

    We present a systematic investigation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in metamaterials (MMs) with simultaneous cubic electric and magnetic nonlinearity. We predict that spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons may exist in the positive-index region of a MM with focusing nonlinearity and anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD), as well as in the negative-index region of the MM with defocusing nonlinearity and normal GVD. The experimental circumstances for generating and manipulating spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons can be created by elaborating appropriate MMs. In addition, we find that, in the negative-index region of a MM, a spatial ring may be formed as the electromagnetic pulse propagates for focusing nonlinearity and anomalous GVD; while the phenomenon of temporal splitting of the electromagnetic pulse may appear for the same case except for the defocusing nonlinearity. Finally, we demonstrate that the nonlinear magnetization makes the sign of effective electric nonlinear effect switchable due to the combined action of electric and magnetic nonlinearity, exerting a significant influence on the propagation of electromagnetic pulses.

  5. Colliding electromagnetic shock waves in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Halilsoy, M.

    1988-04-15

    We derive a new, exact solution for the Einstein-Maxwell equations that describes the collision (interaction) of two arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic shock waves. In the limit that the polarization angle vanishes, our solution reduces to the Bell-Szekeres solution.

  6. Nonlinear absorption of Alfven wave in dissipative plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Taiurskii, A. A. Gavrikov, M. B.

    2015-10-28

    We propose a method for studying absorption of Alfven wave propagation in a homogeneous non-isothermal plasma along a constant magnetic field, and relaxation of electron and ion temperatures in the A-wave. The absorption of a A-wave by the plasma arises due to dissipative effects - magnetic and hydrodynamic viscosities of electrons and ions and their elastic interaction. The method is based on the exact solution of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics of the plasma, which for A-wave, as shown in the work, are reduced to a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations.

  7. Explicit mathematical construction of relativistic nonlinear de Broglie waves described by three-dimensional (wave and electromagnetic) solitons ``piloted'' (controlled) by corresponding solutions of associated linear Klein-Gordon and Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Jean-Pierre

    1991-02-01

    Starting from a nonlinear relativistic Klein-Gordon equation derived from the stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics (proposed by Bohm-Vigier, (1) Nelson, (2) de Broglie, (3) Guerra et al. (4) ), one can construct joint wave and particle, soliton-like solutions, which follow the average de Broglie-Bohm (5) real trajectories associated with linear solutions of the usual Schrödinger and Klein-Gordon equations.

  8. Parametric decay of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeenko, V. G.; Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2015-03-15

    Parametric instability of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in plasma preheated to a relativistic temperature is considered. A set of self-similar nonlinear differential equations taking into account the electron “thermal” mass is derived and investigated. Small perturbations of the parameters of the heated plasma are analyzed in the linear approximation by using the dispersion relation determining the phase velocities of the fast and slow extraordinary waves. In contrast to cold plasma, the evanescence zone in the frequency range above the electron upper hybrid frequency vanishes and the asymptotes of both branches converge. Theoretical analysis of the set of nonlinear equations shows that the growth rate of decay instability increases with increasing initial temperature of plasma electrons. This result is qualitatively confirmed by numerical simulations of plasma heating by a laser pulse injected from vacuum.

  9. Variational symplectic particle-in-cell simulation of nonlinear mode conversion from extraordinary waves to Bernstein waves

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jianyuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Xiang, Nong

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the nonlinear mode conversion of extraordinary waves in nonuniform magnetized plasmas is studied using the variational symplectic particle-in-cell simulation. The accuracy of the nonlinear simulation is guaranteed by the long-term accuracy and conservativeness of the symplectic algorithm. The spectra of the electromagnetic wave, the evolution of the wave reflectivity, the energy deposition profile, and the parameter-dependent properties of radio-frequency waves during the nonlinear mode conversion are investigated. It is illustrated that nonlinear effects significantly modify the physics of the radio-frequency injection in magnetized plasmas. The evolutions of the radio-frequency wave reflectivity and the energy deposition are observed, as well as the self-interaction of the Bernstein waves and mode excitations. Even for waves with small magnitude, nonlinear effects can also become important after continuous wave injections, which are common in the realistic radio-frequency wave heating and current drive experiments.

  10. Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, XianGang

    2015-09-01

    Metasurfaces are artificially structured thin films with unusual properties on demand. Different from metamaterials, the metasurfaces change the electromagnetic waves mainly by exploiting the boundary conditions, rather than the constitutive parameters in three dimensional (3D) spaces. Despite the intrinsic similarities in the operational principles of metasurfaces, there is not a universal theory available for the understanding and design of these devices. In this article, we propose the concept of metasurface waves (M-waves) and provide a general theory to describe the principles of such waves. Most importantly, it is shown that the M-waves share some fundamental properties such as extremely short wavelength, abrupt phase change and strong chromatic dispersion, which making them different from traditional bulk waves. We show that these properties can enable many important applications such as subwavelength imaging and lithography, planar optical devices, broadband anti-reflection, absorption and polarization conversion. Our results demonstrated unambiguously that traditional laws of diffraction, refraction, reflection and absorption can be overcome by using the novel properties of M-waves. The theory provided here may pave the way for the design of new electromagnetic devices and further improvement of metasurfaces.

  11. Evidence for nonlinear wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Levedahl, W. K.; Lotko, W.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence is presented that nonlinear wave-wave interactions occur in type III solar radio bursts. Intense, spiky Langmuir waves are observed to be driven by electron beams associated with type III solar radio bursts in the interplanetary medium. Bursts of 30-300 Hz (in the spacecraft frame) waves are often observed coincident in time with the most intense spikes of the Langmuir waves. These low-frequency waves appear to be long-wavelength ion acoustic waves, with wavenumber approximately equal to the beam resonant Langmuir wavenumber. Three possible interpretations of these observations are considered: modulational instability, parametric decay of the parent Langmuir waves to daughter ion acoustic and Langmuir waves, and decay to daughter electromagnetic waves and ion acoustic waves.

  12. Stationary nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, T.; Kennel, C. F.; Buti, B.

    1989-01-01

    Stationary solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation are discussed and classified by using a pseudopotential formulation. The solutions consist of a rich family of nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons with parallel and oblique propagation directions. Expressions for the envelope and the phase of nonlinear waves with periodic envelope modulation, and 'hyperbolic' and 'algebraic' solitons are given. The propagation angle for the slightly modulated elliptic, periodic waves and for oblique solitons is evaluated.

  13. Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Maser, Kenneth; Kausel, Eduardo

    1989-03-01

    This research develops models which can predict the velocity and attenuation of electromagnetic waves in concrete as a function of frequency, temperature, moisture content, chloride content and concrete mix constituents. These models were proposed to predict the electromagnetic properties of concrete by aggregating the electromagnetic properties of its constituents. Water and the dissolved salt are the constituents having the most prominent effect on the dielectric behavior of concrete. A comparative study of three existing three-phase mixture models was carried out. Numerical results were generated using the most representative Discrete model. These results have shown that the real part of complex concrete permittivity (and therefore the velocity of electromagnetic waves) is independent of salinity or frequency in the 0.6 to 3.0 GHz frequency range. On the other hand, these results show that the attenuation coefficient and dielectric conductivity vary almost linearly with frequency in this same frequency range. The real part of concrete permittivity and the attenuation coefficient also show a linear dependence with respect to the degree of saturation of water in the concrete mixture. This suggests that future research should focus on approximating the complex models presented in this research by simple equations.

  14. Nonlinear Fourier analysis with cnoidal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful tools to the ocean engineer. The approach allows one to analyze wave data and thereby to describe a dynamical motion in terms of a linear superposition of ordinary sine waves. Furthermore, the Fourier technique allows one to compute the response function of a fixed or floating structure: each sine wave in the wave or force spectrum yields a sine wave in the response spectrum. The counting of fatigue cycles is another area where the predictable oscillations of sine waves yield procedures for the estimation of the fatigue life of structures. The ocean environment, however, is a source of a number of nonlinear effects which must also be included in structure design. Nonlinearities in ocean waves deform the sinusoidal shapes into other kinds of waves such as the Stokes wave, cnoidal wave or solitary wave. A key question is: Does there exist a generalization of linear Fourier analysis which uses nonlinear basis functions rather than the familiar sine waves? Herein addresses the dynamics of nonlinear wave motion in shallow water where the basis functions are cnoidal waves and discuss nonlinear Fourier analysis in terms of a linear superposition of cnoidal waves plus their mutual nonlinear interactions. He gives a number of simple examples of nonlinear Fourier wave motion and then analyzes an actual surface-wave time series obtained on an offshore platform in the Adriatic Sea. Finally, he briefly discusses application of the cnoidal wave spectral approach to the computation of the frequency response function of a floating vessel. The results given herein will prove useful in future engineering studies for the design of fixed, floating and complaint offshore structures.

  15. Propagation of ultra-intense electromagnetic waves through electron-positron-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozina, Ch.; Tsintsadze, N. L.; Jamil, M.

    2016-07-01

    A kinetic approach is used to study the propagation of ultrarelativistic (amplitude) electromagnetic waves through electron-positron-ion plasma. For our purposes, we formulate a new plasma particle distribution function in the presence of ultrarelativistically intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (EM) waves. An effective dispersion relation of constant amplitude ultrarelativistic EM wave is derived, skin depth is calculated in particular, frequency regimes and has shown numerically that the penetration depth increases with the amplitude of ultra-intense electromagnetic waves, λ s k ˜ a /1 2 , i.e., plasma will be heated more in the region of skin depth. Next, we have found that the nonlinear interaction of ultrarelativistically intense EM waves of time and space varying amplitude leads to construct kinetic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (KNSE), containing both local and non-local nonlinear terms, where nonlocal nonlinear term appears due to density perturbations of plasma species. Taking the effects of the latter into consideration, nonlinear Landau damping is discussed for KNSE, damping rate is computed, and numerically ultrarelativistic EM waves are shown to decay exponentially. The present results should be helpful to understand the specific properties of the ultrarelativistic EM waves in astrophysical plasmas, e.g., pulsars, black holes, and neutron stars.

  16. Nonlinear evolution of the electromagnetic electron-cyclotron instability in bi-Kappa distributed plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Eliasson, B.; Lazar, M.

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents a numerical study of the linear and nonlinear evolution of the electromagnetic electron-cyclotron (EMEC) instability in a bi-Kappa distributed plasma. Distributions with high energy tails described by the Kappa power-laws are often observed in collision-less plasmas (e.g., solar wind and accelerators), where wave-particle interactions control the plasma thermodynamics and keep the particle distributions out of Maxwellian equilibrium. Under certain conditions, the anisotropic bi-Kappa distribution gives rise to plasma instabilities creating low-frequency EMEC waves in the whistler branch. The instability saturates nonlinearly by reducing the temperature anisotropy until marginal stability is reached. Numerical simulations of the Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations show excellent agreement with the growth-rate and real frequency of the unstable modes predicted by linear theory. The wave-amplitude of the EMEC waves at nonlinear saturation is consistent with magnetic trapping of the electrons.

  17. Nonlinear waves in the solar atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ruderman, Michael S

    2006-02-15

    In this paper, we give a brief review of the contemporary theory of nonlinear waves in the solar atmosphere. The choice of topics reflects personal interests of the author. Historically the theory of nonlinear waves was first applied to the solar atmosphere to explain the chromospheric and coronal heating. It was assumed that the turbulent motion in the solar convective zone excites sound waves that propagate upwards. Due to nonlinearity these waves steepen and form shocks. The wave energy dissipates in these shocks thus heating the corona. We give a brief description of propagation and damping of nonlinear sound waves in the stratified solar atmosphere, and point out that, at present, the acoustic heating remains the most popular theory of heating the lower chromosphere. Then we extend the analysis to nonlinear slow magnetosonic waves in coronal plumes and loops, and discuss its implications for interpretation of observational results. The next topic of interest is the propagation of nonlinear waves in a magnetically structured atmosphere. Here, we restrict our analysis to slow sausage waves in magnetic tubes and discuss properties of solitary waves described by the Leibovich-Roberts equation. We conclude with the discussion of nonlinear theory of slow resonant layers, and its possible application to helioseismology. PMID:16414893

  18. Modeling electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayunov, Konstantin; Engebretson, Mark; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid

    The evolution of He+-mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is studied inside the geostationary orbit using our global model of ring current (RC) ions, electric field, plasmasphere, and EMIC waves. In contrast to the approach previously used by Gamayunov et al. [2009], however, we do not use the bounce-averaged wave kinetic equation but instead use a complete, non bounce-averaged, equation to model the evolution of EMIC wave power spectral density, including off-equatorial wave dynamics. The major results of our study can be summarized as follows. (1) The thermal background level for EMIC waves is too low to allow waves to grow up to the observable level during one pass between the “bi-ion latitudes” (the latitudes where the given wave frequency is equal to the O+-He+ bi-ion frequency) in conjugate hemispheres. As a consequence, quasi-field-aligned EMIC waves are not typically produced in the model if the thermal background level is used, but routinely observed in the Earth’s magnetosphere. To overcome this model-observation discrepancy we suggest a nonlinear energy cascade from the lower frequency range of ultra low frequency waves into the frequency range of EMIC wave generation as a possible mechanism supplying the needed level of seed fluctuations that guarantees growth of EMIC waves during one pass through the near equatorial region. The EMIC wave development from a suprathermal background level shows that EMIC waves are quasi-field-aligned near the equator, while they are oblique at high latitudes, and the Poynting flux is predominantly directed away from the near equatorial source region in agreement with observations. (2) An abundance of O+ strongly controls the energy of oblique He+-mode EMIC waves that propagate to the equator after their reflection at “bi-ion latitudes”, and so it controls a fraction of wave energy in the oblique normals. (3) The RC O+ not only causes damping of the He+-mode EMIC waves but also causes wave generation

  19. Model of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of He+-mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is studied inside the geostationary orbit using our global model of ring current (RC) ions, electric field, plasmasphere, and EMIC waves. In contrast to the approach previously used by Gamayunov et al. (2009), however, we do not use the bounce-averaged wave kinetic equation but instead use a complete, nonbounce-averaged, equation to model the evolution of EMIC wave power spectral density, including off-equatorial wave dynamics. The major results of our study can be summarized as follows. (1) The thermal background level for EMIC waves is too low to allow waves to grow up to the observable level during one pass between the "bi-ion latitudes" (the latitudes where the given wave frequency is equal to the O+-He+ bi-ion frequency) in conjugate hemispheres. As a consequence, quasi-field-aligned EMIC waves are not typically produced in the model if the thermal background level is used, but routinely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere. To overcome this model-observation discrepancy we suggest a nonlinear energy cascade from the lower frequency range of ultralow frequency waves into the frequency range of EMIC wave generation as a possible mechanism supplying the needed level of seed fluctuations that guarantees growth of EMIC waves during one pass through the near equatorial region. The EMIC wave development from a suprathermal background level shows that EMIC waves are quasi field aligned near the equator, while they are oblique at high latitudes, and the Poynting flux is predominantly directed away from the near equatorial source region in agreement with observations. (2) An abundance of O+ strongly controls the energy of oblique He+-mode EMIC waves that propagate to the equator after their reflection at bi-ion latitudes, and so it controls a fraction of wave energy in the oblique normals. (3) The RC O+ not only causes damping of the He+-mode EMIC waves but also causes wave generation in the region

  20. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  1. Self-focusing of intense high frequency electromagnetic waves in a collisional magnetoactive plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Aliakbari, A.; Majedi, S.; Haji Mirzaei, F.

    2011-11-15

    The self-focusing of an intense electromagnetic beam in a collisional magnetoactive plasma has been investigated by the perturbation method. Considering the relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities and the first three terms of perturbation expansion for the electron density and velocity, the nonlinear wave equation is obtained. This wave equation is solved by applying the source dependent expansion method and the evolution of electromagnetic beam spot-size is discussed. It is shown that the laser spot-size decreases with increasing the collision frequency and external magnetic field strength.

  2. Nonlinear analysis of helix traveling wave tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, H.P.; Zaidman, E.G.; Vanderplaats, N.R.; Kodis, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A nonlinear formulation of the interaction in a helix traveling wave tube (TWT) is presented. The formulation is intended to treat a wide class of helix TWTs including both emission-gated and multi-tone operation. The essential feature of each of these configurations is that multiple waves must be included in the formulation. As a result, a fully time-dependent analysis is required. The numerical procedure for this in a helix TWT is complicated by the fact that the radial profile of the field varies with frequency. This contrasts, for example, with the case of a smooth bore waveguide in which the radial profile for each TE{sub ln} or TM{sub ln} mode is invariant in frequency. Because of this, a complete self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) formulation must be three-dimensional. In order to circumvent the computational expense of a 3D PIC formulation, the authors adopt an approach in which the electromagnetic field is represented as a superposition of azimuthally symmetric modes in a vacuum sheath helix. The specific electron distributions are chosen to model either a continuous beam for the multi-tone TWT and a pulsed beam for the emission-gated TWT. Numerical results of the simulation for examples of interest to an emission-gated TWT experiment at NRL will be presented.

  3. Model of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H.

    2014-12-01

    The He-band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are studied using our global model of ring current (RC) ions, electric field, plasmasphere, and EMIC waves. In contrast to the approach by Gamayunov et al. [2009], however, we do not use the bounce-averaged kinetic equation for waves but instead use a complete, non bounce-averaged, equation to model EMIC wave power spectral density. The major results of our study can be summarized as follows. (1) The thermal background level for EMIC waves is too low to allow waves to grow up to the observable level during one pass between the "bi-ion latitudes" (the latitudes where the given wave frequency is equal to the O+-He+ bi-ion frequency) in conjugate hemispheres. As a consequence, quasi-field-aligned EMIC waves are not typically produced in the model if the thermal background level is used, but routinely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere. To overcome this model-observation discrepancy we suggest a nonlinear energy cascade from the lower frequency range of ULF waves into the frequency range of EMIC wave generation as a possible mechanism supplying the needed level of seed fluctuations that guarantees growth of EMIC waves during one pass through the near equatorial region. The EMIC wave development from a suprathermal background level shows that EMIC waves are quasi-field-aligned near the equator, while they are oblique at high latitudes, and the Poynting flux is predominantly directed away from the near equatorial source region in agreement with observations. (2) An abundance of O+ strongly controls the energy of oblique He-band EMIC waves that propagate to the equator after their reflection at "bi-ion latitudes", and so it controls a fraction of wave energy in the oblique normals. (3) The RC O+ not only causes damping of the He-band EMIC waves but also causes wave generation in the region of highly oblique wave normal angles, typically for θ > 82o, where a growth rate γ > 10-2 rad/s is frequently observed. The

  4. Nonlinear evolution of astrophysical Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, S.R.

    1984-11-01

    Nonlinear Alfven waves were studied using the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation as a model. The evolution of initial conditions, such as envelope solitons, amplitude-modulated waves, and band-limited noise was investigated. The last two furnish models for naturally occurring Alfven waves in an astrophysical plasma. A collapse instability in which a wave packet becomes more intense and of smaller spatial extent was analyzed. It is argued that this instability leads to enhanced plasma heating. In studies in which the waves are amplified by an electron beam, the instability tends to modestly inhibit wave growth. (ESA)

  5. Nonlinear evolution of astrophysical Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear Alfven waves were studied using the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation as a model. The evolution of initial conditions, such as envelope solitons, amplitude-modulated waves, and band-limited noise was investigated. The last two furnish models for naturally occurring Alfven waves in an astrophysical plasma. A collapse instability in which a wave packet becomes more intense and of smaller spatial extent was analyzed. It is argued that this instability leads to enhanced plasma heating. In studies in which the waves are amplified by an electron beam, the instability tends to modestly inhibit wave growth.

  6. Electromagnetic waves in a polydisperse dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Prudskikh, V. V.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2013-10-15

    The properties of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in a polydisperse dusty plasma are studied. The dispersion relation for the waves propagating at an arbitrary angle to the external magnetic field is derived, with the coefficients explicitly determined by the dust-size distribution function. The dependence of wave dispersion on properties of the dust-size distribution function is analysed. It is shown that the cutoff for an oblique propagation in plasma with a wide scatter of dust sizes takes place at a much lower frequency than in a plasma with monosized dust particles. It is found that dispersion properties of a transversal magnetosonic wave mode around dust–cyclotron frequencies considerably differ from those in a plasma with monosized dust. In a plasma with low mass fraction of dust particles, the dispersion is smooth without the cutoff and the resonance intrinsic for a plasma with monosized dust. Increase of the dust fraction results in splitting of the dispersion curve on to two branches. Further increase of the dust fraction leads to emergence of the third branch located between the cutoffs and restricted from the lower and higher frequencies by two resonances. The dependence of the frequencies of cutoffs and resonances on the width of the dust-size distribution, its slope and the dust mass fraction are analysed. It is shown that the transparency frequency windows in a plasma with polydisperse dust are wider for transversal elecromagnetic waves, but narrower for longitudinal or oblique waves.

  7. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H.

    2013-12-01

    The evolution of He+ mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is studied in the Earth's magnetosphere using our global model of ring current (RC) ions, electric field, plasmasphere, and EMIC waves. In contrast to the approach previously used by Gamayunov et al. (2009), however, we do not use the bounce-averaged wave kinetic equation but instead use a complete, non bounce-averaged, equation to model the evolution of EMIC wave power spectral density, including off-equatorial wave dynamics. The results based on this new approach demonstrate overall agreement with statistical studies of EMIC waves in the inner magnetosphere. The major findings from our study can be summarized as follows. (1) The RC O+ not only causes damping of the He+ mode EMIC waves but also causes wave generation in the region of highly oblique wave normal angles, typically for θ > 82deg, where a growth rate γ > 0.01 rad/s is frequently observed. The wave instability is driven by the loss-cone feature in the RC O+ distribution function. (2) The O+ density strongly controls the He+ mode EMIC wave energetics. For the plasmaspheric O+ fraction less than 1.5%, the wave damping by RC O+ in the vicinity of the O+-He+ bi-ion frequency becomes strong enough leading to a strongly suppressed EMIC wave activity. This suggests that both the RC and thermal O+ should be carefully specified in the model, and RC O+ should be included not only in the imaginary part of wave dispersion relation but in the real part as well. (3) The thermal background level for the He+ mode EMIC waves is too low to allow waves to grow up to the observable level during one pass between the "bi-ion latitudes" in conjugate hemispheres. As a consequence, quasi-field-aligned EMIC waves are not typically produced in the model but routinely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere. Our estimates show that a nonlinear energy cascade from lower frequency pulsations (in the Pc 4 to lower Pc 2 frequency range) into the frequency range of Pc

  8. Kinetic theory of electromagnetic ion waves in relativistic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Marklund, Mattias; Shukla, Padma K.

    2006-09-15

    A kinetic theory for electromagnetic ion waves in a cold relativistic plasma is derived. The kinetic equation for the broadband electromagnetic ion waves is coupled to the slow density response via an acoustic equation driven by a ponderomotive force-like term linear in the electromagnetic field amplitude. The modulational instability growth rate is derived for an arbitrary spectrum of waves. The monochromatic and random phase cases are studied.

  9. Nonlinear spreading of Farley-Buneman waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, S. K.; Bains, A. S.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear coupling of Farley-Buneman (FB) waves is studied using the method of modulational decay instabilities. Dispersion relation for the growth of the secondary Farley-Buneman waves has been derived. It is shown that the primary wave is unstable with respect to the modulational instability decay, producing the secondary waves with a finite flow angle with respect to the direction of the electron E × B flow. This process leads to the nonlinear spreading of the primary FB waves into the linearly stable region which is consistent with the previous numerical simulations and some observations.

  10. Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongsheng; Wu, Bae-Ian; Zhang, Baile; Kong, Jin Au

    2007-08-10

    We establish analytically the interactions of electromagnetic wave with a general class of spherical cloaks based on a full wave Mie scattering model. We show that for an ideal cloak the total scattering cross section is absolutely zero, but for a cloak with a specific type of loss, only the backscattering is exactly zero, which indicates the cloak can still be rendered invisible with a monostatic (transmitter and receiver in the same location) detection. Furthermore, we show that for a cloak with imperfect parameters the bistatic (transmitter and receiver in different locations) scattering performance is more sensitive to eta(t)=square root micro(t)/epsilon(t) than n(t)=square root micro(t)epsilon(t). PMID:17930824

  11. Self-generation and management of spin-electromagnetic wave solitons and chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kondrashov, Alexandr V.; Nikitin, Andrey A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.

    2014-06-09

    Self-generation of microwave spin-electromagnetic wave envelope solitons and chaos has been observed and studied. For the investigation, we used a feedback active ring oscillator based on artificial multiferroic, which served as a nonlinear waveguide. We show that by increasing the wave amplification in the feedback ring circuit, a transition from monochromatic auto-generation to soliton train waveform and then to dynamical chaos occurs in accordance with the Ruelle-Takens scenario. Management of spin-electromagnetic-wave solitons and chaos parameters by both dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the multiferroic waveguiding structure is demonstrated.

  12. Nonlinear, relativistic Langmuir waves in astrophysical magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.

    1987-01-01

    Large amplitude, electrostatic plasma waves are relevant to physical processes occurring in the astrophysical magnetospheres wherein charged particles are accelerated to relativistic energies by strong waves emitted by pulsars, quasars, or radio galaxies. The nonlinear, relativistic theory of traveling Langmuir waves in a cold plasma is reviewed. The cases of streaming electron plasma, electronic plasma, and two-streams are discussed.

  13. Demonstration of Electrostatic to Electromagnetic Conversion through Induced Nonlinear Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, Erik

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear conversion of electrostatic (ES) to electromagnetic (EM) waves in the whistler branch through induced scattering by thermal electrons is an important contribution to the evolution of plasmas in weak turbulence when the wave amplitude is large enough for linear/quasi-linear approaches to break down. It has been theoretically shown that in isothermal low beta turbulent plasmas the rate of induced scattering by particles is much larger than three-wave coalescence and decay processes. It is particularly important to near-Earth space plasma evolution during disturbed times when wave amplitudes cross the threshold for nonlinear scattering. The change in k vector and group velocity of the waves resulting from the conversion from ES to EM enhances the efficiency of pitch-angle scattering, which plays a dramatic role in regulating the trapped energetic electron fluxes inthe Earth's radiation belts. This nonlinear process is being studied in the NRL Space Physics Simulation Chamber, demonstrating the induced nonlinear scattering of quasi-electrostatic pump waves by thermal electrons. The experimental results support theoretical predictions of the nonlinear interaction. Work supported by the Naval Reseach Laboratory Base Program.

  14. Nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis the sample migrates in a microcapillary in the presence of a background electrolyte. When the ionic concentration of the sample is sufficiently high, the signal is known to exhibit features reminiscent of nonlinear waves including sharp concentration ‘shocks’. In this paper we consider a simplified model consisting of a single sample ion and a background electrolyte consisting of a single co-ion and a counterion in the absence of any processes that might change the ionization states of the constituents. If the ionic diffusivities are assumed to be the same for all constituents the concentration of sample ion is shown to obey a one dimensional advection diffusion equation with a concentration dependent advection velocity. If the analyte concentration is sufficiently low in a suitable non-dimensional sense, Burgers’ equation is recovered, and thus, the time dependent problem is exactly solvable with arbitrary initial conditions. In the case of small diffusivity either a leading edge or trailing edge shock is formed depending on the electrophoretic mobility of the sample ion relative to the background ions. Analytical formulas are presented for the shape, width and migration velocity of the sample peak and it is shown that axial dispersion at long times may be characterized by an effective diffusivity that is exactly calculated. These results are consistent with known observations from physical and numerical simulation experiments. PMID:20238181

  15. Nonlinear waves in an Alfven waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrienko, I.S.

    1992-06-01

    A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived for the envelopes of weakly nonlinear quasilongitudinal (k{sub 1}<{radical}{omega}/{omega}{sub i}k{sub {parallel}}) Alfven waves in a waveguide, the existence of which is ensured by the presence of ion inertia (m{sub i}{ne}0) in a plasma with a transverse density gradient. It is shown that the nonlinear properties of such waves are associated with the presence of transverse structure in the waveguide modes. Estimates show that weakly nonlinear processes can have a significant effect on the dynamics of Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsations. 7 refs.

  16. Steady-state solutions for relativistically strong electromagnetic waves in plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    New steady-state solutions are derived which describe electromagnetic waves strong enough to make plasma ions and electrons relativistic. A two-fluid model is used throughout. The following solutions are studied: (1) linearly polarized waves with phase velocity much greater than c; (2) arbitrarily polarized waves with phase velocity near c, in a cold uniform plasma; (3) circularly polarized waves in a uniform plasma characterized by a scalar pressure tensor. All of these waves are capable of propagating in normally overdense plasmas, due to nonlinearities introduced by relativistic effects. The propagation of relativistically strong waves in a density gradient is examined, for the example of a circularly polarized wave strong enough to make electrons but not ions relativistic. It is shown that such a wave propagates at constant energy flux despite the nonlinearity of the system.

  17. Self-precession and frequency shift for electromagnetic waves in homogeneous plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arons, J.; Max, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of an arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic wave in a uniform plasma is studied. It is shown that nonlinear effects cause precession of the polarization ellipse as the wave propagates. The ellipticity remains constant, but the orientation of the principal axes is rotated relative to its initial value. A relativistic Vlasov model is used to study nonlinear frequency shifts as well as self-precession, in a plasma of arbitrary temperature. Even when the electron temperature is much greater than the product of the electron mass times the square of the velocity of light, the qualitative nature of these two processes remains unchanged, although their dependence on the plasma density is altered in significant ways. Implications of these effects for plasma instabilities driven by strong electromagnetic waves are briefly discussed.

  18. Nonlinear electromagnetic fields as a source of universe acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    A model of nonlinear electromagnetic fields with a dimensional parameter β is proposed. From PVLAS experiment the bound on the parameter β was obtained. Electromagnetic fields are coupled with the gravitation field and we show that the universe accelerates due to nonlinear electromagnetic fields. The magnetic universe is considered and the stochastic magnetic field is a background. After inflation the universe decelerates and approaches to the radiation era. The range of the scale factor, when the causality of the model and a classical stability take place, was obtained. The spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the running of the spectral index were estimated which are in approximate agreement with the Planck, WMAP, and BICEP2 data.

  19. Observations of ELF electromagnetic waves associated with equatorial spread F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Holtet, J. A.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    Extreme low frequency electromagnetic waves have been observed below the F peak in the equatorial ionosphere by instruments onboard OGO-6. Electrostatic wave observations indicate that the steep gradient was unstable to the process which causes equatorial spread F above the region where the electromagnetic waves were observed. The data are very similar to observations near the polar cusp and give further evidence that ELF waves are excluded from regions of rapid and irregular density increases. Low level electromagnetic waves with similar properties were occasionally observed on the nightside by the OVI-17 electric field sensor and may be plasmaspheric hiss which has propagated to low altitude.

  20. Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch

    2011-05-27

    Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.

  1. Consequences of vacuum polarization on electromagnetic waves in a Lorentz-symmetry breaking scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, B.; Barone, F. A.; Barone, F. E.; Gaete, Patricio; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2012-02-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a Lorentz-symmetry violating scenario is investigated in connection with non-linear (photon self-interacting) terms induced by quantum effects. It turns out that the photon field acquires an interesting polarization state and, from our calculations of phase and group velocities, we contemplate different scenarios with physically realizable magnetic fields and identify situations where non-linearity effects dominate over Lorentz-symmetry breaking ones and vice versa.

  2. Electromagnetic wave propagation with negative phase velocity in regular black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, M. Manzoor, R.

    2012-12-15

    We discuss the propagation of electromagnetic plane waves with negative phase velocity in regular black holes. For this purpose, we consider the Bardeen model as a nonlinear magnetic monopole and the Bardeen model coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics with a cosmological constant. It turns out that the region outside the event horizon of each regular black hole does not support negative phase velocity propagation, while its possibility in the region inside the event horizon is discussed.

  3. Nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic band-gap filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaso, Artan; John, Sajeev

    2007-11-15

    We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic crystals (PCs). These periodically structured filaments are characterized by an isolated optical pass band below an effective plasma gap. The pass band occurs in a frequency range where the metallic filament exhibits a negative, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption loss. The metallic losses are counterbalanced by gain in two models of inhomogeneously broadened nonlinear oscillators. In the first model, we consider close-packed quantum dots that fill the void regions of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic PC, and whose inhomogeneously broadened emission spectrum spans the original optical pass band of the bare filament. In the second model, we consider thin (10-50 nm) layers of inhomogeneously broadened two-level resonators, with large dipole oscillator strength, that cover the interior surfaces of 2D metallic (silver and tungsten) PCs. These may arise from localized surface plasmon resonances due to small metal particles or an otherwise rough metal surface. For simplicity, we treat electromagnetic modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of metal periodicity. In both models, a pumping threshold of the resonators is found, above which periodic nonlinear solutions of Maxwell's equations with purely real frequency within the optical pass band emerge. These nonlinear Bloch waves exhibit a laserlike input pumping to output amplitude characteristic. For strong surface resonances, these nonlinear waves may play a role in light emission from a hot tungsten (suitably microstructured) filament.

  4. Longitudinal nonlinear wave propagation through soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Valdez, M; Balachandran, B

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, wave propagation through soft tissue is investigated. A primary aim of this investigation is to gain a fundamental understanding of the influence of soft tissue nonlinear material properties on the propagation characteristics of stress waves generated by transient loadings. Here, for computational modeling purposes, the soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear visco-hyperelastic material, the geometry is assumed to be one-dimensional rod geometry, and uniaxial propagation of longitudinal waves is considered. By using the linearized model, a basic understanding of the characteristics of wave propagation is developed through the dispersion relation and in terms of the propagation speed and attenuation. In addition, it is illustrated as to how the linear system can be used to predict brain tissue material parameters through the use of available experimental ultrasonic attenuation curves. Furthermore, frequency thresholds for wave propagation along internal structures, such as axons in the white matter of the brain, are obtained through the linear analysis. With the nonlinear material model, the authors analyze cases in which one of the ends of the rods is fixed and the other end is subjected to a loading. Two variants of the nonlinear model are analyzed and the associated predictions are compared with the predictions of the corresponding linear model. The numerical results illustrate that one of the imprints of the nonlinearity on the wave propagation phenomenon is the steepening of the wave front, leading to jump-like variations in the stress wave profiles. This phenomenon is a consequence of the dependence of the local wave speed on the local deformation of the material. As per the predictions of the nonlinear material model, compressive waves in the structure travel faster than tensile waves. Furthermore, it is found that wave pulses with large amplitudes and small elapsed times are attenuated over shorter spans. This feature is due to the elevated

  5. Calculation of Electromagnetic Quasistatic Plasma Waves*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, J.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Mori, W.

    2001-10-01

    Plasma based particle acceleration requires the generation of plasma wave wakes which maintain their coherence over long distances. For example in Laser Wake Field Acceleration (LWFA) schemes the laser pulse must propagate tens of centimeters, which coresponds to many Rayleigh lengths, and in Plasma Wake Field Acceleration (PWFA) the particle beam must be propagated many meters. These wakes, and their effect on the driver (Laser or particle beam) can be simulated efficiently in the quasistatic approximation [1]. In this approximation the driver does not evolve during the time a plasma electron spends in the driver. We discuss here various numerical algorithms for determining the full electromagnetic wake in this case. The problem is complicated in that the particle trajectories and wake fields must be determined iteratively when the wake becomes electromagnetic. The effect of different choices for the gauge will be presented. [1] "Kinetic Modeling of Intense, Short Laser Pulses Propagating in Tenuous Plasma", P. Mora and T. M. Antonsen Jr., Phys Plasma 4, 217 (1997) *Work supported by NSF and DOE

  6. High latitude electromagnetic plasma wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The principal types of electromagnetic plasma wave emission produced in the high latitude auroral regions are reviewed. Three types of radiation are described: auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, and Z mode radiation. Auroral kilometric radiation is a very intense radio emission generated in the free space R-X mode by electrons associated with the formation of discrete auroral arcs in the local evening. Theories suggest that this radiation is an electron cyclotron resonance instability driven by an enhanced loss cone in the auroral acceleration region at altitudes of about 1 to 2 R sub E. Auroral hiss is a somewhat weaker whistler mode emission generated by low energy (100 eV to 10 keV) auroral electrons. The auroral hiss usually has a V shaped frequency time spectrum caused by a freqency dependent beaming of the whistler mode into a conical beam directed upward or downward along the magnetic field.

  7. Nonlinear waves and solitons in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Fatuzzo, Marco

    1993-01-01

    We begin a study of nonlinear wave phenomena in molecular clouds. These clouds exhibit highly nonlinear structure that is often described in terms of 'clumps' and 'filaments' which are bouncing around, twisting, and colliding within the cloud. These clouds are important because they ultimately produce the initial conditions for the star formation process. Our motivation is to explore the possibility that solitons (i.e., spatially localized, single-hump wave entities which often exhibit remarkable stability) can live in these molecular clouds and produce their observed structure. In this paper we focus on the case of one spatial dimension, and we show that a rich variety of nonlinear waves can exist in molecular cloud fluid systems (where self-gravity is included). We show that in the absence of magnetic fields no true soliton solutions are allowed, although highly nonlinear waves (whose crests become widely spaced and thus soliton-like) do exist. For clouds with embedded magnetic fields, we derive a model equation which describes the behavior of wave phenomena; this model equation allows solutions which correspond to nonlinear waves, solitons, and topological solitons. We briefly consider the stability of these wave entities and discuss the possible role they play in molecular cloud dynamics.

  8. Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets

    2008-10-03

    The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

  9. Nonlinear self-contraction of electron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intrator, T.; Chan, C.; Hershkowitz, N.; Diebold, D.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory evidence is presented of modulationally unstable electron wave packets which can be described by a nonlinear geometrical optics theory. Growth times for self-contraction are found to be much faster than ion response times and the bursts do not appear to be related to Zakharov Langmuir-wave collapse.

  10. Nonlinear Evolution of Alfvenic Wave Packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buti, B.; Jayanti, V.; Vinas, A. F.; Ghosh, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1998-01-01

    Alfven waves are a ubiquitous feature of the solar wind. One approach to studying the evolution of such waves has been to study exact solutions to approximate evolution equations. Here we compare soliton solutions of the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger evolution equation (DNLS) to solutions of the compressible MHD equations.

  11. Scaling laws for nonlinear electromagnetic responses of Dirac fermion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically propose that the Dirac fermion in two dimensions shows the giant nonlinear responses to electromagnetic fields in the terahertz region. A scaling form is obtained for the current and magnetization as functions of the normalized electromagnetic fields E /Eω and B /Bω , where the characteristic electric (magnetic) field Eω(Bω) depends on the frequency ω as ℏ ω2/e vF(ℏ ω2/e vF2) , and is typically of the order of 80 V/cm (8 mT) in the terahertz region. Applications of the present theory to graphene and surface state of a topological insulator are discussed.

  12. Plasma wave aided two photon decay of an electromagnetic wave in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, K. K. Magesh; Singh, Rohtash; Krishan, Vinod

    2014-11-15

    The presence of a Langmuir wave in an unmagnetized plasma is shown to allow parametric decay of an electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic waves, which is otherwise not allowed due to wave number mismatch. The decay occurs at plasma densities below one ninth the critical density and the decay waves propagate at finite angles to the pump laser. Above the threshold, the growth rate scales linearly with the amplitude of the Langmuir wave and the amplitude of the pump electromagnetic wave. The frequency ω of the lower frequency decay wave increases with the angle its propagation vector makes with that of the pump. The growth rate, however, decreases with ω.

  13. Nonlinear Talbot effect of rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R.; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Song, Jianping; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2014-03-01

    Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers are rogue wave solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). Talbot effect (TE) is an image recurrence phenomenon in the diffraction of light waves. We report the nonlinear TE of rogue waves in a cubic medium. It is different from the linear TE, in that the wave propagates in a NL medium and is an eigenmode of NLSE. Periodic rogue waves impinging on a NL medium exhibit recurrent behavior, but only at the TE length and at the half-TE length with a π-phase shift; the fractional TE is absent. The NL TE is the result of the NL interference of the lobes of rogue wave breathers. This interaction is related to the transverse period and intensity of breathers, in that the bigger the period and the higher the intensity, the shorter the TE length.

