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Sample records for nonlinear explicit three-dimensional

  1. Paradyn a parallel nonlinear, explicit, three-dimensional finite-element code for solid and structural mechanics user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, C G; DeGroot, A J; Sherwood, R J

    2000-06-01

    ParaDyn is a parallel version of the DYNA3D computer program, a three-dimensional explicit finite-element program for analyzing the dynamic response of solids and structures. The ParaDyn program has been used as a production tool for over three years for analyzing problems which range in size from a few tens of thousands of elements to between one-million and ten-million elements. ParaDyn runs on parallel computers provided by the Department of Energy Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) and the Department of Defense High Performance Computing and Modernization Program. Preprocessing and post-processing software utilities and tools are designed to facilitate the generation of partitioned domains for processors on a massively parallel computer and the visualization of both resultant data and boundary data generated in a parallel simulation. This manual provides a brief overview of the parallel implementation; describes techniques for running the ParaDyn program, tools and utilities; and provides examples of parallel simulations.

  2. DYNA3D: A nonlinear, explicit, three-dimensional finite element code for solid and structural mechanics, User manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report is the User Manual for the 1993 version of DYNA3D, and also serves as a User Guide. DYNA3D is a nonlinear, explicit, finite element code for analyzing the transient dynamic response of three-dimensional solids and structures. The code is fully vectorized and is available on several computer platforms. DYNA3D includes solid, shell, beam, and truss elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many material models are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects, and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding and single surface contact. Rigid materials provide added modeling flexibility. A material model driver with interactive graphics display is incorporated into DYNA3D to permit accurate modeling of complex material response based on experimental data. Along with the DYNA3D Example Problem Manual, this document provides the information necessary to apply DYNA3D to solve a wide range of engineering analysis problems.

  3. Adaptive contact elements for three-dimensional explicit transient analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    A finite element method was developed for treating the mechanics of contact between deformable bodies. The method uses a family of adaptive interface elements, which were based on the penalty method, to handle the changing contact configurations that can occur between discretized contacting bodies. The nodal connectivity of these interface elements was allowed to change during the computations in order to accommodate finite sliding. The infusion of these elements in the interface satisfies the stress equilibrium condition during contact. Explicit forms for the nodal internal forces are presented. The methodology has been coded and several sample problems are presented. 23 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Nonlinear three-dimensional trajectory following: simulation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, George H.

    In light of recent military requirements for unmanned and autonomous vehicles, research into methods of designing arbitrary three-dimensional trajectories and controlling aircraft along them has become vital. In this report, we explore two methods of nonlinear control for the purpose of following three-dimensional trajectories and paths. First, prior work on a dynamic feedback linearization exploiting the differential flatness of the ideal airplane is adapted with the intent of implementing it on a physical testbed in MIT's Realtime indoor Autonomous Vehicle test ENvironment (RAVEN), but poor behavior—both in simulation and in hardware—under moderate levels of joint parameter uncertainty thwarted attempts at implementation. Additionally, the differential flatness technique in its pure form follows trajectories, which are sometimes inferior intuitively and practically to paths. In the context of unmanned air vehicle (UAV) flight in gusty environments, this motivated the extension of prior work on two-dimensional path following to three-dimensions, and simulations are presented in which the fully nonlinear controller derived from differential flatness follows a trajectory that is generated dynamically from a path. The three-dimensional path-following logic is actually implemented in RAVEN, and results are presented that demonstrate good vertical rise time in response to a step input and centimeter accuracy in vertical and lateral tracking. Future directions are proposed.

  5. A naturally grown three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianxiang; Lu, Dazhi; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-02-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion via three-dimensional (3D) quasi-phase matching (QPM) process is experimentally realized based on a Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 (BCT) crystal. The ferroelectric domains in BCT crystal are observed, and the results reveal that the antiparallel domains distribute in three dimensions and can provide 3D reciprocal lattice vectors for QPM processes. Broadband petal-like second-harmonic patterns are achieved, which are well consistent with the theoretical quasi-cubic model of 3D nonlinear photonic crystals. Our work not only promotes the development of QPM technique but also builds a platform for 3D nonlinear optics and quantum optics.

  6. Three-dimensional nonlinear vibration of gear pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eritenel, Tugan; Parker, Robert G.

    2012-07-01

    This work investigates the three-dimensional nonlinear vibration of gear pairs where the nonlinearity is due to portions of gear teeth contact lines losing contact (partial contact loss). The gear contact model tracks partial contact loss using a discretized stiffness network. The nonlinear dynamic response is obtained using the discretized stiffness network, but it is interpreted and discussed with reference to a lumped-parameter gear mesh model named the equivalent stiffness representation. It consists of a translational stiffness acting at a changing center of stiffness location (two parameters) and a twist stiffness. These four parameters, calculated from the dynamic response, change as the gears vibrate, and tracking their behavior as a post-processing tool illuminates the nonlinear gear response. There is a gear mesh twist mode where the twist stiffness is active in addition to the well-known mesh deflection mode where the translational stiffness is active. The twist mode is excited by periodic back and forth axial movement of the center of stiffness in helical gears. The same effect can occur in wide facewidth spur gears if tooth lead modifications or other factors such as shaft and bearing deflections disrupt symmetry about the axial centers of the mating teeth. Resonances of both modes are shown to be nonlinear due to partial and total contact loss. Comparing the numerical results with gear vibration experiments from the literature verifies the model and confirms partial contact loss nonlinearity in experiments.

  7. An exactly solvable three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze-Halberg, A.; Morris, J. R.

    2013-11-15

    Exact analytical, closed-form solutions, expressed in terms of special functions, are presented for the case of a three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator with a position dependent mass. This system is the generalization of the corresponding one-dimensional system, which has been the focus of recent attention. In contrast to other approaches, we are able to obtain solutions in terms of special functions, without a reliance upon a Rodrigues-type of formula. The wave functions of the quantum oscillator have the familiar spherical harmonic solutions for the angular part. For the s-states of the system, the radial equation accepts solutions that have been recently found for the one-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator, given in terms of associated Legendre functions, along with a constant shift in the energy eigenvalues. Radial solutions are obtained for all angular momentum states, along with the complete energy spectrum of the bound states.

  8. A complete and explicit solution to the three-dimensional problem of two fixed centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscani, Francesco; Izzo, Dario

    2016-02-01

    We present for the first time an explicit, complete and closed-form solution to the three-dimensional problem of two fixed centres, based on Weierstrass elliptic and related functions. With respect to previous treatments of the problem, our solution is exact, valid for all initial conditions and physical parameters of the system (including unbounded orbits and repulsive forces), and expressed via a unique set of formulae. Various properties of the three-dimensional problem of two fixed centres are investigated and analysed, with a particular emphasis on quasi-periodic and periodic orbits, regions of motion and equilibrium points.

  9. NONLINEAR THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOCONVECTION AROUND MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Botha, G. J. J.; Rucklidge, A. M.; Hurlburt, N. E. E-mail: A.M.Rucklidge@leeds.ac.uk

    2011-04-20

    Magnetic flux in the solar photosphere forms concentrations from small scales, such as flux elements, to large scales, such as sunspots. This paper presents a study of the decay process of large magnetic flux tubes, such as sunspots, on a supergranular scale. Three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations are performed in a cylindrical domain, initialized with axisymmetric solutions that consist of a well-defined central flux tube and an annular convection cell surrounding it. As the nonlinear convection evolves, the annular cell breaks up into many cells in the azimuthal direction, allowing magnetic flux to slip between cells away from the central flux tube (turbulent erosion). This lowers magnetic pressure in the central tube, and convection grows inside the tube, possibly becoming strong enough to push the tube apart. A remnant of the central flux tube persists with nonsymmetric perturbations caused by the convection surrounding it. Secondary flux concentrations form between convection cells away from the central tube. Tube decay is dependent on the convection around the tube. Convection cells forming inside the tube as time-dependent outflows will remove magnetic flux. (This is most pronounced for small tubes.) Flux is added to the tube when flux caught in the surrounding convection is pushed toward it. The tube persists when convection inside the tube is sufficiently suppressed by the remaining magnetic field. All examples of persistent tubes have the same effective magnetic field strength, consistent with the observation that pores and sunspot umbrae all have roughly the same magnetic field strength.

  10. Three dimensional, non-linear, finite element analysis of compactable soil interaction with a hyperelastic wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiroux, Robert Charles

    The objective of this research was to produce a three dimensional, non-linear, dynamic simulation of the interaction between a hyperelastic wheel rolling over compactable soil. The finite element models developed to produce the simulation utilized the ABAQUS/Explicit computer code. Within the simulation two separate bodies were modeled, the hyperelastic wheel and a compactable soil-bed. Interaction between the bodies was achieved by allowing them to come in contact but not to penetrate the contact surface. The simulation included dynamic loading of a hyperelastic, rubber tire in contact with compactable soil with an applied constant angular velocity or torque, including a tow load, applied to the wheel hub. The constraints on the wheel model produced a straight and curved path. In addition the simulation included a shear limit between the tire and soil allowing for the introduction of slip. Soil properties were simulated using the Drucker-Prager, Cap Plasticity model available within the ABAQUS/Explicit program. Numerical results obtained from the three dimensional model were compared with related experimental data and showed good correlation for similar conditions. Numerical and experimental data compared well for both stress and wheel rut formation depth under a weight of 5.8 kN and a constant angular velocity applied to the wheel hub. The simulation results provided a demonstration of the benefit of three-dimensional simulation in comparison to previous two-dimensional, plane strain simulations.

  11. Explicit mathematical construction of relativistic nonlinear de Broglie waves described by three-dimensional (wave and electromagnetic) solitons ``piloted'' (controlled) by corresponding solutions of associated linear Klein-Gordon and Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Jean-Pierre

    1991-02-01

    Starting from a nonlinear relativistic Klein-Gordon equation derived from the stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics (proposed by Bohm-Vigier, (1) Nelson, (2) de Broglie, (3) Guerra et al. (4) ), one can construct joint wave and particle, soliton-like solutions, which follow the average de Broglie-Bohm (5) real trajectories associated with linear solutions of the usual Schrödinger and Klein-Gordon equations.

  12. Three-dimensional viscous-flow computations using a directionally hybrid implicit-explicit procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizk, Y. M.; Chaussee, D. S.

    A new, directionally dependent, hybrid numerical algorithm for solving the unsteady, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations has been developed and used to compute the viscous supersonic flow over complex configurations, which may generate local regions of embedded subsonic or streamwise separated flows or both. The new hybrid implicit-explicit algorithm is derived from the more general implicit Beam-Warming algorithm and is particularly suitable for viscous computations in which the grid spacing in the direction outward from the body is considerably smaller than the spacing in the other two directions. Numerical results obtained from both the hybrid and implicit schemes are presented and compared on the basis of numerical stability, convergence history, and computer and core memory requirements.

  13. Three-dimensional micromechanical models for the nonlinear analysis of pultruded composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Mustafa Hakan

    This study presents a new three-dimensional (3D) micromechanics-based nonlinear framework for the analysis of pultruded composite structures. The proposed material modeling framework is a nested micromechanical approach that explicitly recognizes the different composite systems within the cross-section of a pultruded composite member. The 3D lamination theory is used to generate a homogenized nonlinear effective response using a through-thickness representative stacking sequence. Different 3D micromechanical models can be used to represent the composite layers within the repeating stacking sequence, e.g. roving layer, continuous filament mat (CFM), and woven fabrics. The proposed modeling framework is applied for pultruded composite material systems made from roving and CFM. The roving layer is idealized using an existing 3D nonlinear micromechanics model for a unidirectional fiber reinforced material. A simple nonlinear micromechanical model for the CFM layer is introduced and implemented. The overall modeling approach is able to predict both the elastic and nonlinear response of the composite material based on the in-situ properties and response of the fiber and matrix constituents. Experimental data, from off-axis tests of pultruded plates, is used to verify the proposed modeling approach. The 3D modeling framework shows good prediction capabilities for the overall effective elastic constants, as well as the nonlinear multi-axial stress-strain response. In addition, a simple degradation and damage modeling is coupled with the proposed analysis framework. Several applications are performed for the nonlinear analysis of pultruded composite structures, such as progressive failure analysis of notched plates, bending of short beams, and damage analysis of pultruded FRP bolted connections.

  14. Parallel computation of three-dimensional nonlinear magnetostatic problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.; Gropp, W.; Forsman, K.; Kettunen, L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Tampere Univ. of Tech.

    1999-02-01

    We describe a general-purpose parallel electromagnetic code for computing accurate solutions to large computationally demanding, 3D, nonlinear magnetostatic problems. The code, CORAL, is based on a volume integral equation formulation. Using an IBM SP parallel computer and iterative solution methods, we successfully solved the dense linear systems inherent in such formulations. A key component of our work was the use of the PETSc library, which provides parallel portability and access to the latest linear algebra solution technology.

  15. Modulation of breathers in the three-dimensional nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    SciTech Connect

    Avelar, A. T.; Cardoso, W. B.; Bazeia, D.

    2010-11-15

    In this paper we present analytical breather solutions of the three-dimensional nonlinear generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We use an Ansatz to reduce the three-dimensional equation with space- and time-dependent coefficients into a one-dimensional equation with constant coefficients. The key point is to show that both the space- and time-dependent coefficients of the nonlinear equation can contribute to modulate the breather excitations. We briefly discuss the experimental feasibility of the results in Bose-Einstein condensates.

  16. Three-dimensional optical vortex and necklace solitons in highly nonlocal nonlinear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate the existence of localized optical vortex and necklace solitons in three-dimensional (3D) highly nonlocal nonlinear media, both analytically and numerically. The 3D solitons are constructed with the help of Kummer’s functions in spherical coordinates and their unique properties are discussed. The procedure we follow offers ways for generation, control, and manipulation of spatial solitons.

  17. Nonlinear characteristics analysis of vortex-induced vibration for a three-dimensional flexible tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Jiang, Naibin; Zang, Fenggang; Zhang, Yixiong; Huang, Xuan; Wu, Wanjun

    2016-05-01

    Vortex-induced vibration of a three-dimensional flexible tube is one of the key problems to be considered in many engineering situations. This paper aims to investigate the nonlinear dynamic behaviors and response characteristics of a three-dimensional tube under turbulent flow. The three-dimensional unsteady, viscous, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and LES turbulence model are solved with the finite volume approach, and the dynamic equilibrium equations are discretized by the finite element theory. A three-dimensional fully coupled numerical model for vortex-induced vibration of flexible tube is proposed. The model realized the fluid-structure interaction with solving the fluid flow and the structure vibration simultaneously. Based on this model, Response regimes, trajectory, phase difference, fluid force coefficient and vortex shedding frequency are obtained. The nonlinear phenomena of lock-in, phase-switch are captured successfully. Meanwhile, the limit cycle, bifurcation of lift coefficient and displacement are analyzed using phase portrait and Poincare section. The results reveal that, a quasi-upper branch occurs in the present fluid-flexible tube coupling system with high mass-damping and low mass ratio. There is no bifurcation of lift coefficient and lateral displacement occurred in the three-dimensional flexible tube submitted to uniform turbulent flow.

  18. An explicit three-dimensional nonhydrostatic numerical simulation of a tropical cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripoli, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    A nonhydrostatic numerical simulation of a tropical cyclone is performed with explicit representation of cumulus on a meso-beta scale grid and for a brief period on a meso-gamma scale grid. Individual cumulus plumes are represented by a combination of explicit resolution and a 1.5 level closure predicting turbulent kinetic energy (TKE).

  19. New explicit group iterative methods in the solution of three dimensional hyperbolic telegraph equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kew, Lee Ming; Ali, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, new group iterative numerical schemes based on the centred and rotated (skewed) seven-point finite difference discretisations are proposed for the solution of a three dimensional second order hyperbolic telegraph equation, subject to specific initial and Dirichlet boundary conditions. Both schemes are shown to be of second order accuracies and unconditionally stable. The scheme derived from the rotated grid stencil results in a reduced linear system with lower computational complexity compared to the scheme derived from the centred approximation formula. A comparative study with other common point iterative methods based on the seven-point centred difference approximation together with their computational complexity analyses is also presented.

  20. System maintenance manual for master modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by three-dimensional explicit representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs has been developed to model general three-dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinate to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface intersection curves. Internal details of the implementation of this system are explained, and maintenance procedures are specified.

  1. Detection and analysis of coherent groups in three-dimensional fully-nonlinear potential wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanina, E. V.; Suslov, S. A.; Chalikov, D.; Babanin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the emergence of coherent groups in three-dimensional fully-nonlinear potential deep water waves whose initial spectrum is assumed to be of the JONSWAP type with directional distribution given by cos nθ, where n is the integer varying from 1 to 16. The analysis is based on the results of long-term wave simulations performed using a numerical solution of a three-dimensional Laplace equation for the velocity potential subject to nonlinear kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions at the free surface. The main characteristics of wave groups such as their average velocity, maximum group wave height, lifetime and length are analysed. The statistics of extreme waves occurring in the detected groups are discussed. Spatial and temporal scale characteristics of wave groups are compared to the previous results.

  2. Some exact solutions of a system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalyuk, S.S.

    1988-02-01

    Interactions that break the symmetry of systems of nonrelativistic Schroedinger equations but preserve their symmetry with respect to one-parameter subgroups of the Schroedinger group are described. Ansatzes for invariant solutions and the corresponding systems of reduced equations in invariant variables for Galileo-invariant Schroedinger equations are found. Exact solutions for the system of nonlinear Schroedinger equations in three-dimensional space for the generalized Hubbard model are obtained.

  3. Three dimensional nonlinear magnetic AdS solutions through topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Momennia, M.; Panahiyan, S.

    2015-09-01

    Inspired by large applications of topological defects in describing different phenomena in physics, and considering the importance of three dimensional solutions in AdS/CFT correspondence, in this paper we obtain magnetic anti-de Sitter solutions of nonlinear electromagnetic fields. We take into account three classes of nonlinear electrodynamic models; first two classes are the well-known Born-Infeld like models including logarithmic and exponential forms and third class is known as the power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics. We investigate the effects of these nonlinear sources on three dimensional magnetic solutions. We show that these asymptotical AdS solutions do not have any curvature singularity and horizon. We also generalize the static metric to the case of rotating solutions and find that the value of the electric charge depends on the rotation parameter. Finally, we consider the quadratic Maxwell invariant as a correction of Maxwell theory and we investigate the effects of nonlinearity as a correction. We study the behavior of the deficit angle in presence of these theories of nonlinearity and compare them with each other. We also show that some cases with negative deficit angle exists which are representing objects with different geometrical structure. We also show that in case of the static only magnetic field exists whereas by boosting the metric to rotating one, electric field appears too.

  4. Hybrid three-dimensional variation and particle filtering for nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Hong-Ze; Song, Jun-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    This work addresses the problem of estimating the states of nonlinear dynamic systems with sparse observations. We present a hybrid three-dimensional variation (3DVar) and particle piltering (PF) method, which combines the advantages of 3DVar and particle-based filters. By minimizing the cost function, this approach will produce a better proposal distribution of the state. Afterwards the stochastic resampling step in standard PF can be avoided through a deterministic scheme. The simulation results show that the performance of the new method is superior to the traditional ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF) and the standard PF, especially in highly nonlinear systems.

  5. Three-dimensional nonlinear ideal MHD equilibria with field-aligned incompressible and compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.

  6. SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR FIELDS OF ULTRASOUND THERAPEUTIC ARRAYS

    PubMed Central

    Yuldashev, P. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    A novel numerical model was developed to simulate three-dimensional nonlinear fields generated by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) arrays. The model is based on the solution to the Westervelt equation; the developed algorithm makes it possible to model nonlinear pressure fields of periodic waves in the presence of shock fronts localized near the focus. The role of nonlinear effects in a focused beam of a two-dimensional array was investigated in a numerical experiment in water. The array consisting of 256 elements and intensity range on the array elements of up to 10 W/cm2 was considered. The results of simulations have shown that for characteristic intensity outputs of modern HIFU arrays, nonlinear effects play an important role and shock fronts develop in the pressure waveforms at the focus. PMID:21804751

  7. Precession and nutation dynamics of nonlinearly coupled non-coaxial three-dimensional matter wave vortices

    PubMed Central

    Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Meier, T.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinearity is the driving force for numerous important effects in nature typically showing transitions between different regimes, regular, chaotic or catastrophic behavior. Localized nonlinear modes have been the focus of intense research in areas such as fluid and gas dynamics, photonics, atomic and solid state physics etc. Due to the richness of the behavior of nonlinear systems and due to the severe numerical demands of accurate three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations presently only little knowledge is available on the dynamics of complex nonlinear modes in 3D. Here, we investigate the dynamics of 3D non-coaxial matter wave vortices that are trapped in a parabolic potential and interact via a repulsive nonlinearity. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of an unexpected and fascinating nonlinear regime that starts immediately when the nonlinearity is switched-on and is characterized by a smooth dynamics representing torque-free precession with nutations. The reported motion is proven to be robust regarding various effects such as the number of particles, dissipation and trap deformations and thus should be observable in suitably designed experiments. Since our theoretical approach, i.e., coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, is quite generic, we expect that the obtained novel dynamical behavior should also exist in other nonlinear systems. PMID:26964759

  8. Precession and nutation dynamics of nonlinearly coupled non-coaxial three-dimensional matter wave vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Meier, T.