  14. Compact waves in microscopic nonlinear diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, P I; Krapivsky, P L

    2012-06-01

    We analyze the spread of a localized peak of energy into vacuum for nonlinear diffusive processes. In contrast with standard diffusion, the nonlinearity results in a compact wave with a sharp front separating the perturbed region from vacuum. In d spatial dimensions, the front advances as t^{1/(2+da)} according to hydrodynamics, with a the nonlinearity exponent. We show that fluctuations in the front position grow as ∼t^{μ}η, where μ<1/2+da is an exponent that we measure and η is a random variable whose distribution we characterize. Fluctuating corrections to hydrodynamic profiles give rise to an excess penetration into vacuum, revealing scaling behaviors and robust features. We also examine the discharge of a nonlinear rarefaction wave into vacuum. Our results suggest the existence of universal scaling behaviors at the fluctuating level in nonlinear diffusion. PMID:23005044

  15. Electromagnetic wave probing of Earth's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU

    1988-01-01

    Polarimetric radar backscattering from anisotropic Earth terrain such as snow-covered ice fields and vegetation fields with row structures provides a challenging modeling problem from the electromagnetic wave point of view. Earth terrain covers are modeled as random media characterized by different dielectric constants and correlation functions. A three-layer model will be used to simulate a vegetation field or a snow-covered ice field with the top layer being snow or leaves, the middle layer being ice of trunks, and the bottom layer being sea water or ground. The volume scattering effects of snow-covered sea ice are studied with a three-layer random medium model for microwave remote sensing. The strong fluctuation theory and the bilocal approximation are applied to calculate the effective permittivities for snow and sea ice. The wave scattering theory in conjunction with the distorted Born approximation is then used to compute bistatic coefficients and backscattering cross sections. Theoretical results are illustrated by matching experimental data for dry snow-covered thick first-year sea ice at Point Barrow. The results derived can also be applied to the passive remote sensing by calculating the emissivity from the bistatic scattering coefficients.

  16. Nonlinear sharpening during superposition of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalikov, Dmitry; Babanin, Alexander V.

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional direct wave model is used for demonstration of the role of reversible interactions which probably is the main process leading to breaking. One-dimensional model was used for performing of thousands of exact short-term simulations of evolution of two superposed wave trains with different steepness, and wavenumbers were performed to investigate the effect of wave crests merging. Nonlinear sharpening of the merging crests is demonstrated. It is suggested that such effect may be responsible for appearance of the typical sharp crests of surface waves, as well as for wave breaking.

  17. Nonlinear sharpening during superposition of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalikov, Dmitry; Babanin, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Two-dimensional direct wave model is used for demonstration of the role of reversible interactions which probably is the main process leading to breaking. One-dimensional model was used for performing of thousands of exact short-term simulations of evolution of two superposed wave trains with different steepness, and wavenumbers were performed to investigate the effect of wave crests merging. Nonlinear sharpening of the merging crests is demonstrated. It is suggested that such effect may be responsible for appearance of the typical sharp crests of surface waves, as well as for wave breaking.

  18. Neural field theory of nonlinear wave-wave and wave-neuron processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Roy, N.

    2015-06-01

    Systematic expansion of neural field theory equations in terms of nonlinear response functions is carried out to enable a wide variety of nonlinear wave-wave and wave-neuron processes to be treated systematically in systems involving multiple neural populations. The results are illustrated by analyzing second-harmonic generation, and they can also be applied to wave-wave coalescence, multiharmonic generation, facilitation, depression, refractoriness, and other nonlinear processes.

  19. Electromagnetic waves in dusty magnetoplasmas using two-potential theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zubia, K.; Jamil, M.; Salimullah, M.

    2009-09-15

    The low-frequency long wavelength electromagnetic waves, viz., shear Alfven waves in a cold dusty plasma, have been examined employing two-potential theory and plasma fluid model. The presence of the unmagnetized dust particles and magnetized plasma components gives rise to a new ion-dust lower hybrid cutoff frequency for the electromagnetic shear Alfven wave propagation. The importance and relevance of the present work to the space dusty plasma environments are also pointed out.

  20. Nonlinear noise waves in soft biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Gurbatov, S. N.; Demin, I. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    The study of intense waves in soft biological tissues is necessary both for diagnostics and therapeutic aims. Tissue represents an inherited medium with frequency-dependent dissipative properties, in which waves are described by nonlinear integro-differential equations. The equations for such waves are well known. Their group analysis has been performed, and a number of exact solutions have been found. However, statistical problems for nonlinear waves in tissues have hardly been studied. As well, for medical applications, both intense noise waves and waves with fluctuating parameters can be used. In addition, statistical solutions are simpler in structure than regular solutions; they are useful for understanding the physics of processes. Below a general approach is described for solving nonlinear statistical problems applied to the considered mathematical models of biological tissues. We have calculated the dependences of the intensities of the narrowband noise harmonics on distance. For wideband noise, we have calculated the dependence of the spectral integral intensity on distance. In all cases, wave attenuation is determined both by the specific dissipative properties of the tissue and the nonlinearity of the medium.

  1. Nonlinear Unstable Wave Disturbances in Fluidized Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. T. C.

    1983-10-01

    Instabilities in fluidized beds are interpreted from the two-phase continuum theory of linearized hydrodynamic stability as the result of interactions between wave hierarchies for which the stability condition is violated; that is, in which the lower-order waves propagate at speeds exceeding those of the higher-order waves. For weak nonlinearities a hierarchy of Burgers-like equations is obtained. The nonlinear modifications to the wave speeds point towards the restoration of the stability condition in the linearized sense. A weakly nonlinear hydrodynamic stability analysis yields an amplitude equation that is of second order. It is argued, however, that the major history of the disturbance development may be expressed by a simpler first-order amplitude equation. The Landau-Stuart constant obtained is intimately related to the nonlinear modifications of the wave speeds of the higher- and lower-order wave operators. It is shown that for supercritical disturbances, amplitude and phase velocity equilibration is possible, and that the levels of the equilibration depend on the initial amplification rate, in agreement with observations. The equilibration occurs by cascades of the fundamental wave disturbance into its harmonics.

  2. Boosted X Waves in Nonlinear Optical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo, Edward

    2010-01-15

    X waves are spatiotemporal optical waves with intriguing superluminal and subluminal characteristics. Here we theoretically show that for a given initial carrier frequency of the system localized waves with genuine superluminal or subluminal group velocity can emerge from initial X waves in nonlinear optical systems with normal group velocity dispersion. Moreover, we show that this temporal behavior depends on the wave detuning from the carrier frequency of the system and not on the particular X-wave biconical form. A spatial counterpart of this behavior is also found when initial X waves are boosted in the plane transverse to the direction of propagation, so a fully spatiotemporal motion of localized waves can be observed.

  3. A Numerical Study of Nonlinear Wave Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, A.; Tissier, M.; Ruessink, G.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear triad interactions redistribute energy among a wave field, which transforms the shape of the incident short waves (f = 0.05 - 2 Hz) and generates energy at infragravity frequencies (f = 0.005-0.05 Hz). Recently, it has been suggested that infragravity energy may dissipate by energy transfers from infragravity frequencies to either the (former) short-wave spectral peak, or through infragravity-infragravity self-interactions that cause the infragravity waves to steepen and to eventually break. To investigate these infragravity dissipation mechanisms, we use the non-hydrostatic SWASH model. In this study, we first validate the model with the high-resolution GLOBEX laboratory data set and then explore the dependence of the energy transfers, with a focus on infragravity frequencies, on beach slope. Consistent with previous studies we find that SWASH is able to reproduce the transformation and corresponding nonlinear energy transfers of shoreward propagating waves to great detail. Bispectral analysis is used to study the coupling between wave frequencies; nonlinear energy transfers are then quantified using the Boussinesq coupling coefficient. To obtain more detailed insight we divide the nonlinear interactions in four categories based on triads including 1) infragravity frequencies only, 2) two infragravity frequencies and one short-wave frequency, 3) one infragravity frequency and two short-wave frequencies and 4) short-wave frequencies only. Preliminary results suggest that interactions are rather weak on gently beach slopes (1:80) and, in the innermost part of the surf zone, are dominated by infragravity-infragravity interactions. On steeper slopes (1:20), interactions are stronger, but entirely dominated by those involving short-wave frequencies only. The dependence of the transfers on offshore wave conditions and beach shape will be explored too. Funded by NWO.

  4. Topological horseshoes in travelling waves of discretized nonlinear wave equations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi-Chiuan; Chen, Shyan-Shiou; Yuan, Juan-Ming

    2014-04-15

    Applying the concept of anti-integrable limit to coupled map lattices originated from space-time discretized nonlinear wave equations, we show that there exist topological horseshoes in the phase space formed by the initial states of travelling wave solutions. In particular, the coupled map lattices display spatio-temporal chaos on the horseshoes.

  5. Kinetic effects on Alfven wave nonlinearity. II - The modified nonlinear wave equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Steven R.

    1990-01-01

    A previously developed Vlasov theory is used here to study the role of resonant particle and other kinetic effects on Alfven wave nonlinearity. A hybrid fluid-Vlasov equation approach is used to obtain a modified version of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The differences between a scalar model for the plasma pressure and a tensor model are discussed. The susceptibilty of the modified nonlinear wave equation to modulational instability is studied. The modulational instability normally associated with the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation will, under most circumstances, be restricted to left circularly polarized waves. The nonlocal term in the modified nonlinear wave equation engenders a new modulational instability that is independent of beta and the sense of circular polarization. This new instability may explain the occurrence of wave packet steepening for all values of the plasma beta in the vicinity of the earth's bow shock.

  6. Electromagnetic waves in optical fibres in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Burdanova, M. G.

    2016-03-01

    A new method is reported of recording the secondary radiation of luminescent substances based on the use of capillary fibres of great length. Theoretical analysis of the dispersion curves of electromagnetic radiation in capillary fibres doped with erbium ions Er3+ has been established. The Lorentz model is used for describing the dispersion properties of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous medium doped with rare-earth ions. The dispersion dependencies of polariton and axion-polariton waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are determined on the basis of the model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the resonance electronic states of erbium ions in the absence and presence of a magnetic field.

  7. Solitary waves in the nonlinear Dirac equation with arbitrary nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Fred; Khare, Avinash; Mihaila, Bogdan; Saxena, Avadh

    2010-09-01

    We consider the nonlinear Dirac equations (NLDE's) in 1+1 dimension with scalar-scalar self interaction g{2}/k+1(ΨΨ){k+1} , as well as a vector-vector self interaction g{2}/k+1(Ψγ{μ}ΨΨγ{μ}Ψ){1/2(k+1)} . We find the exact analytic form for solitary waves for arbitrary k and find that they are a generalization of the exact solutions for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) and reduce to these solutions in a well defined nonrelativistic limit. We perform the nonrelativistic reduction and find the 1/2m correction to the NLSE, valid when |ω-m|<2m , where ω is the frequency of the solitary wave in the rest frame. We discuss the stability and blowup of solitary waves assuming the modified NLSE is valid and find that they should be stable for k<2 . PMID:21230200

  8. Nonlinear traveling waves in confined ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Lira, Sérgio A; Miranda, José A

    2012-11-01

    We study the development of nonlinear traveling waves on the interface separating two viscous fluids flowing in parallel in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. One of the fluids is a ferrofluid and a uniform magnetic field is applied in the plane of the cell, making an angle with the initially undisturbed interface. We employ a mode-coupling theory that predicts the possibility of controlling the speed of the waves by purely magnetic means. The influence of the tilted magnetic field on the waves shape profile and the establishment of stationary traveling wave structures are investigated. PMID:23214870

  9. Propagation of electromagnetic wave in coaxial conical transverse electromagnetic wave cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingxun; Zhang, Tao; Qi, Wangquan

    2015-11-01

    In order to solve the problem of broadband field probes calibration with only selected discrete frequencies above 1 GHz, a sweep-frequency calibration technology based on a coaxial conical(co-conical) cell is researched. Existing research is only qualitative because of the complexity of theoretical calculations. For designing a high performance cell, a mathematic model of high-order modes transmission is built according to the geometrical construction of co-conical. The associated Legendre control functions of high-order modes are calculated by using recursion methodology and the numerical calculation roots are presented with different half angles of inner and outer conductor. Relationship between roots and high-order modes transmission is analyzed, when the half angles of inner conductor and outer conductor are θ 1=1.5136° and θ 2=8° respectively, the co-conical cell has better performance for fewer transmitting high-order modes. The propagation process of the first three transmitting modes wave is simulated in CST-MWS software from the same structured co-conical. The simulation plots show that transmission of high-order modes appears with electromagnetic wave reflection, then different high-order mode transmission has different cut-off region and each cut-off region is determined by its cut-off wavelength. This paper presents numerical calculation data and theoretical analysis to design key structural parameters for the co-conical transverse electromagnetic wave cell(co-conical TEM cell).

  10. Electron scattering and nonlinear trapping by oblique whistler waves: The critical wave intensity for nonlinear effects

    SciTech Connect

    Artemyev, A. V. Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we consider high-energy electron scattering and nonlinear trapping by oblique whistler waves via the Landau resonance. We use recent spacecraft observations in the radiation belts to construct the whistler wave model. The main purpose of the paper is to provide an estimate of the critical wave amplitude for which the nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction becomes more important than particle scattering. To this aim, we derive an analytical expression describing the particle scattering by large amplitude whistler waves and compare the corresponding effect with the nonlinear particle acceleration due to trapping. The latter is much more rare but the corresponding change of energy is substantially larger than energy jumps due to scattering. We show that for reasonable wave amplitudes ∼10–100 mV/m of strong whistlers, the nonlinear effects are more important than the linear and nonlinear scattering for electrons with energies ∼10–50 keV. We test the dependencies of the critical wave amplitude on system parameters (background plasma density, wave frequency, etc.). We discuss the role of obtained results for the theoretical description of the nonlinear wave amplification in radiation belts.

  11. Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear Waves in Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afeyan, Bedros

    2004-11-01

    A new type of coherent self-sustaining nonlinear kinetic wave has been discovered, well below the plasma frequency, which we call Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) waves. Vlasov-Poisson and Vlasov-Maxwell simulations where KEEN waves were excited by ponderomotive forces of short duration, generated by the beating of counter-propagating lasers of the appropriate colors [1-2], show that these waves persist without decay well after the driving fields are turned off. The resulting phase space vortical structures are reminiscent in certain respects to BGK modes proposed in 1957 [3]. However, KEEN waves are not stationary and higher harmonics which are an essential part of their make up have wider and wider frequency content. KEEN waves constitute a generalization and clarification of concepts previously invoked to help explain stimulated electron acoustic wave scattering in the presence of SRS [4,5]. However, in the case of KEEN waves, no flattened (zero slope) electron velocity distribution function need be invoked and no single mode behavior is observed. There is a threshold drive which is necessary in order to create KEEN waves. A reduced model based on a phase space coupled mode theory with 3-4 modes will be shown to capture the phase locked multimode nonlinear nature of KEEN waves. We have also successfully completed a series of experiments to generate via optical mixing and observe via 4ω Thomson scattering KEEN waves on Trident at LANL. Our latest results from this campaign will be shown. [1] B. Afeyan, et al., "Kinetic Electrostatic " Proc. IFSA Conf. (2004). [2] B. Afeyan, et al., submitted to PRL (2004) [3] I. Bernstein et al., Phys. Rev. 108. 546 (1957). [4] D. S. Montgomery et al., PRL 87, 155001 (2001). [5] H. A, Rose and D. A. Russell, Phys. Plasmas 8, 4784 (2001).

  12. Nonlinear Biot waves in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dazel, Olivier; Tournat, V.

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation through unconsolidated model granular media is investigated in the frame of the Biot-Allard theory extended to the case of a nonlinear quadratic behavior of the solid frame (the elastic beads and their contacts). We evaluate the importance of mode coupling between solid and fluid waves, depending on the actual fluid and the bead diameter. The application of these results to other media supporting Biot's waves (trabecular bones, porous ceramics, polymer foams...) is straightforward, provided the parameters of the Biot-Allard model are available for these media.

  13. Nonlinear Internal Waves - Evolution and Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, M.; Mignerey, P.

    2003-04-01

    Nonlinear internal waves have been observed propagating up the slope of the South China Sea during the recent ONR Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment. Energy dissipation rates have been extracted. The location of the initiation of the depression to elevation conversion has been identified. Scaling parameters have been extracted and used to initialize a two-layer evolution equation model simulation. Mode1, 2 linear and nonlinear internal waves and instabilities have been observed near the shelf break of the United States of America New Jersey Shelf. Acoustic flow visualization records will be presented. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Ocean Acoustics Program and ONR's NRL base funding.

  14. Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Angus, J. R.

    2015-07-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.

  15. Numerical modeling of electromagnetic waves scattering from 2D coastal breaking sea waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairi, Refzul; Coatanhay, Arnaud; Khenchaf, Ali; Scolan, Yves Marie

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to model the interaction of L-band electromagnetic waves with coastal breaking sea waves. The breaking sea waves' profiles are generated using the desingularized technique and the electromagnetic waves scattering is computed using the high-order method of moments (HO-MoM) combined with non uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) geometry. Our study mainly focuses upon the electromagnetic waves behavior in the crest and the cavity of breaking sea waves. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Numelec 2012", Edited by Adel Razek.

  16. Heating of ions by high frequency electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zestanakis, P. A.; Kominis, Y.; Hizanidis, K.; Ram, A. K.

    2013-07-15

    The heating of ions by high frequency electrostatic waves in magnetically confined plasmas has been a paradigm for studying nonlinear wave-particle interactions. The frequency of the waves is assumed to be much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency and the waves are taken to propagate across the magnetic field. In fusion type plasmas, electrostatic waves, like the lower hybrid wave, cannot access the core of the plasma. That is a domain for high harmonic fast waves or electron cyclotron waves—these are primarily electromagnetic waves. Previous studies on heating of ions by two or more electrostatic waves are extended to two electromagnetic waves that propagate directly across the confining magnetic field. While the ratio of the frequency of each wave to the ion cyclotron frequency is large, the frequency difference is assumed to be near the ion cyclotron frequency. The nonlinear wave-particle interaction is studied analytically using a two time-scale canonical perturbation theory. The theory elucidates the effects of various parameters on the gain in energy by the ions—parameters such as the amplitudes and polarizations of the waves, the ratio of the wave frequencies to the cyclotron frequency, the difference in the frequency of the two waves, and the wave numbers associated with the waves. For example, the ratio of the phase velocity of the envelope formed by the two waves to the phase velocity of the carrier wave is important for energization of ions. For a positive ratio, the energy range is much larger than for a negative ratio. So waves like the lower hybrid waves will impart very little energy to ions. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with numerical simulations of the exact dynamical equations. The analytical results are used to construct mapping equations, simplifying the derivation of the motion of ions, which are, subsequently, used to follow the evolution of an ion distribution function. The heating of ions can then be

  17. Optics in a nonlinear gravitational plane wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Abraham I.

    2015-09-01

    Gravitational waves can act like gravitational lenses, affecting the observed positions, brightnesses, and redshifts of distant objects. Exact expressions for such effects are derived here in general relativity, allowing for arbitrarily-moving sources and observers in the presence of plane-symmetric gravitational waves. At least for freely falling sources and observers, it is shown that the commonly-used predictions of linear perturbation theory can be generically overshadowed by nonlinear effects; even for very weak gravitational waves, higher-order perturbative corrections involve secularly-growing terms which cannot necessarily be neglected when considering observations of sufficiently distant sources. Even on more moderate scales where linear effects remain at least marginally dominant, nonlinear corrections are qualitatively different from their linear counterparts. There is a sense in which they can, for example, mimic the existence of a third type of gravitational wave polarization.

  18. Nonlinear excited waves on the interventricular septum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Naoaki; Harada, Yoshifumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Using a novel ultrasonic noninvasive imaging method, we observe some phase singularities in propagating excited waves on a human cardiac interventricular septum (IVS) for a healthy young male. We present a possible physical model explaining one-dimensional dynamics of phase singularities in nonlinearly excited waves on the IVS. We show that at least one of the observed phase singularities in the excited waves on the IVS can be explained by the Bekki-Nozaki hole solution of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation without any adjustable parameters. We conclude that the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is such a suitable model for one-dimensional dynamics of cardiac phase singularities in nonlinearly excited waves on the IVS.

  19. Scattering of electromagnetic wave by dielectric cylinder in eikonal approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syshchenko, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The scattering of the plane electromagnetic wave on a spatially extended, fiber lake target is considered. The formula for the scattering cross section is obtained using the approximation analogous to eikonal one in quantum mechanics.

  20. Electromagnetic interaction of arbitrary radial-dependent anisotropic spheres and improved invisibility for nonlinear-transformation-based cloaks.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Novitsky, Andrey; Ma, Hua; Qu, Shaobo

    2009-07-01

    An analytical method of electromagnetic wave interactions with a general radially anisotropic cloak is established. It is able to deal with arbitrary parameters [ epsilon r (r) , mu r (r) , epsilon t (r) , and mu t (r) ] of a radially anisotropic inhomogeneous shell. The general cloaking condition is proposed from the wave relations, in contrast to the method of transformation optics. Spherical metamaterial cloaks with improved invisibility performance are achieved with optimal nonlinearity in transformation and core-shell ratio. PMID:19658829

  1. Design of Metamaterials for control of electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Metamaterials are artificial effective media supporting propagating waves that derive their properties form the average response of deliberately designed and arranged, usually resonant scatterers with structural length-scales much smaller than the wavelength inside the material. Electromagnetic metamaterials are the most important implementation of metamaterials, which are made from deeply sub-wavelength electric, magnetic and chiral resonators and can be designed to work from radio frequencies all the way to visible light. Metamaterials have been major new development in physics and materials science over the last decade and are still attracting more interest as they enable us to create materials with unique properties like negative refraction, flat and super lenses, impedance matching eliminating reflection, perfect absorbers, deeply sub-wavelength sized wave guides and cavities, tunability, enhanced non-linearity and gain, chirality and huge optical activity, control of Casimir forces, and spontaneous emission, etc. In this talk, I will discuss the design, numerical simulation, and mathematical modeling of metamaterials. I will survey the current state of the art and discuss challenges, possible solutions and perspectives. In particular, the problem of dissipative loss and their possible compensation by incorporating spatially distributed gain in metamaterials. If the gain sub-system is strongly coupled to the sub-wavelength resonators of the metamaterial loss compensation and undamping of the resonant response of the metamaterials can occur. I will explore new, alternative dielectric low loss resonators for metamaterials as well as the potential of new conducting materials such as Graphene to replace metals as the conducting material in resonant metamaterials. Two dimensional metamaterials or metasurfaces, implementations of effective electromagnetic current sheets in which both electric and magnetic sheet conductivities are controlled by the average response

  2. Generation of large scale field-aligned density irregularities in ionospheric heating experiments. [electromagnetic wave decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Threshold and growth rate for stimulated Brillouin scattering are calculated for a uniform magnetoplasma. These are then compared with the threshold and growth rate of a new thermal instability in which the nonlinear Lorentz force felt by the electrons at the beat frequency of the two electromagnetic waves is replaced by a pressure force due to differential heating in the interference pattern of the pump wave and the generated electromagnetic wave. This thermal instability, which is still essentially stimulated Brillouin scattering, has a threshold which is especially low when the propagation vector of the beat wave is almost normal to the magnetic field. The threshold is then considerably lower than the threshold for normal stimulated Brillouin scattering and therefore this new instability is probably responsible for the generation of large scale field aligned irregularities and ionospheric spread F.

  3. Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong; Wu, Zhengwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-07-15

    Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

  4. Breatherlike electromagnetic wave propagation in an antiferromagnetic medium with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kavitha, L.; Saravanan, M.; Srividya, B.; Gopi, D.

    2011-12-15

    We investigate the nature of propagation of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) in an antiferromagnetic medium with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction environment. The interplay of bilinear and DM exchange spin coupling with the magnetic field component of the EMW has been studied by solving Maxwell's equations coupled with a nonlinear spin equation for the magnetization of the medium. We made a nonuniform expansion of the magnetization and magnetic field along the direction of propagation of EMW, in the framework of reductive perturbation method, and the dynamics of the system is found to be governed by a generalized derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. We employ the Jacobi-elliptic function method to solve the DNLS equation, and the electromagnetic wave propagation in an antiferromagnetic medium is governed by the breatherlike spatially and temporally coherent localized modes under the influence of DM interaction parameter.

  5. Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, J; Nowicki, A; Lewin, P A; Bloomfield, P E; Kujawska, T; Filipczyński, L

    2006-07-01

    A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wójcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximate ratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to 1/N2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach

  6. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  7. Propagation of Rossby-Khantadze Electromagnetic Planetary Waves in the Ionospheric E-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futatani, S.; Kaladze, T.; Horton, W.; Benkadda, S.

    2013-10-01

    Nonlinear vortex propagation of electromagnetic coupled Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the weakly ionized E-layer of the ionosphere are investigated with numerical simulations. For each k-vector the linear dispersion relation has two eigenmodes corresponding to the slow magnetized Rossby wave and the fast magnetic Khantadze wave. Both waves propagate westward with speeds of order 10-20 m/s for the slow wave and of order 500-1000 km/s for the fast wave. We show that for finite amplitudes there are dipole solitary vortex structures emitted from general initial conditions. These structures are the neutrally stable, nonlinear states that avoid radiating waves by propagating faster than the corresponding linear wave speeds. The condition for these coherent structures to occur is that their amplitudes be such that the nonlinear convection around the core of the disturbance is faster that the linear wave speed for the corresponding dominant Fourier components of the initial disturbance. The presence of the solitary vortex states are indicative of an initial strong disturbance such that arising from a solar storm, a tectonic plate movements or volcanic eruptions. Supported by NSF Grant 0964692 to the University of Texas at Austin; PIIM/CNRS at Aix-Marseille University, and by IMeRA Grant for Advanced Research.

  8. Interaction of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves with a layer of overdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Korzhimanov, A. V.; Eremin, V. I. Kim, A. V.; Tushentsov, M. R.

    2007-10-15

    Plasma-field structures that arise under the interaction between a relativistically strong electromagnetic wave and a layer of overdense plasma are considered within a quasistationary approximation. It is shown that, together with known solutions, which are nonlinear generalizations of skin-layer solutions, multilayer structures containing cavitation regions with completely removed electrons (ion layers) can be excited when the amplitude of the incident field exceeds a certain threshold value. Under symmetric irradiation, these cavitation regions, which play the role of self-consistent resonators, may amplify the field and accumulate electromagnetic energy.

  9. Electromagnetic radiation due to nonlinear oscillations of a charged drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiryaeva, S. O.; Grigor'ev, A. N.; Kolbneva, N. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    The nonlinear oscillations of a spherical charged drop are asymptotically analyzed under the conditions of a multimode initial deformation of its equilibrium shape. It is found that if the spectrum of initially excited modes contains two adjacent modes, the translation mode of oscillations is excited among others. In this case, the center of the drop's charge oscillates about the equilibrium position, generating a dipole electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the intensity of this radiation is many orders of magnitude higher than the intensity of the drop's radiation, which arises in calculations of the first order of smallness and is related to the drop's charged surface oscillations.

  10. Dual control of spin-electromagnetic wave chaos in active ring oscillators based on artificial multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, A. V.; Ustinov, A. B.; Lähderanta, E.; Pakhomov, O. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Properties of spin-electromagnetic wave chaos developed in active ring oscillators have been investigated. A multiferroic structure composed of yttrium iron garnet film and barium strontium titanate (BST) slab served as a nonlinear dispersive medium of the oscillator. Dual control of the fractal dimension of the chaotic signal attractor was realized by variation of the ring gain and dielectric permittivity of the BST slab.

  11. Luminosity distance for Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves propagating in a cosmological magnetic background

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, Matias; Bengochea, Gabriel R; Ferraro, Rafael E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar

    2008-06-15

    Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves interacting with a static magnetic background in an expanding universe are studied. The non-linear character of Born-Infeld electrodynamics modifies the relation between the energy flux and the distance to the source, which gains a new dependence on the redshift that is governed by the background field. We compute the luminosity distance as a function of the redshift and compare with Maxwellian curves for supernovae type Ia.

  12. Effects of Wave Nonlinearity on Wave Attenuation by Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. C.; Cox, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    The need to explore sustainable approaches to maintain coastal ecological systems has been widely recognized for decades and is increasingly important due to global climate change and patterns in coastal population growth. Submerged aquatic vegetation and emergent vegetation in estuaries and shorelines can provide ecosystem services, including wave-energy reduction and erosion control. Idealized models of wave-vegetation interaction often assume rigid, vertically uniform vegetation under the action of waves described by linear wave theory. A physical model experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of wave nonlinearity on the attenuation of random waves propagating through a stand of uniform, emergent vegetation in constant water depth. The experimental conditions spanned a relative water depth from near shallow to near deep water waves (0.45 < kh <1.49) and wave steepness from linear to nonlinear conditions (0.03 < ak < 0.18). The wave height to water depth ratios were in the range 0.12 < Hs/h < 0.34, and the Ursell parameter was in the range 2 < Ur < 68. Frictional losses from the side wall and friction were measured and removed from the wave attenuation in the vegetated cases to isolate the impact of vegetation. The normalized wave height attenuation decay for each case was fit to the decay equation of Dalrymple et al. (1984) to determine the damping factor, which was then used to calculate the bulk drag coefficients CD. This paper shows that the damping factor is dependent on the wave steepness ak across the range of relative water depths from shallow to deep water and that the damping factor can increase by a factor of two when the value of ak approximately doubles. In turn, this causes the drag coefficient CD to decrease on average by 23%. The drag coefficient can be modeled using the Keulegan-Carpenter number using the horizontal orbital wave velocity estimate from linear wave theory as the characteristic velocity scale. Alternatively, the Ursell

  13. Propagation of electromagnetic waves across a diffuse plasma boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Zito, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves may undergo partial reflection from a plasma whose interface with free space is diffuse. Waves reflected from different differential slabs of plasma may interfere constructively or destructively resulting in a total reflected intensity which is either relatively large or a complete null, respectively. The latter effect is called antireflection.

  14. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  15. Microscopic models for electromagnetic wave propagation in highly dispersive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defacio, Brian

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to advance the understanding of the propagation of ultrafast picosecond electromagnetic pulses in biological solutions and ultimately, in human tissue. Present day standards of the allowed electromagnetic doses do not include dispersion, modulation or envelope effects, memory or nonlinearity. It is well-known experimentally that biological solutions are highly dispersive. It is plausible, but not established, that modulation, memory, and nonlinearity may be important in biological solutions. Hence, this project represents a first step toward better standards.

  16. Nonlinear Planetary Electromagnetic Vortex Structures in the Ionospheric F-Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Aburjaniya, G. D.; Khantadze, A. G.; Kharshiladze, O. A.

    2002-07-15

    A study is made of the dynamics of planetary-scale electromagnetic waves in the F-layer of the ionosphere. It is shown that, in this layer, a new branch of large-scale magneto-ionospheric wave perturbations is generated under the action of the latitudinal variations of the geomagnetic field, which are a constant property of the ionosphere. The waves propagate along the parallels with phase velocities of tens to hundreds of km/s. The pulsations of the geomagnetic field in the waves can be as strong as several tens of nT. A possible self-localization effect is revealed: these waves may form nonlinear localized solitary vortices moving either westward or eastward along the parallels with velocities much higher than the phase velocities of the linear waves. The characteristic dimension of a vortex is about 10{sup 4} km or even larger. The magnetic fields generated by vortex structures are one order of magnitude stronger than those in linear waves. The vortices are long-lived formations and may be regarded as elements of strong structural turbulence in the ionosphere. The properties of the wave structures under investigation are very similar to those of ultralow-frequency perturbations observed experimentally in the ionosphere at middle latitudes.

  17. Adiabatic nonlinear waves with trapped particles. II. Wave dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-01-15

    A general nonlinear dispersion relation is derived in a nondifferential form for an adiabatic sinusoidal Langmuir wave in collisionless plasma, allowing for an arbitrary distribution of trapped electrons. The linear dielectric function is generalized, and the nonlinear kinetic frequency shift {omega}{sub NL} is found analytically as a function of the wave amplitude a. Smooth distributions yield {omega}{sub NL}{proportional_to}{radical}(a), as usual. However, beam-like distributions of trapped electrons result in different power laws, or even a logarithmic nonlinearity, which are derived as asymptotic limits of the same dispersion relation. Such beams are formed whenever the phase velocity changes, because the trapped distribution is in autoresonance and thus evolves differently from the passing distribution. Hence, even adiabatic {omega}{sub NL}(a) is generally nonlocal.

  18. Stratification effects on nonlinear elastic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    On a homogeneous elastic half-space, linear surface waves are nondispersive. In each direction, waves having any profile travel without distortion. Nonlinearity causes intermodulation between the various wavelengths so that the signal distorts. Even when nonlinearity is small, sinusoidal profiles do not remain approximately sinusoidal. The absence of dispersion means that profiles suffer cumulative distortion, until the surface slope and strain become locally unbounded. Although this behaviour is typical of many signals, there are some signals for which intermodulation is constructive. These signals can travel coherently over large distances. For seismological applications, it is important to study the effects due to stratification. Dependence of the material constants on depth modifies the nonlinear evolution equations previously derived for homogeneous media. It has a smaller effect on higher frequencies than on lower frequencies. An approximate theory for short wavelength (high frequency) signals is introduced. Calculations show that when nonlinearity is no more important than dispersion, initially sinusoidal profiles propagate with surface slope remaining finite. When dispersion is small compared to nonlinearity, certain sharp peaked profiles can travel large distances while suffering little distortion.

  19. Electromagnetic inertio-gravity waves in the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaladze, T. D.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.; Kahlon, L. Z.

    2011-05-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic inertio-gravity (IG) waves in the partially ionized ionospheric E- and F-layers is considered in the shallow water approximation. Accounting of the field-aligned current is the main novelty of the investigation. Existence of two new eigen-frequencies for fast and slow electromagnetic waves is revealed in the ionospheric E-layer. It is shown that in F-layer slowly damping new type of inertial-fast magnetosonic waves can propagate. Slowly damping low-frequency oscillations connected with the field-aligned conductivity are found. Broad spectrum of oscillations is investigated.

  20. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.

  1. Microstructural diagnosis using electromagnetic wave scattering methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Kevin Jenn Chien

    Scattered electromagnetic waves were used in the present work to characterize the microstructural effects on the performance of metallic materials. A Nisb3Al alloy with a dendritic microstructure has exhibited better creep resistance compared to similar alloys having equiaxed microstructure of grains. X-ray diffraction was applied along the dendritic arms to investigate their orientations. Both the interlocking boundaries and crystallographic texture of the dendritic arms resulted in the superior creep behavior. Non-invasive laser scattering was also used to optically probe smooth fatigue specimens to detect and monitor the development of fatigue damage. Inconel 718 specimens with a cylindrical geometry were tested under low cycle fatigue conditions with constant strain amplitudes ranging from 0.3% to 1%. A detection scheme to minimize computational time and memory was used to achieve in-situ data analysis. Both laser scanning and surface replication procedures were periodically performed throughout the life of the specimens. The scattered light signals were compared with microcrack length and density data from surface replicate SEM images. Three characteristic stages of the scattering signal were observed. The scanning laser light scattering (SLLS) technique was sufficiently robust, and well suited for the non-planar geometry in the leading edge. The SLLS signals correlated well with microstructural features over a large surface area. A physical model of microcrack size distribution within a surface grain was developed. The results of the model suggest that a SLLS signal saturation which coincides with the onset of microcrack density saturation corresponds to a transition from predominately single grain microcracks to microcracks that transverse multiple grains. The saturation of SLLS signal versus mean surface crack length also provided the following findings. Low cycle fatigue cracks were contained and saturated in those surface grains with the highest Schmid

  2. Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingnan

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based

  3. Nonlinear guided wave propagation in prestressed plates.

    PubMed

    Pau, Annamaria; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    The measurement of stress in a structure presents considerable interest in many fields of engineering. In this paper, the diagnostic potential of nonlinear elastic guided waves in a prestressed plate is investigated. To do so, an analytical model is formulated accounting for different aspects involved in the phenomenon. The fact that the initial strains can be finite is considered using the Green Lagrange strain tensor, and initial and final configurations are not merged, as it would be assumed in the infinitesimal strain theory. Moreover, an appropriate third-order expression of the strain energy of the hyperelastic body is adopted to account for the material nonlinearities. The model obtained enables to investigate both the linearized case, which gives the variation of phase and group velocity as a function of the initial stress, and the nonlinear case, involving second-harmonic generation as a function of the initial state of stress. The analysis is limited to Rayleigh-Lamb waves propagating in a plate. Three cases of initial prestress are considered, including prestress in the direction of the wave propagation, prestress orthogonal to the direction of wave propagation, and plane isotropic stress. PMID:25786963

  4. Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.

    1985-01-01

    A model problem that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear is considered. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.

  5. Nonlinear holography for acoustic wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolozzo, U.; Dolfi, D.; Huignard, J. P.; Molin, S.; Peigné, A.; Residori, S.

    2015-03-01

    A liquid crystal medium is used to perform nonlinear dynamic holography and is coupled with multimode optical fibers for optical sensing applications. Thanks to the adaptive character of the nonlinear holography, and to the sensitivity of the multimode fibers, we demonstrate that the system is able to perform efficient acoustic wave detection even with noisy signals. The detection limit is estimated and multimode versus monomode optical fiber are compared. Finally, a wavelength multiplexing protocol is implemented for the spatial localization of the acoustic disturbances.

  6. Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper a model problem is considered that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well-posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.

  7. Joint evaluation of fracture azimuth by electromagnetic wave and elastic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xuan; Liu, Cai; Wang, Qiao; Wang, Kai; Lu, Qi; Xue, Jian; Liang, Wenjing; Yu, Yue; Ren, Qianci

    2013-12-01

    With the multi-wave, multi-component seismic wave exploration, one can apply the anisotropy of fracture media to analyze the attributes of the fracture media, including the fracture azimuth. In the meantime, the techniques of full-polarimetric electromagnetic wave, including full-polarimetric borehole radar, can also be used to analyze the attributes of the fracture. However, the analysis precision of both the multi-component elastic wave exploration and full-polarimetric electromagnetic wave exploration is prone to the influence of noise and other factors. So far, some researchers have conducted studies on the joint inversion of electromagnetic waves and seismic waves. This paper develops evaluation techniques of fracture azimuth by electromagnetic wave, elastic wave, and joint analysis of coincident elastic reflection and electromagnetic data. Firstly, based on the shear wave splitting of elastic waves, this paper develops a statistical analysis technique which applies Pearson correlation coefficient to count and analyze the azimuth angle of fracture. Secondly, based on the information of electromagnetic polarization rotated by fracture, this paper develops a statistical analysis method of full-polarimetric electromagnetic waves which applies the maximum amplitude ratio between the co-polarization and cross-polarization to analyze the azimuth angle of fracture. Furthermore, based on the analysis result of the elastic wave and full-polarimetric electromagnetic wave, this paper develops a joint analysis technique which adopts the standard deviation. At last, authors in this study conduct joint detection experiments on the coincident fracture medium by using the ultrasonic and full-polarimetric ground penetrating radar. The experimental result indicates that both single geophysical methods are capable of analyzing the fracture azimuth angle, but the joint analysis is more accurate.

  8. Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.

  9. Cascading processes in the nonlinear diffraction of light by standing acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Bentivegna, F. F. L.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.; Lee, Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of two types of cascading process to the nonlinear optical diffraction of electromagnetic waves from a standing acoustic wave in a GaAs crystal is theoretically studied. The first type of cascading process results from second-harmonic generation followed by linear acousto-optical diffraction, while the second type involves linear acousto-optical diffraction from the standing acoustic wave and subsequent sum-frequency generation. In contrast to the third, direct, nonlinear acousto-optical diffraction process we previously investigated, the photoelastic interaction between electromagnetic and acoustic waves is here linear. We establish the rules governing the cascading processes and show that in most cases the output signal simultaneously results from two or even three of the possible nonlinear diffraction mechanisms. However, we demonstrate that a careful choice of the incidence angles of the incoming electromagnetic waves, of the polarization combinations of the incoming and diffracted waves, and of the type of acoustic wave (longitudinal or transverse) makes it always possible to distinguish between the direct and either of the two cascading processes.

  10. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, Youngpak

    2015-09-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  11. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-01-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials. PMID:26354891

  12. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-01-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet–height and diameter– and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials. PMID:26354891

  13. Nonlinear wave vacillation in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of vacillation in a baroclinically unstable flow field is studied through the time evolution of a single nonlinearly unstable wave. To this end a computer code is being developed to solve numerically for the time evolution of the amplitude of such a wave. The final working code will be the end product resulting from the development of a heirarchy of codes with increasing complexity. The first code in this series was completed and is undergoing several diagnostic analyses to verify its validity. The development of this code is detailed.

  14. Nonlinear Generation of Vorticity by Surface Waves.

    PubMed

    Filatov, S V; Parfenyev, V M; Vergeles, S S; Brazhnikov, M Yu; Levchenko, A A; Lebedev, V V

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that waves excited on a fluid surface produce local surface rotation owing to hydrodynamic nonlinearity. We examine theoretically the effect and obtain an explicit formula for the vertical vorticity in terms of the surface elevation. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements of surface motion in a cell with water where surface waves are excited by vertical and harmonic shaking the cell. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We discuss physical consequences of the effect. PMID:26894714

  15. Adiabatic nonlinear waves with trapped particles. III. Wave dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-01-15

    The evolution of adiabatic waves with autoresonant trapped particles is described within the Lagrangian model developed in Paper I, under the assumption that the action distribution of these particles is conserved, and, in particular, that their number within each wavelength is a fixed independent parameter of the problem. One-dimensional nonlinear Langmuir waves with deeply trapped electrons are addressed as a paradigmatic example. For a stationary wave, tunneling into overcritical plasma is explained from the standpoint of the action conservation theorem. For a nonstationary wave, qualitatively different regimes are realized depending on the initial parameter S, which is the ratio of the energy flux carried by trapped particles to that carried by passing particles. At S < 1/2, a wave is stable and exhibits group velocity splitting. At S > 1/2, the trapped-particle modulational instability (TPMI) develops, in contrast with the existing theories of the TPMI yet in agreement with the general sideband instability theory. Remarkably, these effects are not captured by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which is traditionally considered as a universal model of wave self-action but misses the trapped-particle oscillation-center inertia.

  16. Toward a System-Based Approach to Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Rassoul, H.

    2015-12-01

    We consider a nonlinear wave energy cascade from the low frequency range into the higher frequency domain of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave generation as a possible source of seed fluctuations for EMIC wave growth due to the ion cyclotron instability in Earth's magnetosphere. The theoretical analysis shows that energy cascade from the Pc 4-5 frequency range (2-22 mHz) into the range of Pc 1-2 pulsations (0.1-5 Hz) is able to supply the level of seed fluctuations that guarantees growth of EMIC waves up to an observable level during one pass through the near equatorial region where the ion cyclotron instability takes place. We also analyze magnetic field data from the Polar and Van Allen Probes spacecraft to test this nonlinear mechanism. We restrict our analysis to magnetic spectra only. We do not analyze the third-order moment for total energy of the magnetic and velocity fluctuations, but judge whether a nonlinear energy cascade is present or whether it is not by only analyzing the appearance of power-law distributions in the low frequency part of the magnetic field spectra. While the power-law spectrum alone does not guarantee that a nonlinear cascade is present, the power-law distribution is a strong indication of the possible development of a nonlinear cascade. Our data analysis shows that a nonlinear energy cascade is indeed observed in both the outer and inner magnetosphere, and EMIC waves are growing from this nonthermal background. All the analyzed data are in good agreement with the theoretical model presented in this study. Overall, the results of this study support a nonlinear energy cascade in Earth's magnetosphere as a mechanism which is responsible for supplying seed fluctuating energy in the higher frequency domain where EMIC waves grow due to the ion cyclotron instability. Keywords: nonlinear energy cascade, ultra low frequency waves, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, seed fluctuationsAcknowledgments: This paper is based upon work

  17. On Nonlinear Properties of Waves Predicted by a Boussinesq Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T.; Dalrymple, R. A.; Chen, Q.

    2002-12-01

    In this study, a fully nonlinear Boussinesq model (Wei, et al., 1995) is used to investigate nonlinear wave features observed in a physical model study of Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida. The experiment was conducted and the laboratory data were provided by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. We employ a curvilinear version of the fully nonlinear Boussinesq model and use a curvilinear grid which is able to resolve a broad spectrum of waves in the computational domain. Eighteen cases with monochromatic input waves and TMA spectral waves are carried out. To show the superiority of the Boussinesq model to other conventional wave models, we focus on examinations of wave nonlinearity in the study. Secondary wave crest features are presented by snapshots of the computed wave field and time series of surface elevations in both the physical model and the numerical model. Spectral analyses of spectral wave cases also show the wave energy transfer from the original peak frequencies to the corresponding harmonic frequencies. As another indicator of wave nonlinearity, the probability distributions of wave surface elevations are computed from both the measured data and numerical results and show similar deviations from their Gaussian distributions. Other measures of wave nonlinearity, such as wave skewness and asymmetry, are also examined in the study. The fairly good agreement between modeled and measured indicators of wave nonlinearity demonstrates the capability of the Boussinesq model for predicting nonlinear wave transformation in the nearshore region.

  18. Reflection of electromagnetic waves from mixtures of plane gravitational and scalar waves

    SciTech Connect

    Gurtug, O.; Halilsoy, M.; Unver, O.

    2006-08-15

    We consider colliding wave packets consisting of hybrid mixtures of electromagnetic, gravitational, and scalar waves. Irrespective of the scalar field, the electromagnetic wave still reflects from the gravitational wave. Some reflection processes are given for different choice of packets in which the Coulomb-like component {psi}{sub 2} vanishes. Exact solution for multiple reflection of an electromagnetic wave from successive impulsive gravitational waves is obtained in a closed form. It is shown that a successive sign flip in the Maxwell spinor arises as a result of encountering with an impulsive train (i.e. the Dirac's comb curvature) of gravitational waves. Such an observable effect may be helpful in the detection of gravitational wave bursts.

  19. Variational modelling of nonlinear water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogirou, Anna; Bokhove, Onno

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling of water waves is demonstrated by investigating variational methods. A potential flow water wave model is derived using variational techniques and extented to include explicit time-dependence, leading to non-autonomous dynamics. As a first example, we consider the problem of a soliton splash in a long wave channel with a contraction at its end, resulting after a sluice gate is removed at a finite time. The removal of the sluice gate is included in the variational principle through a time-dependent gravitational potential. A second example involving non-autonomous dynamics concerns the motion of a free surface in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. Explicit time-dependence now enters the model through a linear damping term due to the effect of wall friction and a term representing the motion of an artificially driven wave pump. In both cases, the model is solved numerically using a Galerkin FEM and the numerical results are compared to wave structures observed in experiments. The water wave model is also adapted to accommodate nonlinear ship dynamics. The novelty is this case is the coupling between the water wave dynamics, the ship dynamics and water line dynamics on the ship. For simplicity, we consider a simple ship structure consisting of V-shaped cross-sections.

  20. Nonlinear Dirac equation solitary waves in external fields.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Franz G; Quintero, Niurka R; Cooper, Fred; Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh

    2012-10-01

    We consider nonlinear Dirac equations (NLDE's) in the 1+1 dimension with scalar-scalar self-interaction g2/κ+1(Ψ[over ¯]Ψ)κ+1 in the presence of various external electromagnetic fields. We find exact solutions for special external fields and we study the behavior of solitary-wave solutions to the NLDE in the presence of a wide variety of fields in a variational approximation depending on collective coordinates which allows the position, width, and phase of these waves to vary in time. We find that in this approximation the position q(t) of the center of the solitary wave obeys the usual behavior of a relativistic point particle in an external field. For time-independent external fields, we find that the energy of the solitary wave is conserved but not the momentum, which becomes a function of time. We postulate that, similarly to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), a sufficient dynamical condition for instability to arise is that dP(t)/dq[over ̇](t)<0. Here P(t) is the momentum of the solitary wave, and q[over ̇] is the velocity of the center of the wave in the collective coordinate approximation. We found for our choices of external potentials that we always have dP(t)/dq[over ̇](t)>0, so, when instabilities do occur, they are due to a different source. We investigate the accuracy of our variational approximation using numerical simulations of the NLDE and find that, when the forcing term is small and we are in a regime where the solitary wave is stable, that the behavior of the solutions of the collective coordinate equations agrees very well with the numerical simulations. We found that the time evolution of the collective coordinates of the solitary wave in our numerical simulations, namely the position of the average charge density and the momentum of the solitary wave, provide good indicators for when the solitary wave first becomes unstable. When these variables stop being smooth functions of time (t), then the solitary wave starts to distort

  1. Electromagnetic Wave Chaos in Gradient Refractive Index Optical Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, P. B.; Fromhold, T. M.; Taylor, R. P.; Micolich, A. P.

    2001-06-11

    Electromagnetic wave chaos is investigated using two-dimensional optical cavities formed in a cylindrical gradient refractive index lens with reflective surfaces. When the planar ends of the lens are cut at an angle to its axis, the geometrical ray paths are chaotic. In this regime, the electromagnetic mode spectrum of the cavity is modulated by both real and ghost periodic ray paths, which also {open_quotes}scar{close_quotes} the electric field intensity distributions of many modes. When the cavity is coupled to waveguides, the eigenmodes generate complex series of resonant peaks in the electromagnetic transmission spectrum.

  2. Modelling of electromagnetic wave interactions with the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Man-Faï; Wiart, Joe

    2005-07-01

    Electromagnetic modelling plays a more and more important role in the study of complex systems involving Maxwell phenomena, such as the interactions of radiowaves with the human body. Simulation then becomes a credible means in decision making, related to the engineering of complex electromagnetic systems. To increase confidence in the models with respect to reality, validation and uncertainty estimation methods are needed. The different dimensions of model validation are illustrated through dosimetry, i.e., quantification of human exposure to electromagnetic waves. To cite this article: M.-F. Wong, J. Wiart, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  3. Aharonov-Bohm phase for an electromagnetic wave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Max; Singleton, Douglas; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    The canonical Aharonov-Bohm effect is usually studied with time-independent potentials. In this work, we investigate the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by a charged particle moving in time-dependent potentials. In particular, we focus on the case of a charged particle moving in the time-varying field of a plane electromagnetic wave. We work out the Aharonov-Bohm phase using both the potential (i.e. oint A_μ dx ^μ ) and the field (i.e. 1/2int F_{μ ν } dσ ^{μ ν }) forms of the Aharonov-Bohm phase. We give conditions in terms of the parameters of the system (frequency of the electromagnetic wave, the size of the space-time loop, amplitude of the electromagnetic wave) under which the time-varying Aharonov-Bohm effect could be observed.

  4. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation over Oil-Covered Sea Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Jin, Wei; Guo, Li-Xin

    2012-07-01

    An exhaustive analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation over an oil-covered sea surface in an evaporation duct environment is studied in comparison with those of the oil-free sea surface. Instead of using the traditional rms height formula, which only considers the oil-free sea surface, we reduce the rms height of a one-dimensional oil-covered sea surface based on the Pierson-Moskowitz sea spectrum. Then, the electromagnetic wave propagation over the oil-covered sea surface in an evaporation duct environment with different wind speeds and frequencies is discussed by the parabolic equation for a fully oil-covered sea surface. In addition, the influence of the fractional filling factor on the electromagnetic wave propagation over non-fully oil-covered sea surface is also investigated. The results show that the oil film can reduce the sea surface roughness and strengthen the trapping effect in an evaporation duct environment.

  5. Particle-in-cell simulation of electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of interchange instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, Daniel; Caplinger, James; Kim, Tony; Sotnikov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves can be influenced by the presence of plasma turbulence. It is known that vortex density structures can develop on nonlinear stage of an interchange instability in Earth's ionosphere and can affect radio communication channels. These density structures play an important role in the refraction and scattering of EM waves in Earth's ionosphere and also in laser diagnostic scattering experiments. We will use a numerical solution of nonlinear equations which govern the development of interchange instability to define a spatial dependence of density irregularities which can be used to analyze scattering of high frequency EM waves. This solution contains both large scale vortex density structures coexisting with short scale density perturbations. Next we will initialize a PIC simulation with the density distribution from the fluid simulation to calculate the scattering cross-section and compare the results with an analytic solution obtained using numerically calculated density spectra.

  6. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak. PMID:26822429

  7. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  8. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak. PMID:26822429

  9. Cell therapy for spinal cord injury informed by electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Jack; Ye, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury devastates the CNS, besetting patients with symptoms including but not limited to: paralysis, autonomic nervous dysfunction, pain disorders and depression. Despite the identification of several molecular and genetic factors, a reliable regenerative therapy has yet to be produced for this terminal disease. Perhaps the missing piece of this puzzle will be discovered within endogenous electrotactic cellular behaviors. Neurons and stem cells both show mediated responses (growth rate, migration, differentiation) to electromagnetic waves, including direct current electric fields. This review analyzes the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury, the rationale for regenerative cell therapy and the evidence for directing cell therapy via electromagnetic waves shown by in vitro experiments. PMID:27599240

  10. Guided wave methods and apparatus for nonlinear frequency generation

    DOEpatents

    Durfee, III, Charles G.; Rundquist, Andrew; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2000-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the nonlinear generation of sum and difference frequencies of electromagnetic radiation propagating in a nonlinear material. A waveguide having a waveguide cavity contains the nonlinear material. Phase matching of the nonlinear generation is obtained by adjusting a waveguide propagation constant, the refractive index of the nonlinear material, or the waveguide mode in which the radiation propagates. Phase matching can be achieved even in isotropic nonlinear materials. A short-wavelength radiation source uses phase-matched nonlinear generation in a waveguide to produce high harmonics of a pulsed laser.

  11. Identifying electromagnetic transients related to gravitational-wave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Cinthia; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Over the past several years the LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 gravitational-wave detectors have operated together as a worldwide network. The combined data from these detectors allows sky localization of astrophysical gravitational-wave sources. By running searches for transient gravitational waves shortly after the data is taken, sky locations can be communicated to electromagnetic observers early enough to allow measurement of any electromagnetic emission in the aftermath of a strong gravitational-wave signal. By measuring both the gravitational and the electromagnetic radiation we can learn a significant amount about their source. Over the past year, electromagnetic images of sky locations corresponding to low-threshold gravitational-wave triggers have been acquired. These are now being analyzed for optical transients. Challenges include unrelated disturbances such as asteroids, satellites, clouds and other objects in space. In this poster we describe the procedure for identifying EM transients with a developed pipeline designed to compare images and sky catalogs to distinguish stars in nearby galaxies and reject background events.

  12. Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.

    1994-03-01

    The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form.

  13. Nonlinear surface acoustic waves in cubic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumon, Ronald Edward

    Model equations developed by Hamilton, Il'inskii, and Zabolotskaya [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 639-651 (1999)] are used to perform theoretical and numerical studies of nonlinear surface acoustic waves in a variety of nonpiezoelectric cubic crystals. The basic theory underlying the model equations is outlined, quasilinear solutions of the equations are derived, and expressions are developed for the shock formation distance and nonlinearity coefficient. A time-domain equation corresponding to the frequency-domain model equations is derived and shown to reduce to a time-domain equation introduced previously for Rayleigh waves [E. A. Zabolotskaya, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 2569-2575 (1992)]. Numerical calculations are performed to predict the evolution of initially monofrequency surface waves in the (001), (110), and (111) planes of the crystals RbCl, KCl, NaCl, CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, C (diamond), Si, Ge, Al, Ni, Cu in the moverline 3m point group, and the crystals Cs-alum, NH4- alum, and K-alum in the moverline 3 point group. The calculations are based on measured second- and third- order elastic constants taken from the literature. Nonlinearity matrix elements which describe the coupling strength of harmonic interactions are shown to provide a powerful tool for characterizing waveform distortion. Simulations in the (001) and (110) planes show that in certain directions the velocity waveform distortion may change in sign, generation of one or more harmonies may be suppressed and shock formation postponed, or energy may be transferred rapidly to the highest harmonics and shock formation enhanced. Simulations in the (111) plane show that the nonlinearity matrix elements are generally complex-valued, which may lead to asymmetric distortion and the appearance of low frequency oscillations near the peaks and shocks in the velocity waveforms. A simple transformation based on the phase of the nonlinearity matrix is shown to provide a reasonable approximation of asymmetric waveform

  14. Strongly nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Ghosal, Sandip

    2012-05-01

    In capillary electrophoresis, sample ions migrate along a microcapillary filled with a background electrolyte under the influence of an applied electric field. If the sample concentration is sufficiently high, the electrical conductivity in the sample zone could differ significantly from the background. Under such conditions, the local migration velocity of sample ions becomes concentration-dependent, resulting in a nonlinear wave that exhibits shocklike features. If the nonlinearity is weak, the sample concentration profile, under certain simplifying assumptions, can be shown to obey Burgers’ equation [Ghosal and Chen, Bull. Math. Biol.BMTBAP0092-824010.1007/s11538-010-9527-2 72, 2047 (2010)], which has an exact analytical solution for arbitrary initial condition. In this paper, we use a numerical method to study the problem in the more general case where the sample concentration is not small in comparison to the concentration of background ions. In the case of low concentrations, the numerical results agree with the weakly nonlinear theory presented earlier, but at high concentrations, the wave evolves in a way that is qualitatively different.

  15. Study of a condition for the mode conversion from purely perpendicular electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaee, Mohammad Javad; Katoh, Yuto

    2016-07-01

    One of the mechanisms for generating electromagnetic plasma waves (Z-mode and LO-mode) is mode conversion from electrostatic waves into electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous plasma. Herein, we study a condition required for mode conversion of electrostatic waves propagating purely perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. An approximate model is derived describing the coupling between electrostatic waves (hot plasma Bernstein mode) and Z-mode waves at the upper hybrid frequency. The model is used to study conditions required for mode conversion from electrostatic waves (electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, including Bernstein mode) into electromagnetic plasma waves (LO-mode). It is shown that for mode conversion to occur in inhomogeneous plasma, the angle between the boundary surface and the magnetic field vector should be within a specific range. The range of the angle depends on the norm of the k vector of waves at the site of mode conversion in the inhomogeneous region. The present study reveals that inhomogeneity alone is not a sufficient condition for mode conversion from electrostatic waves to electromagnetic plasma waves and that the angle between the magnetic field and the density gradient plays an important role in the conversion process.

  16. Homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies with nonlinear electromagnetic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vollick, Dan N.

    2008-09-15

    In this paper I examine cosmological models that contain a stochastic background of nonlinear electromagnetic radiation. I show that for Born-Infeld electrodynamics the equation of state parameter, w=P/{rho}, remains close to 1/3 throughout the evolution of the universe if E{sup 2}=B{sup 2} in the late universe to a high degree of accuracy. Theories with electromagnetic Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F{sup 2}+{alpha}F{sup 4} have recently been studied in magnetic universes, where the electric field vanishes. It was shown that the F{sup 4} term can produce a bounce in the early universe, avoiding an initial singularity. Here I show that the inclusion of an electric field, with E{sup 2}{approx_equal}B{sup 2} in the late universe, eliminates the bounce and the universe begins with an initial singularity. I also examine theories with Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F{sup 2}-{mu}{sup 8}/F{sup 2}, which have been shown to produce a period of late time accelerated expansion in magnetic universes. I show that, if an electric field is introduced, the accelerated phase will only occur if E{sup 2}<3B{sup 2}.

  17. Fully Electromagnetic Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Equations for Tokamak Edge Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu; Madsen, J.

    2008-08-01

    An energy conserving set of the fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to both L-mode turbulence with large amplitude and H-mode turbulence in the presence of high E Χ B shear has been derived. The phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method ensures the preservation of the conservation laws of the underlying Vlasov-Maxwell system. Our generalized ordering takes ρi<< ρθ¡ ~ LE ~ Lp << R (here ρi is the thermal ion Larmor radius and ρθ¡ = B/Bθ] ρi), as typically observed in the tokamak H-mode edge, with LE and Lp being the radial electric field and pressure gradient lengths. We take κ perpendicular to ρi ~ 1 for generality, and keep the relative fluctuation amplitudes eδφ /Τi ~ δΒ / Β up to the second order. Extending the electrostatic theory in the presence of high E Χ B shear [Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)], contributions of electromagnetic fluctuations to the particle charge density and current are explicitly evaluated via pull-back transformation from the gyrocenter distribution function in the gyrokinetic Maxwell's equation.

  18. Nonlinear electromagnetic perturbations in a degenerate ultrarelativistic electron-positron plasma.

    PubMed

    El-Taibany, W F; Mamun, A A

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear propagation of fast and slow magnetosonic perturbation modes in an ultrarelativistic, ultracold, degenerate (extremely dense) electron positron (EP) plasma (containing ultrarelativistic, ultracold, degenerate electron and positron fluids) has been investigated by the reductive perturbation method. The Alfvén wave velocity is modified due to the presence of the enthalpy correction in the fluid equations of motion. The degenerate EP plasma system (under consideration) supports the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons, which are associated with either fast or slow magnetosonic perturbation modes. It is found that the ultrarelativistic model leads to compressive (rarefactive) electromagnetic solitons corresponding to the fast (slow) wave mode. There are certain critical angles, θ(c), at which no soliton solution is found corresponding to the fast wave mode. For the slow mode, the magnetic-field intensity affects both the soliton amplitude and width. It is also illustrated that the basic features of the electromagnetic solitary structures, which are found to exist in such a degenerate EP plasma, are significantly modified by the effects of enthalpy correction, electron and positron degeneracy, magnetic-field strength, and the relativistic effect. The applications of the results in a pair-plasma medium, which occurs in many astrophysical objects (e.g., pulsars, white dwarfs, and neutron stars) are briefly discussed. PMID:22463336

  19. Noncontact Evaluation of Surface-Wave Nonlinearity for Creep Damage in Cr-Mo-V Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Toshihiro; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Masahiko

    2009-07-01

    A nonlinear acoustic measurement is studied for creep damage evaluation. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) magnetostrictively couples to a surface-shear-wave resonance along the circumference of a cylindrical specimen during the creep of Cr-Mo-V steels. The excitation of the EMAT at half of the resonance frequency caused a standing wave to contain only the second-harmonic component, which was received by the same EMAT for determining the second-harmonic amplitude. This measured surface-wave nonlinearity showed a peak at 30% and a minimum at 50% of the total life. We interpreted these phenomena in terms of dislocation mobility and restructuring, with support from scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. This noncontact resonance-EMAT measurement can monitor the evolution of surface-shear-wave nonlinearity throughout creep life and has a potential to assess damage advance and predict the creep life of metals.

  20. Nonlinear Landau resonant scattering of near equatorially mirroring radiation belt electrons by oblique EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Shengwei; Wang, Geng

    2016-04-01

    In response to solar wind disturbances, radiation belt (a few hundreds of keV to several MeV) electron fluxes can be depleted significantly over the entire equatorial pitch angle range. The frequently mentioned cyclotron resonant scattering is applicable only for electrons mirroring off the equator. Here we propose a new physical mechanism, nonlinear Landau resonance with oblique electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, to effectively scatter the near equatorially mirroring electrons. Our test particle simulations show that the nonlinear Landau trapping can occur over a wide energy range and yield the net decrease in equatorial pitch angle Δαeq≈10° within several seconds. Our parametric studies further reveal that this nonlinear Landau-trapping process is favored by a low plasma density, an intense wave field, a high wave frequency close to ion gyrofrequencies, and a large wave normal angle.

  1. Nonlinear wave function expansions : a progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.; Minkoff, M.; Brozell, S. R.; Chemistry

    2007-12-01

    Some recent progress is reported for a novel nonlinear expansion form for electronic wave functions. This expansion form is based on spin eigenfunctions using the Graphical Unitary Group Approach and the wave function is expanded in a basis of product functions, allowing application to closed and open shell systems and to ground and excited electronic states. Each product basis function is itself a multiconfigurational expansion that depends on a relatively small number of nonlinear parameters called arc factors. Efficient recursive procedures for the computation of reduced one- and two-particle density matrices, overlap matrix elements, and Hamiltonian matrix elements result in a very efficient computational procedure that is applicable to very large configuration state function (CSF) expansions. A new energy-based optimization approach is presented based on product function splitting and variational recombination. Convergence of both valence correlation energy and dynamical correlation energy with respect to the product function basis dimension is examined. A wave function analysis approach suitable for very large CSF expansions is presented based on Shavitt graph node density and arc density. Some new closed-form expressions for various Shavitt Graph and Auxiliary Pair Graph statistics are presented.

  2. Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yuji; Yoshida, Zensho

    2016-09-01

    The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here, we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes 'scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are 'ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e., the vortex equation is independent of the wave fields). This model describes a minimal departure from the integrable KP system. By the Painlevé test, we delineate how the vorticity term violates integrability, bringing about an essential three-dimensionality to the solutions. By numerical simulation, we show how the solitons are scattered by vortexes and become chaotic.

  3. Nonlinear wave scattering and electron beam relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muschietti, L.; Dum, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    The role played by nonlinear scattering during the relaxation of a warm electron beam is investigated through a numerical code based on kinetic equations. The code encompasses the quasi-linear wave-electron interaction and wave-wave scattering off ion clouds. Ions with velocities 2 nu sub i (nu sub i being the ion thermal velocity) are found to be the most efficient for scattering the Langmuir waves off their polarization clouds. The transfer rate of the spectrum out of resonance with the beam is larger by a factor 3 compared to usual estimates. The changes produced in the dispersion relation by the presence of the beam electrons dramatically alter the characteristics of the secondary spectrum. In a late phase the classic condensate K of about 0 is depleted, with the formation of a new condensate in resonance with the flat-topped beam distribution, which follows from the fact that the mere presence of the beam electrons creates a minimum in the frequency-wave-number relation. For strong and slow beams, the predictions of the code are found to be in excellent agreement with the results of the particle simulation if a dispersion relation that includes the beam is used.

  4. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  5. Nonlinear density waves in the single-wave model

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, Kiril B.; Tzenov, Stephan I.

    2011-03-15

    The single-wave model equations are transformed to an exact hydrodynamic closure by using a class of solutions to the Vlasov equation corresponding to the waterbag model. The warm fluid dynamic equations are then manipulated by means of the renormalization group method. As a result, amplitude equations for the slowly varying wave amplitudes are derived. Since the characteristic equation for waves has in general three roots, two cases are examined. If all the three roots of the characteristic equation are real, the amplitude equations for the eigenmodes represent a system of three coupled nonlinear equations. In the case where the dispersion equation possesses one real and two complex conjugate roots, the amplitude equations take the form of two coupled equations with complex coefficients. The analytical results are then compared to the exact system dynamics obtained by solving the hydrodynamic equations numerically.

  6. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. PMID:26057934

  7. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. PMID:26057934

  8. Nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by vibrating obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquette, J. C.

    1983-06-01

    The problem of the generation of sum- and difference-frequency waves produced via the scattering of an acoustic wave by an obstacle whose surface vibrates harmonically was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical approach involved solving the nonlinear wave equation, subject to appropriate boundary conditions, by the use of a perturbation expansion of the fields and a Green's function method. In addition to ordinary rigid-body scattering, Censor predicted nongrowing waves at frequencies equal to the sum and to the difference of the frequencies of the primary waves. The solution to the nonlinear wave equation also yields scattered waves at the sum and difference frequencies. However, the nonlinearity of the medium causes these waves to grow with increasing distance from the scatter's surface and, after a very small distance, dominate those predicted by Censor. The simple-source formulation of the second-order nonlinear wave equation for a lossless fluid medium has been derived for arbitrary primary wave fields. This equation was used to solve the problem of nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by a vibrating obstacle for three geometries: (1) a plane-wave scattering by a vibrating plane, (2) cylindrical-wave scattering by a vibrating cylinder, and (3) plane-wave scattering by a vibrating cylinder. Successful experimental validation of the theory was inhibited by previously unexpected levels of nonlinearity in the hydrophones used. Such high levels of hydrophone nonlinearity appeared in hydrophones that, by their geometry of construction, were expected to be fairly linear.

  9. Geometric phase in a flat space for electromagnetic scalar waves.

    PubMed

    Luis, Alfredo

    2006-08-15

    We show the existence of a fundamental geometric phase for classical electromagnetic fields arising after cyclic paths in a plane instead of a sphere. This phase is dispersive, is not related to polarization, distinguishes geometrical from wave optics, and can be easily measured in an interferometric arrangement. PMID:16880859

  10. Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Properties of Amorphous Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingkai; Hou, Cuilin; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Ruoxing; She, Shengfei; Wang, Jungao; Li, Tiehu; Liu, Zhifu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7–50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was −25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at −10 dB was up to 5.8 GHz within the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. PMID:25007783

  11. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a turbulent plasma slab.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a turbulent plasma slab is studied. Part of the effects of the multiple scattering is taken into account. The reflection coefficient is found to be increased and its variation with respect to the slab thickness is smoothed out by the random scattering.

  12. Method for forming electromagnetic-wave-screening composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    A number of ways to give plastic parts the ability to screen out high frequency electromagnetic waves are outlined. Another method which consists of a one stage injection molding process for forming a thermoplastic sandwich whose plastic core, containing metal flakes, is coated with a surface layer of ABS is introduced. The method employs the Battenfeld two component injection molding machine.

  13. Spin waves cause non-linear friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, M. P.; Brendel, L.; Wolf, D. E.; Nowak, U.

    2011-07-01

    Energy dissipation is studied for a hard magnetic tip that scans a soft magnetic substrate. The dynamics of the atomic moments are simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation numerically. The local energy currents are analysed for the case of a Heisenberg spin chain taken as substrate. This leads to an explanation for the velocity dependence of the friction force: The non-linear contribution for high velocities can be attributed to a spin wave front pushed by the tip along the substrate.

  14. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsolakis, A.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    As the operating frequencies of communications systems move higher into the millimeter wave region, the effects of multiple scattering in precipitation media become more significant. In this paper, general formulations are presented for single, first-order multiple, and complete multiple scattering. Included specifically are distributions of particle size, shape, and orientation angle, as well as variation in the medium density along the direction of wave propagation. Calculations are performed for rain. It is shown that the effects of higher-order scattering are not noticeable in either attenuation or channel isolation on a dual-polarized system until frequencies of about 30 GHz are reached. The complete multiple-scattering formulation presented gives accurate results at high millimeter wave frequencies as well as including realistic medium parameter distributions. Furthermore, it is numerically efficient.

  15. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the plasma depletion layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Richard E.; Hudson, Mary K.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Anderson, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a study of the theoretical properties of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which occur in the plasma depletion layer are presented. The analysis assumes a homogeneous plasma with the characteristics which were measured by the AMPTE/CCE satellite at 1450-1501 UT on October 5, 1984. Waves were observed in the Pc 1 frequency range below the hydrogen gyrofrequency, and these waves are identified as EMIC waves. The higher-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the H(+) ions, while the lower-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the He(2+) ions. It is argued that the higher-frequency waves will have k roughly parallel to B(0) and will be left-hand polarized, while the lower frequency wave band will have k oblique to B(0) and will be linearly polarized, in agreement with observations.

  16. Electron acceleration during the decay of nonlinear Whistler waves in low-beta electron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Umeda, Takayuki; Saito, Shinji; Nariyuki, Yasuhiro E-mail: saito@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-10

    Relativistic electron acceleration through dissipation of a nonlinear, short-wavelength, and monochromatic electromagnetic whistler wave in low-beta plasma is investigated by utilizing a one-dimensional fully relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The nonlinear (large-amplitude) parent whistler wave decays through the parametric instability which enhances electrostatic ion acoustic waves and electromagnetic whistler waves. These waves satisfy the condition of three-wave coupling. Through the decay instability, the energy of electron bulk velocity supporting the parent wave is converted to the thermal energy perpendicular to the background magnetic field. Increase of the perpendicular temperature triggers the electron temperature anisotropy instability which generates broadband whistler waves and heats electrons in the parallel direction. The broadband whistler waves are inverse-cascaded during the relaxation of the electron temperature anisotropy. In lower-beta conditions, electrons with a pitch angle of about 90° are successively accelerated by inverse-cascaded whistler waves, and selected electrons are accelerated to over a Lorentz factor of 10. The result implies that the nonlinear dissipation of a finite-amplitude and short-wavelength whistler wave plays an important role in producing relativistic nonthermal electrons over a few MeV especially at lower beta plasmas.

  17. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-07-15

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves.

  18. Nonlinear ship waves and computational fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    MIYATA, Hideaki; ORIHARA, Hideo; SATO, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    Research works undertaken in the first author’s laboratory at the University of Tokyo over the past 30 years are highlighted. Finding of the occurrence of nonlinear waves (named Free-Surface Shock Waves) in the vicinity of a ship advancing at constant speed provided the start-line for the progress of innovative technologies in the ship hull-form design. Based on these findings, a multitude of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques have been developed over this period, and are highlighted in this paper. The TUMMAC code has been developed for wave problems, based on a rectangular grid system, while the WISDAM code treats both wave and viscous flow problems in the framework of a boundary-fitted grid system. These two techniques are able to cope with almost all fluid dynamical problems relating to ships, including the resistance, ship’s motion and ride-comfort issues. Consequently, the two codes have contributed significantly to the progress in the technology of ship design, and now form an integral part of the ship-designing process. PMID:25311139

  19. Electromagnetic Waves Broadcast by a VCR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use a video cassette recorder (VCR) to demonstrate polarization of radio waves using two dipole antennas and a spark gap transmitter tuned to a frequency of either 60-66 MHz or 66-72 MHz with wavelengths of 5 or 4.3 meters, close to the wavelengths of the original work done by Heinrich Hertz. (JRH)

  20. Numerical computation of guided electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    McCartin, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    A computational procedure is presented for the determination of the propagating modes of cylindrical electromagnetic waveguides. The geometrical cross-section of the waveguide is completely arbitrary and may be filled with any homogeneous isotropic material, either dielectric or magnetic or both. A modal decomposition is employed thus reducing the problem to uncoupled Helmholtz equations for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. The discretization of these two-dimensional Helmholtz equations is accomplished by application of the Control Region Approximation. This is a generalized finite-difference procedure involving the tessellation of the cross-section by dual Dirichlet and Delaunay regions. The discrete propagation constants and modes are determined by an inverse power iteration. Power flow, wall loss, and dielectric loss are then calculated. Numerical results indicating the efficacy of this approach are represented.

  1. Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.

  2. Reflection of electromagnetic waves at a biaxial-isotropic interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.

    1983-01-01

    The reflection of electromagnetic waves at a plane boundary between isotropic and biaxial media has been investigated using the kDB approach. The general case has been considered in which the principal dielectric axes of the biaxial medium are oriented at an arbitrary angle to the normal of the plane boundary. In general, two characteristic waves propagate in the biaxial medium, leading to coupling of vertical and horizontal polarizations in the reflected waves. Some special cases are illustrated. The results have applications to problems in remote sensing and integrated optics.

  3. Reflection and interference of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, F. E.; Kyle, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Solutions were obtained of the wave equation for a plane horizontally polarized electro-magnetic wave incident on a semi infinite two dimensional inhomogeneous medium. Two problems were considered: An inhomogeneous half space, and an inhomogeneous layer of arbitrary thickness. Solutions of the wave equation were obtained in terms of Hankel functions with complex arguments. Numerical calculations were made of the reflection coefficient R at the interface of the homogeneous medium. The startling results show that the reflection coefficient for a complex dielectric constant with gradient, can be less than that of the same medium with zero gradient.

  4. Tunable resonant transmission of electromagnetic waves through a magnetized plasma.

    PubMed

    Kee, Chul-Sik; Li, Shou-Zhe; Kim, Kihong; Lim, H

    2003-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the resonant transmission of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in the electromagnetic stop band of a magnetized plasma slab using the invariant embedding method. The frequency and quality factor of the resonant mode for the right-handed (left-handed) circularly polarized wave created by inserting a dielectric layer into the plasma increase (decrease) as the magnitude of the external magnetic field increases. These phenomena are compared with the characteristics of resonant modes in metallic and dielectric Fabry-Perot resonators to show that they are due to the change of plasma reflectivity. We also discuss the damping effect due to the collisions of the constituent particles of the plasma on the resonant transmission of circularly polarized waves. PMID:12689184

  5. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  6. Reflective properties of electromagnet-optical waves in superconducting plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1995-12-31

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas were discovered recently, the studies of which are becoming important. As for the SC plasmas, the penetration depth of magnetic fields to the superconductor due to the fundamental Meissner effect is given by {lambda} = c/{omega}{sub ps}, ({omega}{sub ps}: the SC electron plasma frequency). The investigations on the SC plasmas are discussed in this report. Electromagnet-optical field distributions near the SC plasma boundary are numerically investigated, when electromagnet-optical beam waves with finite size are radiated to SC plasma with ambient incident angle. Typical electric field patterns for TE incident wave are shown. The figure indicates the existence of the parallel shift of the reflective position of the beam wave for the case of the perfect reflection. The reflective shift is found to result from field penetrations to the superconductor which depend on the parameter of the SC plasmas.

  7. Nonlinear wavenumber shift of large amplitude Langmuir waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dehui; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to investigate the nonlinear behavior of the Langmuir wave launched with a fixed frequency in a uniform plasma. It is found that in the strong driving case, the launched wave propagates in a phase velocity larger than that predicted by the linear theory; there appears a nonlinear down-shift of wavenumber. The phase velocity of the nonlinear wave and the down-shift of the wavenumber are demonstrated to be determined by the velocity of nonlinearly accelerated resonant electrons.

  8. Nonlinear wave propagation in constrained solids subjected to thermal loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucera, Claudio; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The classical mathematical treatment governing nonlinear wave propagation in solids relies on finite strain theory. In this scenario, a system of nonlinear partial differential equations can be derived to mathematically describe nonlinear phenomena such as acoustoelasticity (wave speed dependency on quasi-static stress), wave interaction, wave distortion, and higher-harmonic generation. The present work expands the topic of nonlinear wave propagation to the case of a constrained solid subjected to thermal loads. The origin of nonlinear effects in this case is explained on the basis of the anharmonicity of interatomic potentials, and the absorption of the potential energy corresponding to the (prevented) thermal expansion. Such "residual" energy is, at least, cubic as a function of strain, hence leading to a nonlinear wave equation and higher-harmonic generation. Closed-form solutions are given for the longitudinal wave speed and the second-harmonic nonlinear parameter as a function of interatomic potential parameters and temperature increase. The model predicts a decrease in longitudinal wave speed and a corresponding increase in nonlinear parameter with increasing temperature, as a result of the thermal stresses caused by the prevented thermal expansion of the solid. Experimental measurements of the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter on a steel block under constrained thermal expansion confirm this trend. These results suggest the potential of a nonlinear ultrasonic measurement to quantify thermal stresses from prevented thermal expansion. This knowledge can be extremely useful to prevent thermal buckling of various structures, such as continuous-welded rails in hot weather.

  9. Emission of terahertz electromagnetic waves by vortex flow in high- Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiki, Masashi; Iizuka, Mikio; Minami, Kazuo; Tejima, Shogo; Nakamura, Hisashi

    2006-05-01

    Continuous terahertz electromagnetic waves have new applications in scientific and industrial fields such as medicine and information technology. Cuprate high-temperature superconductors have a layer structure, and form a naturally multi-connected Josephson junction system called intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ). In IJJ, there appears a new excitation called the Josephson plasma. Its frequency is in the region of terahertz inside the superconducting energy gap. The excited plasma wave is converted into an electromagnetic wave at sample surfaces. Therefore the IJJ has a great potential to generate terahertz continuous wave. Here we report the results of simulations to find the optimum condition for obtaining the strongest emission power of the terahertz waves. The simulations were carried out using our theory. Since the simulation uses very large-sized coupled nonlinear equations therefore difficult to compute, we used the fastest supercomputer named as Earth Simulator. We found that the quite intense continuous terahertz coherent wave is emitted from a small sample with high-energy efficiency.

  10. Nonlinear wave growth theory of coherent hiss emissions in the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Satoko; Kletzing, Craig A.; Summers, Danny; Hikishima, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Recent observations of plasmaspheric hiss emissions by the Van Allen Probes show that broadband hiss emissions in the plasmasphere comprise short-time coherent elements with rising and falling tone frequencies. Based on nonlinear wave growth theory of whistler mode chorus emissions, we have examined the applicability of the nonlinear theory to the coherent hiss emissions. We have generalized the derivation of the optimum wave amplitude for triggering rising tone chorus emissions to the cases of both rising and falling tone hiss elements. The amplitude profiles of the hiss emissions are well approximated by the optimum wave amplitudes for triggering rising or falling tones. Through the formation of electron holes for rising tones and electron hills for falling tones, the coherent waves evolve to attain the optimum amplitudes. An electromagnetic particle simulation confirms the nonlinear wave growth mechanism as the initial phase of the hiss generation process. We find very good agreement between the theoretical optimum amplitudes and the observed amplitudes as a function of instantaneous frequency. We calculate nonlinear growth rates at the equator and find that nonlinear growth rates for rising tone emissions are much larger than the linear growth rates. The time scales of observed hiss emissions also agree with those predicted by the nonlinear theory. Based on the theory, we can infer properties of energetic electrons generating hiss emissions in the equatorial region of the plasmasphere.

  11. Electromagnetic waves with large relative bandwidth (Invited paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmuth, H. F.