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinearity is the driving force for numerous important effects in nature typically showing transitions between different regimes, regular, chaotic or catastrophic behavior. Localized nonlinear modes have been the focus of intense research in areas such as fluid and gas dynamics, photonics, atomic and solid state physics etc. Due to the richness of the behavior of nonlinear systems and due to the severe numerical demands of accurate three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations presently only little knowledge is available on the dynamics of complex nonlinear modes in 3D. Here, we investigate the dynamics of 3D non-coaxial matter wave vortices that are trapped in a parabolic potential and interact via a repulsive nonlinearity. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of an unexpected and fascinating nonlinear regime that starts immediately when the nonlinearity is switched-on and is characterized by a smooth dynamics representing torque-free precession with nutations. The reported motion is proven to be robust regarding various effects such as the number of particles, dissipation and trap deformations and thus should be observable in suitably designed experiments. Since our theoretical approach, i.e., coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, is quite generic, we expect that the obtained novel dynamical behavior should also exist in other nonlinear systems.

  9. MHD three-dimensional flow of nanofluid with velocity slip and nonlinear thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Kutbi, Marwan A.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis has been carried out for the three dimensional flow of viscous nanofluid in the presence of partial slip and thermal radiation effects. The flow is induced by a permeable stretching surface. Water is treated as a base fluid and alumina as a nanoparticle. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of applied magnetic field. Entire different concept of nonlinear thermal radiation is utilized in the heat transfer process. Different from the previous literature, the nonlinear system for temperature distribution is solved and analyzed. Appropriate transformations reduce the nonlinear partial differential system to ordinary differential system. Convergent series solutions are computed for the velocity and temperature. Effects of different parameters on the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and examined. It is concluded that heat transfer rate increases when temperature and radiation parameters are increased.

  10. Rayleigh-Taylor growth measurements of three-dimensional modulations in a nonlinear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Sadot, O.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; Delettrez, J.A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Shvarts, D.

    2006-05-15

    An understanding of the nonlinear evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is essential in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. The nonlinear RT growth of three-dimensional (3-D) broadband nonuniformities was measured near saturation levels using x-ray radiography in planar foils accelerated by laser light. The initial 3-D target modulations were seeded by laser nonuniformities and subsequently amplified by the RT instability. The measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in excellent agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [S. Haan, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. These spectra and growth velocities are insensitive to initial conditions. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions, in agreement with the Alon-Oron-Shvarts theoretical predictions [D. Oron et al. Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883 (2001)].

  11. The prediction of nonlinear three dimensional combustion instability in liquid rockets with conventional nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, E. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical technique is developed to solve nonlinear three-dimensional, transverse and axial combustion instability problems associated with liquid-propellant rocket motors. The Method of Weighted Residuals is used to determine the nonlinear stability characteristics of a cylindrical combustor with uniform injection of propellants at one end and a conventional DeLaval nozzle at the other end. Crocco's pressure sensitive time-lag model is used to describe the unsteady combustion process. The developed model predicts the transient behavior and nonlinear wave shapes as well as limit-cycle amplitudes and frequencies typical of unstable motor operation. The limit-cycle amplitude increases with increasing sensitivity of the combustion process to pressure oscillations. For transverse instabilities, calculated pressure waveforms exhibit sharp peaks and shallow minima, and the frequency of oscillation is within a few percent of the pure acoustic mode frequency. For axial instabilities, the theory predicts a steep-fronted wave moving back and forth along the combustor.

  12. Three dimensional nonlinear analysis of a single-grating rectangular waveguide Cerenkov maser

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wenqiu; Wang, Zi-Cheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding

    2015-04-15

    A three dimensional (3-D) nonlinear model for illustrating the beam-wave interaction in a single-grating rectangular waveguide sheet-beam Cerenkov maser is presented. The dynamical equations and the equations of motion are solved self-consistently to predict the device performance. Space-charge effects and Ohmic losses are considered in the model. A 1.03 THz backward wave oscillator and a 0.65 THz traveling wave tube are discussed as two illustrative examples.

  13. A three-dimensional explicit sphere function-based gas-kinetic flux solver for simulation of inviscid compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wu, J.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a truly three-dimensional (3D) flux solver is presented for simulation of inviscid compressible flows. Like the conventional multi-dimensional gas-kinetic scheme, in the present work, the local solution of 3D Boltzmann equation at the cell interface is used to evaluate the flux. On the other hand, different from most of the existing gas-kinetic schemes, which are constructed from Maxwellian distribution function, the present flux solver is derived from a simple distribution function defined on the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. As a result, the explicit expression of flux vector at the cell interface can be simply given. Since the simple distribution function is defined on the spherical surface, for simplicity, it is termed as sphere function hereafter. In addition, to simulate fluid flow problems with strong shock waves, the non-equilibrium part of the distribution function is regarded as numerical dissipation and involved in evaluating the inviscid flux at the cell interface. The weight of the non-equilibrium part is controlled by introducing a switch function which ranges from 0 to 1. In the smooth region, the switch function takes a value close to zero, while around the strong shock wave, it tends to one. To validate the proposed flux solver, several transonic, supersonic and hypersonic inviscid flows are simulated. Numerical results showed that the present solver can provide accurate numerical results for three-dimensional inviscid flows with strong shock waves.

  14. An explicit analytical solution for sound propagation in a three-dimensional penetrable wedge with small apex angle.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Pavel S; Sturm, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    A problem of sound propagation in a shallow-water waveguide with a weakly sloping penetrable bottom is considered. The adiabatic mode parabolic equations are used to approximate the solution of the three-dimensional (3D) Helmholtz equation by modal decomposition of the acoustic pressure field. The mode amplitudes satisfy parabolic equations that admit analytical solutions in the special case of the 3D wedge. Using the analytical formula for modal amplitudes, an explicit and remarkably simple expression for the acoustic pressure in the wedge is obtained. The proposed solution is validated by the comparison with a solution of the 3D penetrable wedge problem obtained using a fully 3D parabolic equation that includes a leading-order cross term correction. PMID:27036271

  15. Nonlinear teleseismic tomography at Long Valley caldera, using three-dimensional minimum travel time ray tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, C.M.; Steck, L.K.; Dawson, P.B.

    1995-10-10

    The authors explore the impact of three-dimensional minimum travel time ray tracing on nonlinear teleseismic inversion. This problem has particular significance when trying to image strongly contrasting low-velocity bodies, such as magma chambers, because strongly refracted/and/or diffracted rays may precede the direct P wave arrival traditionally used in straight-ray seismic tomography. They use a simplex-based ray tracer to compute the three-dimensional, minimum travel time ray paths and employ an interative technique to cope with nonlinearity. Results from synthetic data show that their algorithm results in better model reconstructions compared with traditional straight-ray inversions. The authors reexamine the teleseismic data collected at Long Valley caldera by the U.S. Geological Survey. The most prominent feature of their result is a 25-30% low-velocity zone centered at 11.5 km depth beneath the northwestern quandrant of the caldera. Beneath this at a depth of 24.5 km is a more diffuse 15% low-velocity zone. In general, the low velocities tend to deepen to the south and east. The authors interpret the shallow feature to be the residual Long Valley caldera magma chamber, while the deeper feature may represent basaltic magmas ponded in the midcrust. The deeper position of the prominent low-velocity region in comparison to earlier tomographic images is a result of using three-dimensional rays rather than straight rays in the ray tracing. The magnitude of the low-velocity anomaly is a factor of {approximately}3 times larger than earlier models from linear arrival time inversions and is consistent with models based on observations of ray bending at sites within the caldera. These results imply the presence of anywhere from 7 to 100% partial melt beneath the caldera. 40 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Three dimensional full-wave nonlinear acoustic simulations: Applications to ultrasound imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pinton, Gianmarco

    2015-10-28

    Characterization of acoustic waves that propagate nonlinearly in an inhomogeneous medium has significant applications to diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. The generation of an ultrasound image of human tissue is based on the complex physics of acoustic wave propagation: diffraction, reflection, scattering, frequency dependent attenuation, and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of wave propagation is used to the advantage of diagnostic scanners that use the harmonic components of the ultrasonic signal to improve the resolution and penetration of clinical scanners. One approach to simulating ultrasound images is to make approximations that can reduce the physics to systems that have a low computational cost. Here a maximalist approach is taken and the full three dimensional wave physics is simulated with finite differences. This paper demonstrates how finite difference simulations for the nonlinear acoustic wave equation can be used to generate physically realistic two and three dimensional ultrasound images anywhere in the body. A specific intercostal liver imaging scenario for two cases: with the ribs in place, and with the ribs removed. This configuration provides an imaging scenario that cannot be performed in vivo but that can test the influence of the ribs on image quality. Several imaging properties are studied, in particular the beamplots, the spatial coherence at the transducer surface, the distributed phase aberration, and the lesion detectability for imaging at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The results indicate, counterintuitively, that at the fundamental frequency the beamplot improves due to the apodization effect of the ribs but at the same time there is more degradation from reverberation clutter. At the harmonic frequency there is significantly less improvement in the beamplot and also significantly less degradation from reverberation. It is shown that even though simulating the full propagation physics is computationally challenging it

  17. Three dimensional full-wave nonlinear acoustic simulations: Applications to ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinton, Gianmarco

    2015-10-01

    Characterization of acoustic waves that propagate nonlinearly in an inhomogeneous medium has significant applications to diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. The generation of an ultrasound image of human tissue is based on the complex physics of acoustic wave propagation: diffraction, reflection, scattering, frequency dependent attenuation, and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of wave propagation is used to the advantage of diagnostic scanners that use the harmonic components of the ultrasonic signal to improve the resolution and penetration of clinical scanners. One approach to simulating ultrasound images is to make approximations that can reduce the physics to systems that have a low computational cost. Here a maximalist approach is taken and the full three dimensional wave physics is simulated with finite differences. This paper demonstrates how finite difference simulations for the nonlinear acoustic wave equation can be used to generate physically realistic two and three dimensional ultrasound images anywhere in the body. A specific intercostal liver imaging scenario for two cases: with the ribs in place, and with the ribs removed. This configuration provides an imaging scenario that cannot be performed in vivo but that can test the influence of the ribs on image quality. Several imaging properties are studied, in particular the beamplots, the spatial coherence at the transducer surface, the distributed phase aberration, and the lesion detectability for imaging at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The results indicate, counterintuitively, that at the fundamental frequency the beamplot improves due to the apodization effect of the ribs but at the same time there is more degradation from reverberation clutter. At the harmonic frequency there is significantly less improvement in the beamplot and also significantly less degradation from reverberation. It is shown that even though simulating the full propagation physics is computationally challenging it

  18. The nonlinear evolution of inviscid Goertler vortices in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackaby, Nicholas; Dando, Andrew; Hall, Philip

    1995-01-01

    The nonlinear development of inviscid Gortler vortices in a three-dimensional boundary layer is considered. We do not follow the classical approach of weakly nonlinear stability problems and consider a mode which has just become unstable. Instead we extend the method of Blackaby, Dando, and Hall (1992), which considered the closely related nonlinear development of disturbances in stratified shear flows. The Gortler modes we consider are initially fast growing and we assume, following others, that boundary-layer spreading results in them evolving in a linear fashion until they reach a stage where their amplitudes are large enough and their growth rates have diminished sufficiently so that amplitude equations can be derived using weakly nonlinear and non-equilibrium critical-layer theories. From the work of Blackaby, Dando and Hall (1993) is apparent, given the range of parameters for the Gortler problem, that there are three possible nonlinear integro-differential evolution equations for the disturbance amplitude. These are a cubic due to viscous effects, a cubic which corresponds to the novel mechanism investigated in this previous paper, and a quintic. In this paper we shall concentrate on the two cubic integro-differential equations and in particular, on the one due to the novel mechanism as this will be the first to affect a disturbance. It is found that the consideration of a spatial evolution problem as opposed to temporal (as was considered in Blackaby, Dando, and Hall, 1992) causes a number of significant changes to the evolution equations.

  19. A three-dimensional network model describing a non-linear composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mårtensson, E.; Gäfvert, U.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional network model for performing non-linear time-dependent simulations of the electrical characteristics related to a composite material is presented. The considered compounds are represented by a cubic lattice and consist of conducting particles distributed in an insulating matrix. Earlier studies of the non-linear characteristics of silicon carbide (SiC) grains and of the linear frequency-dependent electrical properties of composites are combined and extended. The calculations are compared to measurements on ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber filled with angular SiC grains. The field-dependent conductivity measured for the unconsolidated SiC powder is used as input to the simulations. The model can manage the conductivity difference of seven decades between the constituents and the strong exponential non-linearity of the conducting particles. The network calculations replicate the experimental characteristic at high filler concentrations, where direct 'face' contacts between the filler grains dominate the behaviour. At lower concentrations, it is shown that indirect 'edge' contacts involving the polymer control the current transport also in the non-linear high field range. The general effective conductivity describing an edge connection in the linear case is no longer appropriate. Non-linear mechanisms in the polymer and the conducting grains within a field enhanced limited region around the contact need to be represented by an equivalent circuit element with a case-dependent resulting expression.

  20. Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, R.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Aluie, H.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.

    2016-02-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.

  1. Three-dimensional nonlinear transient dynamic accident analyses of waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, S.M.; Ceylan, Z.; Doering, T.W.

    1996-02-01

    The analyses presented in this paper describe advanced methods of performing accident analyses by using finite element analysis. The models created to obtain solutions for these accident conditions are three-dimensional solid models which are solved in transient dynamic analyses. Previous solutions to similar problems were found by applying dynamic load factors to static solutions. By solving the analyses using the transient dynamic approach, the use of dynamic load factors is eliminated, leading to more accurate solutions and better control of the amount of conservatism included in the design. These analyses are also performed using nonlinear material properties to represent the elastic and plastic regions of stress and strain. The use of elastic-plastic material properties is necessary to accurately determine if breach of waste package containment occurs.

  2. On nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dominic A. R.; Smith, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The instability of an incompressible three-dimensional boundary layer (that is, one with cross-flow) is considered theoretically and computationally in the context of vortex/wave interactions. Specifically the work centers on two low amplitude, lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves which mutually interact to induce a weak longitudinal vortex flow; the vortex motion, in turn, gives rise to significant wave-modulation via wall-shear forcing. The characteristic Reynolds number is taken as a large parameter and, as a consequence, the waves' and the vortex motion are governed primarily by triple-deck theory. The nonlinear interaction is captured by a viscous partial-differential system for the vortex coupled with a pair of amplitude equations for each wave pressure. Three distinct possibilities were found to emerge for the nonlinear behavior of the flow solution downstream - an algebraic finite-distance singularity, far downstream saturation or far-downstream wave-decay (leaving pure vortex flow) - depending on the input conditions, the wave angles, and the size of the cross-flow.

  3. Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Malomed, B. A.; Meier, T.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3 +3 harmonic-oscillator p -wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l =1 and m =1 , 0, -1 . The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p -wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l =1 .

  4. Nonlinear axisymmetric and three-dimensional vorticity dynamics in a swirling jet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. E.; Meiburg, E.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of vorticity concentration, reorientation, and stretching are investigated in a simplified swirling jet model, consisting of a line vortex along the jet axis surrounded by a jet shear layer with both azimuthal and streamwise vorticity. Inviscid three-dimensional vortex dynamics simulations demonstrate the nonlinear interaction and competition between a centrifugal instability and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities feeding on both components of the base flow vorticity. Under axisymmetric flow conditions, it is found that the swirl leads to the emergence of counterrotating vortex rings, whose circulation, in the absence of viscosity, can grow without bounds. Scaling laws are provided for the growth of these rings, which trigger a pinch-off mechanism resulting in a strong decrease of the local jet diameter. In the presence of an azimuthal disturbance, the nonlinear evolution of the flow depends strongly on the initial ratio of the azimuthal and axisymmetric perturbation amplitudes. The long term dynamics of the jet can be dominated by counterrotating vortex rings connected by braid vortices, by like-signed rings and streamwise braid vortices, or by wavy streamwise vortices alone.

  5. Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators.

    PubMed

    Driben, R; Konotop, V V; Malomed, B A; Meier, T

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3+3 harmonic-oscillator p-wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l=1 and m=1, 0, -1. The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p-wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l=1. PMID:27575123

  6. Comparing analytical and numerical solution of nonlinear two and three-dimensional hydrostatic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casulli, Vincenzo; Zanolli, Paola

    2007-02-01

    New test cases for frictionless, three-dimensional hydrostatic flows have been derived from some known analytical solutions of the two-dimensional shallow water equations. The flow domain is a paraboloid of revolution and the flow is determined by the initial conditions, the nonlinear advective terms, the Coriolis acceleration and by the hydrostatic pressure. Wetting and drying is also included.Some specific properties of the exact solutions are discussed under different hypothesis and relative importance of the forcing terms. These solutions are proposed for testing the stability, the accuracy and the efficiency of numerical models to be used for simulating environmental hydrostatic flows.The computed solutions obtained with a semi-implicit finite difference - finite volume algorithm on unstructured grid are compared with the corresponding analytical solutions in both two and three space dimension. Excellent agreement are obtained for the velocity and for the resulting water surface elevation. Comparison of the computed inundation area also shows a good agreement with the analytical solution with degrading accuracy observed when the inundation area becomes relatively large and for long simulation time.

  7. A three-dimensional nonlinear Timoshenko beam based on the core-congruential formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crivelli, Luis A.; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional, geometrically nonlinear two-node Timoshenkoo beam element based on the total Larangrian description is derived. The element behavior is assumed to be linear elastic, but no restrictions are placed on magnitude of finite rotations. The resulting element has twelve degrees of freedom: six translational components and six rotational-vector components. The formulation uses the Green-Lagrange strains and second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses as energy-conjugate variables and accounts for the bending-stretching and bending-torsional coupling effects without special provisions. The core-congruential formulation (CCF) is used to derived the discrete equations in a staged manner. Core equations involving the internal force vector and tangent stiffness matrix are developed at the particle level. A sequence of matrix transformations carries these equations to beam cross-sections and finally to the element nodal degrees of freedom. The choice of finite rotation measure is made in the next-to-last transformation stage, and the choice of over-the-element interpolation in the last one. The tangent stiffness matrix is found to retain symmetry if the rotational vector is chosen to measure finite rotations. An extensive set of numerical examples is presented to test and validate the present element.

  8. Nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering of three-dimensional image data from two-photon microscopy.

    PubMed

    Broser, Philip J; Schulte, R; Lang, S; Roth, A; Helmchen, Fritjof; Waters, J; Sakmann, Bert; Wittum, G

    2004-01-01

    Two-photon microscopy in combination with novel fluorescent labeling techniques enables imaging of three-dimensional neuronal morphologies in intact brain tissue. In principle it is now possible to automatically reconstruct the dendritic branching patterns of neurons from 3-D fluorescence image stacks. In practice however, the signal-to-noise ratio can be low, in particular in the case of thin dendrites or axons imaged relatively deep in the tissue. Here we present a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter that enhances the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original dimensions of the structural elements. The key idea is to use structural information in the raw data-the local moments of inertia-to locally control the strength and direction of diffusion filtering. A cylindrical dendrite, for example, is effectively smoothed only parallel to its longitudinal axis, not perpendicular to it. This is demonstrated for artificial data as well as for in vivo two-photon microscopic data from pyramidal neurons of rat neocortex. In both cases noise is averaged out along the dendrites, leading to bridging of apparent gaps, while dendritic diameters are not affected. The filter is a valuable general tool for smoothing cellular processes and is well suited for preparing data for subsequent image segmentation and neuron reconstruction. PMID:15574067

  9. Nonlinear optical microscopy reveals invading endothelial cells anisotropically alter three-dimensional collagen matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.-F.; Yeh, Alvin T.; Bayless, Kayla J.

    2009-02-01

    The interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are fundamental in mediating various steps of angiogenesis, including cell adhesion, migration and sprout formation. Here, we used a noninvasive and non-destructive nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) technique to optically image endothelial sprouting morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. We simultaneously captured signals from collagen fibers and endothelial cells using second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), respectively. Dynamic 3D imaging revealed EC interactions with collagen fibers along with quantifiable alterations in collagen matrix density elicited by EC movement through and morphogenesis within the matrix. Specifically, we observed increased collagen density in the area between bifurcation points of sprouting structures and anisotropic increases in collagen density around the perimeter of lumenal structures, but not advancing sprout tips. Proteinase inhibition studies revealed membrane-associated matrix metalloproteinase were utilized for sprout advancement and lumen expansion. Rho-associated kinase (p160ROCK) inhibition demonstrated that the generation of cell tension increased collagen matrix alterations. This study followed sprouting ECs within a 3D matrix and revealed that the advancing structures recognize and significantly alter their extracellular environment at the periphery of lumens as they progress.