    1985-09-01

    The history of the use of sinusoidal functions and the suitability of these functions for the transmission of information are discussed, taking into account also possibilities for a use of nonsinusoidal functions. It is shown that the available technology is capable of radiating and selectively receiving nonsinusoidal waves. As a basis for an evaluation of the application possibilities for nonsinusoidal electromagnetic waves, attention is given to a concept which makes it possible to distinguish quantitatively between theoretical sinusoidal waves, practical (almost) sinusoidal waves, and nonsinusoidal waves. A suitable measure is provided by the concept of the relative bandwidth. It is pointed out that semiconductor technology has made it possible to use radio signals with large relative bandwidth or nonsinusoidal signals, instead of conventional signals with small relative bandwidth or (almost) sinusoidal signals. The practical level of this new development was reached with the ground-probing radar. Many more applications are possible.

  12. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves stimulated by modest magnetospheric compressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    AMPTE/CCE magnetic field and particle data are used to test the suggestion that increased hot proton temperature anisotropy resulting from convection during magnetospheric compression is responsible for the enhancement in Pc 1 emission via generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the dayside outer equatorial magnetosphere. The relative increase in magnetic field is used to gauge the strength of the compression, and an image dipole model is used to estimate the motion of the plasma during compression. Proton data are used to analyze the evolution of the proton distribution and the corresponding changes in EMIC wave activity expected during the compression. It is suggested that enhancements in dynamic pressure pump the energetic proton distributions in the outer magnetosphere, driving EMIC waves. Waves are expected to be generated most readily close to the magnetopause, and transient pressure pulses may be associated with bursts of EMIC waves, which would be observed on the ground in association with ionospheric transient signatures.

  13. Experiments on nonlinear wave propagation in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, M. J.; Keat, Justin; Wang, Jun; Maynard, J. D.

    1994-02-01

    A fundamental question concerning systems which are both disordered and nonlinear is whether or not Anderson localization is weakened by the nonlinearity. Theory predicts that localized eigenstates will survive nonlinearity, whereas nonlinear pulses may or may not experience the effects of localization depending on the relative magnitude of the Anderson localization length and the characteristic width of the pulse. We have used nonlinear surface waves on a superfluid helium film to obtain results in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  14. Nonlinear low frequency (LF) waves - Comets and foreshock phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1991-01-01

    A review is conducted of LF wave nonlinear properties at comets and in the earth's foreshock, engaging such compelling questions as why there are no cometary cyclotron waves, the physical mechanism responsible for 'dispersive whiskers', and the character of a general description of linear waves. Attention is given to the nonlinear properties of LF waves, whose development is illustrated by examples of waves and their features at different distances from the comet, as well as by computer simulation results. Also discussed is a curious wave mode detected from Comet Giacobini-Zinner, both at and upstream of the bow shock/wave.

  15. Parametric instability of a relativistically strong electromagnetic wave.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The stability of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave that is strong enough to make plasma electrons, but not ions, relativistic is studied. Small perturbations are considered which propagate parallel to the large-amplitude driver. A relativistically strong wave can be unstable on time scales as short as twice its own oscillation period, and decays into a forward-going plasma oscillation and either one or two electromagnetic waves. Ion motion introduces an additional instability which can be important at short perturbation wavelengths, where the driver would otherwise be stable. The unstable ion and electron modes both have potential for producing anomalously large acceleration of relativistic particles, as well as significant amounts of backscattered light. These effects may be important in two applications: (1) the use of intense lasers to heat or compress plasma, and (2) the plasma surrounding a pulsar, if the pulsar is losing energy by radiation of electromagnetic waves at its rotation frequency. Instability persists in the nonrelativistic regime, reducing to stimulated Raman scattering as a special case.

  16. Magnesiothermic reduction of rice husk ash for electromagnetic wave adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu-Ting; Yan, Kang-kang; Zhang, Yuan hu; Jin, Shi-di; Ye, Ying; Chen, Xue-Gang

    2015-11-01

    The increase in electromagnetic pollution due to the extensive exploitation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in modern technology creates correspondingly urgent need for developing effective EM wave absorbers. In this study, we carried out the magnesiothermic reduced the rice husk ash under different temperatures (400-800 °C) and investigated the electromagnetic wave adsorption of the products. The EM absorbing for all samples are mainly depend on the dielectric loss, which is ascribed to the carbon and silicon carbide content. RA samples (raw rice husk ashed in air and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) exhibit poor dielectric properties, whereas RN samples (raw rice husk ashed in nitrogen and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) with higher content of carbon and silicon carbide display considerable higher dielectric loss values and broader bandwidth for RL<-5 dB and -10 dB. For RN samples, the maximum bandwidth for -5 dB and -10 dB decrease with carbon contents, while the optimum thickness decrease with increasing SiC content. The optimum thickness of RN400-800 for EM absorption is 1.5-2.0 mm, with maximum RL of between -28.9 and -68.4 dB, bandwidth of 6.7-13 GHz for RL<-5 dB and 3.2-6.2 GHz for RL<-10 dB. The magnesiothermic reduction will enhance the potential application of rice husk ash in EM wave absorption and the samples benefited from low bulk density and low thickness. With the advantages of light-weight, high EM wave absorption, low cost, RN400-800 could be promising candidates for light-weight EM wave absorption materials over many conventional EM wave absorbers.

  17. Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B; Stenflo, L

    2012-07-01

    We investigate stimulated scattering instabilities of coherent circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons and nondegenerate ions. For this purpose, we employ the coupled equations for the CPEM wave vector potential and the driven (by the ponderomotive force of the CPEM waves) equations for the electron and ion plasma oscillations. The electrons are significantly affected by the quantum forces (viz., the quantum statistical pressure, the quantum Bohm potential, as well as the electron exchange and electron correlations due to electron spin), which are included in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamical description of the electrons. Furthermore, our investigation of the stimulated Brillouin instability of coherent CPEM waves uses the generalized ion momentum equation that includes strong ion coupling effects. The nonlinear equations for the coupled CPEM and quantum plasma waves are then analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations which exhibit stimulated Raman, stimulated Brillouin, and modulational instabilities of CPEM waves carrying OAM. The present results are useful for understanding the origin of scattered light off low-frequency density fluctuations in high-energy density plasmas where quantum effects are eminent. PMID:23005546

  18. Self-organization of ULF electromagnetic wave structures in the shear flow driven dissipative ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.; Chargazia, K.; Kharshiladze, O.; Zimbardo, G.

    2014-08-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of nonlinear dynamics of planetary electromagnetic (EM) ultra-low-frequency wave (ULFW) structures in the rotating dissipative ionosphere in the presence of inhomogeneous zonal wind (shear flow). Planetary EM ULFW appears as a result of interaction of the ionospheric medium with the spatially inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. The shear flow driven wave perturbations effectively extract energy of the shear flow increasing own amplitude and energy. These perturbations undergo self organization in the form of the nonlinear solitary vortex structures due to nonlinear twisting of the perturbation's front. Depending on the features of the velocity profiles of the shear flows the nonlinear vortex structures can be either monopole vortices, or dipole vortex, or vortex streets and vortex chains. From analytical calculation and plots we note that the formation of stationary nonlinear vortex structure requires some threshold value of translation velocity for both non-dissipation and dissipation complex ionospheric plasma. The space and time attenuation specification of the vortices is studied. The characteristic time of vortex longevity in dissipative ionosphere is estimated. The long-lived vortices transfer the trapped medium particles, energy and heat. Thus they represent structural elements of turbulence in the ionosphere.

  19. The momentum of an electromagnetic wave inside a dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Massimo

    2013-09-15

    The problem of assigning a momentum to an electromagnetic wave packet propagating inside an insulator has become known under the name of the Abraham–Minkowski controversy. In the present paper we re-examine this issue making the hypothesis that the forces exerted on an insulator by an electromagnetic field do not distinguish between polarization and free charges. Under this assumption we show that the Abraham expression for the radiation mechanical momentum is highly favored. -- Highlights: •We discuss an approximation to treat electrodynamics of a dielectric material. •We support the Abraham form for the electromagnetic momentum. •We deduce Snell’s law from the conservation of the Abraham momentum. •We show how to deal with the electric field discontinuity at the dielectric boundary.

  20. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2015-11-01

    This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  1. Electromagnetic wave extinction within a forested canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    A forested canopy is modeled by a collection of randomly oriented finite-length cylinders shaded by randomly oriented and distributed disk- or needle-shaped leaves. For a plane wave exciting the forested canopy, the extinction coefficient is formulated in terms of the extinction cross sections (ECSs) in the local frame of each forest component and the Eulerian angles of orientation (used to describe the orientation of each component). The ECSs in the local frame for the finite-length cylinders used to model the branches are obtained by using the forward-scattering theorem. ECSs in the local frame for the disk- and needle-shaped leaves are obtained by the summation of the absorption and scattering cross-sections. The behavior of the extinction coefficients with the incidence angle is investigated numerically for both deciduous and coniferous forest. The dependencies of the extinction coefficients on the orientation of the leaves are illustrated numerically.

  2. Electromagnetic wave propagation in time-dependent media with antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shi-Rong; Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Ma, Yi-Rong; Jia, Wei; Zhao, Qing

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with electromagnetic wave propagation in time-dependent media with an antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling and an isotropic time-dependent permittivity. We identify a new mechanism of linear birefringence, originated from the combined action of the time-dependent permittivity and the antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling. Permittivity with linear and exponential temporal variations exemplifies the creation and control of these two distinct types of linear birefringent modes. As a novel nonlinear optical effect, a scheme utilizing optical Kerr effect in moving media is proposed for the realization of the predicted birefringence.

  3. Electromagnetic scattering and depolarization across rough surfaces: Full wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, Ezekiel; Huang, Guorong; Lee, Bom Son

    1995-05-01

    Full wave solutions are derived for vertically and horizontally polarized waves diffusely scattered across an interface that is two-dimensionally rough separating two different propagating media. Since the normal to the rough surface is not restricted to the reference plane of incidence, the waves are depolarized upon scattering; and the single scattered radiation fields are expressed as integrals of a surface element transmission scattering matrix that also accounts for coupling between the vertically and horizontally polarized waves. The integrations are over the rough surface area as well as the complete two-dimensional wave spectra of the radiation fields. The full wave solutions satisfy the duality and reciprocity relationships in electromagnetic theory, and the surface element scattering matrix is invariant to coordinate transformations. It is shown that in the high-frequency limit the full wave solutions reduce to the physical optics solutions, while in the low-frequency limit (for small mean square heights and slopes) the full wave solutions reduce to Rice's (1951) small perturbation solutions. Thus, the full wave solution accounts for specular point scattering as well as diffuse, Bragg-type scattering in a unified, self-consistent manner. It is therefore not necessary to use hybrid, perturbation and physical optics approaches (based on two-scale models of composite surfaces with large and small roughness scales) to determine the like- and cross-polarized fields scattered across the rough surface.

  4. Perfect absorbers for electromagnetic wave, based on metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-10-01

    Metamaterials (MMs), which are not existing in nature, but artificially-engineered materials for controlling electromagnetic wave. MMs have attracted more and more research attentions, since they have shown greatly novel properties such as left-handed behavior, negative refractive index, classical analog of electromagnetically-induced transparency, and extraordinary transmission. Among MMs, MM perfect absorbers (MMPAs), which are useful to enhance the efficiency in capturing solar energy and applied to various application areas, have been rapidly developed. In general, the structure of MMPAs is very simple, which consist of three layers: patterned conductor layer, which is used for minimizing the reflection by impedance matching, dielectric layer and continuous conductor layer for blocking the transmission. In addition, the unit-cell size of general MM absorbers is only 1/3-1/5 of the working wavelength of incident electromagnetic wave. Nevertheless, the properties of general MMPAs are in problems of the absorption only at specific frequency, the narrow absorption band, the polarization sensitivity and so on. In this review paper, the introduction of recent researches in the field of MMPAs operating in different frequency ranges is presented. Moreover, the researches on the improved electromagnetic properties are discussed, which comprise multi-band, broadband, tunable, polarization-insensitive, and wide-incident-angle MMPAs. The perspectives and the future works for the further investigations and the various real applications of MMPAs are also presented.

  5. Anisotropic electromagnetic wave propagation modeling using parabolic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, R. I.; Siegmann, W. L.; Jacobson, M. J.; Jacyna, G. M.

    1990-12-01

    A new method for the investigation of anisotropic electromagnetic wave propagation in the atmosphere is developed using parabolic approximations. Model equations for the electric field components are formulated which include the effects of both the inhomogeneous atmosphere and the static magnetic field of the earth. Application of parabolic-type approximations produces different systems of coupled parabolic equations. Each is valid for different relative magnitudes of components of the electric field. All admissible cases are then synthesized into one system which can be numerically examined, yielding solutions without a priori knowledge of electric field ratios. A specific example is presented and examined to understand static magnetic field effects on electromagnetic wave propagation. The influences of the earth's magnetic field are discussed and displayed in terms of electric components and the Poynting vector. Results demonstrate that the geomagnetic field can significantly influence HF atmospheric propagation.

  6. Gradient instabilities of electromagnetic waves in Hall thruster plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tomilin, Dmitry

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents a linear analysis of gradient plasma instabilities in Hall thrusters. The study obtains and analyzes the dispersion equation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves based on the two-fluid model of a cold plasma. The regions of parameters corresponding to unstable high frequency modes are determined and the dependence of the increments and intrinsic frequencies on plasma parameters is obtained. The obtained results agree with those of previously published studies.

  7. Torsional waves excited by electromagnetic-acoustic transducers during guided-wave acoustic inspection of pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murav'eva, O. V.; Len'kov, S. V.; Murashov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of propagation of torsional waves excited by an electromagnetic-acoustic transducer in a pipe is proposed. This theory takes into account the excitation parameters, geometry, viscosity, and the elastic characteristics of an object. The main testing parameters (the frequency and geometry of the transducer) that determine the possibilities of guided-wave testing of pipelines of various dimensions using torsional waves are theoretically substantiated.

  8. Quantum metamaterials: Electromagnetic waves in a Josephson qubit line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmanov, A. L.; Zagoskin, A. M.; Savel'Ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco

    2008-04-01

    We consider the propagation of a classical electromagnetic wave through a transmission line, formed by identical superconducting charge qubits inside a superconducting resonator. Since the qubits can be in a coherent superposition of quantum states, we show that such a system demonstrates interesting effects, such as a “breathing” photonic crystal with an oscillating band gap and a “quantum Archimedean screw” that transports, at an arbitrary controlled velocity, Josephson plasma waves through a transmission line. The key ingredient of these effects is that the optical properties of the Josephson transmission line are controlled by the quantum coherent state of the qubits.

  9. Engineering biphoton wave packets with an electromagnetically induced grating

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Jianming; Xiao Min; Zhai Yanhua; Du Shengwang

    2010-10-15

    We propose to shape biphoton wave packets with an electromagnetically induced grating in a four-level double-{Lambda} cold atomic system. We show that the induced hybrid grating plays an essential role in directing the new fields into different angular positions, especially for the zeroth-order diffraction. A number of interesting features appears in the shaped two-photon wave forms. For example, broadening or narrowing the spectrum would be possible in the proposed scheme even without the use of a cavity.

  10. Nonminimally coupled gravitational and electromagnetic fields: pp-wave solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dereli, Tekin; Sert, Oezcan

    2011-03-15

    We give the Lagrangian formulation of a generic nonminimally extended Einstein-Maxwell theory with an action that is linear in the curvature and quadratic in the electromagnetic field. We derive the coupled field equations by a first-order variational principle using the method of Lagrange multipliers. We look for solutions describing plane-fronted Einstein-Maxwell waves with parallel rays. We give a family of exact pp-wave solutions associated with a partially massless spin-2 photon and a partially massive spin-2 graviton.

  11. Nonlinear wave interactions in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimachkov, D. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The rotating magnetohydrodynamic flows of a thin layer of astrophysical and space plasmas with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field are considered in the shallow water approximation. The presence of a vertical external magnetic field changes significantly the dynamics of wave processes in an astrophysical plasma, in contrast to a neutral fluid and a plasma layer in an external toroidal magnetic field. There are three-wave nonlinear interactions in the case under consideration. Using the asymptotic method of multiscale expansions, we have derived nonlinear equations for the interaction of wave packets: three magneto- Poincare waves, three magnetostrophic waves, two magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and two magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. The existence of decay instabilities and parametric amplification is predicted. We show that a magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, a magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, a magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and a magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. There are the following parametric amplification mechanisms: the parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, the parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, the amplification of a magneto-Poincare wave in the field of a magnetostrophic wave, and the amplification of a magnetostrophic wave in the field of a magneto-Poincare wave. The instability growth rates and parametric amplification factors have been found for the corresponding processes.

  12. Experimental observations of nonlinearly enhanced 2omega-UH electromagnetic radiation excited by steady-state colliding electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intrator, T.; Hershkowitz, N.; Chan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Counterstreaming large-diameter electron beams in a steady-state laboratory experiment are observed to generate transverse radiation at twice the upper-hybrid frequency (2omega-UH) with a quadrupole radiation pattern. The electromagnetic wave power density is nonlinearly enhanced over the power density obtained from a single beam-plasma system. Electromagnetic power density scales exponentially with beam energy and increases with ion mass. Weak turbulence theory can predict similar (but weaker) beam energy scaling but not the high power density, or the predominance of the 2omega-UH radiation peak over the omega-UH peak. Significant noise near the upper-hybrid and ion plasma frequencies is also measured, with normalized electrostatic wave energy density W(ES)/n(e)T(e) approximately 0.01.

  13. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  14. Obliquely Propagating Electromagnetic Waves in Magnetized Kappa Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaelzer, R.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of velocity distribution functions (VDFs) that exhibit a power-law dependence on the high-energy tail have been the subjectof intense research by the space plasma community. Such functions, known as kappa or superthermal distributions, have beenfound to provide a better fitting to the VDF measured by spacecraft in the solar wind. One of the problems that is being addressed on this new light is the temperature anisotropy of solar wind protons and electrons. An anisotropic kappa VDF contains a large amount of free energy that can excite waves in the solar wind. Conversely, the wave-particle interaction is important to determine the shape of theobserved particle distributions.In the literature, the general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well-established. However, for kappa distributions, either isotropic or anisotropic, the wave characteristics have been studied mostly for the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation. Contributions for the general case of obliquely-propagating electromagnetic waves have been scarcely reported so far. The absence of a general treatment prevents a complete analysis of the wave-particle interaction in kappa plasmas, since some instabilities, such as the firehose, can operate simultaneously both in the parallel and oblique directions.In a recent work [1], we have obtained expressions for the dielectric tensor and dispersion relations for the low-frequency, quasi-perpendicular dispersive Alfvén waves resulting from a kappa VDF. In the present work, we generalize the formalism introduced by [1] for the general case of electrostatic and/or electromagnetic waves propagating in a kappa plasma in any frequency range and for arbitrary angles.We employ an isotropic distribution, but the methods used here can be easily applied to more general anisotropic distributions,such as the bi-kappa or product-bi-kappa. [1] R. Gaelzer and L. F. Ziebell, Journal of Geophysical Research 119, 9334

  15. Early electromagnetic waves from earthquake rupturing: I. theoretical formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yongxin; Chen, Xiaofei; Hu, Hengshan; Zhang, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Earthquake taking place in a fluid-saturated porous medium can generate electromagnetic (EM) waves because of the electrokinetic effect. These generated EM waves arrive at a distant observatory much earlier than the seismic waves because their velocities are much faster than those of the seismic waves. They may explain the early EM signals which have been detected before the detection of the seismic waves after the occurrences of earthquakes. In this study, we attempt to analyse such a kind of early EM signals induced by an earthquake because of the electrokinetic effect. The earthquake is assumed to be a fault slip and is modelled by a moment tensor point source. With Pride's equations quantifying the coupling between seismic and EM waves, we first present a real-axis integration (RAI) algorithm to calculate the seismoelectric wavefields in a layered porous formation. Although full waveforms can be calculated by such a RAI technique, individual waves cannot be easily separated from the full waveforms. The need to compute the individual waves is eminent for the purpose of investigating the early EM waves, because these EM waves are usually several orders weaker than and are masked by the EM signals accompanying the seismic waves in the full waveforms. Therefore, we further develop a branch-cut integration (BCI) algorithm, by transforming the original wavenumber integral along the real axis in the complex wavenumber plane for the RAI technique to a sum of integrals along the vertical branch cuts and the residues of the poles. For performing the integrations along the vertical branch cuts, determination of the Riemann sheets are explained and displayed. Finally, the seismoelectric wavefields are represented in forms allowing calculating individual waves.

  16. Ring Current-Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves, generated by ion temperature anisotropy in Earth s ring current (RC), is the best known example of wave- particle interaction in the magnetosphere. Also, there is much controversy over the importance of EMIC waves on RC depletion. Under certain conditions, relativistic electrons, with energies 21 MeV, can be removed from the outer radiation belt (RB) by EMIC wave scattering during a magnetic storm. That is why the calculation of EMIC waves must be a very critical part of the space weather studies. The new RC model that we have developed and present for the first time has several new features that we have combine together in a one single model: (a) several lower frequency cold plasma wave modes are taken into account; (b) wave tracing of these wave has been incorporated in the energy EMIC wave equation; (c) no assumptions regarding wave shape spectra have been made; (d) no assumptions regarding the shape of particle distribution have been made to calculate the growth rate; (e) pitch-angle, energy, and mix diffusions are taken into account together for the first time; (f) the exact loss-cone RC analytical solution has been found and coupled with bounce-averaged numerical solution of kinetic equation; (g) the EMIC waves saturation due to their modulation instability and LHW generation are included as an additional factor that contributes to this process; and (h) the hot ions were included in the real part of dielectric permittivity tensor. We compare our theoretical results with the different EMIC waves models as well as RC experimental data.

  17. Introduction to Wave Propagation in Nonlinear Fluids and Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-02-01

    Waves occur widely in nature and have innumerable commercial uses. Waves are responsible for the sound of speech, meteors igniting the atmosphere, radio and television broadcasting, medical diagnosis using ultrasound. This book provides a thorough, modern introduction to the study of linear and nonlinear waves. Beginning with fundamental concepts of motion, the book goes on to discuss linear and nonlinear mechanical waves, thermodynamics, and constitutive models for a variety of gases, liquids, and solids. Among the important areas of research and application are impact analysis, shock wave research, explosive detonation, nonlinear acoustics, and hypersonic aerodynamics. Students at an advanced undergraduate/graduate level will find this text a clear and comprehensive introduction to the study of nonlinear wave phenomena, and it will also be valuable as a professional reference in engineering and applied physics.

  18. Self-modulation of nonlinear waves in a weakly magnetized relativistic electron-positron plasma with temperature.

    PubMed

    Asenjo, Felipe A; Borotto, Felix A; Chian, Abraham C-L; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J Alejandro; Rempel, Erico L

    2012-04-01

    We develop a nonlinear theory for self-modulation of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in a relativistic hot weakly magnetized electron-positron plasma. The case of parallel propagation along an ambient magnetic field is considered. A nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the complex wave amplitude of a self-modulated wave packet. We show that the maximum growth rate of the modulational instability decreases as the temperature of the pair plasma increases. Depending on the initial conditions, the unstable wave envelope can evolve nonlinearly to either periodic wave trains or solitary waves. This theory has application to high-energy astrophysics and high-power laser physics. PMID:22680585

  19. Descriptive Study of Electromagnetic Wave Distribution for Various Seating Positions: Using Digital Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seomun, GyeongAe; Kim, YoungHwan; Lee, Jung-Ah; Jeong, KwangHoon; Park, Seon-A; Kim, Miran; Noh, Wonjung

    2014-01-01

    To better understand environmental electromagnetic wave exposure during the use of digital textbooks by elementary school students, we measured numeric values of the electromagnetic fields produced by tablet personal computers (TPCs). Specifically, we examined the distribution of the electromagnetic waves for various students' seating…

  20. Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaozhou Zhang, Lue; Wang, Xiangda; Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated.

  1. A specific property of electromagnetic waves interacting with dust-laden plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tsintsadze, N. L.; Ehsan, Z.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.

    2006-07-15

    The propagation pattern of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) in dusty plasmas is quite different from that in electron-ion plasmas. For instance, here the ponderomotive force acts on dust grains as a negative pressure, and a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with an additional nonlinear term is obtained. Based on this equation, the modulation instability is examined and it is shown that the growth rate becomes maximum when that additional term compensates the diffraction term. The main part of this work is devoted to the localization of the grains by the EMW. Considering both subsonic and supersonic regimes, it has been shown that under certain conditions the grains are localized and the ions circumnavigate the grains, whereas the electrons escape from the region of localization. Further, the localization of grains by the EMW is found to be shape-dependent of the pulse. Comparing pancake and light bullet shaped pulses in the supersonic regime, and it is shown that only the light bullet shape leads to the compression of grains. Finally, investigating nonstationary solution, it is shown that for some parameters, the nonlinear wave breaking and the formation of a shock wave can take place.

  2. Linear and nonlinear interactions of an electron beam with oblique whistler and electrostatic waves in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.

    1993-12-01

    Both linear and nonlinear interactions between oblique whistler, electrostatic, quasi-upper hybrid mode waves and an electron beam are studied by linear analyses and electromagnetic particle simulations. In addition to a background cold plasma, we assumed a hot electron beam drifting along a static magnetic field. Growth rates of the oblique whistler, oblique electrostatic, and quasi-upper hybrid instabilities were first calculated. We found that there are four kinds of unstable mode waves for parallel and oblique propagations. They are the electromagnetic whistler mode wave (WW1), the electrostatic whistler mode wave (WW2), the electrostatic mode wave (ESW), and the quasi-upper hybrid mode wave (UHW). A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the satellite observations of whistler mode chorus and accompanied electrostatic waves, whose amplitudes are sometimes modulated at the chorus frequency.

  3. Investigation of third order nonlinearity in propagation of cylindrical waves in homogeneous nonlinear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Monireh; Bahari, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Four-wave mixing in propagation of cylindrical waves in a homogeneous nonlinear optical media has been investigated theoretically. An explicit analytical expression which contains all the main nonlinear optical effects, including third harmonic generation, sum and difference frequency generation has been obtained. A comparison between sum frequency efficiency for exact and approximation expression in a homogeneous nonlinear medium has been done. The effect of increasing the nonlinear optical coefficient (χeff(3)) and increasing the frequency difference between two adjacent waves (Δ ω) , on the efficiency of sum frequency generation in homogeneous media has been investigated.

  4. Interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in a stochastic atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatnagar, N.; Peterson, A. M.

    1979-01-01

    In the Stanford radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) an electromagnetic signal is made to scatter from a moving acoustic pulse train. Under a Bragg-scatter condition maximum electromagnetic scattering occurs. The scattered radio signal contains temperature and wind information as a function of the acoustic-pulse position. In this investigation RASS performance is assessed in an atmosphere characterized by the presence of turbulence and mean atmospheric parameters. The only assumption made is that the electromagnetic wave is not affected by stochastic perturbations in the atmosphere. It is concluded that the received radio signal depends strongly on the intensity of turbulence for altitudes of the acoustic pulse greater than the coherence length of propagation. The effect of mean vertical wind and mean temperature on the strength of the received signal is also demonstrated to be insignificant. Mean horizontal winds, however, shift the focus of the reflected electromagnetic energy from its origin, resulting in a decrease in received signal level when a monostatic radio-frequency (RF) system is used. For a bistatic radar configuration with space diversified receiving antennas, the shifting of the acoustic pulse makes possible the remote measurement of the horizontal wind component.

  5. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed quasiperiodic surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic-wave scattering by a quasi-periodic surface with random perturbations (as in the remote sensing of plowed fields) is investigated analytically, applying the Kirchhoff approximation and modeling the plowed fields by means of Gaussian random variation, sinusoidal variation, and Gaussian random variation about the spatial frequency. Coherent and incoherent bistatic scattering coefficients are derived in closed form by evaluating the physical-optics integral and shown to be proportional, in the geometric-optics limit, to the occurrence probability of slopes which reflect the incident wave specularly in the direction of the scattered wave. Backscattering cross sections are plotted as functions of incidence angle for a number of cases, demonstrating the strong effect of row direction.

  6. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in P T -symmetric hyperbolic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shramkova, O. V.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate theoretically and numerically the propagation of electromagnetic waves in P T -symmetric periodic stacks composed of hyperbolic metamaterial layers separated by dielectric media with balanced loss and gain. We derive the characteristic frequencies governing the dispersion properties of the eigenwaves of P T -symmetric semiconductor-dielectric stacks. By tuning the loss/gain level and thicknesses of the layers, we study the evolution of the dispersion dependencies. We show that the effective-medium approach does not adequately describe the propagating waves in the P T -symmetric hypercrystals, even for wavelengths that are about 100 times larger than the period of the stack. We demonstrate the existence of anisotropic transmission resonances and above-unity reflection in P T -symmetric hyperbolic systems. The P T -symmetry-breaking transition of the scattering matrix is strongly influenced by the constitutive and geometrical parameters of the layers and the angles of wave incidence.

  7. Nonresonant interaction of heavy ions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, J.; Gendrin, R.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of a heavy ion in the presence of an intense ultralow-frequency electromagnetic wave propagating along the dc magnetic field is analyzed. Starting from the basic equations of motion and from their associated two invariants, the heavy ion velocity-space trajectories are drawn. It is shown that after a certain time, particles whose initial phase angles are randomly distributed tend to bunch together, provided that the wave intensity b-sub-1 is sufficiently large. The importance of these results for the interpretation of the recently observed acceleration of singly charged He ions in conjunction with the occurrence of large-amplitude ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere is discussed.

  8. Resonance of relativistic electrons with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Bortnik, J.

    2015-06-29

    Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion cyclotron EMIC waves if the total density is large. We show that, for a particular EMIC mode, this dependence is weak due to the dependence of the wave frequency and wave vector on the density. A significant increase in relativistic electron minimum resonant energy might occur for the H band EMIC mode only for small density, but no changes in parameters significantly decrease the minimum resonant energy from a nominal value. The minimum resonant energy depends most strongly on the thermal velocity associated with the field line motionmore » of the hot ring current protons that drive the instability. High density due to a plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume could possibly lead to lower minimum resonance energy by causing the He band EMIC mode to be dominant. We demonstrate these points using parameters from a ring current simulation.« less

  9. Ring Current Ion Coupling with Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.

    2002-01-01

    A new ring current global model has been developed for the first time that couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation describes the ring current (RC) ion dynamic, and another equation describes wave evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (EMIC). The coupled model is able to simulate, for the first time self-consistently calculated RC ion kinetic and evolution of EMIC waves that propagate along geomagnetic field lines and reflect from the ionosphere. Ionospheric properties affect the reflection index through the integral Pedersen and Hall coductivities. The structure and dynamics of the ring current proton precipitating flux regions, intensities of EMIC, global RC energy balance, and some other parameters will be studied in detail for the selected geomagnetic storms. The space whether aspects of RC modelling and comparison with the data will also be discussed.

  10. Ring Current Ion Coupling with Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov. G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.; Jordanova, V. K.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new ring current global model has been developed that couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation describes the ring current (RC) ion dynamic, and another equation describes wave evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (EMIC). The coupled model is able to simulate, for the first time self-consistently calculated RC ion kinetic and evolution of EMIC waves that propagate along geomagnetic field lines and reflect from the ionosphere. Ionospheric properties affect the reflection index through the integral Pedersen and Hall conductivities. The structure and dynamics of the ring current proton precipitating flux regions, intensities of EMIC global RC energy balance, and some other parameters will be studied in detail for the selected geomagnetic storms.

  11. Resonance of relativistic electrons with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Bortnik, J.

    2015-06-29

    Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion cyclotron EMIC waves if the total density is large. We show that, for a particular EMIC mode, this dependence is weak due to the dependence of the wave frequency and wave vector on the density. A significant increase in relativistic electron minimum resonant energy might occur for the H band EMIC mode only for small density, but no changes in parameters significantly decrease the minimum resonant energy from a nominal value. The minimum resonant energy depends most strongly on the thermal velocity associated with the field line motion of the hot ring current protons that drive the instability. High density due to a plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume could possibly lead to lower minimum resonance energy by causing the He band EMIC mode to be dominant. We demonstrate these points using parameters from a ring current simulation.

  12. Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Noé; Mehrem, Ahmed; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M.; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J.

    2016-05-01

    The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g., cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be canceled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime. xml:lang="fr"

  13. The effect of nonlinear traveling waves on rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui-Correa, Juan Carlos

    2013-08-01

    The effect of the housing stiffness on nonlinear traveling waves is presented in this work. It was found that the housing controls the synchronization of nonlinear elements and it allows nonlinear waves to travel through the structure. This phenomenon was observed in a gearbox with a soft housing, and the phenomenon was reproduced with a lump-mass dynamic model. The model included a pair of gears, the rolling bearings and the housing. The model considered all the nonlinear effects. Numerical and experimental results were analyzed with a time-frequency method using the Morlet wavelet function. A compound effect was observed when the nonlinear waves travel between the gears and the bearings: the waves increased the dynamic load amplitude and add another periodic load.

  14. Book review: Nonlinear ocean waves and the inverse scattering transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear Ocean Waves and the Inverse Scattering Transform is a comprehensive examination of ocean waves built upon the theory of nonlinear Fourier analysis. The renowned author, Alfred R. Osborne, is perhaps best known for the discovery of internal solitons in the Andaman Sea during the 1970s. In this book, he provides an extensive treatment of nonlinear water waves based on a nonlinear spectral theory known as the inverse scattering transform. The writing is exceptional throughout the book, which is particularly useful in explaining some of the more difficult mathematical concepts.  Review info: Nonlinear Ocean Waves and the Inverse Scattering Transform. By Alfred R. Osborne, 2010. ISBN: 978-125286299, 917 pp.

  15. Amplitude-dependent Lamb wave dispersion in nonlinear plates.

    PubMed

    Packo, Pawel; Uhl, Tadeusz; Staszewski, Wieslaw J; Leamy, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a perturbation approach for calculating amplitude-dependent Lamb wave dispersion in nonlinear plates. Nonlinear dispersion relationships are derived in closed form using a hyperelastic stress-strain constitutive relationship, the Green-Lagrange strain measure, and the partial wave technique integrated with a Lindstedt-Poincaré perturbation approach. Solvability conditions are derived using an operator formalism with inner product projections applied against solutions to the adjoint problem. When applied to the first- and second-order problems, these solvability conditions lead to amplitude-dependent, nonlinear dispersion corrections for frequency as a function of wavenumber. Numerical simulations verify the predicted dispersion shifts for an example nonlinear plate. The analysis and identification of amplitude-dependent, nonlinear Lamb wave dispersion complements recent research focusing on higher harmonic generation and internally resonant waves, which require precise dispersion relationships for frequency-wavenumber matching. PMID:27586758

  16. On propagation of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in the expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, V. O.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an equation for the propagation time of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in the expanding Universe. The velocity of electromagnetic waves propagation depends on the velocity of the interstellar medium in the observer's frame of reference. Gravitational radiation interacts weakly with the substance, so electromagnetic and gravitational waves propagate from a remote astrophysical object to the terrestrial observer at different time. Gravitational waves registration enables the inverse problem solution - by the difference in arrival time of electromagnetic and gravitational-wave signal, we can determine the characteristics of the emitting area of the astrophysical object.

  17. Obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves in magnetized kappa plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaelzer, R.; Ziebell, L. F.

    2016-02-01

    Velocity distribution functions (VDFs) that exhibit a power-law dependence on the high-energy tail have been the subject of intense research by the plasma physics community. Such functions, known as kappa or superthermal distributions, have been found to provide a better fitting to the VDFs measured by spacecraft in the solar wind. One of the problems that is being addressed on this new light is the temperature anisotropy of solar wind protons and electrons. In the literature, the general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well-established. However, for kappa distributions, the wave characteristics have been studied mostly for the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation, relative to the ambient magnetic field. Contributions to the general case of obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves have been scarcely reported so far. The absence of a general treatment prevents a complete analysis of the wave-particle interaction in kappa plasmas, since some instabilities can operate simultaneously both in the parallel and oblique directions. In a recent work, Gaelzer and Ziebell [J. Geophys. Res. 119, 9334 (2014)] obtained expressions for the dielectric tensor and dispersion relations for the low-frequency, quasi-perpendicular dispersive Alfvén waves resulting from a kappa VDF. In the present work, the formalism is generalized for the general case of electrostatic and/or electromagnetic waves propagating in a kappa plasma in any frequency range and for arbitrary angles. An isotropic distribution is considered, but the methods used here can be easily applied to more general anisotropic distributions such as the bi-kappa or product-bi-kappa.

  18. Biological multi-rogue waves in discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with saturable nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchinang Tchameu, J. D.; Togueu Motcheyo, A. B.; Tchawoua, C.

    2016-09-01

    The discrete multi-rogue waves (DMRW) as solution of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation with saturable nonlinearities is studied numerically. These biological rogue waves represent the complex probability amplitude of finding an amide-I vibrational quantum at a site. We observe that the growth in the higher order saturable nonlinearity implies the formation of DMRW including an increase in the short-living DMRW and a decrease in amplitude of the long-living DMRW.

  19. Cosmological model with gravitational, electromagnetic, and scalar waves

    SciTech Connect

    Charach, C.; Malin, S.

    1980-06-15

    Following Gowdy, Berger, and Misner we construct a new exact solution of the Einstein--Maxwell--massless-scalar-field equations which corresponds to an inhomogeneous closed universe filled with scalar, gravitational, and electromagnetic waves. It is obtained as a result of homogeneity breaking in the corresponding Bianchi type-I universe. The combined effect of the scalar and vector fields on the dynamics of the evolution process and the interactions between the fields involved are systematically investigated. The structure of the initial singularity is studied in detail in both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. The final stage of evolution is studied and interpreted in terms of the quanta of scalar, gravitational, and electromagnetic fields. Possible extensions of the present model to the conformally coupled scalar field and the Abelian solutions of the Yang-Mills field equations are pointed out.

  20. Electromagnetic Counterparts of Gravitational Wave Sources: Mergers of Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Atish; Kaplan, David L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Mergers of compact objects are considered prime sources of gravitational waves (GW) and will soon be targets of GW observatories such as the Advanced-LIGO and VIRGO. Finding electromagnetic counterparts of these GW sources will be important to understand their nature. We discuss possible electromagnetic signatures of the mergers. We show that the BH-BH mergers could have luminosities which exceed Eddington luminosity from unity to several orders of magnitude depending on the masses of the merging BHs. As a result these mergers could be explosive, release up to 1051 erg of energy and shine as radio transients. At any given time we expect about a few such transients in the sky at GHz frequencies, which could be detected to be about 300 Mpc. It has also been argued that these radio transients would look alike radio supernovae with comparable detection rates. Multi-band follow-up could, however, distinguish between the mergers and supernovae.

  1. Role of surface electromagnetic waves in metamaterial absorbers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chen; Cardin, Andrew; Koirala, Machhindra; Liu, Xianliang; Tyler, Talmage; West, Kevin G; Bingham, Christopher M; Starr, Tatiana; Starr, Anthony F; Jokerst, Nan M; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-03-21

    Metamaterial absorbers have been demonstrated across much of the electromagnetic spectrum and exhibit both broad and narrow-band absorption for normally incident radiation. Absorption diminishes for increasing angles of incidence and transverse electric polarization falls off much more rapidly than transverse magnetic. We unambiguously demonstrate that broad-angle TM behavior cannot be associated with periodicity, but rather is due to coupling with a surface electromagnetic mode that is both supported by, and well described via the effective optical constants of the metamaterial where we achieve a resonant wavelength that is 19.1 times larger than the unit cell. Experimental results are supported by simulations and we highlight the potential to modify the angular response of absorbers by tailoring the surface wave. PMID:27136864

  2. Studies of the linear and nonlinear properties of Alfvén waves in LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Troy; Dorfman, Seth; Gekelman, Walter; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; van Compernolle, Bart; Vincena, Steve; Rossi, Giovanni; Jenko, Frank

    2015-11-01

    An overview will be given of recent experimental research into linear and nonlinear properties of Alfvén waves in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay instability is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of LAPD, producing a damped ion acoustic mode. The decay of a lone, large amplitude Alfvén wave has been observed, producing co-propagating daughter waves with characteristics consistent with kinetic Alfvén waves. The process has an amplitude threshold and the frequency of the daughter modes varies with the amplitude of the pump. A new plasma source based on LaB6 cathode has been added to LAPD, enabling much higher density (x50), electron temperature (x2) and ion temperature (x6). This provides the opportunity to study the physics of waves and instabilities with space and astrophysically relevant β. Topics under investigation include the physics of Alfvén waves in increased β plasmas, electromagnetic effects in drift-Alfvén wave turbulence and the excitation of ion-temperature-anisotropy driven modes such as the mirror and firehose. Supported by NSF and DOE.