  10. A three-dimensional robust nonlinear terminal guidance law with ISS finite-time convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guilin; Ji, Haibo

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional nonlinear terminal guidance law with finite-time convergence for intercepting manoeuvring targets. Different from the usual method of decoupling the missile-target relative motion into two-dimensional planes, this law is designed via using the coupled dynamics. The guidance law is derived based on the theory of finite-time input-to-state stability (ISS), which needs no assumption of the linearisation and the estimation of target accelerations. Under this law, the line-of-sight angular rates can be stabilised to a small domain of convergence around zero in finite time. The convergence rate and convergence domain can be adjusted by changing the guidance parameters. First, a sufficient condition on finite-time ISS of the guidance system is given, and is subsequently used to design the guidance law. Finally, simulation results are provided to show that the proposed guidance law possesses fast convergence rate and strong robustness to target manoeuvres.

  11. Design process of cementless femoral stem using a nonlinear three dimensional finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimal available information concerning hip morphology is the motivation for several researchers to study the difference between Asian and Western populations. Current use of a universal hip stem of variable size is not the best option for all femur types. This present study proposed a new design process of the cementless femoral stem using a three dimensional model which provided more information and accurate analysis compared to conventional methods. Methods This complete design cycle began with morphological analysis, followed by femoral stem design, fit and fill analysis, and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA). Various femur parameters for periosteal and endosteal canal diameters are measured from the osteotomy level to 150 mm below to determine the isthmus position. Results The results showed better total fit (53.7%) and fill (76.7%) canal, with more load distributed proximally to prevent stress shielding at calcar region. The stem demonstrated lower displacement and micromotion (less than 40 μm) promoting osseointegration between the stem–bone and providing primary fixation stability. Conclusion This new design process could be used as a preclinical assessment tool and will shorten the design cycle by identifying the major steps which must be taken while designing the femoral stem. PMID:24484753

  12. Experimental tests of linear and nonlinear three-dimensional equilibrium models in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lanctot, M. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Turnbull, A. D.; Lazerson, S. A.; Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Nazikian, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Haskey, S. R.; Hanson, J. M.; Liu, Yueqiang; Shiraki, D.

    2015-07-15

    DIII-D experiments using new detailed magnetic diagnostics show that linear, ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory quantitatively describes the magnetic structure (as measured externally) of three-dimensional (3D) equilibria resulting from applied fields with toroidal mode number n = 1, while a nonlinear solution to ideal MHD force balance, using the VMEC code, requires the inclusion of n ≥ 1 to achieve similar agreement. These tests are carried out near ITER baseline parameters, providing a validated basis on which to exploit 3D fields for plasma control development. Scans of the applied poloidal spectrum and edge safety factor confirm that low-pressure, n = 1 non-axisymmetric tokamak equilibria are determined by a single, dominant, stable eigenmode. However, at higher beta, near the ideal kink mode stability limit in the absence of a conducting wall, the qualitative features of the 3D structure are observed to vary in a way that is not captured by ideal MHD.

  13. Acoustic waves in a stratified atmosphere. IV. Three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The quiet solar chromosphere in the interior of supergranulation cells is believed to be heated by the dissipation of acoustic waves that originate with a typical period of 3 min in the photosphere. Aims: We investigate how the horizontal expansion with height of acoustic waves traveling upward into an isothermal, gravitationally stratified atmosphere depends on the size of the source region. Methods: We have solved the three-dimensional, nonlinear, time-dependent hydrodynamic equations for impulsively-generated, upward-propagating acoustic waves, assuming cylindrical symmetry. Results: When the diameter of the source of acoustic waves is small, the pattern of the upward-propagating waves is that of a point source, for which the energy travels upward in a vertical cone, qualitatively matching the observed pattern of bright-point expansion with height. For the largest plausible size of a source region, i.e., with granular size of 1 Mm, wave propagation in the low chromosphere is approximately that of plane waves, but in the middle and upper chromosphere it is also that of a point source. The assumption of plane-wave propagation is not a good approximation in the solar chromosphere. The upward-directed energy flux is larger than that of the solar chromosphere, at least in the middle and upper chromosphere, and probably throughout. Conclusions: Simulations of impulsively generated acoustic waves emitted from source regions with diameters that are small compared to the pressure scale height of the atmosphere qualitatively reproduce the upward expansion observed in chromospheric bright points. The emission features in the cores of the H and K lines are predicted to be blueshifted for a pulse and redshifted for the waves in its wake. The contribution of internal gravity waves to the upward energy flux is small and decreases with increasing size of the source region.

  14. Seismic velocity structure of the Puget Sound Region from three dimensional nonlinear tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Neill Philip

    In this dissertation I describe a non-linear seismic tomography experiment in the Greater Puget Sound Region (GPSR). The GPSR contains portions of three distinct geologic provinces: (1) the Coast Range Province---composed of the Olympic Mountains and the Siletzia terrane lying along the Washington Coast (the western edge of the GPSR). (2) The Puget Lowland---an approximately linear depression that stretches from Oregon's Willamette Valley to the Strait of Georgia in Canada. The Puget Lowland lies in the middle of the GPSR. (3) The Cascade Range---lying along the eastern edge of the GPSR and characterized by extensive episodic volcanism since the later Mesozoic. The result of this study is a three-dimensional model of the P-wave velocity within the GPSR. Interpretation of this model provides information about the subsurface geology in the region. The method used to perform the tomography has been developed as part of this research. The method uses a finite-difference algorithm to calculate seismic travel-times to every point in the region using the full 3-d velocity model. The method is capable of using three different types of data: (1) earthquakes with unknown hypocenters. The earthquake hypocenters are found as part of the model during solution of the tomography problem. (2) Explosions or other seismic events with known locations. (3) External data constraining the seismic velocity at known locations within the model. There is a good correlation between the velocity model derived in this experiment and several known geologic structures in the GPSR, including: the core of the Olympic Mountains; high seismic velocity where the basalt that makes up the Siletzia terrane outcrops; and low-velocity regions at basins under the cities of Seattle, Tacoma, Everett, and Chehalis. The data provides sufficient resolution to delineate the geometry of the contacts between these units within a large portion of the GPSR.

  15. User's manual for master: Modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by 3-dimensional explicit representation. [input to three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs was developed to model general three dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinates, to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface/surface intersection curves. Input and output data formats are described; detailed suggestions are given for user input. Instructions for execution are given, and examples are shown.

  16. Nonlinear wave solutions of the three-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers equation in dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seadawy, Aly R.

    2015-12-01

    The propagation of dust-ion-acoustic waves with high-energy electrons and positrons in three-dimensional is considered. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers (ZKB) equations for the dust-ion-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas is obtained. The conservations laws and integrals of motion for the ZKB equation are deduced. In the present study, by applying the modified direct algebraic method, we found the electric field potential, electric field and quantum statistical pressure in form water wave solutions for three-dimensional ZKB equation. The solutions for the ZKB equation are obtained precisely and efficiency of the method can be demonstrated. The stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making the graphs of the exact solutions are discussed and analyzed.

  17. Unsteady three-dimensional thermal field prediction in turbine blades using nonlinear BEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Thomas J.; Dulikravich, George S.

    1993-01-01

    A time-and-space accurate and computationally efficient fully three dimensional unsteady temperature field analysis computer code has been developed for truly arbitrary configurations. It uses boundary element method (BEM) formulation based on an unsteady Green's function approach, multi-point Gaussian quadrature spatial integration on each panel, and a highly clustered time-step integration. The code accepts either temperatures or heat fluxes as boundary conditions that can vary in time on a point-by-point basis. Comparisons of the BEM numerical results and known analytical unsteady results for simple shapes demonstrate very high accuracy and reliability of the algorithm. An example of computed three dimensional temperature and heat flux fields in a realistically shaped internally cooled turbine blade is also discussed.

  18. Numerical simulation of compressible Couette flow stability: Non-linear and three-dimensional effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saati, Abdulmannan Abdulhamid

    1991-02-01

    The direct numerical simulation of the stability and transition of compressible Couette flow is studied. The effects of a constant body force along the vertical direction are also studied. Cartesian geometry is adopted to approximate Couette flow produced in the gap between two coaxial cylinders rotating at high-speed, with the body force representing the effects of the centrifugal force. A new, compressible flow solver for two- and three-dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations, using both the MacCormack and the high-order Two-Four methods was developed. In order to facilitate the simulations with greater detail and accuracy, a high-speed supercomputer with large core memory is required. Thus, the computer code was written in FORTRAN for its execution on the CRAY2, at NASA Langley. In a concurrent effort, in order to study the feasibility and efficiency of massively parallel super-computers and to speed up the computations, the work was further extended by rewriting the computer code in both C* and PARIS languages, for execution on the massively parallel Connection Machine CM 2 at the University of Colorado. Extensive testing of this new computer code was performed using wave propagation problems involving small- and large-amplitude two- and three-dimensional disturbances. Numerical simulations on the stability of compressible Couette flow between two infinite, parallel plates, with the inclusion of (1) a sudden body force, and (2) a body force in equilibrium, were performed. First, two-dimensional disturbances were considered and then the work was extended by considering three-dimensional disturbances on the rectangular Couette flow problem. Effects of body force magnitude, Mach number, and Reynolds number were also investigated. The simulations provide excellent agreement with the linear theory, thus documenting the phase and amplitude accuracy of the computed results; the overall amplitude error remains less than one percent. The results show that

  19. Nonlinear and three-dimensional theory for cross-magnetic field propagation of short-pulse lasers in underdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2004-05-01

    The nonlinear and finite spot size effects for short laser pulses propagating in a plasma across a constant magnetic field (ordinary and extraordinary modes) have been studied. Starting from a fluid Lagrangian for magnetized plasmas with immobile ions, we derive the envelope equation for the laser and also the equation for the plasma wake in a three-dimensional geometry. The derived equations reveal that the external magnetic field reduces the strength of ponderomotive self-focusing, causes astigmatic self-focusing, and leads to the possibility of deflecting a short and narrow laser pulse in a magnetized plasma.

  20. Convective overstability in accretion disks: Three-dimensional linear analysis and nonlinear saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir

    2014-07-01

    Recently, Klahr and Hubbard claimed that a hydrodynamical linear overstability exists in protoplanetary disks, powered by buoyancy in the presence of thermal relaxation. We analyze this claim, confirming it through rigorous compressible linear analysis. We model the system numerically, reproducing the linear growth rate for all cases studied. We also study the saturated properties of the overstability in the shearing box, finding that the saturated state produces finite amplitude fluctuations strong enough to trigger the subcritical baroclinic instability (SBI). Saturation leads to a fast burst of enstrophy in the box, and a large-scale vortex develops in the course of the next ≈100 orbits. The amount of angular momentum transport achieved is of the order of α ≈ 10{sup –3}, as in compressible SBI models. For the first time, a self-sustained three-dimensional vortex is produced from linear amplitude perturbation of a quiescent base state.

  1. Grid-Independent Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Channel Flow using Three-Dimensional Explicit Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullbrand, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, turbulence-closure models are evaluated using the 'true' LES approach in turbulent channel flow. The study is an extension of the work presented by Gullbrand (2001), where fourth-order commutative filter functions are applied in three dimensions in a fourth-order finite-difference code. The true LES solution is the grid-independent solution to the filtered governing equations. The solution is obtained by keeping the filter width constant while the computational grid is refined. As the grid is refined, the solution converges towards the true LES solution. The true LES solution will depend on the filter width used, but will be independent of the grid resolution. In traditional LES, because the filter is implicit and directly connected to the grid spacing, the solution converges towards a direct numerical simulation (DNS) as the grid is refined, and not towards the solution of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The effect of turbulence-closure models is therefore difficult to determine in traditional LES because, as the grid is refined, more turbulence length scales are resolved and less influence from the models is expected. In contrast, in the true LES formulation, the explicit filter eliminates all scales that are smaller than the filter cutoff, regardless of the grid resolution. This ensures that the resolved length-scales do not vary as the grid resolution is changed. In true LES, the cell size must be smaller than or equal to the cutoff length scale of the filter function. The turbulence-closure models investigated are the dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM), the dynamic mixed model (DMM), and the dynamic reconstruction model (DRM). These turbulence models were previously studied using two-dimensional explicit filtering in turbulent channel flow by Gullbrand & Chow (2002). The DSM by Germano et al. (1991) is used as the USFS model in all the simulations. This enables evaluation of different reconstruction models for the RSFS stresses. The DMM

  2. Three dimensional nonlinear simulations of edge localized modes on the EAST tokamak using BOUT++ code

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. X. Xia, T. Y.; Liu, S. C.; Ding, S. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Joseph, I.; Meyer, W. H.; Gao, X.; Xu, G. S.; Shao, L. M.; Li, G. Q.; Li, J. G.

    2014-09-15

    Experimental measurements of edge localized modes (ELMs) observed on the EAST experiment are compared to linear and nonlinear theoretical simulations of peeling-ballooning modes using the BOUT++ code. Simulations predict that the dominant toroidal mode number of the ELM instability becomes larger for lower current, which is consistent with the mode structure captured with visible light using an optical CCD camera. The poloidal mode number of the simulated pressure perturbation shows good agreement with the filamentary structure observed by the camera. The nonlinear simulation is also consistent with the experimentally measured energy loss during an ELM crash and with the radial speed of ELM effluxes measured using a gas puffing imaging diagnostic.

  3. Critical-layer nonlinearity in the resonance growth of three-dimensional waves in boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions of a triad of initially linear stability waves are addressed. The triad consisted of a single two-dimensional mode at a given frequency and two oblique modes with equal and opposite spanwise wave numbers. The oblique waves were at half the frequency and streamwise wave number of the two-dimensional mode. Attention was focused on the boundary-layer transition at low frequencies and high Reynolds numbers. A five-zoned structure and low-frequency scaling were used to derive the nonlinear-interaction equations. The initial nonlinear development of the waves was analyzed; the results indicated that the two-dimensional wave behaves according to linear theory. Nonlinear interactions caused exponential-of-an-exponential growth of the oblique modes. This resonant amplification of the subharmonic depended on the initial amplitude of the two-dimensional wave and on the initial phase angle between the two-dimensional wave and the oblique waves. The resonant growth of the oblique modes was more pronounced at lower frequencies than at higher frequencies. The results are in good agreement with experimental results and offer explanations of the observed process.

  4. Three-dimensional finite-difference modeling of non-linear ground notion

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-08-01

    We present a hybrid finite-difference technique capable of modeling non-linear soil amplification from the 3-D finite-fault radiation pattern for earthquakes in arbitrary earth models. The method is applied to model non-linear effects in the soils of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) from the 17 January 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquake. 0-7 Hz particle velocities are computed for an area of 17 km by 19 km immediately above the causative fault and 5 km below the surface where peak strike-parallel, strike-perpendicular, vertical, and total velocities reach values of 71 cm/s, 145 cm/s, 152 cm/s, and 180 cm/s, respectively. Selected Green`s functions and a soil model for the SFV are used to compute the approximate stress level during the earthquake, and comparison to the values for near-surface alluvium at the U.S. Nevada Test Site suggests that the non-linear regime may have been entered. We use selected values from the simulated particle velocity distribution at 5 km depth to compute the non-linear response in a soil column below a site within the Van Norman Complex in SFV, where the strongest ground motion was recorded. Since site-specific non- linear material parameters from the SFV are currently unavailable, values are taken from analyses of observed Test Site ground motions. Preliminary results show significant reduction of spectral velocities at the surface normalized to the peak source velocity due to non-linear effects when the peak velocity increases from 32 cm/s (approximately linear case) to 64 cm/s (30-92%), 93 cm/s (7-83%), and 124 cm/s (2-70%). The largest reduction occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz.

  5. Three-Dimensional Ankle Moments and Nonlinear Summation of Rat Triceps Surae Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Tijs, Chris; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Baan, Guus C.; Maas, Huub

    2014-01-01

    The Achilles tendon and epimuscular connective tissues mechanically link the triceps surae muscles. These pathways may cause joint moments exerted by each muscle individually not to sum linearly, both in magnitude and direction. The aims were (i) to assess effects of sagittal plane ankle angle (varied between 150° and 70°) on isometric ankle moments, in both magnitude and direction, exerted by active rat triceps surae muscles, (ii) to assess ankle moment summation between those muscles for a range of ankle angles and (iii) to assess effects of sagittal plane ankle angle and muscle activation on Achilles tendon length. At each ankle angle, soleus (SO) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles were first excited separately to assess ankle-angle moment characteristics and subsequently both muscles were excited simultaneously to investigate moment summation. The magnitude of ankle moment exerted by SO and GA, the SO direction in the transverse and sagittal planes, and the GA direction in the transverse plane were significantly affected by ankle angle. SO moment direction in the frontal and sagittal planes were significantly different from that of GA. Nonlinear magnitude summation varied between 0.6±2.9% and −3.6±2.9%, while the nonlinear direction summation varied between 0.3±0.4° and −0.4±0.7° in the transverse plane, between 0.5±0.4° and 0.1±0.4° in the frontal plane, and between 3.0±7.9° and 0.3±2.3° in the sagittal plane. Changes in tendon length caused by SO contraction were significantly lower than those during contraction of GA and GA+SO simultaneously. Thus, moments exerted by GA and SO sum nonlinearly both in the magnitude and direction. The limited degree of nonlinear summation may be explained by different mechanisms acting in opposite directions. PMID:25360524

  6. Three-Dimensional Single-Mode Nonlinear Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, R.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (ART) instability is studied in three dimensions for conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion targets. The simulations are performed using our newly developed code ART3D and an astrophysical code AstroBEAR. The laser ablation can suppress the growth of the short-wavelength modes in the linear phase but may enhance their growth in the nonlinear phase because of the vortex-acceleration mechanism. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the bubble velocity grows faster than predicted in the classical 3-D theory. When compared to 2-D results, 3-D short-wavelength bubbles grow faster and do not reach saturation. The unbounded 3-D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes into the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume. A density plateau is observed inside a nonlinear ART bubble and the plateau density is higher for shorter-wavelength modes. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. A nonlinear, implicit, three-dimensional finite element code for solid and structural mechanics - User`s Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Maker, B.N.

    1995-04-14

    This report provides a user`s manual for NIKE3D, a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the finite strain static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node truss and beam elements, and 4-node membrane and shell elements. Over twenty constitutive models are available for representing a wide range of elastic, plastic, viscous, and thermally dependent material behavior. Contact-impact algorithms permit gaps, frictional sliding, and mesh discontinuities along material interfaces. Several nonlinear solution strategies are available, including Full-, Modified-, and Quasi-Newton methods. The resulting system of simultaneous linear equations is either solved iteratively by an element-by-element method, or directly by a factorization method, for which case bandwidth minimization is optional. Data may be stored either in or out of core memory to allow for large analyses.

  8. Three-Dimensional EMHD Simulation Studies of Nonlinear Magnetic Structures in Magnetized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    We present a numerical study of strongly nonlinear magnetic vortex-like structures, denoted whistler spheromaks, which have recently been observed in laboratory experiments. The whistler spheromaks are excited with a ring antenna immersed in the magnetized plasma, and are propagating away from the antenna with a constant speed along the ambient magnetic field lines. The wave magnetic field of the spheromaks are of the same order or larger than the ambient magnetic field, and consists of two parts, the poloidal field which is strong enough to reverse the magnetic field in the center of the spheromak, and the toroidal field. We demonstrate numerically that the latter is crucial for the propagation speed and direction of the spheromak, and that the whistler spheromaks are long-lived structures.

  9. A non-linear von Neumann law for three-dimensional foam coarsening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kraynik, Andrew M.; Koehler, Stephan A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2001-03-01

    About 50 years ago, John von Neumann proved that the coarsening rate of individual bubbles in a 2-D dry foam is a linear function of the number of edges of the polygonal bubble. Soon afterwards it was conjectured that a statistical analog holds in three dimensions: polyhedral bubbles with a given number F of faces have an average growth rate that scales linearly in F. Using a theorem by Minkowski, we derive a parameter-free analytical expression for the average growth rates and show that it is non-linear, asymptoting to a square-root power in F. Experimental data and detailed foam simulations are in exceptionally good agreement with the analytical results. A refined model incorporates foam disorder to further improve the predictive power of the theory.

  10. On the Nonlinear Evolution of a Stationary Cross-Flow Vortex in a Fully Three-Dimensional Boundary Layer Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear stability of a fully three-dimensional boundary layer flow in an incompressible fluid and derive an equation governing the nonlinear development of a stationary cross-flow vortex. The amplitude equation is a novel integro-differential equation which has spatial derivatives of the amplitude occurring in the kernal function. It is shown that the evolution of the cross-flow vortex is strongly coupled to the properties of an unsteady wall layer which is in fact driven by an unknown slip velocity, proportional to the amplitude of the cross-flow vortex. The work is extended to obtain the corresponding equation for rotating disk flow. A number of special cases are examined and the numerical solution for one of cases, and further analysis, demonstrates the existence of finite-distance as well as focussing type singularities. The numerical solutions also indicate the presence of a new type of nonlinear wave solution for a certain set of parameter values.