  3. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yaoze; Gao, Junying; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Sun, Xiudong; Wu, Jian; Li, Hui; Pu, Shaozhi

    2015-11-01

    Propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in weakly ionized dusty plasmas are the subject of this study. Dielectric relation for EM waves propagating at a weakly ionized dusty plasma is derived based on the Boltzmann distribution law while considering the collision and charging effects of dust grains. The propagation properties of EM energy in dusty plasma of rocket exhaust are numerically calculated and studied, utilizing the parameters of rocket exhaust plasma. Results indicate that increase of dust radius and density enhance the reflection and absorption coefficient. High dust radius and density make the wave hardly transmit through the dusty plasmas. Interaction enhancements between wave and dusty plasmas are developed through effective collision frequency improvements. Numerical results coincide with observed results by indicating that GHz band wave communication is effected by dusty plasma as the presence of dust grains significantly affect propagation of EM waves in the dusty plasmas. The results are helpful to analyze the effect of dust in plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for the experiments.

  4. Fokker-Planck electron diffusion caused by an obliquely propagating electromagnetic wave packet of narrow bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    1989-01-01

    The relativistic motion of electrons in an intense electromagnetic wave packet propagating obliquely to a uniform magnetic field is analytically studied on the basis of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) approach. The wavepacket consists of circularly polarized electron-cyclotron waves. The dynamical system in question is shown to be reducible to one with three degrees of freedom. Within the framework of the Hamiltonian analysis the nonlinear diffusion tensor is derived, and it is shown that this tensor can be separated into zeroth-, first-, and second-order parts with respect to the relative bandwidth. The zeroth-order part describes diffusive acceleration along lines of constant unperturbed Hamiltonian. The second-order part, which corresponds to the longest time scale, describes diffusion across those lines. A possible transport theory is outlined on the basis of this separation of the time scales.

  5. Trapping of high-energy electrons into regime of surfatron acceleration by electromagnetic waves in space plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Erokhin, A. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Milant'ev, V. P.

    2012-05-15

    The phenomenon of trapping of weakly relativistic charged particles (with kinetic energies on the order of mc{sup 2}) into a regime of surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave that propagates in plasma across a weak external magnetic field has been studied using nonlinear numerical calculations based on a solution of the relativistic equations of motion. Analysis showed that, for the wave amplitude above a certain threshold value and the initial wave phase outside the interval favorable for the surfing regime, the trajectory of a charged particle initially corresponds to its cyclotron rotation in the external magnetic field. For the initial particle energies studied, the period of this rotation is relatively short. After a certain number (from several dozen to several thousand and above) of periods of rotation, the wave phase takes a value that is favorable for trapping of the charged particle on its trajectory by the electromagnetic wave, provided the Cherenkov resonance conditions are satisfied. As a result, the wave traps the charged particle and imparts it an ultrarelativistic acceleration. In momentum space, the region of trapping into the regime of surfing on an electromagnetic wave turns out to be rather large.

  6. Explaining Electromagnetic Plane Waves in a Vacuum at the Introductory Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Clark L.; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Flusche, Brian M.; Kiziah, Rex R.; Lee, David J.

    2010-01-01

    A typical introduction to electromagnetic waves in vacuum is illustrated by the following quote from an introductory physics text: "Maxwell's equations predict that an electromagnetic wave consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. The changing fields induce each other, which maintains the propagation of the wave; a changing electric…

  7. Nonlinear waves in nonplanar and nonuniform dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Jukui; Zhang Liping

    2006-02-15

    The nonlinear properties of the dust acoustic solitary wave and shock wave in inhomogeneous nonplanar dusty plasmas are considered theoretically and numerically. The effects of nonthermally distributed ions, nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation, and the inhomogeneity caused by nonuniform equilibrium particle density, nonuniform equilibrium charging, and nonplanar geometry on waves are presented. When {tau}{sub ch}/{tau}{sub d} is small but finite, where {tau}{sub ch} is the charging time scale and {tau}{sub d} is the hydrodynamical time scale, a variable coefficients nonplanar Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) Burgers equation governing the nonlinear waves is derived by the perturbation method. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton and shock wave (both oscillatory and monotone shock) are obtained and the theoretical results are confirmed by the numerical solution of the nonlinear wave equation.

  8. Signatures of Nonlinear Waves in Coronal Plumes and Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    1999-01-01

    In recent Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (UVCS/SOHO) White Light Channel (WLC) observations we found quasi-periodic variations in the polarized brightness (pB) in the polar coronal holes at heliocentric distances of 1.9-2.45 solar radii. The motivation for the observation is the 2.5D Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model of solar wind acceleration by nonlinear waves, that predicts compressive fluctuations in coronal holes. To help identify the waves observed with the UVCS/WLC we model the propagation and dissipation of slow magnetosonic waves in polar plumes using 1D MHD code in spherical geometry, We find that the slow waves nonlinearly steepen in the gravitationally stratified plumes. The nonlinear steepening of the waves leads to enhanced dissipation due to compressive viscosity at the wave-fronts.

  9. Nonlinear hyperbolic theory of thermal waves in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.; Choi, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    A closed-form solution for cylindrical thermal waves in metals is given based on the nonlinear hyperbolic system of energy-conservation and heat-flux relaxation equations. It is shown that heat released from a line source propagates radially outward with finite speed in the form of a thermal wave which exhibits a discontinuous wave front. Unique nonlinear thermal-wave solutions exist up to a critical amount of driving energy, i.e., for larger energy releases, the thermal flow becomes multivalued (occurrence of shock waves). By comparison, it is demonstrated that the parabolic thermal-wave theory gives, in general, a misleading picture of the profile and propagation of thermal waves and leads to physical (infinite speed of heat propagation) and mathematical (divergent energy integrals) difficulties. Attention is drawn to the importance of temporal heat-flux relaxation for the physical understanding of fast transient processes such as thermal waves and more general explosions and implosions.

  10. Dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagation in chiral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M. X.; Guo, B. Peng, L.; Cai, X.

    2014-11-15

    The dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagation in chiral plasmas are derived using a simplified method and investigated in detail. With the help of the dispersion relations for each eignwave, we explore how the chiral plasmas exhibit negative refraction and investigate the frequency region for negative refraction. The results show that chirality can induce negative refraction in plasmas. Moreover, both the degree of chirality and the external magnetic field have a significant effect on the critical frequency and the bandwidth of the frequency for negative refraction in chiral plasmas. The parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed.

  11. Electromagnetic wave method for mapping subterranean earth formations

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.; Fasching, George E.; Balanis, Constantine A.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for remotely mapping subterranean coal beds prior to and during in situ gasification operations. This method is achieved by emplacing highly directional electromagnetic wave transmitters and receivers in bore holes penetrating the coal beds and then mapping the anomalies surrounding each bore hole by selectively rotating and vertically displacing the directional transmitter in a transmitting mode within the bore hole, and thereafter, initiating the gasification of the coal at bore holes separate from those containing the transmitters and receivers and then utilizing the latter for monitoring the burn front as it progresses toward the transmitters and receivers.

  12. Electromagnetic form factors of the Δ with D-waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ramalho, Gilberto T.F.; Pena, Maria Teresa; Gross, Franz L.

    2010-06-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the Δ baryon are evaluated within the framework of a covariant spectator quark model, where S and D-states are included in the Δ wave function. We predict all the four Δ multipole form factors: the electric charge GE0, the magnetic dipole GM1, the electric quadrupole GE2 and the magnetic octupole GM3. We compare our predictions with other theoretical calculations. Our results are compatible with the available experimental data and recent lattice QCD data.

  13. Interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in a stochastic atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatnagar, N.; Frankel, M. S.; Peterson, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic waves where a Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) is operated in a stochastic environment characterized by turbulence, winds and mean-temperature gradients. It has been shown that for a RASS operating at acoustic frequencies below a few kilohertz propagating under typical atmospheric conditions, turbulence has little effect on the strength of the received radio signal scattered from the pulse at heights up to a few kilometers. This result implies that the received RF signal level (power) is primarily a function of sound intensity which decreases as x exp minus 2 where x is the altitude.

  14. Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Román

    2016-09-01

    The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices. PMID:27607498

  15. Electromagnetic plasma wave emissions from the auroral field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The most important types of auroral radio emissions are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the following four types of electromagnetic emissions: auroral hiss, saucers, ELF noise bands, and auroral kilometric radiation. It is shown that the auroral hiss and auroral kilometric radiation are generated along the auroral field lines relatively close to the earth, at radial distances in the range of 2.5-5 earth radii, probably in direct association with auroral-particle acceleration by parallel electric fields. The auroral hiss appears to be generated by amplified Cerenkov radiation. Several mechanisms are proposed for the auroral kilometric radiation, usually involving the intermediate generation of electrostatic waves by the precipitating electrons.

  16. Modeling of electromagnetic E-layer waves before earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Claudia-Veronika; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.

    2013-04-01

    A dielectric model for electromagnetic (EM) waves in the Earth's E-layer is developed. It is assumed that these waves are driven by acoustic-type waves, which are caused by earthquake precursors. The dynamics of the plasma system and the EM waves is described using the multi-component magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The acoustic waves are introduced as neutral gas wind. The momentum transfer between the charged particles in the MHD system is mainly caused via the collisions with the neutral gas. From the MHD system, relations for the velocity fluctuations of the particles are found, which consist of products of the electric field fluctuations times coefficients α which only depend on the plasma background parameters. A quick FORTRAN program is developed, to calculate these coefficients (solution of 9x9-matrix equations). Models of the altitudinal scales of the background plasma parameters and the fluctuations of the plasma parameters and the EM field are introduced. Besides, in case of the electric wave field, a method is obtained to calculate the altitudinal scale ? of the amplitude (based on the Poisson equation and knowing the coefficients α). Finally, a general dispersion relation is found, where α, ? and the altitudinal profile of ? appear as parameters (which were found in the numerical model before). Thus, the dispersion relations of EM waves caused by acoustic-type ones during times of seismic activity may be studied numerically. Besides, an expression for the related temperature fluctuations is derived, which depends on the dispersion of the excited EM waves, α, ? and the background plasma parameters. So, heating processes in the atmosphere may be investigated.

  17. Conversion of electrostatic plasma waves into electromagnetic waves - Numerical calculation of the dispersion relation for all wavelengths.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oya, H.

    1971-01-01

    The dispersion curves have been computed for a wide range of wavelengths from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves in a magnetoactive warm plasma with a Maxwellian velocity distribution function. The computation was carried out mainly for the perpendicular propagation mode. The upper hybrid resonance is the connection point of the electrostatic waves and the electromagnetic waves. The electrostatic waves not associated with the upper hybrid resonance are subjected to electron cyclotron damping when the wavelength becomes long. Oblique propagation is allowed for the electrostatic waves in a frequency range from the plasma frequency to the upper hybrid resonance frequency in the long-wavelength region where Landau damping can be neglected and where the electrostatic mode smoothly connects to the electromagnetic X-mode. In a slightly inhomogeneous plasma, the Bernstein-mode electrostatic wave can escape by being converted into the O-mode electromagnetic wave; two reflections take place during this escape process.

  18. An energy- and charge-conserving, nonlinearly implicit, electromagnetic particle-in-cell algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangye; Chacon, Luis; Knoll, Dana; Daughton, William; CoCoMans (LANL) Team

    2013-10-01

    A recent proof-of-principle study proposes a nonlinear electrostatic implicit particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in one dimension. The algorithm employs a kinetically enslaved Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method, and conserves energy and charge to numerical round-off. In this study, we generalize the method to electromagnetic simulations in 1D using the Darwin approximation of Maxwell's equations. An implicit, orbit-averaged central finite difference scheme is applied to both the Darwin field equations and the particle orbit equations to produce a discrete system that remains exactly charge-and energy-conserving. Furthermore, the canonical momentum in any ignorable direction is exactly conserved per particle by appropriate interpolations of the magnetic field. A fluid preconditioner targeting the stiffest electron waves has been developed to accelerate the linear GMRES solver of JFNK. We present 1D numerical experiments (e.g. the Weibel instability, kinetic Alfven wave ion-ion streaming instability, etc.) to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the implicit Darwin PIC algorithm, and the performance of the fluid preconditioner.

  19. Nonlinear Breit-Wheeler process in the collision of a photon with two plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuan-Bin; Xue, She-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    The nonlinear Breit-Wheeler process of electron-positron pair production off a probe photon colliding with a low-frequency and a high-frequency electromagnetic wave that propagate in the same direction is analyzed. We calculate the pair-production probability and the spectra of the created pair in the nonlinear Breit-Wheeler processes of pair production off a probe photon colliding with two plane waves or one of these two plane waves. The differences of these two cases are discussed. We evidently show, in the two-wave case, the possibility of Breit-Wheeler pair production with simultaneous photon emission into the low-frequency wave and the high multiphoton phenomena: (i) Breit-Wheeler pair production by absorption of the probe photon and a large number of photons from the low-frequency wave, in addition to the absorption of one photon from the high-frequency wave; (ii) Breit-Wheeler pair production by absorption of the probe photon and one photon from the high-frequency wave with simultaneous emission of a large number of photons into the low-frequency wave. The phenomenon of photon emission into the wave cannot happen in the one-wave case. Compared with the one-wave case, the contributions from high multiphoton processes are largely enhanced in the two-wave case. The results presented in this article show a possible way to access the observations of the phenomenon of photon emission into the wave and high multiphoton phenomenon in Breit-Wheeler pair production even with the laser-beam intensity of order 1018 W/cm2.

  20. Klein tunneling and supercollimation of pseudospin-1 electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, A.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Louie, Steven G.; Chan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudospin plays a central role in many novel physical properties of graphene and other artificial systems which have pseudospins of 1 /2 . Here we show that in certain photonic crystals (PCs) exhibiting conical dispersions at k =0 , the eigenmodes near the "Dirac-like point" can be described by an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian with a higher dimension value S =1 , treating the wave propagation in positive index (upper cone), negative index (lower cone), and zero index (flat band) media within a unified framework. The three-component spinor gives rise to boundary conditions distinct from those of pseudospin 1 /2 , leading to wave transport behaviors as manifested in super Klein tunneling and supercollimation. For example, collimation can be realized more easily with pseudospin 1 than pseudospin 1 /2 . The effective medium description of the PCs allows us to further understand the physics of pseudospin-1 electromagnetic (EM) waves from the perspective of complementary materials. The special wave scattering properties of pseudospin-1 EM waves, in conjunction with the discovery that the effective photonic potential can be varied by a simple change of length scale, offer ways to control photon transport. As a useful platform to study pseudospin-1 physics, dielectric PCs are much easier to fabricate and characterize than ultracold atom systems proposed previously. The system also provides a platform to realize the concept of "complementary medium" using dielectric materials and has the unique advantage of low loss.

  1. Nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves in electron-positron plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, I. J.; Bharuthram, R.; Moolla, S.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2016-02-01

    The generation of nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) is explored in a magnetized four component two-temperature electron-positron plasma. Fluid theory is used to derive a set of nonlinear equations for the ESWs, which propagate obliquely to an external magnetic field. The electric field structures are examined for various plasma parameters and are shown to yield sinusoidal, sawtooth and bipolar waveforms. It is found that an increase in the densities of the electrons and positrons strengthen the nonlinearity while the periodicity and nonlinearity of the wave increases as the cool-to-hot temperature ratio increases. Our results could be useful in understanding nonlinear propagation of waves in astrophysical environments and related laboratory experiments.

  2. Variational principle for nonlinear wave propagation in dissipative systems.

    PubMed

    Dierckx, Hans; Verschelde, Henri

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of many natural systems is dominated by nonlinear waves propagating through the medium. We show that in any extended system that supports nonlinear wave fronts with positive surface tension, the asymptotic wave-front dynamics can be formulated as a gradient system, even when the underlying evolution equations for the field variables cannot be written as a gradient system. The variational potential is simply given by a linear combination of the occupied volume and surface area of the wave front and changes monotonically over time. PMID:26986334

  3. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  4. Late-time attractor for the cubic nonlinear wave equation

    SciTech Connect

    Szpak, Nikodem

    2010-08-15

    We apply our recently developed scaling technique for obtaining late-time asymptotics to the cubic nonlinear wave equation and explain the appearance and approach to the two-parameter attractor found recently by Bizon and Zenginoglu.

  5. Stability of strong electromagnetic waves in overdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeiras, F. J.

    1982-04-01

    The paper considers the stability against small perturbations of a class of exact wave solutions of the equations that describe an unmagnetized relativistic cold electron plasma. The main feature of these nonlinear waves is a transverse circularly polarized electric field with periodic amplitude modulation in the longitudinal direction. Floquet's theory of linear differential equations with periodic coefficients is used to solve the perturbation equations and obtain the instability growth rates. Both an approximate solution for small modulation depth and a numerical treatment for arbitrary depth are presented. It is shown that the well-known small-wavenumber instability of the purely transverse circularly polarized waves of constant amplitude is reduced as the modulation depth increases from zero to its maximum allowed value.

  6. Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Felix; Lünenschloss, Peter; Mai, Juliane; Wagner, Norman; Töpfer, Hannes; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections. Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric

  7. Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Felix; Wagner, Norman; Lünenschloß, Peter; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter; Kaliorias, Andreas; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric

  8. Capillary waves in the subcritical nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyreff, G.

    2010-01-15

    We expand recent results on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with cubic-quintic nonlinearity to show that some solutions are described by the Bernoulli equation in the presence of surface tension. As a consequence, capillary waves are predicted and found numerically at the interface between regions of large and low amplitude.

  9. Non-linear interaction of elastic waves in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Smit, T. J. H.; Campman, X. H.

    2013-09-01

    We study theoretically the interaction of elastic waves caused by non-linearities of rock elastic moduli, and assess the possibility to use this phenomenon in hydrocarbon exploration and in the analysis of rock samples. In our calculations we use the five-constant model by Gol'dberg. It is shown that the interaction of plane waves in isotropic solids is completely described by five coupling coefficients, which have the same order of magnitude. By considering scattering of compressional waves generated by controlled sources at the Earth surface from a non-linear layer at the subsurface, we conclude that non-linear signals from deep formations are unlikely to be measured with the current level of technology. Our analysis of field tests where non-linear signals were measured, suggests that these signals are generated either in the shallow subsurface or in the vicinity of sources. Non-linear wave interaction might be observable in lab tests with focused ultrasonic beams. In this case, the non-linear response is generated in the secondary parametric array formed by linear beams scattered from inclusions. Although the strength of this response is controlled by non-linearity of the surrounding medium rather than by non-linearity of inclusions, its measurement can help to obtain better images of rock samples.

  10. Effects of chorus, hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves on radiation belt dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Wave-particle interactions are known to play an important role in the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons, and in the heating and loss of ring current ions. The effectiveness of each wave type on radiation belt dynamics depends on the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere and the properties of the waves which vary considerably with magnetic local time, radial distance and latitude. Furthermore the interaction of the waves with the particles is usually nonlinear. These factors present a major challenge to test and verify the theories. Here we discuss the role of several types of waves, including whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, in relation to radiation belt and ring current dynamics. We present simulations of the radiation belts using the BAS radiation belt model which includes the effects of chorus, hiss and EMIC waves along with radial diffusion. We show that chorus waves are required to form the peaks in the electron phase space density during storms, and that this occurs inside geostationary orbit. We compare simulations against observations in medium Earth orbit and the new results from Van Allen probes mission that shows conclusive evidence for a local electron acceleration process near L=4.5. We show the relative importance of plasmaspheric hiss and chorus and the location of the plasmapause for radiation belt dynamics near L=4.5 and demonstrate the losses due to EMIC waves that should occur at high energies. Finally we show how improving our basic physical understanding through missions such as Van Allen probes go to improve space weather forecasting in projects such as SPACECAST and have a direct benefit to society.

  11. Persistent subplasma-frequency kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear waves

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, T. W.; Tyshetskiy, Y.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.

    2009-04-15

    Driving a one-dimensional collisionless Maxwellian (Vlasov) plasma with a sufficiently strong longitudinal ponderomotive driver for a sufficiently long time results in a self-sustaining nonsinusoidal wave train with well-trapped electrons even for frequencies well below the plasma frequency, i.e., in the plasma wave spectral gap. Typical phase velocities of these waves are somewhat above the electron thermal velocity. This new nonlinear wave is being termed a kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) wave. The drive duration must exceed the bounce period {tau}{sub B} of the trapped electrons subject to the drive, as calculated from the drive force and the linear plasma response to the drive. For a given wavenumber a wide range of KEEN wave frequencies can be readily excited. The basic KEEN structure is essentially kinetic, with the trapped electron density variation being almost completely shielded by the free electrons, leaving just enough net charge to support the wave.

  12. Nonlinear slow magnetoacoustic waves in coronal plasma structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, A. N.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. There is abundant observational evidence of longitudinal waves in the plasma structures of the solar corona. These essentially compressive waves are confidently interpreted as slow magnetoacoustic waves. The use of the slow waves in plasma diagnostics and estimating their possible contribution to plasma heating and acceleration require detailed theoretical modelling. Aims: We investigate the role of obliqueness and magnetic effects in the evolution of slow magnetoacoustic waves, also called tube waves, in field-aligned plasma structures. Special attention is paid to the wave damping caused by nonlinear steepening. Methods: We considered an untwisted straight axisymmetric field-aligned plasma cylinder and analysed the behaviour of the slow magnetoacoustic waves that are guided by this plasma structure. We adopted a thin flux tube approximation. We took into account dissipation caused by viscosity, resistivity and thermal conduction, and nonlinearity. Effects of stratification and dispersion caused by the finite radius of the flux tube were neglected. Results: We derive the Burgers-type evolutionary equation for tube waves in a uniform plasma cylinder. Compared with a plane acoustic wave, the formation of shock fronts in tube waves is found to occur at a larger distance from the source. In addition, tube waves experience stronger damping. These effects are most pronounced in plasmas with the parameter β at about or greater than unity. In a low-β plasma, the evolution of tube waves can satisfactorily be described with the Burgers equation for plane acoustic waves. Conclusions:

  13. Nonlinear spin-wave excitations at low magnetic bias fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltersdorf, Georg

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the nonlinear magnetization dynamics in magnetic films at low magnetic bias fields. Nonlinear magnetization dynamics is essential for the operation of numerous spintronic devices ranging from magnetic memory to spin torque microwave generators. Examples are microwave-assisted switching of magnetic structures and the generation of spin currents at low bias fields by high-amplitude ferromagnetic resonance. In the experiments we use X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to determine the number density of excited magnons in magnetically soft Ni80Fe20 thin films. Our data show that the common Suhl instability model of nonlinear ferromagnetic resonance is not adequate for the description of the nonlinear behavior in the low magnetic field limit. Here we derive a model of parametric spin-wave excitation, which correctly predicts nonlinear threshold amplitudes and decay rates at high and at low magnetic bias fields. In fact, a series of critical spin-wave modes with fast oscillations of the amplitude and phase is found, generalizing the theory of parametric spin-wave excitation to large modulation amplitudes. For these modes, we also find pronounced frequency locking effects that may be used for synchronization purposes in magnonic devices. By using this effect, effective spin-wave sources based on parametric spin-wave excitation may be realized. Our results also show that it is not required to invoke a wave vector-dependent damping parameter in the interpretation of nonlinear magnetic resonance experiments performed at low bias fields.

  14. Instabilities in nonlinear internal waves on the Washington continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang; Alford, Matthew H.

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have identified two primary mechanisms (shear instability and convective instability) by which nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) induce mixing on continental shelves. To determine the relative importance of these and their dependence on background flow conditions, we examine a much longer (6 month) data set from a moored ADCP/thermistor chain with 2 m vertical spacing in which over 600 NLIWs are detected. Turbulent properties of the 318 waves with detectable overturning instabilities are documented using Thorpe scales. The 130 waves detected while an ADCP was functioning are classified based on a Froude number criterion (Fr = uc, where u is velocity in the wave propagation direction, c is the wave phase speed). Of these, 108 waves are identified as shear-instability (Type I; Fr < 1) waves and 22 as convective instability (Type II; Fr > 1). Composites are constructed by averaging in a wave coordinate frame over all waves in each category, showing the mean spatial structure of dissipation and other wave quantities. Turbulence is highest at the sheared interface for Type I waves and throughout the wave core for Type II waves. No relationship between wave instability mechanisms and wave/background parameters such as wave steepness, stratification, or mean flow is found, except that unstable waves tend to be more energetic, demonstrating a need to better understand wave propagation and breaking in complex and variable coastal oceanographic background flows.

  15. Nonlinear upper hybrid waves and the induced density irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-08-15

    Upper hybrid waves are excited parametrically by the O-mode high-frequency heater waves in the ionospheric heating experiments. These waves grow to large amplitudes and self-induced density perturbations provide nonlinear feedback. The lower hybrid resonance modifies the nonlinear feedback driven by the ponderomotive force; the nonlinear equation governing the envelope of the upper hybrid waves is derived. Solutions in symmetric alternating functions, in non-alternating periodic functions, as well as in solitary functions are shown. The impact of lower hybrid resonance on the envelope of the upper hybrid waves is explored; the results show that both the spatial period and amplitude are enlarged. The average fluctuation level of induced density irregularities is also enhanced. In the soliton form, the induced density cavity is widened considerably.

  16. Nonlinear electron acoustic waves in presence of shear magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Manjistha; Khan, Manoranjan; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-12-15

    Nonlinear electron acoustic waves are studied in a quasineutral plasma in the presence of a variable magnetic field. The fluid model is used to describe the dynamics of two temperature electron species in a stationary positively charged ion background. Linear analysis of the governing equations manifests dispersion relation of electron magneto sonic wave. Whereas, nonlinear wave dynamics is being investigated by introducing Lagrangian variable method in long wavelength limit. It is shown from finite amplitude analysis that the nonlinear wave characteristics are well depicted by KdV equation. The wave dispersion arising in quasineutral plasma is induced by transverse magnetic field component. The results are discussed in the context of plasma of Earth's magnetosphere.

  17. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere with a losscone proton distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Satyavir; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2016-07-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are studied in the inner magnetospheric plasma. The plasma is assumed to have five components, i.e., electrons, cold and hot protons, singly charged helium and oxygen ions. The hot protons are assumed to have an anisotropic losscone distribution particle distribution. The numerical results are obtained using KUPDAP (Kyoto University Plasma Dispersion Analysis Package), a full dispersion solver developed at Kyoto University. The hot plasma dispersion relation and polarizations of EMIC waves in oblique propagation are very complex. Although we find that nonlinear wave growth process is dominant near the equatorial region generating EMIC rising tone emissions, the propagation characteristics of the emissions such as linear growth/damping rates, variation of polarizations, and Poynting vectors in the presence of energetic protons have not been studied quantitatively.The growth/damping of oxygen, helium, and proton bands and higher harmonics of the EMIC waves are studied. The findings from our model are applied to EMIC wave observations in the inner magnetosphere by the Cluster spacecraft.

  18. A New Acoustic Lens Design for Electromagnetic Shock Wave Lithotripters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Pei; Smith, Nathan; Simmons, Neal W.; Sankin, Georgy

    2011-09-01

    The 3rd-generation electromagnetic (EM) shock wave lithotripters often have narrow focal width and high peak pressure compared to the original Dornier HM-3. In addition, the pressure waveform produced by a typical EM lithotripter has a secondary compressive wave following the tensile component that suppresses lithotripter pulse induced cavitation, which may impact negatively on stone comminution. These characteristic changes in the modern EM lithotripters may contribute in part to their reduced effectiveness observed clinically. To overcome these two drawbacks, we have designed a new acoustic lens for the Siemens Modularis EM lithotripter that produces an idealized pressure waveform similar to that of the HM-3 with broad focal width and low peak pressure. At acoustic pulse energy of 53 mJ, the new lens design enlarges the -6 dB focal width of the Modularis by 47% while significantly reducing the second compressive wave in the lithotripter pulse throughout its focal plane. After 2000 shocks, in vitro comminution produced by the original and new lens designs are 100% and 99% at the lithotripter focus, and 52±16% and 77±8% (p<0.001) at 10 mm off axis, respectively. Corresponding values for stones that are translated to mimic respiratory motion during shock wave lithotripsy are 83±4% and 91±1% (p<0.01), demonstrating the significant performance improvement provided by the new lens design.

  19. Perturbation approach to dispersion curves calculation for nonlinear Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Leamy, Michael J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of elastic wave propagation in nonlinear media has gained recent research attention due to the recognition of their amplitude-dependent behavior. This creates opportunities for increased accuracy of damage detection and localization, development of new structural monitoring strategies, and design of new structures with desirable acoustic behavior (e.g., amplitude-dependent frequency bandgaps, wave beaming, and filtering). This differs from more traditional nonlinear analysis approaches which target the prediction of higher harmonic growth. Of particular interest in this work is the analysis of amplitude-dependent shifts in Lamb wave dispersion curves. Typically, dispersion curves are calculated for nominally linear material parameters and geometrical features of a waveguide, even when the constitutive law is nonlinear. Instead, this work employs a Lindstedt - Poincare perturbation approach to calculate amplitude-dependent dispersion curves, and shifts thereof, for nonlinearly-elastic plates. As a result, a set of first order corrections to frequency (or equivalently wavenumber) are calculated. These corrections yield significant amplitude dependence in the spectral characteristics of the calculated waves, especially for high frequency waves, which differs fundamentally from linear analyses. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical shifts predicted. Recognition of this amplitude-dependence in Lamb wave dispersion may suggest, among other things, that the analysis of guided wave propagation phenomena within a fully nonlinear framework needs to revisit mode-mode energy flux and higher harmonics generation conditions.

  20. Nonlinear waves in an array of zigzag waveguides with alternating positive and negative refractive indices

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantseva, E V; Maimistov, A I

    2013-09-30

    Interaction of coupled waves propagating in a system of waveguides with alternating positive and negative refractive indices is studied theoretically. The zigzag configuration of the waveguides in the array allows communication not only between the nearest neighbours, but also with the waveguides beyond them. It is shown that the spectrum of linear waves in such a waveguide system has a bandgap. Partial solutions are found to the system of coupled waves corresponding to a stationary electromagnetic field pulse that propagates along the array of tunnel-coupled waveguides as a whole. Investigation of the interaction of nonlinear solitary waves has demonstrated numerically the stability of their relatively weak disturbances and collisions with each other. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

  1. Excitation of zonal flow and magnetic field by Rossby-Khantadze electromagnetic planetary waves in the ionospheric E-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaladze, T. D.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of Rossby-Khantadze electromagnetic planetary waves in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer is investigated. Along with the prevalent effect of Hall conductivity for these waves, the latitudinal inhomogeneity of both the Earth's angular velocity and the geomagnetic field becomes essential. It is shown that such short wavelength turbulence of Rossby-Khantadze waves is unstable with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbations of the zonal flow and magnetic field. The nonlinear mechanism of the instability is driven by the advection of vorticity, leading to the inverse energy cascade toward the longer wavelength. The growth rate of the corresponding instability is found. It is shown that the generation of the intense mean magnetic field is caused by the latitudinal gradient of the geomagnetic field.

  2. Switchable nonlinear metasurfaces for absorbing high power surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghoon; Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Rushton, Jeremiah J.; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept of a nonlinear metamaterial that provides power dependent absorption of incident surface waves. The metasurface includes nonlinear circuits which transform it from a low loss to high loss state when illuminated with high power waves. The proposed surface allows low power signals to propagate but strongly absorbs high power signals. It can potentially be used on enclosures for electric devices to protest against damage. We experimentally verify that the nonlinear metasurface has two distinct states controlled by the incoming signal power. We also demonstrate that it inhibits the propagation of large signals and dramatically decreases the field that is leaked through an opening in a conductive enclosure.

  3. Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities and Electromagnetic Wave Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Rose, D.; Paraschiv, I.

    2015-11-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At midlatitudes, such space weather events are caused mainly by subauroral electric field structures (SAID/SAPS) SAID/SAPS -related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite low-resolution data during UHF/GPS L-band subauroral scintillation events. These types of density irregularities play important roles in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the Earth's ionosphere, inside the plasma sheath of reentry and hypersonic vehicles, and in many other applications.

  4. Propagation of flexural waves in inhomogeneous plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear acoustic black holes.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. PMID:25937493

  5. Travelling waves in nonlinear magneto-inductive lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agaoglou, M.; Fečkan, M.; Pospíšil, M.; Rothos, V. M.; Susanto, H.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a lattice equation modelling one-dimensional metamaterials formed by a discrete array of nonlinear resonators. We focus on periodic travelling waves due to the presence of a periodic force. The existence and uniqueness results of periodic travelling waves of the system are presented. Our analytical results are found to be in good agreement with direct numerical computations.

  6. Exact Nonlinear Internal Equatorial Waves in the f-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu

    2016-07-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations for internal geophysical water waves propagating westward above the thermocline in the f-plane approximation near the equator. Moreover, the mass transport velocity induced by this internal equatorial wave is eastward and a westward current occurs in the transition zone between the great depth where the water is still and the thermocline.

  7. Nonlinear isothermal waves in a degenerate electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, A. E.; Dubinova, A. A.

    2008-05-15

    A nonlinear differential equation describing oscillations of the chemical potential in a one-dimensional steady-state wave propagating in a degenerate electron gas against an immobile neutralizing ion background is derived, investigated, and solved exactly. It is found that the wave phase velocity is bounded below by a critical velocity, whose exact value is obtained.

  8. Nonlinear electromagnetic self-duality and Legendre transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.; Zumino, B.

    1997-12-09

    We discuss continuous duality transformations and the properties of classical theories with invariant interactions between electromagnetic fields and matter. The case of scalar fields is treated in some detail. Special discrete elements of the continuous group are shown to be related to the Legendre transformation with respect to the field strengths.

  9. Nonlinear wave propagation in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

    PubMed

    Veeresha, B M; Tiwari, S K; Sen, A; Kaw, P K; Das, A

    2010-03-01

    The nonlinear propagation of low-frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is studied theoretically in the framework of the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. A set of simplified model nonlinear equations are derived from the original nonlinear integrodifferential form of the GH model by employing an appropriate physical ansatz. Using standard perturbation techniques characteristic evolution equations for finite small amplitude waves are then obtained in various propagation regimes. The influence of viscoelastic properties arising from dust correlation contributions on the nature of nonlinear solutions is discussed. The modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbation is also examined and it is shown that dust compressibility contributions influenced by the Coulomb coupling effects introduce significant modification in the threshold and range of the instability domain. PMID:20365882

  10. Nonlinear wave propagation in strongly coupled dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Veeresha, B. M.; Tiwari, S. K.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.; Das, A.

    2010-03-15

    The nonlinear propagation of low-frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is studied theoretically in the framework of the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. A set of simplified model nonlinear equations are derived from the original nonlinear integrodifferential form of the GH model by employing an appropriate physical ansatz. Using standard perturbation techniques characteristic evolution equations for finite small amplitude waves are then obtained in various propagation regimes. The influence of viscoelastic properties arising from dust correlation contributions on the nature of nonlinear solutions is discussed. The modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbation is also examined and it is shown that dust compressibility contributions influenced by the Coulomb coupling effects introduce significant modification in the threshold and range of the instability domain.

  11. Nonlinear spin-wave excitations at low magnetic bias fields

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Hans G.; Majchrak, Peter; Kachel, Torsten; Back, Christian H.; Woltersdorf, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear magnetization dynamics is essential for the operation of numerous spintronic devices ranging from magnetic memory to spin torque microwave generators. Examples are microwave-assisted switching of magnetic structures and the generation of spin currents at low bias fields by high-amplitude ferromagnetic resonance. Here we use X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to determine the number density of excited magnons in magnetically soft Ni80Fe20 thin films. Our data show that the common model of nonlinear ferromagnetic resonance is not adequate for the description of the nonlinear behaviour in the low magnetic field limit. Here we derive a model of parametric spin-wave excitation, which correctly predicts nonlinear threshold amplitudes and decay rates at high and at low magnetic bias fields. In fact, a series of critical spin-wave modes with fast oscillations of the amplitude and phase is found, generalizing the theory of parametric spin-wave excitation to large modulation amplitudes. PMID:26374256

  12. Nonlinear current response of a d-wave superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, T.; Scalapino, D. J.

    1999-11-01

    Despite several efforts the nonlinear Meissner effect in d-wave superconductors, as has been discussed by Yip and Sauls in 1992, has not been verified experimentally in high-Tc superconductors at present. Here, we reinvestigate the nonlinear response expected in a d-wave superconductor. While the linear \\|H-->\\| field dependence of the penetration depth, predicted by Yip and Sauls, is restricted by the lower critical field and can be masked by nonlocal effects, we argue that the upturn of the nonlinear coefficient of the quadratic field dependence is more stable and remains observable over a broader range of parameters. We investigate this by studying the influence of nonmagnetic impurities on the nonlinear response. We discuss the difficulties of observing this intrinsic d-wave signature in present day high-Tc films and single crystals.

  13. Nonlinear waves in PT -symmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konotop, Vladimir V.; Yang, Jianke; Zezyulin, Dmitry A.

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress on nonlinear properties of parity-time (PT )-symmetric systems is comprehensively reviewed in this article. PT symmetry started out in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, where complex potentials obeying PT symmetry could exhibit all-real spectra. This concept later spread out to optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, electronic circuits, and many other physical fields, where a judicious balancing of gain and loss constitutes a PT -symmetric system. The natural inclusion of nonlinearity into these PT systems then gave rise to a wide array of new phenomena which have no counterparts in traditional dissipative systems. Examples include the existence of continuous families of nonlinear modes and integrals of motion, stabilization of nonlinear modes above PT -symmetry phase transition, symmetry breaking of nonlinear modes, distinctive soliton dynamics, and many others. In this article, nonlinear PT -symmetric systems arising from various physical disciplines are presented, nonlinear properties of these systems are thoroughly elucidated, and relevant experimental results are described. In addition, emerging applications of PT symmetry are pointed out.

  14. An Efficient Vector Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Electromagnetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A C; White, D A; Rodrigue, G H

    2006-06-27

    We have developed a mixed Vector Finite Element Method (VFEM) for Maxwell's equations with a nonlinear polarization term. The method allows for discretization of complicated geometries with arbitrary order representations of the B and E fields. In this paper we will describe the method and a series of optimizations that significantly reduce the computational cost. Additionally, a series of test simulations will be presented to validate the method. Finally, a nonlinear waveguide mode mixing example is presented and discussed.

  15. Relativistic nonlinear plasma waves in a magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Pellat, R.

    1975-01-01

    Five relativistic plane nonlinear waves were investigated: circularly polarized waves and electrostatic plasma oscillations propagating parallel to the magnetic field, relativistic Alfven waves, linearly polarized transverse waves propagating in zero magnetic field, and the relativistic analog of the extraordinary mode propagating at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field. When the ions are driven relativistic, they behave like electrons, and the assumption of an 'electron-positron' plasma leads to equations which have the form of a one-dimensional potential well. The solutions indicate that a large-amplitude superluminous wave determines the average plasma properties.

  16. Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions to some nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiefang Zhang

    1996-08-01

    Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions are obtained for some physically interesting nonlinear evolutions and wave equations in physics and other fields by using a special transformation. These equations include the KdV-Burgers equation, the MKdV-Burgers equation, the combined KdV-MKdV equation, the Newell-Whitehead equation, the dissipative {Phi}{sup 4}-model equation, the generalized Fisher equation, and the elastic-medium wave equation.

  17. Nonlinear periodic space-charge waves in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, V. A.

    2009-05-15

    A solution is obtained in the form of coupled nonlinear periodic space-charge waves propagating in a magnetoactive plasma. The wave spectrum in the vicinity of the critical point, where the number of harmonics increases substantially, is found to fall with harmonic number as {proportional_to} s{sup -1/3}. Periodic space-charge waves are invoked to explain the zebra pattern in the radio emission from solar flares.

  18. Localized Nonlinear Waves in Systems with Time- and Space-Modulated Nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym; Konotop, Vladimir V.

    2008-04-25

    Using similarity transformations we construct explicit nontrivial solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equations with potentials and nonlinearities depending both on time and on the spatial coordinates. We present the general theory and use it to calculate explicitly nontrivial solutions such as periodic (breathers), resonant, or quasiperiodically oscillating solitons. Some implications to the field of matter waves are also discussed.