  11. Nonlinear evolution of three-dimensional instabilities of thin and thick electron scale current sheets: Plasmoid formation and current filamentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg

    2014-07-15

    Nonlinear evolution of three dimensional electron shear flow instabilities of an electron current sheet (ECS) is studied using electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of the evolution on current sheet thickness is examined. For thin current sheets (half thickness =d{sub e}=c/ω{sub pe}), tearing mode instability dominates. In its nonlinear evolution, it leads to the formation of oblique current channels. Magnetic field lines form 3-D magnetic spirals. Even in the absence of initial guide field, the out-of-reconnection-plane magnetic field generated by the tearing instability itself may play the role of guide field in the growth of secondary finite-guide-field instabilities. For thicker current sheets (half thickness ∼5 d{sub e}), both tearing and non-tearing modes grow. Due to the non-tearing mode, current sheet becomes corrugated in the beginning of the evolution. In this case, tearing mode lets the magnetic field reconnect in the corrugated ECS. Later thick ECS develops filamentary structures and turbulence in which reconnection occurs. This evolution of thick ECS provides an example of reconnection in self-generated turbulence. The power spectra for both the thin and thick current sheets are anisotropic with respect to the electron flow direction. The cascade towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow.

  12. Stability analysis solutions for nonlinear three-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in a magnetized electron-positron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seadawy, Aly R.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear three-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov ​(mKdV-ZK) equation governs the behavior of weakly nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma which consists of equal hot and cool components of each species. By using the reductive perturbation procedure leads to a mKdV-ZK equation governing the oblique propagation of nonlinear electrostatic modes. The stability of solitary traveling wave solutions of the mKdV-ZK equation to three-dimensional long-wavelength perturbations is investigated. We found the electrostatic field potential and electric field in form traveling wave solutions for three-dimensional mKdV-ZK equation. The solutions for the mKdV-ZK equation are obtained precisely and efficiency of the method can be demonstrated.

  13. Explicitly correlated three-dimensional potential-energy surface of the thiazyl-hydride-helium weakly bound system and implications for HSN detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajili, Y.; Ben Abdallah, D.; Mogren Al-Mogren, M.; Lique, F.; Francisco, J. S.; Hochlaf, M.

    2016-07-01

    The intermonomer three-dimensional potential-energy surface (3D PES) of the thiazyl-hydride-helium (HSN-He) weakly bound molecular system is generated using the explicitly correlated coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations. The 3D PES is mapped in Jacobi coordinates. This potential-energy surface shows a unique potential well at planar configurations. The depth of this potential is 74.4 c m-1 . This 3D PES is incorporated into a close-coupling and coupled-states quantum dynamical treatment of nuclear motions to deduce the rotational (de-)excitation of HSN by He for energies up to 1400 c m-1 . After averaging over a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, the collisional rate coefficients are derived for temperatures ranging from 5 to 200 K. These data are essential for the identification of HSN molecules in astrophysical media. A comparison between thionitrosyl-hydride—He and HSN-He is performed.

  14. Effect of nonlinear three-dimensional optimized reconstruction algorithm filter on image quality and radiation dose: Validation on phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Mei; Chen Jiuhong; Raupach, Rainer; Suess, Christoph; Tao Ying; Peng Mingchen

    2009-01-15

    A new technique called the nonlinear three-dimensional optimized reconstruction algorithm filter (3D ORA filter) is currently used to improve CT image quality and reduce radiation dose. This technical note describes the comparison of image noise, slice sensitivity profile (SSP), contrast-to-noise ratio, and modulation transfer function (MTF) on phantom images processed with and without the 3D ORA filter, and the effect of the 3D ORA filter on CT images at a reduced dose. For CT head scans the noise reduction was up to 54% with typical bone reconstruction algorithms (H70) and a 0.6 mm slice thickness; for liver CT scans the noise reduction was up to 30% with typical high-resolution reconstruction algorithms (B70) and a 0.6 mm slice thickness. MTF and SSP did not change significantly with the application of 3D ORA filtering (P>0.05), whereas noise was reduced (P<0.05). The low contrast detectability and MTF of images obtained at a reduced dose and filtered by the 3D ORA were equivalent to those of standard dose CT images; there was no significant difference in image noise of scans taken at a reduced dose, filtered using 3D ORA and standard dose CT (P>0.05). The 3D ORA filter shows good potential for reducing image noise without affecting image quality attributes such as sharpness. By applying this approach, the same image quality can be achieved whilst gaining a marked dose reduction.

  15. Three-Dimensional Structures of the Spatiotemporal Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with Power-Law Nonlinearity in PT-Symmetric Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chao-Qing; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with power-law nonlinearity in -symmetric potentials is investigated, and two families of analytical three-dimensional spatiotemporal structure solutions are obtained. The stability of these solutions is tested by the linear stability analysis and the direct numerical simulation. Results indicate that solutions are stable below some thresholds for the imaginary part of -symmetric potentials in the self-focusing medium, while they are always unstable for all parameters in the self-defocusing medium. Moreover, some dynamical properties of these solutions are discussed, such as the phase switch, power and transverse power-flow density. The span of phase switch gradually enlarges with the decrease of the competing parameter k in -symmetric potentials. The power and power-flow density are all positive, which implies that the power flow and exchange from the gain toward the loss domains in the cell. PMID:24983624

  16. Theoretical assessment of optical resolution enhancement and background fluorescence reduction by three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy using stimulated emission depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dake, Fumihiro

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (SIM) enlarges frequency cutoff laterally and axially by a factor of two, compared with conventional microscopy. However, its optical resolution is still fundamentally limited. It is necessary to introduce nonlinearity to enlarge frequency cutoff further. We propose three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED) effect, which has a structured excitation pattern and a structured STED pattern, and both three-dimensional illumination patterns have the same lateral pitch and orientation. Theoretical analysis showed that nonlinearity induced by STED effect, which causes harmonics and contributes to enlarging frequency cutoff, depends on the phase difference between two structured illuminations and that the phase difference of π is the most efficient to increase nonlinearity. We also found that undesirable background fluorescence, which degenerates the contrast of structured pattern and limits the ability of SIM, can be reduced by our method. These results revealed that optical resolution improvement and background fluorescence reduction would be compatible. The feasibility study showed that our method will be realized with commercially available laser, having 3.5 times larger frequency cutoff compared with conventional microscopy.

  17. Theoretical assessment of optical resolution enhancement and background fluorescence reduction by three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy using stimulated emission depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dake, Fumihiro

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (SIM) enlarges frequency cutoff laterally and axially by a factor of two, compared with conventional microscopy. However, its optical resolution is still fundamentally limited. It is necessary to introduce nonlinearity to enlarge frequency cutoff further. We propose three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED) effect, which has a structured excitation pattern and a structured STED pattern, and both three-dimensional illumination patterns have the same lateral pitch and orientation. Theoretical analysis showed that nonlinearity induced by STED effect, which causes harmonics and contributes to enlarging frequency cutoff, depends on the phase difference between two structured illuminations and that the phase difference of π is the most efficient to increase nonlinearity. We also found that undesirable background fluorescence, which degenerates the contrast of structured pattern and limits the ability of SIM, can be reduced by our method. These results revealed that optical resolution improvement and background fluorescence reduction would be compatible. The feasibility study showed that our method will be realized with commercially available laser, having 3.5 times larger frequency cutoff compared with conventional microscopy.

  18. Deep and high-resolution three-dimensional tracking of single particles using nonlinear and multiplexed illumination

    PubMed Central

    Perillo, Evan P.; Liu, Yen-Liang; Huynh, Khang; Liu, Cong; Chou, Chao-Kai; Hung, Mien-Chie; Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular trafficking within cells, tissues and engineered three-dimensional multicellular models is critical to the understanding of the development and treatment of various diseases including cancer. However, current tracking methods are either confined to two dimensions or limited to an interrogation depth of ∼15 μm. Here we present a three-dimensional tracking method capable of quantifying rapid molecular transport dynamics in highly scattering environments at depths up to 200 μm. The system has a response time of 1 ms with a temporal resolution down to 50 μs in high signal-to-noise conditions, and a spatial localization precision as good as 35 nm. Built on spatiotemporally multiplexed two-photon excitation, this approach requires only one detector for three-dimensional particle tracking and allows for two-photon, multicolour imaging. Here we demonstrate three-dimensional tracking of epidermal growth factor receptor complexes at a depth of ∼100 μm in tumour spheroids. PMID:26219252

  19. Deep and high-resolution three-dimensional tracking of single particles using nonlinear and multiplexed illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillo, Evan P.; Liu, Yen-Liang; Huynh, Khang; Liu, Cong; Chou, Chao-Kai; Hung, Mien-Chie; Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2015-07-01

    Molecular trafficking within cells, tissues and engineered three-dimensional multicellular models is critical to the understanding of the development and treatment of various diseases including cancer. However, current tracking methods are either confined to two dimensions or limited to an interrogation depth of ~15 μm. Here we present a three-dimensional tracking method capable of quantifying rapid molecular transport dynamics in highly scattering environments at depths up to 200 μm. The system has a response time of 1 ms with a temporal resolution down to 50 μs in high signal-to-noise conditions, and a spatial localization precision as good as 35 nm. Built on spatiotemporally multiplexed two-photon excitation, this approach requires only one detector for three-dimensional particle tracking and allows for two-photon, multicolour imaging. Here we demonstrate three-dimensional tracking of epidermal growth factor receptor complexes at a depth of ~100 μm in tumour spheroids.

  20. System and method to create three-dimensional images of non-linear acoustic properties in a region remote from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  1. Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions to some nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiefang Zhang

    1996-08-01

    Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions are obtained for some physically interesting nonlinear evolutions and wave equations in physics and other fields by using a special transformation. These equations include the KdV-Burgers equation, the MKdV-Burgers equation, the combined KdV-MKdV equation, the Newell-Whitehead equation, the dissipative {Phi}{sup 4}-model equation, the generalized Fisher equation, and the elastic-medium wave equation.

  2. Stability limits for three-dimensional vortex solitons in the Ginzburg-Landau equation with the cubic-quintic nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalache, D.; Mazilu, D.; Lederer, F.; Leblond, H.; Malomed, B. A.

    2007-10-15

    We complete the stability analysis for three-dimensional dissipative solitons with intrinsic vorticity S in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with cubic and quintic terms in its dissipative and conservative parts. It is found and qualitatively explained that a necessary stability condition for all vortex solitons, but not for the fundamental ones (S=0), is the presence of nonzero diffusivity in the transverse plane. The fundamental solitons are stable in all cases when they exist, while the vortex solitons are stable only in a part of their existence domain. However, the spectral filtering (i.e., the temporal-domain diffusivity) is not necessary for the stability of any species of dissipative solitons. In addition to the recently studied solitons with S=0,1,2, a stability region is also found for ones with S=3.

  3. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity.

    PubMed

    Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption. PMID:25215842

  4. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, A.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V.

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.

  5. Influence of Magnetic Field in Three-Dimensional Flow of Couple Stress Nanofluid over a Nonlinearly Stretching Surface with Convective Condition

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Ahmad, Bashir

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid subject to the convective boundary condition. Flow is generated due to a nonlinear stretching of the surface in two lateral directions. Temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied through the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. Couple stress fluid is considered electrically conducting through a non-uniform applied magnetic field. Mathematical formulation is developed via boundary layer approach. Nonlinear ordinary differential systems are constructed by employing suitable transformations. The resulting systems have been solved for the convergent series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration profiles. Graphs are sketched to see the effects of different interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions. Numerical values are computed to analyze the values of skin-friction coefficients and Nusselt number. PMID:26714259

  6. Influence of Magnetic Field in Three-Dimensional Flow of Couple Stress Nanofluid over a Nonlinearly Stretching Surface with Convective Condition.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Ahmad, Bashir

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid subject to the convective boundary condition. Flow is generated due to a nonlinear stretching of the surface in two lateral directions. Temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied through the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. Couple stress fluid is considered electrically conducting through a non-uniform applied magnetic field. Mathematical formulation is developed via boundary layer approach. Nonlinear ordinary differential systems are constructed by employing suitable transformations. The resulting systems have been solved for the convergent series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration profiles. Graphs are sketched to see the effects of different interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions. Numerical values are computed to analyze the values of skin-friction coefficients and Nusselt number. PMID:26714259

  7. Three-dimensional nonlinear efficiency enhancement analysis in free-electron laser amplifier with prebunched electron beam and ion-channel guiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari Bahman, F.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-02-01

    Efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser is studied by three-dimensional and nonlinear simulation using tapered helical wiggler magnetic field or tapered ion-channel density. In order to reduce the saturation length, prebunched electron beam is used. A set of nonlinear and coupled differential equations are derived that provides the self-consistent description of the evolution of both an ensemble of electrons and the electromagnetic radiation. These equations are solved numerically to show that the combined effect of tapering and prebunching results in significant enhancement of power and considerable reduction of the saturation length. To have a deeper insight into the problem, an analytical treatment is also presented that uses the small signal theory to derive a modified pendulum equation.

  8. Three-dimensional nonlinear efficiency enhancement analysis in free-electron laser amplifier with prebunched electron beam and ion-channel guiding

    SciTech Connect

    Jafari Bahman, F.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-02-15

    Efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser is studied by three-dimensional and nonlinear simulation using tapered helical wiggler magnetic field or tapered ion-channel density. In order to reduce the saturation length, prebunched electron beam is used. A set of nonlinear and coupled differential equations are derived that provides the self-consistent description of the evolution of both an ensemble of electrons and the electromagnetic radiation. These equations are solved numerically to show that the combined effect of tapering and prebunching results in significant enhancement of power and considerable reduction of the saturation length. To have a deeper insight into the problem, an analytical treatment is also presented that uses the small signal theory to derive a modified pendulum equation.

  9. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of crustal-scale wrenching using a non-linear failure criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jean

    1994-08-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional finite element model to study wrench deformation of the crust regarded as an elasto-plastic material obeying Murrell's extension of Griffith's failure criterion. Numerical experiments using this model predict that the imposed basal wrenching is accommodated by an array of oblique Riedel-like shears and Y-shears (parallel to the direction of wrenching). The partitioning of deformation between the two types of structure depends on the width of the zone of imposed basal wrenching and the existence of a component of deformation in the x-direction (normal to the direction of wrenching). The Riedel shears are arranged in spiral-like structures that root into the basal wrench zone. In cross-section, the Riedel shears resemble wedge-shaped flower structures similar to those often observed in seismic cross-sections. The 'polarity' of the flower structures is positive (or palm-tree-like) in transpression experiments and negative (or tulip-like) in transtension experiments. The orientation of the Riedel shears throughout the crust obeys Mohr's hypothesis for incipient faulting combined with Murrell's failure criterion. The model also predicts plastic dilatancy inversely proportional to the square root of the confining pressure; this result agrees qualitatively with field observations and the results of sand-box experiments and quantitatively with direct measurement of dilatancy during high-pressure rock-deformation experiments.

  10. Asymptotic analysis of: I. Wave propagation in dispersive optical media with quadratic nonlinearity. II. A hypersonic wing with three-dimensional self-similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Kalocsai, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    An asymptotic analysis is presented for two distinct and independent problems: (I) Wave propagation in dispersive optical media with quadratic nonlinearity (II) Hypersonic flows with three dimensional self-similarity. In the optics problem, we at first study single and multiple input propagating waves at frequencies away from dielectric resonances. Here we compare the Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation to the Method of Multiple Scales and show that the Method of Multiple Scales is a superior technique that can be applied self consistently to any perturbation order which in turn predicts new physical effects. For the single slowly modulated input wave problem, under appropriate conditions, we shown that at the O({epsilon}{sup 2}) perturbation, we obtain the cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation. This means that for the single input wave propagating in a quadratic nonlinear medium, self-modulation effects and soliton behavior may be observed depending on the boundary conditions. For the single input wave near a classical dielectric resonance, we find that the wave number becomes amplitude dependent. The method of multiple scales is replaced by Whitham`s averaged Lagrangian. We derive the associated modulated envelope equations. We investigate an effective medium regime and the full nonlinear problem. The hypersonic flow problem requires the use of asymptotic matching that arises from the geometry from the problem. Here the pressure field and lift to drag C{sup 3/2}{sub L}/C{sub D} is evaluated for a wide delta wing with small power law curvature. Use is made of Hypersonic Small Disturbance Theory and three dimensional power law similarity. It is shown that an improvement for C{sup 3/2}{sub L}/C{sub D} occurs for wings with power law curvatures greater than one, when compared to flat delta wings. This improvement in performance agrees qualitatively with other types of concave wings.

  11. On Three-Dimensional Flow and Heat Transfer over a Non-Linearly Stretching Sheet: Analytical and Numerical Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Junaid Ahmad; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the viscous flow and heat transfer over a plane horizontal surface stretched non-linearly in two lateral directions. Appropriate wall conditions characterizing the non-linear variation in the velocity and temperature of the sheet are employed for the first time. A new set of similarity variables is introduced to reduce the boundary layer equations into self-similar forms. The velocity and temperature distributions are determined by two methods, namely (i) optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) and (ii) fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration based shooting technique. The analytic and numerical solutions are compared and these are found in excellent agreement. Influences of embedded parameters on momentum and thermal boundary layers are sketched and discussed. PMID:25198696

  12. On three-dimensional flow and heat transfer over a non-linearly stretching sheet: analytical and numerical solutions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Junaid Ahmad; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the viscous flow and heat transfer over a plane horizontal surface stretched non-linearly in two lateral directions. Appropriate wall conditions characterizing the non-linear variation in the velocity and temperature of the sheet are employed for the first time. A new set of similarity variables is introduced to reduce the boundary layer equations into self-similar forms. The velocity and temperature distributions are determined by two methods, namely (i) optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) and (ii) fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration based shooting technique. The analytic and numerical solutions are compared and these are found in excellent agreement. Influences of embedded parameters on momentum and thermal boundary layers are sketched and discussed. PMID:25198696

  13. Analysis of Three-Dimensional, Nonlinear Development of Wave-Like Structure in a Compressible Round Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of the nonlinear development of the large-scale structures or instability waves in compressible round jets was conducted using the integral energy method. The equations of motion were decomposed into two sets of equations; one set governing the mean flow motion and the other set governing the large-scale structure motion. The equations in each set were then combined to derive kinetic energy equations that were integrated in the radial direction across the jet after the boundary-layer approximations were applied. Following the application of further assumptions regarding the radial shape of the mean flow and the large structures, equations were derived that govern the nonlinear, streamwise development of the large structures. Using numerically generated mean flows, calculations show the energy exchanges and the effects of the initial amplitude on the coherent structure development in the jet.

  14. On the nonlinear three dimensional instability of Stokes layers and other shear layers to pairs of oblique waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Xuesong; Lee, Sang Soo; Cowley, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of a pair of initially oblique waves in a high Reynolds Number Stokes layer is studied. Attention is focused on times when disturbances of amplitude epsilon have O(epsilon(exp 1/3)R) growth rates, where R is the Reynolds number. The development of a pair of oblique waves is then controlled by nonlinear critical-layer effects. Viscous effects are included by studying the distinguished scaling epsilon = O(R(exp -1)). This leads to a complicated modification of the kernel function in the integro-differential amplitude equation. When viscosity is not too large, solutions to the amplitude equation develop a finite-time singularity, indicating that an explosive growth can be introduced by nonlinear effects; we suggest that such explosive growth can lead to the bursts observed in experiments. Increasing the importance of viscosity generally delays the occurrence of the finite-time singularity, and sufficiently large viscosity may lead to the disturbance decaying exponentially. For the special case when the streamwise and spanwise wavenumbers are equal, the solution can evolve into a periodic oscillation. A link between the unsteady critical-layer approach to high-Reynolds-number flow instability, and the wave vortex approach is identified.

  15. Explicit integration of Friedmann's equation with nonlinear equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shouxin; Gibbons, Gary W.; Yang, Yisong

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we study the integrability of the Friedmann equations, when the equation of state for the perfect-fluid universe is nonlinear, in the light of the Chebyshev theorem. A series of important, yet not previously touched, problems will be worked out which include the generalized Chaplygin gas, two-term energy density, trinomial Friedmann, Born-Infeld, two-fluid models, and Chern-Simons modified gravity theory models. With the explicit integration, we are able to understand exactly the roles of the physical parameters in various models play in the cosmological evolution which may also offer clues to a profound understanding of the problems in general settings. For example, in the Chaplygin gas universe, a few integrable cases lead us to derive a universal formula for the asymptotic exponential growth rate of the scale factor, of an explicit form, whether the Friedmann equation is integrable or not, which reveals the coupled roles played by various physical sectors and it is seen that, as far as there is a tiny presence of nonlinear matter, conventional linear matter makes contribution to the dark matter, which becomes significant near the phantom divide line. The Friedmann equations also arise in areas of physics not directly related to cosmology. We provide some examples ranging from geometric optics and central orbits to soap films and the shape of glaciated valleys to which our results may be applied.