  19. Modelization of highly nonlinear waves in coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The proposed work deals with the development of a highly non-linear model for water wave propagation in coastal regions. The accurate modelization of surface gravity waves is of major interest in ocean engineering, especially in the field of marine renewable energy. These marine structures are intended to be settled in coastal regions where the effect of variable bathymetry may be significant on local wave conditions. This study presents a numerical model for the wave propagation with complex bathymetry. It is based on High-Order Spectral (HOS) method, initially limited to the propagation of non-linear wave fields over flat bottom. Such a model has been developed and validated at the LHEEA Lab. (Ecole Centrale Nantes) over the past few years and the current developments will enlarge its application range. This new numerical model will keep the interesting numerical properties of the original pseudo-spectral approach (convergence, efficiency with the use of FFTs, …) and enable the possibility to propagate highly non-linear wave fields over long time and large distance. Different validations will be provided in addition to the presentation of the method. At first, Bragg reflection will be studied with the proposed approach. If the Bragg condition is satisfied, the reflected wave generated by a sinusoidal bottom patch should be amplified as a result of resonant quadratic interactions between incident wave and bottom. Comparisons will be provided with experiments and reference solutions. Then, the method will be used to consider the transformation of a non-linear monochromatic wave as it propagates up and over a submerged bar. As the waves travel up the front slope of the bar, it steepens and high harmonics are generated due to non-linear interactions. Comparisons with experimental data will be provided. The different test cases will assess the accuracy and efficiency of the method proposed.

  20. Propagation of electromagnetic wave in dusty plasma and the influence of dust size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Yuan, Chengxun

    2016-07-01

    The effect of charged dust particle and their size distribution on the propagation of electromagnetic wave in a dusty plasma is investigated. It is shown that the additional collision mechanism provided by charged dust particles can significantly alter the electromagnetic properties of a plasma, leading to the appearance of attenuation of electromagnetic wave through dusty plasma. The attenuation coefficient mainly depends on the dust density, radius, and the charge numbers on the dust surface. The results described here will be used to enhance understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation processed in space and laboratory dusty plasma.

  1. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, L. K.; Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Klecker, B.; Omidi, N.; Isenberg, P. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A.; Blanco-Cano, X.

    2014-05-10

    Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.

  2. Nonlinear evolution of high frequency R-mode waves excited by water group ions near comets - Computer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1989-01-01

    An ion beam resonates with R-mode waves at a high-frequency RH mode and a low-frequency RL mode. The nonlinear evolution of ion beam-generated RH waves is studied here by one-dimensional hybrid computer experiments. Both wave-particle and subsequent wave-wave interactions are examined. The competing process among coexisting RH and RL mode beam instabilities and repeated decay instabilities triggered by the beam-excited RH mode waves is clarified. It is found that the quenching of the RH instability is not caused by a thermal spreading of the ion beam, but by the nonlinear wave-wave coupling process. The growing RH waves become unstable against the decay instability. This instability involves a backward-traveling RH electromagnetic wave and a forward-traveling longitudinal sound wave. The inverse cascading process is found to occur faster than the growth of the RL mode. Wave spectra decaying from the RH waves weaken as time elapses and the RL mode waves become dominant at the end of the computer experiment.

  3. Particle-Wave Micro-Dynamics in Nonlinear Self-Excited Dust Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.-Y.; Teng, L.-W.; Liao, C.-T.; I Lin

    2008-09-07

    The large amplitude dust acoustic wave can be self-excited in a low-pressure dusty plasma. In the wave, the nonlinear wave-particle interaction determines particle motion, which in turn determines the waveform and wave propagation. In this work, the above behaviors are investigated by directly tracking particle motion through video-microscopy. A Lagrangian picture for the wave dynamics is constructed. The wave particle interaction associated with the transition from ordered to disordered particle oscillation, the wave crest trapping and wave heating are demonstrated and discussed.

  4. Rogue wave solutions for a generalized nonautonomous nonlinear equation in a nonlinear inhomogeneous fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xi-Yang; Tian, Bo; Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Ya; Jiang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate a generalized nonautonomous nonlinear equation which describes the ultrashort optical pulse propagating in a nonlinear inhomogeneous fiber. By virtue of the generalized Darboux transformation, the first- and second-order rogue-wave solutions for the generalized nonautonomous nonlinear equation are obtained, under some variable-coefficient constraints. Properties of the first- and second-order rogue waves are graphically presented and analyzed: When the coefficients are all chosen as the constants, we can observe the some functions, the shapes of wave crests and troughs for the first- and second-order rogue waves change. Oscillating behaviors of the first- and second-order rogue waves are observed when the coefficients are the trigonometric functions.

  5. Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Xu, He-Xiu; Sun, Shulin; Tang, Shiwei; Ma, Shaojie; He, Qiong; Wang, Guang-Ming; Cai, Tong; Li, Hai-Peng; Zhou, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the polarization states of electromagnetic (EM) waves, a fundamental issue in optics, attracted intensive attention recently. However, most of the devices realized so far are either too bulky in size, and/or are passive with only specific functionalities. Here we combine theory and experiment to demonstrate that, a tunable metasurface incorporating diodes as active elements can dynamically control the reflection phase of EM waves, and thus exhibits unprecedented capabilities to manipulate the helicity of incident circular-polarized (CP) EM wave. By controlling the bias voltages imparted on the embedded diodes, we demonstrate that the device can work in two distinct states. Whereas in the “On” state, the metasurface functions as a helicity convertor and a helicity hybridizer within two separate frequency bands, it behaves as a helicity keeper within an ultra-wide frequency band in the “Off” state. Our findings pave the way to realize functionality-switchable devices related to phase control, such as frequency-tunable subwavelength cavities, anomalous reflectors and even holograms. PMID:27272350

  6. Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He-Xiu; Sun, Shulin; Tang, Shiwei; Ma, Shaojie; He, Qiong; Wang, Guang-Ming; Cai, Tong; Li, Hai-Peng; Zhou, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Manipulating the polarization states of electromagnetic (EM) waves, a fundamental issue in optics, attracted intensive attention recently. However, most of the devices realized so far are either too bulky in size, and/or are passive with only specific functionalities. Here we combine theory and experiment to demonstrate that, a tunable metasurface incorporating diodes as active elements can dynamically control the reflection phase of EM waves, and thus exhibits unprecedented capabilities to manipulate the helicity of incident circular-polarized (CP) EM wave. By controlling the bias voltages imparted on the embedded diodes, we demonstrate that the device can work in two distinct states. Whereas in the “On” state, the metasurface functions as a helicity convertor and a helicity hybridizer within two separate frequency bands, it behaves as a helicity keeper within an ultra-wide frequency band in the “Off” state. Our findings pave the way to realize functionality-switchable devices related to phase control, such as frequency-tunable subwavelength cavities, anomalous reflectors and even holograms.

  7. Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, He-Xiu; Sun, Shulin; Tang, Shiwei; Ma, Shaojie; He, Qiong; Wang, Guang-Ming; Cai, Tong; Li, Hai-Peng; Zhou, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the polarization states of electromagnetic (EM) waves, a fundamental issue in optics, attracted intensive attention recently. However, most of the devices realized so far are either too bulky in size, and/or are passive with only specific functionalities. Here we combine theory and experiment to demonstrate that, a tunable metasurface incorporating diodes as active elements can dynamically control the reflection phase of EM waves, and thus exhibits unprecedented capabilities to manipulate the helicity of incident circular-polarized (CP) EM wave. By controlling the bias voltages imparted on the embedded diodes, we demonstrate that the device can work in two distinct states. Whereas in the "On" state, the metasurface functions as a helicity convertor and a helicity hybridizer within two separate frequency bands, it behaves as a helicity keeper within an ultra-wide frequency band in the "Off" state. Our findings pave the way to realize functionality-switchable devices related to phase control, such as frequency-tunable subwavelength cavities, anomalous reflectors and even holograms. PMID:27272350

  8. Electromagnetic wave propagation through an overdense magnetized collisional plasma layer

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, C.; Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Hughes, T. P.

    2009-08-15

    The results of investigations into the feasibility of using a magnetic window to propagate electromagnetic waves through a finite-sized overdense plasma slab are described. We theoretically calculate the transmission coefficients for right- and left-handed circularly polarized plane waves through a uniform magnetized plasma slab. Using reasonable estimates for the plasma properties expected to be found in the ionized shock layer surrounding a hypersonic aircraft traveling in the earth's upper atmosphere (radio blackout conditions), and assuming a 1 GHz carrier frequency for the radio communications channel, we find that the required magnetic field for propagation of right-handed circularly polarized, or whistler, waves is on the order of a few hundred gauss. Transmission coefficients are calculated as a function of sheath thickness and are shown to be quite sensitive to the electron collision frequency. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the theory. These simulations also demonstrate that Ohmic heating of the electrons can be considerable. Two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using a simplified waveguide and antenna model illustrate the same general transmission behavior as the theory and one-dimensional simulations. In addition, a net focusing effect due to the plasma is also observed in two and three dimensions. These simulations can be extended to design and analyze more realistic waveguide and antenna models.

  9. Skin Depth of Electromagnetic Wave through Fractal Crustal Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Kazutaka; Muto, Jun; Nagahama, Hiroyuki

    Skin depth of electromagnetic (EM) wave depends on frequency of EM wave ν and electrical properties of rocks and minerals. Previous studies have theoretically assumed that the skin depth Lα(ν) can be expressed as a function of frequency ν by Lα(ν) ∝ ν -φ and φ = 1 at high frequency or φ = 1/2 at low frequency. Based on fractal theory of rocks, we point out that the frequency exponent φ reflects internal fractal structures (i.e., occupancy, distribution and connectivity) of dielectric/conductive matrices of rocks such as pores, cracks, grain boundaries, inclusions and various fluids. Laboratory measurements of dielectric constant and conductivity of granite and previous studies on various rocks as a function of frequency show that φ is an exponent ranging from 1/4 to 1. By extrapolation of the skin depth by laboratory measurements at a given frequency into at other frequencies, the skin depth with variation in φ becomes longer or shorter than that by previous studies. Moreover, at a given frequency, the skin depth decreases with increasing a fractal dimension of fracture systems (decreasing φ). Thus, the skin depth of EM wave through the crust for detecting seismo-EM radiations and through rock salt domes for detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos depends on fractal structures of dielectric/conductive matrices in heterogeneous crust.

  10. Examination of Bursty Electromagnetic Waves Observed During Intervals of Turbulent Magnetosheath Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, Mark L.; Wendel, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate observations of intense bursts of electromagnetic waves in association with magnetic reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath. These structured, broadband bursts occur above 80-Hz, often displaying features reminiscent of absorption bands and are observed at local minima in the magnetic field. We present detailed analyses of these intense bursts of electromagnetic waves and quantify their proximity to X- and O-nulls.

  11. Nonlinear diffusion waves in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Rybka, D. V.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear diffusion of a magnetic field and the large-scale instabilities arising upon an electrical explosion of conductors in a superstrong (2-3 MG) magnetic field were investigated experimentally on the MIG high-current generator (up to 2.5 peak current, 100 ns current rise time). It was observed that in the nonlinear stage of the process, the wavelength of thermal instabilities (striations) increased with a rate of 1.5-3 km/s.

  12. Nonlinear electron magnetohydrodynamics physics. II. Wave propagation and wave-wave interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.; Strohmaier, K. D.

    2008-04-15

    The propagation of low-frequency whistler modes with wave magnetic field exceeding the ambient field is investigated experimentally. Such nonlinear waves are excited with magnetic loop antennas whose axial field is aligned with the background magnetic field and greatly exceeds its strength. The oscillatory antenna field excites propagating wave packets with field topologies alternating between whistler spheromaks and mirrors. The propagation speed of spheromaks is observed to decrease with amplitude while that of mirrors increases with amplitude. The field distribution varies with amplitude: Spheromaks contract axially while mirrors spread out compared to linear whistlers. Consequently, the peak magnetic field and current densities in spheromaks exceed that of mirrors. Wave-wave interactions of nonlinear whistler modes is also studied. Counterpropagating spheromaks collide inelastically and form a stationary field-reversed configuration. The radius of the toroidal current ring depends on current and can be larger than that of the loop antenna. A tilted field-reversed configuration precesses in the direction of the electron drift. The free magnetic energy is dissipated in the plasma volume and converted into electron heat.

  13. Electromagnetic Components of Auroral Hiss and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Polar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, H. K.

    1995-01-01

    DE-1 has frequently observed waves in the whistler and lower hybrid frequencies range. Besides the electrostatic components, these waves also exhibit electromagnetic components. It is generally believed that these waves are excited by the electron acoustic instability and the electron-beam-driven lower hybrid instability. Because the electron acoustic and the lower hybrid waves are predominately electrostatic waves, they cannot account for the observed electromagnetic components. In this work, it is suggested that these electromagnetic components can be explained by waves that are generated near the resonance cone and that propagate away from the source. The role that these electromagnetic waves can play in particle acceleration processes at low altitude is discussed.

  14. Nonlinear waves in second order conformal hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogaça, D. A.; Marrochio, H.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we study wave propagation in dissipative relativistic fluids described by a simplified set of the 2nd order viscous conformal hydrodynamic equations corresponding to Israel-Stewart theory. Small amplitude waves are studied within the linearization approximation while waves with large amplitude are investigated using the reductive perturbation method, which is generalized to the case of 2nd order relativistic hydrodynamics. Our results indicate the presence of a "soliton-like" wave solution in Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics despite the presence of dissipation and relaxation effects.

  15. Nonlinear internal wave penetration via parametric subharmonic instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemsaidi, S. J.; Joubaud, S.; Dauxois, T.; Odier, P.; Peacock, T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a laboratory experimental study of an internal wave field generated by harmonic, spatially periodic boundary forcing from above of a density stratification comprising a strongly stratified, thin upper layer sitting atop a weakly stratified, deep lower layer. In linear regimes, the energy flux associated with relatively high frequency internal waves excited in the upper layer is prevented from entering the lower layer by virtue of evanescent decay of the wave field. In the experiments, however, we find that the development of parametric subharmonic instability in the upper layer transfers energy from the forced primary wave into a pair of subharmonic daughter waves, each capable of penetrating the weakly stratified lower layer. We find that around 10% of the primary wave energy flux penetrates into the lower layer via this nonlinear wave-wave interaction for the regime we study.

  16. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Through the ZR Z-Pinch Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Madrid, E. A.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K.; Corcoran, P. A.; Whitney, B.

    2009-01-21

    A fully three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the major pulsed power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator is presented. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the intermediate storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, tri-plate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The plates at the insulator stack are coupled to a transmission line circuit model of the four-level magnetically-insulated transmission line section and post-hole convolutes. The vacuum section circuit model is terminated by either a short-circuit load or dynamic models of imploding z-pinch loads. The simulations results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator and good agreement is found, especially for times before and up to peak load power. This modeling effort represents new opportunities for modeling existing and future large-scale pulsed power systems used in a variety of high energy density physics and radiographic applications.

  17. Electromagnetic wave propagation through the ZR Z-pinch accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Dale Robert; Clark, R. E.; Rose, David Vincent; Madrid, Elizabeth Ann; Corcoran, P. A.; Struve, Kenneth William; Stygar, William A.; Miller, C. L.; Whitney, B.

    2008-08-01

    A fully three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the major pulsed power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator is presented. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the intermediate storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, tri-plate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The plates at the insulator stack are coupled to a transmission line circuit model of the four-level magnetically-insulated transmission line section and post-hole convolutes. The vacuum section circuit model is terminated by either a short-circuit load or dynamic models of imploding z-pinch loads. The simulations results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator and good agreement is found, especially for times before and up to peak load power. This modeling effort represents new opportunities for modeling existing and future large-scale pulsed power systems used in a variety of high energy density physics and radiographic applications.

  18. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Through the ZR Z-Pinch Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Madrid, E. A.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K.; Corcoran, P. A.; Whitney, B.

    2009-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the major pulsed power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator is presented. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the intermediate storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, tri-plate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The plates at the insulator stack are coupled to a transmission line circuit model of the four-level magnetically-insulated transmission line section and post-hole convolutes. The vacuum section circuit model is terminated by either a short-circuit load or dynamic models of imploding z-pinch loads. The simulations results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator and good agreement is found, especially for times before and up to peak load power. This modeling effort represents new opportunities for modeling existing and future large-scale pulsed power systems used in a variety of high energy density physics and radiographic applications.

  19. Identifying Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Triggers With DECam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave (GW) event is one of the great observational challenges in modern astronomy. We report on our work to overcome this challenge by investigating the theoretical and practical issues associated with optical follow-up of a GW event. This includes a systematic study of the potential contaminant population and their impact on counterpart detectability in simulated observations. Additionally, we utilize data taken with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO. These data serve as a mock follow-up to a GW event and assist in the characterization of contamination not captured in simulations. P.S.C. is grateful for support provided by the NSF through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program, Grant DGE1144152.

  20. Electromagnetic plasma wave emissions from the auroral field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The most important types of auroral radio emissions are reviewed, both from a historical perspective as well as considering the latest results. Particular emphasis is placed on four types of electromagnetic emissions which are directly associated with the plasma on the auroral field lines. These emissions are (1) auroral hiss, (2) saucers, (3) ELF noise bands, and (4) auroral kilometric radiation. Ray tracing and radio direction finding measurements indicate that both the auroral hiss and auroral kilometric radiation are generated along the auroral field lines relatively close to the earth, at radial distances from about 2.5 to 5 R sub e. For the auroral hiss the favored mechanism appears to be amplified Cerenkov radiation. For the auroral kilometric radiation several mechanisms have been proposed, usually involving the intermediate generation of electrostatic waves by the precipitating electrons.

  1. Nanofocusing of mid-infrared electromagnetic waves on graphene monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Weibin E-mail: wqiu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Xianhe; Zhao, Jing; He, Shuhong; Ma, Yuhui; Wang, Jia-Xian; Pan, Jiaoqing

    2014-01-27

    Nanofocusing of mid-infrared (MIR) electromagnetic waves on graphene monolayer with gradient chemical potential is investigated with numerical simulation. On an isolated freestanding monolayer graphene sheet with spatially varied chemical potential, the focusing spot sizes of frequencies between 44 THz and 56 THz can reach around 1.6 nm and the intensity enhancement factors are between 2178 and 654. For 56 THz infrared, a group velocity as slow as 5×10{sup −5} times of the light speed in vacuum is obtained at the focusing point. When the graphene sheet is placed on top of an aluminum oxide substrate, the focusing spot size of 56 THz infrared reduces to 1.1 nm and the intensity enhancement factor is still as high as 220. This structure offers an approach for focusing light in the MIR regime beyond the diffraction limit without complicated device geometry engineering.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of trapped waves on jet currents and rogue waves.

    PubMed

    Shrira, V I; Slunyaev, A V

    2014-04-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of surface gravity waves trapped by an opposing jet current is studied analytically and numerically. For wave fields narrow band in frequency but not necessarily with narrow angular distributions the developed asymptotic weakly nonlinear theory based on the modal approach of Shrira and Slunyaev [J. Fluid. Mech. 738, 65 (2014)] leads to the one-dimensional modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation of self-focusing type for a single mode. Its solutions such as envelope solitons and breathers are considered to be prototypes of rogue waves; these solutions, in contrast to waves in the absence of currents, are robust with respect to transverse perturbations, which suggests a potentially higher probability of rogue waves. Robustness of the long-lived analytical solutions describing modulated trapped waves and solitary wave groups is verified by direct numerical simulations of potential Euler equations. PMID:24827178

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of trapped waves on jet currents and rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrira, V. I.; Slunyaev, A. V.

    2014-04-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of surface gravity waves trapped by an opposing jet current is studied analytically and numerically. For wave fields narrow band in frequency but not necessarily with narrow angular distributions the developed asymptotic weakly nonlinear theory based on the modal approach of Shrira and Slunyaev [J. Fluid. Mech. 738, 65 (2014), 10.1017/jfm.2013.584] leads to the one-dimensional modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation of self-focusing type for a single mode. Its solutions such as envelope solitons and breathers are considered to be prototypes of rogue waves; these solutions, in contrast to waves in the absence of currents, are robust with respect to transverse perturbations, which suggests a potentially higher probability of rogue waves. Robustness of the long-lived analytical solutions describing modulated trapped waves and solitary wave groups is verified by direct numerical simulations of potential Euler equations.

  4. Behavior of a Moist Kelvin Wave Packet with Nonlinear Heating.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Xue, Yan

    1992-04-01

    The effects of nonlinear (positive only or conditional) heating on moist Kelvin waves are examined with a simple equatorial zonal-plane model describing the gravest baroclinic mode.The unstable perturbation subject to nonlinear beating emerges as a wave packet. A typical amplifying, eastward-moving wave packet is characterized by an asymmetric structure: 1) the ascending branch (wet region) is much narrower than the two descending ones (dry regions); and 2) the circulation cell to the east of the wet region center is smaller and stronger than its counterpart to the west of the center. The wet-dry asymmetry is primarily caused by the nonlinear beating effect, while the east-west asymmetry is a result of the movement of the wave packet relative to mean flow. The existence of Newtonian cooling and Rayleigh friction enhances the structural asymmetries.The unstable wave packet is characterized by two zonal length scales: the ascending branch length (ABL) and total circulation extent (TCE). For a given basic state, the growth rate of a wave packet increases with decreasing ABL or TCE. However, up to a moderate growth rate (order of day1) the energy spectra of all wave packets are dominated by zonal wavenumber one regardless of ABL size. In particular, the slowly growing (low frequency) wave packets normally exhibit TCEs of planetary scale and ABLs of synoptic scale.Observed equatorial intraseasonal disturbances often display a narrow convection region in between two much broader dry regions and a total circulation of planetary scale. These structure and scale characteristics are caused by the effects of nonlinear heating and the cyclic geometry of the equator. It is argued that the unstable disturbance found in numerical experiments (e.g., Lau and Peng; Hayashi and Sumi) is a manifestation of the nonlinear wave packet.

  5. Shoaling of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.; Pineda, J.

    2008-01-01

    The shoaling of the nonlinear internal tide in Massachusetts Bay is studied with a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model. The results are compared with current and temperature observations obtained during the August 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment and observations from a shorter experiment which took place in September 2001. The model shows how the approaching nonlinear undular bore interacts strongly with a shoaling bottom, offshore of where KdV theory predicts polarity switching should occur. It is shown that the shoaling process is dominated by nonlinearity, and the model results are interpreted with the aid of a two-layer nonlinear but hydrostatic model. After interacting with the shoaling bottom, the undular bore emerges on the shallow shelf inshore of the 30-m isobath as a nonlinear internal tide with a range of possible shapes, all of which are found in the available observational record. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Second harmonic generation using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves in stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Margaret; Kim, Gun; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Kurtis, Kimberly; Jacobs, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    This research tests the potential application of the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) method using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves to nondestructively quantify surface microstructural changes in thin stone. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter (β) has been assessed as a meaningful indicator for characterizing the nonlinearity of civil engineering materials; additionally, Rayleigh waves offer the opportunity to isolate a material's near surface microstructural status. Sandstone was selected for testing due to its relative uniformity and small grain size compared to other stone types; the sample thickness was 2 inches to reflect the minimum panel thickness recommended by the Indiana Limestone Institute. For this research, initially fully non-contact generation and detection techniques are evaluated before a 100kHz wedge transmitter and a 200kHz air-coupled receiver are employed for generation and detection of nonlinear Rayleigh waves. Non-contact transmitters and receivers have advantages such as removing the irregularities associated with coupling as well as not leaving residues, which in stone applications can be considered aesthetically damaging. The experimental results show that the nonlinear parameter, β, can be effectively isolated using the wedge transmitter and non-contact set up and that too much of the signal strength is lost in the fully non-contact method to extract meaningful results for this stone and stones with slow wave speeds. This indicates that the proposed SHG technique is effective for evaluating the nonlinearity parameter, β, and can next be applied to characterize near surface microstructural changes in thin applications of dimensioned stone.

  7. Prospect of Nonlinear Freak Tsunami Waves from Stochastic Earthquake Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    The prospect of freak (or rogue) tsunami edge waves from continental subduction zone earthquakes is examined. Although the hydrodynamics that govern tsunamis are formulated from the shallow-water wave equations, the dispersion relation for edge waves is similar to that for deep-water waves. As a result, freak waves can result from many of the same mechanisms as for deep-water waves: spatial focusing, dispersive (temporal) focusing, modulation instability, and mode coupling from resonant interaction. The focus of this study is on determining the likelihood of freak edge waves from the two nonlinear mechanisms: modulation instability and mode coupling. The initial conditions are provided by coseismic vertical displacement from a subduction thrust earthquake. A two-dimensional stochastic slip model is used to generate a range of coseismic displacement realizations. The slip model is defined by a power-law wavenumber spectrum and Lévy-law distributed random variables. Tsunami edge waves produced by this source model have a broader spectrum with energy distributed across many more modes compared to edge waves derived from the simplified earthquake sources used in the past. To characterize modulation instability, methods developed for a random sea are modified for seismogenic edge waves. The Benjamin-Feir parameter constrains how many unstable wave packets are possible in a time series of finite length. In addition, because seismogenic tsunami edge wave energy is distributed across a number of modes, nonlinear mode coupling can result both in the collinear case and in the counter-propagating case where edge waves are reflected by coastline irregularities. Mode coupling results in the appearance of a third edge wave mode that can greatly increase the variability in wave heights. Determination of possible freak tsunami edge waves is important for assessing the tsunami hazard at longshore locations distant from the rupture zone of continental subduction zone earthquakes.

  8. Scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a Luneburg lens. II. Wave theory.

    PubMed

    Lock, James A

    2008-12-01

    The partial wave scattering and interior amplitudes for the interaction of an electromagnetic plane wave with a modified Luneburg lens are derived in terms of the exterior and interior radial functions of the scalar radiation potentials evaluated at the lens surface. A Debye series decomposition of these amplitudes is also performed and discussed. The effective potential inside the lens for the transverse electric polarization is qualitatively examined, and the approximate lens size parameters of morphology-dependent resonances are determined. Finally, the physical optics model is used to calculate wave scattering in the vicinity of the ray theory orbiting condition in order to demonstrate the smoothing of ray theory discontinuities by the diffraction of scattered waves. PMID:19037389

  9. Nonlinear inertial Alfven wave in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.; Saleem, H.

    2011-11-29

    Solitary inertial Alfven wave in the presence of positively and negatively charged dust particles is studied. It is found that electron density dips are formed in the super Alfvenic region and wave amplitude is increased for the case of negatively charged dust particles in comparison with positively charged dust particles in electron-ion plasmas.

  10. Electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the Earth's ionospheric E-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaladze, T. D.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.; Kaladze, D. T.

    2011-12-01

    In the Earth's ionospheric E-layer existence of the new waves connecting with the electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is shown. They represent the mixture of the ordinary internal gravity waves and the new type of dispersive Alfven waves.

  11. Semiannual Status Report. [excitation of electromagnetic waves in the whistler frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During the last six months, we have continued our study of the excitation of electromagnetic waves in the whistler frequency range and the role that these waves will play in the acceleration of electrons and ions in the auroral region. A paper entitled 'Electron Beam Excitation of Upstream Waves in the Whistler Mode Frequency Range' was listed in the Journal of Geophysical Research. In this paper, we have shown that an anisotropic electron beam (or gyrating electron beam) is capable of generating both left-hand and right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves in the whistler frequency range. Since right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves can interact with background electrons and left-hand polarized waves can interact with background ions through cyclotron resonance, it is possible that these beam generated left-hand and right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves can accelerate either ions or electrons (or both), depending on the physical parameters under consideration. We are currently carrying out a comprehensive study of the electromagnetic whistler and lower hybrid like waves observed in the auroral zone using both wave and particle data. Our first task is to identify these wave modes and compare it with particle observations. Using both the DE-1 particle and wave measurements, we can positively identify those electromagnetics lower hybrid like waves as fast magnetosonic waves and the upper cutoff of these waves is the local lower hybrid frequency. From the upper cutoff of the frequency spectrum, one can infer the particle density and the result is in very good agreement with the particle data. Since these electromagnetic lower hybrid like waves can have frequencies extended down to the local ion cyclotron frequency, it practically confirms that they are not whistler waves.

  12. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.

  13. Nonlinear surface wave instability for electrified Kelvin fluids.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, Yusry O; Abd El-Latif, Osama E

    2005-05-15

    A weakly nonlinear approach is utilized here to discuss surface wave instability for two superposed electrified fluids of Kelvin type. The influence of a vertical electric field is discussed. The linear form for equations of motion is solved in the light of nonlinear boundary conditions. The method of multiple scales is used for the purpose of nonlinear perturbation. The surface wave response is governed by the well-known nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equation rather than the transcendental dispersion relation in the linear scope. Although linear stability conditions are not available for arbitrary viscosity, the nonlinear analysis allowed deriving necessary and sufficient stability conditions. Moreover, at the marginal state, the nonlinear scope for stability is discussed through its dependence on the wavetrain frequency, in which short-wave disturbance is assumed to relax the linear transcendental terms. Besides the linear stability constraint, the nonlinear scope gives an additional constraint on the wavetrain frequency. Nonlinear stability criteria are derived and are performed in view of a nondimensional form. Furthermore, the nonlinear analysis is repeated for an arbitrary wave disturbance. A suitable choice for dimensionless form made it possible to relax transcendental terms included in stability conditions. Numerical calculations at the marginal state show that both the vertical electric field and the stratified fluid density play a dual role in the stability criteria. This dual role is the opposite to the dual role that the stratified viscosity plays in the stability profile. For the marginal state representation, numerical examination shows that elasticity plays a dual role in the stability criteria in a manner similar to that of the viscosity behavior. PMID:15837494

  14. On the Cauchy problem for strongly nonlinear intense wave groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slunyaev, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Stable long-living nonlinear groups of gravity water waves (very steep and very short envelope solitons) were first observed in numerical simulations [1, 2] and then - in laboratory conditions [3]. In [2] their interaction was shown to be almost elastic in some (but not all) situations. Therefore the Cauchy problem for localized wave groups beyond the weakly nonlinear assumption is of interest. In general, the formation of a few solitary wave groups from the initial condition may take place [4]. We have focused on the unidentified reason, why some experimental tests of solitary wave groups in [3] were not successful (while other runs with slightly different experimental parameters were successful). In this paper we consider the initial problem, when the initial condition is taken in the form of a scaled intense envelope soliton of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and is simulated by means of the fully nonlinear code of potential Euler equations. The result of the long-term evolution (which is generally represented by a solitary wave group and smaller scale waves) is compared with the prediction of the weakly nonlinear theory. We show reasonable agreement between the weakly nonlinear theory and the strongly nonlinear simulations. In particular, a 10% decrease of the initial perturbation results in 20% smaller amplitude of the eventual envelope soliton. This fact explains the failure of reproduction of envelope solitons in some experimental tests in the finite-depth flume [3]. The solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation for finite-depth water may be transformed to the infinite-depth solution with reduced amplitude. [1] A.I. Dyachenko, V.E. Zakharov, On the formation of freak waves on the surface of deep water. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 88, 307-311 (2008). [2] A.V. Slunyaev, Numerical simulation of "limiting" envelope solitons of gravity waves on deep water. JETP 109, 676-686 (2009). [3] A. Slunyaev, G.F. Clauss, M. Klein, M. Onorato, Simulations and

  15. Emergent geometries and nonlinear-wave dynamics in photon fluids

    PubMed Central

    Marino, F.; Maitland, C.; Vocke, D.; Ortolan, A.; Faccio, D.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear waves in defocusing media are investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic description of light as a photon fluid. The observations are interpreted in terms of an emergent curved spacetime generated by the waves themselves, which fully determines their dynamics. The spacetime geometry emerges naturally as a result of the nonlinear interaction between the waves and the self-induced background flow. In particular, as observed in real fluids, different points of the wave profile propagate at different velocities leading to the self-steepening of the wave front and to the formation of a shock. This phenomenon can be associated to a curvature singularity of the emergent metric. Our analysis offers an alternative insight into the problem of shock formation and provides a demonstration of an analogue gravity model that goes beyond the kinematic level. PMID:27001128

  16. Self-sustained nonlinear waves in traffic flow.

    PubMed

    Flynn, M R; Kasimov, A R; Nave, J-C; Rosales, R R; Seibold, B

    2009-05-01

    In analogy to gas-dynamical detonation waves, which consist of a shock with an attached exothermic reaction zone, we consider herein nonlinear traveling wave solutions to the hyperbolic ("inviscid") continuum traffic equations. Generic existence criteria are examined in the context of the Lax entropy conditions. Our analysis naturally precludes traveling wave solutions for which the shocks travel downstream more rapidly than individual vehicles. Consistent with recent experimental observations from a periodic roadway [Y. Sugiyama, N. J. Phys. 10, 033001 (2008)], our numerical calculations show that nonlinear traveling waves are attracting solutions, with the time evolution of the system converging toward a wave-dominated configuration. Theoretical principles are elucidated by considering examples of traffic flow on open and closed roadways. PMID:19518527

  17. Emergent geometries and nonlinear-wave dynamics in photon fluids.

    PubMed

    Marino, F; Maitland, C; Vocke, D; Ortolan, A; Faccio, D

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear waves in defocusing media are investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic description of light as a photon fluid. The observations are interpreted in terms of an emergent curved spacetime generated by the waves themselves, which fully determines their dynamics. The spacetime geometry emerges naturally as a result of the nonlinear interaction between the waves and the self-induced background flow. In particular, as observed in real fluids, different points of the wave profile propagate at different velocities leading to the self-steepening of the wave front and to the formation of a shock. This phenomenon can be associated to a curvature singularity of the emergent metric. Our analysis offers an alternative insight into the problem of shock formation and provides a demonstration of an analogue gravity model that goes beyond the kinematic level. PMID:27001128

  18. Emergent geometries and nonlinear-wave dynamics in photon fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, F.; Maitland, C.; Vocke, D.; Ortolan, A.; Faccio, D.

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear waves in defocusing media are investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic description of light as a photon fluid. The observations are interpreted in terms of an emergent curved spacetime generated by the waves themselves, which fully determines their dynamics. The spacetime geometry emerges naturally as a result of the nonlinear interaction between the waves and the self-induced background flow. In particular, as observed in real fluids, different points of the wave profile propagate at different velocities leading to the self-steepening of the wave front and to the formation of a shock. This phenomenon can be associated to a curvature singularity of the emergent metric. Our analysis offers an alternative insight into the problem of shock formation and provides a demonstration of an analogue gravity model that goes beyond the kinematic level.

  19. Electromagnetic energy density manipulation and enhancement in a relativistic plasma: the role of relativistic nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Pegoraro, F.

    2009-11-10

    A tutorial presentation is given describing the nature and the effects of relativistic nonlinearities in a plasma and indicating how they can be exploited in order to manipulate and enhance locally the energy density of the electromagnetic fields. The mathematical formulation and the examples presented are chosen from results available in the scientific literature.

  20. A nonlinear analysis of the terahertz serpentine waveguide traveling-wave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Yong; Cao, Miaomiao

    2015-04-01

    A nonlinear model for the numerical simulation of terahertz serpentine waveguide traveling-wave tube (SW-TWT) is described. In this model, the electromagnetic wave transmission in the SW is represented as an infinite set of space harmonics to interact with an electron beam. Analytical expressions for axial electric fields in axisymmetric interaction gaps of SW-TWTs are derived and compared with the results from CST simulation. The continuous beam is treated as discrete macro-particles with different initial phases. The beam-tunnel field equations, space-charge field equations, and motion equations are combined to solve the beam-wave interaction. The influence of backward wave and relativistic effect is also considered in the series of equations. The nonlinear model is used to design a 340 GHz SW-TWT. Several favorable comparisons of model predictions with results from a 3-D Particle-in-cell simulation code CHIPIC are presented, in which the output power versus beam voltage and interaction periods are illustrated. The relative error of the predicted output power is less than 15% in the 3 dB bandwidth and the relative error of the saturated length is less than 8%.The results show that the 1-D nonlinear analysis model is appropriate to solve the terahertz SW-TWT operation characteristics.

  1. A nonlinear analysis of the terahertz serpentine waveguide traveling-wave amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ke Cao, Miaomiao; Liu, Wenxin Wang, Yong

    2015-04-15

    A nonlinear model for the numerical simulation of terahertz serpentine waveguide traveling-wave tube (SW-TWT) is described. In this model, the electromagnetic wave transmission in the SW is represented as an infinite set of space harmonics to interact with an electron beam. Analytical expressions for axial electric fields in axisymmetric interaction gaps of SW-TWTs are derived and compared with the results from CST simulation. The continuous beam is treated as discrete macro-particles with different initial phases. The beam-tunnel field equations, space-charge field equations, and motion equations are combined to solve the beam-wave interaction. The influence of backward wave and relativistic effect is also considered in the series of equations. The nonlinear model is used to design a 340 GHz SW-TWT. Several favorable comparisons of model predictions with results from a 3-D Particle-in-cell simulation code CHIPIC are presented, in which the output power versus beam voltage and interaction periods are illustrated. The relative error of the predicted output power is less than 15% in the 3 dB bandwidth and the relative error of the saturated length is less than 8%.The results show that the 1-D nonlinear analysis model is appropriate to solve the terahertz SW-TWT operation characteristics.

  2. Thermoelastic Stress in a Functionally Graded Infinite Plate with Electromagnetic Wave Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hong-Yan; Wang, Xing-Zhe; Zhou, You-He

    2012-11-01

    We present an analysis of thermal and thermoelastic behaviors of a functionally graded infinite plate taking into account electromagnetic wave absorption. To treat with the inhomogeneity of functionally graded wave-absorbing (FGWA) materials, the plate is approximated by subdividing it into thin homogeneous layers to solve the governing equations together with proper boundary and connecting conditions. The results illustrate that the FGWA plate is a broadband type absorber with electromagnetic wave absorption. By choosing proper material gradation character and the thickness of the FGWA plate, it is possible to obtain a good performance of electromagnetic wave absorption and thermoelastic stress characteristics.

  3. On the use of nonlinear solitary waves for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaiyuan; Rizzo, Piervincenzo

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade there has been an increasing attention on the use of highly- and weakly- nonlinear solitary waves in engineering and physics. These waves can form and travel in nonlinear systems such as one-dimensional chains of spherical particles. One engineering application of solitary waves is the fabrication of acoustic lenses, which are employed in a variety of fields ranging from biomedical imaging and surgery to defense systems and damage detection. In this paper we propose to couple an acoustic lens to a wafer-type lead zirconate titanate transducer (PZT) to harvest energy from the vibration of an object tapping the lens. The lens is composed of a circle array made of chains of particles in contact with a polycarbonate material where the nonlinear waves coalesce into linear waves. The PZT located at the designed focal point converts the mechanical energy carried by the stress wave into electricity to power a load resistor. The performance of the designed harvester is compared to a conventional cantilever beam, and the experimental results show that the power generated with the nonlinear lens has the same order of magnitude of the beam.

  4. Nonlinear Alfvén wave dynamics in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Anwesa; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Schamel, Hans

    2015-07-01

    Nonlinear Alfvén wave dynamics is presented using Lagrangian fluid approach in a compressible collisional magnetized plasma. In the framework of two fluid dynamics, finite electron inertia is shown to serve as a dispersive effect acting against the convective nonlinearity. In a moving frame, the Alfvén wave can, therefore, form an arbitrarily strong amplitude solitary wave structure due to the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion. Weak amplitude Alfvén waves are shown to be governed by a modified KdV equation, which extends for finite dissipation to a mKdV-Burgers equation. These equations have well known solutions. Next, we have analyzed the fourth order nonlinear Alfvén wave system of equations both numerically and by approximation method. The results indicate a collapse of the density and magnetic field irrespective of the presence of dispersion. The wave magnetic field, however, appears to be less singular showing collapse only when the dispersive effects are negligible. These results may contribute to our understanding of the generation of strongly localized magnetic fields (and currents) in plasmas and are expected to be of special importance in the astrophysical context of magnetic star formation.

  5. Nonlinear Alfvén wave dynamics in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Anwesa; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-07-15

    Nonlinear Alfvén wave dynamics is presented using Lagrangian fluid approach in a compressible collisional magnetized plasma. In the framework of two fluid dynamics, finite electron inertia is shown to serve as a dispersive effect acting against the convective nonlinearity. In a moving frame, the Alfvén wave can, therefore, form an arbitrarily strong amplitude solitary wave structure due to the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion. Weak amplitude Alfvén waves are shown to be governed by a modified KdV equation, which extends for finite dissipation to a mKdV-Burgers equation. These equations have well known solutions. Next, we have analyzed the fourth order nonlinear Alfvén wave system of equations both numerically and by approximation method. The results indicate a collapse of the density and magnetic field irrespective of the presence of dispersion. The wave magnetic field, however, appears to be less singular showing collapse only when the dispersive effects are negligible. These results may contribute to our understanding of the generation of strongly localized magnetic fields (and currents) in plasmas and are expected to be of special importance in the astrophysical context of magnetic star formation.