  16. Failure Models and Criteria for FRP Under In-Plane or Three-Dimensional Stress States Including Shear Non-Linearity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinho, Silvestre T.; Davila, C. G.; Camanho, P. P.; Iannucci, L.; Robinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    A set of three-dimensional failure criteria for laminated fiber-reinforced composites, denoted LaRC04, is proposed. The criteria are based on physical models for each failure mode and take into consideration non-linear matrix shear behaviour. The model for matrix compressive failure is based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion and it predicts the fracture angle. Fiber kinking is triggered by an initial fiber misalignment angle and by the rotation of the fibers during compressive loading. The plane of fiber kinking is predicted by the model. LaRC04 consists of 6 expressions that can be used directly for design purposes. Several applications involving a broad range of load combinations are presented and compared to experimental data and other existing criteria. Predictions using LaRC04 correlate well with the experimental data, arguably better than most existing criteria. The good correlation seems to be attributable to the physical soundness of the underlying failure models.

  17. Binding Energies and Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of a Donor Impurity in a Three-Dimensional Quantum Pseudodot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirak, Muharrem; Yilmaz, Sait

    2013-12-01

    A theoretical study of the electronic properties of the ground state and excited states and the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical properties (i. e., absorption coefficients and refractive indices) in a spherical GaAs pseudodot system is reported. The variational procedure has been employed in determining sublevel energy eigenvalues and their wave functions within the effective mass approximation. Our results indicate that the chemical potential of the electron gas and the minimum value of the pseudoharmonic potential have a great influence on the electrical and optical properties of hydrogenic impurity states. Also, we have found that the magnitudes of the absorption coefficient and the refractive index change of the spherical quantum dot increase for transitions between higher levels.

  18. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  19. Modelling, validation and analysis of a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track system model with linear and nonlinear track properties in the presence of wheel flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzzal, R. U. A.; Ahmed, A. K. W.; Bhat, R. B.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents dynamic contact loads at wheel-rail contact point in a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track model as well as dynamic response at vehicle-track component levels in the presence of wheel flats. The 17-degrees of freedom lumped mass vehicle is modelled as a full car body, two bogies and four wheelsets, whereas the railway track is modelled as two parallel Timoshenko beams periodically supported by lumped masses representing the sleepers. The rail beam is also supported by nonlinear spring and damper elements representing the railpad and ballast. In order to ensure the interactions between the railpads, a shear parameter beneath the rail beams has also been considered into the model. The wheel-rail contact is modelled using nonlinear Hertzian contact theory. In order to solve the coupled partial and ordinary differential equations of the vehicle-track system, modal analysis method is employed. Idealised Haversine wheel flats with the rounded corner are included in the wheel-rail contact model. The developed model is validated with the existing measured and analytical data available in the literature. The nonlinear model is then employed to investigate the wheel-rail impact forces that arise in the wheel-rail interface due to the presence of wheel flats. The validated model is further employed to investigate the dynamic responses of vehicle and track components in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration in the presence of single wheel flat.

  20. New zig-zag composite plate theories and three-dimensional finite elements for static and explicit dynamic analysis of laminated composite and sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong-Bae

    -consistency of the tangential shear strain on any common inter-element edge. The elements are shown to be accurate, simple to use, and compatible with the requirements of commercial finite element codes. Based on the assumed displacement fields and the finite element approximations, consistent mass matrices has been obtained. Making use of the consistent mass matrices, lumped mass matrices have been derived according to HRZ lumping scheme. The developed elements have been implemented into the explicit finite element dynamics code, NEPTUNE, wherein the internal force vector is computed for the element. Static, free vibration, and explicit structural dynamic analyses of sandwich panels and laminated composites are performed using the elements. The numerical results show that the elements are accurate, robust, and computationally efficient.

  1. Stationary solutions for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation modeling three-dimensional spherical Bose-Einstein condensates in general potentials.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Kristina; Van Gorder, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Stationary solutions for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation modeling Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) confined in three spatial dimensions by general forms of a potential are studied through a perturbation method and also numerically. Note that we study both repulsive and attractive BECs under similar frameworks in order to deduce the effects of the potentials in each case. After outlining the general framework, solutions for a collection of specific confining potentials of physical relevance to experiments on BECs are provided in order to demonstrate the approach. We make several observations regarding the influence of the particular potentials on the behavior of the BECs in these cases, comparing and contrasting the qualitative behavior of the attractive and repulsive BECs for potentials of various strengths and forms. Finally, we consider the nonperturbative where the potential or the amplitude of the solutions is large, obtaining various qualitative results. When the kinetic energy term is small (relative to the nonlinearity and the confining potential), we recover the expected Thomas-Fermi approximation for the stationary solutions. Naturally, this also occurs in the large mass limit. Through all of these results, we are able to understand the qualitative behavior of spherical three-dimensional BECs in weak, intermediate, or strong confining potentials. PMID:26274295

  2. NIKE3D a nonlinear, implicit, three-dimensional finite element code for solid and structural mechanics user's manual update summary

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M; Maker, B N; Ferencz, R M; Hallquist, J O

    2000-03-24

    This report provides the NIKE3D user's manual update summary for changes made from version 3.0.0 April 24, 1995 to version 3.3.6 March 24,2000. The updates are excerpted directly from the code printed output file (hence the Courier font and formatting), are presented in chronological order and delineated by NIKE3D version number. NIKE3D is a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the finite strain static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node truss and beam elements, and 4-node membrane and shell elements. Thirty constitutive models are available for representing a wide range of elastic, plastic, viscous, and thermally dependent material behavior. Contact-impact algorithms permit gaps, frictional sliding, and mesh discontinuities along material interfaces. Several nonlinear solution strategies are available, including Full-, Modified-, and Quasi-Newton methods. The resulting system of simultaneous linear equations is either solved iteratively by an element-by-element method, or directly by a direct factorization method.

  3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE IN A SPHERICAL SHELL: INFLUENCE OF TURBULENT CONVECTION AND ASSOCIATED MEAN FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouve, Laurene; Brun, Allan Sacha E-mail: sacha.brun@cea.fr

    2009-08-20

    We present the first three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics study in spherical geometry of the nonlinear dynamical evolution of magnetic flux tubes in a turbulent rotating convection zone (CZ). These numerical simulations use the anelastic spherical harmonic code. We seek to understand the mechanism of emergence of strong toroidal fields through a turbulent layer from the base of the solar CZ to the surface as active regions. To do so, we study numerically the rise of magnetic toroidal flux ropes from the base of a modeled CZ up to the top of our computational domain where bipolar patches are formed. We compare the dynamical behavior of flux tubes in a fully convective shell possessing self-consistently generated mean flows such as meridional circulation (MC) and differential rotation, with reference calculations done in a quiet isentropic zone. We find that two parameters influence the tubes during their rise through the CZ: the initial field strength and amount of twist, thus confirming previous findings in Cartesian geometry. Further, when the tube is sufficiently strong with respect to the equipartition field, it rises almost radially independently of the initial latitude (either low or high). By contrast, weaker field cases indicate that downflows and upflows control the rising velocity of particular regions of the rope and could in principle favor the emergence of flux through {omega}-loop structures. For these latter cases, we focus on the orientation of bipolar patches and find that sufficiently arched structures are able to create bipolar regions with a predominantly east-west orientation. Meridional flow seems to determine the trajectory of the magnetic rope when the field strength has been significantly reduced near the top of the domain. Appearance of local magnetic field also feeds back on the horizontal flows thus perturbing the MC via Maxwell stresses. Finally differential rotation makes it more difficult for tubes introduced at low latitudes to

  4. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  5. Three-Dimensional Icosahedral Phase Field Quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, P.; Archer, A. J.; Knobloch, E.; Rucklidge, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the formation and stability of icosahedral quasicrystalline structures using a dynamic phase field crystal model. Nonlinear interactions between density waves at two length scales stabilize three-dimensional quasicrystals. We determine the phase diagram and parameter values required for the quasicrystal to be the global minimum free energy state. We demonstrate that traits that promote the formation of two-dimensional quasicrystals are extant in three dimensions, and highlight the characteristics required for three-dimensional soft matter quasicrystal formation.

  6. Three-dimensional sonoembryology.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Bernard; Hafner, Tomislav; Kurjak, Asim; Kupesić, Sanja; Bekavac, Ivanka; Bozek, Tomislav

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plays an important role in obstetrics, predominantly for assessing fetal anatomy. Presenting volume data in a standard anatomic orientation valuably assists both ultrasonographers and pregnant patients to recognize the anatomy more readily. Three-dimensional ultrasound is advantageous in studying normal embryonic and/or fetal development, as well as providing information for families at risk for specific congenital anomalies by confirming normality. This method offers advantages in assessing the embryo in the first trimester due to its ability to obtain multiplanar images through endovaginal volume acquisition. Rotation allows the systematic review of anatomic structures and early detection of fetal anomalies. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging in vivo compliments pathologic and histologic evaluation of the developing embryo, giving rise to a new term: 3D sonoembryology. Rapid technological development will allow real-time 3D ultrasound to provide improved and expanded patient care on the one side, and increased knowledge of developmental anatomy on the other. PMID:11933658

  7. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  8. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  9. Self consistent radio-frequency wave propagation and peripheral direct current plasma biasing: Simplified three dimensional non-linear treatment in the 'wide sheath' asymptotic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Hillairet, J.; Goniche, M.; Heuraux, S.; Faudot, E.; Crombe, K.; Kyrytsya, V.

    2012-09-15

    A minimal two-field fluid approach is followed to describe the radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation in the bounded scrape-off layer plasma of magnetic fusion devices self-consistently with direct current (DC) biasing of this plasma. The RF and DC parts are coupled by non-linear RF and DC sheath boundary conditions at both ends of open magnetic field lines. The physical model is studied within a simplified framework featuring slow wave (SW) only and lateral walls normal to the straight confinement magnetic field. The possibility is however kept to excite the system by any realistic 2D RF field map imposed at the outer boundary of the simulation domain. The self-consistent RF + DC system is solved explicitly in the asymptotic limit when the width of the sheaths gets very large, for several configurations of the RF excitation and of the target plasma. In the case of 3D parallelepipedic geometry, semi-analytical results are proposed in terms of asymptotic waveguide eigenmodes that can easily be implemented numerically. The validity of the asymptotic treatment is discussed and is illustrated by numerical tests against a quantitative criterion expressed from the simulation parameters. Iterative improvement of the solution from the asymptotic result is also outlined. Throughout the resolution, key physical properties of the solution are presented. The radial penetration of the RF sheath voltages along lateral walls at both ends of the open magnetic field lines can be far deeper than the skin depth characteristic of the SW evanescence. This is interpreted in terms of sheath-plasma wave excitation. Therefore, the proper choice of the inner boundary location is discussed as well as the appropriate boundary conditions to apply there. The asymptotic scaling of various quantities with the amplitude of the input RF excitation is established.

  10. Development of explicit diffraction corrections for absolute measurements of acoustic nonlinearity parameters in the quasilinear regime.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Zhang, Shuzeng; Cho, Sungjong; Li, Xiongbing

    2016-08-01

    In absolute measurements of acoustic nonlinearity parameters, amplitudes of harmonics must be corrected for diffraction effects. In this study, we develop explicit multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) model-based diffraction corrections for the first three harmonics in weakly nonlinear, axisymmetric sound beams. The effects of making diffraction corrections on nonlinearity parameter estimation are investigated by defining "total diffraction correction (TDC)". The results demonstrate that TDC cannot be neglected even for harmonic generation experiments in the nearfield region. PMID:27186964

  11. Three dimensional interactive display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.

  12. Nonlinear explicit transient finite element analysis on the Intel Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Plaskacz, E.J.; Ramirez, M.R.; Gupta, S.

    1993-03-01

    Many large scale finite element problems are intractable on current generation production supercomputers. High-performance computer architectures offer effective avenues to bridge the gap between computational needs and the power of computational hardware. The biggest challenge lies in the substitution of the key algorithms in an application program with redesigned algorithms which exploit the new architectures and use better or more appropriate numerical techniques. A methodology for implementing nonlinear finite element analysis on a homogeneous distributed processing network is discussed. The method can also be extended to heterogeneous networks comprised of different machine architectures provided that they have a mutual communication interface. This unique feature has greatly facilitated the port of the code to the 8-node Intel Touchstone Gamma and then the 512-node Intel Touchstone Delta. The domain is decomposed serially in a preprocessor. Separate input files are written for each subdomain. These files are read in by local copies of the program executable operating in parallel. Communication between processors is addressed utilizing asynchronous and synchronous message passing. The basic kernel of message passing is the internal force exchange which is analogous to the computed interactions between sections of physical bodies in static stress analysis. Benchmarks for the Intel Delta are presented. Performance exceeding 1 gigaflop was attained. Results for two large-scale finite element meshes are presented.

  13. Nonlinear explicit transient finite element analysis on the Intel Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Plaskacz, E.J. ); Ramirez, M.R.; Gupta, S. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Many large scale finite element problems are intractable on current generation production supercomputers. High-performance computer architectures offer effective avenues to bridge the gap between computational needs and the power of computational hardware. The biggest challenge lies in the substitution of the key algorithms in an application program with redesigned algorithms which exploit the new architectures and use better or more appropriate numerical techniques. A methodology for implementing nonlinear finite element analysis on a homogeneous distributed processing network is discussed. The method can also be extended to heterogeneous networks comprised of different machine architectures provided that they have a mutual communication interface. This unique feature has greatly facilitated the port of the code to the 8-node Intel Touchstone Gamma and then the 512-node Intel Touchstone Delta. The domain is decomposed serially in a preprocessor. Separate input files are written for each subdomain. These files are read in by local copies of the program executable operating in parallel. Communication between processors is addressed utilizing asynchronous and synchronous message passing. The basic kernel of message passing is the internal force exchange which is analogous to the computed interactions between sections of physical bodies in static stress analysis. Benchmarks for the Intel Delta are presented. Performance exceeding 1 gigaflop was attained. Results for two large-scale finite element meshes are presented.

  14. Analytical study of STOL Aircraft in ground effect. Part 2: Nonplanar, nonlinear method applicable to three dimensional jets of finite thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shollenberger, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    The ability of the potential flow analysis (POTFAN) to predict the influence of ground proximity on lift systems is examined. A two dimensional study employing vortex lattice methodology provides confidence that ground effect phenomenon can be predicted using discrete singularity representation. Two dimensional quasi-steady ascent and descent behavior determined provides guidance in interpreting three dimensional results. Steady and quasi-steady ground effect aerodynamic characteristics predicted by POTFAN are presented for several basic unpowered configurations. POTFAN results are compared with experimental data and results of other analytical methods. Modification of POTFAN to incorporate multienergy flow analysis is discussed. General aspects of thick jet models are examined to provide a basic for extending POTFAN's scope to include analysis of propulsive lift interactions.

  15. A family of approximate solutions and explicit error estimates for the nonlinear stationary Navier-Stokes problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrielsen, R. E.; Karel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An algorithm for solving the nonlinear stationary Navier-Stokes problem is developed. Explicit error estimates are given. This mathematical technique is potentially adaptable to the separation problem.

  16. Three dimensional Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad

    We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent

  17. Stress tensor correlators in three dimensional gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout

    2016-03-01

    We calculate holographically arbitrary n -point correlators of the boundary stress tensor in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative or vanishing cosmological constant. We provide explicit expressions up to 5-point (connected) correlators and show consistency with the Galilean conformal field theory Ward identities and recursion relations of correlators, which we derive. This provides a novel check of flat space holography in three dimensions.

  18. A new balancing three level three dimensional space vector modulation strategy for three level neutral point clamped four leg inverter based shunt active power filter controlling by nonlinear back stepping controllers.

    PubMed

    Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F

    2016-07-01

    In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK. PMID:27018144

  19. An explicit algorithm for a fluid approach to nonlinear optics propagation using splitting and rezoning techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattar, F. P.; Teichmann, J.; Bissonnette, L. R.; Maccormack, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a three-dimensional analysis of the nonlinear light matter interaction in a hydrodynamic context. It is reported that the resulting equations are a generalization of the Navier-Stokes equations subjected to an internal potential which depends solely upon the fluid density. In addition, three numerical approaches are presented to solve the governing equations using an extension of McCormack predict-corrector scheme. These are a uniform grid, a dynamic rezoned grid, and a splitting technique. It is concluded that the use of adaptive mapping and splitting techniques with McCormack two-level predictor-corrector scheme results in an efficient and reliable code whose storage requirements are modest compared with other second order methods of equal accuracy.

  20. Three-dimensional time-marching inviscid and viscous solutions for unsteady flows around vibrating blades

    SciTech Connect

    He, L.; Denton, J.D. . Whittle Lab.)

    1994-07-01

    A three-dimensional nonlinear time-marching method of solving the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a simplified form has been developed for blade flutter calculations. The discretization of the equations is made using the cell-vertex finite volume scheme in space and the four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme in time. Calculations are carried out in a single-blade-passage domain and the phase-shifted periodic condition is implemented by using the shape correction method. The three-dimensional unsteady Euler solution is obtained at conditions of zero viscosity, and is validated against a well-established three-dimensional semi-analytical method. For viscous solutions, the time-step limitation on the explicit temporal discretization scheme is effectively relaxed by using a time-consistent two-grid time-marching technique. A transonic rotor blade passage flow (with tip-leakage) is calculated using the present three-dimensional unsteady viscous solution method. Calculated steady flow results agree well with the corresponding experiment and with other calculations. Calculated unsteady loadings due to oscillations of the rotor blades reveal some notable three-dimensional viscous flow features. The feasibility of solving the simplified thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver for oscillating blade flows at practical conditions is demonstrated.

  1. The role of non-linear terms in the shallow water equation with the application in three-dimensional tidal model of the Malacca Strait and Taylor's Problem in low geographical latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal, Syamsul

    2000-11-01

    Numerical experiments were done with the tides in Malacca Strait using a three-dimensional model, based on finite-difference and a semi-implicit numerical scheme. The numerical experiments were carried out as follows: firstly the discreted shallow water equations were solved without non-linear terms. Secondly, the case with non-linear terms was run. The results are then compared and we show that the non-linear terms play a dominant role in the Malacca Strait. They also suggest that one must be careful when ignoring these terms in order to maintain the stability of the model. Kelvin wave propagation using the analytical model is also discussed. It is found that the pattern of M 2 amplitude's lines is greatly influenced by small value of Coriolis parameter in Malacca Strait (˜3°), while the pattern of M 2 co-tidal lines is controlled by the bottom friction parameter. It is also proposed to calculate energy balance directly using the ratio of reflected and incident Kelvin wave in open boundary of analytical model. From this direct calculation, the displacement of amphidrome can be determined exactly. It can then be concluded that the Malacca Strait has actually the virtual amphidromic point, where the position of this point is away roughly 2097 km northeastward from the middle of the Strait. The total loss of energy due to bottom friction, calculated by analytical model, coincides well with that calculated by numerical model in the Malacca Strait.

  2. Three-dimensional nonlinear optical chromophores based on metal-to-ligand charge-transfer from ruthenium(II) or iron(II) centers.

    PubMed

    Coe, Benjamin J; Harris, James A; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Asselberghs, Inge; Clays, Koen; Garín, Javier; Orduna, Jesús

    2005-09-28

    In this article, we describe a series of new complex salts in which electron-rich transition-metal centers are coordinated to three electron-accepting N-methyl/aryl-2,2':4,4' ':4',4' ''-quaterpyridinium ligands. These complexes contain either Ru(II) or Fe(II) ions and have been characterized by using various techniques, including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Molecular quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses beta have been determined by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering at 800 nm and also via Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopic studies on the intense, visible d --> pi* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer bands. The latter experiments reveal that these putatively octupolar D(3) chromophores exhibit two substantial components of the beta tensor which are associated with transitions to dipolar excited states. Computations involving time-dependent density-functional theory and the finite field method serve to further illuminate the electronic structures and associated linear and NLO properties of the new chromophoric salts. PMID:16173774

  3. Modeling of fatigue crack induced nonlinear ultrasonics using a highly parallelized explicit local interaction simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a parallelized modeling technique for the efficient simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics introduced by the wave interaction with fatigue cracks. The elastodynamic wave equations with contact effects are formulated using an explicit Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA). The LISA formulation is extended to capture the contact-impact phenomena during the wave damage interaction based on the penalty method. A Coulomb friction model is integrated into the computation procedure to capture the stick-slip contact shear motion. The LISA procedure is coded using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables the highly parallelized supercomputing on powerful graphic cards. Both the explicit contact formulation and the parallel feature facilitates LISA's superb computational efficiency over the conventional finite element method (FEM). The theoretical formulations based on the penalty method is introduced and a guideline for the proper choice of the contact stiffness is given. The convergence behavior of the solution under various contact stiffness values is examined. A numerical benchmark problem is used to investigate the new LISA formulation and results are compared with a conventional contact finite element solution. Various nonlinear ultrasonic phenomena are successfully captured using this contact LISA formulation, including the generation of nonlinear higher harmonic responses. Nonlinear mode conversion of guided waves at fatigue cracks is also studied.