  6. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    SciTech Connect

    Torello, David; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2015-03-31

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β{sub 11} is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β{sub 11}{sup 7075}/β{sub 11}{sup 2024} measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

  7. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torello, David; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2015-03-01

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β11 is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β117075/β112024 measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

  8. Nonlinear waves on a string with inhomogeneous properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, Robert

    Nonlinear waves on an infinite string with a rapid change in properties at one location are treated. The string is an idealized version of more complex configurations in both fluids and solids. This idealized version treats the property change as an interface with a discontinuity in properties. Packets of waves are then considered with a reduced model, here a set of nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equations. The stress and the displacement must both be matched at the interface, resulting in dynamic and kinematic interfacial conditions. The dynamic condition produces an inhomogeneous effect that cannot be treated successfully with separation-of-variables. This inhomogeneity is treated here with a time-evolution approach using Laplace transforms. The results show that this inhomogeneity creates a mean longitudinal displacement on both sides of the interface and a shift in the position of the interface as the waves transit the interface. This mean longitudinal displacement corresponds to a sustained strain in the string. The mean longitudinal displacement develops three distinct features. One feature has a length scale that is half the wave-length of the incident waves, while the lengths of the other two features have the same order as the length of the wave packet. The position of maximum strain as a result of this mean is often at the interface, depending on parameter values. These results apply to a variety of applications, such as waves in ocean ice, Rayleigh waves caused by earthquakes, internal waves in the oceans and atmosphere, as well as waves in stretched cables.

  9. Nonlinear interaction of energetic ring current protons with magnetospheric hydromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.A.; Chen, Liu; White, R.B.

    1989-09-01

    In order to study nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the earth's magnetosphere we have derived Hamiltonian equations for the gyrophase-averaged nonrealistic motion of charged particles in a perturbed dipole magnetic field. We assume low frequency (less than the proton gyrofrequency) fully electromagnetic perturbations, and we retain finite Larmor radius effects. Analytic and numerical results for the stochastic threshold of energetic protons ({approx gt} 100 keV) in compressional geomagnetic pulsations in the Pc 5 range of frequencies (150--600 seconds) are presented. These protons undergo a drift-bounce resonance with the Pc 5 waves which breaks the second (longitudinal) and third (flux) adiabatic invariants, while the first invariant (the magnetic moment) and the proton energy are approximately conserved. The proton motion in the observed spectrum of waves is found to be strongly diffusive, due to the overlap of neighboring primary resonances. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Nonlinear interaction of energetic ring current protons with magnetospheric hydromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.A.; Chen, L.; White, R.B. )

    1989-10-01

    In order to study nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the Earth's magnetosphere we have derived Hamiltonian equations for the gyrophase-averaged nonrelativistic motion of charged particles in a perturbed dipole magnetic field. We assume low frequency (less than the proton gyrofrequency) fully electromagnetic perturbations, and we retain finite Larmor radius effects. Analytic and numerical results for the stochastic threshold of energetic protons ({approx gt}100 keV) in compressional geomagnetic pulsations in the Pc 5 range of frequencies 150--600 seconds are presented. These protons undergo a drift-bounce resonance with the Pc 5 waves which breaks the second (longitudinal) and third (flux) adiabatic invariants, while the first invariant (the magnetic moment) and the proton energy are approximately conserved. The proton motion in the observed spectrum of waves is found to be strongly diffusive, due to the overlap of neighboring primary resonances. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  11. Nonlinear evolution of cylindrical gravitational waves: Numerical method and physical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestino, Juliana; de Oliveira, H. P.; Rodrigues, E. L.

    2016-05-01

    General cylindrical waves are the simplest axisymmetrical gravitational waves that contain both + and × modes of polarization. In this paper, we have studied the evolution of general cylindrical gravitational waves in the realm of the characteristic scheme with a numerical code based on the Galerkin-Collocation method. The investigation consists of the numerical realization of concepts such as Bondi mass and the news functions adapted to cylindrical symmetry. The Bondi mass decays due to the presence of the news functions associated with both polarization modes. We have interpreted each polarization mode as channels from which mass is extracted. Under this perspective, we have presented the enhancement effect of the polarization mode + due to the nonlinear interaction with the mode ×. After discussing the role of matter in cylindrical symmetry, we have extended the numerical code to include electromagnetic fields.

  12. The spartial distribution of the particles of the beam interacting with an inhomogeneous electromagnetic wave

    SciTech Connect

    Serov, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The time variation of the spartial distribution of an electron beam reflected by an inhomogeneous wave or traverse the wave was investigated. The injected beam is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. The interaction between an electron beam and an electromagnetic wave not only produces electron oscillation but also substantially changes the electron phase and energy distribution. It is shown that under specific conditions one part of particles are reflected by an electromagnetic wave and other part of particles traverse the wave.

  13. Numerical modelling of nonlinear full-wave acoustic propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Segura, Roberto; Rendón, Pablo L.

    2015-10-01

    The various model equations of nonlinear acoustics are arrived at by making assumptions which permit the observation of the interaction with propagation of either single or joint effects. We present here a form of the conservation equations of fluid dynamics which are deduced using slightly less restrictive hypothesis than those necessary to obtain the well known Westervelt equation. This formulation accounts for full wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous dissipative effects. A two-dimensional, finite-volume method using Roe's linearisation has been implemented to obtain numerically the solution of the proposed equations. This code, which has been written for parallel execution on a GPU, can be used to describe moderate nonlinear phenomena, at low Mach numbers, in domains as large as 100 wave lengths. Applications range from models of diagnostic and therapeutic HIFU, to parametric acoustic arrays and nonlinear propagation in acoustic waveguides. Examples related to these applications are shown and discussed.

  14. Numerical modelling of nonlinear full-wave acoustic propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco-Segura, Roberto Rendón, Pablo L.

    2015-10-28

    The various model equations of nonlinear acoustics are arrived at by making assumptions which permit the observation of the interaction with propagation of either single or joint effects. We present here a form of the conservation equations of fluid dynamics which are deduced using slightly less restrictive hypothesis than those necessary to obtain the well known Westervelt equation. This formulation accounts for full wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous dissipative effects. A two-dimensional, finite-volume method using Roe’s linearisation has been implemented to obtain numerically the solution of the proposed equations. This code, which has been written for parallel execution on a GPU, can be used to describe moderate nonlinear phenomena, at low Mach numbers, in domains as large as 100 wave lengths. Applications range from models of diagnostic and therapeutic HIFU, to parametric acoustic arrays and nonlinear propagation in acoustic waveguides. Examples related to these applications are shown and discussed.

  15. Exact traveling wave solutions for system of nonlinear evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali; Arnous, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    In this work, recently deduced generalized Kudryashov method is applied to the variant Boussinesq equations, and the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton equations. As a result a range of qualitative explicit exact traveling wave solutions are deduced for these equations, which motivates us to develop, in the near future, a new approach to obtain unsteady solutions of autonomous nonlinear evolution equations those arise in mathematical physics and engineering fields. It is uncomplicated to extend this method to higher-order nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. And it should be possible to apply the same method to nonlinear evolution equations having more general forms of nonlinearities by utilizing the traveling wave hypothesis. PMID:27347461

  16. Nonlinear interaction of atmospheric, surface-gravity, and hydroacoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the generation of hydroacoustic waves by the mutual interaction of atmospheric and surface-gravity waves, through nonlinear resonant triad interaction. To this end, we consider a two fluid problem, with a half-space air layer over a compressible water layer of finite depth, and a rigid bottom. The governing equations comprise a quadratic compressible wave equation, and the standard associated boundary conditions. Using a multiple scale approach we derive at the amplitude evolution equations for all three triad members. It is shown that the energy input by the atmospheric wave is transferred to the acoustic mode, with no noticeable effect on the surface gravity mode.

  17. Exactly solvable model of resonance tunneling of an electromagnetic wave in plasma containing short-scale inhomogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Erokhin, N. S. Zakharov, V. E.; Zol’nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2015-02-15

    Different variants of resonance tunneling of a transverse electromagnetic wave through a plasma layer containing short-scale (subwavelength) inhomogeneities, including evanescence regions to which approximate methods are inapplicable, are analyzed in the framework of an exactly solvable one-dimensional model. Complex plasma density profiles described by a number of free parameters determining the permittivity modulation depth, the characteristic scale lengths of plasma structures, their number, and the thickness of the inhomogeneous plasma layer are considered. It is demonstrated that reflection-free propagation of the wave incident on the layer from vacuum (the effect of wave-barrier transillumination) can be achieved for various sets of such structures, including plasma density profiles containing a stochastic component. Taking into account cubic nonlinearity, it is also possible to obtain an exact solution to the one-dimensional problem on the nonlinear transillumination of nonuniform plasma. In this case, the thicknesses of the evanescence regions decrease appreciably. The problem of resonance tunneling of electromagnetic waves through such barriers is of interest for a number of practical applications.

  18. Effective dielectric tensor for electromagnetic wave propagation in random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechtsman, M. C.; Torquato, S.

    2008-04-01

    We derive exact strong-contrast expansions for the effective dielectric tensor ɛe of electromagnetic waves propagating in a two-phase composite random medium with isotropic components explicitly in terms of certain integrals over the n-point correlation functions of the medium. Our focus is the long-wavelength regime, i.e., when the wavelength is much larger than the scale of inhomogeneities in the medium. Lower-order truncations of these expansions lead to approximations for the effective dielectric constant that depend upon whether the medium is below or above the percolation threshold. In particular, we apply two- and three-point approximations for ɛe to a variety of different three-dimensional model microstructures, including dispersions of hard spheres, hard oriented spheroids, and fully penetrable spheres as well as Debye random media, the random checkerboard, and power-law-correlated materials. We demonstrate the importance of employing n-point correlation functions of order higher than two for high dielectric-phase-contrast ratio. We show that disorder in the microstructure results in an imaginary component of the effective dielectric tensor that is directly related to the coarseness of the composite, i.e., local-volume-fraction fluctuations for infinitely large windows. The source of this imaginary component is the attenuation of the coherent homogenized wave due to scattering. We also remark on whether there is such attenuation in the case of a two-phase medium with a quasiperiodic structure.

  19. Electromagnetic Waves and Bursty Electron Acceleration: Implications from Freja

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersson, Laila; Ivchenko, N.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Clemmons, J.; Gustavsson, B.; Eliasson, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dispersive Alfven wave activity is identified in four dayside auroral oval events measured by the Freja satellite. The events are characterized by ion injection, bursty electron precipitation below about I keV, transverse ion heating and broadband extremely low frequency (ELF) emissions below the lower hybrid cutoff frequency (a few kHz). The broadband emissions are observed to become more electrostatic towards higher frequencies. Large-scale density depletions/cavities, as determined by the Langmuir probe measurements, and strong electrostatic emissions are often observed simultaneously. A correlation study has been carried out between the E- and B-field fluctuations below 64 Hz (the dc instrument's upper threshold) and the characteristics of the precipitating electrons. This study revealed that the energization of electrons is indeed related to the broadband ELF emissions and that the electrostatic component plays a predominant role during very active magnetospheric conditions. Furthermore, the effect of the ELF electromagnetic emissions on the larger scale field-aligned current systems has been investigated, and it is found that such an effect cannot be detected. Instead, the Alfvenic activity creates a local region of field-aligned currents. It is suggested that dispersive Alfven waves set up these local field-aligned current regions and in turn trigger more electrostatic emissions during certain conditions. In these regions ions are transversely heated, and large-scale density depletions/cavities may be created during especially active periods.

  20. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Quasi self-adjoint nonlinear wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, N. H.; Torrisi, M.; Tracinà, R.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we generalize the classification of self-adjoint second-order linear partial differential equation to a family of nonlinear wave equations with two independent variables. We find a class of quasi self-adjoint nonlinear equations which includes the self-adjoint linear equations as a particular case. The property of a differential equation to be quasi self-adjoint is important, e.g. for constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation.

  1. Nonlinear waves propagating in the electrical transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W.-S.

    2004-04-01

    A coupled Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived for a nonlinear transmission line in which the nonlinear capacitance C is of a general form C = C0(1 + k1V + k2V2 + ...). For a solitary-wave solution of the ZK equation, there is an instability region which is given numerically in this paper. It is in agreement with the analytical results for special cases.

  2. Enhanced four-wave mixing with nonlinear plasmonic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Boyuan; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2016-06-01

    Plasmonic metasurfaces provide an effective way to increase the efficiency of several nonlinear processes while maintaining nanoscale dimensions. In this work, nonlinear metasurfaces based on film-coupled silver nanostripes loaded with Kerr nonlinear material are proposed to achieve efficient four-wave mixing (FWM). Highly localized plasmon resonances are formed in the nanogap between the metallic film and nanostripes. The local electric field is dramatically enhanced in this subwavelength nanoregion. These properties combined with the relaxed phase matching condition due to the ultrathin area lead to a giant FWM efficiency, which is enhanced by nineteen orders of magnitude compared to a bare silver screen. In addition, efficient visible and low-THz sources can be constructed based on the proposed nonlinear metasurfaces. The FWM generated coherent wave has a directional radiation pattern and its output power is relatively insensitive to the incident angles of the excitation sources. This radiated power can be further enhanced by increasing the excitation power. The dielectric nonlinear material placed in the nanogap is mainly responsible for the ultrastrong FWM response. Compact and efficient wave mixers and optical sources spanning different frequency ranges are envisioned to be designed based on the proposed nonlinear metasurface designs.

  3. Enhanced four-wave mixing with nonlinear plasmonic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Boyuan; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic metasurfaces provide an effective way to increase the efficiency of several nonlinear processes while maintaining nanoscale dimensions. In this work, nonlinear metasurfaces based on film-coupled silver nanostripes loaded with Kerr nonlinear material are proposed to achieve efficient four-wave mixing (FWM). Highly localized plasmon resonances are formed in the nanogap between the metallic film and nanostripes. The local electric field is dramatically enhanced in this subwavelength nanoregion. These properties combined with the relaxed phase matching condition due to the ultrathin area lead to a giant FWM efficiency, which is enhanced by nineteen orders of magnitude compared to a bare silver screen. In addition, efficient visible and low-THz sources can be constructed based on the proposed nonlinear metasurfaces. The FWM generated coherent wave has a directional radiation pattern and its output power is relatively insensitive to the incident angles of the excitation sources. This radiated power can be further enhanced by increasing the excitation power. The dielectric nonlinear material placed in the nanogap is mainly responsible for the ultrastrong FWM response. Compact and efficient wave mixers and optical sources spanning different frequency ranges are envisioned to be designed based on the proposed nonlinear metasurface designs. PMID:27345755

  4. Enhanced four-wave mixing with nonlinear plasmonic metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Jin, Boyuan; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic metasurfaces provide an effective way to increase the efficiency of several nonlinear processes while maintaining nanoscale dimensions. In this work, nonlinear metasurfaces based on film-coupled silver nanostripes loaded with Kerr nonlinear material are proposed to achieve efficient four-wave mixing (FWM). Highly localized plasmon resonances are formed in the nanogap between the metallic film and nanostripes. The local electric field is dramatically enhanced in this subwavelength nanoregion. These properties combined with the relaxed phase matching condition due to the ultrathin area lead to a giant FWM efficiency, which is enhanced by nineteen orders of magnitude compared to a bare silver screen. In addition, efficient visible and low-THz sources can be constructed based on the proposed nonlinear metasurfaces. The FWM generated coherent wave has a directional radiation pattern and its output power is relatively insensitive to the incident angles of the excitation sources. This radiated power can be further enhanced by increasing the excitation power. The dielectric nonlinear material placed in the nanogap is mainly responsible for the ultrastrong FWM response. Compact and efficient wave mixers and optical sources spanning different frequency ranges are envisioned to be designed based on the proposed nonlinear metasurface designs. PMID:27345755

  5. Nonlinearly driven oscillations in the gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C. C.; Pao, K. F.; Yan, Y. C.; Chu, K. R.; Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2008-12-15

    By delivering unprecedented power and gain, the gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWT) offers great promise for advanced millimeter wave radars. However, the underlying physics of this complex nonlinear system is yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we report a new phenomenon in the form of nonlinearly driven oscillations. A zero-drive stable gyro-TWT is shown to be susceptible to a considerably reduced dynamic range at the band edge, followed by a sudden transition into driven oscillations and then a hysteresis effect. An analysis of this unexpected behavior and its physical interpretation are presented.

  6. Nonlinear fast sausage waves in homogeneous magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalyaev, Badma B.; Ruderman, Michael S.

    2015-12-01

    > We consider fast sausage waves in straight homogeneous magnetic tubes. The plasma motion is described by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in the cold plasma approximation. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the nonlinear evolution of an envelope of a carrier wave. The coefficients of this equation are expressed in terms Bessel and modified Bessel functions. They are calculated numerically for various values of parameters. In particular, we show that the criterion for the onset of the modulational or Benjamin-Fair instability is satisfied. The implication of the obtained results for solar physics is discussed.

  7. Nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves in a finite beta plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Som, B.K. ); Dasgupta, B.; Patel, V.L. ); Gupta, M.R. )

    1989-12-01

    A general form of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation, describing the nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, is derived by using two-fluid equations with electron and ion pressure tensors obtained from Braginskii (in {ital Reviews} {ital of} {ital Plasma Physics} (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 218). This equation is a mixed version of the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation and the DNLS, as it contains an additional cubic nonlinear term that is of the same order as the derivative of the nonlinear terms, a term containing the product of a quadratic term, and a first-order derivative. It incorporates the effects of finite beta, which is an important characteristic of space and laboratory plasmas.

  8. Matter-wave soliton interferometer based on a nonlinear splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.

    2016-02-01

    We elaborate a model of the interferometer which, unlike previously studied ones, uses a local (δ-functional) nonlinear repulsive potential, embedded into a harmonic-oscillator trapping potential, as the splitter for the incident soliton. An estimate demonstrates that this setting may be implemented by means of the localized Feshbach resonance controlled by a focused laser beam. The same system may be realized as a nonlinear waveguide in optics. Subsequent analysis produces an exact solution for scattering of a plane wave in the linear medium on the δ -functional nonlinear repulsive potential, and an approximate solution for splitting of the incident soliton when the ambient medium is nonlinear. The most essential result, obtained by means of systematic simulations, is that the use of the nonlinear splitter provides the sensitivity of the soliton-based interferometer to the target, inserted into one of its arms, which is much higher than the sensitivity provided by the usual linear splitter.

  9. Study of solar wind spectra by nonlinear waves interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Navin; Sharma, Rampal; Narita, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    The nature of small-scale turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind (SW) turbulence is a topic that is being investigated extensively nowadays, both theoretically and observationally. Although recent observations predict the evidence of the dominance of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAW) at sub-ion scales with frequency below than ion cyclotron frequency, while other studies suggest that the KAW mode cannot carry the turbulence cascade down to electron scales and that the whistler mode is more relevant. In the present work, nonlinear interaction of kinetic Alfvén wave with whistler wave is considered as one of the possible cause responsible for the solar wind turbulence. A set of coupled dimensionless equations are derived for the intermediate beta plasmas and the nonlinear interaction between these two wave modes has been studied. As a consequence of ponderomotive nonlinearity, the pump KAW becomes filamented when its power exceeds the threshold for the filamentation instability. Whistler is considered to be weak and thus doesn't have enough intensity to initiate its own localization. It gets localized while propagating through the density channel created by KAW localization. In addition, spectral scales of power spectra of KAW and whistler are also calculated. The steeper spectra are found with scaling greater than -5/3. This type of nonlinear interaction between different wave modes and steeper spectra is one of the reasons for the solar wind turbulence and particles acceleration. This work is partially supported by DST (India) and FP7/STORM (313038)

  10. Seismo-Electromagnetic Emissions Related to Seismic Waves can Trigger TLEs

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, Leonid V.

    2009-04-27

    This paper deals with the rare high intensity electromagnetic pulses associated with earthquakes, whose spectrum signature differs from that of atmospherics produced by lightning discharges. On the basis of actual data records, cases of the generation of anomalous seismo-electromagnetic emissions are described. These natural sub-millisecond electromagnetic pulses were associated with the passage of seismic waves from earthquakes to Moscow, the place where the electromagnetic field observations were made. Space-time coupling has been revealed between exact seismic waves from the earthquakes, lightning triggering and Transient Luminous Events triggering.

  11. Nonlinear Waves in Hall MHD: Analysis and Comparison to Known Linear Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Jesse; Mahajan, Swadesh; Dorland, William

    2004-11-01

    Recently, a novel set of nonlinear waves were found to satisfy the Hall-Magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD) equations. The Mahajan-Krishan solution is a generalization of the classic Walén Nonlinear Alvén wave, of the form b=±αv. The implications of this mode are studied, including polarization and superposition. In particular, the gyrokinetic limit (k_⊥≫ k_\\|) is used in an attempt to match the MK wave to known Kinetic Alfvén waves and introduce FLR effects.

  12. Nonlinear Internal Waves in the South China Sea During ASIAEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Tang, David T.; Ramp, Steve R.

    2002-01-01

    Internal wave distribution maps have been compiled from more than one hundred ERS-1/2, RADARSAT and Space Shuttle SAR images in the South China Sea (SCS) from 1993 to 2000. Based on these distribution maps, most of internal waves in the northeast part of SCS were propagating westward. The wave crest can be as long as 200 km with amplitude of 100 m, due to strong current from the Kuroshio branching out into the SCS. In recent Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX), moorings have been deployed in April 2000 and May 2001. Simultaneous RADARSAT ScanSAR images have been collected during the field test to integrate with the model and the in-situ measurements in the SCS. During ASIAEX in May 2001, many large internal waves were observed at the test area and were the major features for acoustic volume interaction. The environmental parameters have been calculated based on extensive CTD castings and mooring data. Nonlinear internal wave models have been applied to simulate the wave evolution on the continental shelf and the results compare reasonably with mooring measurements. The evolution and dissipation of huge internal waves on the shelf break, mode-two waves, elevation waves, and wave-wave interaction are very important issues for acoustic propagation. The implication of internal wave effects on acoustic propagation will also be discussed.

  13. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. F.; Ngo, H. D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model for electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and the topside ionosphere, where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. In this model, the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. Results indicate that high-amplitude short-wavelength (5 to 100 m) quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves can be excited when electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from small-scale planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  14. Air-coupled detection of nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves to assess material nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Sebastian; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2014-08-01

    This research presents a new technique for nonlinear Rayleigh surface wave measurements that uses a non-contact, air-coupled ultrasonic transducer; this receiver is less dependent on surface conditions than laser-based detection, and is much more accurate and efficient than detection with a contact wedge transducer. A viable experimental setup is presented that enables the robust, non-contact measurement of nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves over a range of propagation distances. The relative nonlinearity parameter is obtained as the slope of the normalized second harmonic amplitudes plotted versus propagation distance. This experimental setup is then used to assess the relative nonlinearity parameters of two aluminum alloy specimens (Al 2024-T351 and Al 7075-T651). These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique - the average standard deviation of the normalized second harmonic amplitudes, measured at locations along the propagation path, is below 2%. Experimental validation is provided by a comparison of the ratio of the measured nonlinearity parameters of these specimens with ratios from the absolute nonlinearity parameters for the same materials measured by capacitive detection of nonlinear longitudinal waves. PMID:24836962

  15. Reverberation clutter induced by nonlinear internal waves in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Henyey, Frank S; Tang, Dajun

    2013-10-01

    Clutter is related to false alarms for active sonar. It is demonstrated that, in shallow water, target-like clutter in reverberation signals can be caused by nonlinear internal waves. A nonlinear internal wave is modeled using measured stratification on the New Jersey shelf. Reverberation in the presence of the internal wave is modeled numerically. Calculations show that acoustic energy propagating near a sound speed minimum is deflected as a high intensity, higher angle beam into the bottom, where it is backscattered along the reciprocal path. The interaction of sound with the internal wave is isolated in space, hence resulting in a target-like clutter, which is found to be greater than 10 dB above the mean reverberation level. PMID:24116532

  16. On the nature of kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-03-01

    An analytical theory is proposed for the kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) waves originally found in simulations by Afeyan et al. [arXiv:1210.8105]. We suggest that KEEN waves represent saturated states of the negative mass instability (NMI) reported recently by Dodin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)]. Due to the NMI, trapped electrons form macroparticles that produce field oscillations at harmonics of the bounce frequency. At large enough amplitudes, these harmonics can phase-lock to the main wave and form stable nonlinear dissipationless structures that are nonstationary but otherwise similar to Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes. The theory explains why the formation of KEEN modes is sensitive to the excitation scenario and yields estimates that agree with the numerical results of Afeyan et al. A new type of KEEN wave may be possible at even larger amplitudes of the driving field than those used in simulations so far.

  17. Nonlinear particle simulation of ion cyclotron waves in toroidal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kuley, A. Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.

    2015-12-10

    Global particle simulation model has been developed in this work to provide a first-principles tool for studying the nonlinear interactions of radio frequency (RF) waves with plasmas in tokamak. In this model, ions are considered as fully kinetic particles using the Vlasov equation and electrons are treated as guiding centers using the drift kinetic equation with realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio. Boris push scheme for the ion motion has been developed in the toroidal geometry using magnetic coordinates and successfully verified for the ion cyclotron and ion Bernstein waves in global gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). The nonlinear simulation capability is applied to study the parametric decay instability of a pump wave into an ion Bernstein wave side band and a low frequency ion cyclotron quasi mode.

  18. Properties of electrons scattered by a strong plane electromagnetic wave with a linear polarization: Semiclassical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, O. V.; Kazinski, P. O.

    2015-02-01

    The problem of scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons by a strong plane electromagnetic wave of a low (optical) frequency and linear polarization is solved in the semiclassical approximation, when the electron wave packet size is much smaller than the wavelength of electromagnetic wave. The exit momenta of ultrarelativistic electrons scattered are found using the exact solutions to the equations of motion with radiation reaction included (the Landau-Lifshitz equation). It is found that the momentum components of electrons traversed the electromagnetic wave depend weakly on the initial values of momenta. These electrons are mostly scattered at small angles to the propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave. The maximum Lorentz factor of electrons crossed the electromagnetic wave is proportional to the work done by the electromagnetic field and is independent of the initial momentum. The momentum component parallel to the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is determined solely by the laser beam diameter measured in the units of the classical electron radius. As for the reflected electrons, they for the most part lose the energy, but remain relativistic. A reflection law that relates the incident and reflection angles and is independent of any parameters is found.

  19. Nonlinear reflection of internal gravity wave onto a slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Keshav; Sommeria, Joel; Staquet, Chantal; Leclair, Matthieu; Grisouard, Nicolas; Gostiaux, Louis

    2016-04-01

    The interaction of internal waves on sloping topography is one of the processes that cause mixing and transport in oceans. The mixing caused by internal waves is considered to be an important source of energy that is needed to bring back deep, dense water from the abyss to the surface of the ocean, across constant density surfaces. Apart from the vertical transport of heat (downwards) and mass (upwards), internal waves are also observed to irreversibly induce a mean horizontal flow. Mixing and wave induced mean flow may be considered as the processes that transfer wave induced energy to smaller and larger scales respectively. The process of mixing has been a subject of intense research lately. However, the process of wave induced mean flow and their dynamic impact await thorough study. The present study involves this wave induced mean flow, its generation and energetics. The nonlinear subcritical reflection of internal waves from a sloping boundary is studied using laboratory experiments carried out on the Coriolis Platform at Grenoble and, 2D and 3D numerical simulations done using a non-hydrostatic code. In the experiment, a plane wave is produced using a wave generator and is made to reflect normally on a sloping bottom in a uniformly stratified fluid. We consider both rotating and non-rotating cases. The numerical simulation mimicks the laboratory setup with an initial condition of an analytical plane wave solution in a vertical plane limited by a smooth envelope to simulate the finite wave generator. The interaction of the incident and reflected waves produce, apart from higher harmonics, an irreversible wave induced mean flow which grows in time and is localised in the interacting region. The finite extent of the wave generator allows the mean flow to recirculate in the horizontal plane, resulting in a dipolar potential vorticity field. Moreover, the generation of mean flow and higher harmonics, along with dissipative effects, diminishes the amplitude of

  20. Nonlinear Generalized Hydrodynamic Wave Equations in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Veeresha, B. M.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.

    2008-09-07

    A set of nonlinear equations for the study of low frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is derived using the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model and is used to study the modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbations. Dust compressibility contributions arising from strong Coulomb coupling effects are found to introduce significant modifications in the threshold and range of the instability domain.

  1. Nonlinear Guided Wave Mixing for Localized Material State Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Liu, Yang; Chillara, Vamshi K.; Choi, Gloria; Cho, Hwanjeong

    Material state characterization methods sensitive to incipient damage provide new opportunities for managing the life cycle of structures. Finite element simulations of ultrasonic guided waves show the potential of nonlinear wave mixing to detect localized degradation invisible to both linear elastic stress-strain response and the eye. Correlation of material degradation to the generation of higher harmonics or combinational harmonics makes estimation of remaining life possible from material state data early in the service life.

  2. Optimization of a finite difference method for nonlinear wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Miaochao

    2013-07-01

    Wave equations have important fluid dynamics background, which are extensively used in many fields, such as aviation, meteorology, maritime, water conservancy, etc. This paper is devoted to the explicit difference method for nonlinear wave equations. Firstly, a three-level and explicit difference scheme is derived. It is shown that the explicit difference scheme is uniquely solvable and convergent. Moreover, a numerical experiment is conducted to illustrate the theoretical results of the presented method.

  3. Coda wave interferometry for estimating nonlinear behavior in seismic velocity.

    PubMed

    Snieder, Roel; Grêt, Alexandre; Douma, Huub; Scales, John

    2002-03-22

    In coda wave interferometry, one records multiply scattered waves at a limited number of receivers to infer changes in the medium over time. With this technique, we have determined the nonlinear dependence of the seismic velocity in granite on temperature and the associated acoustic emissions. This technique can be used in warning mode, to detect the presence of temporal changes in the medium, or in diagnostic mode, where the temporal change in the medium is quantified. PMID:11910107

  4. Warm wavebreaking of nonlinear plasma waves with arbitrary phasevelocities

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.

    2004-11-12

    A warm, relativistic fluid theory of a nonequilibrium, collisionless plasma is developed to analyze nonlinear plasma waves excited by intense drive beams. The maximum amplitude and wavelength are calculated for nonrelativistic plasma temperatures and arbitrary plasma wave phase velocities. The maximum amplitude is shown to increase in the presence of a laser field. These results set a limit to the achievable gradient in plasma-based accelerators.

  5. Multidimensional detonation propagation modeled via nonlinear shock wave superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Andrew; Mehrjoo, Navid

    2010-11-01

    Detonation waves in gases are inherently multidimensional due to their cellular structure, and detonations in liquids and heterogeneous solids are often associated with instabilities and stochastic, localized reaction centers (i.e., hot spots). To explore the statistical nature of detonation dynamics in such systems, a simple model that idealizes detonation propagation as an ensemble of interacting blast waves originating from spatially random point sources has been proposed. Prior results using this model exhibited features that have been observed in real detonating systems, such as anomalous scaling between axisymmetric and two-dimensional geometries. However, those efforts used simple linear superposition of the blast waves. The present work uses a model of blast wave superposition developed for multiple-source explosions (the LAMB approximation) that incorporates the nonlinear interaction of shock waves analytically, permitting the effect of a more physical model of blast wave interaction to be explored. The results are suggestive of a universal behavior in systems of spatially randomized energy sources.

  6. Rayleigh wave nonlinear inversion based on the Firefly algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Teng-Fei; Peng, Geng-Xin; Hu, Tian-Yue; Duan, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Feng-Chang; Liu, Yi-Mou

    2014-06-01

    Rayleigh waves have high amplitude, low frequency, and low velocity, which are treated as strong noise to be attenuated in reflected seismic surveys. This study addresses how to identify useful shear wave velocity profile and stratigraphic information from Rayleigh waves. We choose the Firefly algorithm for inversion of surface waves. The Firefly algorithm, a new type of particle swarm optimization, has the advantages of being robust, highly effective, and allows global searching. This algorithm is feasible and has advantages for use in Rayleigh wave inversion with both synthetic models and field data. The results show that the Firefly algorithm, which is a robust and practical method, can achieve nonlinear inversion of surface waves with high resolution.

  7. Weak nonlinear coupling of Rossby-Haurwitz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    1986-11-01

    The Rossby-Haurwitz waves as solutions of the linearized free barotropic vorticity equation in a spherical coordinate system are in good agreement with the observed ultralong planetary waves of the troposphere. Within an antisymmetric basic flow, as in the middle atmosphere, the solutions become unstable because of mathematical singularities, called 'critical latitudes'. Therefore the nonlinear advection terms have to be considered in such a case. Analytical solutions of a corresponding spectral truncated model demonstrate the weak interaction between the mean flow and the ultralong waves of zonal wavenumbers one to three. The time structures of the planetary waves change from periodic oscillations via vacillations to turbulent character with increasing initial amplitudes. Finally the spectral model is extended by the waves of wavenumber four. The numerical solutions for the periods of the planetary waves within tropospheric and stratospheric basic flow configurations agree with observations.

  8. Analysis of nonlinear internal waves in the New York Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the nonlinear-internal-wave evolution in the New York Bight was performed on the basis of current meter mooring data obtained in the New York Bight during the SAR Internal Wave Signature Experiment (SARSEX). The solitary wave theory was extended to include dissipation and shoaling effects, and a series of numerical experiments were performed by solving the wave evolution equation, with waveforms observed in the SARSEX area as initial conditions. The results of calculations demonstrate that the relative balance of dissipation and shoaling effects is crucial to the detailed evolution of internal wave packets. From an observed initial wave packet at the upstream mooring, the numerical evolution simulation agreed reasonably well with the measurements at the distant mooring for the leading two large solitons.

  9. Parameter spaces for linear and nonlinear whistler-mode waves

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Danny; Tang, Rongxin; Omura, Yoshiharu; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2013-07-15

    We examine the growth of magnetospheric whistler-mode waves which comprises a linear growth phase followed by a nonlinear growth phase. We construct time-profiles for the wave amplitude that smoothly match at the transition between linear and nonlinear wave growth. This matching procedure can only take place over a limited “matching region” in (N{sub h}/N{sub 0},A{sub T})-space, where A{sub T} is the electron thermal anisotropy, N{sub h} is the hot (energetic) electron number density, and N{sub 0} is the cold (background) electron number density. We construct this matching region and determine how the matching wave amplitude varies throughout the region. Further, we specify a boundary in (N{sub h}/N{sub 0},A{sub T})-space that separates a region where only linear chorus wave growth can occur from the region in which fully nonlinear chorus growth is possible. We expect that this boundary should prove of practical use in performing computationally expensive full-scale particle simulations, and in interpreting experimental wave data.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of Airy-vortex 3D wave packets: emission of vortex light waves.

    PubMed

    Driben, Rodislav; Meier, Torsten

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of 3D Airy-vortex wave packets is studied under the action of strong self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Emissions of nonlinear 3D waves out of the main wave packets with the topological charges were demonstrated. Because of the conservation of the total angular momentum, charges of the emitted waves are equal to those carried by the parental light structure. The rapid collapse imposes a severe limitation on the propagation of multidimensional waves in Kerr media. However, the structure of the Airy beam carrier allows the coupling of light from the leading, most intense peak into neighboring peaks and consequently strongly postpones the collapse. The dependence of the critical input amplitude for the appearance of a fast collapse on the beam width is studied for wave packets with zero and nonzero topological charges. Wave packets carrying angular momentum are found to be much more resistant to the rapid collapse. PMID:25360922

  11. Particle-in-cell Simulations of Electromagnetic Wave Scattering From Numerically Generated Flute-type Density Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, D. S.; Caplinger, J.; Kim, T. C.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves can be influenced by the presence of plasma turbulence. It is known that Flute-type density irregularities can develop during the nonlinear stage of an interchange instability in Earth's ionosphere and can affect radio communication channels. These density structures play an important role in the refraction and scattering of EM waves in Earth's ionosphere and also in laser diagnostic scattering experiments. To generate Flute-type density irregularities, we will use previously obtained numerical solution of nonlinear fluid equations involving the electrostatic potential and density. The solutions to these fluid equations govern the development of an interchange instability and results in the spatial dependence of density irregularities which can be used to analyze scattering of high frequency EM waves. This solution contains both large scale vortex density structures coexisting with short scale density perturbations. Next we will initialize a PIC simulation with the density structure from the fluid simulation to calculate the scattering cross-section and compare the results with an analytic solution obtained using numerically calculated density spectra. Because the linear and non-linear stages are well separated in time, we will compare the effect of scattering from density irregularities which form in both the linear and non-linear stages.

  12. Electromagnetic wave band structure due to surface plasmon resonances in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, S. V.; Ishihara, O.

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric properties of complex plasma containing either metal or dielectric spherical inclusions (macroparticles, dust) are investigated. We focus on surface plasmon resonances on the macroparticle surfaces and their effect on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is demonstrated that the presence of surface plasmon oscillations can significantly modify plasma electromagnetic properties by resonances and cutoffs in the effective permittivity. This leads to related branches of electromagnetic waves and to the wave band gaps. The conditions necessary to observe the band-gap structure in laboratory dusty plasma and/or space (cosmic) dusty plasmas are discussed.

  13. Electromagnetic wave band structure due to surface plasmon resonances in a complex plasma.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, S V; Ishihara, O

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric properties of complex plasma containing either metal or dielectric spherical inclusions (macroparticles, dust) are investigated. We focus on surface plasmon resonances on the macroparticle surfaces and their effect on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is demonstrated that the presence of surface plasmon oscillations can significantly modify plasma electromagnetic properties by resonances and cutoffs in the effective permittivity. This leads to related branches of electromagnetic waves and to the wave band gaps. The conditions necessary to observe the band-gap structure in laboratory dusty plasma and/or space (cosmic) dusty plasmas are discussed. PMID:27575225

  14. Travelling Waves for the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with General Nonlinearity in Dimension Two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiron, David; Scheid, Claire

    2016-02-01

    We investigate numerically the two-dimensional travelling waves of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for a general nonlinearity and with nonzero condition at infinity. In particular, we are interested in the energy-momentum diagrams. We propose a numerical strategy based on the variational structure of the equation. The key point is to characterize the saddle points of the action as minimizers of another functional that allows us to use a gradient flow. We combine this approach with a continuation method in speed in order to obtain the full range of velocities. Through various examples, we show that even though the nonlinearity has the same behaviour as the well-known Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinearity, the qualitative properties of the travelling waves may be extremely different. For instance, we observe cusps, a modified KP-I asymptotic in the transonic limit, various multiplicity results and "one-dimensional spreading" phenomena.

  15. A review of nondestructive testing approaches using mechanical and electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Denvid; Qiu, Qiwen

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical and electromagnetic waves are commonly used in nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques for evaluating the materials and structures in civil engineering industry, due to their good examination of defects inside the matter. However, the individual use of mechanical wave or electromagnetic wave in NDT methods sometimes does not fulfill the satisfactory detection in practice because of the operational inconvenience and low sensitivity. It has been demonstrated that the combination of using both types of waves can achieve a better performance for NDT application and would be the future direction for defect detection, as the advantages of each physical wave are picked out whereas the weaknesses are mitigated. This paper discusses the fundamental mechanisms and the current applications of using mechanical and electromagnetic waves for defect detection, with the goal of providing the physical knowledge and the perspectives of developing the NDT applications with these two types of waves. Typical mechanical-wave-based NDT methods such as acoustic emission, ultrasonic technique, and impact-echo method are reviewed. In addition, NDT methods using electromagnetic wave, which include optical fiber sensing technique, laser speckle interferometry and laser reflection technique are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are outlined. In particular, we focus on a recent NDT method called acoustic-laser technique, which utilizes both the mechanical and electromagnetic waves. The basic principles and some important experimental data recorded by the acoustic-laser technique are described and its future development in the field of defect detection in civil infrastructure is presented.

  16. Linear and nonlinear coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic fluctuations with one dimensional trapping of electrons using product bi (r,q) distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Tahir; Masood, W.; Qureshi, M. N. S.; Shah, H. A.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated the ramifications of adiabatic trapping of electrons using a bi product ( r , q ) distribution function on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low β plasma. In this regard, we have analyzed the linear and nonlinear dispersion characteristics of finite amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves using the two-potential theory and employing Sagdeev potential approach. We have deliberated upon the results of the present inquest and highlighted its importance by citing works that have reported the simultaneous presence of electromagnetic pulses and flat-topped distribution of electrons.

  17. Weak localization with nonlinear bosonic matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Timo; Michl, Josef; Petitjean, Cyril; Wellens, Thomas; Urbina, Juan-Diego; Richter, Klaus; Schlagheck, Peter

    2012-08-15

    We investigate the coherent propagation of dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates through irregularly shaped billiard geometries that are attached to uniform incoming and outgoing waveguides. Using the mean-field description based on the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we develop a diagrammatic theory for the self-consistent stationary scattering state of the interacting condensate, which is combined with the semiclassical representation of the single-particle Green function in terms of chaotic classical trajectories within the billiard. This analytical approach predicts a universal dephasing of weak localization in the presence of a small interaction strength between the atoms, which is found to be in good agreement with the numerically computed reflection and transmission probabilities of the propagating condensate. The numerical simulation of this quasi-stationary scattering process indicates that this interaction-induced dephasing mechanism may give rise to a signature of weak antilocalization, which we attribute to the influence of non-universal short-path contributions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of scattering of Bose-Einstein condensate through billiards. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel analytical semiclassical theory for nonlinear coherent scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inversion of weak localization due to mean-field interaction within the condensate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevance of non-universal short-path contributions.

  18. Spectral gaps for electromagnetic and scalar waves: Possible explanation for certain differences

    SciTech Connect

    Sigalas, M.M.; Economou, E.N. ); Kafesaki, M. Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71409 Crete )

    1994-08-01

    We study two different scalar wave equations. One of them exhibits the main gross features of the simple scalar and elastic wave propagation in periodic composite media. The other behaves similarly to the electromagnetic waves in preferring the network topology and the higher volume fractions for developing spectral gaps.

  19. Leaky surface electromagnetic waves on a high-index dielectric grating.

    PubMed

    Maradudin, A A; Simonsen, I; Zierau, W

    2016-05-15

    We show theoretically that the periodically corrugated surface of a high-index dielectric medium can support a leaky surface electromagnetic wave. This wave is bound to the surface in the vacuum, but radiates into the dielectric. Despite this radiative damping, the surface wave can have a long lifetime. PMID:27176969

  20. Damping and scattering of electromagnetic waves by small ferrite spheres suspended in an insulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, Gerald W.

    1992-01-01

    The intentional degradation of electromagnetic waves by their penetration into a media comprised of somewhat sparsely distributed energy absorbing ferrite spheres suspended in an electrical insulator is investigated. Results are presented in terms of generalized parameters involving wave length and sphere size, sphere resistivity, permeability, and spacing; their influence on dissipation of wave power by eddy currents, magnetic hysteresis, and scattering is shown.

  1. A wave guide model of lightning currents and their electromagnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volland, H.

    1980-01-01

    Lightning channels are considered as resonant wave guides in which only standing resonant wave modes can be excited. Two types of discharging currents develop. Type 1 is an aperiodic wave; type 2 is a damped oscillation. The electromagnetic radiation field of both types of currents is calculated and compared with the observation.

  2. Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Christov, Ivan; Christov, C. I.; Jordan, P. M.

    2014-12-18

    This article presents errors, corrections, and additions to the research outlined in the following citation: Christov, I., Christov, C. I., & Jordan, P. M. (2007). Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 60(4), 473-495.

  3. A k-Space Method for Moderately Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yun; Wang, Tianren; Clement, Greg T.

    2013-01-01

    A k-space method for moderately nonlinear wave propagation in absorptive media is presented. The Westervelt equation is first transferred into k-space via Fourier transformation, and is solved by a modified wave-vector time-domain scheme. The present approach is not limited to forward propagation or parabolic approximation. One- and two-dimensional problems are investigated to verify the method by comparing results to analytic solutions and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. It is found that to obtain accurate results in homogeneous media, the grid size can be as little as two points per wavelength, and for a moderately nonlinear problem, the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy number can be as large as 0.4. Through comparisons with the conventional FDTD method, the k-space method for nonlinear wave propagation is shown here to be computationally more efficient and accurate. The k-space method is then employed to study three-dimensional nonlinear wave propagation through the skull, which shows that a relatively accurate focusing can be achieved in the brain at a high frequency by sending a low frequency from the transducer. Finally, implementations of the k-space method using a single graphics processing unit shows that it required about one-seventh the computation time of a single-core CPU calculation. PMID:22899114

  4. Phase space lattices and integrable nonlinear wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Eugene; Zobin, Nahum

    2003-10-01

    Nonlinear wave equations in fluids and plasmas that are integrable by Inverse Scattering Theory (IST), such as the Korteweg-deVries and nonlinear Schrodinger equations, are known to be infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems [1]. These are of interest physically because they predict new phenomena not present in linear wave theories, such as solitons and rogue waves. The IST method provides solutions of these equations in terms of a special class of functions called Riemann theta functions. The usual approach to the theory of theta functions tends to obscure the underlying phase space structure. A theory due to Mumford and Igusa [2], however shows that the theta functions arise naturally in the study of phase space lattices. We will describe this theory, as well as potential applications to nonlinear signal processing and the statistical theory of nonlinear waves. 1] , S. Novikov, S. V. Manakov, L. P. Pitaevskii and V. E. Zakharov, Theory of solitons: the inverse scattering method (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1984). 2] D. Mumford, Tata lectures on theta, Vols. I-III (Birkhauser); J. Igusa, Theta functions (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972).

  5. Non-linear Langmuir waves in a warm quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.

    2014-10-15

    A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a warm quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its numerical solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.

  6. Nonlinear theory of pitch-angle scattering of relativistic electrons by EMIC waves in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, Y.; Zhao, Q.

    2012-12-01

    We study the nonlinear interaction between relativistic electrons and a coherent Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) wave. We assume a coherent rising-tone emission as found in recent spacecraft observations of EMIC waves[1,2]. Considering the frequency variation, we derive the second-order resonance condition for interaction between a relativistic electron and a coherent EMIC wave[3]. The second-order resonance condition controlling nonlinear wave trapping of resonant electrons depends on an inhomogeneity factor S which is a function of the frequency sweep rate, the gradient of the magnetic field, and the wave amplitude. There occurs nonlinear trappin g of electrons by the wave potential, if |S|<1. A non-zero value of S induces very effective pitch angle scattering. When an EMIC triggered emission is generated near the equator and propagates toward the high latitude, both the spatial inhomogeneity and the rising-tone frequency result in enhanced precipitation of relativistic electrons with the time scale of EMIC triggered emission (tens of seconds), which is a possible cause of the relativistic electron microbursts observed at low altitudes. [1] J. S. Pickett,, B. Grison, Y. Omura, M. J. Engebretson, I. Dandouras, A. Masson, M. L. Adrian, O. Santolik, P. M. E. Decreau, N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin, and D. Constantinescu, Cluster observations of EMIC triggered emissions in association with Pc1 waves near Earth's plasmapause, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09104, doi:10.1029/2010GL042648, 2010. [2] Y. Omura, J. S. Pickett, B. Grison, O. Santolik, I. Dandouras, M. Engebretson, P. M. E. Decreau, A. Masson, Theory and observation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron triggered emissions in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A07234, doi:10.1029/2010JA015300, 2010. [3] Y. Omura and Q. Zhao, Nonlinear pitch-angle scattering of relativistic electrons by EMIC waves in the inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., in press.

  7. Merging ``real'' neutron stars for gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duez, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Having more-or-less succeeded in learning to stably evolve Einstein's equations, numerical relativity is taking the leap to including the physics of neutron stars, which will enable us to construct truly realistic pictures of neutron star-neutron star and black hole-neutron star binary mergers. The neutron star profile affects late inspirals and mergers, leaving its imprint on gravitational waveforms and electromagnetic counterpart signals. Furthermore, we expect neutrino radiation, magnetic field, and nuclear recombination effects to drive the post-merger evolution. In this talk, I will describe some recent neutron star merger simulations combining nuclear physics and general relativity. The goal is to connect assumptions about the nuclear equation of state and the premerger binary to resulting binary trajectories, matter outflows, accretion disk dynamics, and neutrino energy output. These can then hopefully be connected to observable signals in the form of gravitational waves, kilonovae, and gamma ray bursts. It is found that an interesting variety of disks, outflows, and neutrino bursts are possible. Connections to observables are being attempted by tracking nuclear reactions in tidal ejecta and estimating energy injection to gamma ray bursts from neutrino annihilation and other sources. Meanwhile, non-vacuum inspiral simulations are finally approaching the length and accuracy needed for interesting comparisons with binary black hole waveforms and post-Newtonian predictions, these being steps toward a reliable characterization of the imprint of the nuclear equation of state on the gravitational waves. The speaker acknowledges support from NASA Grant No. NNX11AC37G and NSF Grant PHY-1068243.

  8. Modulational instability of electromagnetic electron-cyclotron wave packets in the magnetosphere with non-Maxwellian electron distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, H.; Hakimi Pajouh, H.

    2008-09-15

    The satellite observations of the magnetosphere in the low-frequency ion dynamics revealed several facts: (1) localized structures for electric field signal parallel to the magnetic field; (2) anisotropy for the electron velocity distribution such that T{sub perpendicular}<nonlinear model is presented to develop the electromagnetic electron-cyclotron (EMEC) theory to the non-Maxwellian plasmas. Then, the modulational instability analysis of EMEC waves is investigated.

  9. Linear and nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Yu, Ping

    1988-01-01

    The investigation of the acoustic wave propagation theory and numerical implementation for the situation of an isothermal atmosphere is described. A one-dimensional model to validate an asymptotic theory and a 3-D situation to relate to a realistic situation are considered. In addition, nonlinear wave propagation and the numerical treatment are included. It is known that the gravitational effects play a crucial role in the low frequency acoustic wave propagation. They propagate large distances and, as such, the numerical treatment of those problems become difficult in terms of posing boundary conditions which are valid for all frequencies.

  10. Decoupling Nonclassical Nonlinear Behavior of Elastic Wave Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillieux, Marcel C.; Guyer, Robert A.; Payan, Cédric; Ulrich, T. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, the tensorial nature of the nonequilibrium dynamics in nonlinear mesoscopic elastic materials is evidenced via multimode resonance experiments. In these experiments the dynamic response, including the spatial variations of velocities and strains, is carefully monitored while the sample is vibrated in a purely longitudinal or a purely torsional mode. By analogy with the fact that such experiments can decouple the elements of the linear elastic tensor, we demonstrate that the parameters quantifying the nonequilibrium dynamics of the material differ substantially for a compressional wave and for a shear wave. This result could lead to further understanding of the nonlinear mechanical phenomena that arise in natural systems as well as to the design and engineering of nonlinear acoustic metamaterials.

  11. Decoupling Nonclassical Nonlinear Behavior of Elastic Wave Types.

    PubMed

    Remillieux, Marcel C; Guyer, Robert A; Payan, Cédric; Ulrich, T J

    2016-03-18

    In this Letter, the tensorial nature of the nonequilibrium dynamics in nonlinear mesoscopic elastic materials is evidenced via multimode resonance experiments. In these experiments the dynamic response, including the spatial variations of velocities and strains, is carefully monitored while the sample is vibrated in a purely longitudinal or a purely torsional mode. By analogy with the fact that such experiments can decouple the elements of the linear elastic tensor, we demonstrate that the parameters quantifying the nonequilibrium dynamics of the material differ substantially for a compressional wave and for a shear wave. This result could lead to further understanding of the nonlinear mechanical phenomena that arise in natural systems as well as to the design and engineering of nonlinear acoustic metamaterials. PMID:27035309

  12. Nonlinear acoustic/seismic waves in earthquake processes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A.

    2012-09-04

    Nonlinear dynamics induced by seismic sources and seismic waves are common in Earth. Observations range from seismic strong ground motion (the most damaging aspect of earthquakes), intense near-source effects, and distant nonlinear effects from the source that have important consequences. The distant effects include dynamic earthquake triggering-one of the most fascinating topics in seismology today-which may be elastically nonlinearly driven. Dynamic earthquake triggering is the phenomenon whereby seismic waves generated from one earthquake trigger slip events on a nearby or distant fault. Dynamic triggering may take place at distances thousands of kilometers from the triggering earthquake, and includes triggering of the entire spectrum of slip behaviors currently identified. These include triggered earthquakes and triggered slow, silent-slip during which little seismic energy is radiated. It appears that the elasticity of the fault gouge-the granular material located between the fault blocks-is key to the triggering phenomenon.

  13. Nonlinear elastic wave tomography for the imaging of corrosion damage.

    PubMed

    Ciampa, Francesco; Scarselli, Gennaro; Pickering, Simon; Meo, M

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear elastic wave tomography method, based on ultrasonic guided waves, for the image of nonlinear signatures in the dynamic response of a damaged isotropic structure. The proposed technique relies on a combination of high order statistics and a radial basis function approach. The bicoherence of ultrasonic waveforms originated by a harmonic excitation was used to characterise the second order nonlinear signature contained in the measured signals due to the presence of surface corrosion. Then, a radial basis function interpolation was employed to achieve an effective visualisation of the damage over the panel using only a limited number of receiver sensors. The robustness of the proposed nonlinear imaging method was experimentally demonstrated on a damaged 2024 aluminium panel, and the nonlinear source location was detected with a high level of accuracy, even with few receiving elements. Compared to five standard ultrasonic imaging methods, this nonlinear tomography technique does not require any baseline with the undamaged structure for the evaluation of the corrosion damage, nor a priori knowledge of the mechanical properties of the specimen. PMID:26044196

  14. Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in a graphene-based Bragg grating

    PubMed Central

    Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Zeng, Shuwen; Shang, Jingzhi; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yu, Ting

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the fabrication of a graphene-based Bragg grating (one-dimensional photonic crystal) and experimentally demonstrate the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in the periodic structure using prism coupling technique. Surface electromagnetic waves are non-radiative electromagnetic modes that appear on the surface of semi-infinite 1D photonic crystal. In order to fabricate the graphene-based Bragg grating, alternating layers of high (graphene) and low (PMMA) refractive index materials have been used. The reflectivity plot shows a deepest, narrow dip after total internal reflection angle corresponds to the surface electromagnetic mode propagating at the Bragg grating/air boundary. The proposed graphene based Bragg grating can find a variety of potential surface electromagnetic wave applications such as sensors, fluorescence emission enhancement, modulators, etc. PMID:23071901

  15. Coupling interaction of electromagnetic wave in a groove doublet configuration.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lan; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Dong; Wang, Kejia

    2010-09-27

    Based on the waveguide mode (WGM) method, coupling interaction of electromagnetic wave in a groove doublet configuration is studied. The formulation obtained by WGM method for a single groove [Prog. Electromagn. Res. 18, 1-17 (1998)] is extended to two grooves. By exploring the total scattered field of the configuration, coupling interaction ratios are defined to describe the interaction between grooves quantitatively. Since each groove in this groove doublet configuration is regarded as the basic unit, the effects of coupling interaction on the scattered fields of each groove can be investigated respectively. Numerical results show that an oscillatory behavior of coupling interaction is damped with increasing groove spacing. The incident and scattering angle dependence of coupling interaction is symmetrical when the two grooves are the same. For the case of two subwavelength grooves, the coupling interaction is not sensitive to the incident angle and scattering angle. Although the case of two grooves is discussed for simplicity, the formulation developed in this article can be generalized to arbitrary number of grooves. Moreover, our study offers a simple alternative to investigate and design metallic gratings, compact directional antennas, couplers, and other devices especially in low frequency regime such as THz and microwave domain. PMID:20941004

  16. Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities - Growth at cyclotron harmonic wave numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Gary, S. Peter

    1987-01-01

    The linear theory of electromagnetic ion beam instabilities for arbitrary angles of propagation is studied, with an emphasis on the conditions necessary to generate unstable modes at low harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance condition. The present results extend the analysis of Smith et al. (1985). That paper considered only the plasma parameters at a time during which harmonic wave modes were observed in the earth's foreshock. The parameters of that paper are used as the basis of parametric variations here to establish the range of beam properties which may give rise to observable harmonic spectra. It is shown that the growth rates of both left-hand and right-hand cyclotron harmonic instabilities are enhanced by an increase in the beam temperature anisotropy and/or the beam speed. Decreases in the beam density and/or the core-ion beta reduce the overall growth of the cyclotron harmonic instabilities but favor the growth of these modes over the growth of the nonresonant instability and thereby enhance the observability of the harmonics.

  17. Phase Spectroscopy Of Surface Electromagnetic Waves Using Fourier Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzik, L. A.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Zhizhin, G. N.; Chesters, M. A.; Parker, S. F.

    1989-12-01

    The surface electromagnetic wave (SEWS spectroscopy has shown high sensitivity to the state of the surface . The measurements of SEW attenuation andphase retardation during SEW propagation on the sample allow to obtain Ihe optical constants of surface layer or oxide on the metal. Up to now phase spectroscopy used laser sources of radiation, thus the interference measurements were done only in the spectral region where laser lines are available. To apply phase spectroscopy or SEW to the surface analysis widely it is necessary to expand the spectral region where they are studing. High sensitivity or modern Fourier transform spectrometers allows to detect SEW excited by broadband source. We have used Fourier transform spectrometers FTS-20V (Digilab) and Michelson-110 (BOMEM) with liquid nitrogen cooled detectors (Hg-Cd-Te). On silver surface SEW were excited using aperture coupling. The experiment is shown on the fig.1 . IR radiation from interferometer was focused on the gap between the sample 3 surface and the screen 1 placed at the distance of the order of 100 μm. In such a way on the gap propagating along a metal SEW and bulk radiation above the metal are excited.

  18. Atmospheric Refractive Electromagnetic Wave Bending and Propagation Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Wallace, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this tutorial we summarize the physics and mathematics behind refractive electromagnetic wave bending and delay. Refractive bending and delay through the Earth's atmosphere at both radio/millimetric and optical/IR wavelengths are discussed, but with most emphasis on the former, and with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) applications in mind. As modern astronomical measurements often require subarcsecond position accuracy, care is required when selecting refractive bending and delay algorithms. For the spherically-uniform model atmospheres generally used for all refractive bending and delay algorithms, positional accuracies lsim1'' are achievable when observing at zenith angles lsim75°. A number of computationally economical approximate methods for atmospheric refractive bending and delay calculation are presented, appropriate for astronomical observations under these conditions. For observations under more realistic atmospheric conditions, for zenith angles lsim75°, or when higher positional accuracy is required, more rigorous refractive bending and delay algorithms must be employed. For accurate calculation of the refractive bending, we recommend the Auer and Standish method, using numerical integration to ray-trace through a two-layer model atmosphere, with an atmospheric model determination of the atmospheric refractivity. For the delay calculation we recommend numerical integration through a model atmosphere.

  19. Nonlinear progressive acoustic-gravity waves: Exact solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    We consider finite-amplitude mechanical waves in an inhomogeneous, compressible fluid in a uniform gravity field. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid, and wave motion is considered as an adiabatic thermodynamic process. The fluid either occupies an unbounded domain or has free and/or rigid boundaries. Wave motion is described by the momentum, continuity, and state equations in Lagrangian coordinates. We consider generic inhomogeneous fluids; no specific assumptions are made regarding the equation of state or spatial variations of the mass density or the sound speed in the absence of waves. The density and the sound speed are piece-wise continuous functions of position. The discontinuities represent fluid-fluid interfaces, such as the air-sea interface. Following a recent work on linear acoustic-gravity waves [O. A. Godin, Incompressible wave motion of compressible fluids, Phys. Rev. Lett., 108, 194501 (2012)], here we investigate a particular class of non-linear wave motions in fluids, in which pressure remains constant in each moving fluid parcel. Exact, analytic solutions of the non-linear hydrodynamics equations are obtained for two distinct scenarios. In the first scenario, the fluid is either unbounded or has a free surface. In the latter case, the exact analytic solution can be interpreted as a progressive surface wave. In the second scenario, the fluid has a free surface and a sloping, plane rigid boundary. Then the exact analytic solution represents an edge wave propagating horizontally along the rigid boundary. In both scenarios, the flow field associated with the finite-amplitude waves is rotational. When the sound speed tends to infinity, our results reduce to well-known finite-amplitude waves in incompressible fluids. In another limit, when the wave amplitude tends to zero, the exact solutions reduce to known results for linear waves in compressible fluids. The possibility of extending the theory to rotating fluids and fluids with a shearing background

  20. Electromagnetic waves destabilized by runaway electrons in near-critical electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Komar, A.; Pokol, G. I.; Fueloep, T.

    2013-01-15

    Runaway electron distributions are strongly anisotropic in velocity space. This anisotropy is a source of free energy that may destabilize electromagnetic waves through a resonant interaction between the waves and the energetic electrons. In this work, we investigate the high-frequency electromagnetic waves that are destabilized by runaway electron beams when the electric field is close to the critical field for runaway acceleration. Using a runaway electron distribution appropriate for the near-critical case, we calculate the linear instability growth rate of these waves and conclude that the obliquely propagating whistler waves are most unstable. We show that the frequencies, wave numbers, and propagation angles of the most unstable waves depend strongly on the magnetic field. Taking into account collisional and convective damping of the waves, we determine the number density of runaways that is required to destabilize the waves and show its parametric dependences.

  1. Evolution of Nonlinear Internal Waves in China Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-K.; Liang, Nai K.

    1997-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from ERS-I have been used to study the characteristics of internal waves of Taiwan in the East China Sea, and east of Hainan Island in the South China Sea. Rank-ordered packets of internal solitons propagating shoreward from the edge of the continental shelf were observed in the SAR images. Based on the assumption of a semidiurnal tidal origin, the wave speed can be estimated and is consistent with the internal wave theory. By using the SAR images and hydrographic data, internal waves of elevation have been identified in shallow water due to a thicker mixed layer as compared with the bottom layer on the continental shelf. The generation mechanism includes the influences of the tide and the Kuroshio intrusion across the continental shelf for the formations of elevation internal waves. The effects of water depth on the evolution of solitons and wave packets are modeled by nonlinear Kortweg-deVries (KdV) type equation and linked to satellite image observations. The numerical calculations of internal wave evolution on the continental shelf have been performed and compared with the SAR observations. For a case of depression waves in deep water, the solitons first disintegrate into dispersive wave trains and then evolve to a packet of elevation waves in the shallow water area after they pass through a turning point of approximately equal layer depths has been observed in the SAR image and simulated by numerical model.

  2. The nonlinear evolution of rogue waves generated by means of wave focusing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, HanHong; Ma, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Generating the rogue waves in offshore engineering is investigated, first of all, to forecast its occurrence to protect the offshore structure from being attacked, to study the mechanism and hydrodynamic properties of rouge wave experimentally as well as the rouge/structure interaction for the structure design. To achieve these purposes demands an accurate wave generation and calculation. In this paper, we establish a spatial domain model of fourth order nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation for describing deep-water wave trains in the moving coordinate system. In order to generate rogue waves in the experimental tank efficiently, we take care that the transient water wave (TWW) determines precisely the concentration of time/place. First we simulate the three-dimensional wave using TWW in the numerical tank and modeling the deepwater basin with a double-side multi-segmented wave-maker in Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) under the linear superposing theory. To discuss its nonlinearity for guiding the experiment, we set the TWW as the initial condition of the NLS equation. The differences between the linear and nonlinear simulations are presented. Meanwhile, the characteristics of the transient water wave, including water particle velocity and wave slope, are investigated, which are important factors in safeguarding the offshore structures.

  3. Solitary waves in nonlinear coupled incommensurate chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikandé, A. M.; Kofané, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    We present dynamical theory of soliton excitations in nonlinear coupled incommensurate chains which consists of two deformable chains of different atomic species, each with its own chemical potential, on the same substrate. In the continuum approximation, the motion equations are a set of coupled Sine-Gordon equations. The soliton solutions of these coupled equations are studied in detail. It has been shown that the frequency of the internal oscillations depends on the coupling parameter. The interaction energy between the two weakly coupled Sine-Gordon systems has been found. Results of the dynamical theory have been related to the transport properties in organic conductors such as TTF-TCNQ, KCP and others. Indeed, we have calculated some meaningful physical parameters of these compounds within the soliton limit, and discussed different types of behaviors shown at the transition with respect to variations of the physical parameters.

  4. NONLINEAR GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE MEMORY FROM BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Favata, Marc

    2009-05-10

    Some astrophysical sources of gravitational waves can produce a 'memory effect', which causes a permanent displacement of the test masses in a freely falling gravitational-wave detector. The Christodoulou memory is a particularly interesting nonlinear form of memory that arises from the gravitational-wave stress-energy tensor's contribution to the distant gravitational-wave field. This nonlinear memory contributes a nonoscillatory component to the gravitational-wave signal at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order in the waveform amplitude. Previous computations of the memory and its detectability considered only the inspiral phase of binary black hole coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' (EOB) approach calibrated to numerical relativity simulations, as well as a simple fully analytic model, the Christodoulou memory is computed for the inspiral, merger, and ringdown. The memory will be very difficult to detect with ground-based interferometers, but is likely to be observable in supermassive black hole mergers with LISA out to redshifts z {approx}< 2. Detection of the nonlinear memory could serve as an experimental test of the ability of gravity to 'gravitate'.

  5. Acoustic nonlinear periodic waves in pair-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Shahzad; Kaladze, Tamaz; Ur-Rehman, Hafeez

    2013-09-01

    Electrostatic acoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons are investigated in unmagnetized pair-ion plasmas consisting of same mass and oppositely charged ion species with different temperatures. Using reductive perturbation method and appropriate boundary conditions, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived. The analytical solutions of both cnoidal wave and soliton solutions are discussed in detail. The phase plane plots of cnoidal and soliton structures are shown. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive cnoidal wave and soliton structures are formed depending on the temperature ratio of positive and negative ions in pair-ion plasmas. In the special case, it is revealed that the amplitude of soliton may become larger than it is allowed by the nonlinear stationary wave theory which is equal to the quantum tunneling by particle through a potential barrier effect. The serious flaws in the earlier published results by Yadav et al., [PRE 52, 3045 (1995)] and Chawla and Misra [Phys. Plasmas 17, 102315 (2010)] of studying ion acoustic nonlinear periodic waves are also pointed out.

  6. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a floating structure in focused waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei-feng; Zhao, Xi-zeng

    2015-12-01

    Floating structures are commonly seen in coastal and offshore engineering. They are often subjected to extreme waves and, therefore, their nonlinear dynamic behaviors are of great concern. In this paper, an in-house CFD code is developed to investigate the accurate prediction of nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a two-dimensional (2-D) box-shaped floating structure in focused waves. Computations are performed by an enhanced Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP)-based Cartesian grid model, in which a more accurate VOF (Volume of Fluid) method, the THINC/SW scheme (THINC: tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing; SW: Slope Weighting), is used for interface capturing. A focusing wave theory is used for the focused wave generation. The wave component of constant steepness is chosen. Comparisons between predictions and physical measurements show good agreement including body motions and free surface profiles. Although the overall agreement is good, some discrepancies are observed for impact pressure on the superstructure due to water on deck. The effect of grid resolution on the results is checked. With a fine grid, no obvious improvement is seen in the global body motions and impact pressures due to water on deck. It is concluded that highly nonlinear phenomena, such as distorted free surface, large-amplitude body motions, and violent impact flow, have been predicted successfully.

  7. Nonlinear wave interactions in swept wing flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elhady, Nabil M.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis is presented which examines the modulation of different instability modes satisfying the triad resonance condition in time and space in a three-dimensional boundary layer flow. Detuning parameters are used for the wave numbers and the frequencies. The nonparallelism of the mean flow is taken into account in the analysis. At the leading-edge region of an infinite swept wing, different resonant triads are investigated that are comprised of travelling crossflow, vertical vorticity and Tollmein-Schlichting modes. The spatial evolution of the resonating triad components are studied.

  8. Negative-mass Instability in Nonlinear Plasma Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Dodin, I. Y.; Schmit, P. F.; Rocks, J.; Fisch, N. J.

    2013-01-30

    The negative-mass instability (NMI), previously found in ion traps, appears as a distinct regime of the sideband instability in nonlinear plasma waves with trapped particles. As the bounce frequency of these particles decreases with the bounce action, bunching can occur if the action distribution is inverted in trapping islands. In contrast to existing theories that also infer instabilities from the anharmonicity of bounce oscillations, spatial periodicity of the islands turns out to be unimportant, and the particle distribution can be unstable even if it is at at the resonance. An analytical model is proposed which describes both single traps and periodic nonlinear waves and concisely generalizes the conventional description of the sideband instability in plasma waves. The theoretical results are supported by particle-in-cell simulations carried out for a regime accentuating the NMI effect.

  9. Attenuation characteristics of nonlinear pressure waves propagating in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to investigate temporal and spatial velocity distributions of fluid flow in 3-in. open-end pipes of various lengths up to 210 ft, produced by the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves of various intensities. Velocity profiles across each of five sections along the pipes were measured as a function of time with the use of hot-film and hot-wire anemometers for two pressure waves produced by a piston. Peculiar configurations of the velocity profiles across the pipe section were noted, which are uncommon for steady pipe flow. Theoretical consideration was given to this phenomenon of higher velocity near the pipe wall for qualitative confirmation. Experimentally time-dependent velocity distributions along the pipe axis were compared with one-dimensional theoretical results obtained by the method of characteristics with or without diffusion term for the purpose of determining the attenuation characteristics of the nonlinear wave propagation in the pipes.

  10. Features of fluid flows in strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semin, S.; Kurkina, O.; Kurkin, A.; Talipova, T.; Pelinovsky, E.; Churaev, E.

    2014-12-01

    The characteristics of highly nonlinear solitary internal waves (solitons) are calculated within the fully nonlinear numerical model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The verification and adaptation of the model is based on the data from laboratory experiments. The present paper also compares the results of our calculations with the calculations performed in the framework of the fully nonlinear Bergen Ocean Model. The comparison of the computed soliton parameters with the predictions of the weakly nonlinear theory based on the Gardner equation is given. The occurrence of reverse flow in the bottom layer directly behind the soliton is confirmed in the numerical simulations. The trajectories of Lagrangian particles in the internal soliton on the surface, on the pycnocline and near the bottom are computed.

  11. Viscous Fluid Conduits as a Prototypical Nonlinear Dispersive Wave Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Nicholas K.

    This thesis is devoted to the comprehensive characterization of slowly modulated, nonlinear waves in dispersive media for physically-relevant systems using a threefold approach: analytical, long-time asymptotics, careful numerical simulations, and quantitative laboratory experiments. In particular, we use this interdisciplinary approach to establish a two-fluid, interfacial fluid flow setting known as viscous fluid conduits as an ideal platform for the experimental study of truly one dimensional, unidirectional solitary waves and dispersively regularized shock waves (DSWs). Starting from the full set of fluid equations for mass and linear momentum conservation, we use a multiple-scales, perturbation approach to derive a scalar, nonlinear, dispersive wave equation for the leading order interfacial dynamics of the system. Using a generalized form of the approximate model equation, we use numerical simulations and an analytical, nonlinear wave averaging technique, Whitham-El modulation theory, to derive the key physical features of interacting large amplitude solitary waves and DSWs. We then present the results of quantitative, experimental investigations into large amplitude solitary wave interactions and DSWs. Overtaking interactions of large amplitude solitary waves are shown to exhibit nearly elastic collisions and universal interaction geometries according to the Lax categories for KdV solitons, and to be in excellent agreement with the dynamics described by the approximate asymptotic model. The dispersive shock wave experiments presented here represent the most extensive comparison to date between theory and data of the key wavetrain parameters predicted by modulation theory. We observe strong agreement. Based on the work in this thesis, viscous fluid conduits provide a well-understood, controlled, table-top environment in which to study universal properties of dispersive hydrodynamics. Motivated by the study of wave propagation in the conduit system, we

  12. Evolution of Random Nonlinear Infragravity Waves in Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Miao; Sheremet, Alex; Shrira, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The observed spectra of nearshore infragravity waves are typically mixed, with a discrete component (edge waves, trapped waves, propagating parallel to the coast) and a continuous one (leaky waves, that propagate from, and radiate back into, the deep ocean. See e.g., Oltman-Shay and Guza, 1987). The evolution of infragravity spectrum is driven by three general processes: 1) edge-leaky interactions, that transfer energy to the system from shorter waves; 2) energy redistribution through edge-edge and edge-leaky interactions; 3) and energy dissipation due to processes such as bottom friction. Previous studies treated either the edge and leaky system, in isolation from the other one, and focused on phase-resolving dynamical equation. Following Whitham (1976), who derived the nonlinear edge-wave solutions for the shallow water equations, theoretical work on the nonlinear edge-edge interaction resulted in many significant extensions (e.g., Kirby et. al. 1998, Pelinovsky et. al. 2010). The interaction between standing edge waves and a normally incident wave has been investigated both within the framework of the shallow-water equation (Guza and Davis 1974) and full water wave theory (Minzoni and Whitham, 1977). Here, we derive a general dynamical equation for the full mixed edge-leaky spectrum over a laterally uniform beach based on Zakharov's (1968, 1999) Hamiltonian formalism. The introduction of canonical variables in this formalism significantly simplifies the complicated derivation of the nonlinear interaction coefficient in the previous work (Kirby et. al. 1998, Pelinovsky et. al. 2010). The subharmonic resonance mechanism for edge-wave excitation (Guza and Davis, 1974) is retrieved from the model equation as a special case. The effects of dissipation induced by bottom friction are included using a perturbation approach. A kinetic equation for Zakharov's (1999) canonical variables can be derived, that reduces to the stochastic nonlinear mild-slope model of Agnon and

  13. Evolution of Random Nonlinear Infragravity Waves in Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, M.; Sheremet, A.; Shrira, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    The observed spectra of nearshore infragravity waves are typically mixed, with a discrete component (edge waves, trapped waves, propagating parallel to the coast) and a continuous one (leaky waves, that propagate from, and radiate back into, the deep ocean. See e.g., Oltman-Shay and Guza, 1987). The evolution of infragravity spectrum is driven by three general processes: 1) edge-leaky interactions, that transfer energy to the system from shorter waves; 2) energy redistribution through edge-edge and edge-leaky interactions; 3) and energy dissipation due to processes such as bottom friction. Previous studies treated either the edge and leaky system, in isolation from the other one, and focused on phase-resolving dynamical equation. Following Whitham (1976), who derived the nonlinear edge-wave solutions for the shallow water equations, theoretical work on the nonlinear edge-edge interaction resulted in many significant extensions (e.g., Kirby et. al. 1998, Pelinovsky et. al. 2010). The interaction between standing edge waves and a normally incident wave has been investigated both within the framework of the shallow-water equation (Guza and Davis 1974) and full water wave theory (Minzoni and Whitham, 1977). Here, we derive a general dynamical equation for the full mixed edge-leaky spectrum over a laterally uniform beach based on Zakharov's (1968, 1999) Hamiltonian formalism. The introduction of canonical variables in this formalism significantly simplifies the complicated derivation of the nonlinear interaction coefficient in the previous work (Kirby et. al. 1998, Pelinovsky et. al. 2010). The subharmonic resonance mechanism for edge-wave excitation (Guza and Davis, 1974) is retrieved from the model equation as a special case. The effects of dissipation induced by bottom friction are included using a perturbation approach. A kinetic equation for Zakharov's (1999) canonical variables can be derived, that reduces to the stochastic nonlinear mild-slope model of Agnon and

  14. Nonlinear responses of mesospheric emission layers to wave disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexey

    2016-09-01

    Model-based investigations of the wave-induced responses of O(1S), O2(b,0-0) and OH(8-3) emissions have been performed. A series of digital experiments performed using the one-dimensional simulation model proposed by Liu and Swenson (2003) demonstrated that, in addition to the variable component, the wave disturbance of airglow emissions has a constant component. This component is the enhancement/depletion of the background emission intensity of an emission layer. To interpret its appearance, the simplest analytical model of airglow disturbance due to a gravity wave has been constructed. This model indicates that enhancement/depletion of the background emission intensity is a nonlinear airglow response to a wave disturbance. Its magnitude depends quadratically on the wave amplitude and can reach a few dozen percent relative to the value of the zenith brightness of the unperturbed OH(8-3)/O(1S) emission layer.

  15. Spatiotemporal mode structure of nonlinearly coupled drift wave modes

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Christian; Grulke, Olaf; Klinger, Thomas; Negrete, Jose Jr.; Bousselin, Guillaume; Brochard, Frederic; Bonhomme, Gerard; Oldenbuerger, Stella

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents full cross-section measurements of drift waves in the linear magnetized plasma of the Mirabelle device. Drift wave modes are studied in regimes of weakly developed turbulence. The drift wave modes develop azimuthal space-time structures of plasma density, plasma potential, and visible light fluctuations. A fast camera diagnostic is used to record visible light fluctuations of the plasma column in an azimuthal cross section with a temporal resolution of 10 {mu}s corresponding approximately to 10% of the typical drift wave period. Mode coupling and drift wave dispersion are studied by spatiotemporal Fourier decomposition of the camera frames. The observed coupling between modes is compared to calculations of nonlinearly coupled oscillators described by the Kuramoto model.

  16. Nonlinear Alfvén waves in dissipative MHD plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jugao; Chen, Yinhua; Yu, M. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear Alfvén wave trains in resistive and viscous magnetohydrodynamics plasmas are investigated. In weakly dissipative one-dimensional systems the inclusion of these effects leads to dissipative damping of Alfvén waves and heating of the plasma. It is found that plasma flow along the background magnetic field can reduce/increase the visco-resistive damping when the flow is along/against the Alfvén wave. In strongly dissipative systems, the front of the Alfvén wave train damps slower than the others, and it gradually forms a damping soliton. In two-dimensional systems, Alfvén wave phase mixing induced by inhomogeneity of the background plasma leads to enhancement of the dissipative damping and the corresponding plasma heating.

  17. Interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves with linear elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Khatri, Devvrath; de Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara

    2011-04-01

    We study the interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves propagating in granular crystals with an adjacent linear elastic medium. We investigate the effects of interface dynamics on the reflection of incident waves and on the formation of primary and secondary reflected waves. Experimental tests are performed to correlate the linear medium geometry, materials, and mass with the formation and propagation of reflected waves. We compare the experimental results with theoretical analysis based on the long-wavelength approximation and with numerical predictions obtained from discrete particle models. Experimental results are found to be in agreement with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. This preliminary study establishes the foundation for utilizing reflected solitary waves as novel information carriers in nondestructive evaluation of elastic material systems.

  18. Interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves with linear elastic media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Khatri, Devvrath; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara

    2011-04-01

    We study the interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves propagating in granular crystals with an adjacent linear elastic medium. We investigate the effects of interface dynamics on the reflection of incident waves and on the formation of primary and secondary reflected waves. Experimental tests are performed to correlate the linear medium geometry, materials, and mass with the formation and propagation of reflected waves. We compare the experimental results with theoretical analysis based on the long-wavelength approximation and with numerical predictions obtained from discrete particle models. Experimental results are found to be in agreement with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. This preliminary study establishes the foundation for utilizing reflected solitary waves as novel information carriers in nondestructive evaluation of elastic material systems. PMID:21599325

  19. Electromagnetic Nonlinearity in the Dielectric Medium of Experimental EM Impulse-Momentum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an empirical correlation among electromagnetic (EM) impulse-momentum experiments performed by Brito (1999, 2003, 2004, and 2005), Woodward (2004a, 2004b, 2005, and 2006) and March (2006) is developed. This empirical correlation assumes that the dielectric medium exhibits non-linear magnetoelectric effects arising from the interplay of piezo-magnetism and piezo-electricity (Rado, 1975). The modification to the generally accepted electromagnetic field (volume) momentum equation (Jackson, 1999) is derived from Fiegel's (2004) thesis that inside a magnetoelectric, the momenta of counter-propagating vacuum modes do not eliminate each other, in contrast to the other materials. Whereby, a time independent vacuum mode component can be subtracted from the impulse-momentum to give a constant force. This vacuum mode component is interpreted as the nonlinearity of the dielectric medium with respect to the applied frequency of the input power.

  20. Electromagnetic-wave excitation in a large laboratory beam-plasma system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism by which unstable electrostatic waves of a beam-plasma system are converted into observed electromagnetic waves is of current interest in space physics and in tokamak fusion research. The process involved in the conversion of electrostatic to electromagnetic waves at the critical layer is well understood. However, the radiation from uniform plasmas cannot be explained on the basis of this process. In connection with certain difficulties, it has not yet been possible to establish the involved emission processes by means of experimental observations. In the considered investigation these difficulties are overcome by employing a large laboratory plasma in a parameter range suitable for detailed diagnostics. A finite-diameter electron beam is injected into a uniform quiescent afterglow plasma of dimensions large compared with electromagnetic wavelengths. The considered generation mechanism concerning the electromagnetic waves is conclusively confirmed by observing the temporal evolution of an instability