  4. Three-dimensional silicon micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi, S.; Song, J.; Dang, Z. Y.; Liang, H. D.; Breese, M. B. H.

    2012-11-01

    A process for fabricating arbitrary-shaped, two- and three-dimensional silicon and porous silicon components has been developed, based on high-energy ion irradiation, such as 250 keV to 1 MeV protons and helium. Irradiation alters the hole current flow during subsequent electrochemical anodization, allowing the anodization rate to be slowed or stopped for low/high fluences. For moderate fluences the anodization rate is selectively stopped only at depths corresponding to the high defect density at the end of ion range, allowing true three-dimensional silicon machining. The use of this process in fields including optics, photonics, holography and nanoscale depth machining is reviewed.

  5. Three-dimensional instability of elliptical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayly, B. J.

    1986-10-01

    A clarification of the physical and mathematical nature of Pierrhumbert's (1986) three-dimensional short-wave inviscid instability of simple two-dimensional elliptical flow is presented. The instabilities found are independent of length scale, extending Pierrhumbert's conclusion that the structures of the instabilities are independent of length scale in the limit of large wave number. The fundamental modes are exact solutions of the nonlinear equations, and they are plane waves whose wave vector rotates elliptically around the z axis with a period of 2(pi)/Omega. The growth rates are shown to be the exponents of a matrix Floquet problem, and good agreement is found with previous results.

  6. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  7. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  8. Three-dimensional stellarator codes

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367

  9. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  10. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  11. Three-dimensional fault drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Dongan, L. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents a structure interpretation based on three-dimensional fault drawing. It is required that fault closure must be based on geological theory, spacial plotting principle and restrictions in seismic exploration. Geological structure can be well ascertained by analysing the shapes and interrelation of the faults which have been drawn through reasonable fault point closure and fault point correlation. According to this method, the interrelation of fault points is determined by first closing corresponding fault points in intersecting sections, then reasonably correlating the relevant fault points. Fault point correlation is not achieved in base map, so its correctness can be improved greatly. Three-dimensional fault closure is achieved by iteratively revising. The closure grid should be densified gradually. The distribution of major fault system is determined prior to secondary faults. Fault interpretation by workstation also follows this procedure.

  12. Three-dimensional obstetric ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Tache, Veronique; Tarsa, Maryam; Romine, Lorene; Pretorius, Dolores H

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound has gained a significant popularity in obstetrical practice in recent years. The advantage of this modality in some cases is in question, however. This article provides a basic review of volume acquisition, mechanical positioning, and display modalities. Multiple uses of this technique in obstetrical care including first trimester applications and its utility in clarification of fetal anatomy such as brain, face, heart, and skeleton is discussed. PMID:18450140

  13. Three-dimensional hybrid vortex solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driben, Rodislav; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Malomed, Boris A.; Meier, Torsten; Torner, Lluis

    2014-06-01

    We show, by means of numerical and analytical methods, that media with a repulsive nonlinearity which grows from the center to the periphery support a remarkable variety of previously unknown complex stationary and dynamical three-dimensional (3D) solitary-wave states. Peanut-shaped modulation profiles give rise to vertically symmetric and antisymmetric vortex states, and novel stationary hybrid states, built of top and bottom vortices with opposite topological charges, as well as robust dynamical hybrids, which feature stable precession of a vortex on top of a zero-vorticity soliton. The analysis reveals stability regions for symmetric, antisymmetric, and hybrid states. In addition, bead-shaped modulation profiles give rise to the first example of exact analytical solutions for stable 3D vortex solitons. The predicted states may be realized in media with a controllable cubic nonlinearity, such as Bose-Einstein condensates.

  14. Three-dimensional coronary angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suurmond, Rolf; Wink, Onno; Chen, James; Carroll, John

    2005-04-01

    Three-Dimensional Coronary Angiography (3D-CA) is a novel tool that allows clinicians to view and analyze coronary arteries in three-dimensional format. This will help to find accurate length estimates and to find the optimal viewing angles of a lesion based on the three-dimensional vessel orientation. Various advanced algorithms are incorporated in this 3D processing utility including 3D-RA calibration, ECG phase selection, 2D vessel extraction, and 3D vessel modeling into a utility with optimized workflow and ease-of-use features, which is fully integrated in the environment of the x-ray catheterization lab. After the 3D processing, the 3D vessels can be viewed and manipulated interactively inside the operating room. The TrueView map provides a quick overview of gantry angles with optimal visualization of a single or bifurcation lesion. Vessel length measurements can be performed without risk of underestimating a vessel segment due to foreshortening. Vessel cross sectional diameters can also be measured. Unlike traditional, projection-based quantitative coronary analysis, the additional process of catheter calibration is not needed for diameter measurements. Validation studies show a high reproducibility of the measurements, with little user dependency.

  15. Correcting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction using observer-based explicit nonlinear model predictive control.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Ankush; Buzzard, Gregery T; Corless, Martin J; Zak, Stanislaw H; Rundell, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critical in maintaining homeostasis under physical and psychological stress by modulating cortisol levels in the body. Dysregulation of cortisol levels is linked to numerous stress-related disorders. In this paper, an automated treatment methodology is proposed, employing a variant of nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC), called explicit MPC (EMPC). The controller is informed by an unknown input observer (UIO), which estimates various hormonal levels in the HPA axis system in conjunction with the magnitude of the stress applied on the body, based on measured concentrations of adreno-corticotropic hormones (ACTH). The proposed closed-loop control strategy is tested on multiple in silico patients and the effectiveness of the controller performance is demonstrated. PMID:25570727

  16. Three dimensional electromagnetic wavepackets in a plasma: Spatiotemporal modulational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Borhanian, J.; Hosseini Faradonbe, F.

    2014-04-15

    The nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic beam with relativistic collisionless unmagnetized plasma is investigated by invoking the reductive perturbation technique, resting on the model of three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with cubic nonlinearity which incorporates the effects of self-focusing, self-phase modulation, and diffraction on wave propagation. Relying on the derived NLS equation, the occurrence of spatiotemporal modulational instability is investigated in detail.

  17. THE THREE DIMENSIONAL THERMAL HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.

    SciTech Connect

    KALINICHENKO,S.D.; KOHUT,P.; KROSHILIN,A.E.; KROSHILIN,V.E.; SMIRNOV,A.V.

    2003-05-04

    BAGIRA - a thermal-hydraulic program complex was primarily developed for using it in nuclear power plant simulator models, but is also used as a best-estimate analytical tool for modeling two-phase mixture flows. The code models allow consideration of phase transients and the treatment of the hydrodynamic behavior of boiling and pressurized water reactor circuits. It provides the capability to explicitly model three-dimensional flow regimes in various regions of the primary and secondary circuits such as, the mixing regions, circular downcomer, pressurizer, reactor core, main primary loops, the steam generators, the separator-reheaters. In addition, it is coupled to a severe-accident module allowing the analysis of core degradation and fuel damage behavior. Section II will present the theoretical basis for development and selected results are presented in Section III. The primary use for the code complex is to realistically model reactor core behavior in power plant simulators providing enhanced training tools for plant operators.

  18. Q kink of the nonlinear O(3) {sigma} model involving an explicitly broken symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Loginov, A. Yu.

    2011-05-15

    The (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear O(3) {sigma} model involving an explicitly broken symmetry is considered. Sphalerons are known to exist in this model. These sphalerons are of a topological origin and are embedded kinks of the sine-Gordon model. In the case of a compact spatial manifold S{sup 1}, sine-Gordon multikinks exist in the model. It is shown that the model admits a nonstatic generalization of the sine-Gordon kink/multikink, Q kink/multikink. Explicit expressions are obtained for the dependence of the Q kink energy and charge on the phase frequency of rotation. The Q kink is studied for stability, and expressions are obtained for the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of the operator of quadratic fluctuations. It is shown that the Q kink is unstable over the entire admissible frequency range {omega} Element-Of [-1, 1]. The one-loop quantum correction to the static-kink mass is calculated, and the Q-kink zero mode is quantized. It is shown that, in a general static case, the field equations of the model are integrable in quadratures.

  19. Three-dimensional Camera Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2004-12-01

    An inexpensive technique for realizing a three-dimensional (3D) camera phone display is presented. Light from the liquid-crystal screen of a camera phone is linearly polarized, and its direction of polarization is easily manipulated by a cellophane sheet used as a half-waveplate. The novel 3D camera phone display is made possible solely by optical components without resorting to computation, so that the 3D image is displayed in real time. Quality of the original image is not sacrificed in the process of converting it into a 3D image.

  20. Boundary Integral Solutions to Three-Dimensional Unconfined Darcy's Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Gerard P.; Liu, Philip L.-F.; Liggett, James A.

    1980-08-01

    The boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is used to solve three-dimensional potential flow problems in porous media. The problems considered here are time dependent and have a nonlinear boundary condition on the free surface. The entire boundary, including the moving free surface, discretized into linear finite elements for the purpose of evaluating the boundary integrals. The technique allows transient, three-dimensional problems to be solved with reasonable computational costs. Numerical examples include recharge through rectangular and circular areas and seepage flow from a surface pond. The examples are used to illustrate the method and show the nonlinear effects.

  1. Three-dimensional visual stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Tsunehiro; Fukui, Yukio; Hashimoto, Keizo; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    1995-02-01

    We describe a newly developed three-dimensional visual stimulator (TVS) that can change independently the directions, distances, sizes, luminance, and varieties of two sets of targets for both eyes. It consists of liquid crystal projectors (LCP's) that generate the flexible images of targets, Badal otometers that change target distances without changing the visual angles, and relay-lens systems that change target directions. A special control program is developed for real-time control of six motors and two LCP's in the TVS together with a three-dimensional optometer III that simultaneously measures eye movement, accommodation, pupil diameter, and head movement. distance, 0 to -20 D; direction, 16 horizontally and 15 vertically; size, 0-2 deg visual angle; and luminance, 10-2-10 2 cd/m2. The target images are refreshed at 60 Hz and speeds with which the target makes a smooth change (ramp stimuli) are size, 10 deg/s. A simple application demonstrates the performance.

  2. Three-dimensional coil inductor

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional coil inductor is disclosed. The inductor includes a substrate; a set of lower electrically conductive traces positioned on the substrate; a core placed over the lower traces; a set of side electrically conductive traces laid on the core and the lower traces; and a set of upper electrically conductive traces attached to the side traces so as to form the inductor. Fabrication of the inductor includes the steps of forming a set of lower traces on a substrate; positioning a core over the lower traces; forming a set of side traces on the core; connecting the side traces to the lower traces; forming a set of upper traces on the core; and connecting the upper traces to the side traces so as to form a coil structure.

  3. Explicit Nonlinear Finite Element Geometric Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Springs under Various Loads

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Y. S.; Omar, M. Z.; Chua, L. B.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the effects of bounce, brake, and roll behavior of a bus toward its leaf spring suspension systems. Parabolic leaf springs are designed based on vertical deflection and stress; however, loads are practically derived from various modes especially under harsh road drives or emergency braking. Parabolic leaf springs must sustain these loads without failing to ensure bus and passenger safety. In this study, the explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element (FE) method is implemented because of the complexity of experimental testing A series of load cases; namely, vertical push, wind-up, and suspension roll are introduced for the simulations. The vertical stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is related to the vehicle load-carrying capability, whereas the wind-up stiffness is associated with vehicle braking. The roll stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is correlated with the vehicle roll stability. To obtain a better bus performance, two new parabolic leaf spring designs are proposed and simulated. The stress level during the loadings is observed and compared with its design limit. Results indicate that the newly designed high vertical stiffness parabolic spring provides the bus a greater roll stability and a lower stress value compared with the original design. Bus safety and stability is promoted, as well as the load carrying capability. PMID:24298209

  4. Three-dimensional unstructured grid method applied to turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Oh Joon; Hah, Chunill

    1993-01-01

    This work has three objectives: to develop a three-dimensional flow solver based on unstructured tetrahedral meshes for turbomachinery flows; to validate the solver through comparisons with experimental data; and to apply the solver for better understanding of the flow through turbomachinery geometries and design improvement. The work followed three different approaches: an existing external flow solver/grid generator (USM3D/VGRID) was extensively modified for internal flows; a three-dimensional, finite-volume solver based on Roe's flux-difference splitting and explicit Runge-Kutta time stepping; and three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation using an advancing-front technique. A discussion of these topics is presented in viewgraph form.

  5. The three-dimensional evolution of a plane wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maekawa, H.; Moser, R. D.; Mansour, N. N.

    1993-01-01

    In the past three decades, linear stability analysis has led to a comprehensive understanding of the linear stages of transition in plane wakes. Our understanding of the nonlinear and turbulent stages is less developed. Nonlinear theory developed by Papageorgiou and Smith was used to study the long-wavelength regime in wakes. The nonlinear and turbulent stages were investigated experimentally, and few numerical studies examined the early nonlinear stages of forced wakes. The evolution of three dimensional disturbances in an incompressible wake is investigated using direct numerical simulations. The instantaneous three-dimaensional structures and corresponding statistics are presented.

  6. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-08-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

  7. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.

  8. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory. PMID:25146338

  9. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsusaka, Katsuhiko; Doi, Motonori; Oshiro, Osamu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2000-08-01

    Conventional three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging equipment for diagnosis requires much time to reconstruct 3D images or fix the view point for observing the 3D image. Thus, it is inconvenient for cardiac diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic 3D echocardiography system. The system produces 3D images in real-time and permits changes in view point. This system consists of ultrasound diagnostic equipment, a digitizer and a computer. B-mode images are projected to a virtual 3D space by referring to the position of the probe of the ultrasound diagnosis equipment. The position is obtained by the digitizer to which the ultrasound probe is attached. The 3D cardiac image is constructed from B-mode images obtained simultaneously in the cardiac cycle. To obtain the same moment of heartbeat in the cardiac cycle, this system uses the electrocardiography derived from the diagnosis equipment. The 3D images, which show various scenes of the stage of heartbeat action, are displayed sequentially. The doctor can observe 3D images cut in any plane by pushing a button of the digitizer and zooming with the keyboard. We evaluated our prototype system by observation of a mitral valve in motion.

  10. Three-dimensional display technologies

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  11. Three-dimensional laser microvision.

    PubMed

    Shimotahira, H; Iizuka, K; Chu, S C; Wah, C; Costen, F; Yoshikuni, Y

    2001-04-10

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 mum; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 mum. PMID:18357177

  12. Three-Dimensional Schlieren Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Cochrane, Andrea

    2004-11-01

    Schlieren systems visualise disturbances that change the index of refraction of a fluid, for example due to temperature or salinity disturbances. `Synthetic schlieren' refers to a recent advance in which these disturbances are visualised with a digital camera and image-processing technology rather than the classical use of parabolic mirrors and a knife-edge. In a typical setup, light from an image of horizontal lines or dots passes almost horizontally through the test section of a fluid to a CCD camera. Refractive index disturbances distort the image and digital comparison of successive images reveals the plan-form structure and time evolution of the disturbances. If the disturbance is effectively two-dimensional, meaning that it is uniform across the line-of-sight of the camera, then its magnitude as well as its structure can measured through simple inversion of an algebraic equation. If the structure is axisymmetric with rotation-axis perpendicular to the line of sight, the magnitude of the disturbance can be measured through inversion of a non-singular square matrix. Here we report upon the extension of this work toward measuring the magnitude of a fully three-dimensional disturbance. This is done by analysing images from two perspectives through the test section and using inversion tomography techniques to reconstruct the disturbance field. The results are tested against theoretical predictions and experimental measurements.

  13. True three-dimensional camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2013-01-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by short photo-conducting lightguides at each pixel. In the eye the rods and cones are the fiber-like lightguides. The device uses ambient light that is only coherent in spherical shell-shaped light packets of thickness of one coherence length. Modern semiconductor technology permits the construction of lightguides shorter than a coherence length of ambient light. Each of the frequency components of the broad band light arriving at a pixel has a phase proportional to the distance from an object point to its image pixel. Light frequency components in the packet arriving at a pixel through a convex lens add constructively only if the light comes from the object point in focus at this pixel. The light in packets from all other object points cancels. Thus the pixel receives light from one object point only. The lightguide has contacts along its length. The lightguide charge carriers are generated by the light patterns. These light patterns, and thus the photocurrent, shift in response to the phase of the input signal. Thus, the photocurrent is a function of the distance from the pixel to its object point. Applications include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. Another application is a crude teleportation system consisting of a camera and a three-dimensional printer at a remote location.

  14. A three-dimensional asymmetric magnetopause model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R. L.; Zhang, X. X.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Gong, J. C.

    2010-04-01

    A new three-dimensional asymmetric magnetopause model has been developed for corrected GSM coordinates and parameterized by the solar wind dynamic and magnetic pressures (Pd + Pm), the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz, and the dipole tilt angle. On the basis of the magnetopause crossings from Geotail, IMP 8, Interball, TC1, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), Wind, Cluster, Polar, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), GOES, and Hawkeye, and the corresponding upstream solar wind parameters from ACE, Wind, or OMNI, this model is constructed by the Levenberg-Marquardt method for nonlinear multiparameter fitting step-by-step over the divided regions. The asymmetries of the magnetopause and the indentations near the cusps are appropriately described in this new model. In addition, the saturation effect of IMF Bz on the subsolar distance and the extrapolation for the distant tail magnetopause are also considered. On the basis of this model, the power law index for the subsolar distance versus Pd + Pm is a bit less than -1/6, the northward IMF Bz almost does not influence the magnetopause, and the dipole tilt angle is very important to the north-south asymmetry and the location of indentations. In comparison with the previous empirical magnetopause models based on our database, the new model improves prediction capability to describe the three-dimensional structure of the magnetopause. It is shown that this new model can be used to quantitatively study how Pd + Pm compresses the magnetopause, how the southward IMF Bz erodes the magnetopause, and how the dipole tilt angle influences the north-south asymmetry and the indentations.

  15. Alternating-direction implicit numerical solution of the time-dependent, three-dimensional, single fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Finan, C.H. III

    1980-12-01

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described by a set of eight coupled, nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, partial differential equations. A computer code, IMP (Implicit MHD Program), has been developed to solve these equations numerically by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. In this model, the equations are expressed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, making the code applicable to a variety of coordinate systems. The Douglas-Gunn algorithm for Alternating-Direction Implicit (ADI) temporal advancement is used to avoid the limitations in timestep size imposed by explicit methods. The equations are solved simultaneously to avoid syncronization errors.

  16. Three-dimensional analysis of tubular permanent magnet machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, J.; Wang, J.; Howe, D.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents results from a three-dimensional finite element analysis of a tubular permanent magnet machine, and quantifies the influence of the laminated modules from which the stator core is assembled on the flux linkage and thrust force capability as well as on the self- and mutual inductances. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model accounts for the nonlinear, anisotropic magnetization characteristic of the laminated stator structure, and for the voids which exist between the laminated modules. Predicted results are compared with those deduced from an axisymmetric FE model. It is shown that the emf and thrust force deduced from the three-dimensional model are significantly lower than those which are predicted from an axisymmetric field analysis, primarily as a consequence of the teeth and yoke being more highly saturated due to the presence of the voids in the laminated stator core.

  17. PLOT3D- DRAWING THREE DIMENSIONAL SURFACES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is a package of programs to draw three-dimensional surfaces of the form z = f(x,y). The function f and the boundary values for x and y are the input to PLOT3D. The surface thus defined may be drawn after arbitrary rotations. However, it is designed to draw only functions in rectangular coordinates expressed explicitly in the above form. It cannot, for example, draw a sphere. Output is by off-line incremental plotter or online microfilm recorder. This package, unlike other packages, will plot any function of the form z = f(x,y) and portrays continuous and bounded functions of two independent variables. With curve fitting; however, it can draw experimental data and pictures which cannot be expressed in the above form. The method used is division into a uniform rectangular grid of the given x and y ranges. The values of the supplied function at the grid points (x, y) are calculated and stored; this defines the surface. The surface is portrayed by connecting successive (y,z) points with straight-line segments for each x value on the grid and, in turn, connecting successive (x,z) points for each fixed y value on the grid. These lines are then projected by parallel projection onto the fixed yz-plane for plotting. This program has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 with on-line CDC microfilm recorder.

  18. Three-dimensional boundary layers approaching separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. C., III

    1976-01-01

    The theory of semi-similar solutions of the laminar boundary layer equations is applied to several flows in which the boundary layer approaches a three-dimensional separation line. The solutions obtained are used to deduce the nature of three-dimensional separation. It is shown that in these cases separation is of the "ordinary" type. A solution is also presented for a case in which a vortex is embedded within the three-dimensional boundary layer.

  19. Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional turbomachinery flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Research was performed in the general area of computational aerodynamics, with particular emphasis on the development of efficient techniques for the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for transonic flows through the complex blade passages associated with turbomachines. In particular, multigrid methods were developed, using both explicit and implicit time-stepping schemes as smoothing algorithms. The specific accomplishments of the research have included: (1) the development of an explicit multigrid method to solve the Euler equations for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows based upon the multigrid implementation of Jameson's explicit Runge-Kutta scheme (Jameson 1983); (2) the development of an implicit multigrid scheme for the three-dimensional Euler equations based upon lower-upper factorization; (3) the development of a multigrid scheme using a diagonalized alternating direction implicit (ADI) algorithm; (4) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid method to solve the Euler equations of inviscid flow for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows; and also (5) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid scheme to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional turbomachinery flows.

  20. Free Convection Nanofluid Flow in the Stagnation-Point Region of a Three-Dimensional Body

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Umer

    2014-01-01

    Analytical results are presented for a steady three-dimensional free convection flow in the stagnation point region over a general curved isothermal surface placed in a nanofluid. The momentum equations in x- and y-directions, energy balance equation, and nanoparticle concentration equation are reduced to a set of four fully coupled nonlinear differential equations under appropriate similarity transformations. The well known technique optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) is used to obtain the exact solution explicitly, whose convergence is then checked in detail. Besides, the effects of the physical parameters, such as the Lewis number, the Brownian motion parameter, the thermophoresis parameter, and the buoyancy ratio on the profiles of velocities, temperature, and concentration, are studied and discussed. Furthermore the local skin friction coefficients in x- and y-directions, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are examined for various values of the physical parameters. PMID:25114954

  1. A DETERMINISTIC METHOD FOR TRANSIENT, THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUETRON TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Goluoglu, S.; Bentley, C.; Demeglio, R.; Dunn, M.; Norton, K.; Pevey, R.; Suslov, I.; Dodds, H. L.

    1998-01-14

    A deterministic method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmam transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons has been developed and evaluated. The methodology used in this study for the time variable of the neutron flux is known as the improved quasi-static (IQS) method. The position, energy, and angle-dependent neutron flux is computed deterministically by using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates code TORT. This paper briefly describes the methodology and selected results. The code developed at the University of Tennessee based on this methodology is called TDTORT. TDTORT can be used to model transients involving voided and/or strongly absorbing regions that require transport theory for accuracy. This code can also be used to model either small high-leakage systems, such as space reactors, or asymmetric control rod movements. TDTORT can model step, ramp, step followed by another step, and step followed by ramp type perturbations. It can also model columnwise rod movement can also be modeled. A special case of columnwise rod movement in a three-dimensional model of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with simple adiabatic feedback is also included. TDTORT is verified through several transient one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional benchmark problems. The results show that the transport methodology and corresponding code developed in this work have sufficient accuracy and speed for computing the dynamic behavior of complex multidimensional neutronic systems.

  2. A deterministic method for transient, three-dimensional neutron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Goluoglu, S.; Bentley, C.; DeMeglio, R.; Dunn, M.; Norton, K.; Pevey, R.; Suslov, I.; Dodds, H.L.

    1998-05-01

    A deterministic method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmann transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons has been developed and evaluated. The methodology used in this study for the time variable of the neutron flux is known as the improved quasi-static (IQS) method. The position, energy, and angle-dependent neutron flux is computed deterministically by using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates code TORT. This paper briefly describes the methodology and selected results. The code developed at the University of Tennessee based on this methodology is called TDTORT. TDTORT can be used to model transients involving voided and/or strongly absorbing regions that require transport theory for accuracy. This code can also be used to model either small high-leakage systems, such as space reactors, or asymmetric control rod movements. TDTORT can model step, ramp, step followed by another step, and step followed by ramp type perturbations. It can also model columnwise rod movement. A special case of columnwise rod movement in a three-dimensional model of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with simple adiabatic feedback is also included. TDTORT is verified through several transient one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional benchmark problems. The results show that the transport methodology and corresponding code developed in this work have sufficient accuracy and speed for computing the dynamic behavior of complex multi-dimensional neutronic systems.

  3. Three-dimensional photon counting double-random-phase encryption.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungjin; Javidi, Bahram

    2013-09-01

    In this Letter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) photon counting double-random-phase encryption (DRPE) technique using passive integral imaging. A 3D photon counting DRPE can encrypt a 3D scene and provides more security and authentications due to photon counting Poisson nonlinear transformation on the encrypted image. In addition, 3D imaging allows verification of the 3D object at different depths. Preliminary results and performance evaluation have been presented. PMID:23988912

  4. Three-dimensional imaging through scattering media using three-dimensionally coded pattern projection.

    PubMed

    Ando, Takamasa; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun

    2015-08-20

    We propose a method for visualizing three-dimensional objects in scattering media. Our method is based on active illumination using three-dimensionally coded patterns and a numerical algorithm employing a sparsity constraint. We experimentally demonstrated the proposed imaging method for test charts located three-dimensionally at different depths in the space behind a translucent sheet. PMID:26368767

  5. Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György

    2009-01-01

    The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…

  6. Finite element solution theory for three-dimensional boundary flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    A finite element algorithm is derived for the numerical solution of a three-dimensional flow field described by a system of initial-valued, elliptic boundary value partial differential equations. The familiar three-dimensional boundary layer equations belong to this description when diffusional processes in only one coordinate direction are important. The finite element algorithm transforms the original description into large order systems of ordinary differential equations written for the dependent variables discretized at node points of an arbitrarily irregular computational lattice. The generalized elliptic boundary conditions is piecewise valid for each dependent variable on boundaries that need not explicitly coincide with coordinate surfaces. Solutions for sample problems in laminar and turbulent boundary flows illustrate favorable solution accuracy, convergence, and versatility.

  7. COMOC: Three dimensional boundary region variant, programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orzechowski, J. A.; Baker, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    The three-dimensional boundary region variant of the COMOC computer program system solves the partial differential equation system governing certain three-dimensional flows of a viscous, heat conducting, multiple-species, compressible fluid including combustion. The solution is established in physical variables, using a finite element algorithm for the boundary value portion of the problem description in combination with an explicit marching technique for the initial value character. The computational lattice may be arbitrarily nonregular, and boundary condition constraints are readily applied. The theoretical foundation of the algorithm, a detailed description on the construction and operation of the program, and instructions on utilization of the many features of the code are presented.

  8. An exact explicit solution for one-dimensional, transient, nonlinear Richards' equation for modeling infiltration with special hydraulic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This work develops a simple exact and explicit solution of the one-dimensional transient and nonlinear Richards' equation for soils in a special case of exponential water retention curve and power law hydraulic conductivity. The exact solution is obtained as traveling wave based on the approach proposed by Philip (1957, 1967) and adopted by Zlotnik et al. (2007). The obtained solution is novel, and it expresses explicitly the water content as function of the depth and time. It can be useful to model infiltration into semi-infinite soils with time-dependent boundary conditions and infiltration with constant boundary condition but space-dependent initial condition. A complete analytical inverse procedure based on the proposed analytical solution is presented which allows the estimation of hydraulic parameters. The proposed exact solution is also important for the verification of numerical schemes as well as for checking the implementation of time-dependent boundary conditions.

  9. Three dimensional optic tissue culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Cardwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioreactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms normal, functional tissue organization and extracellular matrix.

  10. Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.

  11. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibria by iteration

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-02-01

    The iterative method of evaluating plasma equilibria is especially simple in a magnetic coordinate representation. This method is particularly useful for clarifying the subtle constraints of three-dimensional equilibria and studying magnetic surface breakup at high plasma beta.

  12. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR HYPERTHERMIA CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic three-dimensional models that predict temperature distributions with a high degree of spatial resolution in bodies exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields are required in the application of hyperthermia for cancer treatment. To ascertain the thermophysiologic response of...

  13. Device fabrication: Three-dimensional printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jennifer A.; Ahn, Bok Y.

    2015-02-01

    Can three-dimensional printing enable the mass customization of electronic devices? A study that exploits this method to create light-emitting diodes based on 'quantum dots' provides a step towards this goal.

  14. Three-dimensional simulations of the implosion of inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R.P.J.; Bell, A.R. )

    1991-09-30

    The viability of inertial confinement fusion depends crucially on implosion symmetry. A spherical three-dimensional hydrocode called PLATO has been developed to model the growth in asymmetries during an implosion. Results are presented in the deceleration phase which show indistinguishable linear growth rates, but greater nonlinear growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability than is found in two-dimensional cylindrical simulations. The three-dimensional enhancement of the nonlinear growth is much smaller than that found by Sakagami and Nishihara.

  15. Nonlocalized receptivity of boundary layers to three-dimensional disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, J. D.; Bertolotti, F. P.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlocalized receptivity of the Blasius boundary layer over a wavy surface is analyzed using two different approaches. First, a mode-interaction theory is employed to unveil basic mechanisms and to explore the interplay between different components of the disturbance field. The second approach is derived from the parabolized stability equations. These nonlinear equations incorporate the effects of the stream-wise divergence of the boundary layer. The analysis provides results for three-dimensional disturbances and also considers nonparallel effects. Results for two-dimensional disturbances demonstrate that nonparallel effects are negligible and substantiates the mechanism described by the mode-interaction theory. Nonparallel effects become significant with increasing three-dimensionality. Receptivity amplitudes are shown to be large over a broad range of surface wave numbers. When operative, this mechanism is likely to dominate the boundary-layer receptivity.

  16. Analytical Prediction of Three Dimensional Chatter Stability in Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Yusuf

    The chip regeneration mechanism during chatter is influenced by vibrations in three directions when milling cutters with ball end, bull nose, or inclined cutting edges are used. A three dimensional chatter stability is modeled analytically in this article. The dynamic milling system is formulated as a function of cutter geometry, the frequency response of the machine tool structure at the cutting zone in three Cartesian directions, cutter engagement conditions and material property. The dynamic milling system with nonlinearities and periodic delayed differential equations is reduced to a three dimensional linear stability problem by approximations based on the physics of milling. The chatter stability lobes are predicted in the frequency domain using the proposed analytical solution, and verified experimentally in milling a Titanium alloy with a face milling cutter having circular inserts.

  17. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional supersonic inlet flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, T.; Chyu, W. J.; Bencze, D. P.

    1987-01-01

    Supersonic inlet flows with mixed external-internal compressions of an axisymmetric inlet model were computed using a combined implicit-explicit (Beam-Warming-Steger/MacCormack) method for solving the three-dimensional unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservation form. Numerical calculations were made of various flows typically found in supersonic inlets such as shock-wave intersections, flow spillage around the cowl lip, shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions, control of shock-induced flow separation by means of boundary layer bleed, internal normal (terminal) shocks, and the effects of flow incidence. Computed results were compared with available wind tunnel data.

  18. Distributional properties of the three-dimensional Poisson Delaunay cell

    SciTech Connect

    Muche, L.

    1996-07-01

    This paper gives distributional properties of geometrical characteristics of the Delaunay tessellation generated by a stationary Poisson point process in {Re}{sup 3}. The considerations are based on a well-known formula given by Miles which describes the size and shape of the {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} three-dimensional Poisson Delaunay cell. The results are the probability density functions for its volume, the area, and the perimeter of one of its faces, the angle spanned in a face by two of its edges, and the length of an edge. These probability density functions are given in integral form. Formulas for higher moments of these characteristics are given explicitly.

  19. Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cristiano L; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: The anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity, and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility. PMID:19673572

  20. Three-dimensional ``Mercedes-Benz'' model for water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Cristiano L.; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: The anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity, and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.

  1. Distributional properties of the three-dimensional Poisson Delaunay cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muche, Lutz

    1996-07-01

    This paper gives distributional properties of geometrical characteristics of the Delaunay tessellation generated by a stationary Poisson point process in ℝ3. The considerations are based on a well-known formula given by Miles which describes the size and shape of the "typical" three-dimensional Poisson Delaunay cell. The results are the probability density functions for its volume, the area, and the perimeter of one of its faces, the angle spanned in a face by two of its edges, and the length of an edge. These probability density functions are given in integral form. Formulas for higher moments of these characteristics are given explicitly.

  2. Three dimensional responsive structure of tough hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuxu; Ma, Chunxin; Li, Chi; Xie, Yuhan; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Yongbin; Zhu, Ziqi; Liu, Junjie; Li, Tiefeng

    2015-04-01

    Three dimensional responsive structures have high value for the application of responsive hydrogels in various fields such as micro fluid control, tissue engineering and micro robot. Whereas various hydrogels with stimuli-responsive behaviors have been developed, designing and fabricating of the three dimensional responsive structures remain challenging. We develop a temperature responsive double network hydrogel with novel fabrication methods to assemble the complex three dimensional responsive structures. The shape changing behavior of the structures can be significantly increased by building blocks with various responsiveness. Mechanical instability is built into the structure with the proper design and enhance the performance of the structure. Finite element simulation are conducted to guide the design and investigate the responsive behavior of the hydrogel structures

  3. Vision in our three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595

  4. Vision in our three-dimensional world.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J

    2016-06-19

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269595

  5. Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.

  6. Topology of three-dimensional separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Peake, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that patterns of skin-friction lines and external streamlines reflect the properties of continuous vector fields, topology rules define a small number of singular points (nodes, saddle points, and foci) that characterize the patterns on the surface and on particular projections of the flow (e.g., the crossflow plane). The restricted number of singular points and the rules that they obey are considered as an organizing principle whose finite number of elements can be combined in various ways to connect together the properties common to all steady three dimensional viscous flows. Introduction of a distinction between local and global properties of the flow resolves an ambiguity in the proper definition of a three dimensional separated flow. Adoption of the notions of topological structure, structural stability, and bifurcation provides a framework to describe how three dimensional separated flows originate and succeed each other as the relevant parameters of the problem are varied.

  7. Three-dimensional separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be constrained as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.

  8. Three-dimensional separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be construed as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.

  9. Three-Dimensional Robotic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thinh V.

    1989-01-01

    Stereoscopy and motion provide clues to outlines of objects. Digital image-processing system acts as "intelligent" automatic machine-vision system by processing views from stereoscopic television cameras into three-dimensional coordinates of moving object in view. Epipolar-line technique used to find corresponding points in stereoscopic views. Robotic vision system analyzes views from two television cameras to detect rigid three-dimensional objects and reconstruct numerically in terms of coordinates of corner points. Stereoscopy and effects of motion on two images complement each other in providing image-analyzing subsystem with clues to natures and locations of principal features.

  10. Three-dimensional magnetic bubble memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compact memory uses magnetic bubble technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement, in the form of stacks of magnetic bubble layers, is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. Output tracks are used within each layer to allow data to be accessed uniquely and unambiguously. Storage can be achieved using either current access or field access magnetic bubble technology. Optical sensing via the Faraday effect is used to detect data. Optical sensing facilitates the accessing of data from within the three-dimensional package and lends itself to parallel operation for supporting high data rates and vector and parallel processing.

  11. Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity.

    PubMed

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan

    2016-06-24

    We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques. PMID:27391712

  12. Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan

    2016-06-01

    We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques.

  13. Fully explicit nonlinear optics model in a particle-in-cell framework

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.F. Helle, M.H.; Peñano, J.R.

    2013-10-01

    A numerical technique which incorporates the nonlinear optics of anisotropic crystals into a particle-in-cell framework is described. The model is useful for simulating interactions between crystals, ultra-short laser pulses, intense relativistic electron bunches, plasmas, or any combination thereof. The frequency content of the incident and scattered radiation is limited only by the resolution of the spatial and temporal grid. A numerical stability analysis indicates that the Courant condition is more stringent than in the vacuum case. Numerical experiments are carried out illustrating the electro-optic effect, soliton propagation, and the generation of fields in a crystal by a relativistic electron bunch.

  14. A communication-avoiding implicit-explicit method for a free-surface ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Christopher; Womeldorff, Geoffrey; Knoll, Dana A.; Chacón, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We examine a nonlinear elimination method for the free-surface ocean equations based on barotropic-baroclinic decomposition. The two dimensional scalar continuity equation is treated implicitly with a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method (JFNK). The remaining three dimensional equations are subcycled explicitly within the JFNK residual evaluation with a method known as nonlinear elimination. In this approach, the memory footprint of the underlying Krylov vector is greatly reduced over that required by fully coupled implicit methods. The method is second-order accurate and scales algorithmically, with allowed timesteps much larger than fully explicit methods. Moreover, the hierarchical nature of the algorithm lends itself readily to emerging architectures. In particular, we introduce a communication staging strategy for the three dimensional explicit system that greatly reduces the communication costs of the algorithm and provides a key advantage as communication costs continue to dominate relative to floating point costs in emerging architectures.

  15. Three-dimensional jamming and flows of soft glassy materials.

    PubMed

    Ovarlez, G; Barral, Q; Coussot, P

    2010-02-01

    Various disordered dense systems, such as foams, gels, emulsions and colloidal suspensions, undergo a jamming transition from a liquid state (they flow) to a solid state below a yield stress. Their structure, which has been thoroughly studied with powerful means of three-dimensional characterization, shows some analogy with that of glasses, which led to them being named soft glassy materials. However, despite its importance for geophysical and industrial applications, their rheological behaviour, and its microscopic origin, is still poorly known, in particular because of its nonlinear nature. Here we show from two original experiments that a simple three-dimensional continuum description of the behaviour of soft glassy materials can be built. We first show that when a flow is imposed in some direction there is no yield resistance to a secondary flow: these systems are always unjammed simultaneously in all directions of space. The three-dimensional jamming criterion seems to be the plasticity criterion encountered in most solids. We also find that they behave as simple liquids in the direction orthogonal to that of the main flow; their viscosity is inversely proportional to the main flow shear rate, as a signature of shear-induced structural relaxation, in close similarity to the structural relaxations driven by temperature and density in other glassy systems. PMID:20062046

  16. Low-frequency three-dimensional ultrasonic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharsky, A. V.; Romanov, S. Yu.; Seryozhnikov, S. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The possibility of making ultrasonic 3D tomographs for medical diagnostics of soft tissues was established. The choice of frequencies of ultrasonic pulses of 300-500 kHz was due to low absorption in soft tissues within this range. The reverse problems of ultrasonic tomography, which are three-dimensional and nonlinear, have been considered in a model that takes into account both wave effects and absorption. The effectiveness of algorithms to solve the reverse problems that were developed has been illustrated by model calculations. The velocity configuration has been shown to be recovered better than the function that describes absorption in soft tissues.

  17. Multilevel elliptic smoothing of large three-dimensional grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, C. Wayne

    1995-01-01

    Elliptic grid generation methods have been used for many years to smooth and improve grids generated by algebraic interpolation schemes. However, the elliptic system that must be solved is nonlinear and convergence is generally very slow for large grids. In an attempt to make elliptic methods practical for large three-dimensional grids, a two-stage implementation is developed where the overall grid point locations are set using a coarse grid generated by the elliptic system. The coarse grid is then interpolated to generate a finer grid which is smoothed using only a few iterations of the elliptic system.

  18. Maximum range three-dimensional lifting planetary entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickmanns, E. D.

    1972-01-01

    Variational equations for maximum range three-dimensional quasisteady glide are given. Nonlinear oscillatory maximum range trajectories obtained with a refined gradient program are approximated by a superposition of quasisteady glide and linearized perturbation equation results. A basic control law is found which is closely followed for maximum cross-range trajectories. The effect of a reradiative heating constraint involving velocity, altitude and angle of attack on a maximum cross-range trajectory for a space shuttle orbiter-type vehicle reentering the earth's atmosphere is investigated numerically.

  19. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Particle Tracks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Glenn M.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests ways to bring home to the introductory physics student some of the excitement of recent discoveries in particle physics. Describes particle detectors and encourages the use of the Standard Model along with real images of particle tracks to determine three-dimensional views of tracks. (MVL)

  20. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  1. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Browman, M.J.; Weiland, T.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Three-dimensional RF structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. K.; Browman, M. J.; Weiland, T.

    1989-04-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described.

  3. Growing Three-Dimensional Cocultures Of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory process provides environmental conditions favoring simultaneous growth of cocultures of mammalian cells of more than one type. Cultures become three-dimensional tissuelike assemblies serving as organoid models of differentiation of cells. Process used, for example, to study growth of human colon cancers, starting from mixtures of normal colonic fibroblasts and partially differentiated colon adenocarcinoma cells.

  4. Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichert, Anke

    2001-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  5. Cohomology of real three-dimensional triquadrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Vyacheslav A.

    2012-02-01

    We consider non-singular intersections of three real five-dimensional quadrics. They are referred to for brevity as real three-dimensional triquadrics. We calculate the dimensions of the cohomology spaces of triquadrics with coefficients in the field of two elements.

  6. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle F.; Butler, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. Objective: To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Methods: Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Discussion: Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice. PMID:26301002

  7. Three-Dimensional Pointers for Stereoscopic Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, H. J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Because class size often limits student opportunity to handle individual models, teachers use stereoscopic projections to demonstrate structural features. Describes three-dimensional pointers for use with different projection systems so teachers can indicate a particular atom or bond to entire classes, avoiding the perspective problems inherent in…

  8. Three-dimensional spirals of atomic layered MoS2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liming; Liu, Kaihui; Wong, Andrew Barnabas; Kim, Jonghwan; Hong, Xiaoping; Liu, Chong; Cao, Ting; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Feng; Yang, Peidong

    2014-11-12

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, including graphene, boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), can exhibit novel phenomena distinct from their bulk counterparts and hold great promise for novel electronic and optoelectronic applications. Controlled growth of such 2D materials with different thickness, composition, and symmetry are of central importance to realize their potential. In particular, the ability to control the symmetry of TMD layers is highly desirable because breaking the inversion symmetry can lead to intriguing valley physics, nonlinear optical properties, and piezoelectric responses. Here we report the first chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of spirals of layered MoS2 with atomically thin helical periodicity, which exhibits a chiral structure and breaks the three-dimensional (3D) inversion symmetry explicitly. The spirals composed of tens of connected MoS2 layers with decreasing areas: each basal plane has a triangular shape and shrinks gradually to the summit when spiraling up. All the layers in the spiral assume an AA lattice stacking, which is in contrast to the centrosymmetric AB stacking in natural MoS2 crystals. We show that the noncentrosymmetric MoS2 spiral leads to a strong bulk second-order optical nonlinearity. In addition, we found that the growth of spirals involves a dislocation mechanism, which can be generally applicable to other 2D TMD materials. PMID:25343743

  9. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.

  10. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.

  11. Three-dimensional visualization of a qutrit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyński, Paweł; Kołodziejski, Adrian; Laskowski, Wiesław; Markiewicz, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    We present a surprisingly simple three-dimensional Bloch sphere representation of a qutrit, i.e., a single three-level quantum system. We start with a symmetric state of a two-qubit system and relate it to the spin-1 representation. Using this representation we associate each qutrit state with a three-dimensional vector a and a metric tensor Γ ̂ which satisfy a .Γ ̂.a ≤1 . This resembles the well known condition for qubit Bloch vectors in which case Γ ̂=1 . In our case the vector a corresponds to spin-1 polarization, whereas the tensor Γ ̂ is a function of polarization uncertainties. Alternatively, a is a local Bloch vector of a symmetric two-qubit state and Γ ̂ is a function of the corresponding correlation tensor.

  12. Transformation equation in three-dimensional photoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Ainola, Leo; Aben, Hillar

    2006-03-01

    Optical phenomena that occur when polarized light passes through an inhomogeneous birefringent medium are complicated, especially when the principal directions of the dielectric tensor rotate on the light ray. This case is typical in three-dimensional photoelasticity, in particular in integrated photoelasticity by stress analysis on the basis of measured polarization transformations. Analysis of polarization transformations in integrated photoelasticity has been based primarily on a system of two first-order differential equations. Using a transformed coordinate in the direction of light propagation, we have derived a single fourth-order differential equation of three-dimensional photoelasticity. For the case of uniform rotation of the principal directions we have obtained an analytical solution. PMID:16539073

  13. Analysis of three-dimensional transonic compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeade, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow around the blades of a compressor or of a propeller is given. The method is based on the use of the velocity potential, on the hypothesis that the flow is inviscid, irrotational and isentropic. The equation of the potential is solved in a transformed space such that the surface of the blade is mapped into a plane where the periodicity is implicit. This equation is in a nonconservative form and is solved with the help of a finite difference method using artificial time. A computer code is provided and some sample results are given in order to demonstrate the influence of three-dimensional effects and the blade's rotation.

  14. Three-Dimensional Images For Robot Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, William D.

    1983-12-01

    Robots are attracting increased attention in the industrial productivity crisis. As one significant approach for this nation to maintain technological leadership, the need for robot vision has become critical. The "blind" robot, while occupying an economical niche at present is severely limited and job specific, being only one step up from the numerical controlled machines. To successfully satisfy robot vision requirements a three dimensional representation of a real scene must be provided. Several image acquistion techniques are discussed with more emphasis on the laser radar type instruments. The autonomous vehicle is also discussed as a robot form, and the requirements for these applications are considered. The total computer vision system requirement is reviewed with some discussion of the major techniques in the literature for three dimensional scene analysis.

  15. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing. PMID:25921944

  16. Three dimensional fabrication at small size scales

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Timothy G.; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that we live in a three-dimensional (3D) world and macroscale engineering is 3D, conventional sub-mm scale engineering is inherently two-dimensional (2D). New fabrication and patterning strategies are needed to enable truly three-dimensionally-engineered structures at small size scales. Here, we review strategies that have been developed over the last two decades that seek to enable such millimeter to nanoscale 3D fabrication and patterning. A focus of this review is the strategy of self-assembly, specifically in a biologically inspired, more deterministic form known as self-folding. Self-folding methods can leverage the strengths of lithography to enable the construction of precisely patterned 3D structures and “smart” components. This self-assembling approach is compared with other 3D fabrication paradigms, and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:20349446

  17. Simulation of complex three-dimensional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diewert, G. S.; Rothmund, H. J.; Nakahashi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of splitting is used extensively to simulate complex three dimensional flows on modern computer architectures. Used in all aspects, from initial grid generation to the determination of the final converged solution, splitting is used to enhance code vectorization, to permit solution driven grid adaption and grid enrichment, to permit the use of concurrent processing, and to enhance data flow through hierarchal memory systems. Three examples are used to illustrate these concepts to complex three dimensional flow fields: (1) interactive flow over a bump; (2) supersonic flow past a blunt based conical afterbody at incidence to a free stream and containing a centered propulsive jet; and (3) supersonic flow past a sharp leading edge delta wing at incidence to the free stream.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  19. Three dimensional inelastic finite element analysis of laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, O. H., Jr.; Kamat, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Formulations of the inelastic response of laminated composites to thermal and mechanical loading are used as the basis for development of the computer NALCOM (Nonlinear Analysis of Laminated Composites) computer program which uses a fully three dimensional isoparametric finite element with 24 nodes and 72 degrees of freedom. An incremental solution is performed with nonlinearities introduced as pseudoloads computed for initial strains. Equilibrium iteration may be performed at every step. Elastic and elastic-plastic response of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy graphite/epoxy and problems of curing 0/90 sub s Gr/Ep laminates with and without circular holes are analyzed. Mechanical loading of + or - 45sub s Gr/Ep laminates is modeled and symmetry conditions which exist in angle-ply laminates are discussed. Results are compared to experiments and other analytical models when possible. All models are seen to agree reasonably well with experimetnal results for off-axis tensile coupons. The laminate analyses show the three dimensional effects which are present near holes and free corners.

  20. Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.

  1. Generating Three-Dimensional Grids About Anything

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, Reese L.

    1991-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Grids About Anything by Poisson's Equation (3DGRAPE) computer program designed to make computational grids in or about almost any shape. Generated by solution of Poisson's differential equations in three dimensions. Program automatically finds its own values for inhomogeneous terms giving near-orthogonality and controlled grid-cell height at boundaries. Grids generated applied to both viscous and inviscid aerodynamic problems, and to problems in other areas of fluid dynamics. Written in 100 percent FORTRAN 77.

  2. Three-dimensional Lorentz-violating action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Wotzasek, C.; Zarro, C. A. D.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate the generation of the three-dimensional Chern-Simons-like Lorentz-breaking "mixed" quadratic action via an appropriate Lorentz-breaking coupling of vector and scalar fields to the spinor field and study some features of the scalar QED with such a term. We show that the same term emerges through a nonperturbative method, namely the Julia-Toulouse approach of condensation of charges and defects.

  3. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.; York, Jeremy

    2009-06-30

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  4. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.

    2006-09-26

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  5. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA

    2001-10-02

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  6. Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.

    2003-06-24

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  7. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  8. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  9. Three-dimensional ballistocardiography in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scano, A.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is described the aim of which is to record a three dimensional ballistocardiogram under the condition of weightlessness and to compare it with tracings recorded on the same subject on the ground as a means of clarifying the meaning of ballistocardiogram waves in different physiological and perphaps pathological conditions. Another purpose is to investigate cardiovascular and possibly fluid adaptations to weightlessness from data collected almost simultaneously on the same subjects during the other cardiovascular during the other cardiovascular and metabolic experiments.

  10. Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  11. Mineralized Three-Dimensional Bone Constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  12. The first three-dimensional vanadium hypophosphite.

    PubMed

    Maouel, Hind A; Alonzo, Véronique; Roisnel, Thierry; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2009-07-01

    The title synthesized hypophosphite has the formula V(H(2)PO(2))(3). Its structure is based on VO(6) octahedra and (H(2)PO(2))(-) pseudo-tetrahedra. The asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically distinct V atoms and six independent (H(2)PO(2))(-) groups. The connection of the polyhedra generates [VPO(6)H(2)](6-) chains extended along a, b and c, leading to the first three-dimensional network of an anhydrous transition metal hypophosphite. PMID:19578249

  13. Three-dimensional printing of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Barbara; Hsiao, Wen-Kai; Martin, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Biological three-dimensional printing has received a lot of media attention over recent years with advances made in printing cellular structures, including skin and heart tissue for transplantation. Although limitations exist in creating functioning organs with this method, the hope has been raised that creating a functional retina to cure blindness is within reach. The present review provides an update on the advances made toward this goal. Recent findings It has recently been shown that two types of retinal cells, retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Importantly, the cells remained viable and did not change certain phenotypic features as a result of the printing process. In addition, recent advances in the creation of complex and viable three-dimensional cellular structures have been made. Summary Some first promising steps toward the creation of a functional retina have been taken. It now needs to be investigated whether recent findings can be extended to other cells of the retina, including those derived from human tissue, and if a complex and viable retinal structure can be created through three-dimensional printing. PMID:27045545

  14. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  15. Teaching and Assessing Three-Dimensional M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Robert C., Jr.; Booth, Deborah; Sirochman, Rudy; Richardson, Jane; Richardson, David

    2002-05-01

    Structural concepts such as the exact arrangement of a protein in three dimensions are crucial to almost every aspect of biology and chemistry, yet most of us have not been educated in three-dimensional literacy and all of us need a great deal of help in order to perceive and to communicate structural information successfully. It is in the undergraduate biochemistry course where students learn most concepts of molecular structure pertinent to living systems. We are addressing the issue of three-dimensional structural literacy by having undergraduate students construct kinemages, which are plain text scripts derived from Protein Data Bank coordinate files that can be viewed with the program MAGE. These annotated, interactive, three-dimensional illustrations are designed to develop a molecular story and allow exploration in the world of that story. In the process, students become familiar with the structure-based scientific literature and the Protein Data Bank. Our assessment to date has shown that students perceive kinemage authorship to be more helpful in understanding protein structure than simply viewing prepared kinemages. In addition, students perceived kinemage authorship as being beneficial to their career and a significant motivation to learn biochemistry.

  16. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  17. Three-Dimensional Imaging. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelso, R. M.; Delo, C.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with three-dimensional imaging of fluid flows. Although relatively young, this field of research has already yielded an enormous range of techniques. These vary widely in cost and complexity, with the cheapest light sheet systems being within the budgets of most laboratories, and the most expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems available to a select few. Taking the view that the most likely systems to be developed are those using light sheets, the authors will relate their knowledge and experience of such systems. Other systems will be described briefly and references provided. Flows are inherently three-dimensional in structure; even those generated around nominally 2-D surface geometry. It is becoming increasingly apparent to scientists and engineers that the three-dimensionalities, both large and small scale, are important in terms of overall flow structure and species, momentum, and energy transport. Furthermore, we are accustomed to seeing the world in three dimensions, so it is natural that we should wish to view, measure and interpret flows in three-dimensions. Unfortunately, 3-D images do not lend themselves to convenient presentation on the printed page, and this task is one of the challenges facing us.

  18. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  19. Three-dimensional boundary layer stability and transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.; Li, F.

    1992-01-01

    Nonparallel and nonlinear stability of a three-dimensional boundary layer, subject to crossflow instability, is investigated using parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Both traveling and stationary disturbances are considered and nonparallel effect on crossflow instability is found to be destabilizing. Our linear PSE results for stationary disturbances agree well with the results from direct solution of Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Spalart (1989). Nonlinear calculations have been carried out for stationary vortices and the computed wall vorticity pattern results in streamwise streaks which resemble remarkably well with the surface oil-flow visualizations in swept-wing experiments. Other features of the stationary vortex development (half-mushroom structure, inflected velocity profiles, vortex doubling, etc.) are also captured in our nonlinear calculations. Nonlinear interaction of the stationary amplitude of the stationary vortex is large as compared to the traveling mode, and the stationary vortex dominates most of the downstream development. When the two modes have the same initial amplitude, the traveling mode dominates the downstream development owing to its higher growth rate, and there is a tendency for the stationary mode to be suppressed. The effect of nonlinear wave development on the skin-friction coefficient is also computed.

  20. Full three-dimensional investigation of structural contact interactions in turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Mathias; Batailly, Alain; Magnain, Benoît; Cartraud, Patrice; Pierre, Christophe

    2012-05-01

    Minimizing the operating clearance between rotating bladed-disks and stationary surrounding casings is a primary concern in the design of modern turbomachines since it may advantageously affect their energy efficiency. This technical choice possibly leads to interactions between elastic structural components through direct unilateral contact and dry friction, events which are now accepted as normal operating conditions. Subsequent nonlinear dynamical behaviors of such systems are commonly investigated with simplified academic models mainly due to theoretical difficulties and numerical challenges involved in non-smooth large-scale realistic models. In this context, the present paper introduces an adaptation of a full three-dimensional contact strategy for the prediction of potentially damaging motions that would imply highly demanding computational efforts for the targeted aerospace application in an industrial context. It combines a smoothing procedure including bicubic B-spline patches together with a Lagrange multiplier based contact strategy within an explicit time-marching integration procedure preferred for its versatility. The proposed algorithm is first compared on a benchmark configuration against the more elaborated bi-potential formulation and the commercial software Ansys. The consistency of the provided results and the low energy fluctuations of the introduced approach underlines its reliable numerical properties. A case study featuring blade-tip/casing contact on industrial finite element models is then proposed: it incorporates component mode synthesis and the developed three-dimensional contact algorithm for investigating structural interactions occurring within a turbomachine compressor stage. Both time results and frequency-domain analysis emphasize the practical use of such a numerical tool: detection of severe operating conditions and critical rotational velocities, time-dependent maps of stresses acting within the structures, parameter studies

  1. Modelling Three Dimensional, Tape Spring Based, Space Deployable Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. J. I.; Kiley, A.; Aglietti, G. S.; Cook, A.; McDonald, A. D.

    2012-07-01

    Deployable structures are required for many satellite operations, to deploy booms for communications or area deployment for power generation, and many sophisticated mechanisms have been developed for these types of structures. However, tape springs, defined as thin metallic strips with an initially curved cross- section, are an attractive structural solution and hinge mechanism for satellite deployable structures because of their low mass, low cost and general simplicity. They have previously been used to deploy booms and array panels in various configurations that incorporate small two-dimensional tape hinges, but they also have the potential to be used in greater numbers to create larger, more geometrically complicated deployable structures. This publication investigates the applicability of using a simplified modelling approach to predict the deployment dynamics of a three dimensional deployable structure that uses a significant quantity of tape springs. This work builds on previous studies which have focused on the analysis of two dimensional tape spring based structures. The configuration being investigated consists of four walls mounted as a square. Each wall has three fold lines allowing the structure to fold down in a concertina style and each fold line is populated by a series of tape spring hinges mounted in pairs. A total number of around 600 individual tape springs elements are used across the 12 fold lines. A computationally efficient method of simulating the three dimensional deployable structure was studied based on a finite element explicit analysis. Equivalent static and dynamic experimental testing on a breadboard structure is presented allowing a direct comparison of the theoretical and experimental data. It was concluded that this simplified analysis approach is capable of modelling the structural dynamics in the deployment direction for three dimensional structural deployments. As a result, the use of this approach could significantly reduce

  2. The three-dimensional origin of the classifying algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Jürgen; Schweigert, Christoph; Stigner, Carl

    2010-01-01

    It is known that reflection coefficients for bulk fields of a rational conformal field theory in the presence of an elementary boundary condition can be obtained as representation matrices of irreducible representations of the classifying algebra, a semisimple commutative associative complex algebra. We show how this algebra arises naturally from the three-dimensional geometry of factorization of correlators of bulk fields on the disk. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for the structure constants of the classifying algebra as invariants of ribbon graphs in the three-manifold S×S. Our result unravels a precise relation between intertwiners of the action of the mapping class group on spaces of conformal blocks and boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories.

  3. Multigrid for hypersonic viscous two- and three-dimensional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, E.; Swanson, R. C.; Vatsa, V. N.; White, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a multigrid method with central differencing to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for hypersonic flows is considered. The time-dependent form of the equations is integrated with an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme accelerated by local time stepping and implicit residual smoothing. Variable coefficients are developed for the implicit process that remove the diffusion limit on the time step, producing significant improvement in convergence. A numerical dissipation formulation that provides good shock-capturing capability for hypersonic flows is presented. This formulation is shown to be a crucial aspect of the multigrid method. Solutions are given for two-dimensional viscous flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil and three-dimensional viscous flow over a blunt biconic.

  4. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-11-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.

  5. Three-dimensional lock and key colloids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano; Pine, David J; Weck, Marcus

    2014-05-14

    Colloids with well-defined multicavities are synthesized through the hydrolytic removal of silica cluster templates from organo-silica hybrid patchy particles. The geometry of the cavities stems from the originally assembled cluster templates, displaying well-defined three-dimensional symmetries, ranging from spherical, linear, triangular, tetrahedral, trigonal dipyramidal, octahedral, to pentagonal dipyramidal. The concave surface of the cavities is smooth, and the cavity shallowness and size can be varied. These particles with multicavities can act as "lock" particles with multiple "key holes". Up to n "key" particles can self-assemble into the lock particles via depletion interaction, resulting in multivalent, site-specific, reversible, and flexible bonding. PMID:24785203

  6. Three dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M; Barber, Zeb W; Reibel, Randy R

    2015-09-01

    Aperture synthesis techniques are applied to temporally and spatially diverse digital holograms recorded with a fast focal-plane array. Because the technique fully resolves the downrange dimension using wide-bandwidth FMCW linear-chirp waveforms, extremely high resolution three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained even at very long standoff ranges. This allows excellent 3D image formation even when targets have significant structure or discontinuities, which are typically poorly rendered with multi-baseline synthetic aperture ladar or multi-wavelength holographic aperture ladar approaches. The background for the system is described and system performance is demonstrated through both simulation and experiments. PMID:26368474

  7. High resolution three-dimensional doping profiler

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping profiler provides a Schottky contact at one surface and an ohmic contact at the other. While the two contacts are coupled to a power source, thereby establishing an electrical bias in the semiconductor, a localized light source illuminates the semiconductor to induce a photocurrent. The photocurrent changes in accordance with the doping characteristics of the semiconductor in the illuminated region. By changing the voltage of the power source the depth of the depletion layer can be varied to provide a three dimensional view of the local properties of the semiconductor.

  8. Three-dimensional ultrasonic colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2016-05-01

    Colloidal assembly represents a powerful method for the fabrication of functional materials. In this article, we describe how acoustic radiation forces can guide the assembly of colloidal particles into structures that serve as microscopic elements in novel acoustic metadevices or act as phononic crystals. Using a simple three-dimensional orthogonal system, we show that a diversity of colloidal structures with orthorhombic symmetry can be assembled with megahertz-frequency (MHz) standing pressure waves. These structures allow rapid tuning of acoustic properties and provide a new platform for dynamic metamaterial applications. xml:lang="fr"

  9. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions. PMID:26558661

  10. Three-dimensional quantitative flow diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Richard B.; Nosenchuck, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    The principles, capabilities, and practical implementation of advanced measurement techniques for the quantitative characterization of three-dimensional flows are reviewed. Consideration is given to particle, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering; fluorescence; flow marking by H2 bubbles, photochromism, photodissociation, and vibrationally excited molecules; light-sheet volume imaging; and stereo imaging. Also discussed are stereo schlieren methods, holographic particle imaging, optical tomography, acoustic and magnetic-resonance imaging, and the display of space-filling data. Extensive diagrams, graphs, photographs, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided.